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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE
N E W S L E T T E R
FOR JULY 1941
Vol. VIII, No. 9 (Not for publication) September 1, 1941
G. A. Runner Lies
In the death of George A. Runner on July 11, the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine lost one of its older employees. iY. Runner was born in Ottawa County, Ohio, November 16, 1876. He attended Ohio Northern University at Ada, Ohio, and Southwestern Presbyterian University at Clarksville, Tenn. From July 1907 to early in 1909 he was in the employ of the Louisiana State Crop Pest Commission. On Eay 1, 1909, he was appointed "Agent and Expert" in the Division of Southern Field Cron Insects, and carried on investigations of the insects affecting tobacco and other crops for about 8 years (with the exception of a short detail to the Federal Horticultural Board in 1914 and 1915). In Nay 1917 he was transferred to the Division of Deciduous Fruit Insects and assigned to studies of grape insects at Sandusky, Ohio, which remained his station until his death. Mr. Runner was shy and retiring, and rarely attended entomological meetings, but was held in high esteem'by the professional workers and growers who became acquainted with him. He possessed a wealth of practical information on grape insects and their control, as well as on many other phases of grape culture, which has proved particularly valuable to the conferences held in recent years to discuss the grape-insect problems of the Great Lakes region. Y. Runner is survived by his widow, two sons, and a daughter.
BUREAU EMPLOYEES CALLED TO THE COLORS OR TRANSFERRED TO SPECIAL NATIONAL DEFENSE ASSIGNMENTS
Frederic, Edgar H., Agt., (SPWC), Don. Pl. Quar., on furlough, inducted
Select. Serv., July 21, 1941. On duty with 22th Q. M. Reg., U. S. Ao,
Camp Stewart, Ga.
XcGough, James E., Jr. Ent., Cont. Inv., Port Arthur Recreational Area,
Port Arthur, Tex., called to active military duty May 20, 1941.
cLain, George F., Jr. PI Quar. Insp., (PBW), Maj Infantry, O.R.C.,
U. S. A 5o-th Infantry, Fort Huachuca, Ariz., called to active duty
Jul 13, 1941.
wanders, Robert W., Agt., Dom. Pl. Quar. (PHONY P.), O.R.C., U. S. A.,
Cao Croft, Spartanburg, S. C., called to active duty August 5, 1941.
Wagner, Robert IL, Agt., Forest Ins., inducted, Select. Serv., July 21,
right,, Lewis J., Jr. Clk., Don. Pl. Quar. (GRASSHOPPER & M. C. CONT.)
on furlough, inducted, Select. Serv., July 15, 1941.
FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
Rearing of a parasite in field caes.--This season is the fourth in h4ch Macrocentrus ancylivora Roh., the leading parasite of the oriental fruit oth, has been successfully bred in large field cages by the Moorestow, J., laboratory. In the Ners Letter for September 1940, the results for 1947, 193 and 1940 were reported. In the following table the results for 1941 are compared with those for 1940.
S: Total : Parasites obtained :
:Size : Fenales:females ob : : : : : Usable
Year : of : used :tained for : : :Per 1,000: insects
:caged : in :each female:Total :Females: Per :infested : per
:area :reeding: used in : : : acre :leaves : 1,000
: breeding : : : :collected:emerging
:So ft, : Number : Number :Number: Number:Number : Number : Number 1940 :4,15 : 2,052 : 9 :45,008:1-8,909 :470,000: 555 : 595
19 4T--:4,221 : 1,968 : 13 :60893:2 5,207 :628,000: 681 : 738
The breeding in 1941 is, by far, the best of any of the 4 years. The total number of female parasites produced for each female, and the number of usable insects per thousand emerging, was exceptionally satisfactory. At the rate of propagation obtained this year enough parasites could be produced from I acre of field cage to stock 1,200 acres of peach orchard in control work. Last year the half-way point in emergence of females was reached on July 13, while the peak of second-brood infestation for orchards receiving liberations was from July 1 to 20. This resulted in the issuance of a considerable number of the parasites too late to be of maximum value in field releases in this district. This year 24-hour incubation at 800 F. was provided, and this resulted in an emergence of half of the female parasites before June 29. The peak of the second-brood infestation was from June 30 to Jul I The timing of emergence was thus almost perfect for the most effe'-t ve use of th1e parasites. Enough work has now been done to warrant the scatrment that M. ancylivora could be produced by this method in unlimited numoers, with a minimum prospect of failure and at a comparatively low cost.
A mite rredaceous on eggs of olive scale.--0bservations on the egg
laying of the olive scale (Parlatoria oleae Colv.) on olive and rose, made b7 Oscar G. Bacon, of the Fresno, Calif., laborato'-, were inter ferd :ith by; the activities of a mite, determined by H. E. Ewing as hemisarcomtes melus (Shiner). A fe.; mites were present under scales on rose on Ari 11. They were feeding on the contents of the eggs of the scales, incluing or hatched young. White eggs of the mites were found among the larger, purpolish eggs of the Parlatoria. By Miay 12 the mites Lad increas_d in nu,-bers and 100 percent of the eg:s under olive scales on the rose were found to have been attacked. Examinations of scale infe:tations on olive in 10 lo cations showed that the mites were well distributed in the field.
FXICAN FRUITFLY CONTROL
Only one Mexican fruitfLy found.--l _hough apmroximatel ,000 trans were operated regularly throughout the month of July, on- adult .nor pha ludens Loew was taken. This fly was trapped in the Hfission district. This year, as in previous seasons, the fl,, population decreased very rapidly after the fruit was removed from the trees. The usual summer poculat ion of A. seroentina began to make its appearance, and during t -he month several sec'mens were traooed in various districts. With the exception of 1 rather heav rain in the eastern end of the valley, no other moisture v:as recorded in July, and at the close of the month many growers were preparing to irrigate their groves for the first time this season. The fruit crop is maturing normall> Very little insect activity has been recorded, with the exception cX the usual amount of damage by oust mite, and in a few isolated groves a light infectation of citrus whitefly has become established.
CEREAL ANDI FORAGE INSECT 1INVEST1GATICNS
Effect of heat on insect eggs.--J. C. Frankenfeld, Manhattan, Kans., reports that tests conducted on the effect of heat on the eg s of various flour and stored-grain insects showed marked variations in the susceptib'lity of eggs to heat. Treated in a thermostatically controlled, electricall heated water bath, in which the temperature can be regulated to within 0.10 F.,
the eggs of some species were consistently killed in 5 minutes or les-, whereas the eggs of other species required an exposure of 35 minutes or more to consistently obtain a 100-percent kill. Eggs of the species tested in the order of their susceptibility to 1200 and the period of exposure required to consistently obtain 100-oercent kill are listed below.
: Period of exposure to obtain
: 100-percent kill
Tenebroides mauritanicus L.------ : 4
Gnathocerus cornutus Fab.--------- : 5
Att agenus piceus Oliv. : 5
Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. : 5
Cjnaeus angustus __..: 10
Ephestia kuehniella Zell. : 10
Tribolium castaneum Herbst. : 15
Tribolium confusum Duv.----------: 25
Palorus ratzeburgi Wissm. ---------: 30
Latheticus oryzae Waterh. : ---------35+
Marauillo hybrids outfield ordinary winter wheats in hessian flyresistance tests.--Elmer T. Jones, Ianhattan, says that results from the Springfield fly-resistance test plots clearly indicate the importance of Marcuillo-winter wheat fly-resistant hybrids during fly outbreaks. With field infestations in this area the highest and most widespread in 14 years, 7 fly-resistant winter-habit selections of 3 crosses involving Marquillo as a resistant parent produced an average of 139 grams of grain each for 24 square feet of row, as against an average of only 17 grams for each of 4
standard varieties of winter wheat in the same test. Each row contained the same number of plants in the fall. The reduction of yield was directly attributable to fall fly infestation. Test weight (estimated) of grain of ordinary wheats ranged from 45 to 57 pounds; test weight of hybrid grain, 57 to SO pounds per bushel.
European corn borer parasites in Eastern States.--C. A. Clark, Moorestown, N J., reports that the polyembryonic braconid lacrocentrus gifuensis Ashm. was recovered in northeastern Massachusetts and at Bernardston, northcentral Massachusetts, in the fall of 1940, from releases made early that summer, and was found to be well established in Atlantic Township, Monmouth County, N. J., from releases made in 1939 and 1940. This species parasitized 17.1 percent of the borers collected over a 2,000-square-mile area in southeastern Massachusetts, where it has been established since 1932. The tachinid Lydella grisescens R. D. was observed to be established at all 10 of the parasite liberation points at which host collections were made in the fall of 1940. In most localities borer pa-asitization by this species was less than 10 percent out at Hadley, in Hampshire County, Mass., it was 19,6 percent. The ichneumonid Inareolata punctoria Roman was very abundant at Agawam and Hadley, Mass. It had parasitized 21 and 8.9 percent, respectively, of the borers collected at these two dispersion release points. It continued to be the most abundant parasite in northeastern Massachusetts, where it destroyed 14.9 percent of the host population. In central Connecticut, in an area of approximately 200 square miles, this parasite killed 20.3 percent of the borers examined, and the average mortality due to I. punctoria in collections made in a
territory of over 400 square miles was 12.9 percent. This parasite was also well established at Haddam, Conn., where it had parasitized 7.9 percent of the hosts collected. It is established in Monm.outh County, N. J., but was not recovered in 1940 in Burlington County, N. J., or in Accomac County, Va. The egg-larval parasite Chelonus annulipes Wesm. was present in numbers only in southeastern Mlassachusetts. Even at this release point the parasite is rather limited in distribution and numbers and gives no indication of increasing in importance. Four specimens were reared from hosts in two collections from central Connecticut. Of particular interest is the continued increase in borer parasitization in an area of almost.2,000 square miles in southeastern Nassachusetts. In this area the percentages of parasitization of fall-collected borer larvae by all species were as follows: 3.6 in 1937, 12.4 in 1938, 18.3 in 1939, and 30.3 in 1940. Borer parasitization in collections from the central 500 square miles of this area, where the parasites have been present for several years, averaged 45.1 percent at the close of 1940.
Tests of insecticidal control of European corn borero--D. D. Questel, Toledo, Ohio, conducted tests in commercial fields of sweet corn in the vicinity of Toledo, Ohio, of a high-clearance, power-operated, self-propelled boom sprayer which is being developed by the Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering for European corn borer contrcl in early market sweet corn. Approximately 5 acres of corn were treated with this machine in heavily infested fields of Early Gold, Spancross, Early Harvest, Early FMarket, and Early Sensation, using 4 pounds of ground derris root (4.8 % rotenone) per 100 gallons of water and a wetting agent (Areskap) at the rate of 1 to 2,500. Four applications were made, starting with first hatch of the borer and repeated thereafter at 5-day intervals, using 110 gallons of spray per acre per application. Borer reduction in the ears ranged from 85 to 91 percent and in the plants from 87 to 91 percent, the borer populations in the checks (nontreated areas) averaging from 9 to 17 borers per plant. The percent borer-free ears in the marketable yield of the treated plots ranged from 71 to 89, as compared with 11 to 25 in the checks. Marketable yields from the treated areas in some cases were double those obtained from the checks, owing to culling of badly daTaged ears and increase in sterility of plants in check areas. Growers marketing corn from these treated and check areas report premiums of 50 percent in sale price of nonsorted treated corn over sales of nontreated corn.
'White grubs of the A brood scarce in southwestern Wisconsino--T. R. Chamberlin, M'adison, Wis., reports that although the flight of the 1941 A-brood beetles in southwestern Wisconsin was smaller than that of 1935 and 1938, considerably fewer grubs of this brood than were expected were found in the early sampling. Samples from fields of bluegrass, barley, and alfalfa on one farm in an area near Lamont, which should have been heavily infested, produced only a single grub of this brood. On other farms most of the holes contained none, but a few yielded from several to eight grubs, which presumably were the offspring of single beetles. Possibly the extremely early emergence of beetles in large numbers and the suppression of their activity later by cold rainy periods of rather long
ai:n indered oroper development and deposition of their eggs. Furher sampling is necessary to determine whether this condition is general in th 3tate.
JAPANESE BEETLE CONiTROL
Beetle conditions in Philadelohia.--A number of surveys were made durin hul in the markets and parks in the center of Philadelphia to obtain coo:mara.ive data on beetle flight. Although beetles could be found feeding on weeds in most sections, few were in active flight. Adults did not a oar in nuLmbers until late in the month and then with somewhat less intensit- than in 1940. Very fev beetles were found in Dock Street Market. Durin- the heavy flights of a decade ago beetles swarmed in this congested 1a.. et district. In the Philadelohia suburbs plenty of beetles were observed feeding, although there was no hea-y flight. In the southeastern cr ar cf Pennsivania, heavy defoliation was reported in sections of the s et Grove area, from which thousands of roses are certified each year. In ~s -ot% heavil- attacked were apple, cherry, linden, and sassafras, with
-uit trees receiving the most damage. The heaviest feeding in the
iudelhia area was near Lancaster and in lower York County. This heavily
f e section, which formerly centered near Gap, has moved closer to
Lan:caster. In a strip about a to miles east of the city, extensive feedin as been done on corn, cherry, apple, and other preferred host plants. Inspectors stationed at the Philadelphia produce terminals preinspected and sealed 27? empt- refrigerator cars, all of which were loaded with bananas and certified for movement to nonregulated territory. An additional 77 carlerds of white potatoes were fumigated with methyl bromide. These in- etors report that the method of applying the gas from 1-pound cans, newly
id ied this season, has thus far proved very satisfactory A Philadelphia .d house received a report from one of their customers in New Jersey that a acre field of soybeans had been ruined by the Japanese beetle.
infejtations found in many southern New York nurseries.--Of the 33
class 1, or uninfested, nurseries and greenhouses scouted in the New York Cit- district, infestations had been found by the end of the month in or wi.ln 500 fect of 13 units. The infestation in New York City is reported as iht this ear, but as decidedly heavy on Long Island and in adjacent Westchester County, within a radius of 50 miles of New York. Trapping operations are being carried on at many of the large estates, where the beetles are so numerous that a careful selection of cut flowers is necessary to obtain blooms that are not damaged by beetle feeding. A certified greenbouse on Long Island has been awarded a contract to grow 5,000 potted blacksrnt plants. Arrangements have been made to grow the plants under certified conditions so that they will be eligible for shipment to points outside the regulated area.
Extra charge for certified olants.--At the bottom of a full-paged
advertisement in one of the horticultural trade magazines, a Connecticut
iurser-man adds: "'B' certificate furnished after October 1st at 10 cents 'e: tree extra." Deliveries are by truck or carload only, no boxing. Purchasers are invited to "Save by dig-ing your own at 15 cents less per tree."
This orobabli reflects the difficulties some of the nurseries are having in obtaining labor in competition with surrounding- industries. The extra charge for the Japanese beetle quarantine "B" certificate is apparently due to the fact that infestation w;as found in this establishment in 1939 and the only trees that may be dug and immLediatel- certified are those front plots treated with lead arsenate before July 1 of this year. Trees from these newly treated plots are not eligible for certification until October 1. This firm also has a fumigation chamber for the chemical treatment of plants with methyl bromide. They are not classified under the Jaoanese beetle quarantine regulations.
Transit inspector indirectly responsible for discovery of apparent
theft.--When an inspector from the New York Cit- district Japanese beetle office investigated an uncertified shipment of twio boxes containing eight ferns in soil shipped under the labels of a New York Cit- firm to Chicago, Ill., he was in turn referred to another flower dealer claimed by the party named as consignor to have been the actual shipper. The proprietor
of the firm alleged to have made the shipment could find no trace of such a consignment in his shipping records. This proprietor had oreviouslyr suspected that someone of his emroloyecs had been stealing some of his plants and in this instance believed that this individual had shipped the plants, using another firm's labels without their authorization.
Icing ,ards inspected.--On the last 3 days of the month, a tour of inspection was made of the refrigerator car icing -,rards in Brunswick, Hagerstown, and Cumberland, Md., to observe the intensity of Jaanese beetle infestation and to check on the manner in which cars were iced and
cleaned. At the Baltimore and Ohio yards in Brunswick and the Western Maryland yards in Hagelstown, infestation wjas found to be quite heavy. At the yards of these two railroads in Cumberland, infestation was much lighter. At the Pennsylvania Railroad yards in Hagerstown, a light but general infestation was noted. The men in charge of the op erations at each yard visited stated that all -recautionaryT measures were being taken to prevent beetles gaining access to the cars while the- were being cleaned or iced.
Spraying at Army airfield.--A spra-ing program is being carried on at
the Middletown, Pa., Air Depot of the U. S. Arm near Harrisburg. Army engineers are building a dike along the Susquehanna River at this point. Their activities have routed hordes of Jananese beetles out of the dense
growth along the river and these have invaded the foliage surrounding the flying field. Extensive damage has been caused to poplar, Norway maple, and garden and flowering plants. Beetles have even attacked the new growth
of some evergreens. An aluminum sulphate-hydrated lime spray is being used
Heavy flight at Baltimore banana piers.--Inspectors stationed at the banana piers in Baltimore reported the occurrence of the heaviest Jananese beetle flight ever noted in that area. Starting July 10 it was necessary to use conveyors and screens in each day's unloading operations. One banana company purchased $100 worth of new screens and tarpaulins with which to screen their floats so that their refrigerator cars could be loaded under protection despite the swarming beetles
Japanese beetle trapping.--At the end of July traps were in operation in five cities in Georgia, three in Illinois, seven in Indiana, two in Kentucky, two in Nichicgan, one in issouri, four in New York, eight in North Carolina, nine in Ohio, six in Virginia, and three in West Virginia. Traps were removed during the month from the cities of Charlotte, Durham, Elizabeth City, Goldsboro, Lexington, Raleigh, Rocky kMount, Salisbury, Wilmington, and Wilson, in North Carolina.
Initial fuigation of produce in refrigerator trucks --The first
methyl bromide fumiZgation of produce in a refrigerator truck for Japanese beetle certification was made at Cedarville, N. J., on July 10. A truckload of cabbage and beets was also fumigated on July 16 at Morrisville, Pa., before leaving for Miamd, Fla. Another truckload of cabbage was fumigated at Morrisville on Jul1, 20.
Ice used to precool fumigation chamber.--A greenhouseman in central New Jersey is using ice to precool his methyl bromide fumigation chamber during the summer months. Ice is left in the chamber overnight and removed the following morning prior to fumigation, thereby reducing the temperature and lessening the chance of plant injury during the fumigation period.
Springfield, Mass., beetle trapping.--Figures supplied by L. F. Prouty, of the Sringfield Park Department, show that 531 quarts of beetles had been traded in 1,750 traps up to July 31. The largest daily catch was on July 29, when 150,000 beetles were either trapped or hand-picked.
Advance elm survey work.--Advance survey work was started about the
middle of July and will continue until the middle of September. A complete survey will be made in designated sections in the major work areas, as well as at each outlying point of infection. In addition, surveys will be made
in the following areas: A large part of Naisachusetts, including a special Boston Scolytus survey-; the entire State of Rhode Island; the Ohio River Valley and the old Cleveland disease area; the LotuLac River Valley and the old Norfolk-Portsmouth area; and the city of Baltimore
Elm leaf beetle defoliation.--Damage to elm foliage remains severe in New Jersey and New York, and has reduced the efficiency of scouting in some sections, in that more climbing is necessary. In the advance survey work now in progress in lssachusetts, it has been found that elm trees are so badly defoliated by this species in the towns of Great Barrington and Sheffield that it is imoracticable to continue to scout there until the new foliage, which is already beginning to appear, will permit satisfactory
scouting. It has, therefore, been found advisable to move the scouts farther north into Pittsfield, where there appears to be practically no leaf
beetle dar-age. In some districts of Pennsylvania improved foliage conditions are noted, since heavy rain and wind knocked off the leaves killed by beetle attack, and new growth is beginning to show on the trees. Scouting conditions are reported as ideal in the central and northern parts of the Binghamton, N. Y., work area, as a considerable amount of wilting is showing u- and very little elm leaf beetle da -ae is in evidence.
Business as usual durin elm removals.--4v. P. A. crews in the WilkesBarre, Pa., area encountered difficult topping and felling problems during
thne month. A 35-inch elm in a small back yard, surrounded by fences, shrubs, trees, flower gardens, lawn, and buildings required the Yost careful attention. The butt had to be cut down to a height of about 25 feet before it could be dropped, and required the roping dovwn of small butt pieces, in several instances without the benefit of serviceable crotches. Five days were spent on this tree by one of the crews. Two diseased elms in the Wilkes-Barre Public Square also required careful topping. These trees were over the trolley and electric bus feeder lines, vhich presented sufficient danger, but with the continuous flow of traffic the danger was
greatly increased. Both trees were removed -ithout nishap. One other infected Wviikes-Barre street tree was also removed. This towered over high voltage lines and required topping down below these wires.
Work resumed on W. P. A. field projects.--Work was resumed on July 7
by W. P. A. men on the New Jersey and West Virginia Dutch elm disease eradication projects. The men returned to work in Pennsylvania on July 11, and in New York on July 21. By the end of the month, the project had been resursed in every work area except Ohio. A total of 912 security-wage workers were employed at the end of July, as compared with 1,330 at the time the project was suspended on June 28. Every effort is being made to reach a quota of 1,'27 in order to complete summer scouting.
Crew works from boat to remove diseased elm--Removal of a 48-inch
confirmed tree was completed the latter part of the month in Bucks County,
Pa. This elm leaned over Little Neshaminy Creek at about a 20 angle at a
point where the water was 6 feet deep. It was necessary for the felling crew to work from the Division's row boat. The top was lightened and block and tackle used to swing the tree to the creek bank. The resulting stump is being used by the boys in the neighborhood as a swimming platform.
Beetle infestation interferes with Dutch elm disease scouting.--A
heavy infestation of the Japanese beetle in the section of the town of Wethersfield, Hartford County, Conn., along the Connecticut River, has resulted in defoliation of almost all species of trees in that locality This seriously reduced the efficiency of scouting, since it required considerably more climbing of elms to determine their actual condition.
Egg clusters reappear in products cleared for forwarding.--Gypsy moth egg clusters were removed from three shipments presented for inspection during the month. Solitary clusters were found on carloads of lumber insoected at Garrish, N. H., and Westfield, Mass., prior to shipment to Elizabethport, N. J., and Shelton, Conn., respectively. Fourteen egg masses were removed from 7 cartons of birch logs examined at Danvers, Eass., for shipment to Syracuse, N. Y. In addition, 34 larvae and 35 pupae of the moth were taken from other consignments certified for movement from the regulated area.
New England Jaoanese beetle scouting started.--Survevs in classified nurseries and greenhouses in New England started on July 7. By the latter
part of the month 10 scout crews were ;,orking under the supervision of the Waltham, Mass., office. Sixteen of the men were on the Federal pay roll and 10 on State pay rolls.
Winter-sawed material now being milled and shipped.--Lumber shipments increased considerably in some of the gypsy moth districts, owing to the fact that material sawed during the vnter months is now in dry enough condition to mill.
FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
Spray experiments for control of elm leaf beetle.--C. W. Collins,
C. L. Griswold, and A. E. Lantz, of the Morristown, N. J., laboratory, report that for a series of years surveys have been conducted in certain northern New Jersey localities to record and compare the intensity and persistence of elm leaf beetle infestations, also the resultant injury to the trees. As a part of this program some areas were selected for spraying using lead arsenate at ti-e rate of 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water to which 4 ounces of fish oil per pound of poison was added as a sticker. The spraying was done late in May 1940, at the time -.;hen adults were actively feediuig and beginning to deposit eggs. In the areas selected, all elms were sprayed out from the center to a point ;.here the concentration dropped off or to a point at least 300 feet from buildings where the adults ordinaril-, hibernate and return to the nearby elms the following spring Very
good control was obtained in all sprayed areas in 1940 and satisfactory control resulted in 1941; that is, the increase in the immediate centers or near hibernation points was not extensive nor alarming the second year after spraying.
Control projects inspected.--R. L. Furniss, of the Portland, Oreg., forest insect laboratory, spent several days during late June and early July with Forest Service officials checking various phases of the Black Hills beetle control projects on the Wasatch and Powell National Forests of Utah. On the Wasatch project treatment of infested lodgepole with-a combination of fuel oil and orthodichlorobenzene was found very effective, when ao:lied under favorable weather conditions. Snow and rain interfered with the use of this method. Fall-treated trees showed a retardation of brood development which gave promise of preventing ultimate emergence.
Spruce aohid causes heavy defoliation.--F. P. Keen, Portland, reports that after an absence of nearly 10 years, the spruce aphid (Anhis abietina Walk.) has again out in an appearance along the coast of Oregon, Washington, and Alaska and has caused heavy defoliation of Sitka spruce and the death of many suppressed trees. The defoliation appears heaviest in the lower crowns and where trees are sheltered from the wind; consequently, many understory trees have been comoletely' defoliated and killed. The aphids disappeared
during midsuinmrer, and if they have an alternate host this has not been found. If this outbreak increases next year, a heavy loss of Sitka spruce stands along the coast may result.
Annual pine beetle survey started.---1Nr. Keeni also states that in order to check on western pine beetle conditions irn -,,he ponderosa pine stands of eastern Oregon and Washington, two 3-man survey crews were placed in the field on July 28. One crew, under J. M. Whiteside, will cover various forests in eastern Washington, and the second, under W J. Buckhorn, will survey private and national forest areas in southern Oregon. This work will be further supplemented by survey crews, working under the direction of the Forest Service and the Office of Indian Affairs, so as to obtain complete coverage of the ponderosa pine forests of this region.
Larch sawfly infests forests of Idaho and Miontana --J, C Evenden, of
the forest--insect laboratory at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, reports a severe infestation of the larch sawfly (Nerratus erichsonii Hartig) throughout the western larch stands of Idaho and western Hontana. This outbreak was first reported from the Flathead Forest, Mont., in 1933. During subsequent years the insects have spread southwestward, with severe infestation reported from the Kootenai, Cabinet, Lobo, Coeur d'Alene, St. Joe, and Clearwater National Forests. In some areas the defoliation has been severe, although no permanent damage has been recorded. This is the first available record of an outbreak of this insect -within the larch forests of the Western States.
Mountain pine beetle epidemic in lodgepole noine in Yosemite National Park.---G. R. Struble, of the Forest Service, has recently sent in the following report of a new outbreak of the mountain pine beetle in the Yosemite National Park: "While traveling through the Bridal Veil Meadow country, I was astounded to see so many dying lodge-pole pines. From a hasty examination it is evident that the mountain pine beetle infestation has already
developed to epidemic proportions, not only along the roads, but also within the stands. My rough estimate is that there are from 200 to 500 trees per section carrying broods of the 1940 overwintering generation. The infestation is particularly heavy in the vicinity of the Bridal Veil Camp Ground,
where a large percentage of the trees have faded within the last 2 weeks"
Susceptibility of sugar pine to mountain pine beetle to be studied.
The success of sanitation-salvage logging of high risk trees in roducinE losses caused by the western nine beetle in ponderosa pine stands has brought about interest in the possibility of protecting sugar pine from the mountain pine beetle by a similar method of indirect control. So far little is known regarding the preference of this bark beetle for certain types of trees, but apparently it does show some selective habits in attacking sugar pine. In order to arrive at a basis for determining whether a preference does exist for certain age and growth classes of sugar pine, a study was initiated by G. R. Struble at the Piiamlu, Fla field laboratory. One plot of 20 acres in mature sugar pine has been established, in vAhich all trees have been numbered and inventoried according to age, growth, anid crown characters. A series of similar plots will be established and an analysis made of the characteristics of sugar pines that are killed by this beetle, both on the plots and on the areas that are surveyed annually for bark beetle
Forest-insect control in Plumas Natiunal Forest ---During the last week in June the complete woods crew of the Clover Valley Lumber CompanyT, of
Loyalton, Calif., comprising some 75 men to handle the falling, limbing, and bucking of an estimated 20 million board feet of pine timber, run 4 caterpillar tractors, 2 gas shovels, 8 logging trucks, and a railroad, turned to forest-insect control work. The objective is the prevention of excessive losses from bark-beetle infestations on more than 7,000 acres in the Dixie Creek drainage of the eastern Plumas area. The control method being used is the logging and utilization of highly susceptible or high-risk trees. This is the first attempt in California to put that method of control to a test on a practical commercial basis. Early in June, Forest Service and Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine cruisers prespotted the high-risk trees in the area. During the latter part of the month, 10,sets of callers began felling the timber and engineers and road crews laid out and constructed logging roads. On June 30 the caterpillars started skidding logs to the roads., the shovels started loading trucks, and the movement of logs from woods to railroad to the mill began in earnest. During the first 6 days of operation nearly 2,000,000 board feet in merchantable logs were salvaged from high-risk trees that could reasonably be expected to die within a few years. values in these logs thus were made available for manufacture into soft pine lumber. This production record nearly equals the normal production in this area. It indicates that under certain topographic conditions at least, it may be feasible to log about one-quarter of the stand and control bark beetle infestations at a profit.
Termite prevention survey of defense housing projects.--The forestinsect laboratory at Berkeley, Calif., is conducting a survey to assist the defen e housing agencies in the prevention of termite damage to wooden buildings. During April, May, and June, C. B. Eaton and Donald DeLeon covered a large number of the projects in the central California area where thousands of units are under construction. The survey consisted of inspection of building plans and of the local conditions where construction was under way. In a number of cases it was found that while the ordinary construction rules for termite prevention had been observed, added features, such as placing wooden steps in contact with the ground, or banking earth over termite-proofed foundations, had nullified the original precautionary measures. In other cases unwarranted expense had been incurred in using precautionary measures which were unnecessary- Recommendations made by this Bureau to the local construction agencies have for the most. T)art been observed and it is believed that a considerable saving in costs, as well as in the prevention of early termite damage to defense buildings, will result from this service. This survey is now being extended to cover the numerous defense projects in southern California.
Termites and defend _iousing.--B. H. Wilford, New Haven, Conn., reports that for several months considerable attention has been directed to the termite proofing of dwellings planned for and under construction throughout New York and the New England States by the various federal defense housing agencies. First planning and early construction mrk by some agencies was begun before the Division of Forest Insect Investigations had knowledge of such activities. Consequently, the first buildings were designed and erected withl either no consideration for termites or vrith some consideration for termites but little practical knowledge of cheap and effective protection. Where
termites were considered, each housing agency had its omwn ideas for guarding against them. In some instances superfluous protection was provided for at one part of a building and neglected in other, often more vulnerable, parts. In other instances ineffective measures were taken, uselessly adding to the construction costs. Gradually, the suggestions being made by the Division of Forest Insect Investigations to the defense housing agencies are bringing about uniformity in the protection measures. In many instances proper precautions can be taken without increasing costs. Unfortunately, however, to protect buildings of some architectural designs, additional costs are almost imperative. These cases present the real difficulties, since govermnental restrictions on dwelling costs necessitate omissions of many normally necessary items.
Thus, in the instances where termite protection means added expense, no matter how small, this protection is not being provided for. It is becoming more and nore obvious that architects, construction engineers, an., entomologists must work together and reach agreements on details to develop simple, acceptable, and inexpensive construction practices which ill insure adequate protection against termites. As a result of the defense movement, it appears that this cooperation and some such changes are already taking place. This movement should not termr-inate, however, with the ending of the emergency.
A recently established diterous parasite of the gsusy moth now widelyy distributed in New England.--W. F. Sellers, New Haven, Conn., states that the cooperative project organized with officials of the States of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hapshire, and Connecticut for the study of the distribution of Parasetigena silvestris R. D. was id ghly successful. Collections were made in 70 to-wnships and recoveries of the parasite were made from 33. Twenty-nine of these represent new recoveries and A represent duplication of previous recoveries. The known area of distribution extends roughly from Sebago, Maine, in the north, to Ossipee, N. H., and Lunenburg, Mass., in the west, and southward to Thompson, Conn.
State : Collections : Recoveries of P. silvestris
: Number :
Maine ------------ : 5 : Sebago, Standish, Biddefcrd
New Hampshire----: 5 : Ossipee, Hooksett, Northwood
Connecticut ------: 1 : Thom oson
Massachusetts----: 59 : Amesbury, Andover, Boxford, Burlington,
: : Chelmsford, Dracut, Georgetown, Grove: : land, Haverhill, Lawrence, ierrimac,
: : Newbury, W. Newbury, Newburyport,
: : N. Andover, Reading, Rowle Salis: : bury, Essex, Hamilton, Ipswich,
: : iddleton, Topsfield, Wenham, Lunen: : burg, Berkley
The four localities underlined represent places where previous recoveries have been made. The parasitization ranged upward to 17.4 percent (87 puparia were recovered from a collection of 500 gypsy moth larvae made
at Georgetown, Mass.). Hooksett and Northwood, N. H,, are more than 35 miles from the nearest liberation point. These results indicate that this parasite is rapidly becoming a valuable addition to the gypsy moth parasites already established in this country. The status of this parasite was previously discussed in the News Letter for July 1940 (v. VII, No, 9, pp. 8-9. Sept. 1, 1940).
Establishment of dipterous parasite of gypsy, brown-tail, and satin moths.--ir. Sellers also states that Exorista larvarum L. was introduced into the United States from Central Europe between the years 1923 and 1932 and widely colonized in New Englard. Over 100 puparia of this parasite were recovered from 11 townships were gypsy moth larval collections were made this summer.
State Collections: Recoveries of E. larvarum
Maine ----------: 5 : Standish
New Han-shire---: 5 : Northwood, W. Concord
Massachusetts---: 59 Salisbury, Newbury, W Newbury,
Lawrence, Wenham, Andover,
The parasitization by this species ranged upward to 9 percent (45
puparia were recovered from a collection of 500 larvae made at Salisbury, Mass.). The parasite was also recovered from collections of brown-tail moth larvae made at Stratham and Rye, N. H., by W. S. McLeod, of the Imperial Parasite Service. Taxonomically this parasite is confused with the Nearctic species Exorista mella Walk. Past records indicate that the American species is rarely reared from gypsy and brown-tail moth larvae. The value of Exorista larvarum as a parasite of the gypsy moth depends on the number of alternate hibernating hosts that exist in the various localities. In this respect the parasite is similar to Compsilura concinnata Meig. Attention is called to the News Letter for September 1940 (v. VII, No. 11, p. 12. Nov 1, 1940), where a case of superparasitization by C concinnata and E. mella on the satin moth vas discussed. At that time the Exorista was mistakenly referred to as nmlla instead of larvarum.
GYPSY MOTH AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH CONTROL
W. P. A. gypsy moth work resumed in three States.--All Federal W P. A gypsy mth projects in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New York, and Pennsylvania were terminated on Jur 30, as no funds had been provided for the continuance of the work after the end of the fiscal year. This necessitated the dismissal of all W. P. A. workers in the field and in the offices in Greenfield, Mass., and Wilkes-Barre, Pa. New requisitions for W. P. A. workers were prepared for presentation as quickly as the various gypsy moth projects for the new fiscal year could be approved by the State administrators and funds released for the resumption of the vrk. Although the project applications submitted to the State administrators in Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York were approved before the middle of
July, final authority to begin work was delayed. The authority was received and requisitions were presented during the week ended July 26 for work in Connecticut, kassachusetts, and Vermont, and actual work was begun during the last few days in July. Authority to start work in New York and Pennsylvania had not been received by the end of July, but was expected momentarily.
Less -psy moth spraying work accomplished than had been planned.--It was not possible to spray as large an amount of gypsy mith infested area as originally planned, because of the scarcity of relief labor. Although the W. P. A. offices in several of the States promised additional labor during the spraying season, not more than half of the men requisitioned reported for duty. Nany of those who did report resigned within a few days to accept vocational defense training or to work in private industry." Some of the men referred to the gypsy moth project lacked the physical qualifications for the performance of arduous labor, and were unsuiLable for spraying vork. Because of these conditions many of the crews were undermanned and could not easily handle the long hose lines, making it necessary to discontinue spraying frequently in order to snhorten the lines. In many cases it was necessary to operate the sprayers on the single-shift basis, where double shifts had been planned. The lack of labor was particularl-7 conspicuous in the Connecticut area, where it was possible to operate only 3 spraying machines on the single-shift basis. If sufficient man power had been available it would have been advantageous to use 10 or 12 machines, double-shift, in New England in spraying the infested areas needing such treatment. It was also found to be im ossible to obtain enough men in Monroe County, Pa., to do urgently needed spraying work, and arrangements were iade to transport workers from nearby sections of Luzerne, Lackawanna, Wayne, and Carbon Counties to
man the sprayers in Monroe County. Additional difficulties were provided by the weather.
Regular gmsy moth employees continue various tyoes of work.--Regular supervisory employees, who were released from supervision of W P. A. enrollees, after suspension of W_ P. A. work on June 30, were given various assignments so that as much as possible of the various types of work could be continued. When possible, observations were made in sprayed areas to determine the effectiveness of the spraying work. Examinations made up to the end of July disclosed that effective control of the insect had been accomplished in the sprayed areas, and that in numerous instances only a moderate
amount of additional work will be required to complete extermination in those sections.
Preliminiar yps7 moth defoliation reports.--Several merrbers of the
gypsy moth supervisory personnel began defoliation surveys of the infested area on July 7. These men worked alone in Iaine and New Hampshire, cooperated with the State division superintendents of gy-sy moth -:rk in Massachusetts, and were assisted by State employees Ahen possible in Connecticut and
Rhode Island. Preliminary reports showed an increase in the lower brackets of defoliation in several towns in Maine, although the areas of complete defoliation appeared not much greater than in 1940. Considerable increases in
defoliation in the lower brackets w;as noted in a few towns in New Hampshire, but little defoliation was reported in other towns where the 1940 defoliation
was severe. Reports from Massachusetts were variable, with large increases in some towns where there was little defoliation last year and large decreases in other towns severely defoliated in 1940. Little defoliation has been reported so far in Vermont and Rhode Island, and no
records have yet been received from Connecticut.
qypsy moth pupae collected for assembling-cage aterial.--The collection of female g psy oth pupae for use in the preparation of the attracting material used in assembling-cage work was began on July 7. With the exception of the agent in immediate charge of the field work, all the men engaged in collecting were inexperienced in that type of work. Because of their inexperience much of the material collected during the first few days was unsatisfactory, but the quality of the material improved greatly as the ren gained experience. At the beginning of the work two Federal agents and seven men detailed from the New York Conservation Department collected the material in theield and handled it at the storehouse in Greenfield, Nass.
Gy sy moth soray hose transported from field for insoection and storae.--Spraying operations in the field were discontinued beginning about a week before the end of July, although the work was continued in a few places until July 20. The time of completion depended to a great extent on the difficulties encountered in removing the hose from the woods and the distances to be traveled in transporting the equipment to the storehouses in Greenfield, Mass., and in Moosic and Forty Fort, Pa., for examination and storage, as it was necessary to complete this work before the termination of W. P. A. work on June 30. The spray hose requires special attention after its return from the field. It is unloaded from the trucks,
sorted, and piled in such a manner that systematic examinations and tests of all the hose and couplings may be made before it is stored for the winter. The hose used in gypsy noth spraying has a 1-inch waterway, is made in 50-foot lengths, and must withstand 1,500 pounds pressure. Hose that has deteriorated to such an extent that it will no longer withstand high pressure is set aside for other use or for disposal at public auction. The couplings, vhich are heavily constructed of bronze Metal and give many years of service, are removed from the broken or worn-out hose and stored for future use. The hose is never coiled, but is laid out straight in storage bins, each bin having a capacity of approximately 125,000 feet. Up to July 19 about 125,000 feet of hose had been sorted, repaired, tested and stored at the Greenfield storehouse, and approximately 127,000 feet had been similarly treated at the Pennsylvania storehouses. A considerable
quantity of the hose was discarded this year because of deterioration or breakage in service.
Brown-tail moth in ypsr moth infested areas.--A decided increase in brown-tail moth infestations has been noted in sections of kaine and New Hampshire. Although there were ver few records of defoliation by this insect last year, a considerable number of such records have already been received for this season. Complete defoliation of many orchards has taken place, particularly at sites vhere no cutting of webs was done daring the winter of 1940-41. In some towns, particularly in Allenstown, Canterbury,
Dunbarton, Epsom, Henniker, Hooksett, Louden, and Pittsfield, all in New Hampshire, the bromn-tail moth infestation was so intensive that
notable flights of the moths were reported. Such flights have not been previously reported for a number of years.
Advance information obtained concerning proposed logging operations.-Considerable information has been obtained concerning the proposed cutting of birch logs in southern Vermont and western Eassachusetts. The operators interviewed stated that logging operst ions ;',ill begin early in the fall and continue throughout the winter. A large amount of birch cut in the barrier zone area of these two States is transported by truck to mills in eastern New York, where no gypsy moth infestations are knovm to exist at present. Last year several small gy-sy moth infestat ions were located and destroyed at their source by scouting the birch lots in advance of the cutting operations. Information was also obtained from operators in northern Vermont relative to the localities in that section of the barrier zone where the greatest quantities of Christmas trees and evergreen boughs are likely to be cut during the fall. Other data pertaining to logging and pulpwood operations were also gathered, all of which have an important bearing on the preparation of olans for gypsy moth scouting vxrk in tose sections during the coming winter and fall.
Burlap bands patrolled by regular empl Tees.--Regular gypsy moth employees patrolling trees banded with burlap in Massachusetts and Connecticut found large numbers of gypsy moth larvae End pupae in the vicinity of stone walls and rock-littered areas in locations where there had been little or no opportunity to conduct intensive creosoting work earlier in the season. Smaller numbers of the insect were destroyed at less favorable sites.
Gypsy moth assembling cages set out in Pennsylvania.--The distribution of approximately. 1,600 gypsy moth assembling cages by regular gypsy moth employees was completed in the Pennsylvania area shortly after the mid-dle of July. The cages were set out in the townships of Carbondale, Lackawanna County; in Canaan, South Canaan, Lake, Salem, Sterling, Dreher, and Lehigh, Wcyne County; and in Barrett and Paradise, Monroe County. These 10 selected tovmships are adjacent to the gypsy moth infested area on the east and northeast, and are outside of the area where it has been possible to conduct extensive scouting work. Regular visits were made to each cage to determine whether male Qps7 moths had been attracted, and all specimens caught in the tanglefoot were carefull,? collected and definitely identified. Male gypsy moths were taken at several cages in Canaan, South Canaan, and Lake, in Wayne County, before the end of July. In the course of scouting in the vicinity of a cage in Lake Township, where male moths were taken, a gypsy moth infestation was found and treated directly across the road from the cage. Assembling cages were also set out in selected towns in eastern New York and northern New Jersey.
N. Y. A. employees continue -psy moth work in Pennsylvania.--Four
small groups of N. Y. A. enrollees continued gypsy ioth vork in the Pennsylvania area after July 1. One of these groups assisted in sorting, testing, and storing spray hose, while the other groups patrolled burlap bands at infested locations in Pittston and Plains Townships, in Luzerne
County. New N. Y. A. gypsy moth projects were approved before July 30, which will permit the employment of enrollees in the repair shops in Jilkes-Barre, as ,ell as in the field. A small field force was started on Jul- 28, and the numbers will be increased as additional supervision becomes available
C. C. C. gypsy moth greatl, reduced.--C. C. C. gypsy moth work under the supervision of this Bureau was greatly reduced from a high of 149 -hour man-days during the week ended Julyr 5 to only 40 man-days during the week ended July 26. The work was performed in Massadusetts and Connecticut until late in July, when work was discontinued in Connecticut because of the abandonment of cars and the transfer of gypsy moth foremen. During the latter part of July, C. C. C, gypsy moth work was performed only by one small crew from a camp in MNassachusetts.
C. C. C. gypsy moth work performed during July.--C. C. C. gypsy moth spra-'ing in Connecticut was terminated early in July, and the available men ,ere used in banding trees at colony sites where no spraying was done this season, and in patrolling the bands and killing all gypsy moths found under them. hen '. C. C. gypsy moth work was terminated in Connecticut a force from the Connecticut State gypsy moth office began patrolling of the bands in some of the areas that had been burlapped by the C. C. C. Three infestations, containing 582 acres, were sprayed by the C. C. C. in Connecticut this season, and 32,328 trees on 111 acres were banded. A single crew in Massachu-setts continued to spray in the town of Florida, Berkshire County, until July 11. Although a supply of materials was available for further spraying, it was not possible to obtain a large enough number of enrollees to operate the equipment after that date. The small crew was assigned to banding trees at selected sites and to patrollin the bands. Areas that had been sprayed by the C C. C were inspected during the month. No feeding was observed and very few gypsy moth larvae or egg clusters were seen at any of the points examined.
PLANT DISEASE CONTROL
Blister rust infection in Oregon and northern California,--H. R.
Offuord reports the discover of an imoortant new Dine-infection center in Oregon on Bucks Creek, Rogue River National Forest, in July Twenty-seven infected western white pines were found. Associated with these white pines were heavily infected Ribes bracteosum and lightly infected R. binominatum and R. lacustre. Infection was found also on R. cruentum in the Rogue River goree a Quarter of a mile from Union 'Creek, and in this same area a single juvenile canker was cut from a small sugar pine tree. The identity of this canker is questinable and it -will be sent to Wi. i,. Wagener's office at "an Francisco for identification. Infected R. lobbii was found close to the Deunosey mine near usper Bucks Basin. On the Klamath National Forest a single canker on sugar pine was found near the Cottonwood Creek blister rust camo. Considerable Ribes infection was found on the Klamath National Forest on most areas examined. D. R. 'iller and Clyde Partington are now engaged in scouting for the rust on the Lassen National Forest. A considerable number of specimens of rust on Ribes have been submitted for identification, and, although so far but a small percentage of the specimens
have been tested, the few for vhich determinations have been made are about equally divided between Cronartium occidentale and C ribicola.
New Dine infections found in Wisconsin and Virginia.--T. F. Kouba reports that blister rust on white pine was found for the first time in Iron County, Wis., on June 29. Onl- I tree was found infected, but it was heavily infected. It was an 11-year-old tree planted along State Highway 77, 528 feet east of the City Hall of kiontreal, Wis., and 27
feet north of the concrete highway. Infection was found on 1235 wood, and the tree was dead, save for 3 lateral branches. A large RLibes cnosbati bush, infected ith the ur dinial stage of the rust, was growing 12 feet west of the tree. Apparently the infected ortion of the tree had fruited 3 times. An unusually heavy concentration of pycnia and pycnial scars were noted. Escaped Ribes sativum (cultivated red currant) bushes were growing about 150 feet away, but these plants were not infected with blister rust. Blister rust was found by, Agent Miller on 25 Ribes cqynosbati bushes and 17 Dines in a 5-acre tract in BanLner's Run, in Bath County-r, Va., while 2 infected Ribes and 5 pines on 1 acre were found infected on Hodges Road in the same county. This is the first year that pine infection has been found in this county.
About 1,500 employed on blister rust control in thB Northwest.-- 'ile
the blister rust control program in the Northwest is not so large this year as the one in 1940, owing to the curtailment of W P. A. and C C. C work, the activities under regular funds have increased slightly. The largest field program is the regular Forest Service blister rust project, which includes 33 field carmps emplo-ing approximately 1,000 men, Host of these camps are located in the center of the white pine type of north Idaho, but some of the camps are located in northwestern Nontana and northeastern Washington. The State of Idaho and the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, aided by contributions from the timber protective associations, are operating 5 camps, with a total of 170 workers in the State
of Idaho. In addition to this the Bureau of Entomolo-gy and Plant Quarantine is operating W. P. A. projects in Idaho and Washington. There are approximately 200 workers in Idaho and 20 in Washington. In the western white pine region there has been a rather heavy turnover of workers in the Idaho cooperative camps, but replacements are made immediately. At the first of the week Mr. Walters, operation supervisor, was confronted v~dth the problem of finding 1 of the cooperative camp employees, who got lost in the woods on his return from Sandpoint, Idaho, over the week end. Search parties were organized, and Tuesday morning the boy was found, still lost but in good condition, as he was traveling a forest road back toward Sandpoint. The Forest Service is also operating W. P. A, projects in Idaho and Hontana to the extent that they were able to obtain labor assignments. As in previous years, several C. C. C camps in the western white pine region are working on blister rust control. Both in the national forests and in iount Rainier and Glacier National Parks, the low enrollment in the
C. C. C. however, has reduced the size of this program considerably.
Poison ivy causing trouble in Maine.--W. O. Frost reports that Doison ivy is causing considerable trouble in Maine this season and that he saw several blister rust control workers with rather severe cases the latter LIRAH x
part of June. Ivy plants head-high are encountered in the woods, and because of their height are not recognized until after the men have come in contact with the leaves. The men are provided with protective lotions but, in spite of this precaution, many of them are poisoned.
Blister rust spreaing from cultivated red currants.--C. C. Perry, State leader in Massachusetts, reports that he inspected locations in Lynnfield and liiddleton, where blister rust control work has been in progress, and visited one area where young pine infections (1938) had
been found. In this case the associated Ribes were limited to escaped red currants. Ni. Brockway, District leader, estimates that this season at least 70 percent of ti Ribes eradicated by the field crew in Essex County, Mas:., have been escaped red currants.
Scouting started in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks.--In
order to keep a close check on the spread of blister rust into Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, E. L. Joy, R. L. MacLeod, and C. A. Chapman started scouting in these units in the last teek of July. The major efforts are being placed on inspection of concentrations of the highly susceptible Ribes petiolare in association with the two most susceptible pines, white bark and limber. Such areas offer an excellent opportunity to pick up either long-distance cr local spread centers, because of the massing, susceptibility, and moist habitat of R. petiolare. It is also of importance that any local infection of these pines that has developed to the fruiting stage is most likely to consist of a sufficient number of cankers to cause abundant and readily discovered Ribes infection. During the course of this scouting work the additional project of preeradication survey in Grand Teton National Park v&ll be conducted. This will consist of a strip checking of selected areas of vite-bark pine that have been designated as having sufficient aesthetic or cover values to justify control. It is estimated that these areas total about 3,000 acres, all of which are located in the high and rugged Teton Range. Since no roads reach this area, travel will be by a pack-horse outfit.
Preliminary results of physiologic race survev.--Results of the physiologic race surveyT of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) in 1941, as of August 1, indicate a continued increase in race 17 and decrease in race 56, as compared with previous years, A total of 377 isolates have been identified from 27." uredial collections made in the United States and
northern Mexico. Of 134 isolates identified from northern Mexico collections, race 17 constituted 60 percent, and races 38 and 56 approximately 15 percent each. Three other races constituted the remainder. From collections made in the United States, 243 isolates have thus far been identified. Race 17 constitutes apDroxinvtely the same percentage of these isolates as in northern Mexico. Race 56, which is second in prevalence in the United States, constitutes about 25 percent of the isolates already identified, followed by races 19 and 38. Race 17 not only constituted 60 percent of the isolates but appears to represent a still larger proportion of the actual inoculum in the field, while race 56, which represents only 25 percent of the isolates, probably makes up a smaller proportion of the field inoculum. As a result, Tenmarq, which is immune from race 17 and susceptible to race 56, showed light infection early in the season, when soft wheats
susceptible to both races were heavily infected in the same localities. Isolates from Tenmarq have been primarily race 56. Later in the season
heavy rust developed on Tenmarq, because the earlier light infection of race 56 in fields of this variety had had time to build up. The trend in population of races 17 and 56 for the period since 1939 is shown below.
: Total isolates in
Year : the United States
: Race 17 : Race 56
: Percent : Percent
1939----------------: 10 : 55
1940--------------- : 34 : 44
1941 (preliminary)--: 59 : 25
Of 117 isolates identified in S6 collections from southern Mexico, race 38 constituted a majority of the isolates, followed by race 59. These 2 races have been the most common in other years also. Altogether, in the 2 regions of Mexico and in the United States, about 500 isolates have thus far been identified and 350 additional ones are now. in process of identification.
Method of survey depends on topograohy --During 7ay and June survey crews in Missouri were working in Marion, Lafa'ette, Johnson, Saline, Howard, and Pettis Counties. The area covered totaled 550 square miles. The method of surve7T varied somewhat, depending on the type of territory being covered, but for the most part consisted of an intensive farm-tofarm survey. Some modification of survey methods'has been made in this State in recent months, but all infested areas are now given an intensive strip scouting. i-ore responsibility is being placed on crew foremen for
determining the exact type of survey that ;ill be used in a given type of territory.
Area of escaped bushes found in Platte River.--During the period
March to June, survey crews in Nebraska eradicated barberry bushes on 22 properties, 15 of vhich were new and 7 of which had been reported previously. In determining the source of bushes located on 1 property in the vicinity of Scottsbluff, the crew supervisor was advised that the bush had been transplanted from an island in the Platte River. Later survey of the island resulted in the eradication of 65 bushes ~dely distributed for more than 2 miles along the river bank. Some of the larger bushes in the area w-rere heavily rusted by the end of June, and early in Jul- infection was prevalent on nearby grasses.
COTTON INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
The Peruvian cotton weevil parasite at Brownsville, Tex.- U,. T. Hunt, of the Brownsville laboratory, reports that 5 shipments of Microbracon vestiticida Vier., a parasite of Anthonomus vestitus Boh. in Peru, were made by P. A. Berry, of the Division of Foreign Parasite Introduction, for
liberation in cottonfields at Brownsville to determine their possible establishment on the boll weevil. These shipments were made from Lima, Peru, between Nay 20 and June 17. They were en route from 3 to 4 days, the first arriving at Brownsville on Nay 24 and the last on June 20. It is thought that these are the first parasites introduced into the United States primarily for boll weevil control. A total of 3,012 adult parasites were shipped, of which 2,626 arrived alive. Of these, 1,594 were released in 3 fields and 1,032 were used for laboratory rearing, Field collections following the liberations have failed at the end of June to indicate their establishment. Oviposition was obtained in the laboratory by exposing boll weevil infested squares in a cloth-covered cage. The cage was covered on all sides, except the bottom, with black cloth and placed so as to adhrit light through the bottom, thus attracting the parasites to the squares placed in the bottom of the cage. Emergence of the adult parasites started 9 days after oviposition. Seventy-six parasites, 10 being of the second generation, were reared in the laboratory by this method during June.
The Peruvian cotton weevil parasite at Tallulah, La.--During July Paul A. Berry, of the Division of Foreign Parasite Introduction, made 4 shipments by air express of N. vestiticida, a parasite of the Peruvian cotton weevil (A. vestitus) from Lima, Feru, to Tallulah, La. The parasites were en route from 3 to 7 days, R. C, Gaines reports that the first shipment, 7 days en route, consisted of 770 adults but on arrival at Tallulah 598 were dead and 172 alive, The second shipment, 3 days en route, consisted of 904 adults, only 130 of vhich were dead on arrival and 774 alive. Records were not made on arrival at Tallulah of the third and fourth shipments, as the parasites were liberated in cottonfields by placing the boxes in which they arrived under cotton plants in the fields ;:here ants removed a number of the dead. The native parasite, Nicrobracon mellitor (Say), was present in both fields where releases of 1. vestiticida were made on July 12 and 15. Squares were collected on July 15, 17, 19, and 43, from which there were reared 8 M. vestiticida and 11 N. mellitor between July 22 and 31. Boll weevil infested cotton squares in cages were exposed to M. vestiticida for 48 hours and during the period July 22-25 there emerged 17 adults of N1. vestiticida and 4 of N mellitor. All determinations of the parasites were made by C. F W. Nuesebeck.
Shortage of dusting machines handicaps cotton-insect control.--The demand for cotton-dusting equipment because of the high boll weevil infestations during June and July throughout most of the area from the Atlantic coast to central Texas and western Oklahoma caused a shortage in dusting machines. Nany growers in the States where the weevils were abundant lost heavily because of their inability to obtain dusting machines to apply calcium arsenate. In Alabama and other States the use of the old-time poleand-bag method of applying arsenical dusts was revived on recommendation of the extension workers in cases where dusting machines were not available.
Spraying machines were brought into use in the cottonfields much more extensively than during previous years. The manufacturers of dusting machines reported that they could not remedy the situation because they were unable to obtain needed materials for the manufacture of dusting machines.
Calcium arsenate shortage.--For the first time in many years the
supply of calcium arsenate in the Cotton Belt was practically exhausted during July On July 23, W. A. Ruffin, extension entomologist of Alabama, wrote: "The supply of dust guns and calcium arsenate has been completely exhausted in this State." Similar reports came from Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma. The appearance of the cotton leaf worm in six States by the end of July and heavy infestations of the bollworm made the situation more serious. It was reported that manufacturers of calcium arsenate were operating on a 24-hour basis in an effort to meet the emergency. Lead arsenate, paris green, and london purple, were used more extensively than for many years and various proprietary mixtures supposed to contain arsenical insecticides were sold in large quantities, especially in Texas.
Rotenone in calcium arsenate checks cotton anhids.--P. 1. Gilmer, Tifton, Ga., reports that because of the heav-.- dusting schedules necessary to control the boll weevil on sea-island cotton the damage from the cotton aphid is a serious problem. On June 18 the first dusting with calcium arsenate and calcium arsenate mixtures was made on a series of plots. Seven later applications were made on July 8, 20, 25, 28, August 1, 7, and 12. The average number of aphids per square inch of leaf surface from July 25 to August 14 was about the same on the untreated check plots and the plots dusted with a mixture of calcium arsenate with derris so as to contain 0.5 percent rotenone. There were from three to four times as many aphids on the plots dusted with calcium arsenate and with a proprietary mixture of calcium arsenate and a zinc salt. This latter mixture did not hold down the aphid population, but the mixture containing rotenone was effective. On August 14 the respective counts were: Check, 27,75 aphids per square inch; calcium arsenate-rotenonia dust, 29 30 aphids per square inch; the average of the other 4 treatments, i!9.8% aphids (variation between 113.25 and 123.75) per square inch.
PINK BOLLWORM AND THURBERIA WEEVIL CONTROL
Condition of 1941 cotton croo in south Texas.--The first bale of cotton each season is usually produced in the subtropical area of the lower Rio Grande Valley of south Texas, which has, for the past several years, been under regulation on account of the presence of the pink bollworm The present season aas no exception to the rule, and the first bale of cotton for the 1941 crop was produced in Starr County and ginned on July 10. The planting of the 1941 cotton crop in the lower Rio Grande Valley was begun on February 1, in accordance -ith a State order designed to shorten the cotton-growing period as a pink bollworm control measure.
TRUCK CROP AND GARDEN INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
Effectiveness of derris dust mixtures against pea aphid varies with
rotenone content.--J. E. Dudley, Jr., and associates, of the Hadison, Wis., laboratcry, performed a field test against the pea aphid (Illinoia pisi. Kalt.) on late peas at Waunakee, Wis., during the period beginning June 20, 1941. The test was designed primarily to determine the influence of
rotenone content of a derris dust mixture on its effectiveness against the pea aphid. Three dust mixtures were employed in these tests with
rotenone contents of 0.75, 0.50, and 0.25 percent, respectively, derived
from derris root. Two percent of soybean oil was incorporated in the
dust mixtures to function as a conditioner and pyrophyllite was used as the diluent. The dusts were applied with a power duster equipped with
a 24-foot boom with 20 nozzles, the boom being entirely enclosed with
canvas and a 4O-foot trailer attached. The average speed of travel daring treatment was 2.4 miles per hour. Temperature ranged from 820 to 700 F., and the relative humidity from 60 to 100 percent ring the period of treatment. The results of this experiment are presented in the following
Percentage Dust : Aphids per sweep : Reduction
of appliedd : after : after
rotenone :per acre:43 hrs.:92 hrs.:6 days:43 hrs.:92 hrs.:6 days
: Pounds :Number :Number :Number:Percent:Percent:Percent
0.75------------------- : 36 : 26 11 : 11 : 85 : 94 : 92
0.50------------------- : 40 : 37 : 18 : 17 : 79 : 90 : 88
0.25------------------- : 43 : 55 : 27 : 24 : 69 : 85 : 82
Check------------------ : 0 : 178 : 177 : 138 : -- : -- : -Difference repaired / : : : :
1-- 21 10 6-5 12 6 5
for significance ---: :
1/ There were 2 reolicates of the check treatment and 6 replicates of
the other treatments. Therefore, the check treatment was not included in the
The dust mixture containing 0.75 percent rotenone was significantly
superior to the mixture containing only 0.25 percent all three times the
records were taken. At the expiration of the 6-day period the dust mixture
containing 0.50 Dercent was significantly superior to the one containing only 0.25 percent. It should be noted that each time the infestation was
recorded there was a definite trend indicating the increased effectiveness
as the percentage of rotenone increased.
Cultural Dractices aid in control of tobacco flea beetle .--J U. Gilmore and C. Levin, of the Oxford, N. C., laboratory, report that, in a control experiment directed against spring populations of Epitrix parvula (F.)
in plant beds, encouraging results in reducing populations of this pest followed several cultural practices One treatment, involving the pulling of
all plants in the plant beds and the scraping of the ground with a hoe,
demonstrated a reduction of 83 percent in the number of flea beetles emerging from such beds, as compared with plant beds which had not been disturbed.
Another treatment in which the plots were plowed and harrowed showed a reduction of 59 percent, and a third treatment in vhich the plots were simply
plowed showed a reduction of 45 percent in the number of beetles emerging
-Wheat product as carrier in poisoned bait for qreen June beetle.-Tests conducted b:- orman Allen and ollard, of the Florence, S C., laboratory-, with various wheat ;roducts for c arric of pari green in the :oisoned bait recommended for the control of Cotinis nitida L. in tobacco plant beds, indicated that wheat middlings, vheat shorts, equal parts of middlings and bran, equal arts of shorts and bran, or 'holewrheat flour, were more effective than wheat bran alone. Three secar.te olant-bed tests were conducted by r plicating each treatment from S to 8 times and examining each individual larva in an effort to determine the comparative value of the different wheat products. As a result, it was found that a bait composed of 1 pound of oaris green'and 25 pounds of
:i;heat middlings and approximately 2:1 gallons of water was. the most satisfactcr- wheat-croducts bait tested, being roughly twice as effective as a similar bait are ared by using wheat bran. This bait, although effective, killed only about two-thirds of the larvae, because all of the larvae do no-t co-me to the soil surface over a period of several da7-s. For maximum efficiencl-, the infested area should be sprinkled or wvetted vith water just prior to appl-ing the bal. Wettig the area increases the burrowing activities of the larvae and this increases the chances of them obtainin:, the bait. The bait should be broadcast over the infested area at a rate of 18 pounds, -et weight, per 100 square yards of plant bed area.
Dilute solutions of dichloroethyl ether protect seedlings of cantalouos and melons.--Tests at Walla Walla, Wash., b- R. S Lehman during 1940 and 1941 have shown that dichloroethyl ether in water will protect cantaloups from serious damage b, wivreworms principallyr the Pacific coast ':ireworm Limonius canus (Lec.)) when this mixture is applied at the time the seed is planted, at the rate of I pint per hill at a dilution of either 8 or 12 cubic centimeters per gallon of water. It was determined, moreover, that a second treatment of g pint of the solution per hill 2 or 3 weeks after the seed was planted assured an improvement in the control in instances when wireworms were still numerous near the plants at this period in the development of the croo. R. E. Campbell and ahis associates of the Alhambra, Calif., laboratory, found that the use of dichloroetbyl ether in dilute solutions afforded protection from .drew-orms (principally the sugar beet wireworm Limonius californicus (1ann.)) to sprouting nmelon seeds and
-oung plants. In this connection the most interetin observations obtained fiom the 1941 tests related to the effect of dichloroethyl ether treatments on the germination of the plants At all strengths used, ranging from 3 to 15 cubic centimeters of dichloroethyl et her per gallon of water applied at the rate of 1 quart of the solution per hill, germination of the p-lants was accelerated and the total percentage was greater than in connarable -lots -:here water alone was used.
Cull dumos ir.moortant breeding source of potato psyllids.--A survey conducted b- R. L. Wallis, of the Scottsbluff, Nebr., laboratory, on potatoes growing in dumos of cul71 tubers, showed very high populations of Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc.) end since June 10 adult ps-Hlids have nearly doubled in numbers every 5 days Adult s--llids averaged 95.3 per ]101 sweeps of an insect net June 15. There are approxiratel, 1,200 to 1,500 potato-stcrage cellars in the North Platte VoIley and most of the growers and dealers at sortin- time dumo cull tubers near the storage. Eating in
these piles causes early sprouting and growth, and the dense foliage provides an ideal breeding place for psyllids.
Derris, pyrethrum, and cryolite dust mixtures control bean leaf
beetle.1-L W. Brannon, of the Norfolk, Va., laboratory, reports excellent control of Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster) on snap beans, in experiments conducted with the following materials: Derris-pyrethrum powdersulfur dust (0.50 percent rotenone-10 percent pyrethrins), pyrethrum powder-sulfur 1O 10 percent pyrethrins), commercial stabilized pyrethrum powder (0.080 and 0 164 percent pyrethrins), derris-sulfur (0.50 percent rotenone), and cryolite-sulfur dusts (70 percent sodium fluoaluminate) All materials gave significant reductions, ranging from 97 to 80 percent, in the bean leaf beetle infestation 24 hours after treatment. None of the materials tested gave significant reductions over each other, with the exception of the stabilized pyrethrum dust containing 0 080 pyrethrins. Excellent residual effects were noted as a result of infestation counts made on the various plots 7 days after treatment.
INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS
Change in direction of research in Southeastern laboratories --The regionalized plan of direction of research work in the Southeast was changed on August 1 Under the new arrangement the laboratories at Or lando, Panama City, and St. Lucie, Fla., will work independently and report direct to the Washington office. The mosqito research under way at New Smyrna, Fla is so closel' related to that at Orlando that the former will continue to function as a sublaboratory of the latter.
Screwworm remedy harmful to eyes of sheep when used excessively-E. C. Cushing, of the Menard, Tex., laboratory, reports that tests on the effects of the ingredients of Smear 62, individually and in combination, in the eyes of sheep have shown that excessive amounts of the remedy and some of its ingredients, when applied at approximately 3-day intervals, are harmful.
Screwworm formula 62 satisfactory in Arizona and Texas.--Over 1,000 gallons of the new screwworm remedy developed at the Menard, Tex., laboratory have been tested in Arizona by livestock operators This remedy has given excellent results under conditions in that State. The method of preparing the formula was also demonstrated by personnel of the Henard laboratory to several large dealers in livestock remedies and to members of the board of directors of the Texas Sheep and Goat Raisers' Association. The association is considering sponsoring the manufacture of the remedy for its members.
Screvwworm formula 62 effective in treating fleeceworm infestations-Mr Cushing reports that 49 cases of fleeceworm infestations in sheep were successfully treated with screwworm formula 62. Mr. Cushing states that a considerable quantity of the smear is needed, unless the wool is first sheared from the infested area
First record of ansonia oerturbans in Orezon and Washington --A high
population of M. perturbans Walk. was reported during July at Scappoose, 'Oreg.,
by E F. Knipling, of the Portland, Oreg., laboratory. This species was also reported from Yakima, Wash., by C. M. Gjullin. These are the first records of this mosquito in Oregon and Washington.
Instruction at U. S Public Health Service School at Norfolk, Va.
F. C. Bishopp, G. H. Bradley, and B. V. Travis assisted the U. S. Public Health Service in the training course being given to the first class of 18 sanitary engineers and doctors who are to be assigned to mosquito-control work in extra cantonment areas. General information on insects of medical and sanitary importance was presented by Dr. Bishopp, and mosquito biologies, taxonomy, and methods of conducting surveys and of carrying on saltmarsh-mosquito control were discussed by Messrs. Bradley and Travis.
Number of eggs per female hornfly.--"Heretofore we have tentatively agreed with other investigators that the female hornfly produced a maximum of 24 eggs," reports W. G. Bruce, of our Dallas, Tex., laboratory, "but in recent tests it has been found'that at least 168 eggs can be produced by 1 fly "
Lecture on medical entomology before U. S. Army medical officers --On
August 6, F. C. Bishopp gave an illustrated lecture on "Insect Problems of Medical Importance in the Tropics" before a group of Army medical officers who are taking a 1-month special course in Tropical Medicine at the Army Medical Center in Washington, D. C.
FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES
Entomological interceptions of interest.--One living and 6 dead larvae of the euribiid (trypetid) Anastrepha serpentina Wied. were taken at New Orleans on June 16 in grapefruit in stores from Brazil. Twenty-six living larvae of the euribiid Anastrepha sp., probably fraterculus (Wied.),
were intercepted at New York on June 13 in grapefruit in stores from Brazil Specimens of the aleyrodid Aleurotrachelus camelliae (Kuwana) were intercepted at Seattle on January 10 on the leaf of a Camellia japonica in cargo from Japan. This represents our first interception of this species. Three
adult specimens of the bruchid Bruchidius dorsalis (Boh) were found at Seattle on March 27 in Gleditsia japonica seeds in rail from Jonan, A living specimen of the thrips Elaphrothrips dampfi Hd. was intercepted at El Paso on June 11 on pineapple in cargo from Mexico. A living larva of the scolytid Gnathotrichus aciculatus Blackm. was found at El Paso on May 28 in a tomato in baggage from Mexico. Six living larvae and 1 living adult of the cerambycid Gracilia minuta (F.) were taken at New York on July 2 in and on Carpinus betulus (wooden crates for crockery) in cargo from England. A living adult of the elaterid Heteroderes rufangulus --1. was found at New York on May 20 in excelsior in a box of grapesfrom Argentina Fifteen living adults of the ostomid Lophocateres pusillus (Klug) were intercepted at Norfolk, Va., on April 14 under the bark of a walnut log in cargo from Australia. Specimens of the coccid Morganella longispina (Morg.) were taken at San Francisco on August 7, 1940, on Dendrobium spectabile in mail from Australia. A living adult of the curculionid Pachnaeus litus Germ. was found at New York on June 3 on white greens in cargo from Cuba. Living
adults, larvae, and )u-pae of the sc9K--tid Pteleobius vittatus F. were interce-,ted at iev; YoDrk on June 'I in the bark of an elm log in cargo iromn Lnand. This is our second interce. ti--n of this insect; the first one -4as also i-ade at NeOw York, but the sce cimens were all dead.
l :oian states th~at tnis so" -tid is not known to occur in the United States.
Pathao lo -ial irterce-Dtik.ns of interest.--Dinlodia henriesiana
Tray. c', "S-:essa as _'Lound. on I.a- 21' at n ew York on orchids from Colombia.
G~nsooanmo ;oooumcar!. was interce-oted on Ea-, 22 at El Paso on
CLota e~'us so. levsfrom YNexico. Arth- ur'_s manual does inot include Hexdcc: in the ran- e of' this rust. Hleliidnthosoori4Um allii Camo. asintercc ;ted on Jul- 25 at Baltimore on
D0LI]STIC PLANT QL'AI\TTII NE S
The urashooei: situation in L!eneral. --Gras shopper development, baiting-, and di spi3rsal, in the areas as a volreach-ed a peak during july. In some areas to the north, ho-o-ers of certain sucecies had not yet reached the adult stacTe, ihile to the south th.e second generation was hatchning. 3ai.tin activities fe1 U far sh-ort of anticipation on the basis of' tlie e-g _urve-- of l-)i.O. 3-T the la- -ter ,,-art of Jul- approximately
0,+0wet tons of ,l had been used, withn an anticipated need for
10,000 -,ore tons af1.er harvest to :rotect -late cro,-us and wi-nter what. .-bout 75 .erce-n-t of th.bait ;ias used in Kan'sas, iiinesota, iontana, Nebras'ka, and South- L;-ko, about half t',e total output hi vin- been distrl--butA, in Linnesota and. '1Lontana.
G'-rasshoo ,ers cyeatlK reduced in 'orti Dakota.--Th-e State of North Dakota has been a very, heav-,' bait user in recent yasThis -rear, however, owino; or I cisDalli, to reduced infestations end weather conditions, only >50 tons of .-et bait had been used u-p to the latter part of July withn the antici cation that 100 additional tons would suffice. HIost baitin,- w ,as cone in the western cart of the State.
"')ther ,rasshu_)r inf estat ions, --(I) In western Kansas light to moderate flight ts of 7raschc-)-ers w.,ere rec orted almi-ost dait>- during the first part of July, redocis tic opulaticns in the c-outhwe stern counties by a' ,ut ('O1 -ercent. Crop damag-e in this area during the month was estimated at, JfromD- aboDut 5 t'o 15 oeronit. (2) Thie two-stri-ped grasshopper was the cci_.nant s_ ecies in thl-e h, avil-, infested northwo stern counties of 11ne s;ota, ..hile in the east -central and southeastern counties infestations
_ere sa olted and, of little ecorlic uinxortance, Baltin- in this State was ij-t. di-rin- Juj r, ow'1i.r-. 1 ncipal to the weather and to the rapid
grovith of cro-3s. '3) In L-)ntana farrt-_ei _- i----i the nor th-c most heavi"-7r
infested part of the State, succeeded -in 1.oldirq, crop da.rinage to a r. nui by continued b-,Iitin throij::,hout the rlontf-., B-- July 2' Xj-:_r ttte17 tons of wet bait had been used in the nDrth-central 1.1-id south-cen.tral are--a-(4) The dominant s-oecies in Neb-i aska cons-Isted of Lelano nlus mexicLnus (Sauss.), M. bivittatus (Sa7'7), and keo.-Lo Dltis turnbul-Iii (Tl-ios.), necessitating the heavi st_ : f ing in t e R--;--)ub1ica -1 R-j ,ver Valle-.7 in the south"",76E', -cn section of the State, as ..ell- as that ,:)art of eastern NebrasKa cona--),ri sed of of 7 1 7 n Souti
area 1-rin- east of :,)avjson Countl aid south V "al:;-n e Count-% (5/ Dakita injur77 to cro..ps, especialj_- to sn alll 7ra- ased moderatel-, reachling an estimated 10 to 12 -,Derc, nt b:T mid-,Jul T. -Pri ncipal injur-' was occasioned b- cli,..)ping of -v Theat and. barle,,-, the greatest dam -e occurring in the east-central area of the State, i,,bere M. -.-Lexicanus, M. bivittatus, and A. turnbullii we.--e zZoou' ecual in numbers 1:77 ui n 7 a i ne d r a D 1 n all areas during, Jull ,- after harve.-ting o_,_eratians started. About .?,,500 tons of wet bait were used.
Se(.tond genf ration of les er mi ,rator-/- lhonoers _-roduced.-The second
Generation of the, lesser 7dgrator-- developed in July in "'rizona,
Colorado, and Kansas. Ln "Irlzcna ad- J_-"s wer'_ Cggs 1,ate i-n June in Graha,-n and Cochise Counties, previously re-orted as wddel-,,- infested. In western Kansas the second -eneration was ob--erved near the end of -kL"-e montn
aind was antici-oated shortl7- thereafter in Colora _o.
Gr ,ss,-.o-r)0er acult surVe7 pla-ned.--To p-tan for the adult, -rassho- -)er
surve-,., throug.-iout the 'Infeste,' area, sii-Dervisors Ln the respective area. recenULNT v ere called twet -,-_-r at five strategic T)onts and 7iven instructions as to orocec-urces, the ( .xtent of obser-Ni-ations desired, and the arcais to be covered. information for tne adult surve-/- was well in hand _)rior to these meetings, through ob.-3ervations b-,- Suoervisors Eind the control -Oersonnel.
Progress in control of Yormon crickets.--Feav,,7- migrations of 11ormon cricke-' -s occurred in Jul-T in ieverai counties in Ida-'-io, in 33ig Horn a-nd Beaverhead Counties, LTont., in. Juab and Tooele Counties, Utah, in Crook and Hot Springs Counties, 111 77,)., and ir. several areas in Nev _,,da. Large-scale control operations were conducted, successfull-'- ha_1-'-1inF the migrations and ef-fecting kills of 110 to J-00 percen-t. clear weather in July allowed long feeding .?eriods for crickets and resulted in increa,-,ed effectiveness of
sodium fluo-ilicate bait, ',,'ith the use of such ',it, su-pplen-Ented band hand dustinE, and the iise, of metal 'carriers, cricket mi,-ratlons fron hi-her toward lover elevations were halted and cror) .L&:race redac(--,d to E r.-dni-muin. With two Bureau airplanes, ',,-)ait -..,as s-pread in Humt-)oldt Count-,, on raore than 32,000 acres. A check ot- the effectiveness 48 hours later sho,,,,;(-.d a 95-percent kill. In South Dakota volunteer crews spread bail-, on 7,350 acres, mainl., in L7.-r.r n County. 317 mid-Ju the control T-r 0 arar--, be Mn o sla cken and s several crews we re di s oen s e d ,-i Lh.
Comparison of Lormon cricket. cont.r,-_ ] o- rationss in 1940 and 1941
Iviore acres have been b dted and dusted on account of Iormon cricll.ts in 1941
than in the previous year. Toward the end of July, 485,000 acres had been so treated, as compared with 320,000 Jn 1910. The increased acreage covered was accomplished by the increased use of bait, by which means more than 445,000 acres were treated, as compared to 160,000 during the previous season. The effectiveness of the sodium fluosilicate bait has resulted in a reduction of about SO percent in the acreage dusted by crews.
Mormon cricket infestations.--At the Warm Srings Indian Reservation in Oregon oviosition was 90 percent, complete the first week in July, and control operations in Wasco and Jefferson Counties were terminated on Jul- 3. Practicall-1 all cricket bands in Pine and Eagle Valle-,s in Gillian County, Oreg., were killed by baiting before egg laying began. In Sheridan Count-, 1o., more intensive populations in cropped areas werc observed earl in July than at the same period a year ago. Some damage to grains occurred. In the Big Horn Mountains of Sheridan
Count-, however, it is of note that only light and scattered populations were found. Also in Yellowstone Count-, Mont., only light scattered infestations were present early in July, the heaviest populations existing in three areas south of Billings.
White-fringed beetles found in new localities.--Infestations of
the white-fringed beetle were located in July for the first time at Irvington, Ala., 20 miles :vest of hiobile on the L. & N. Railroad, and at Grand ay-, Ala., also on the same railroad, near the Mississippi State line. At a ,ore northern railroad point, Martin, Ala., in Dallas County, another infestation was located for the first time in this count- Beetles were found in abundance. Crews of inspectors are delimiting these various infested areas, tracing any shipments vhich mar have been made from these points, and inspecting transportation lines therefrom. At Houstnm, Tex., and Nemphis, Tenn., transit inspectors have been assigned to inspect railroad yards, nurseries, and other places likel- to harbor the beetles. None were found at these cities. The species found at Grand Bay, Ala., ..:as Pantomorus neregrinus Buch., the first infestation of this species to be found outside of hississip i. One specimen of P leucoloma Boh., was also found at Gland Bay.
White-fringed beetle ever ence reaches -eak in Jul --According to cage-emergence records furnished by the Division of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, emergence of the beetles in New Orleans on July 2223 :as the highest of the season. In the Florala, Ala., area the greatest number of beetles was taken on July 2-3. In the area infested with P. oeregrinus a high point emergence occurred in the Gulfport, Miss area on July 3, followed b- a second high in the third week of the month.
Some results of neach-tree insp ection.--Peach-orchard inspection went forward in July cooperatively with the States on nearly 42,000 properties in 14 States, extending fror South Carolina to California. Of articular interest was the discover- of the peach mosaic disease for the first time in Fmannin Count,, Tex.; of 1 r-osaic tree in Los Angeles Count-w, Calif., a county in vilich the disease had not been found since 1939; of te finding of the 2hon7, _each disease for the first time in ,- Hiississi )oi counties of Choctaw, Clay, and Lowndes; and of 1 such
infected tree in Pemiscot County, Ho., the first in that county since 1937. No infection was found in North Carolina, the' second consecutive year that the disease has not been in evidence in that State. Only 1 phony infected tree was found in Jefferon County, Ill as the result of inspection of formerly infected properties in 2 counties. In Chilton County, Ala., the rost important coriercial area of the State, phony peach ins ection on a more extensive coverage than that of last
-ear resulted in locating an increased number of diseased trees. In some Georgia orchards in the heavily infected commercial area there is an increase in the phony disease this year. In Tennessee inspection activities were completed in July, with the result that the number of infected trees found was less han that of 1940. Diseased, abandoned, and escaped trees were removed during the month with the assistance of W. P. A. laborers.
Quarantine status of each nurseries.--Of the 389 nurseries inspected in the phony infected area, only two--one in Georgia and one
in Texas--failed to nmet the certification requirements of standard State quarantines. Of 161 nurseries in the mosaic-infected area, only 9 nurseries, growing less than 1,100 trees, are ineligible for certification. Inspections were made jointly vith the States of these nurseries and their 1-mile environs. Budwood sources and their 1-mile environs in the mosaic-infected area were also inspected. All diseased trees were removed as provided by the ouarantines, except in those nurseries listed as ineligible for certification.
Quassin much less toxic to houseflies than p-re thrins.--Studies of the toxicity of acetone solutions of cuassin and other materials, applied to individual houseflies with a micropipette by E. R. McGovran, demonstrated that these materials were of a very low degree of toxicity, as compared with the pyrethrins. The materials used in these tests were prepared in pure form in most cases by E. P. Clark, of the Division of Insecticide Investigations. The biological tests were made by placig 0.002 ml. of acetone solution of the materials on the ventral surface of the abdomens of chilled houseflies. The mortality of untreated and
acetone-treated flies was 2 percent, indicating that the quantity of acetone applied to each fly did not cause a rise in mortality. When 2 mg. of pyrethrins were added to 1 ml. of acetone 40-percent mortality of the flies resulted. At 4 mg./ml. of pyrethrins there was 77-percent mortality. Quassin, isoquassin, tenulin, helenalin, picrotoxin, and lapicol at 50 mg. per ml. of acetone and isotenulin at 25 mg./nl. caused from 0 to lO-percent mortality.
Fumigation of gladiolus cut flowers.--In cooperation with the Division of Japanese Beetle Control, Heber C Donohoe, LTite Horse, N. J., fumigated 16 varieties of gladioli bud stalks supplied by 3 interested growers. The schedule used was 2 pounds of methyl bromide per 1,000 cubic feet for 2 hours at a temperature above 70 F. The stalks were at the stage of development in Mhich they are commercially cut and shipped. Following treatment, they were returned to the gro-ers for observation. All 3 reported inde-endently after 5 to 6 days, during which
all buds opened,, that the treatment had improved the bloom and that no injury of any sort occurred.
Fumigation of nursery stock for Japanese beetle.--In cooperation with the Division of Japanese Beetle Control, Mr. Donohoe re-orts the development of a new methyl bromide fumigation schedule for nurserstock, to be used in obtaining Japanese beetle quarantine certification, and the modification of a second schedule previously developed. The new schedule recuires a dosage of 1 pounds oer 1,000 cubic feet
for 2- hours at a minimum temperature of 73 F. The modification establihes a temperature minimum of 67 for the present 700 schedule of
Pounds for 2 hours. Schedules thus far completed now make a continuous series through most of the range of soil temperatures prevailing c.urin- nurser- stock shipment. These include:
Dosage Pe: minimum
.... Po~gls _/. Pe ri od "
Pound : : temoerature
: Houms : "F.
2 ---------- 4 -- 50
27 4 .54
2 ---------- 3 : 57
-. -. : 3 : 60
2 ----------: 2 : 63
2----------- 2 : 67
---------- : 73
Haller visits field stations.--During the period June 16 to
Ju>v 30, inclusive, H. L. Haller visited 29 field stations and laboratories of the Eureau. The ourpose of the triD va-s to become better acquainted vith insecticide problems in the field to discuss the possibilities of applying in limited field tests some of the synthetic organic compounds that have shown promise as insecticides in the laborator-, and to discuss possible substitutes for pyrethnrum and derris for use during the national emergency.
Tripter7rgiur_ --a Chinese insecticidal plant.--The successful introduction into the United States of a Chinese insecticidal plant by U. T. Swingle, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, has made available limited amounts of it for entomological and chemical study. The plant, canled lei kung teng, "Thunder-God vine," by the Chinese, and known to botaists as Trioterium .:ilfordii, has been used for centuries by Chinese market gardeners for the control of insects attacking crucifercus plants. Cuttings brought from the Far East 6 years ago are now growing well in the Department's Plant Introduction Garden at Glenn Dale, Nd. The powdered roots obtained from these plants, as well as extractives of the root, have shown promise as a stomach insecticide against a number of insects. Chemical studies by F. Acree, Jr,, and E. L. Haller have shown that the insecticidal principle is in the bark
of the root and, from a fraction of an extractive that was toxic to the codling moth larva, a small quantity of an alkaloid has been isolated. Attempts are now being made to characterize the alkaloid and to determine whether or not it is the only insecticidal constituent of the plant. Chemical studies by Schechter and hialer have shown that the red pigment tripterene, in the bark of the root, is identical with the pigment celastrol, in the root of the common bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), which is closely related botanically to Tripterygium. A few entomological tests with the root of this plant hove been made, but further studies are needed. In an effort to discover a domestic source of
supply of this promising new insecticide, the Division of Insecticide Investigations is desirous of testing any fresh root of Celastrus scandens that may be collected in different parts of the United States, and would greatly welcome any samples that may be submitted by the field station's of the Bureau.
Two new sodium arsenites discovered.--Nelson in July 1941 reported
a study of the 3-cormponent system Na20-As2O3-H20 at 350 C. Two ne.r sodium arsenites were discovered, Na20.3As20; and 2Na20 As203.7H20. The compound 5Na20.2As203, 26H20 claimed by Schreinemakers and De Baat, was not obtained in these experiments. In the last few years sodium arsenite has been used in large quantities in the control of harmful insects. For the years 1938-40 Federal and State agencies used annually 1,442,000 gallons of sodium arsenite solution (equivalent to 0,885,000 pounds of dry sodium
arsenite) for the control of grasshoppers and white-fringed beetles, and 352,000 pounds of sodium arsenite powder against Mormon crickets, a total of well over 7 25 million pounds for these insects alone. Commercial sodium arsenites used as insecticides, according to Nelson, contain 32 to 85 percent As203 and dissolve readily in water. The principal compounds
present in these commercial products are Na20,3As203, the arsenious oxide content of which is 90.5 percent, and Na20 As203, the arsenious oxide content of vhich is 76.2 percent. These results are published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society for July 1941 (v. 63, No. 7, pp 1070-1?2
Aoparatus used in determining particle size of dry powdered insecticides and funFicides.--Gooden, in the Analyrtical Edition of Industrial and Engineering Chemistrr for July 1941 (v 13, No. 7, pp. 483-484), described a powder compactor for air-permeation experiments, which is useful in determining the particle size of dry powdered insecticides and fungicides. This new device for compacting powders builds up within the sample tube a column of any desired height, the compacting process proceeding from bottom to top concurrently with the deposition of the material. The combined process of loading and packing involves little more work than the simple task of loading alone. Designed particularl- for use with the self-calculating air-permeation apparatus for measuring surface mean diameter of powders, it gives promise of equal usefulness in other fields involving
permeability of powder beds to gases.
New extraction apoaratus.--Schechter and Haller, in the Analytical
Edition of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry for July 1941 (v. 13, No. 7, pp. 4'1-482), described an automatic continuous percolator which embodies a number of imorovenmnts over the one described by them in 1938 (ibid., v 10, No. 6, p. 328, June 15). This type of apparatus has been used to
extract large amounts of plant material and has worked satisfactorily in every case, with very little los, of solvent and very little attention after the anopparatus has been adjusted.
Significance of colonies remaining negative after inoculation with American foulbrood. A P Sturtevant, Laramie, Wyo., reports: "In the American foulbrood resistance testing vrk, it has been found that irrespective of the strain of bees, certain colonies never show any apparent disease when inoculated by the standard spore-sirup-inoculation method, whereas other colonies may develop varying amounts of disease, depending on their activity in cleaning such disease out. It has been felt that even in the so called 'negative' colonies a certain number of larvae must have contracted the disease, but that these colonies are so active in their clean-up behavior that such infected larvae are removed before they ae seen by the observer. Recently further work has demonstrated that this probably is true. Based on our present knowledge of the age at which larvae are susceptible to infection (see News Letter v. 6, No. 1i, and v, 7, No 3, pp. 27-28)and using
the r.anipulative procedure ci owed by Woodrow in inoculating individual larvae, 4 groups of colonies comrising 18 colonies headed by queens of 2 different lines of re iaste.t stock and 1 line of apparently susceptible stock were treated as follows: The queens of each colony were confined in excluder cages on emp ; combh for 24 hours, forcing the queens to lay eggs in the ce corbs. The ombs of eggs thus obtained were then placed in the center of the brood ne-st of their respective colonies. Just at the time the e s started to hatch, or very shortly thereafter, e.ch colony was inoculated by the standard spore simrp method (500,000 spores of Bacillus larvae ocer ni in one liter of sugar sirup). At the time of sealing the larvae in the cells the combs were placed in screen cages, so that worker bees could noL get in to remove any larvae developing infection. At the end of approximately 21 days, or at the time vhen the adult bees were starting to emerge, these combs were removed and every cell of brood was exaairned for diseased brood. Thr- e-sults of these observations sho-wed that a certain number of diseased larvae or pupae occurred in every comb. For the first group these ranged between 3 diseased larvae out of a total of 847 brood cells in the comb :o 42 diseased larvae out of a total of 961 brood calls, whereas for the second group the range was between 10 diseased larvae out of a total of 46 to 29 out of a total of 997. Three out of the first group of 10 colonies have remained otherwise negative since inoculation, whereas 2 out of 8 of the second group have remained negative. There apparently was no significant difference in the amount of diseased brood observed in the combs from the colonies of the various lines of stock under observation. These results seem to substantiate the belief that some disease must develop even in the negative' colonies, but that it is cleaned out so rapidly, that it is never seen, thus indicating that such colonies are the most active in this type of behavior. 'This also lends added strength to the method used for several years in'nst instances in selecting the next year': br'eedincu eens from such 'negative' colonies "
IDEI TIFICATIOM AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS
Status of sweetootato weevil.--The long-dormant problem of how to classif- the forms of C -las forricarius (2.) has been revived recently by L. A. Mayrer, in charge of the Bureau's Foreign Plant Quarantine station at Savannah, Ga. Mr. Ma er noted that the characters on certain specimens seem to contradict the nomenclature currently- used in referring
to the weevil. This is in liwe wvith what :as learned more than 20 -ears ago b- W. D. Pierce, who pointed out (Jour. Agr. Res. 12 (9): 604- 08, 1918) that the sweetpotato .e-vil included more than one distinguishable form and proposed that the North American specimens be known as variety elegantulus Summers of formicarius. Although it now appears that Dr Pierce's analysis of the Old World rterial :as not carried quite far enough, his main conclusions are substantiated by a preli rminar-r stud- of many additional soecimens in the formicarius comolex vhich have been received during the last several years. It is recommended, however, that the American form be treated as a subs ecies, rather than a variety, whose designation will be C-las formicarius, subspecies eleS atulus (Summers).
The soread of two introduced Eurooean weevils --The raid diffusion rate of some foreign insects in the Nearctic region is well illustrated by the American history, fragmentar- as it is, of Amalus haemorrhous (Hbst.). This Eurooean weevil uas first reported from North America in New York State in 123, though it is now known that the soecies was present several years earlier, a series from the WLirt Robinson collection (now in the National Museum) having been taken at -vWest Point, N Y., in 1915 and 1916. W. J. Brown (Can. Ent ApiDril 1940, pp. 77-7S) records it from lowa (1925) and, in Canada, from luebec 1927), Ontario, and Ianltoba. Blatchley records it from Ne-: Jerse- (1925), and Frost, from Massachusetts (1921 and 1932). To these localities ma- be added the following, from specimens in the National Iuseum: Ohio (1935), Michigan (1925 Wisconsin (1927), i'nnesota ()955), Idaho '1932), Oregon (1937), and Utah (1938 and 1939). Evidence of the spread of another and more recently di covered Eurooean weevil has recently! been received in the form of a ccimen of Sitona lineatus (L.), which was collected on Dutch white clover at Moscow, Idaho, b7 T. A. Brindley (Jul- 9, 1941). This species w:as first reported from North America at Victoria, Vancouver, b Dormes in 193 and has since been found abundantl on San Juan Island, Wash. Its fate in this countr- is of particular interest from the viewpoint of insect diffusion, as it is one of the comparatively, rare cases of a Palearctic weevil gaining its first foothold on this Continent on the Pacific coast, the Atlantic seaboard, as is well known, being the usual nursery for recently
introduced Eurooean Curculionidae.
Serica oeregrina Cha-cin in Har--land.--Adults of the introduced scarabaeid Serica oeregrina Chapin (until recently recorded under the name Serica similis Lewis) were collected at Baltimrore, Ed., on Jul- 11, 1941, by G. H. Dieke, of Johns Hopkins Universit--. This species has been know.rn from Long Island for several years but has not been recorded as established elsewhere in the United States
-3b- 1262 092I4 82
Two Euro cean rioths in North America.--In the course of making identifications of moths from Washington State, the studj of the genitalia of a pair of Microlepidoptera from Bellingham proved them to be the European Swamm.erdamia om-rella (Vill.), not previously recorded from North America. The larva of this species feeds on the leaves of apple and prune. The material was collected on August 13, 1932, by J. F. Gates Clarke.
Loths submitted by E I Smith, of Seattle, Wash., were found, on examination of genitalia, to be the Eurooean species Anaca.mpsis oopulella (Clerck), also not heretofore known from the United States. This series of moths was reared from alix and -;as accompanied by reserved larvae and oupae.
Further additions to the collection of bees.--T-Two shipments of types and determined bees were received from T. D. A Cockerell in July. They included the trpes of 30 species of bees and determined specimens of 135 species. Of these the tpes of 15 species and determined specimens of 50 species previousl- were not reoresented by named material in the collection of the United States PNational Museum.
Chanes in s es of urthootera.--For several years it has been thought that athorough stud- of literature and the proper application of the International Rules of Zooiovical Nomenclature wculd .make advisable a number of changes in the generic and family 7 nan s of some Orthoptera H, R Roberts, of the Academ:- of Tatural Sciences of Philadelphia, has recently published the results of such an investigation (Amer. Ent. Soc. Trans 67: 1-34, 1941), conducted with the cooperation of certain members of the Division of Insect Identification. The chuves advocated are based on genotype designations, which are earlier Lhan those previously familiar to orthopterists, these designations causing various generic names to apply to groups of species different from those to thich they have been applied in the past. Of the numerous changes imortwnt in the nomenclature of Orthoptera, a few of those discussed b-7 1r. Roberts are of -eneral interest. The correct spelling of the family names of the walkingsticks and mantids are Phasmatidae and an dae, respective!T, rather than the former spellings, Phasmidae and Mat ae Tetrix replaces Acrdium as a generic name for "grouse locusts," the latter
name being applied more correctl- to a genus of oedipodine grasshoppers. Both Scudderia an" Phaneroptera have been used for the samn genus of narrowwinged katyrdids in recent ears, but a previously overlooked, valid genotype designation, to ,:hich Roberts calls attention, supports the name Scudderia for this group. Roberts also presents arguments in favor of the use of the generic name Acheta for our corm,3n field and house crickets, assimilis F. and domesticus L for which Gryllulus has been used by certain European and American authors in recent years. Use of Acheta, however, is predicated upon further action b- the International Commission, which may not be taken; and employment of Gr-11ulus implies taxonomic distinctions, which are open to some question, between European and American members of this group. Consecuentl it seems advisable to continue, for the present at least, to use the generic name Gr--llus for our two common species mentioned above