News letter

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Material Information

Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
System ID:
AA00023227:00002

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text

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B1 l*]l Al-7 OF
MOMOLOGY AND PLXNT OUAInNTIXE
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
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UNIMI) STATES OF

3TM)EA'U OF MTTOMOLOGY PLA-17

T E W S L E T Z R

FOR I). E'Q7'7ER 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------Vol. TV, '70. 2 (Not for -oublicatior.) F. e u n .- Y 7
-------------------------------------------------------------------------FRUIT I*,7,SEC.r

Covering raisins reduces ins ect--inff s.4_ t cn. --F'ur tner evidence t*-e eff ectivcnes,7 of covorin,- --,-)xo--d raisins wit*_ zloth af t 7r tIr-i w-, a motor-drive.- s. screen CI
t'h-' Calif., Seedless r, -si.-is 71neya'- scrc ,,ned stored in boxes cut--f-doors _0"
ab I nth. A part of caci crop was Cov 7 21:1 -_i-_ Id cf
t r to out rain; another 'Dorti:)n c f tI-C
_n protected f-rom, insects by a --f rcs--l'c s f rom nf e s t a t i o ns f ound i n s 1 t I wn, r c as f C) 1Prot ,ctio.

before' screeninC ------ C 7
---------- )-co
n unp r n s
box(.3 covered %',ith
---------------------- 1 0


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0
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put Oil i'y J"".(j f D at t acl-, c Il lp.rvac. Two ot 'L.-:V






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thae ground (October 15 and 23) gave 287,000, anldw 331,000per acre. Parasitization of -oupae. by7 six, or. zore species as 7-et -not detei-m ined was o *(C 1*,n.15 percent. An attempt made b,,, Mr. 2-onolhoe to kill the pupae by ba~ni~jthe fallen leaves with a por 'able bvee1 brner, -using kerosene as
f-uelj as not successful. Applications of diAcllorethyl ether solutions to th.-e ;nxoae, by Thwi~t F. Barnes and -Chlarles K. -Fisher, gave poor results
w:,ie 10yand 20 cc per gallon. of water and 2 gpllon-,s of solution per squ_,are rare of. soil were used.

Trece Tprotectors no t e fec-v argaikst -eabl bbrer.*-*-Oliver Is
Sa and! J. R. Thomson, Jr., of the Fort Valley, Ga., laboratory, have
just cor-:-leted the seasonIs 7orkc with protec'tors to prevent Conoojia exditiosa Say from entering peach trees.*' th~y report that neither the cottonbatting protector held snugly in place with screen wrire nor the tar-paper co-ne sealed with tree tanaglefootpra.Ventedju'St'u.ha-tclied peach borers from er'erin- each trees. These were-tho two imost-oromising types of protE.etoro- used in Athc extensive tests 'of lc35 Twleo tefutentr Of -orotectors tested in 1935 did-naot rreiient -just-hatchled *Peach borers from entering peach trees. ,The 2 ebultsofthe work 17ith tree protector during; thie last 2 years lead to the co.-cluidsion that there is veryl little possibility of edeveloo)ing a protector thit' will give 100--percent protectio:, agriinst t;:e- peach borer. This is- due* to the fact th-at just-hatcer, pepch borer larvae will bore into the, barkz above a collar that may be a, for)" a-cove tIhe soil level RInd. workc down.- under the bark t11o the base of thle troce ii;' th_,e collar extends thLat far; they ma coifl out undle rn-eath the co lnr if it is only several inches wide an.,. thlen crawl dow,7-n thle trunkI unler the -orotector to the baise of the tree; or they may gain ent'-ra-nce to protEcte6 trees through cracks in the soil around thce ba-se of the protector.

Field tests with-Japaneso beetle repellonts.--W*. E. Fleming and F. E. BLcJrcr, of t Moorestown_, N. J.,I laboratory, 1h1-ve completed a report on lar:;e-scale field tests, made during the-l-')-6 season, of materials used for tho protection of early ripening poaches anid apples from injury by, th:,e
adtJaxanese beetle. .Various corminations of eerris were tested to ascertain; whether any more satisfactory combinatio-ns than the derrio-rosin resi*due ei..ulsion combination now recomme-ded could. be developed. It was found. thlat the derris-rosin residue combination %was equally as goods if not suape rior to any other derri s combinat io-1 for- protect ion of early ripenAng peaches. For use on apples the lime-alu;inum sulphate combination, ;Fs no-w, reco~iencled, w.as found to be the most satisfactory, and a single apKi _.c, tirin at the beginn-ing of the season was as effective as a ".outle apo, i c, t i,)n.

Hibcrna I-tior of Jananeso beetle larvae.--T. N. Dobbino, M.oorestovi, rc-otii., on the ent rance of J,! panose beetle larvae into hibernation, found fro-;. svrveys made during December a decided decrease in th~e proportior. of lcarvre en~ighibernation in- thio second instar, and a corres*Drndin.- i-:croose in theo number of larvae entor-Ing hibcernntior_ in th e th ird inst~r, a-s com~xpared! w.th a year ago. About 10 prcent of the pres nt soil po-Yul-ntion will entor hiboriiaticia in tlhe second! la~rval instar, vihereas a yGe'xr afo(wintor of 19375-1936) zap-proxim,?tely, 25 percent of the soil population1 ente.(rcd hib crnation in thlis instar. Thiis condition is ap:?aenly








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The numbers of fruit flies submitted for identification and the source of capture were as follows:


Species : Texas : Mexico
:Dec. 1-15:Dec. 16-31:Dec. 1-15:Dec. 16- 1 Anastreoha ludens Loew ---------- 4 : 7 : 1 : 1
Premises------------------ 4 : 7 : 1 : 1
A. ser-entina ied- --------- 7 : 9 : 0 : 0
Premises---------------------- 7 : 9 : 0 : 0
A. acidusa ;Walk----------------- : 2 : 3 : 0 : 0
Pre~ises---------------------: 2 : 3 : 0 : 0
A. sp. "Y" ----------------------- 3 : 1 : 0 : 0
Premises---------------------- 2 : 1 : 0 : 0
A. sp. "X"----------------------- : 1 : -- : 0
Prerises---------------------- -- 1 : -- : 0
A. pallens Coq----- -------------: 21 : 0 : 0
Premise s ----------------------: 50 : 20 0 0:
Toxotry-pana curvicauda Gerst-----: 5 : 1 : 0 : 0
Premises---------------------: 5 : 1 : 0 : 0
A. sp. Seg. 3----------------: ---- : 1 : -- : 0
Prenmises---------------------: -- : 1 : -- : 0

During the period from December 1 to 15 no larvae were taken in
Texas but 117 larvae of A. ludens and 20 larvae of A. striata Shin. were taken in liexico all in larfet fruity T, larvae ueie taen during the ,)eriod rom DecerIber 1 to 31 in either Texas or Mexico.
CEREAL AID FORAGE INSECT IN\VSTIGATIOiNS

Outbreak of corn earnvorm on wheat.--Severe damage to wheat by the
corn ear!rorm in the vicinity of Stockton, Kans., was observed early in Oct her by H. H. Valkden, of the Manhattan, Kans., laboratory. It is beli ed that this outbreak on wheat is unique in the history of this species in :he United States. A preliminary examination of the literature failed to disclose any records of injury to wheat in America, although the corn earworm is recorded as a pest of young wheat in Australia. Near Stockton approximately 300 acres of stubbled-in wheat was damaged, particularly in
weedy areas in the fields where the predominating growth was -igweed (GI'renthus sp.). Evidently the adults had been attracted to the weeds at ov_1osition time, inasmuch as these were probably the only green plants percent at the time the moths were depositin; eggs. The larvae liad stripped the foliage of the weeds and were forced onto the wheat by lack of food. It was apparent that the wheat was unpalatable and unsatisfactory as a food supply, as the larvae did not consume the plants but either ragged the leaves or bit off the plants at the soil surface where they were left uneaten. The larvae vrwre much smaller than usual and adults which have been rear. have only about half the normal wing spread.

Interestin.; food habit of false wireworm adults.--Mr. Walkden also reports that on: September 21, 1936, in a stubble field near Meade, Kans., lore numbers of false ,ireworm adults (Eleodes spp.) were observed congregated on the mouns of the red harvester ant. The ant hills were scattered







throuE i-ut a .,, on cac". of t'ie t 1
in On close- exam.inti_11, i+Sa
7-, s i t .ound. On se,.-cral occ 2 an
a SC be sct u,-,)n b-,- a r-_ -r of c 0 s a nz- r
D o The ant n r=- t 1-- r cT)--j c s c
b-, at t1ic lle, ,,,- --f the a_-tlcs; c c 0 1 n, n

v r f b I c 0 c c) -; 1 b c f o im f i n t'-- i - 1' 1 t 1, -- t I"b,s a,',, -,-, c r c- o- a'- t -nt
sL;c;.s anl s in ta s nc mann r s h :7 V

_x- -n ,,s ,. f-ctor in vacu,= t t
H. t iinsects t:) f=i- nt:7 inc-, nsc!- t_ t__c in nr "r,
4- is rC!-. S, i n lit-- is ic i nc
t i r c D i r c i 7 7 r t, C, b- n
a -v 7 --ti-- ,-vlt )f C-abdc cot C- i ,
.0 1)f 21
thr, t s 1 u t r e z G 1_. -_ _:
10 er 11000 c C 1
1 c ne o:r n c-,rb-,n c f 1 u r
bcotle c-- Llav.) -!ith -,n c:.-)< .-Jrc 1 'r, t t
thc n i n t .1C S v a
om,- c, i r -,7,' s 7-x.-)c e, f r cm t M
1% C_ c rC C X:,,. S ,:j
til 1
C:, --),) s rt 1, r :Ic,, r a ( o s -f 10 Is -)cr 1,0(. D 3
0-7;1-1 of
n -) :All r;-f % ,lt, s. In
-,r, the quantit- of !-_n '_ _. I,
t'-, 1 e n ,,. t,
t.1c In first 0' --z"Cn ,:-I %7,a C
2 1 t t 1 Alt in ,,i s c n

0 t 1'. in t1i, tests V., 0 cl s a r k;
t
a sl; i' I~ lar r j. 't ti trr
nc cc s r c so -nt, i n lt b-L t, s inc c, t_1,, 7; ic i-ert, t1lis f-c' r
,.,oul'. no influence -.n r 1 s




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, heat te ,ts is a series Of 326 F selections of crosses illvolvilic Marquillo Can- desirablee -7inter v aeats--Kan 5eO. x Hard Fedle"ationj Ifinturld ) Karvalet ie strong hessian fly resistanceof :'
Te-inarci, and Oro. Mention of CL '. C -3 all
go.- F hybrid's Iiave descended has cen
I- selectAons fro-i. vInich these
rat J o li
5
Ir tf. previous issues of the Ne -!s Le ter. ."-e in t Of t'le 326 strai-sl all com-araoll tes'e against their parental c' ec.-.s b, natural infe-'tation under i--!elj coi--aitiolls in single u-foot rows, 79 strains 'llave been found to be free, from infestation. A totai of 235 strai-ns fall r!ithin the same infest--tior'. ra-_-,f--e as t1ie 15 Marquillo resistant parental clicks, which have an avera,: -e
ec-11-ation of only 0.9 percent and a rAnge of 0 to 9 percent. Since t1le
D -iea'u -Mrental che
avcra,; 'e infc st -tion of t1ie 15 wi-nter v L cks is 94.,5.percent
and t'-e range of infestation is from 6q to 94 tI a re nk; -iese result a co
siO.ere I 11igIlly significant..

JAPANESE BEETLE CO'.TROL

Certified" Christmas -Pla.lts move in incrcasef '. volume. --Consi stent and widesnrcae_ for i-_,-Isnection and ce -ti-Ficatioll of Chl istmas Plants reflected viLiat is re-)or'ucd as one of Cae best Ilolidv_- sales since 10,29. From pr,?ctically eall districts s the Ja-7 areso beetle regulated area come re.Lports of i--.cre-sed ;ales an-I co=plote sell-outs.* Pottee- and tubbed nursery stock foI, C'.1ristmas tre s c on tiiw.ed to i,-.crensc in --Do,3ularit, this year. Sales Of Norwa-- s-)rucc in tubs showed an estinat d 500-'Percent increpso in t710 3altimorc .Js'ric'. One of the larCest groeilIiouse men in the Fiila, clphie, subu.,' -.-l-_ istrict stateeL that the Christl-ias s, .les vrere the best si.-_,co 192C PILIts shi-,,-r)ed from ihis establislmier.t to points outsiO.e the regulated z o e December slowed an :U,.creace ol 7' 51400 over last year. One
larL;.-e truck load of -)lants went to ITortl, Carolina, and s7)ecial trai'_ls were pl!:cec! on t'-ie nursery si-.in T tb Aal.(Ile empress shipments on both Decei7 ber 15
16. Continuation of mild weather permitted maximum move,.nent of stock.
Ili fact, one Nel.-.' Jerse ?- ilurser- start-ef. its regi;lar "s-pri-Ig", nursery shipping seaso-1 an moved considerable stock to southern poii,ts. Rose Plants that ore-inarily would not move until sprillg 17e:re shi-,)-,)ed from IilCdel-';hia.
of Derernial stock have been especially benofitea. All upware- turn in t.lE; vf-lolesale potted-plant and flo.e. ua s i ze s s was also noted during; the in. o n t'-i Flbrists in the Hartford, Corin., district re,)orted the largest holiday sale2 for maay years past. Oi,e of the largest florists in the cit zr was corinletely sol '. out 2 days before Chrislx,as a:i(:. 'had considerable difficulty in obtai.An'C aO.e.itional stoch to fill orders. All old established greenhouse at Bristol, Conn. ) stated that their Maristmar sales were r-itllill $SO of t-lie larg-est holi a,- sales i-n their history) NI.lich extonCLs I back for 76 year,,,

Gift to Ja-an certified under Ja-xinezc bee't-le quzarantiae.--Inspectors
from the Tro.lton) N. J.) O.istrict-office spent consiOorelble time in s1r)ervisin t1le from leaC arse-11,:tte treated soil of 50 Pin oakc) 3)000
anO 1)000 dogvioo"Is) 25 rfee )inig dot,,Vinods, 500
swcet,,un) _- nO. 25 rhoao Ic-. ,ro:-s -for sIli,)i:iont from a large nurcer- at Priilcetoli, N. J., to the 'ov, rn.: ent. Tl-io shinie-.nt ias forwarq.oe, b- memb, rs of the Garl-'en Club of A-7orica -s a token of a,,-)prociation for Iiw7-. iL"ality t.Ie .-iambors o-i t:ieir viE it to Ja- rtn last ycar. Seloction, lo'-,cling of this stock in a refrigerator car













burlap
!Drr7,--r to t'.e c-n-77- fres''_ r i t
on 2 7 f c r 77 r -a
c S H i':a -a. llana. I f i ns r i1c _- t c t.-c -parks ia)
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reasscmblin. Several buildings of this t-pc were inspected at the u bin .Reservoir by the district inspector at Westfield, Mass. Four new
-7:o7 moth cegg clusters were treated on one of the buildings prior to its re-oval from the restricted zone. The most satisfactory method of inspectins such buildings is to examine them before they arc taken down, as any e mnasses deposited on the outer surfaces of the lumber may then be easily observed.

District inspectors check truck movement of Christmas trees.--For 12 doa-s -rior to Christmas five gypsy moth inspectors whose districts are on the border of the generally infested zono made part-time checks on tracks leaving the area to determnine whether any Christmas trees were being Ihauled from the territory from which trees are not permitted movement. Seven exit highways were covered in this manner. Most of the vehicular inspection was performed from 6 p.m. to 11 p. m., when most of the truck movement would occur. Services of these district inspectors were available for this road
wor, despite the large amount of extra work during the Christmas holidays because Chritmnas trees could not be certified for movement from their respective districts.

Znlarged inspection force examines Christmas greezery.--Twenty-thr:e temporary inspectors were employed in the inspection and certification of Christmas trees dud mixed greenery moving from the lightly infested gypsy moth area lurig the Christmas season. Ten extra light trucks were required to transpor-, the inspectors between cutting lots. Sales of wreaths and dccorati:.ns were reported as in excess of previous -ears. Shipments of decorative material under certification were irmuch heavier than in 1935. Many tons of balsam boughs and other evergreens were inspected before they were manufactured into finished products for later certification. This greenery was shipped largely to New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Oklahoma.

Infested rails inspected.--Inspection of a carload of scrap rails shipped by the Boston and Maine Railroad's yards at Billerica, Mass., to Fra'lin, Pa., netted 18 gypsy moth egg clusters. The rails were torn up from abandoned side tracks near Rochester, N. H.

Cumberland, Md., elm-sanitation project completed.--On December 17 a project involving- the removal of dead and dving elms in the valley in the vicinit- of the tree infected with Iutchi elm Iisease.at Cunerlnt, M.,Z CO pleted. This work was carried On in a strip about 4 miles long, stretching from the infection center to Cumberland, about 3 miles, and for a distance of 1 mile beyond the center. The sanitation crews took out approximately 14,000 dead or decadent trees. In adjacent sections where' the elms were of some value, 141 trees were pruned. Sixty specimens were submitted for laboratory culture, many of which showed pronounced streaking in the wood; however, none of them have yet cultured Dutch elm disease. Many specimens have been determine as Verti-cillium.

Seventy-three-inch elm removed.--A difficult eradication was encountered in Rumr.son, Mon-nouth County, N. J. The lawun tree involved overhung a walk and -h.rubbcry. It was T73 inches, diameter breast height and 108 inches in









d i nme t e r a t t',,- a bu t t A 1 o wi t h ma ny s i 7, i t it iZ clain-.C' +7-1- t t17 200 years old, 7 n s F r
e tree is ovel.
bc- ause GecrEe Vias'-A--.E- ton is supposeO to c-ten
'Pcvolut*o:-zry 17ar. At the first troe meas7,,Ired 20 -feet In
c erence. Conser-vat ivel,,- estir---tel., +"-- crc i7c re o-.--r -' t-'-s
in cavities, toget'--er with a -Lole systc- of; 1*Dcs a-n4- braces. 7'-- C
err, ication requiree- an entire wee1c..

Dutc-h eL-:. disease era,4-ication P. A. c-'Ion n,- c-',Iemical-treat7: ent work at t1lo one. o-f t'-C
32u i-a Cwcrnecticut, 4)019 in Now Jerse,?, i:7i York, a-Ou'L 'c major infected zonc are were --lzo asF; :-cd '3
6 0 7
7 -,-17 rl- appo L-.ted men, 119 appointee. -ncn on W. F. s
en-olleest -nd 54 St,,Ite-appointed and por dieLi men. E 1 e v k : i o th e a -Q -0 t pe were as!7iCncd as technicians at t'-,.c j. 2 D-a t
e I bo r a to ry.

Scolytae surve- con-pleted. --1rhe curv, 4- 4,,
infected 1-ith Scol,.-tus ,maltistri-2.4-us YarF.-.. on Dcc-.7-,,-A total of Dver o,00 specimens of beetle 1 2,- sn v I
elected for laboratory tests for Coratostc-,-11a ul ni. "10
cultured -but, no Dutc'-a elm diF,!,s,.; in 41 h i sr, y r e 4- u rr cd t o a c v i t i a o

T Ol
FOREST INSECT, 147,75-1 ITS

Fal' viebvioni outbrca,': on mae-ro---e rcport(-,4.--K.
rE ports c-r 7 J
trecs (Arbutus menziesii Purs7.,.) scatt.--l"", f t
Natio:,,1 Torcst b, Ivwicez M.a-7-svill%, br in'cetce, by a vv.b--formin- ., cterpill--r. 7-.- 7
b y r; %a r a s
2-.=bcr of .-3zt i
f- c (,) n 1,, r, e r r c c o r C. ) f c 11 -1 f r
7, 1 1- or -,t o ry f i 1 c s i s o ne
Sar,-toL.a i:, t".: Bi Basin P rc ,- of thc Cc ,- ztal

control in Cali prnit,
J I' ,: C,i n S,- r indinat-J st 0 J-.' T Q
lcf .s t, n it hz s tre- f () r t 10)000 Rcr-s) t-, lg-,t
SomL
r
50 tr ,es. TI-c W-1C -1 3 i 11 1 C13 1 t o n iu rLrea as cl(;!,-. -s
trtiati.,ent of P-11 inf(,st,:L-1 t!-r.e Uno-c TS""


Sc.-vico for t,,,! 4,








Al, er fle- beetle cf,.uzes e.efoliation. in c! p grc=:I.s -.1,7
__ '- ___ _11- __ 1. r e,,:z o rt
ilier also re-Dortr th- JP7
s. r. e.ur4 c I-r -1
and ale.Qrs growin&- Jn
on s of the San Bern,- rOi: o Sierra Yova:_! T.:ountpin w attc
1-1 'bi=-,rginat Say. Complaints were received by the Ber_ :cle;- la-laor
at -, ry fror, owners reg.-rfing o,,i,_itionc nd requo sts rere made.
co-atrol r corner: !at ons. A rei
-onr -itl:T Tevy if -x;r, treCS were 1111illoC... as s- ii t of tIne clcfoliatio:
isy but the loss -1-f shf4ea ana -,).-, esonce of th C v!- c were quite cbjectic.:iable to tile In scvcr!- l resort t,:,-.cts i-n L--4-le 07-n:,ony in the Snn 3ern-*,rCA.,.o Forest) a 1-.rL;e -Dorco;-itngo of t1ae
t _-_7_rists left the c-7-21) grounC. t i, ) of larvr l feee-ing. At t1le .A-c'. 7oelc entrance to Yosemite Nr tio-I.I.-l P-_rk ncl at- the Merco Bic; Troo. Grovo t'_'Ic alders we_-C ic'. u
it!, -n rsa -1 f03:7-,ula d* ri- _,, the e rly sur mer of Thi'7 effectively- c1-iec!-_ec. o*27 t",Ye defoliation. Dari-_- t',.e
suT-.,.er o-f 1936 the infestat o-_, of the al f'.er f e L I a ,eetlie was nTac:h, liS iter
th -),n the t. o -5receOin- 'vlear-, and ver- .1 'tle trouble was re-ortee..

Z Fect of ftrou Lht on growt:,. of blacl: locust a-_.1 4. -ur,,i,.-al of locust
bo-er laryae.--R. C. Hall, of the olw2louzj O'.aio, laboratory, re!)orts t1lat
the .--inter of 193"-3- a drou shed a,.),_roxirz.tely 1/10 acre in area2 ,.-!as constructeO cn one of the blach locust plartinZs on a coal "s-poil" ba.a near _-' opedale) Ohio. Analysis of- the aata for 1930 shows a marked decrease in 7,rovith) as well as, a consiaer7-,ble indreaso in*locust borer survival on t1ae -IrouJit ar, P. over that oil a:ljace*,t c1aed': areas that received! noxTial rainfall. The average diameterr growth at breast hei,] htj on tlie artificially induced drou ,-ht plot, was 0.146 'inches, witll a 67.,O-pjrcenA survival of locuzt borer 'Larvae) i-fliereas the growth on the chech area', receive. normal rainfall, ,,rab 0.201 Lnchesy. with but 26.2-percent survival of larvae.
_T)oisoi-.--S. F. Potts, of the Ne,.7 Haveii, Ldr e sul-Dhur as L-A stomach V
Conn., laboratory, 'reports:- "An examination o.-^ thc laboratory a nd field -toxicit7- tests on the spi-uce sawfly (Diprijil nolytorxam Htg.) shored that this species was very easily controlled by a 3-,percont -mixture of lime-sal:,phur coi-.ceiitrate apoliod as a stomach poison. This is of interest, bee-Luse lir!e sull-0aur as a contact insecticide was not ef*-ecti-e. It has never been conr Jc ered a stoniach'poison. Of numerous insc cticides tested previously on tho
1-.rc-.i co.7-e bearer it was the only one Cant wes effective. It is also of interest to note that lime-sulphur stirm1r,,ted the neeClUe and t17i#- groWth of lr rch trees, rxd this insecticide, as viell as certain oils) stimulated the erowt','a of nur, white and red s-pruce neeclles.ll

'Elm bar'- beetles.--W. D. Buch,-n,_-tn of the Morristo-::nj BT. J. lnbor,-Jtory, roliorts on exvori,2eats he h.Ls conC.uctet with ,dults of tho European elm brxt: beetle ( m1tistriatus Ylarsli.) an! the native eln bark.
beetle (Hylurgo-pinus ruf1peg Eic4h.T-Tho -,)urpose of these experiments was to deter-iino the rel,-,tive number of injuries m-ade by tile tr.o species in srv.11 elm trees unfter si.,.Jlar controlled. conditions, P rt of 'tle vioflc was done in a greenhouse r.nd the reminder in cutloor screened cages. Adults of S. mult3.striatv.s -,7 ac-nn-avor ,.C, e of 114 percent more Ljurics per i:ldivid-aal 11an CACI adults of H. rufines, the tern Itin"uries" referrin-,to pl-lces where th(. aO:jlt!- lia-O, ,on-e 'hroug1l t1le bar_- and reached tile sapwood. It was found th,),t S. multistriatus made an avera e of 56-75 injuries per tree, whereas










H. rafi-pes mcde an av ..ra,-'-e of 20.40. 1--- t-'.Ic C- -Zc Of S.
)e-cent of the injuries were -.' 'de i;:, t'-ie, tnee t-- :s, r-fip 2g
perce, t of its Lnjurf-cs in the tr! n:-s.

elm disease VectorS.--7he Mor--iztov :-., 'T. J., 1 I-oratsr-roon i---- species Of i.,sects known or SUSPeCted, Of I.CtIli-7 P-S VCCt---t'io Dutch elm disease ffungus (Cerat-sIolmo-11n, L-A) are reare. T'he wood is pl-ced in metal contr ine:-s --.nd as t insects en-er,C'-C
C" --I t r.%c 41' c d i n t o j;l a s s e c e o t a c 1 e s a t t a c', c t,,-) t 1 c o nt.-% C
:-.re used Li v.-,rious experiments and C--t tilx it ir '-- -- f n.rn,". z I s no t c o r -61 am i -:: 't e d w i t 'I, I t.-i e f un o; s C ,c- creative duct ;-7 'j-r C'. 7-1. Hoffm -,-:in, of the labor ,tor-, anf. C. S. Mose'z t'---o
ot' -iant In,;.ustry, indicate the --)cssibilities of an ae,-jlt t*, at car-.Iies
S c ,nt-minating ot':ier-,, w:iere suc*,., rearin,- are -,-147ca
I
ca- r.-iust 'ierefo--e bc used ,V ien a sup7 1',r of ncncc'nta-iI-ato:i inse ic --12s :!d. The experiments fui7ther indicate t1a --,,t perce--'--. cs af carry4n'rfu.--7- based on individuals collected ur.e.er such
q-, ced in C-Ce-1 uzn .Cte if I-Iie a0lults c-rr,7
c r s 4,-,,a r. an,,I III o s e s c o n Cca c d t"n e i r e x -o (-. r i --. i e n t 1 t smaller 7-,:,ropean elm bark beetle (S. s wc
nated by allowing ti,.= to wal' : over chips of el-i wo:D-mia of the fun,,.-as. Twenty-f ive noncont-:-.i t,-- -7 boe t ic 7, w( re of four 2r-(-.,.-c7 -lars flasks. One conta.7 i---'-t--I'. was
2 to r *-,ond, 5 to 1-11c, third, and 10 to t. e
be-,n '3r 19 hcurs in a temperature of
V': d and cultured. The fungus was 01 ;j 'ained --:'r L,2
b cc I.- '- Ie so tt-!o ceme f rom t-,-- f lael,, in w'-., i ci cnc becn pl,?cec! witli 2 ) noncc)n'?j-r--.-.-.td ones.

GYPSY 1:011. i%.',I,'D 3RO1,711-TAIL :,""'TH

Prc'-,r( sc c' t- ect.-710 r 1:-- r T,
cn,-- ,,.' in work in Vc r- n t
and P
L Sinec J,1: one-half )f t'- in Vnr)
ov, r 0 nilen of V, rm)nt
q
lf 0' total
c 1 r s two- t' i r,'. 7
;.,)n trecs in oneii ivo r,
wore t irjr,.Cft. T n "';C

pll"Cc" C' 7, r T!7 -r
cattle V.:A miLjit

7. Y.
W. P4
S Y





-12


t-nfestntion in barrier z-..-.e in r.rcces.s olf eli-r.ii-,,.,itio-i.--Inteiisive
n" clen -tT) "'fork is continuing. More th-n 4j000 egg clusters haft
C.rc&7ote,: u-r) to t1ie en6. of Deco-.-iber at an i:,fest: tion in the townr'nip
1.1_11e,-, Putn ,.m Co=ty, ". Y. The outside limits of this infesta:!'_iic'_a is in Vae 5outh-central p,--rt of County in the barrier
i-.ve --,)t :-et been C.eterminee's but most Of t1le in.-I", 1st-.ti-)n so fax disC (TV,1;--o"I is co-nfincd to wooCI.0. are, s compose chiefl- of onk.

Yo moth inf,. st-,tions found in Ne,.! Jorroy.--Inteiisive scouti--79
c, ntinuer1 in tthc vicinit-,r of the nsser.-blinn- c!--c t]"Int recovered a .L-Je
z- 7 th cl.-arin- the su=.ricr in, Mendham Townshil), Morris Co-ii:ity, N. J. by
W* Pe A* :,orkers U.r.der.the directi-).. _j
of a St!7 te employee. T'lie
s,-j--.e typc of 7-tork ras -lso being c.,.rri3d on in Ranldol-Ph 1,r'oi7nshi'* in Morris
t; Cn.ldwell Tovii-,.shi-o in Essex County, Bern:Lrc p Tornslain in, Somerset
F.-Inwood. an,--!- 1, Tew Pr o v i d.e ne e T -'a i j-D s in-Unioi-i Count ,% No inZesti-ns h-ve been f ouad L-i rti,,, of the loc-lities as. L-. result. of this i ork.

-ilew infost-tion foun,-7. outside ofqu,- r- nti-.-ie line in PerL,sylvania.--On
D_- cc;:-.- bcr 19 a CyD sy I-oth i:ife,.t!,.tio:a was in D,-,-berry T.ownship, Wayne
Pa. a short rli stailce outsill.e the pr'osent qunrrntina line %nd in the northonstern -ol-rt of the infested territory. The infestation is locateft on the 7outhviestern slope of P, ri6ge, in ca :roodll-In tirea app-.OximatolY 500 feOt fror- the neL-Iro- t -.-!co0.edge and. 11200 feet fi-o,- the nc-.rest hi, hw:ilr, The woodis chiefly second growth, the largest trees being. about 19 inches in
dirIlleter mersu led br,_ ast-high, and consists o-_ "be-ech) maple ash, blach birch, v!ila ble cll c'nerry, basswoo0p and. elm, with a scattering of -.)o-plar, laie oredomi-..atine, species is beech. V;qiile the' limits of i gestation have not yet I )( en definitely determined, it a-aparently does not cover a large area'and its complete eradication does not a-ppear to present any serious difficulties.
c7 ges were placeeL approximately 1/2 mile apart throughout the entire tovinshi-) during the summer of 193'. Seven of these ca-es wcre locatod-7ithin 1 r.Ale of this colony, one, of them 11_-eint less than 172 mile distantt, but -10 gypSv roths were captured. For t1-iis ri Lson no scouting work was cal,rieCt on in the township during the f iscrl Z DaA. s 1935 Lnd 1936. It was docleel to scout the towns'lnip this year as a p -jary i-ieasuro, after the
0Lircovcr-Tr of an infestation in the, nort]aeao torn corner of Carbondale' TownSI-lip, located within tho quarz,,ntined aroa in L1-.ckv:-,ranna County, and only I fe,,,! miles distant from Dyberry. Trais resulted in the discovery of the Dyberr-xr infestation.

Alert inspectors -,)revent reinfestation of area v1here eradication cam2LLJ--,1_,_ is in T)rw,ress.--In one case an j.-I.Lf of approximately 300 e gg cii sters was found. in the borouel-i of Breslau situated in the no rt !'E,,,e $tern portion of Hanover Townshipp Luzerne County, Pa., on property that had rece-tl,- bee vacated. Arraage:_ients were made to ins-ject the foundation wad c-ll-.r of the vacated buil(linf-, and several e ;,- clusters were located a 11 doDe people vlao hae. moved were trace ', to tile Pin!oo Sibotion of
WIU-cf-3prre, -.7herc, an intensive exterminatio-1 ce ,,?ai,-n ha(" 'bce .,L wa,,'e'd. Ins-occt )r sent to the Wilhes-Barre a ,-Iress to insect 6.11 material from
-,0. the- founCL
residence that r:A,2 ht be infostec! b- t:As insect an J
dcsl -Iroyad 14 nev,, e .,-- clusters o- lumber that ha,". boon trans, .)orted. In a







seco na c a s e i r s T) e c t o _r s a t r e I
lot of i- Pl,,-,irs To1=s'--, L-,,7 z%
i:i i t --)-ior to s7^A-imen' to -":c-r C reit" S
beer: eiirnin. %-e 'c-,- n e 0-1 a a s e insect
qu ra ti e r c F. t i o n s a, s Te a s c;.e a
Ca'i be b.-,- const _--.rt- r7.lcrtnoss "_-C .-J -'rt -If t'..C I Z'
f o

Pro'-re :S of C. C. r C. J l I
7 7
of -,Dn.r.rier zone 'in "'a S : 'nu 7 e a.."
scouted mo-re
h ia d n e r r I y C 1 1 t r e e s
yr,_ c rt o n e ra 11 s a e' s C s
In- -vc Ci.ostr-_-red 1 F DO i 7
7'
ow",

1 t -a t 04 Cr n '0 S r o C v
a b -I e f atl '-( C !C f .1 '27 r
t r t,--.C. CO
t'_I : mc;..'s
r_ _' 'J .' t' L

s 7%
n
t, but- t_-.c oi v- o
rL 7se i n r, 1 t I : i- i
P1'-'-mrjut11 is loc-tc in t-. I i r
inscc f rrl-r '-,nn( ,cti.cut ivcr in In 7
"ICT r r I r z, no.
d i r e c i n)

7y-'x 'I t-, bl, ck i.of 1--rge tr,. :t ,)f ,r-,.

"'i 4-,
t 13" 1, d is
tr)l) d' r
I n o b 7 x I
C





1-r -r-ss of 'rj T:- r f 7
1)330
cc 7: r. 71"
0 f 1-_ "-n f S
.mO
f; t 1 -11 r T7ubs r,,- s
c t..
C
M. S r
c v I
d",
0
17,








Infsttion ~nrll liter than st er.--Although a few localities have oeen found to be quite heavily infested, r-eorts from the field indic-to that over much of the infested territory the infestation is far li-hter then it was at this time last year. This can probably be largely attributed to the intensive clean-up campaign wraged over the infested region during: the previous season.

PLFNT DISiASE CONTROL

Winter rust studies in connection with barberry eradication.--A close
watch has been kep-t on the develo-pment of stem rust in certain areas of Texas durier the fall and early winter. Wallace Butler reports exposing vaselined slides during November and December as a means of accumulating further data relative to the source of inoculum for the rust that ordinarily develops in Texas during the late fall months. It is expected that the information obtained from these slides will be of some value in determining whether viable rust snores are being blown from Mexico at this time of the year. Certain species of barberries that have proved highly resistant or immune to stem ru-t in the outLoor test garden at Bell, Md., are being tested this winter un'.er controlled conditions in the greenhouse at Saint Paul. This work, wh,-ich is conducted by R. U. Cotter, serves as a further check on doubtful species and the progeny from those that have proved highly resistant or immune wihen tested under the :.-ore natural outdoor conditions.

Weather conditions favored field activities in barberry eradication in
November an' December.--An average of more than 3,S00 security wage earners were emplo-ed on barberry eradication during November and about 2,600 to 2,80O during December. With few exceptions, field supervisors reported very favorEble working conditions. In many States ti:bered areas, made practicably impassable by heavy underbrush during the summer months, have been worked with much greater efficiency during the early part of the winter. The same is true of some swvamp areas in certain psts of Michigan and Indiana.

Chiicego survey.--A survey of Cook County, Ill., for barberry bushes has been completed. Robert W. Bills, in charge of barberry eradication in Illinois, reports that during 1936 approximately 6,000 barberry bushes were destroyed on 458 properties in Cook County. A complete survey of the city of Chicrgo has now been made for the first time since the barberry-eradication program was undertaken. During the year nearly 7,000 square miles of area in Illinois has been intensively surveyed. This includes much heavily wooded and cutover land along rivers in the north-ce.ntral part of the State.

Talk on barberry eradication at Morris Arboreturim.--On Januxy 9, L. M. Ames gave tplk entitled, "Barberries, Friends and Enemies", before a group at the Morris Arboretum, Philadelohia, Pa. Dr. Ames, in addition to summariing recent progress in barberry eradication in Pen-nsylvania, briefl revio ed the barberry problem in the United Stotes from the tatonomic point of view.

Spread of white -ine blister rust in the su;:r pine region in 1.6.-Durinj 1 36 new bli-ter rust infections were found in six counties in Oregon-CDos, Jefferron, Lne, Clackanmns, Hood River, Currr, and Jose,)hine. All of






-15


these cou:,ties had- been re-_)ortcd a-, Inavi i t r rvzt i--j'ec-. L s p r c z' t t' -,'3re i- ^ect i --this year, i4-h lie exco-'Aion Df J,7se--'IA-3 foi- the first time on Cctc-.E r 15', 1, 36- Thc s bc: .tianap P. rionticola, P. -.lbiIc7,-L-.lis, Ribes cr_-,-rtum, R. br,%Ct0'.s":_M,
no su in In Cali-," orni -., i-kricre blist ,r rust .-.,-s re- orto,2 fDr t'-- fir-,-t
time in 1036, infections w are fou.na in t-o countias--Del '.73rte, t'rust was fo:ur.J. at two loc-.tions, P. 1- rti--'_-i ard P. br-cteos-_un bei-:j t'.1.0
Infected hof-ts, and Siski:,ou 'ounty, wh-re th., rust 'ras found nt tI' reo 1--on P. .1anbertiana, R. br!- ctoos=, R. R. 1- 'c_'.bii)
c rr n t u M.. In view of tae pr _-selft 1--ioLm distributio- of t_Ic r,, st i:.re _,-on, -=" its -propensity for lon&-dista.lce s-)road, it is ozs _-':Iti 1 the '.)Iistor rust control program be carriee. o:-, as ra--)id 1 7 ?1 and ene r %; C as nossib'e to prevent da:rage in corm..ercial sW-- -,r ine s-a'n(fts.

Results of nirz- and co--trol-area W. P. prw.7ra: i in
ITo-t'-epster:. States. --Since the first )f Oc'_-b ,r 1-7 ), '0
W_ A. rel i of laborers have been employed on blis-.Cr rust c __'I r
tits in all f the,11ortheastern Sta',cs exec:)"; J,_-rsey. E pI c, ye e s have b e o n. a s F7 iene d t o p re e ra -7 i ca t i c) -,- s,: rv c y -,, ork, 7! c c the T)re-)- rat ion of n-,ans showd.I.g the loca t i 0:- of Vil-i tc P; --e s tboundarics of blister rust co--tr,,)l T)rotcctiv z-ncs. 1 - n t..is
surve,, work, a few VI. P. A. laborers have sod i -I-ast canke_- elimination --,,ork in publicl- c*.-..,_,'. -1-.ite
in(-- the October 1 to IT(-_ vernbcr 30# 1 7 'a to+,-, c; -.,e
under t1lis prcjcct. I n t i acr,,s
ry-mined elimin:, .ted fr-,.,. v-orl':, to
to justif-,- t',"e cost of 'Rib(.s A tc,,Val 0-'
area bound?.ry li-nes wore also p.-.L t- e i-n *,c fi(%l quired 7,339 r -ndays of 1 bor a.,,. "'v'; M'Jc' I tainoO. from r,-I.ief r,)lls.

Another_. oiLrjy i -sill inf it:, K
in of blister rj, -t co rol i-,rrIc iir.f count.7, fro- in) St,,te, r
rust o e i s c r d !71 Ribo. 17, 1'm.,Jres 3 AJ i.' t tj
first tir-e ir. 193" _'A- st ---d 10 coiu-t-:- which *'-ic ru,- t ed
for V ie first tir-;(,-, a'llito Pine.

COTTO11 E'SECT

r r, i

t, c; as f 7 i x u r,
ton flea s. v r:
dnalirs s 1,'k q"
Tr S t F i
V

n- t thf, t jr.c K .
tects rv. four plo" :









against the flea hopper, and a series of plot tests. at Edna, Tex.*, against lth boll weevil last season with these mixtures. In the cage tests 20 percent calcium arsenete-O0 percent sulphur caused 26 percent mortality of the afd-t flea hoppers; the 33-1/3 percent calcium arsenate-66-2/3 percent sulphur, 24 ercent; 50 percent calcium arsenate-50 pe cent sulphur, .23 percent:; 10 percent paris green-90 percent sulphur, 56 percent; sulphur, 15 per-cent. The flea hopper infestation was much'lower than-it had been during the precedin 3 years and the unusually heavy rains (26 inches during May, June, and July) were unfavorable for experimental work and seriously affecte. the yields and gains secured from the control measures. The average incrosse in yield from the four 1-acre plots was 127 pounds of seed cotton per acre from the 10 percent paris green-O percent sulphur ,ixture, 94 pounds from the 20 percent calcium arsenate-350 ercent sulphur, and 88
-oune.s from the sulphur. The average yield of the checks was 455 pounds per acre. An average, of four dust applic tioAs of about 12 pounds each per acre were applied. In the four large-scale experiments dust was applied
with traction or tractor machines to 7-acre fields of cotton. The average gain from the 10 percent paris green-90 percent sulphur mixture was 130 pounds per acre; from the 20 percent calcium arsenate-8O percent sulphur, 130 pounds; and from the sulphur, 134 pounds per acre. Field-infestation an- bloom-count records showed there was very little difference in the control from the paris green-sulphur and calcium arsenate-sulphur mixtures and that both gave better control than did the sulphur. In the boll weevil tests at Ectna, Tex., where the infestation was rather heavy, the heavy rains and spotted bollworm infestation late in the season also interfered with the ex-periments. In this series different percentages of calcium arsenate and su-phur were compared with the 10 percent paris green-90 percent sulphur and calcium arsenate. The results were as follows:


Insecticide: Plot : Average gain of
Insecticide
: no. :seed cotton per acre
: Pounds
205 calcium arsenate-80O Aupur4---------. 6 : 167
3i-1/36 eleu arsenate-66-2/3% sulphur---: 3 : 2S1
500 calcium arsenate-50% sulphur-----------: 5 : 200
Calcium arsenate---------------------------: g : 174
104 paris green-90% sulphur--------------- : 11' : 82

The mixtures were used at the rate of 10 to 12 pounds per acre and
calcium arsenate at 5 to 6 pounds per acre. It is believed that a late bollV7o~rn iIfestation in the 50 percent calcium arsonate-50 percent sulphur plot's caused them to produce less than the 33-1/3% calcium arsenate-66-2/3 percent sulphur plots, In cage tests at Tallulah, La., G. L. Smith and A. L. Scales
obtained the following percentages of control.











0j. i L e ::v:

14 44
0 ca 1 c i -,):n a F, e,.,
_9-1/3' calcium ar :enate- S 3
50% c 7,lci ,;.n arsen7te-505 ;
A
105 -oai-is crecn-Wo
C %lcium

in L-tin-sq-;P.-e tests a, 7ainst. a liJ7,,.t tic-l Of 'Coll
Tallulr 'L_1, La., R. C* -fo=
ovi. r 50 Tx-rcent colci,,un arse-n-te-50 C-In vr i-_Cains frc m both ovor c -oc'-.,s werc P1 C t t C S t Z C
d- ;ctc Y. T. Youn,- ar,,! G. L. Garrifso-.-l at
c- to arscnc-te t .c l'oll vlc,-vi 1. 7'e
t i -, 17 ,, F C:, -C 1v 1 i 7h t al 1 s,- aTd o, -.:-a i, 5: f om 'ca I c i OnI7,r "'Cout of t--y usi.i-lly rrj. I fiv _- t C;ts
c e n. calci ,. m, ar!7e:,.,ate-EO -),_-rcent sul V 0
icid. of 170 --o---ndc of cotto- T%-,r aci-,., ,,.-Z. a a, C rsenate plot 1 Pounds. 7-0
f est, tion rccc--, .-C ) howcv 2_-, t'-,c c:7 11 La:'- C,.-'T ,a C. tr3l. In tests t'le of
17
gave ntn anJ t.,c calcd C
of :.,..-,d cotto" :)er acre. Th e avoravd 2 2c
arse- .Ite-culphur
lF rer ,.cre fnd t-,c celciun r
t" t'-o 10 'r S C,
inc r of 10 r)c)unOs, rc-a-),,,-r,-. 1,3 33-1/3 P ,rc--perc- s,-u.l- hur 2 1 i) o-u.- nd c a I c i,= a r s c,
cot' f,,r acre. 7ie cllecl :s -pro ., ced 27 "I -- ou-ds. T- e sq a
vre d C I i t 1 r b t r I C C t r 0 r C
r r t i' Ilir, n r s c t
C n -, te- sqiil
o:-. records and r
of mirids by the
_v-inst the bollworm -,t S,: I
()0 orcent s1AP*11,r mi:-turt-rno rc e C t i v c t!)
f, r flea '-c,) r

f
d s ir -.ro more offo-tivc LJ', n
n-,il)hlar mixtures and vrill ,i,:c boll reevil, ,mc-1 t e 1 vi, n:, .

__7 (1


r I..
V,- 11 ;'zi i it,









results. Trash from all ins in the valley nwas inspected and, in view of tL. lateness of the season, it is believed that verr good job was done.

Field clean-up in the Big Bond of Toxas.--The clear.-u, of cotton
fields in the 3ig Bend area of Texas was dliscontinued on Decober 19. In the begining it was naown that funds were not sufficient to clean the en.ire area, .n consequently an effort was made to clean the most heavily infested fields. In prectically-every case this was accomplished. A total of 1,22E acres was cleaneC.. In the Castolon district, in Brewster County, one fnn, consisting of about 100 ecres, was -astured with some 600 head of ca tle. After the cattle had been in the fields for several weeks an investigation was made and it was found that the fields were surprisingly clean. Practically no material was left and very little had been tramped into the ground. Last fall work was begun to develop a machine to burn the material in cotton fields, instead of regular clean-up with laborers. The ex-eriments have now reached a point where we can say -ositively that the principle is a success. It has been definitely established that there is enough fuel in the cotton field to burn all of the debris. The experime:ts are still going forward, and there is every indication that these machines can be used in future clean-ups to better advantage than the old met-hod.

Wild cotton eradication.--The eradication of wild cotton in southern Florida made very good progress and by the end of December all of the cotton arsees in Pinellas, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Sarasota Counties had ben recleaned. A few keys remained to be cleaned to complete Lee County. In Chorlotte County and in a considerable portion of Collier County all of the ares accessible by car had been recleaned. All of the above counties are on the west coast. At each recleaning the number of plants is found to be greatly reduced and in a number of locations none was found. Indications are that eradication will be completed in these west coast counties several years in advance of other areas, because there was considerably less cotton to begin ,ith and. because more man-days have been devoted to thiP section. This was considered advisable because the section is much closer to domestic cotton, and infestation was originally found in the vicinity of Bradenton. Several of the mainland keys have been recleaned and satisfactory progress made on the others. The situation on Boca Grande Key is of particular interest. Last season around 1,000,000 plants were removed .during the recleaning, whereas at this time slightly over 3,000 plants were removed. At this time some bolls were present on a few of the
s;rout lnts nd seedlings which had made unusual growth, but none of
these led shattered, and during the recleaning none of the cotton was alloe'.'d to dron to the ground. Some 400 bolls "ere examined and 4 pink bollworm larvae were found. The original infestation on this key was about 35 percent. A camp was reestablished at Cape Sable and recleaning begun on December 7. At the close of the month a considerable area had been recleaned. During the recleanin; when a number of bolls are encountered they are placed in preservative for later inspection. When only a few bolls are preset they are immediately inspected. Other than the findings on Boca Crancd!e K6u- the resuls have been native.










lhurberj, lant eradication.--7ne 'S
t he Sant C at a! ina 1,ount a i--s o s ou thf rr. 'Ari zc-- a _n as so d sa _- a ct oril: c nsiderin,, wea'..ier conditions. 7arly in e _.C: 'h it ly! .S r _L tl111,: t work could not be contL.nued much lc-.-:-r ca- se of the hig 7. elevation. new site ras
at a -.-,nach lower elevation. 13-v t',e mid' of t*-,--. all --f ItI-.E qu i -ner
been trai-isferred to t'-,ils le,* si-te) namelft SiLney Smith. i
month 3,030 Peres were gone over and 40,0,30 71-i-a 6 __ icn Th( se, )lants occurred at elevations 7,p to ,400 feet. at w__-iic'I plants have beer, found. far is -1)S00 -feete

d- s t F t i o n i n s :) e c t -L --n. -71par i nc De c r 10 i t e r-- i s Marfa, Tc lx. road s tat i on 1.7- re f oun,' to 'ce 3 -4 T"ne Lifested rr, trial consisted of small lots c3tt,-.-,
and 9 de ,d larvae of t ,ie ni.ak bollvio...i wer( "_-a en. C:-! -c, ct--,I-;iIicns was of pa-rticular interest. T.-o ov.-(,;r of (-ar s h-.(- ,oved to "he 3i 7 '3end area to farm, '-'It a- t, r
:s decided he did -11ot li'kc i t and, was in7 oaho4-.
3 S ,c' S in h4 s -, r in w' ich wor oun -zL loos o- sc ,d c-
sc(,c! cotton contained 7 livin,; and, 2 de-d Iollworm 1n r C 'H o -f i
zlp37.led the m-,terial was fro I- i S f i r S t 1 o;,-- w-, i 0 1 i'JI lazed area, ,,,at 1-ter ad:-.i'.-'.cd t'.at he 1. Bend, H e r e t r _' c r e t 1 -,e r o, a t i o n h s 'L k:, e i s r) :L, I :--r _1r I z t 3'
ficld in tl-ic len! l7as d
nd
Du,, r "h ct t,,- t a 12. o t '_-ic 11 i c Ld s Ii-. d
le number, of in'-, ted
SI _-kJL r dvisalle to !:oep road S' I*_ ion ir -a- f r t

TRUCK CROP A:47D G ,71-__'- J 'S7C'-,

,olutions con -Iainin;7 froe
Test2 'ty As Co Davis ast vario
T), =shroom hou-%- -.t thc
i C 0 t i .1 C 40
n O.L rid 0.2 p, _- f r, r
dre:-.c',i to t-_ r-,
control o ocst-_due' o o t' r-' )rr.z -i A
n4 c rv,, Is, to
O "

f lo-I o
per 100 -nllo of w,.t, (C.: t C a dr(,,:.,,:. i'o r the c o --.t r 1, ', f


0 'rp) trc,-,t(Id -.:it.-. f-,
c 7 1 c) o f






-20


Relative effectiveness of cube dusts cortai:dng various cilutions of rotonone a ainst tobacco flea beetle.--In experiments designed to show the relative toxicity of cube dust mixtures containing 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 percent rotenone, respectively, against the tobacco flea beetle (Evitrix parvula Fab.) on shade-grown tobacco in Florida, F. S. Chamberlin, of the Quincy, Fla. laboratory, reports that the dust mixtures containing 1.0 and
1.5 porcent rotenone, respectively, were nrmuch more toxic and gave a better control of the flea beetles than the cube dust mixture containing 0.5 percent rotcnone. These conclusions were reached as a result of a detailed study of the harvested product, in which it was shorn that the percentages of injured leaves together with the percentages of the commercial gradings, served as a satisfactory method for obtaining a relative comparison of the effect of the different dilutions used. Incidentally, these studios demonstrated that a flea beetle infestation of only moderate intensity may cause a loss in cigar-wrapper tobacco which reaches $475 per acre, if insecticidal control measures are not adopted.

Comprative efficiency of different sroaclin~, Wetting, and sticking agents used with rotenone compounds against pea adhid.--In the course of recent tests performed in the greenhouse by T. E. Bronson, of the Madison, Wis., laooratory, which involved the use of different spreading, wetting, and sticking agents with the derris sprays ordinarily employed for combating the pea a-phid (Illinoia visi Kalt.), it was indicated that a commercially prepared product containing a sodium oleyl alcohol sulphate was the most effective agent used with derris, and that resins or other adhesive agents were not effective in protecting the active ingredients of derris from loss either through decomposition or by the effect of washing with a water spray. In the course of these experiments the pea plants were first sprayed with a derris solution containing one of the spreading, wetting, or sticking agents. Some of these treated plants were infested b-7 hand methods 24 hours after they had been sprayed and others were washed twice with water and infested 5 ola-s after spraying. The results of these tests show that there was some residual effect of derris in all of the tests in vhich plants were infested with the pea aphid 24 hours after spraying, but it was indicated that probably :no residual effect of derris was apparent in the tests where plants were washed twice after spraying and then infested with the pea aphid.

Late planting aids :-ireworm control in potatoes.--K. E. Gibson, of the Walla Valla, Wash., laboratory, reports that as a result of experiments perforneod during 1l36, it was shown that considerable benefit could be derived by the late planting of potatoes in fields infested with the sugar beet wircvmrm (Limonius californicu's Mann.) and the Pacific coast wirewon (Limonius c-anus Lec.). In experimental plots planted on April 7 and harvested during the period from August 10 to 17, an average of 57 percent of the pot-atoes was injured by wireworms, whereas in the experimental plots pla:ntocd on June 23 and harvested early i: November, an average of approximatc17 44 percent of the tubers showed wireworm injury. Actually the differc.:cc in the relative wireworm injury suffered b, early and late pl ntings of ,o',atoes was less in 1936 than during previ-us years, because seasonal cow.iti nas in 1936. were such that the wireon:s did not begin their seasonal ri{r *tion aouna.'ird until a later date than normal. The results of time-ofpb::ti: tests to escape maximum '.ire.:orm daziae have demonstrated that the






-21


late'planted potatoes s-,,ffer si -.if ica--_tl-- less viire-orm i-_.Jur, than do early plants ,_ potatoes, eve:-. late -)la-14 1-ivtas
yield.

To,-.,-to pinworm, larvae pupate at or -iear scil surface.--J. C. L7-ore,
of the Calif. I.-as tf Leten-ni:-_erl "hat a hi! -)ercentaCe rf the larvae of t,'_-.e tomato pinworm 1-c -percicella
Bueck) pupate at or just below the soil surface. 7ield inClicated. that approximately go per ent of the larvae in 'the tophalfinc'.i la,7,er of soil and that a,):)roximatel-- 99 f t'-_= -- u--,)ated in t-_- e f irst. inch. nhese field observations .7e,-e s, r-.lemznte(i IL;:-, 1.-borat, _--. experiments simulatinE field conditio-iis in it, ,-as E--.,_-, t*,at nercent of the G. l-,7co-persicella larvae 'L -rmed -)'."pal cells ir the tcp quarterinch la -er oT soil and t1lat the remainder 7ere present in t'-ie quartar-inc' .'! la-er of soil belo7i t'-iat denth. It is a-o art nt t'__ at the tenaenc-, of t7.he tomato piin,7orm larvae to pupate vcr-,r close tc., t---.e scil surface may mal-.e it possible to ascertain some measure of cc-ntrol o--F' t7iese pests t'-meOiirn :)f cultUral -joractices e directed tfoviard disturbance or of t1ne -tmnal cells (iuririL critical periods.

Beet leafno-pper po-Dulations increase in San Joaq,,iin Valley-. - T York, of the Mo,7er t-, Calif., laborator-- reports t',at population surre-s of f-ie' beet leafho- -)er (Eutettix tenellus made in San Joaquin
)0 1 1, ----a' in nine
Valle~ of California durinC the fall of 19-S '-ave indic-_-- districts, t -,talin, about e5,000 a*crE;s, there, were '" r 00 1000
E. tenellus. 7hiq*is about t'-,--ree times t'-,.c population foun in t'- same "di-,T-icts in 1 35 and a--)T)r1-ximatcl,, on(,-fift of t'-iat found in t'-,ie S, .0 i 3 trict3 in 1934.

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN k11D ANIMALS

Ants aDpear to be efficient destroyers of
tions !. ade by A. W. Lindquist, of tI Uvalde Tcx. I t'aa' ,,-r ),,).s species of ants are c' -r--at imo-rt,-nc e as a an On 1n
larvae )f Coc: .liom, la ampricc na screwviorm infestations. Emer.-ence 1,_ept on ot
approximatel-11 91400 third-ins",-r larv -_ tha int .,Ld kill,(-1,
92 -)ercent of t lemff

1': ',7 locality records for
reports "iat P. t7ie biti.-,
and more n ,t any nce 19
1936 N.ras r'Lpril 29 aT. 1, r ?o
ciArred, f r-): S T, I t o N ',7
in,,, tl,,is -1,,ny pc, Ir r
coll(,cted
v r-- i n terc; s t rn.

'Aia
'o .-r,-! ri wild animal re
L
An .1ior recorO, v* c -1 11 il r t






-22


Division, San Antonio,. Tex., when she determined the presence of PhFnlebotomus LurinE; the summer and fall. This constitutes a new locality record and extends the distribution of the pest.

Winter activity of primary screwworm fly.--D. C. Parman, of the Uvalde, Tex., -_aboaitory, reporting on the number of screwworm infestations in the vicinity of Uvalde for the period January 4-9 inclusive, states: "During this..period- practically all ranches have had screwworm cases, there being a considerable increase during this week. Ranchmen reported from 3 to 40 cases. There have been estimated from 300 to L400 cases during the past 10 dars in this vicinity. All of the larvae collected from these cases were C. a:.ericana." For Valdosta, Ga., E. W. Laake reports as follows: "Heavy ovipesition on December 26 and 27 of C. americana in hibernation cages Indicates that this species will overwinter"at Valdosta this winter. This generation, Yaich should emerge as adults the latter part of February or early in March, will have a very good chance at that time, under normal local climatic conditions, to ccaitinue reproduction into the next summer." At Tempe, Ariz., C. C. Deonier repoorts that the status-trapping work in Ari na has indicated that C. americana was as abundant along the escarpment between Phoenix and Prescott during the fall as at Uvalde, Tex. The work shows a considerable decrease in C. americana at Tempe during the fall and early winter-and'no increase during the latter half of -December, as there was at Uvalde. The decrease continued into the latter half of December, only two C. americana being taken in the total fly catch, and three in the lower part of Black Canyon. Besides these no C. americana, and very few C. macellaria Fab., were taken during the latter half of the month. The total catch in all of the traps continued to decrease during the latter half of the month.

Salt water appears necessary to induce oviposition of sand flies.-J. 3. Hull, of the Savanhnah, Ga.', laboratory, reports the following observations on experiments to secure oviposition of sand flies in the laboratory: "Numerous said flies were collected on 2 days in October by sweeping. These were placed in fruit jars, brought to the laboratory, and transferred to glass lamp chimneys. One end of each chimney was covered with cheesecloth and the other placed over blotting paper moistened with distilled water. These sand flies were given three meals of human blood, but failed to deposit any eggs. Sand flies were collected on December 6 and 7 and the same procedure was followed except that the blotting paper was moistened with salt water collected from the marsh. From this collection 391 eggs were deposited. Apparently the salt water stimulates oviposition."

Sand fly research resumed at Fort Pierce, Fla.--The Division of Insects Affecting Man and Animals has recently resumed research work on the sand fly problem along the east coast of Florida. The laboratory is located in the city hall at Fort Pierce, with S. E. Shields in charge.

Moderately lor temperatures increase longevity of tick parasite.--C. N. Smith and Helen Louise Trembley, working on the biology of Hunterellus hookeri Hou., a, hymenopterous parasite of the American dog tick and the brovn dog tick, hove found that the longevity of the adults at temperatures of 400O F. is 5 days and &550 to 650 it is 2 weeks. The normal longevity at anproxim tel7r g0 averages from 2 to 3 days.






-23


FOREIGN PLANT Q.UARL7TI.::S

Entomoloizical interce-otions of interest. --Fourtee-n livi-ig larvae of
the Kexican fruit fly (Anastle-oa ludens Loe--i.) vic --e interc, ,--3tea at 71 Paso) r" -t .,iber 21, 1936) in a cherimoya (Annona cheri.-nola) fruit in
lex., on Se,_1
baggage fro" Mexico. A living larva of the Wile-t Indian-fruit fly (Anastretha, acidusa Walk. ) arrived at Mobile j Ala., 0' 7P 1P3 j i- r 0
f rait in shin Is stores f rom Puerto Rico. -1 ar_'ul t oi t'he brac.-.id
Acant,,Iosceli ,es xanthopus (Suffr.) was taken at Was'.'Iine-ton. D. ^ on october 16, 1Q3r, in sc-E d of Cassia didymobotrya in the mail fron. C-oa. Living specimens of the coccid.Asterolecanium. stentae Brain wa-, il,.terce- t d at S -Fr,- ,ncisco on Se-otember 16, 1936, or. Caralluma, sc'iw6infur_111ii and -nuernia c,-viP,1.nulata in the mail f rom -the Union of out'_- Africa. 'L wo specimens of the chermid -Rhinocola, ericae Curt. were fo- _,nd at Fni1-.del-,)_.1a o,.. September 110# 1936, on Ieather in the from Scotland. Living ----,lls of the 'haniry-vetcli bruchid (Bruchus brachiali s F ir. ) a--rived e t 2alti.-n7 ofe on SeDte:iber 19, 1936, witi-i vetc.i seed in car, ;o f rom Germany. A of the elaterid Pheletes qjLer qus_ Oliv. was ta:::en at Norfoll :j Va., on 24, 1936, with a hyacint'- bulb in c- r -1 t, -i
I I Ar _:, o f r o-n t', e Ye -- c r la, ds T,-.e cocc 's
Fli( --Lacas-)is samoa:,ia Doane and Ferris and Pse,7.1_-'ocogcJ1s coc tis (Maslc.),wt re intercepted at Honolulu, Ha-.-!aii) on AuTast 4) or. coc ;:- -_It-l,_ -nf 'bns'-, ts in c.-,rgo from knerican Samoa. A living adult of ,7 r e 0 -1 P::-. 0 C,
canus Chairp. was tai:en at LF-reao, Tex., on July 1-13 1036, ir a 0
pole in bt, ,-,a,-e f rom Mexico. Aleurolobus rarlat ti r: rr i%-, ir 1a as follo,7S: At New York on November 14, 10,35, ci-l"rus fro:n I
at Seat'let Va7h. 1 on Yove ,iber 70, 10)35, on a tanj 'crine fro.-. Jaa:.; at, Seattle on Dece-, ber 16) 1935, on an orange lt-p-f fro--., Japan; and, at, El Pr -cp Tex. on March 25) 1936, on orange le,, ves, f rom Ecxico. re,_)re czent the first recorC.s in our file! of thi s %,:-Atefly bt -_'.-_-7 TV ro livinilarv,,.e of the large cabba.C7e butterfly, (Pie::-Is brassicae L.) were ta_ :Cn at New York on Aupust 6, 1 36, or. Creen lea%-cs o:: 1,1,occoli (3rassica oleracca botrytis) in ship's stores from Italy.

An individual co nvi -iced. --On Dec- 11, 19 -ritis!-, SS 'lan
Gra,:-,am entered the port of NorfoLkj Va.# from In
the usual inspection of quarters, the L,.spector W,,- A, I by t.,,e
sal-.)Is fourth officer. This officer's aM.SC,--c,,nt of oac'. rco-. 1spection finally Cot under the inspectors sl.in) so thc T7LIS
poll-arily halted for explanations. The inspocti,_-. _: i -. -. 0
the Bi itis'ier, but was serious to the ins- )cctor ,,.-.d the wa,, -,o inforTiod. Apparently the British officer '-,ad. irz de fc,, trip,-, to tlk. 7_4tcd States, and had never accom -r.:.Ied an ro r
pose of the vork had been
what Tie wero doin- permit d nirr to Sce r)-I:,fort'a, i-wvi.- been v:1--1_; lb,_ in a to C,
side. The ir.spection was contl.-iut d .:it.. *
officer's p;,,rt.

Po.thological i-itercept1,,.-.r of r k- t; t i c, C) f
AscocL. Lyta _:L-cw.) r,: ici Brun. wc- rt! do ',f r',: o', r
17 on e -, M
P] nt f ron Italy Pnd onLib. -.-7as intercepted from Pol,,,nd






-214


in hi vetch seed in. cargo. Our first interce- tior. of an Ascochyta on parsley 1;-.ins an undetermined species in pa-rsle-!y from Germany at Ne'7 York on December 4. Botrytis ellibtica (Berk.) Cke., 'first Intorceptionsvias t a'--en. a t Surna s Wash. on Dece'mber 7, in a shipment of lilyb bulbs from Ja-oanx. Cercospora 8-0,, no species f ound li s t e&. fLo r the h os t, wa s foundi n Cordia boissieri at Laredo in baggage from tlexico. Clados'oorium carponehiliim TLhuem. w~as, intercepted from South*Vfrica for the first time on Decamber 9 on anri colts at-New York. Helyminth-o -orium allii.Camoanile was intercepted, on garlic fromr Cuba (new7 country) December'). at 1IKobile. A pod rot of pen.-ers from Cuba, intercepted at New-York on December 13, seems t'o be the sa7me as ane described by: Wieber (Fla. Bidl. 2)4)4:-42), the 'organism'being named
a1 Helminthosporium curvuluni Sacc.' Phyllosticta granidimaculans Bub. and Krieg. w as intercep 'ted (first interception) at New York on December 5 on strawberry plants from NYorway, in agae Phydllosticta .ianonica Miy. was' intercepted for the first time. on Decemnber 174at Seattle-' in paddy rice f roif China in the mails. P. la~liae Keissler (first inteic eption) was found on' Laelia anceps f 'rom Mexico on Novemb 'er 20 at San Ffra'.cis,-co. 'A severe rot of oear s and a-ple s was f ound. in f rui ts Yrom Germany, taken at New York- on Octz1-,ber 23 and'November 20, end of apples f rozm, Poland on December -17, all in bas-gage. ,The pathoSgen in each c ase appears to be*Solerotinia laxa (Ehirenb. ) Aderh. and Ruhi., 'which is knovin *s 'a serious- rot of stone fruit's in Euro-p. Sclerotium oi-,ze Clatt. was founl 'on rice straw from Greece on December 3, and from Jamaica on ,Dec&fber 16 (additional countries), at New Yorh. -Se-otoria lact~acae Pass, leaf s-, ot of -lettuce)' was intercepted from. Trinidad, for -the first time, on Decerrdber 3 at Nev. York.

DOMESTIC PLANT qUARANTINES

Transit inspectors to certifZ materials under guarantine.--The praictice of turning ba'ck shi pments of restricted matorials found on inspection' at r ailw ,ay terminals to be moving in violation of domEistic Federal --plant quarantines is being mod-ified. Transit inspectors'are now authorized to:,
exam jine certain t rnes of such mterials as mayd be readil- and adequately inspected at a railway terminal and, if found "lo be f ree from thle pe st involved, to certify the* shIpment and'.all6w it to -proceed to the coiis3.4ee. Intorce-otion record-s show that many persons ma2_:iing: shipments are =-mware of the e::isternce of F~ederal quarantines, ane. it is fclt'that inspection in
transit is a service ahich can be given with1 out weakening in any way the offectivoness of the restrictions intended ton prevent the spread of the ?ests. Convlignors will be notified as heretofore of violations committed and any'
re..otii:: of failure to obtaidn the required inspecti.-n at origin will be met b-r hav-, the shipment returned.

Transit inspection at Atlin'nta.--In order to inspect shipments moving at th~is perin-d of the year from nursery centers to points in the southern
states, traenf'it inspect ion is being conducted at Atlanta, the inspector formerlyv zt Kansas City having been transferred to the southern post.

.Ciltru. cankere2er-enc:- project 'yields- re-sul-ts. --A .summing up, of the
pro 7r, !s of citrus cancer inspecticn and eradication during thie past 2
-ear, a corn red ,-,ith thle Work of the previous 13 years, indicates that the re-oults accomplished with emergenc-- relief funds have marked the









difference between earlyr eradication of the carnh'er and! a prolonged prc ;ram under limited regular anpropriations which were not only inadequate to complete eradication but n,)t sufficient to hold the disease in abeyance. In Texas 35 infected properties rere located edaring- the period 1921-34. In 1935-36, )47 infected properties were located in T1exas, and 9 i-n Louisiana. Thorough and complete inspection has been made of t'h"e entire citrasproducing areas of Texas and Louisiana, and a larEge part of the Gulf coast arojas of Mississippi ane. Alabama, covering; a total of 69 counties and parishes. A house-to-house in-,spection of evor:7 property,. in the four infected counties in Texas resulted in finding-r citrus plants 'x 2,293 properties. These trees have been. destroyed on all but 43c~f the Pro-oerties. Eradicationi crews employed under cmergo nc-r relief' funds have re-moved all citrus plants (nearly 11 million) from over 9S percent of the citrus-g;row-ing properties in the lmown infected ar, as of Louisi ,na and Texas, thus rem--.vinj the source of infection from whiich the disease :-i1Eh"t eventually reach the Commercial areas. In oreer to complete the eraciicaticn of this disease it is necessar'7 to recheck the sites from which, such, trees ha-,e been re-moved anO. to reinspect the remaining citrus ~lzi si- the vicinity, of old infections.

Peach mosaic ins-oection and eradicat.ior..--In oord the eradic.-tion 'work vihich has been carried on in two counties since Au,ut 1935 (s-spended only' in midwinter) was closed for the season on cebr 15, and the field leader reports that this marks the completion of the remroval of 1ll abande and infected peach trees in IMesa. Count:-, an important commrciail pahD ducinj; area. Some eradication- wiork y'et remains to-be done, in Delta un. In California contacts have now been made with ovners of ll in~ce r~rtica, totaling 899, of which 456 have sijned releases atoii;r~vl~ their trees. Inspections made in the field s'.as.r. of 1 ~ccopcratiV ly with the plant-pest control officials of Arizona, California, Colorado:, Iowa, Kansasp Nebraska, New1 Mexico, Texas, and Utah, resulted in 'f in I t e peach mosaic disease in all these States except Iowa, Kansas, andNersa Nearly 49,000 mosaic-infected trees were found in 39 con i intns
Southwestern States. All known diseased trees hnave been r emov-.ed from. 2olorado and Utah, the eradication work is und-'e.' way in California and Teoxas, and will be extended to Arizona and NOW YIexICO nearly next 'sprinFg.

Phn ec ies ne cooi ).r .-ui, thie plst field
season over 150 Federal and approximately 150 State3 inspector,- weneplyd Surveys for the phony pec diesfeecric.o nev~pah. wn
Stato east and nort,.ea-it of, and includir. >'s a .~.,v~t .h
caption of Michitgan, New York, and Nlew nga., c'r *d00 "w e~
trees vere inspected on l9,14proj>.rties in ')o~i s.~ ? 3ae. C
the 156,977 trees found isadl4,U hy.beurnv.Alknn
diseased trees have been frlad.icatud from :t S*tts, n:wlAknss li
nois, Indiana, Louisiana,MiisiiMs r,:~tCrliannnovania. Of tao 10,905 diseaseisd tree,, manft-,rw.vd rmA1 ii
Georgia, Kentuckyr, South ) rlia T('nsea ~ ~ l, r nC
and It Is believed that before te. nes ,~ralJirodtza'cwl removed from all States except erGio As arevc.- ~ e~x'vy a
disease wase found for the first tim:e in 1 x iIainaiP .1
vanial and In 52 counti'er in I,' ,f -,"Ir! Str. t, h nn z:. a






-26


had previously existed. The environs of every peach-growing nursery in all the known infected States were given a very thorough inspection for the phony peach disease in the season of 1936. Of the 4~22 nurseries inspected, 104 were found!'exposed to the disease. A concerted effort by Federal and State insopebtors to effect the removal of these diseased trees has been successful to the extent that only one klnoin unprotected peach-growing nursery now remains in the infected States. Over 51,700,000 escaped and aban.oned trees have been destroyed by relief workers. The project therefore has a very favorable status.

CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS

High concentration of sulphur found in blood of southern armyworm.-F. H. Babers, of the Beltsville, Md., laboratory, has recently completed an analysis of the blood of the southern armyworm (Prodenia eridania Cram.). Some 27 substances were determined by various micro-quantitative procedures. Of these, sulphur was present in very high concentrations, but sugars
formentable by yeast and cholesterol were very low.

Inactivation of toxic principles of pyrethrum by insect tissues.-P. A. Woke, Beltsville, rbports on the results of experiments made to determine whether the toxic principles of pyrethrum are inactivated in whole or in part after it has been ingested by the southern armnnyworm. This work was undertaken as a sequence to the work on the imported cabbage worm reported by Swingle (1934). Mosquito larvae were used in a biological assay method for
determination of toxicity. The general conclusion is reached that the tissues of the southern armyworm possess properties capable of bringing about a high degree of inactivation of the toxic principles of pyrethrum.

Methods of rearing the southern armyworm.--Mr. Woke also reports a
method of rearing the southern armyworm in large numbers for use in physiological and toxicological studies. The larval rearing cage is essentially a chamber, 36 inches wide, 24 inches long, and 16 inches deep, with glass sides, wood bottom, and frame and screen top, part of which serves as the door. Fresh potted plants are placed on sand in shallow trays in the bottom of the cage. Egg masses which have been deposited on waxed paper are fastened to the leaves of the plants. The larvae develop to maturity in
the one cage and those not used in experiments pupate in the sand. The pupae are separated by immersing the sand in water and are placed in an oviposition cage where the moths emerge. Thorough disinfection of cages after each rearing is practiced and recommended. A continuous supply of larvae is provided by the use of four cages, one new cage being started each week.

INSECTICIDE INVESTIGATIONS

More concerning nicotine.--In the October 1, 1936, News Letter, vol. 3, no. 10, p. 30) attention was clled to the compilation by the Division of Insect Investigations and the Division of Control Investigations, of a complete
bibliography concerning nicotine, and notice was given that Part I, dealing with the chemistry of this compound, had just appeared. Part II of this work entitled, "A Bibliography of Nicotine. The Insecticidal Uses of Nicotine and Tobacco", under the authorship of N. Z. McIndoo, R. C. Roark, and R. L. Busboy,





-27


is n.o,,7 available. !,il, '- .as Iccll D- lt i-- as
3u---e,-:a n i s in t,,ree se.),,ratc sec t io--is c 4 s 41 a I-10tal -f p in 1,7.ilch -ire F,,ivc.-i 2t457 --'--str,-.cts of to '- e
7iis completes t''.e woric thal. w471 be do-- e t'-iG 'on
of rcf-rences to the medical F.s-)ects of living
to the 3ure,%u of Chemistry and oils.

P g-ranted on nicotine humate.-In A-ril 1, lc'7' iozue i:l-f
the :7t: ,-,s Letter (vol, 3y no, 4) po 19) t-acre was descri'Ced a ne-.7 cont-7 4-i.- r, L-socticide developed in tl-- is M-.rkvoo -nd
c -Jle(l. "nicotine peat.11 As 7-,y-.pro .uct of t',-c o- -'is
soluble com-)o,4.kn",l t .-. ere is btaine a water-! ,olul le combi.-., ,tion of nicotine and the humic acie of t'.e pe'at. It 7--as a, ar, -pw-!der containi-ac about 29 per(,-O-..t of ha s n o i-, Igrantee a -oub lic se rvi ce pa te nt on s Januar7- 5, 11037, as U. S. ? 'telt 00&"C)IL). .

o urce of nornicotine a
r e L, nicotine) '-avi::-.-- the formula C, H a S 't e e --l for s om
time., rcce---t tests b,,r C. -H. '-',e C p C ,j' 1
active s-,nthetic mpteri-el t'o :- 'ovc 7. R.
Smi t*a of t In e D i v j. s i o r o s e c c i f- e I --, v e t S -as now found i t neprl.-,, 1 percent of t'.11S con:nou-ne exists ir. o' t'L-ie !, evo-r
isonii.r in t'le plant Nicotiar-a

BEE C

-3i omet r i cal s til- -7 i o 5; cr e o --V;. J. n )-- 3C I labor-t- rl-, rer-rt,-- of lenGt'- is the most conste.:it. iE7 -7, Df
bees of Li to --a!
tl,e rubit, I- i--'- s
injex i t.- r,-.-ti- rts i-t'-1, a li.,- d
c"Ibital ce ll cutti:-- C-', 1 ta I vei- i by dr _,i.
1,,?x frr,-.i it- to the s,.r -,d rocurrc---t voin.

Foor quality of cluce,.s im7p t L .
Fnrrarl Larai. ie) .7yo. h-. d- i t i,) -i c f q,,i n s j. 0 D
unde r c. rw t i o-,- i- :T-- r 4p, o r q,,-!
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ti
Sturtev,-nt A. W. V; C,

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of




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

-2g- 3 1262 092434926


Nature of coloring matter in beeswax.--In work conducted in cooperation with the chemistry, division of the University of California, G. H. Vansell, Davis, Calif., reports that a spectographic examination of color extracts re,-oved from bees-7ax surprisingly failed to produce bands that coincide vith.the absorption bands of B carotene. Preliminary tests on the color solutions extracted from beeswaxes showed no a'osorption bands but rather continuous absorption from about 3700.A into the ultraviolet. Squash pollen however, showed five very definite bands ling in the region between 3700 A one 4700 Ao.

Large losses .in queen-rearing yard.--E. Oertel, of the Baton Rouge,
La., laboratory, has ascertained as a.result of studies made in a commercial queen yard consisting of approximately-2,000 nuclei that less than 50 percent of the cells introduced into nuclei resulted in marketable queens. Factors that contribute to such-losses are being.studied.

IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS

North American moth occurs in Japan.--Among some insect material from Japan recently submitted for determination by R. W. Burrell, through C. P. Clausen, were certain Microleidoptera obtained in corrugated board strips in which cocoons of Grapholitha molesta Busck had been exposed to parasitization in the field. The moths were identified by Aug-st Busck as the common Zvip-oe prunifoliella Chambers, a pest of peaches, plums, and cherries. Apparently this species has not previously been reported from outside the United States.

Additional African fruit fly material for the national collection.--A
collection of fruit flies assembled by R. H. Van Zwaluwenburg in the course of a survey' conducted by the Bureau in West Africa during the past year was submitted fcr determination recently. C. T. Greene reports that it contains numerous Trypetidae of economic importance and of unusual interest not previously represented in the national collection. Series of species already in the collection have been Also improved by the addition of material showing ne v distributional data. This fine lot of Trypetidae, combined with the even lar:er lot from Z&t-Africa._A@ntioned in the last News Letter, has enormously enrichedL the Museum collection esecially in the genera Ceratitis and Dacus.
Box-elder bug in New Jersey.--This injurious pest in its rapid 9prea4 over the eastern United States appears to be established in northern New Jcrsc-. Several specimens collected at Haddon Heights, N. J., Decembor 28, 1936, b- F. S. Ritchlie and sent to the Bureau for-identification, were determinec by H. G. Barber as Leptocoris trivittatus Say.


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