An apparatus for rapidly inspecting both sides of small objects


Material Information

An apparatus for rapidly inspecting both sides of small objects
Physical Description:
4 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
White, Gailen D
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Grain -- Inspection -- Equipment and supplies   ( lcsh )
Grain -- Storage -- Diseases and injuries   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


The apparatus described herein permits rapid examination of grain for insect damage.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
General Note:
"March 1949."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gailen D. White.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030361538
oclc - 783287299
System ID:

Full Text
March 1949 ET-265

United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


By Gailen D. White
Division of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations

During an investigation on the control of insects attacking farm-
stored grain, it was desired to have a rapid and accurate method for
determining the amount of insect damage occurring during the storage
period. By the usual method of separating damaged from undamaged
kernels it is necessary to turn each kernel in the sample by hand in
order to see all parts of it. This is a slow, tedious process when
large numbers of 1-ounce samples are being examined.

The apparatus herein described permits rapid examination of a
large number of samples with greater precision and with less eye fatigue
to the operator than was the case heretofore, since it enables the
observer to view both sides of the grain without turning it. Other
workers may find this device valuable in making observations of a
similar nature, or might adapt it to suit their particular needs.

Materials and Construction

A diagrammatic side view showing details of the apparatus is shown
in figure 1. The following materials are required for its construction:

G, plate glass, j x 9 x 12 inches
M, plate glass mirror, j x 9 x 12 inches
MI, plate glass mirror, j x 9 x 12 inches
T reading glass, 5-inch diameter
7, showcase bulb, 25-or 40-watt
S, light socket and switch with cord
m, etal baffle, 22-gage, 4 x 4 inches
N, wooden light obstructor, j x 4 x 6 inches
Smetal lens support, 22-gage, li x 17 inches
wood stripping, W x W x 12 inches, S4S
_, wood stripping (supports), E x E x 42 inches, S4S
I, felt stripping, x 1/8 x 74 inches
C, bleating, white pine, g x 1-5 x 72 inches, S4S
hails, 1-inct box
White pine, one piece, I x 124 x 17 inches, S4S (bottom of box)
Plywood, 4/16-inch, 3-ply: 2 pieces 71 x 17 inches;
1 piece 71 x 132 inches (sides of box)


Lstruct a box 17 inches long, 12 inches wide, and 7 inches high,
inside dimensions, using the plywood described l the above Mbrf. Leave
the back enrl and top of the box open to allow the flexibility of the
sides to assist in holding the adjustable mirror (MI) in place. Make
a slot (H), 1 by 4 inches, I1 inches below the upper edge and 4 inches
fr- the--front end of the left side of the box to provide for the
insertion of the showcase lamp (B). Fasten the wood stripping (W below
) for te plate glass support to the inner edge of the box. Pl'ce
t. i.-i so that when a felt strip (X) is glued to its upper side the
s.0-face of the glass placed on top of the felt will be flush with the
top edge of the box. Cover the upper surfaces of the diagonal mirror
supoi-i.s (W below M) with felt and place them at a 40-degree angle with
che bottomnof the box. Make the over-all length of each support 0lg-
inches, mitering the ends to fit the bottom and end of the box. Tack a
sti ip (R) at the base of these supports, leaving room for the thickness
of the mirror (M). Glue felt strips kX) on the sides and bottom of the
box as shown in the diagram. Attach the metal heat and light deflector
(P) to the wood stripping (W below G) above the lamp slot. Secure the
wooden light obstructor (N)"to the jide of the box with a single screw
2 inches from the bottom TY) in order that it may be rotated to allow
placement of the mirror (Mj. Cut a strip of metal (Z) and drill a 3/16-
inch hole 1 inch from one edge and equidistant from The ends for in-
sertion of the screw portion of the handle of the reading glass (L).
Cut the handle of the reading glass to a length of inch and use it as
a nut, or substitute a nut for it, to fasten the rim of the lens to the
metal strip. Clamp the ends of the metal strip supporting th'e lens
around the cleats on both sides of the box, so that the lens is nearest
the glass (G). Drill holes (K) in the box for the light cord, and place
the socket so that the lamp is held in place when inserted in the slot
(H) from the inside of the box. On the underside of the glass plate
(G) as viewed from above, block out with black paint to stop light
gTare a 3--inch strip on the left-hand side, rounding it to a 2-inch
strip on the side next to the operator, as shown in figure 3. A trough
may be added to the right side of the box for convenience in sliding
undamaged grain off into a receptacle (fig. 2). A 1-ounce salve tin
to receive damaged kernels is placed in a receptacle mounted on the
right side of the box (fig. 3).


Place a 1-ounce sample of grain on the left side of the glass
(fig. 1, G) and with a hockey-stick-shaped spatula spread some of the
grain in a single layer in the center of the visual field. This
spatula, which is shown in figure 3, may be fashioned from a suitable
twig. A reading glass will aid in the examination of the top side of
the kernels. It may be held in the hand or mounted on a swivel arm
attached to the side of the box. To provide equal lighting for the
top and bottom sides of the sample a goose-neck desk lamp may be used.
The arir'le of the mirror (fig. 1, MI) and the distance of the mirror
f:.-a the lens (L) can be adjusted so that the operator can see the
image without changing his position. By looking into the mirror (MI),


the operator can readily see any damage on the bottom side of the
kernels. For greatest convenience, the top of the apparatus should be
about table height. Use tweezers to remove the damaged kernels. Push
the undamaged kernels into the trough, which conveys them to another

Examine remainder of the grain sample in the same manner. With a
little experience the operator learns how much material can be examined
at one time within the limits set by the field of the lens. The bottom
view of the grain is magnified, making discernment of damaged kernels

FiPire l.-Diagrammatic side-view of apparatus showing details of
construction. 6ee text for explanation of letters.

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013


Figure 2.-Apparatus viewed from the right side, with top glass removed to
show placement of the metal heat and light deflector and the wooden light

Figure 3.-Apparatus viewed from the left side, showing placement of show-
case lamp in slot, and the blacked-out area on working surface. Wooden
spatula is shown lying on top of apparatus.

White paper was placed over the mirror to prevent lights from reflecting
while these pictures were being taken.

I 3 12l 62 09240III G l IIlIII 111111ll1l1 ll3 lIll
3 1262 09240 9423