SL- i. .. .
FATE PLANT BOARD
March 1943 ET-205
United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
CAGES USED IN FUMIGATION TESTS WITH ADULT JAPANESE BEETLES,
THEIR DISTRIBUTION AND RECOVERY
By Heber C. Donohoe,
Division of Control Investigations
The distribution of cages of Japanese beetle adults in experimental
fumigations of refrigerator cars, truck bodies, and other enclosures
and the method used by the writer for their recovery is here described,
as it may prove of value to other workers.
The cages are fashioned from 1-pint waxed cardboard cartons with
friction tops. The central disks of the top and bottom are cut out,
leaving a 1/2-inch margin to which disks of 12-mesh screen wire are
secured with liquid solder. Three windows, 1 by 2 inches, equally
spaced in the side of the carton, are covered by a strip of screen
similarly fastened around the carton and held in place over the windows
with rubber bands about the carton while the solder is hardening. This
type of cage offers no obstacle to the circulation of the fumigant dur-
ing treatment and none to its escape during aeration.
A loop of wire is tied into each screen bottom, to the outside of
which is attached a 5-foot length of 5/64" waxed or tarred fishline.
After the introduction of the test beetles the lid is secured by a
rubber band around the cage. Cages are distributed as desired in
the Space to be fumigated. If no load is involved, at least two are
placed at floor level and two near the ceiling at each end and midway
of the enclosure. If the car or chamber is loaded, the lower set of
cages is distributed over the top row of bags or other containing
Fishline has two distinct advantages over any other type of cord
tried. Being less flexible than other types, it can be looped over
wall projections and will hold sufficiently to support the cage, yet
so loosely that a tug on the line will release it. Because of this
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same characteristic, even although a number of lines become thoroughly
entangled, each can be quickly and easily pulled out of the composite
For use in refrigerator cars, with the cages in place, a length
of fishline is stretched on the floor or over the load for the length of
the car, with a central loop leading to the door to be opened after
fumigation. The lines from the cages at each end are tied to the ends
of this line, while those in intermediate locations are tied to it with
running loops and slip knots. When the fumigation is completed, all
cages can be quickly removed through the opened door without entering
the car, by catching the loop and hauling in the ends with their burden
of cages. This entails much less hazard to the operator than entrance
into the fumigant-filled and frequently dark space for collection of
individual cages, particularly where little or no aeration is allowed
before removal of the test insects.
In fumigations of trucks or fumigation chambers in which the door
is at one end, the lines can be arranged to suit each separate shape
of enclosure. While the drag and cage lines are usually badly tangled
at removal, they can be separated easily and quickly, as already noted.
When not in use, each cage line is wrapped around the'cage in a tight
coil and held in place by a wide rubber band.
This procedure with various modifications has been used exten-
sively in the development of methods of methyl bromide fumigation for
use in meeting Japanese beetle quarantine requirements for shipment
of perishable commodities.