News letter

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Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly

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Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
System ID:
AA00023227:00037

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text

BOARD OF
F LA, LBRAR
r .E ) N jrAC',-
U j\ 17-D STAT. F

DrEPARMr jE OFj A r? JC ULTUREI











BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER








VOLUME W
^ ~~~/_________
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/newsletter36no3






UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER

FOR JANUARY 1937


Vol. IV, No. 3 (Not for publication) March 1, 1937



FRUIT INSECT IIVESTIGATIONS

New -ecan-insect laboratory at Monticello, Fla.--By agreement with
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, the Bureau has established a
new cooperative laboratory at Monticello for the study of pecan insects,
with particular reference to the nut case bearer. Samuel 0. Hill, for two
seasons associated with G. F. Moznette at the Albany, Ga., laboratory, has
been placed in charge of the work.

Research laboratory put on vtheels.--At the request of the Division of
Domestic Plant Quarantines, the Division of Fruit Insect Investigations has
undertaken a study of the insects that infest peach orchards where the
phony disease is found under conditions of natural spread. The area in-
volved extends across the entire southern region from Georgia to Texas. A
trailer shell was fitted up as a mobile laboratory and drawn by a motor
truck, which also served as the power unit. Wm. F. Turner is in charge of
this work, assisted by Wm. H. Anderson, with Atlanta, Ga., as headquarters.
Such a laboratory permits the research worker to carry his equipment to the
exact spot where his work should be done, at the exact time when it should
be done, with no loss of time incident to dismantling and packing apparatus
and reassembling it at a new point. With the power plant in the truck, the
worker is independent not only of housing but also of heati-ng nd lighting
problems. Loss of time because of unfavorable weather at one point can be
avoided by moving on to a point where conditions are favorable for w.ork.
In 1936 in less than g months, the mobile field laboratory traveled more
than 10,600 miles, working 28 counties at 60 locations in 11 States, and
made 143 collections, representing 3,709 lots of insect material frcm peach
orchards. To cover the sane area without the mobile unit would have re-
quired several times as much personnel. It would also have required
seasonal or temporary laboratory quarters at a number of different points,
duplication of equipment, delay in moving equipment and setting up at new
points, and restriction of locations where upooer was not available for cer-
tain apparatus, and some locations offering no difficulties to the self-
contained laboratory on wheels, would not have been visited.

Repeated applications of tartar emetic cause no injury to citrus.--In
connection with a project in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry
and the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, parts of trees at Davenport, Fla.,
are being sprayed, under the supervision of Herbert Spencer, of the Orlando,
Fla., laboratory, at 10- and 20-day intervals over a number of years, to





-2-


determine whether tartar emetic bait sprays are injurious in any way, or
whether their repeated use affects the population of citrus insects. Tar-
tar emetic hns been found an effective poison for use in fruit fly bait
sprays. 3y the end of 1936 the trees that are being sprayed every 10 days
had received their 52d application; other trees sprayed at 20-day inter-
vals or at fruit maturity time only, had received their 26th, 24th, 16th,
12th, or Sth sprayings. Careful measurements of trunks, branches, leaves,
and fruit, reported by workers of the Bureau of Plant Industry, revealed
no injurious effects to date and the analyses mande,by the Bureau of Chem-
istry and Soils, of juice samples from 'iffo e nt plot- showed no variations
that could be attributed to the spray.

Protection of ornamental plants from Japanese beetle attack.--F. E.
Baker and 17. E. Fleming, of the Japanese beetle laboratory at Moorestown,
N. J. reort on tests with sprays for protecting ornamental plants.
Various sprays which had been proved of value in protecting fruit orchards
from beetle attack were tested on Prunus sp., Acer palmatum atropurpureum,
and Azalea amoena. A spray composed of 6 pounds of acid lead arsenate with
l1 pints of fish oil, or 6 -ouids of acid lead arsenate with 4 pounds of
flour, to 100 gallons of water was very effective in protecting these
plants. Lime and aluminum sulphate sprays, 20 pounds of lime with 3 pounds
of aluminum sulphate, and 20 pounds of lime with 6 pounds of aluminum sul-
phate, to 100 gallons of water were not effective in controlling the beetle
on the nursery stock. This was apparently due to the poor adhesion of these
sprays to the foliage. Derris and rosin-residue emulsion maintained an ef-
fective control on azaleas for 11 days, showing that this spray was as ef-
fective nd.er conditions in the commercial nursery as in the orchards.

Influence of the instars of host larvae on sox of jarasite prog eny--
M. H. Brunson, Moorestown, has recently completed a study of the interre-
lation between the instars of the Japanese beetle and its parasite, Tiphia
popilliavora Roh. The study showed that the female parasite has the ability
to control the sex of her progeny at the time of parasitization of the host
larvae of different instars. Second- and third-instar host larvae are
accepted by the parasite, third-instar host being preferred, And parasite
development is completed on both. In a number of observations in which fer-
tile f;emale parasites were supplied with both second- and third-instar host
larvae simultaneously, with second- or third-inster host larvae exclusively,
and with second- and third-instar host larvae on alternate days, the re-
sultant parasite progeny was predominantly males from the parasitized second-
instar host larvae, "while a normal sex ratio consisting of slightly more
female than male parasites resulted from the parasitization of third-instar
larvae. Definite proof that the female parasite has the ability to vary the
sex of her progeny at the time of parasitization of the host larvae of
different instars was obtained when parasite eggs placed by fertile females
on second-instar host larvae were transferred to third-instar host larvae,
and eggs placed on third-instar host larvae were transferred to second-instar
host larvae. The resultant parasite progeny was predominantly males when
parasite eggs were transferred from second-instar host larvae to third-instar
host larvae, while a normal ratio of males and females resulted when the
parasite eggs were transferred from third-instar host larvae to second-instar
host larvae.





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MEXICA1T FRUIT FLY CONJTROL

The fruit f1y situation.--In the lover Rio Granc.e Valley 556 adult
Anastrepha lud.ens Loe7 were tra-ped in January. Flies were take on 188
premises in ever: district except one. Totrithstanding the apparent high
fly population in the groves, regular grove inspections for larvae all gave
negative results. Fruit shipments exceeded any -previous month's total in
the history of the citrus industry in this area. Over 4,300 equivalent
carloads rere moved by rail, truclk, and boat. Approximately 40 percent of
the crop remains to be harvested.

CEREAL AID FORAGE INSECT I1VESTIGATIOINS

Difference in weight of borers from strai;s of borer-resistant corn.--
In their 1936 experiments, L. H. Patch and G. T. Bottger, of the Toledo,
Ohio, laboratory, found differences in the relative weight of European corn
borer larvae dissected from the borer-susceptible corn strain, A X Tr, and
the borer-resistant strain, R4 X Hy. Ibrers wcre issected from 240 corn
plants. The data obtained are su-.arized in the followidng table.


Date .tio-wvight
of : Age : Borers dissected: Weight per of borers from
infes- : of __ fron-- : borer from-- R4 X Hy to those
ta.ti~ :bcrers:A X Tr : R4 X Hy :A X Tr : R4 X y : from A X Tr
:Da s : Ho. : NTo. Centigran:Ce:tigra: Percent
July 3----: 2.8 : 1495 : 615 : 5.7 : 3. : 66.9
Do-- 5---- 4.8 : 1452 506 8.3 : 6.0 71.
Do- 24---: 34.8 : 3378 : 2608 10.7 : S. 77.2
'o- 9----: 35.7 : 1523 : 707 10.4 : .2 : 79.2
Do- 22----: 36.6 : 2675 : 1879 11.1 : 9.4 : 4.9
SDb- 21----: 36.7 : 2273 : 1383 : 11.3 : : 78.2
Do- 20----: 37.8 : 1526 : 85 :11.2 .: :.5
Do- 17----: 40.8 : 2487 : 1217 :11.7 : 7 : g8
Db-15----: 42.6 : 2115 : 103 : 12.3 : 10. : S-.4
Dq0 13-.---: 44.1 : 1795 : 51 12.j1 10i.. : __.

It may be noted from the table that the rean weigt of the To-> r-
hatching on July 3 on strain A X Tr was 5.7 centiErai.s vhen diss. r: d L2.G
days later, and that the borers from strain R4 X Ey veigh-d 66.9 -r,_cnt
as much. TYhen the dissection was mae.e 44.1 days after hatching, t':
borers frc:- A X Tr weighed 12.3 ccntigrar.s and those from R4 X Hy -7:eied
86.7 percent as nuch. In general, the older borwrs vei:hcd more ti'~n: the
younger borers, irrespective of the date of hatching. Also, the di efrence
between the weight of the borers in A X Tr an. these in P.4 X :y decreased
on a percentage basis as the weight of the borers from A X Tr increased.
This was determined by noting that the ratios given in the table are larger
for the greater borer weights; but, as the date of infestation is a vari-
able, together with thee age and weight of the borers, the cause for the de-
creased difference between the weight of the borers fror A X Tr and those
from R 4 X Hy cannot be determined. One possible explanation is that as the
borers fron A X Tr became nature those fron R4 X Hy tended to catch up in
weight; therefore the differences between their weights becone less.






-4-

Bruchid intercepted in vetch seed from Hungar.--J. S. Pinckney, of
the Carlisle, Pa., laboratory, reports that another interception has been
nmde of Bruchus luteicornis Illiger, found entering this country in vetch
seed. In a sm.ple of vetch seed inspected at Baltimore, Md., on Seotember
4, 1936> a few seed of Vicia grandiflora were found rmong the V. villosa
seed. One of the V. grandiflora seed was found to be infested by a bru-
chid identified by H. S. Barber as B. luteicornis. The host record is new
to the muscum; however the sce species 7as recently intercepted by the
Division of Foreign Plant Quar-ntines in the seed pods of V. angustifolia
contained in the straw jackets used as packing in cases of Benedictine.

Predators destro: sawfly parasite.-According to C. C. Hill, Carlisle,
examination of 100 cocoons of Heterospilus cephi .ohw., a parasite of the
wheat stem sawfly, collected on January 22, 1937, on the National Farm
School grounds in Bucks County, Pa., showed that 41 percent of the cocoons
had bee:n destroyed by predatory larvae of a species of Collops, as deter-
mined b- A. G. Boving.

JAPAMESE BEETLE CONTROL

Stra'oberry-plant ins-ection start ed.--Approximiately 150,000 straw-
berry plants were inspected and certified for an Eastern Shore grower in
January. It was necessary to wash the nud off the plants before inspecting
them. Inspection of the washed plants showed 'that dipping was effective
in ridding them of soil.

No nrmergence of adult Japanese beetles in greeifhouses.--A survey of
greeinhouses in the Philadelphia area, where adult beetles can usually be
found during the entire winter, failed to disclose any infestation in
December or January. Prolonged infestation last fall, together with con-
tinued cloudy veather during December and January, is believed to be re-
sponsible for scarcity of the winter-reared adults.

Grower required to clean un uncertified dahlia clumps.--As a requisite
for retaining their Class I status, two establishments in the New York dis-
trict, that had purchased several thousand uncertified dahlia clumps, were
obliged to free the clumps from soil and other refuse and burn the peat
moss and dirt. The cleaning yielded 116 baskets of dirt and 15 barrels of
a combination of peat, moss, soil, and sulphur.'.

Japanese beetle larvae overwinteri:n near surface.--Reports from in-
spectors in central and southern New Jersey indicate that Japanese beetle
larvae are very near the soil surface for this time of year. Three grubs
were found at the crown of shrubs dug from nursery rows and offered for in-
spection after being made soil free. In connection with the inspection on
January 7 of 150 lilac bushes, one larva was removed from a shallow cavity
near the root crown of one of the plants.

Potato fumigation may increase.--Inquiries concerning the probable
potato crop on the Eastern Shore of Virginia that may require fumigation
prior to shipment to ncnregulated territory elicits the information that the
growers anticipate a 20-percent increase in the potato crop in that region
during the coming season.







Exhibit for Snortsman's Show found to be infested.--Inspection b7 the
district inspector at Portland, Maine, of the exhibit prepared by the State
of Maine for display at the Sportsman's Show in the Grand Central Palace in
New York City resulted in the finiing of six gypsy moth egg clusters--three
on beaver cuttings and one each on an old stump, a piece of old birch bark,
and an evergreen. The inspected material consisteC of several hundred liv-
ing trees, old stumps and logs, several bushels of nine needles and other
leaves, about 200 stones collected from and. n-r mountain streams, an old
beaver dam made of sticks and mud, several poplar eand birch bea wr cuttings,
along with the cedar logs, 150-year-old hand-sawed boards and hand-split
shingles used in the log cabin.

Christmas-tree insoection in 196 .--Final tabulation of the records
covering Christmas-tree inspection during the past season shows that
640,685 trees originating in the lightly infested g ysy moth area were in-
spected and certified for shipment to nonreg.lated territory. This quantity rep-
resent-s an (.5 percent increase over the number of trees inspected in 1935.
An increased cut in the lightly infested section of Maine of approximately
51,000 trees accounted for the season's increase. Classified according to
means of transportation, the Christmas-tree inspectors examined 236 carloads
comprising 50S,196 trees, and 132,489 trees transported by truck or in less
than carload lots.

Nursery evergreens cut for Christmas trees.--Amomn; Christmas trees in-
spected and certified under the gypsy moth quarantine regulations during
the holiday season were 21,511 Norway spruce trees cut by a central Connecti-
cut nursery for shipment to nonregulated territory. These trees were of the
table-tree type, from 2 to 3 feet in height. The only gypsy moth infestation
found during the Christmas-tree inspection was a single egg cluster taken
from a balsam tree grown in a nursery in southern Vermont.

Quantities of egg masses removed from inspDected nroducts.--January was
a banner month for quantities of gy~psy moth egg clusters removed from pro-
ducts submitted for inspection. A total of 214 egg masses was removed from
39 inspected shipments.

Creosoting to prevent infestation of antiaues.--An attempt is being
made by the district inspector at Bangor, Maine, to have a large nurber of
gypsy moth egg clusters on a few tall elm trees at Rockland, Maine, creo-
soted before hatching time. These heavily infested trees are located in
front of an antique shop, where the antique pieces are scattered all over the
dooryard to attract customers. Last summer several live pupae were removed
from some old iron chairs that were in readiness for shipment to Illinois.
By destroying this localized infestation, the chances of the antiques becom-
ing infested during the coming summer will-be greatl- reduced.

Out-of-season shipment from New England.--In southern New Hampshire 200
birch trees were dug on January 17 and, after inspection and certification,
were shipped to Ohio. Usually in this section the frost is several feet deep
in the ground during the entire month of January and the digging of nursery
stock is out of the question. There has been little ice or snow in this part
of New England this winter.




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Rain hampers elm-sanitation workers.--Rainy dae-s in each week of the
month hamper trees that ordinarily would have been removed by the force of approximately
3,g00' WP. A. laborers engaged in this phase of the eradication project.
In some sections of the infected zone the time lost in January made it im-
possible for even those W. P. A. workers who performed services on every
suitable workin1g day during the period to comDlete 16 days within the month.
This is the first month this condition has occurred. Chemical-treating
crews operating in the Branford, Conn., district were also hampered, as the
treatments for which permissions were on file were in swamp areas in which
treating was scheduled to be done while the swamps wore frozen or while the
men could reach the trees. The swamps remained unfrozen all month, with
vater too high for men to reach the elms, even with hip boots.

Dutch elm disease camps rank high.--According to the January report of
the Department of Conservation and Development for the 2. C. W. Camps in the
State of New Jersey, the three C. C. C. camps assigned to Dutch elm disease
eradication in the State ranked first, seventh, and twelfth among 22 camp
units in the percentage of men released to the project superintendent for
field work. The highest ranking camp had a daily average strength of 159 men
for the 20 authorized working days in Janusry. Seventy-five percent of the
men, all of whom were used, were released to the project superintendent.
Twenty-five enrollees were retained, by the camp cornander, 24 for regular
overhead and one for conditioning. Fourteen men wore sick or on leave.

Tree-medication activities.--By the end of January bands of powdered
copper sulphate had been applied to 402,004 elms in areas in which permission
for chemical treatment or removal of all elms therein had been granted. The
weekly production was in the neighborhood of 25,000 trees. Late in January
four men devoted ai entire day to sampling trees that were chemically treated
on November 20 at Branford, Conn. In practically all trees discoloration
from copper sulphote was generally distributed into the root systems and into
the aerial portions for distances of 20 or more feet above the bands.

Non-Dutch elm disease camps assist in sanitation.--Two New York C. C. C.
camps, working under the supervision of the U7estchestcr County Park Com-
mission, assigned crows to assist in the sanitation work. The Mohansic C. C.
C. camp made final arrangements for their work an. began cutting on January
16. The Poundridge Reservation camp was well along in its work on the reser-
vation by .:i:-Ja;var.y. 0:1c Fed.eral man was furnished to each tamp to assist
in organizing- the work.

FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Killing undesirable trees with poison.--The iorristown, N1. J., labora-
tory is experimenting with the introduction of certain poisonous chemicals
into standin g elm trees for the purpose of ascertaining how undesirable trees
may best be Idlled and bark beetle attack prevented. In sampling wood from
treated trees it is necessary to take increment cores w:-hich are later tested
for the quantity and distribution of the chemicals. In making the tests the
cores must be cut into thin slices so as to facilitate extraction of the chem-
icals. A. E. Lantz, of the laboratory staff, has developed a machine with
which cores can be rapidly sliced.







-7-


Parasite to be sent to Puerto Pico.--P. B. Dowden end P. A. Berry, of
the New Haven, Conn., laboratory, report as follows: "A collection of the
golden oak scale (Asterolecanium variolosum (Ratz.)) was obtained in the
vicinity of New Haven and sent to C. P. Clausen,of the Division of Foreign
Parasite Introduction. This shipment will be forwarded to Puerto Rico where
it is hoped that a colony of the parasite Habrolepis dalmani Vest. vill be
obtained for liberation egainst the bamboo scele (Asterolecanium br-mbusae
Boisd.). A small sample held at Tew Haven at a temperatu7e of 70 F. and
a relative humidity of 72 percent produced 10 H br"olepis adults between
January 25 and 31."

Parasitization of elm leaf beetle.--Mr. Berry re-orts as follows on
Tetrastichus brevistinma Gahan, a pupal parasite of the clm leaf boetle,
which has been studied since 1932: "Parasitization of beetle pupae has re-
mained high during the 5-year period incluling 1936. ie elm leaf beetle
population, however, was much lighter in 1936 and at some of the liberation
points it was difficult to get a collection of 100 pupae at the time the
collections were made on August 4. The high parasitization, together with
other factors yet unknown, have probably been instrumental in decreasing
the popul-tion of this beetle."

Pine beetles suffer heavy mortality from cold.--F. P. Keen, of the
Portland, Oreg., laboratory, reports that for the third winter in 5 years
extrer lly low temperatures in eastern Oregon, V :shington, and northeastern
California have taken a heavy toll of over'intering broods of the western
pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis Lee.). This latest winter killing
occurred in early January 1937. To determine how wide a range of minimum
air tempera.tures might occur over a comparatively large forested area
served by one standard weather station and how generally effective a period
of cold weather might be in reducing western pine beetle broods, an experi-
ment was set up on the Ochoco National Forest of eastern Oregon in the fall
of 1936. After the recent cold wave 132 minimum-temperature thermometors
used in this study were read. Temperatures ranged from 15 to 36 below
zero, the coldest places being in valleys and the warmest on the tops of
high ridges. Preliminary analysis of infested bark samples from this area
showed a kill of approximately 45 percent of the brood, about 10 percont
less than had been anticipated from earlier studies. 'idespread winter
killing of ovcrwintering pine beetle broods during recent years is as ef-
fectively controlling this timber pest as though many thousands of dollars
had been spent in felling and burning the infested trees.

Mountain pine beetle infestatioon n the Beavrohead National Forest
ended.--A. L. Gibson, of the Coour d'Alene, Idaho, labor tory, reports that
the severe mountain pine beetle epidemic which invaced the Big Hole Basin
of the Beaverhead National Forest in 1926 has run its course, leaving in
its wake manry square miles of devastated lodgepole forests. The infestation
reached its peak in 1931, with 12,636,527 trees being attacked. Owing to
a decreasing supply of host material in 1932, there was a sli&ht drop in the
severity of this outbreak to 10,160Q844 attacked trees. A further decline
expected in 1933 was augmented in the winter of 1932-33 by severe cold,
which destroyed a largo percentage of the ovc:wintering broods. The light







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infestation during the summer of 1933 was followed by very few attacked
trees in 1934 and none in 1935 and 1936. Data from annual surveys show
that in the past decade, during which the epidemic swept through the Big
Hole Basin, nearl 31,000,000 trees, or about 60.2 to each acre of land,
were killed by the mountain pine beetle. In addition to this loss, about
10,000,000 trees were killed by secondaries, which are always associated
with such enidemics. As a result of these serious losses, practically all
the larger trees have been destroyed, although a surprisingly large number
of small trees still remain as a nucleus for a second crop.

Dry sites unfavorable to mountain pine beetles.--J. C. Evenden re-
ports that during the 1936 season the Coeur d'Alene laboretory made use of
a small creyw of C. C. C. boys to study the mountain pine beetle infesta-
tion on the Coeur d'Alene National Forest. The object of this study was
to obtain a better understanding of the factors that govern the behavior
of mountain pine beetle infestctions in western white pine. W. D. Bedard
is now analyzing the data and he reports on an interesting correlation
which shows that on dry sites barely sufficient brood is produced to main-
tain the infestation. These data are summarized in the following table.


Site : : Total : Average Average per square foot
con- : Trees : bark :infested: of bark
dition :samoled: surface :bark per: Brood Attcks Parasites Predators
.: tree :
Number :S~ re u feet: Ft. Number:Number : mber : Number
SSq. ft.. -
Wet----: 46 10,377 225 50.9 7.4 6.2 3.4
Medium :
wet--- 86 15,852 184 :41.5 7.3 3.0 2.0
Dry----: g8 : 13,191 _____ 164 : 4. 6. 2.7 1.

It is at once apparent from the preceding table th't, although the number
of attacks per square foot is approximately equal on all three sites, there
is a greater brood survival on wet sites and a greater amount of infested
bark surface per tree, thus making a much greater total brood per tree than
on dry sites. This is comparable with conditions known since 1925 to exist
with regard to brood survival of the Black Hills beetle. In addition, al-
though beneficial insects are more numerous on wet sites, they represent a
greater proportion of the population on the dry sites. This fact is of
practical application, not only in determining which areas need control but
also on those control projects which because of snow and inclement weather
are unable to complete work before brood emergence in the spring. Under
these circum-tances, the control administrator can direct the work during
the remaining time into areas where the control will be of greatest benefit.

Educational material on termite control.--R. A. St. George, of the
Washington, D. C., office, says that during the latter part of January a
termite exhibit prepared by the Bureau in cooperation with the Office of Ex-
hibits of the Extension Department for use in State Fairs was completed and
released. Also, during this time the Bureauts revised film strip on termites








-9-


was released. It contains considerable new material relating to the bi-
ology and methods of control of termites and places special emphasis on
proper construction of buildings for permanent protection from termite at-
tack. It is suitable for presenting" a talk of about an hour's dura.tion
on the subject.

White grubs and vegetation.--The Milwaukee, '7is., laboratc:r has been
conducting a study of white-grub populations as correlated with various
vegetational cover types. A preliminary report from Lee E. Yeager indicates
that on the Huron National Forest in Michigan the largest population of
Phyllonhaga grubs are found where oak trees are presenit in the cover type.
The genus Serica was found to be most abundant in the aspen and aspen-birch
types. Grubs of the genera Phyllophaga and Serica are the most destructive
to young trees in coniferous plantations. The foliage of the above-mentioned
broadleaf trees is preferred as food by the adult beetles of many of the
species of these two genera, and this food relationship appears to be very
important in determining the local distribution of the grubs.

PLAT DISEASE CONTROL

Summary of barberry eradication during 1936.--A total of 68,550,918
barberry bushes were destroyed on 11,566 properties in 17 States. In the
following table these figures are shown by States, together with the
quantity and kind of chemicals used.


: Barberry : Chemicals used
State :Properties: bushes Salt Kerosene Atlacide
: cleared : destroyed : ::
: Number Number : Tons :Gallons Pounds
Colorado------: 72 1,657,038 23.00 : 5,000
Illinois------: 955 11,569 26.00 : 0 : 0
Indiana------- 447 : 17,844 : 15.25 : 56 : 0
Iowa---------- 729 : 15,993 79.26 : 235 : 0
Michigan------: 1,405 201,234 : 246.99 : 175 0
Minnesota-----: 611 : 10,629 : 53.32 : 0 0
Montana----- 48 : 664 : 1.25 : 0 : 0
Nebraska------: 129 : 660 : 3.79 : 0 0
North Dakota---: 27 : 4,165 : 1.37 : 0 : 0
Ohio---------: 1,098 244,017 : 143.95 : 0 0
South Dakota---: 11 51 : .32 : 0 0
Wisconsin----- 680 : 33968 : 44.2 : 0 : 0
Wyoming-- ---- 0 : : 0 : 0 : 0
Missouri------: 785 : 8,04 : 4.71 : 0 : 0
Pennsylvania---: 2,561 : 2,788,690 :1,048.96 : 0 : 0
Virginia ------: 1,223 :44,961,117 : 996.98 : 0 : 0
West Virginia--: 785 :18,594,467 :1,239.04 : 0 : 6,000
Total-------: 11,566 :68,550,918 :3,929.01 : 466 : 1,ooo






-10-


The figures in Virginia, Vest Virginia, and Colorado are hardly com-
parable rith t.iose in other places, because the work in these States has
been largely in areas where native species of barberry are prevalent. In
Virginia and West Virginia Berberis canadensis is being eradicated in the
important grain-growing communities, whereas in Colorado the presence of
B. fendleri in the San Luis Valley and San Juan Basin has been responsible
for severe rust losses in past years. Emergency funds have been used to
employ labor to bring these bushes under control in communities where small
grains are important. Field work was continued thr-ou somewhat reduced basis in 12 of the 17 States participating in the program,
with minor interruptions because of inclement weather, that is, by heavy
rain and snow in the central and northern States. Altogether, 2,200 men
were given full-time employment, and reports from field offices indicate
that the effectiveness of the work was comparable to that conducted during
the late-summer and fall months. Barberry bushes mia-'r be treated with salt
just as effectively when the ground is frozen as during the growing season.

Eraedicetion of European black currants in Ohio.--A summary of the
eradication work in connection with white pine blister rust control in Ohio
shows th-t excellent cooperation was received from owners of European
black currants in 24 counties during 1935-36. The numbers of plantings de-
stroyed are shown in the following table.


: Coooeration given through :Verbal : Per-
Type of :Signed :Verbal :Destruction:Sub- : No or : :cent
planting :release:consent: by owner :total:report:ritten:Total :total
: : __: : ___: :protest:
Noncomrcrciil : :
(1-20 bushes)--:4,575 : -487 170 :5,232:372 63 :5,667 91.5

(21-100 bushes): 33 : 4 : : 439: 21 :15 : 475 : 7.7
Commercial : :
(101-2000 bushes) 39 : 8 : 1 : 48: : 2 : 50 : .8
Total- ---:4,9 : 543 179 :5,719:393 : 8 :6,192 :100.0
Percentapge of : ::
total---------: 0.7: : 2.9 : 92.4: 6.3 : 1.3 : 00 : --

Skilled security wa"ge earners employed on emorgenc- funds were used
to loc-te these pilantings and to contact the pro-prt' owners for permission
to eradicate the bushes. The bushes were destroyedC under authority of
State lae1s acministerec by the Ohio Department of Agriculture. Infected
bushes were found in seven counties in northeastern Ohio in 1935, but no in-
fected bushe:s vre found in 1936. European black currants evidently are
not of much commercial importance, as 48 out of 50 growers, whose plantings
were classed as commercial, consented. to their removal. Noncommercial
plantings av raged 5.1 bushes, while seu:icommerc'il priantings averaged 36.9
bushes and commercial plantings averaged 260.4 bushes per locati n. The
table shows that 92.4 percent of the owners willingi-7 ga.ve their consent for
the r-moval of their cultivated black currant'-, incicating the excellent






-il-


cooperation received from the owners in this work. The locations listed
under the heading "no report" include bushes found on vacant lots and
abandoned properties where the owners could not be located and the plants
were evidently growing wild.

Minnesota blister rast conitrol law ulphold.--The State blister rust
control law and supporting regulations of Minnesota were recently upheld
in district court in Duluth, in the case of .7. 0. 3issonett vs. E. V.
Willard and D. M. Stewart. Judge C. R. Magney issued a temporary order on
September 23, 1936, requiring the defendants, the Commissioner of Forestry
and Fire Prevention of Minnesota and one of his cleputies, to show cause
why an injunction should not be issued restraining them from removing and
destroying eight cultivated currant bushes growing on Mr. Eissonet's
premises. After holding a hearing on October 9 and taking the case under
advisement, the original restraining order was vacated on January 5, 1937.
The judge's memorandum indicates that he relied largely on the decision
of the Supreme Court of the United States in Miller vs. Schoene, 276 U. S.,
272, in which the cedar-rust statute of Virginia was upheld in 1927. In
addition, Judge Magney supported the reasonableness of the original order
for the destruction of the Ribes, saying, "The value of the bushes is very
small compared with the value of the 392 white pine trees (within infect-
ing range) which they may destroy." He quoted the United States Supreme
Court in the case just mentioned: "When forced to make the choice, the
State does not exceed its constitutional powers by deciding upon the de-
struction of one class of property in order to save another which, in the
judgment of the legislature, is of greater value to tie public." The de-
struction of a number of other cultivated currant and gooseberry plants
at Duluth had been delayed pending the decision in this case.

Various tyoes of injury reported amon- blister rust control person-
nel.--During the period July 1935 to October 15, 1936, the blister rust
control personnel in the Northeastern regn rep~orted 339 injuries. Dur-
ing this time the maximum number of men employed oni the blister rust pro-
ject in the region was 4,555, while the total number of man-days of labor
expended was 514,131. The injuries were classified as follows: 113 cases
of poison ivy, 50 infections, 3 bases of blood poisoning, 7 fractures, 106
sprains and bruises, and 60 cases of organic trouble.

COTTON INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Cotton boll injury by h.emipterous insects.--T. P. Cassidy and T. C.
Barber, Tucs'n, Ariz., report that the results of field-cage tests again
show that the pentatomid Euschistus impictiventris Stal is the most impor-
tant of the hemipterous insects that puncture cottor. bells in the Salt
River Valley of Arizona. More than 90 percent of the bolls in the cages
with this species were punctured and most of them were so severely injured
as to render them unpickable. Chlorochroa sari Stal was again the second
most serious species. Each individual C. ligata Say is equally as injurious
as C. sayi but has occurred in such limited numbers in Arizona during re-
cent years to be of relatively little importance as a pest in that area.
The pyrrhocorid Eury ophthalmus succinctus (Linn.), has often been suspected
of being injurious to cotton because it freauentl. -rnncaers in numbers in the






-12-


cotton fields late in the summer, but the evidence obtained thus far in-
dicates that this species does not puncture cotton bolls. In two cages
in which E. succintus was confined with cotton plants no bolls were punc-
tured. The mirid Creontiades femoralis Van D.,, may deserve attention as
a cotton pest, as 5S percent of the bolls in two cages with this species
were punctured, but with practically no lint staining. In the cages in
which Dysdercus mimulus Hussey, _hyanta custator Kirk., and Lygus spp.
were isolated, from 1g to 62 percent of the bolls were punctured, accom-
panied with light lint stains. In connection with a State-wide survey,
concluded during November 1936, of hemipterous cotton insect injury, lab-
oratory examinations were made of 41,500 cotton bolls of Upland cotton
collected from 58 cotton fields in 5Arizona counties, including all of
the main cotton-growing areas of the State. Of these, 24.18 percent were
found to be punctured. Of long-staple cotton, 12,500 bolls were examined
from 15 fields in 4 counties and 6.13 percent were found to be punctured.
The intensity of infestation and the extent of damage to cotton bolls by
hemipterous insects by counties was similar to results obtained by sur-
veys made during the two preceding years. For the third consecutive year
Yuma County showed the greatest damage, with an average of 5.*34 percent
of the bolls punctured; Maricopa County again rarked second, with an
average of 39.71 percent of the bolls punctured; and Pima County continued
to have the lightest damage, with only 7.12 percent of the bolls punc-
tured. In all 3 years the percentage of bolls punctured in Graham and
Pinal Counties has been between that in Maricopa and Pima Counties. Field
examinations were made on November 25-30 by L. D. Christenson, after
frost had defoliated the plants (the first killing frost was on the night
of November 3), and there were very few green bolls on which the insects
could feed to determine the pentatomid population. In the four cotton
fields examined only one specimen was taken on the plants. The others
were found under leaf trash and clods and in soil crevasses. Observations
were made during the warmest part of the day, when it was expected that
the insects mil1t be active. E. impictiventris and C. sayi were present,
the former predominating. Ten pentatomids were found in 105 square yards
examined, which indicates an average of 45S per acre. This is approxi-
mately one-third the maximum density of boll-puncturing pentatomids noted
in the same fields last sumner. In nearby fields containing "islands" of
green--unfrozen cotton with green bolls suitable for food--both E. impicti-
ventris and C. sayi were active and feeding on warm afternoons during this
period.

Cotton variety tests for reducing pink bollworm d.amage.--In tests
conducted at Presidio, Tex., in 1935 by S. L. Calhoun it was found that
none of the cotton varieties tested exhibited any noticeable resistance to
pink bollworm attack. Information gained from the work indicated, however,
that some of the varieties had growth and fruiting characteristics and
that certain cultural practices might be of importance in reducing the
damage. The Acala strains of cotton, which are almost exclusively grown
in the Big Bend district, produce large, spreading plants and large bolls,
continue fruiting over a long period, and mature slowly, giving favorable
environment for pink bollworn development. During 1936 tests were continued
with four eastern varieties representing the small boll, fast-maturing types






-13-


developed for use under boll weevil conditions. Blooming began on all the
varieties by June 15, but the eastern varieties reached the peak of bloom-
ing and set their bolls considerably earlier than did the Acala. From
July 20 to September 16, the percentage of green bolls infested and the num-
ber of worms per boll ere determined. At the first two examinations made
on July 20 and August 3, the percentage of boll infestation was lo, the
number of worms averaging less than one per boll in all the varieties.
There w.-as a large increase by August 17, and on AuJgust 31 all the varieties
had 100-percent infestation of the green bolls that were from 30 to 35
days old. At this last examination the average number of worms per boll
ranged from 13 to 19 in the eastern varieties anC 29 worms per boll in the
Acala. The difference in intensity of infestation in the large-bolled
Acala and small-boiled eastern varieties was not due to any observed re-
sistance but was -ossibly because of the greater amount of food available
in the larger bolls. These seasonal records emphasize the importance of
having as large a part of the crop as possible picked prior to the in-
crease in infestation. At the first picking on August 2"- the four eastern
varieties yielded from 61 to 66 percent of their total crop and the Acala
56 percent. Very few of the bolls that openced on this date had been sub-
jected to heavy infestation and had suffer .d only moderate damage, whereas
the last picking was severely damagcd. The total yields of the four
eastern variaties ranged from 2,207 to 2,4E8 pounds of seed cotton per acre
and the Acala only 1,772 pounds. In mother series of spacing tests, all
varieties set their crop 2 weeks earlier anr prodcced about 25 perccnt
more cotton at the first picking when spaced 12 iaches apart than when left
30 inches in the drill, as is customary in this section. Earlier maturity
from improved varieties and better cultural practices will also permit the
fields to be cleaned earlier than has been possible formerly, thereby re-
ducing considerably the number of larvae that enter the ground for hiber-
nation.

PIlK BOLLWORM AND THUIRERIA WEEVIL COiTROL

Laboratory insoection.--The inspection of green-boll samples col-
lected last fall has been going forward at the San Antonio laboratory for
about a month. The material thus far inspected was collected out side regu-
lated areas and results have been negative. Practically all of the ma-
terial collected within regulated areas is inspected at the various field
stations after the ginning season is completed. A small quantity of ma-
terial has been inspected in the lower Ric Grange Valler of Texas and one
pink bollworm larva was found in Cameron County.

The situation in the Big Bend.--Clean-up in the Big Bend district of
Texas was discontinued the latter part of December. During the first part
of January experiments were continued with the development of a machine to
burn material in cotton fields. In a final test with four of these ma-
chines, a field containing 8.67 acres was comipleted in 4 days and 2 hours
at a considerably lower cost than by the old method of using handr labor.
SApparently a very substantial saving can be made in any future clean-ups
'and a far more efficient job can be done. Briefly, the machine consists of
a hood 3 by 4 feet, with a wire grate of 1-inch mesh in the bottom about 4
inches from the ground. In front there is a small platform to facilitate






-14-


firing. On the side is a removable guard to prevent stalks and bolls
from falling off on the side opposite the workman, and on the sides of the
machine and at the rear is a piece of sheet metal set vertically about 3
inches from the sides with both top and bottom open for the purpose of
pulling the flame to the ground. The apparatus is equipped with small
wheels in the rear and a handle to pull the machine along. The machine can
be operated by one man, and it uses the dry cotton stalks for fuel.

Thurb r-ia-olnt eracdication. -The eradication of Thurberia plants in
the Santa Catalina Yiountains of southern Arizona has not made as rapid
progress as durring previous months. This was due to heavy snows. Although
the acr-age covered was only one-third of that covered the preceding month,
nearly 8,000 more Thurberia plants were destroyed, the data for January
showing 1,040 acres worked and 47,979 Thurberia plants destroyed.

jild cotton eradication.--Considerable progress -hs been made with
the eradication of wild cotton in southern Florida. By the end of January
all of the west coast above Cape Sable haCd been recleaned at least once
since work was begun in the fall and a considerable part had been gone
over a second time. All of the keys south of Key Largo and all but a
small part of the large cotton area on Key Lr~rgo had been recleaned. On
Cape Sable a considerable area has been gone over. Several small outlying
colonies in Brevard County, on the east coast, and a similar colony in
Pasco County, on the west coast, have been recleaned. Then a considerable
number of wilc cotton bolls are encountered they are placed in preserva-
tive for later inspection, in order to obtain information on the status
of infestation. Then only a small number of bolls are eresent they are ex-
amined as the cotton is destroyed. A consideraule number of bolls has
been inspected on Cape Sable with negative results, but on Lower Matecumbe
Key 250 bolls were inspected and 22 pink bollworm larvae were found in 15
of the bolls.

Road-station inspection.--During January, 5 of the cars inspected at
the Marfa, Tex. road station were found to be carrying contraband ma-
terial. Only one of the interceptions was found to be infested, this being
one living piri: bollworm larva found in two locks of seed cotton taken
from a pick sack. Inspectors on duty have requested various persons in
the area to advise any of their friends leaving the area not to carry con-
traband material. The fact that so few interceptions were made indicates
that this 'word has been passed around.

TRUCK CROP AND GAPDEN INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Cryolite leaves no harmful residue on canned lima beans.--L. W.
Brannon, of the Norfolk, V. laboratory, reports that the results of an
experiment conducted at Easton, Va., in 1936 to determine the relative ef-
fectiveness of various insecticides for the control of the corn earworm
(Heliothis obsoleta Fab.) on lima beans, disclosed that the best control
was obtained with cryolite (synthetic) dusts and cryolite sprays, the former
being applied either as an undiluted dust or at the rate of 60 parts of
cryolite diluted with 40 parts of talc or sulphur. As a spray, the cryolite






-15-


was used at the rate of 3 pounds to 50 gallons of water. In addition to
reducing the numbeOr of w7ormy pods as compared with untreated plots, appli-
cations of cryolite dusts and sprays increased the total number of
pods produced, demonstrating that protection was afforded against the
shedding of the young or small pods caused by corn ear:orm injury. In gen-
eral, these results confirmed those obtained in similar experiments in 1935.
Phenothiazine gave good protection against worm injury, but failed to show
a significant increase in the number of pods produced over the untreated
plants. Copper ca -'ide, used as a spray, gave no control and caused a
slight reduction in the number of pods produced, as compared with untreated
plots. Negative results were obtained with various dust mixtures of derris,
cube, pyrethrum, nicotine, and sulphur. The Insecticide Division of this
Bureau conducted analyses of samples of shelled and unshelled lima beans
from plots that had been treated with cryolite and found tha t the fluorine
residue remaining on the unshelled beans (pods) was in ma Tr instances above
the tolerance established for fluorine on fruit (0.01 Grain per pound).
Analysis of the shelled beans, however, showed in most instances that the
quantity of fluorine on such beans was well below 0.01 grain per pound.
Analyses were also conducted of canned beans from cryolite-treated plants
that had been run through the commercial process of vining and canning.
The results of the analyses of this product indicated that when lima beans
are treated as described above and run throuii the ordinary washing process
the canned product is free from harmful fluorine residues. Also, a sample
of shelled beans taken just after they care from the virer, without wash-
ing or other treatment, contained a surprisingly small quantity of
fluorine. As lima beans are shelled before human consumption, it appears
that cryolite may be safely applied for the control of the corn earworm on
this crop.

Average yield does not always indicate leafhooner populat ions.--That
the average yield of sugar beets is not always an indicator of populations
of the beet leafhopper was disclosed in a report submitted by J. R.
Douglass, of the Twin Falls, Idaho, laboratory. In comparing yields of
sugar beets in south-central Idaho in 1935 and 1936, it was found that the
average yield per acre in 1936 was approximately 12.7 tons, as compared
with 13.7 tons in 1935. The season of 1936 was one of relatively low leaf-
hopper populations, whereas the 1935 season was one of relatively high leaf-
hopper populations. There was also an increase in the beet acreage in
souath-central Idaho of approximately 13,000 acres in 1936, as compared to
that of 1935. To obtain such an increase in acreage, it was necessary for
the sugar companies to contract with a large number of growers who had had
no previous experience in growing sugar beets. It seems probable, there-
fore, that the decrease in yield per acre for the 1936 crop can be attri-
buted more directly to the inexperience of some of the growers than to the
variation in beet leafhopper populations in the 2 years involved.

Location of infested pods influences pea weevil mortality.--As a re-
sult of observations recently completed by T. A. Brindley, of the Moscow,
Idaho, laboratory, it was ascertained that pea weevils present in pods
resting on dead weeds or on the soil surface suffered nearly 100-percent
mortality.under the conditions that ordinarily prevail in the fields after






-16-


green peas have been harvested for canning. Weevils oresent in pods shaded
by weeds, in pocos suspended just above the soil surface, or in pods in
dried refuse from the viner suffered little mortality. It was found also
that weevil mortality was low in -,ods on top or within small piles of vines.
In pods that were partly in contact with the soil surface, the mortality
was greater. No weevils survived in pods located at a depth of 1 foot in
stacks of green viner refuse.

Development and mortality of nredacious pentatornids vary with kind of
food tahen.--As a result of experiments performed by B. J. Landis, of the
Columbus, Ohio, laborstory, it was determined that the rate of development
and the degree of mortality among sets of nymphs of Pocdisus maculiventris Say
and Perillus bioculatus Fab., reared on several hosts and uncder comparable
conditions in the insectary, appeared to depend on +he kind of food taken.
Insect eggs were most nourishing and were followed in the order of value by
larvae of different hosts, depending on their metabolic rate. Hosts of the
same species, but reared on different food plants, caused considerable vari-
ation in the rate of development and in the relative mortality of the preda-
tory nymphs. Ihe ny-iphs died more rapidly when the rate of development was
slow. Certain substances transmitted from the plant thro gh the host to
the predator apparently caused many nymphs to die, yet in some instances this
influence did not affect the rate of development of the surviving individuals.

Inverse relF tionshin between temperatr e and. incubation period of to-
bacco hornworm.--DLr:ing the course of experiments performed at the Quincy,
Fla., labor-tory, A. H. Madden found that an inverse relationship existed be-
tween the prevailing temperature and the duration of the incubation period
of Protoparce sexta Johan. In May, when the daily iern temperatures approxi-
mated 76 ., the incubation period averaged approx:imutely 5 days, whereas
in June, July, end August, when the daily mean temperatures ranged from 76
to 86 there was a corresponding decrease in the duration of the incubation
period of from 1 to 2 days.

Weather favors celery i.aCtier but other factors prevent outbreak in
Florida.-C. F. Stahl, of the Sanford, Fla., lobor-tory, reports th'-t, al-
though w;eather conditions this winter have been favorable for the develop-
ment of en outbreak of the celery leaftier (Phlyctpenia rubigalis Guen.),
only a few moths were found in celery fields in January. This failure of
the celer leaf'tierto develop destructive populations in the presence of
favorable climatic conditions is believed to be due to a very sparse initial
population of the insect at the beginning of the season and a heavy harvest
of the early celery crop, so that the small brood on that crop had but
little chance to increase in abundance. The harvest of large acreages of
mature celer-, early in the season decreased ver,. decidedly the quantity of
the crop available for oviposition by P. rubi-alis and the early date of har-
vest assures that a large number of eggs and small larvae have been shipped
to market instead of maturing in the fields, because the adults ordinarily
seek advanced celery for oviposition..

Two species of aphids ascociated with narcissus mosaic.--F. S. Blanton,
of the Babylon, IT. Y., laboratory, reports that recent tests have led to the
conclusion that the bean aphid (A_-his rumicis L.) and the rose aphid





-17-


(Macrosinhum rosae L.) are definitely associated with the transmission of the
virus causing narcissus mosaic. A. runicis gave a transmission record in
each of six tests ranging from 33 to 100 prcent, and M. rosae gave a trans-
mission record in each of four tests ranging from 50 to 85 percent.

INSECTS LAFECTTNG MAN AND A IMALS

Overwintering of primary screworm fl:r.--Observations made at Uvalde,
Sonora, andI Lenard, T"ex., Valcdosta, Ga., Gainesville, Fla., and Tempe, Ariz.,
show that larvae and pupae of Cochliomryia a americana Cushing and Patton have
been able to survive, the lo;r tempoer atures so far this v.-inter in these lo-
calities. A minor outbreak of screv;;,orms in range livestock occurred at
TUvalde from December 27 to Janu2ry 14. It .,as estimated that from 400 to
500 animals became infested during this period. A few infestations were ob-
served in the vicinity of Valdosta about the middle of January.

Rotenone apzears to be effective larvicide aainst cattle grubs.--R. W.
Wells, Ames, lona, submits the follo'ing t ble shoirng results of preliminary
tes.ts at Colorr.o Springs, Colo., in iwiich rotonoun, derrie p oder, ad
devil's-shoestrings were used against larvae of Hpodera lin eatu De Vill.
encysted in the backs of cattle.


Method of : Composition of solution :Animals:Larvae Larvae
treatment :Oil :Dresol: Benzol :Rotenone:treated:treated: surviving
cc cc cc : G-rams Numfoer: r::nber :Number : Percent
External---: 4 : 5 : 50 3.0 : l 17 :10 : 3.15
Injection--: 45 : 5 : 50 : 1.0 : 4 :115 : 7 : 6.08
Injection--: 70 : 5 : 25 : 1.5 : 2 52 : 4 : 7.67
Injection--: 70 : 5 25 : .5 : 9 : 211 11 5.21
Injection--: 70 : 5 : 25 : 1.0 20 : 234 : 17 : 7.26
Injection--: 70 : 5 : 25 : .5 7 : 135 : 15 : 11.11
:Cresol:
: : com- :
S :'ound : :
Injection--: 45: 5 : 50 : .5 10 :202 :31 :15.34
: :Cresol:
:ca- : : :
S:pound : ___

Four animals were treated externally with undiluted cracca at the rate
of 3 ounces per animal (1.72 percent rotenone), with the result that of the
288 encysted larvae 250, or 86.8 percent, survived. On one animal given an
external application of 3 ounces of undiluted derris powder (3 percent ro-
tenone), 46, or 51.11 percent, of the 90 encysted larvae survived.

White-footed mouse resists heavy infesta-tions of American dog tick
larvae.--C. H. Smith andr Helen Louise Trembley, Washington, D. C., in study-
ing the biology of the American dog tick have found that a total of 846 lar-
vae of this tick were able to complete engorgement on a young white-footed
mouse (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis Fischer). This is the largest num-
ber of seed ticks they have ever reared on any species of wild rodent host
without causing its death.





-Ig-


FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

-n'nomological int ereotic.is of interest.--Six living larvlm of the
fruit fly Aastirepha suspensa( Loew) were intercepted at San Juan, P. R. ,
on October 28, 1936, in guavas in baggage from the Dominican Republic.
Twenty-nine living larvae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.)
were intercented at San Francisco on November 15, 1936, in green string
beans in ship's stores from Hawaii. Living specimens of Dicaiothrips an-
gsticeos Crawford were tken on pineapples as follQv :.A---w7 Orleans on
April 28, 1936, in -argo fro-Cu4ba' at-35rnsville, Tex., on May 27, 1936,
in bay-age from Me>ico; and at Nogales, Ariz., on June 9, 1936, in cargo
from Mexico. These renresent the first records in our files of this thrips
being intercepDted. Two living larve of the turnir mud beetle (He lo_phorus
rugosus 01.) were found at New York on November 23, 1936, on a white turnip
root in shi-ps stores from France. A living larva of the olethroutid
Talponia batesi Heinrich arrived at 21 Paso, Tex., on :ovember 15, 1936, in
a cherimoya (Annona cherimola) fruit in ba gee from Mexico. Living lar-
vae of the notato weevil Epicaerus co natus Snarp were intercepted at Del
Rio, Tex., on Novenber 1, 4, anC 7, 1936, in potatoes in baggage from
Mexico. Living specimens of Taeniothrips trtis Hal., Thrijps flavus Sch.,
and Thri? fs.ci emnni Hal. arrived at Boston on August 23, 1936, on carna-
tion cuttings in baggage from Ireland. Living larvae of the turnip gall
weevil (Cer orrhynclus pleurostigma Marsh.) were t-Kcen at iPilaCdelphia on
November 15, 15j:, in turnips in ship'.s stores from the Netherlands. Liv-
ing 1ar-~e of the sme weevil were intercepted two days previously at New
York in a turnip in ship's stores on the same ship from the Netherlands.
A living a.il!t of the chrysomelid Lema melanopa (L.) was found at Balti-
more, MTd., on November 23, 1936, on a spruce spra- in the mail from Ger-
many. A living a.dlt of the coc dnellid E-oilachna varivestis Muls. arrived
at Brownsville, Tex., on a chrysanthemum in cargo from Mexico. Two living
adults of the lhairy-vetch bruchid (Bruchus brachialis Fahr.) were taken at
New Orleans on November 21, 1936, in vetch seed in cargo from France. A
living specimen of Hercothrins Rrrans Williams was intercepted at Washing-
ton, D. C., on September 29, 1936, on an orchid (Cattlea hertheuana) in
express from England. J. C. Crawford reports that t-iis species was de-
scribed as Heliothri-s but belongs to the segregate Hercothrips.

Potato used as oil-can stopper contains weevil.--A California car,
coming from Kexico City recently, arrived on the bridge at Laredo, bound
for California. In the trunk of this automobile a reserve supply of gaso-
line was carried in a 2-gallon oil can, on the spout of which an Irish po-
tato had been stuck to avoid wasting the contents of the can. The Plant
Quarantine Inspector on duty took up the poteto and supplied a cork instead.
From this ootato four living larvae of tne potato borer (3Eicaerus cognatus
Sharp) were taken.

Gruav s found under upturned baslet in truck.--A large truck with sides
almost a~ nigi as a man's head, the type ordinarily used in hauling fruits
a nd vaLgotables out of the Rio Grande Valley, arrived on the Bridge at Laredo,
Tex. A yoing Mexican man was in the truck body, in which also reposed a num-
br of fruit hampers and baskets. The plant quarantine inspector climbed
upon the side of the truck and told the Mexican to move the baskets around so





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that he could see if there was Fen th'in in them. She Mc icon ra':.ily com-
plied. :movi- tnhc r'ound 2 showing' the in c- ecto te. t t he contained
"n.-c. rdc" The insector inoticed thi't tiere was one turnec6 u'prida down
in the middle of the truck which the Mexican push d around, but was careful
not to turn over. Noticing this, he pointed out this bask:et and demanded
that the iexican turn it ovur. With some reluctnce he complied, and under-
neath was a opper Dag containing 17 guavas. A fine of $2 for attempted
petty smuggling .was assessed by the Bureau of Customs.

Pests travel in trailer.--An automobile with house trailer attached
arrived on the bridge at Laredo. In the trailer stores 11 oranges and 15
Irish potatoes remained. Two of the oranges were infested with fruit fly
larvae, and a potato borer was taken from one of the po atoes.

Pathological interceptions of interest.--Botrytis vulyaris Fr. (Poly-
actis vulcaris LLk.) was intercoeted on chestnuts from Italy on December 9
at New York. Cercospora chrysobalani E. & E. was collected in the field in
Puerto Rico on July 21, 1936, on Chrysobale.nus icaco, a-pparently the first
report of this disease in Puerto Rico. Collctotrichum nigruml S. & H. was
intercepted from Greece for the first time on January 27 at Norfolk on
green hot peppers. Diplodiella goethea:ia Trv., first interception, was
found on Chariaerops hurmulis leaves from Itr-ly on Septeiber 16 at NHe York.
Gloeosporium sp., apparently an abnormal strain of Glo;lerella cineoulata
(Ston.) Spuld. & Schreyk, was intercepted at Philadelphia on December 28
on an apple from Japan. The same apple was infec ed with an active decay
organism closely r.sembling Sclerotinia fructicola (7int.) Rehm. Helmin-
thosporium torulosum (Syd.) Ashbr- was intercepted from. Cuba for the first
time on August 19 at New York on plantains. Leptotlyrium pomi (Mont. & Fr.)
Sacc. was intercepted from Africa for the first time on January 13 at Phila-
delphia on an apple from Morocco. Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor.,
first interceptions, was collected at New Orleans on November 23 on an un-
determined adult insect and on December 7 on an adult roach accompanying
cargo from Honduras or Panama. Phomopsis copsici (Magn.) Saec., first inter-
ceptions, was found on peppers from Mexico on November 3 and from Cuba on
January 11 at New York. Phyllosticta sp. was intercepted on Arachis gla-
brata from Brazil on July 31, 1P36, at the Inspection House in Washington.
There does not appear to be an ny llosticta listed as occurring on Arachis.
Puccinia sp., intercepted on bamboo leaves from China on November 25 at
San Francisco, proved to resemble two or three species but did not really
fit any described species of rust. Sclerotinia laxa Aderh. & Ruhl was inter-
cepted from Italy for the first time on January 10, causing a rot of apple.
Sclerotium oryzae Catt. was intercepted from Senegal for the first time on
January 8 in rice straw at New York. Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. was inter-
cepted on Sagittaria sagittifolia for the first time on January 11 at Buffalo
on a shipment from China. Sclerotia tentatively determined as S. rolfsii,
but not typical, were found on Eleocharis tuberosa corms from China at
Buffalo on January 15. Undetermined, partially imbedded, black sclerotia
about 0.2 mm in diameter were found on onion leaves from Holland at Phila-
delphia on January 21. Uromyces chloridis Doidge, first interception, was
found on Chloris pycnothrix used as packing in baggage from South Africa on
July 10, 1936, at New York.





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Lespedeza rust intercepted.--The Japanese rust assigned to Uromyces
le spedezae-rUrocumrentis (Schv.) Curt. was interce-,ted on leaves among seeds
of Lesnecleza formosa in cargo from Japan on Janu-rr 1'4 at Seattle. The
American form of this rust does not attack oriental species of lespedeza.
All stages of the American form occur on lespedeza. The aecial stage of the
rust in Japan is unknown. Spore measurements of the two forms do not agree.
It appears desirable, from a quarantine standcoint, to consider the oriental
rust as a distinct species.

Edible smut in stores.--Ustilago esculenta P. Henn., an edible smut
causing marked hypertrophy of Zizania (wild rice) plants was found in stores
from Japan at New York December 7. The smutted material was supposed to be
bamboo sprouts, determination of the smut being necessary before the identity
of the host was learned. The smut spore pockets can be seen with the naked
eye in the hypertrophied tissue when it is cut through, appearing as dirty
specks.

DOMESTIC PLANT QUARAiJTIIES

Transit insIector's services valuable in flood! relief.--Transit in-
spectors, in carrying out their regular daily schedule, are required to have
accurate information with reference not only to routing and distribution of
shipments of parcel post, express, and freight in the vicinity of the ter-
minal in which they are w:orking, but also to details concerning the transfer
of such shipments over the main connecting lines 'hat operate through the
stations to which they are assigned. At Cincinnati, Ohio, knowledge of such
transfer outlets proved invaluable in the recent flood disaster. The local
relief agencies, on lear ing that inspector E. J. McINerney was so trained,
requested that he be assigned to assist in the routing of shipments of food
products into Cincinnati, because of his familiarity with local terminal
transfer tracks, freight depots, and other points co nected with transpor-
tation. He was also given the responsibility of assisting the health
authorities by determining the contents of some 900 cars caught in the yards,
assembling for inspection the 135 cars containing perishables, and consign-
ing contaminated products to the dumps for destruction to prevent spread of
dis asp.

Transit ins-pection an informational service.--In the enforcement of the
pink bollworm quarantine regulations as recently revised to include several
additional counties in the regulated area, transit inspectors have been of
service by intercepting shipments of second-cut linters that had been con-
signed contrary to the regulations. Uncertified shipments of this kind, if
consigned to Southern States, might result in-the establishment of the pink
bollworm. The receipt of notices of the infringements enabled the project
leader promptly to contact the shippers concerned, as well as the agents ac-
cepting the shipments for transportation, and explain the regulations, thereby
preventing further uncertified materials from being consigned from these
points.

Violations intercepted.--A recent survey of the records of transit in-
spectors shows that 1,205 shipments moving in violation of Federal quarantines,
were intercepted during the period July to December 1936. This represents an






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increase of 20S violbtions intercepted over the spae period last year, ow-
ing no doubt to increased transit-inspection xrson .el at sev.ral of the
terminals ?.nc to the movement of a greater volume of nursery stock and other
material restricted by quarantine regulations. Shipments destined to
Canada, the District of Columbia, and every State in the Union, except
Nevada and Wyoming, were found moving in violation of ore or more of the
Federal domestic plant quarantines.

Phony peach disease control greatly advanced by eradication of worth-
less trees.--The removal of 52,000,000 worthless peach trees from 11 in-
fected States in the past 18 months, accomplished by funds from the Emer-
gency Relief Appropriation Act represents a marked advance in the campaign
against the phony peach disease. The 121,597 properties worked in the
eradication program since August 1935 represent over three times as many as
we.'e inspected in the entire 7-year program under regular appropriations.
The progress of the eradication program is indicated by the fact that in
38 counties in which the disease previously existed, inspection in 1936
failed to disclose any infected trees. These counties are located in eight
States.

Progress in citrus canker work.--Inspection for citrus canker is being
continued in Texas and Louisiana, with the major activities, however,
centered in Mississippi and Alabama for the purpose of inspecting every
citrus tree, including extensive areas of Citrus trifoliata, throughout the
Gulf coast region. In the 4-month period ended with the close of the year,
one Mississippi county and parts of two others have been worked, with a
total removal of 1,500,000.trces from 329 properties. In Alabpma three-
fourths of the citrus area in Mobile County has been inspected and 90 per-
cent of the trees found have:been eradicated by relief crews. In two coun-
ties 1,600,000 worthless citrus trees were removed from 403 properties.

Peach mosaic work in California.--The tree-removal work is being con-
tinued in California. In Riverside and San Bernardino Counties 9,700 in-
fected peach trees and 34,000 abandoned peach trees were removed in the
period from September 1 to January 31. A force of 84 persons was employed
under the emergency project in January.

CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS

Nicotine bibliography ready for distribution.--A Bibliography of Nico-
tine; Part II. The Insecticidal Uses of Nicotine and Tobacco,by N. E.
McIndoo, of the Division of Control Investigations, National Agricultural
Research Center, Beltsville, Md., and R. C. Roark and Mrs. R. L. Busbey, of
the Division of Insecticide Invesiatations, Washington, D. C., is now ready
for distribution. This bibliography is issued in three sections as Circular
E-392. It contains 628 p9ges, including 2,497 abstracts. Copies may be ob-
tained from either of the above-named divisions.

Bacillus causing disease in southern armyworm isolated.--F. H. Babers,
Beltsville, has isolated a bacillus from the blood of a diseased southern
armyworm (Prodenia eridania Cram.) and has identified it as the cause of the
disease. The cultural characteristics of the bacillus were also determined.






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Nicotinc fumig tion comrarcd with hrr: cyanic acid ;as. -H. E. Richrd-
son, also o. te B3ltsvillo labor'tory, reports that u:Idr closely controlled
laboratory ccllitions nicotine fumigation was vert effective agcinst the
bean aphid (A:his rumicis L.) a concentration near 0.75 p-rt of nicotine
oer million nrrts of air (.0052 mig per litor) being sufficient with a half-
hour expo sre at 77 F. to give nearly 100-percent kill. F. J. Brinley and
R. H. 7Calrer hI-ave re.orted sttdies of fumigation with hdrocyanic acid gas
(Biolugical hi7itin 53 (3):201, 1927) using this same aphid under similar
con6itions. They found it necessary to use a concentrati- of 724 parts
of hyI'.rocynic acid gas per million parts of air in order to obtain near
100-percoent kill; that is, with hydrocyanic aciCd gs, a concentration nearly
900 times greater than the nicotine on a molecular basis was necessary in
order to give equal killing power, In other words, 900 times more molecules
(or 150 times -more weignt) of hydrocyanic acicd gas than nicotine were neces-
sary t -ive the same kill. On the assumption that the resistance of Brinley
an.d Bakoer's aid was somewhat similar to that of ours, nicotine appeared to
be much more toxic to this a-i-id than was hydrocy;.nic acid gas.

ITSECTICIDE Ii ESTIGATIO:S

Micr o-method for nicotine.--Th necessity of accurately determining
a quantity of nicotine of the order of 0.1 mi in connection with greenhouse-
fumigation experiments prompted the development of a suitable method. J. R.
Spi-s, forr.erly of the Division of Insecticide InvestigStions, has recently
described a micro-method for the determination of nicotine, based on the
precip-itation of silicotungstate. Solutions containing 0.1 to 0.5 mg of
nico tine coan analyzed by this method with an average accuracy of 0.002
mg. This :method is now being used by Mrs. R L. Busbey to determine the
quantity of nicotine vapor in flasks in which insects have been fimicn:ted
by H. H. Richardson, of the Division of Control Investigations. Dr. Spies'
method is published in Industricl and Engineering Chemistry, Analytical
Edition (vol. 1, p. 46, Jan. 15, 1937).

Phenotiazine.--Data on the use of phenothis:ine as an insecticide,
compiled by L. S. Smith, has just been issued as Circular E-399. Fhenothi-
azine has been tested a sinst Mexican bean beetle, tobacco hornworm, lima
bean pod borer, grape berry moth, various cotton insects, apple maggot,
pl-m curculio, tomato fruit worm, cabboage worm, Jap-ne e beetl, European
corn borer, corn car worm, tomato pin worm, fijre br-t, screvwwrms, and
other insects. At present most interest in thenothiazine is based on the
promisings results obtained with it as a substitute for load arsenate in con-
trol of the cocling moth in the Pacific Northwest.

POr.anic sjlp1...ur insecticides.--W. A. Gersdorff, using" the goldfish as
the test animal, lhas recently re orted (Jour. Agr. .esearch vol. 53, no. 11,
p. F81, Dec. 1, 1936) that -Denyl mercaptan is seven times as toxic as
phenol but onl one-fiftieth as toxic as rotenone. For several years this
Division has been investigating a number of organic sulphur compounds as in-
secticides, es- ecially as substitutes for lead arsenate. These toxicity
studies nave( demonstrated that many organic sulnhur cormounds are highly
toxic a_ an re well worth study for possible use as insecticides.








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Chemic.-l evaluation of d-rris and cube rootc.--P ring the last few
years a very extensive literat-re on methods for the che ical evaluation of
derris and cube has grown up. H. A. Jones, of th. Beltsvill Md., labora-
tory, of th- Division of Insecticide Investigations, 'hs been testing and
comparing the various chemical methods that have been proposed for this pur-
pose. In an article published in the Journal of Agriculturol Research (vol.
53, no. 11, p. 831, Dec. 1, 1936) he describes tests to detnermine the value
of optical rotatory methods for the evaluation of rotenone plInts. In about
half the samples examined results derived from the optical activity of
acetone extracts were widely different from the toxicity values. Mr. Jones
concludes that the use of optical rotatory power cannot be recommended as
a means of evaluation of derris and cube roots.

BEE CULTURE

Beginning of egg laying of packaLge-colony dueens.--C. L. Farrar, of
the Intermountain States Bee Culture Field Laboratory, Laramie Wyo., re-
ports significant observations on the time required for queens to begin
laying in package colonies. Out of 549 packages installed by customary
methods, permitting the bees to release the queen by eating out a candy plug
(a hole having been made thru the candy with a match or wire), 7.3 percent
of the queens began laying in 1 day, 16.8 percent in 2 days, 21.1 percent
in 3 days, 17.9 percent in 4 days, 18. in 5 days, 8.2 percent in 6 days,
3.* percent in 7 days, 4.9 percent in from g to 11 days, and 1.3 percent
were not released, because of lack of bees. In contrast, 20 queens released
with the bees after thorough feeding gave 100-percent safe introduction and
all began laying within 12 to 20 hours after the packages were installed.
Early and uniform initial egg laying for all queens in a group of package
colonies should reduce drifting between units and, probably, supersedure.
It will also facilitate the development of productive colony units because
emerging young bees must replace the original package bees, which have a
relatively short life.

Nosema apis and Malpighamoeba mellifica found in colonies at Laramie,
Wyoming.--John D. Hitchcock, Laramie, reports that examina.tion of the mid-
intestines of individual bees during a 10-week period showed an unsuspected
infection with Nosema apis of 4.4 percent in those bees falling to the bot-
tom board of one colony and of 2.7 percent in another colony having normal
death rates. These colonies also showed a slight infection with Maloig-
hamoeba mellifica, though the individual bees were not infected with both
parasites. Mass examinations of dead bees from in front of other colonies
(not from the cluster) showed 11 of 45 also infected with Iiosema, though
they appeared normal when prepared for winter. This would suggest that the
parasites may be harbored over winter awaiting more favorable conditions
for spread in a locality where these diseases have not previously been
noticed.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

IUIllWIIIUIIIllllMH\ I
3 1262 09243 4934

-24-


IDNTIFICATION A1TD CLASSIFICATION OF INS3CTS

New records of Toctuidae froln Kansas.--Contained in two large sendings
of moths received from R. T. Cotton, of the Eureau's laboratory at Man-
hattan, Kans., was some material which has supplied new records and valuable
specimens for the collection in the National Museum. The sendings consisted
of ToctLuia collected and reared principally by H. H. Valkden in connection
with field studies on this group. Two apparently new species of Schinia
were' incl. de and a new snecies of Lygranthoecia. There were also specimens
of numerous for.s previously, not -eall represented~ at the National Museum,
inclucdin three individuals of Phaioecia cupblicatus Sm., of which only the
unique type 'was in the national collection. In addition, the identification
of this lar:c volume of material by J. F. Gates C rke has been responsible
for initiatin,; taxonomic studies in certain groups of Ioctuidae, the classi-
fication of vhich is badly confused.

Ne\ ldistribution record for an aegeriid.--Two lepidopterous larvae were
recently received from Tom O'Neil, of the Georgia St:te Entomologist 's office,
with the not .tjon that they had been taken from lar~: pine trees at Niles
Gap, Union: County, in the mountainous section of Georgia. They have been
identified by Carl Heinrich as the aegeriid Perhar.ar.oia pini (Kellicott), a
species hitherto known only from the Northeastern States and Canada.

An ea.sern economic species of Leonidootera in Iddio.--In a small lot
of moths received for identification from J. C. Evenden, of the Coeur d'Alene,
Idaho, laboratoryo, were several speciens which have been identified by J. F.
Gates Clarklp as a varieyty of the geometrid epta canosaria Walk. They were
reported to be present in large numbers in the pine forests. This species
has heretofore been known only from the Eastern Stautes.

A host record for Igoe rus,--.Amon mabte-ri1l reared by D. V4. Clancy,
of the Univoeri--" of California, from coons of Hemerobiide.e an-d submitted
for determin: ti n, was a series of 20 specim::ens -hich have been identified by
C. F. 7. Muesobeck: as an undescribed speciesof Lyocerus. This genus of the
Calliceratic.n (Serphoidea) is normally parasitic in aj-ids. Apparently no
species has -ereviously been recorded as a parasite of Hemerobiidae. There can
be no doubt of the host association in this case, because the parasites were
reared from isolated cocoons.

A new a.h"id on heather from Enllanid.--Tro specimens of aphids intercepted
at Nev York (I. Y. ITo. 67167) on he.ther bloom from England represent, accord-
ing to P a. a- on either two nmew species of Anhorpo ..r.a or a single greatly
s.,: o el ` -,- -- -i-si' l r tl
variable new species. No species of this gonus has been kno07n from heather,
although seven species have been found associated w4ith other members of the
s anme famil of nlants.


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