Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine

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Title:
Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Alternate Title:
Report of the Acting Chief of the Bureau of Plant Quarentine
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2 v. : 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Frequency:
annual

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Subjects / Keywords:
Plant quarantine -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1932/33-1933/34.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note:
Title from caption.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 030288986
oclc - 12900277
lccn - sn 86033736
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AA00023078:00001

Related Items

Preceded by:
Report of the Chief of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration

Table of Contents
    Introduction
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    Annual report of Department of Agriculture, 1933
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Full Text









REPOT OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE, 1933


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE,
Washington, D.C., August 26, 1933.
SIR: I tranlsmit herewith a report of the work of the Bureau of
Pat Quarantine for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1933.
Respectfully,
LEE A. STRONG, Chief of Bureau.
Hon. HENRY A. WALLACE,
Secretary of Agriculture.


INTRODUCTION
The revocation of two domestic plant quarantines, progress in the suppression of th ikbollworm in the United States, and the inauguration of a vigorous
atakon a niewlyr discovered gypsy-moth outbreak in Pennsylvania have been amongthe more important developments in plant-quarantine work during the

The egultions that were canceled were those relating to the European corn bore an to the phony peach disease. The revocation of the corn-borer quarantinewasmade necessary by the lack of available funds for its adequate enforcement.Ini the case of the phony peach disease, on the other hand, the discovery thtthe dsaeoccurred extensively in large peach-growing areas in a consideal number of States made it appear that further work in the direction of peeting the spread of this disease could be carried out more satisfactorily truh the nursery-inspection organizations of the various States rather than undr provisions of a Federal quarantine. In the case of both the European
cor boer ndthe phony peach disease projects, the Bureau is continuing to aid in reentonof spread by cooperating with the States in the inspection and
certifica io susceptible materials.
ThePensyvania outbreak of the gypsy moth, which was found in the late
sumer f 132,is the most extensive infestation of this pest that has ever been disovredinths country west of the New England States, with the exception of heoneinNew Jersey discovered in July 1920. The State and Federal
Govermentsare cooperating in the effort to suppress the outbreak.
Durng he ear the port inspection service made more than 20,000 interceptions of nsetsand plant diseases in shipments coming from foreign countries, including may seiu pests of fruit, cotton, rice, beans, potatoes, forest trees, and other plats ndcrops of economic importance.
The rogessof these lines of work, as well as the Bureau's activities in suppresingor prventing the spread of the Mexican fruit fly, the Japanese beetle, the inkbolworm of cotton, the Thurberia weevil, the Parlatoria scale onl late palms thebrown-tail and satin moths, narcissus pests, the white pine blister rus, he lak stem rust of grains, and the Woodgate rust, and preventing the intrducionof foreign insect pests and plant diseases, are presented in detail in
thefolowngpages.
DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES
GYPSY MOTH AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH
GYPSY MIOTR FOUNDl IN PECNNSYLVANIA
An ifesttion of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar L.) was discovered at bIker-. .um= ear Pittston, Pa., late in July 1932. No special Federal or State funds available to carry on clean-up work, but in the emergency the State made







2 ANNUAL REPORTS 0 F DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

arrangements to provide headquarters -and storage, also to pay some miscellaneous items, and Federal fu nds, totaling $78,000, were drawn from the barrier-zone. project to carry on the needed scoutingand extermination activities.
A rapid survey made by four Federal experts in the fall of 1932 indicated, that the heavily infested area included the city of Pittston, and extended north, east, and south. By the end of September, 48 additional men had been withdrawn. from New England, and they continued work in Pennsylvania until early in November. Small infested centers were found in all directions, but there were fewer toward the west. This rough- survey indicated that about 15 square milescould be considered heavily infested and that 95 square miles contained small local infestations. A surrounding area of an average width of about 3 miles was scouted roughly, particularly along the roads, to determine in a general way the limits of the area infested.
Later, the banks of the Susquehanna River to flood mark were scouted from Ransom to Nanticoke, and the Lackawanna River from its mouth to beyond the northern limits of the city of Scranton. This resulted in locating a number of dangerous infestations which were immediately treated. In, addition to this, the area scouted embraced the entire cities of Scranton and Pittston and many small towns and villages, as well as the northern part of the city of Wilkes-Barre.
The funds available were not sufficient to determine the limits of infestation as. it was necessary to concentrate most of the work in the heavily infested central district. The area so far found to be infested is 230 square miles.
The most urgent need was to reduce the infestation materially, particularly in the badly infested central area, before the larvae hatched in late April or early May, in order to prevent spread, and to do as much scouting and treatment aspossible in the outlying areas.
The work has been carried on in cooperation with the State department of agriculture and the department of forests and waters. The Federal forcesupervised the work, furnished as many experts as possible, and supplied such, spraying equipment, tools, insecticides, etc., as the funds available would permit. The State department of agriculture furnished labor and part of the supplies and also leased a building for office storage and headquarters for transport and spraying equipment in the city of Wilkes-Barre. An arrangement was made between, the State department of agriculture and the State relief department to set up. a fund of $100,000 to furnish Work to the 'unemployed in the infested area. This arrangement was approved by the Governor, the funds were allotted equally to the relief boards of Luzerne and Lackawanna Counties, and a schedule set up so that men would be furnished regularly from the welfare lists.
Beginning January 16, 1933, and extending to June 30, the time was staggered so that each man who did satisfactory work would be employed for about 4 weeks. In all, nearly 1,000 men received work, an average of about 200 being employed throughout the period. They were engaged in cutting and burning worthless. trees and brush in the badly infested areas. This work was closely supervised by Federal men detailed from the barrier-zone work, and gradually men from this welfare group were selected and trained to find and treat egg clusters, to climb trees, and to assist in spraying.
Since January 1933 there have been treated or destroyed over 1,850,000 gypsy-moth egg clusters, most of these being in the central infested area. An egg cluster contains an average of 400 eggs. Over 1,200 acres of wood and brush land were cut and theslash burned.
Spraying with arsenate of lead was begun in June and was not completed until, July 7, 1933. Most of the 26 high-power spraying machines operated were used for treating small lots in cities and towns, and special care was necessary in order to prevent defacement of buildings and fences, and automobiles or other vehicles that were moving where the spray was being applied.' Over 4,800 of such properties were treated in residential sections, and over 2,800 acres of woodland were also sprayed. In some of the latter areas conditions were such that the handling of hose lines was extremely difficult, and in one case 7,000 feet of hose had to be used in a single line in applying treatment.
There are only. a few small nurseries in the infested area, and they do a local' business. It was found, however, that there was 'some movement of native plants such as rhododendrons and laurel, and that some forest products and surface stones were moved out of the territory. It seemed necessary to safeguard the movement of such material in order to protect adjoining sections as well as otherStates, and that the movement of freight cars, particularly those stored on sidings which were bordered by infested trees, should be given attention. Accordingly a State quarantine covering the townships of Bear Creek, Exeter, Hanover, Jackson, Jenkins, Kingston, Plains, Plymouth, Pittston, Wilkes-Barre, and the







BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 3

boroughs or otherypolitical subdivisions within or bounded by these townships or cities in Luzerne County, and the townships of Lackawanna, Ransom, Duinlore, Spring Brook, Jefferson, Roaring Spring, and Scranton, the city of Scranton, and any boroughs or political subdivisions within or bounded by these townships or cities in Lackawanna County, was announced March 15, 1933. Inspection of materials likely to carry infestation is required.
The principal materials inspected thus far have been props and lagging used in the mines, 6,721 units of this material having been inspected and certified up to the close of the fiscal year.
The results obtained in Pennsylvania have been most satisfactory considering the unusual difficulties which arose as a result of this emergency work. Although the area was scouted substantially as planned, the extreme limits of the infestation have not been determined up to the present time. A study of weather records which have been secured from the Scranton, Pa., station of the United States Weather Bureau covering the past 10 years, indicates that the trend of spread based on favorable wind and temperature conditions at the time when the wind spread of small larvae was possible, ranged from north to southeast from the central infested area. Unfavorable conditions for spread during this period in the sector northwest to south of the center was indicated. The actual spread that has been determined thus far has been principally in the directions indicated as favorable, but sufficient work has not been done to determine the outside limits of infestation. Intensive work is necessary on this project as this infestation is one of the largest and most difficult to handle that has been found outside New England.

CONDITION OF THE INFESTED AREAS IN NEW ENGLAND
Defoliation by the gypsy moth was more extensive during the summer of 1932 than during the previous year, the total area amounting to over 286,395 acres. The forests which were most completely stripped were those located south of Boston, in southeastern Maine, and in New Hampshire north and east of Lake Winnepesaukee. White pine suffered severely, -particularly many of the smaller trees in Massachusetts, and the growth of deciduous trees was greatly retarded as is now shown by the subnormal length of twigs and branches.
Records received from owners of cranberry bogs in the territory south of Boston and on Cape Cod indicate a loss of 2,780 barrels of fruit for the year, and as severe defoliation injures the growth so as to prevent fruiting the following year, the entire loss for the 2 years will approximate $55,600.
BARRIER-ZONE PROJECT IN NEW ENGLAND AND NEW YORK
At the beginning of the fiscal year severe reduction in expenditures was made necessary by a 38 percent cut in the funds available for the gypsy-moth project. On this account it was necessary to curtail purchases of supplies and equipment to the minimum, and in addition to dismissing more than 90 regular salaried employees, it was necessary to furlough 69 others for 1 month in order to keep) within the funds available.
Woodland scouting in the barrier zone, except in the area where the most infestations have been found, was abandoned; and during the latter part of July, Onl account of the finding of the serious infestation in northeastern Pennsylvania, the work in the barrier zone was further reduced by the diversion of $78,000 to provide for this unforeseen emergency.
As a result of such limited work as could be done in the barrier zone, 30 infestations were found-17 in towns in southwestern Massachusetts and 13 in northwestern Connecticut. Twenty--four of these were severe enough to require extensive spraying, and more than 1,900 acres were treated in this wNay during the month of June 1933. Weather conditions were excellent for spraying, and effective results have been secured in the areas treated.
In the New York section of the barrier zone extensive scouting has been done teby conservation department of that State. Two infestations were located, oeat Dover and another at Milan. These were treated and thoroughly Sprayed Irceent years, particularly in the spring of 1929 and 1930, rather conclusive eiece was secured that weather conditions were fav-orable for wNind spread ofthe smaller caterpillars from territory east of the barrier zone to the section oftezone in southwestern Massachusetts and northw-estern Connecticut. It
isthreore, of primary importance that inore extenSiv-e work be done in this secionof the zone, and that the woodland areas that haLve neverl beenl examined inVrmont and Connect~cut be inspected at the earliest possible late.







4 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

Collections of over 400,000'female gypsy moth pupae were secured near Middleboro, Mass., and from them over 166,000 females emerged. The tips of the abdomens of these insects were placed in a solvent and used in small cages for the purpose of attracting male moths. Two hundred and fifty moths were caught at 105 cages during the season, and some of these catches gave important clues as to the location of new infestations.
GYPSY MOTH WORK ON LONG ISLAND
The New York Conservation Department scouted selected areas in Queens County, North Hempstead and Oyster Bay towns in Nassau County, and Smithtown and Brook Haven towns in Suffolk County Long Island. No infestation was found in Queens and Siiffolk Counties.' rwenty-three infestations were located in Nassau County, 13 of them being found in North Hempstead and 10 in Oyster Bay town. All these infestations were found in an area of approximately 2 miles in radius from North Roslyn. This area has been for several years under State quarantine, and all shipments proceeding from it are inspected and certified by Federal inspectors. During the year over 4,000 shipments, including nursery stock, forest products, etc., have been so certified. Two smaR infestations in Oyster Bay town were found about a mile north of this area. One of them was in a lumber yard and the other not far from a nursery establishment., Both of these locations have been placed under quarantine and in addition to the clean-up work that has been carried on in aU the infestations mentioned, inspection and certification of products that are being moved has been required.

THE GYPSY MOTH IN NEW JERSEY
On February 6, 1933, a gypsy-moth egg cluster was found in the township of Randolph, N.J., near the Mendham-Randolph-Morris, township lines. This is in the northernmost part of the area that had previously been found infested. Further scou ting during the late winter and early spring resulted in the finding of 111 new egg clusters. These were treated, and arrangements were made to carry on spraying work in June. The location where these egg clusters were found was particularly difficult to examine carefully on account of the large number of ledges and boulders which cover most of the ground area and furnish convenient hiding places for the moths to oviposit. Owing to shortage of State funds and the need for prompt action, an arrangement was made whereby the Bureau furnished a supply of tanglefootand arsenate of lead, together with a fully equipped high-power sprayer, for treating this infestation.. The work was supervised and the labor supplied by the State department of agriculture. Sixty acres of woodland in and surrounding the infestation were thoroughly treated during the first half of June 1933.
On July 1, 1932, Federal work on the gypsy moth had been discontinued in New Jersey, but the State department of agriculture continued a limited amount of scouting and check-up work throughout the year. This project was supervised by a Federal expert who had been in charge of the work in New Jersey for many years and who was transferred to the State work with four other expert men at the beginning of the year. Over 1,900 cages used for attracting male moths were distributed in 51 townships in 6 New Jersey counties. These were located directly south and west of the area that had once been infested by this insect. No male moths were caught at any of these cages during the year.
EMERGENCY CONSERVATION WORK
For many years attention has'been called to gypsy-moth infestations between the barrier zone and the Connecticut River, and their presence emphasized as a constant threat to success in maintaining the barrier zone.
In connection with the emergency conservation work which is being carried on throughout the United States, an arrangement has been made for the organization of a group of men in 10 camps of the Civilian Conservation Qorps in the States'of Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut to carry on gypsy-moth scouting and clean-up work in this area. This work is in the formative stage, and it is hoped that with the completion of this organization early in the coming fiscal year it will be possible to find and treat the more heavily infested areas so that westward spread into the zone may be curtailed.








BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE

QUARANTINE AND INSPECTION WORK

During November and December the inspection of Christmas trees and greenery required the services of a number of agents w"ho were transferred temporarily from the scouting force. As there were less calls for Christmas trees and greenery than in the past, there was a considerable falling off in such shipments particularly in carload lots of Christmas trees. During the spring and fall shipping seasons a considerable amount of nursery stock was moved, but in general orders were smaller than during the preceding year. There was a decrease in the number of carloads of nursery stock shipped, but in some cases the smaller units increased to a marked extent. Nurserymen reported that they were receiving about as many orders as formerly but these were smaller. Because of the volume of inspection it was necessary to transfer agents from the scouting force to assist the regular inspectors in the examination of nursery stock.
Tables 1 to 3 indicate the volume and kinds of products inspected and certified during the fiscal year.

TABLE 1.-Evergreen products certified under gypsy-moth quarantine, fiscal year 1933


1Gyp]-syMatril ag BaesBoesBun- Car- Pack- TesTruck Products mnoth1
Matdies loads agess loadsres found. eggf
dle lodsage lods infested clusters found

Bas mtwigs--------- 265 3 8 3 ---- 35 ---- --- ----------Boughs ------------- ------ 11,542 21-------- 35 4 ---- --- ----------Crsma rees ----------------- ------- ------- 428 ------ 74,618.... 1crod-- 3
Laurel--------------- 751 6,213 546 1,267------- 39 ------- 7-------------- -------Mixed greens----------- 56 64 7,714 196------- 77 ------- ------- 1box ---- 2
Miscellaneous---------- ------ 8 244 27 --- 7-------- 1-----------Total---------- 1,072 17,830 8,533 1,493 463 212 74,618 8 1 truck load 5
1ibox -----TABLE 2..-Forest products certified under gypsy-moth quarantine, fiscal year 193$

Gypsy
mnoths
found
TukProducts
Material Pieces Truck found inloadstested
en 0



Barrel parts --------- ---- ---- ----- 48 9 2------- ----- 4 1-------------- --Crates and cratlngs ------ --- ----------------13 ----- -------86 1 1 piece-- 1
Fuel wood----------- 25 ---. 1 11 30 ____ 110 4 ---------212 {23l bgs____.. 36
Logs---------------- ---- ---- ----- ----- 23----- ----- ----- 79 452 1icar------ 2
Lumber-------------- 2 5 -6--------14 1 b-crs...----1 17
POt------------------ 10-- ---140 --------4 0 310 cir- ----30
Piles and poles ---------------- 7 37--- ----- -----1,9 13
Pulpwood ----------- ---- ---- ----- ----- 957 -- 9---- -------- 2p070 -----Reels ------------------- ------18----1 5, 19 2 crShavings----------- ---- ---- ----- ----- 34------ ----- -------- -------9 ---------- -- -Ship knees. -------------- ---------------------------Shrub and vine cuttings- 1 -- 107 217---------------- 9
Tis ------------ -- -- ---6 16G------ --------- --12 ]6~4
Mselnous ----------4... 30 2-1 14 0 713,95() 6157 2)5 7 2

Total ----------32 0 139 565 2,427, 6 1) 152 21,84,,,8 3,(3i 66) 13

23 pllecrvae







6 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

TABLE 3.-Stone and quarry products certified under gypsy-moth quarantine, fiscal year 1933

Gypsy moths
found
Material Barge Bar- Boxes Car- Crates Pieces Truck Products
loads rels loads loads found
infested Egg Larvae
clus- and
ters pupae

Crushed rock ----------- ------- -------- 725 ---------------- I ---------- ------- ------Curbing ----------------- ------- ------ -------- 113 -------- 1 12 ---------- ------- ------Feldspar ---------------- ------- ------ -------- 43 -------- -------- -------- ---------- ------- ------Granite ----------------- 136 ------ 360 2,684 840 83,977 232 7 cars- - 1 36 24
11 piece- I
Grout ------------------- 28 ------ -------- 80 -------- -------- -------- 4 cars- - 13 ------Marble ------------------ ------- 8 12,912 1,220 23,998 3,074 2 ---------- ------- ------Paving ------------------ 5 ------ 5 88 -------- -------- -------- 6 cars- - 15 1
Miscellaneous ----------- ------- 5 152 4 4 17 23 1 truck-- 2 ------Total ------------- 169 13 13,429 4,957 24,842 87,069 270 1 piece- 66 5
1 truck-This does not include 212 egg clusters, 11 larvae, 47 pupae found on car stakes, blocking, and crating material.
2 Includes 3 gypsy-moth pupae and I brown-tail larva.
Nursery stock certified under the gypsy-moth quarantine during the fiscal year consisted of 9,697 bales, 4,937 boxes, 124 carloads, 31,749 cases, 421 cash-andcarry packages, 9,370 packages, and 1,784 truck loads. Of these, 7 bales, 4 boxes, 10 cars, 6 cases, 1 package, an& 3 truck loads were found infested with 39 gypsymoth egg clusters, 8 gypsy-moth larvae, and 2 brown-tail winter webs.
Under a provision of the gypsy-moth-quarantine regulations, material which originates outside of the quarantined area may be shipped from points inside the area under permit. During the fiscal year nearly all types of products shipped under certificates were also shipped under permit. Permits were issued for the shipment of 4,332 individual or bulk lots.
Materials that have been manufactured, processed, or stored in such manner that, in the judgment of the inspector, no infestation could be transmitted, may be moved if accompanied by permits issued to the shipper. One'llundred and three firms or individuals are now shipping under permit. During the fiscal year 8,159 individual or bulk lots were 'Shipped.
During the time not required for regular inspection and certification work the inspectors have examined tourist camps for gypsy-moth or brown-tail moth infestation. The reports on this work cover 257 camps. Sixty-three camps were found infested with the gypsy moth to some extent, and three were also infested with the brown-tail moth. Eradication was recommended to owners. This has been done and the infestations destroyed.
VIOLATIONS
Investigations were made of 293 violations of the Federal and State gypsymoth and brown-tail-moth quarantines, and of 52 reported violations of other quarantines effective in the New England territory. Most of these were noncommercial shipments, and about 80 percent were small shipments by mail. In no case was evidence secured of willful intent to evade quarantine requirements.

COOPERATION
As in the past, cordial cooperative relations have existed between the States concerned and tile activities administered by the gypsy-moth project. Theresults secured during the present fiscal year have in a large measure been attributable to the interest and support of the States and tile local officials with whom we maintain active cooperation.
THE BROWN-TAIL MOTH
The infestation of the brown-tail moth (Nygmia phaeorrhoea Don- was more severe than during the previous season, especially in Maine and New Hampshire, and over 1,127,000 hibernating webs were cut and destroyed in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. No record is available of the webs that were cut in Maine.






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 7

There was a material spread of this insect beyond the quarantine line in Maine and New Hampshire, even reaching into five towns along the Connecticut River in Vermont.
THE SATIN MOTH
The satin moth (Stitpnotia salicis L.) was not so abundant during the summer of 1932 in the older infested areas as it had been during some of the previous seasons. However, severe defoliation of shade trees occurred in many places. Funds did not permit a thorough scouting of towns to determine the spread of this insect, and it was found in only two towns beyond the quarantined area. Fourteen violations of the satin-moth quarantine were reported and investigated during the year.
EUROPEAN CORN-BORER QUARANTINE AND CONTROL
GENERAL STATUS
Lack of adequate appropriated funds with which effectively to enforce the quarantine regulations on account of the European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn.) led to revocation of Notice of Quarantine No. 43, revised, on July 15, 1932. The Bureau's estimate for corn-borer quarantine and control during the 1933 fiscal year amounted to $795,000, or $155,000 less than the previous year's appropriation. As finally passed, the agricultural appropriation bill contained an item of $295,000 for maintenance of this work. It had been contemplated by the House Committee on Appropriations that the work could be continued with the reduced funds by eliminating road-patrol activities. Thorough consideraLion of the situation by Department officials indicated that the sum allotted was entirely inadequate to prevent movement via common carriers or motor vehicles of corn from infested to noninfested sections, and to carry out other protective measures which uninfested States might reasonably expect under a continuance of Federal quarantine. There remained no alternative but to revoke the quarantine and thus give uninfested States an opportunity to enforce such protective measures as they deemed necessary. Numerous quarantines paralleling the Federal regulations and restricting intrastate movement of affected products within infested States were also revoked following the Federal action.
In order that States outside the infested zone might have information upon which to base quarantine action, scouting operations along the periphery of the previously regulated territory were conducted as in former years.
Within a few days of the Department's announcement of the lifting of the Federal corn-borer quarantine, regulatory officials of four Corn Belt States met at Kansas City, Mo., for the purpose of considering uniform State quarantine action. State corn-borer quarantines and embargoes followed in quick succession after the Secretary's announcement of cancelation of the restrictions. A complete embargo on the movement of articles restricted in the revoked quarantine was issued by the State of Georgia coeffective with revocation of the Federal regulations. Louisiana followed on July 26 with a similar embargo, and during Augusu, September, and October embargoes affecting the same articles were issued by Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Colorado. In November, Wyoming issued a still stricter embargo covering articles additional to those included in canceled Federal regulations. Indiana, as yet known to be infested only with the 1-generation strain of the borer, in May 1933 promulgated a quarantine against those States infested with the 2-generation strain of the insect.
Comparatively uniform restrictive quarantines were issued during July and August by the appropriate State officials of Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wisconsin. Similar action by South Carolina followed in October. Under these quarantines no distinction is made between the sections infested with the 2-generation strain and those infested with the 1-generation type of the insect. In addition, the restrictions in most cases applv to a class of articles exempt from the previously existing Federal regulations. These State quarantines admit certain quarantined products either whei so manufactured or processed as to eliminate the corn borer or when inspected and certified by authorized State or Federal inspectors.
State quarantines under which State certification of restricted articles is acceptable and which contain special provisions not found in other quarantine groups were issued on various dates from July to October by Florida, Texas, Oklahoma, Kentucky, and Tennessee.
Each of the State embargoes or quarantine orders designates the following tas infested: Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Masachusetts, Michigan, New ampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont,







8 ANN-UAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

and West Virginia. In some instances Wisconsin is also mentioned among the States from which shipments are restricted, and the quarantines frequently apply to any additional States in which infestation may hereafter be found.
Regulatory action as- a result of revocation of the Federal 'regulations has been taken by all uninfected States except Alabama, Delaware, Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, North Carolina, and North Dakota.
Extended conferences and correspondence with. officials in States imposing embargoes finally resulted in agreement on the part ..of regulatory officials in Arizona, California, Colorado, Georgia, Louisiana, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah to accept Federal certification on quarantined articles shipped in accordance with the provisions of the Federal regulations in effect prior to July 15, 1932. Most of these agreements became effective in January 1933, with the revision of embargoes to provide for shipments- -into their respective States of quarantined articles from the infested zones when accompanied by Federal certification evidencing freedom from corn borer. Wyoming still retains its original embargo order.
Decision to inaugurate a Federal corn-borer inspection and certification service required a systematic survey of formerly quarantined territory to determine the amount of certification required and to acquaint dealers with the available service. The survey began in January and was concluded early in March. Territory in all States affected by the State requirements for Federal certification was divided into districts and various sections assigned to each of 23 men engaged in the survey. Although a complete survey was required of establishments shipping restricted articles, especial attention was first directed to large shippers of dahlia tubers, whose shipping season was near at hand. At the conclusion of the survey, the probable demands for Federal certification were summarized, and the surveyed territory was subdivided into areas which could be served conveniently by single inspectors. Territories as assigned early in March are as follows: Eastern Michigan, western Michigan, northern Indiana, southern Indiana and southwestern Ohio, northern Ohio, southeastern Ohio and West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southeastern New York and Fairfield County, Conn., western New York, northeastern New York, and the State of Connecticut other than Fairfield County. Inspection and certification in the New England States is furnished by inspectors working from the Boston and Springfield, Mass., field offices. In the 4 months that this inspection service has been available during the fiscal year, over 3,500 lots of quarantined articles were inspected and certified for. movement to States accepting only Federal certification.
For the purpose of enforcing the Illinois quarantine, State authorities enlisted the cooperation of county police officials ilong the Illinois-Indiana State line from Lake Michigan to the Wabash River. These officials assisted in preventing the movement through their counties of uncertified quarantined material. Squads of Illinois highway police were also stationed for a time on roads leading into the State from Indiana. Truck loads of contraband material were turned back. Express shipments of produce moving contrary to the quarantine were confiscated. Three Illinois inspectors were stationed in Chicago to check, in compliance with the regulations, the receipt of quarantined articles in the market district. For a short period, three shifts of Michigan State inspectors were stationed at Benton Harbor, Mich., for the purpose of inspecting and certifying celery and other farm produce affected by the Illinois quarantine.
Enforcement of State regulation's in general was largely secured through instructions issued by common carriers to their agents regarding acceptance of restricted material for movement into States quarantining against the infested States. Under the laws of many of the States, articles shipped contrary to regulatory ordersare subject to confiscation when found within the State.
Recommendations issued in November by the joint committee on the European corn borer, a committee composed of representatives of each of five national professional societies, again recognized the value of the Federal quarantine in preventing long-distance spread of the pest.
SCOUTING AND NEWLY DISCOVERED CORN-BORER INFESTATIONS
Field inspections to determine spread of the borer in 1932 were completely organized by July 31. The 228 men comprising the 83 crews assigned to work in the western area were trained at 2 scout schools conducted at the Department-owned farm near Toledo, Ohio. The State of Illinois employed 16 of these scouts. The State of Wisconsin also furnished 2 crews of 3 men each. Sixty-six men were trained at a stout school held at Freehold, N.J. After






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 9

receiving instruction in their duties and. examining infested cornfields in the vicinity of Freehold, these men were assigned to scout in sections outside the
knowninfested districts of the Eastern States. Routine scouting activities in both the western and central areas were discontinued on September 13. A small amount of rechecking, rescouting, and river scouting was continued for a few weeks after that date.
Spread of the borer, as determined by scouting operations during the summer of 1932, was much less than the usual annual migration of the insect. Weather conditions in the spring and early summer largely unfavorable for flight of the adult moths evidently accounted for this less-than-normal spread. Newly infested townships were found in seven States. These new infestations are located within comparatively short distances of territory previously known to be infested.
Scouting in Mosel township, Sheboygan County, and Centerville township, Manitowoc County, Wis., in which townships a few borers were discovered in 1931 and where clean-up measures were subsequently practiced, gave negative results. Field surveys farther south in the lake counties of Wisconsin resulted in the collection of 13 borers on a farm in Mount Pleasant township, Racine County. This first-record find is the most remote from known infested territory of those discovered in 1932. Activities in Indiana resulted in the finding of small infestations of from 1 to 3 borers each in 7 townships of 5 counties in previously uninfested districts in the northwestern and southeastern sections of the State. The latter localities are all in close proximity to known infested sections.
Field operations in Kentucky led to discovery of a single borer in section no. 4, near Newport, in Campbell County. This section is near the Ohio River in one of the northernmost Kentucky counties. Only one new infestation, a find of three borers, was recorded in West Virginia. This find was made on a farm in Union township, Marion County. A single township intervenes between this infestation and previously regulated territory. A fairly scattered infestation throughout Bucks County, Pa., was indicated by observations of infestations in Nockamixon, Bridgeton, and Tinicum townships. Bucks County adjoins the 1-generation infested zone.
Scouting in Delaware and counties not known to be infested in New Jersey gave negtve results. Surveys in the lower Eastern Shore sections of Maryland disclosed 5 infested districts in 2 counties. A farm in Willards district, Wicomico County, yielded two borers. In adjoining Worcester County, single infestation were found in the districts of Colbourne, Newark, and Snow Hill. In Stocktons, district of the same county, infestations were found on two farms.
A single borer collected in Temperanceville district of Accomac County, Va., indicates that the clean-up of the small infestation discovered there in 1931 did not reach all borers in the section. In addition to the specimen collected in the Temperanceville district, first-record finds were made in Metompkin and Lee districts of the same county.
STATE COMPULSORY CLEAN-UP CAMPAIGNS
Probably the most vigorous of the compulsory clean-up campaigns undertaken by infested States were those conducted by Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. In Connecticut, a clean-up crew of 21 men, each supplied with a light truck, began their work in the southern half of the State on April 12. Examinations for cornstalks or stubble were gradually extended to the northern tier of counties. The survey was completed early in June. Only 0" prosecutions were necessary, 2 of which were occasioned by the refusal of owners to plow and burn cornstalks in compliance with the State orders.
Half an acre of sweet corn in which infestation was discovered in a suburb of Racine, Wis., was promptly cut and destroyed.
Several demonstrations of corn-borer-control implem-ents were staged in cooperation with State or county agricultural officials in a number of Connecticut and Massachusetts localities.
FALL SURVEY OF INFESTATIO N
Surveys for degree of infestation were started in In~diana, Ohio, and Michi.
gnon Aust 15 by 16 men withdrawn from the regular scouting crews for the purpse.in addition, the Bureau of Entomnology furnished 6 experienced scouts, adthe State of Indiana sup plied 1 mian for boe-ouaincouints. Similar wokin eastern seaboard infested States began shortly thereafter. Five men weeprovided by this B~ureau for the work in the 'Middle Atlantic and New Egad States. Survey work in the western area was conipletced on September 15. Ini the eastern district it extended until September 23.







10 ANNUAL REPORTS 'OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

Data collected in 'the cooperative fall-infestation survey of 1932 were compiled by the Bureau of Entomology. In the 1-generation infested sections, significant borer increases over 1931 were -noted in the southeastern Michigan counties south of Saginaw Bay and bordering on the bay and on Lakes Huron and Erie, as well as in the five additional counties in the southeastern corner of the State. Four other Michigan counties evidenced no change in borer population, and a decrease was registered in a single county of.the State. Of 4 counties surveyed in northeastern Indiana 1 showed an increase, 1 a decrease, and the remainder no change in degree of infestation. More territory was covered by the survey in Ohio than in any other State. Northwestern Ohio counties bordering on Lake Erie and for several tiers south into the corn-growing sections disclosed no significant changing borers per hundred stalks over the previous year's records. Two counties bordering on Lake Erie in the northeastern corner of Ohio disclosed increases in infestation, as did 5 counties south of the older infested territory, and 3 northwestern counties. Champaign County, quite near the southern border of known corn-borer infestation, disclosed a rather generally distributed corn-borer population. In only one Ohio county was a decrease in infestation recorded. In Erie County, Pa., the only county surveyed in that State, examination of cornfields showed an increase in the number of borers per 100 plants. Surveys of 8 northernJake counties of New York showed decreases in 2 counties and no significant change in the others. Increased infestation in New York counties was confined to Cattaraugus County in the southwest and Schoharie County in the Albany district. Three counties in the Albany district, and Wyoming County in the western part of New York, remained unchanged in borer concentration.
In the 2-generation area, the infestation survey was extended to include recently infested territory in New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire. Data comparable to that obtained in the last fall survey, conducted in 1930 in the New England States, indicate considerable increase in the average number of borers per 100 plants throughout the area as a whole. Of the 2 counties surveyed in Maine, 1 showed no change in infestation and the other evidenced an increase in borer co n-centration. Increases were recorded in all three counties previously surveyed in New Hampshire. In Massachusetts, Essex and Barnstable Counties registered increases, Middlesex, Norfolk, and Bristol Counties decreases, and Worcester and Plymouth Counties an unchanged status. The greater part of Rhode Island showed no appreciable change in degree of infestation, although an increase was noted in Newport and Bristol Counties. Report was also received of the initial'infestation of Block Island, off the coast of Rhode Island. Spread of the insect from the mainland to the island required a moth flight of from 20 to 30 miles'from the towns of Middletown and Little Compton in Newport County. -Considerable increase in general infestation was evidenced in Connecticut. A comparison of data from 1930 discloses approximately the same degree of infestation in New Haven and Windham Counties, and significant increases in Tolland, New London, and Middlesex Counties. A fivefold increase in larval population in Suffolk County, Long Island, was observed as a result of examination of the corn crop affected by the second-generation borers. Combined injuries by the corn borer, corn ear worm, and Stewart's disease resulted in a 50 percent reduction in the corn yield in this Long Island county.
Throughout the 1-generation area surveyed the average number of borers per 100 plants increased from 16.6 in 1930 to 31.7 in 1931 and 33.5 in 1932. Similar comparisons in the 2-generation area are 82.6 in 1929, 58.9 in 1930, and 91 in 1932. No 1931 fall survey was made in the latter area.
CONSOLIDATION OF HEADQUARTERS

Motor-vehicle, spraying, and other equipment on hand at the Springfield, Ohio, western-area headquarters was moved to New Cumberland, Pa., where it is now stored in a large warehouse. at the general depot of the United States Army. With the transfer of the general headquarters from South Norwalk, Conn., to Harrisburg, Pa., in May, the personnel at Springfield was transferred to either the New Cumberland depot or to the Harrisburg headquarters. Both the Springfield and South Norwalk buildings were vacated at the end of the fiscal year.
Several members of the permanent corn-borer personnel were transferred from corn-borer to Japanese beetle rolls and assigned to enforcement activities under the Japanese-beetle quarantine.
Quantities of tools, farm implements, sprayers, and motor vehicles were reconditioned and transferred to the pink-bollworm and gypsy-moth projects.






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 11

JAPANESE BEETLE QUARANTINE AND CONTROL
EXTENT OF INFESTATION

The abandonment of visual field surveys by scouts and the substitution therefor of traps for the purpose of determining the presence or absence of the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newm.) in nonregulated territory were responsible for discovery during the summer of 1932 of first-record infestations in greater numbers and at points farther removed from the infested sections than previously recorded. Catches ranging from 1 to 10 beetles were made in 94 cities and towns. Finds of so few beetles in a locality are largely indicative of incipient infestations, possibly of the current year's spread. Collections in sufficient numbers to indicate apparent overwintering infestations were made in 49 cities and towns. Catches at these 143 cities and towns not previously known to be infested totaled 3,688 beetles.
Observations in sections densely infested with the Japanese beetle indicated that the insect during the summer of 1932 probably caused greater destruction of fruit and produce crops than in any year since its discovery in 1916. For the past several years adult beetles have been known to cause considerable commercial damage to cut flowers grown throughout the winter and spring months in greenhouses in the Philadelphia zone. This condition has continued. A few instances have also been observed of heavy concentrations of larvac in uncertified nursery plots destroying evergreen stock, thus compelling the poisoning of the nursery block with arsenate of lead to protect the stock. Such treatment has been entirely for plant protection rather than in compliance with the quarantine requirements. Beetle population increases were sufficient in Long Island and Westchester County, N.Y., and the northeastern counties of New Jersey, to arouse public interest and require the attention of city foresters and park departments in combating the insect. Adult beetle flight of noticeable proportions took place in sections of Wilmington, Del., and Harrisburg, Pa. Through the county agent of Burlington County, N.J., heavy beetle damage to soybeans was reported for the first time, requiring early harvesting of the crop to prevent entire destruction of the stand.
Surveys were made for 7 weeks during the summer of 1932 to determine the extent of the sections in southern New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania, and northern Delaware in which Japanese-beetle defoliation or partial defoliation of favored food plants was conspicuous and readily observable from an automobile proceeding at a moderate rate of speed. Defoliation to the extent of between 75 and 100 percent was obvious over an area of 1,647 square miles. Damage of from 50 to 75 percent was evident in 1,378 square miles. Evidence of at least 25 percent foliage injury was observed over an additional area of 1,333 square miles. A total of 4,378 square miles was found infested to the degrees noted. Among the plants wholly or partly defoliated were apples, peaches, cherries, plums, quinces, lindens, willows, larch, young Norway maples, sassafras, horsechestnuts, grapes, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, certain vegetables, and a number of ornamental plants. Adult feeding on the silk of field and sugar corn also resulted in reduced yields of these crops. In this densely infested section, heavy concentrations of grubs destroyed or badly injured the sod in many lawns and golf courses.
The regulated area as effective January 23, 1933, includes the New England States, with the exception of Maine and the northern halves of New Hampshire and Vermont; the Middle Atlantic States, exclusive of territory in northwestern Pennsylvania and northern New York contiguous to the lake region and Canadian border; together with the District of Columbia, the State of Delaware, and limited sections of Maryland and Virginia. Included in the regulated territory are 97,690 square miles. In addition to the main regulated zone, there are 10 small isolated regulated sections, 3 in Virginia, and 7 in Maryland. This enlarged area places under regulation all infestations of an apparently established nature. It is believed that the few beetles trapped in West Virginia, the Shenandoah Valley, western New York, Maine, Michigan, Ohio, North Carolina, and South Carolina are not indicative of established infestations warranting quarantine extension.
Field inspections by scouts in the sunmmner of 1932 were confined to examination of 1,230 class I nursery and greenhouse establishments and nearby I)renmisee. Scout collections indicated that the insect had spread to 163 classified premises which in previous years had been found free from infestation. This s a much greater spread of the insect than took place last year, when initial infetations were found on only 126 classified nursery or greenhouse premises.







12 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

All field work to determine the present scope of the beetle outside the 51,339 square miles then under regulation was performed with traps. The 1932 fieldinspection work was of greater scope than any previously attempted. Traps were in operation in all Atlantic Coastal States and in selected cities in States as far west as Michigan. In all, 45,721 traps were used in determining the presence or absence of beetles in nonregulated territory. In most communities examined, 400 traps were distributed at points of likely infestation. Traps on each route were periodically visited by a trap inspector. Experienced men with small trucks were assigned to supervise the work of a number of trap inspectors. Trapping was already in progress in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Ohio at the beginning of the fiscal year. During July, trap distribution began in Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Michigan. Final placement of traps was made in Vermont and Maine during August. Throughout the summer traps were operated for periods varying from 30 to 60 days in 3 cities each in Florida and Georgia, 4 cities in South Carolina, 5 cities in North Carolina, and 3 cities in West Virginia. In the unregulated portions of States already partially quarantined, traps were in operation in 32 towns and cities in Virginia, 35 communities in Maryland, 50 localities in Pennsylvania, 43 localities in New York, and in 62 Massachusetts towns and cities. The New England trapping program was carried on in 6 cities each in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. In the East North Central States traps were placed in 13 Ohio cities, in Detroit, Mich., and Richmond, Ind. Selection of these 273 towns and cities as sites for trapping activities was made on the basis of their ranking as transportation centers, as possible destination points of illegally transported infested produce or nursery stock, or as possible centers affording favorable environments for the establishment of afew beetles accidentally carried from the zone of heavy infestation.
Most remote from the regulated zone of the first-record finds are the infestations of a few beetles each discovered at Florence, S.C.;, Winston-Salem, Raleigh, and Durham, N.C.; Roanoke and Lynchburg, Va.; Wheeling, W.Va.; Canton, Cleveland, Columbus, Steubenville, and Zanes-011e, Ohio; Detroit, Mich.; Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Rochester, and Syracuse, N.Y.; Bellows Falls, Brattleboro, Rutland, andWhite River Junction, Vt.; Dover, Keene, Manchester, Portsmouth, and Wet Lebanon, N.H.; and Augusta, Kennebunk, and Portland, Maine. Beetles in considerable numbers were collected at the site of the -newly discovered infestation in Concord, N.H. In the unregulated portion of Pennsylvania, infestations in 27 localities were determined. Beetles were collected in 17 cities and towns in nonregulated territory of Virginia, and in 31 communities outside the then-restricted zone in Massachusetts.An incipient infestation discovered at Charleston, S.C.,:in 1931 and surface treated the following fall with arsenate of lead failed to disclose any beetles in 1932. Nominal increase ODIV was noted at previously discovered infestations in Annapolis and Chevy. Chase, Md.; Boston, Mass.; Buffalo and Little Falls, N.Y.; Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio; Laughlintown, Ligonier, New Castle, Pittsburgh, and Tyrone, Pa.; and Richmond, Va.
Trapping activities for the summer of 1933 were fully organized in North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia by the end of the fiscal year. First placement of traps was made in Charleston, S.C., on May 27. The only first-record find recorded was a catch of two beetles at Emporia, Va.
SUPPRESSIVE MEASURES
Intemive eradication mea.3ures were applied at Erie, Pa. In conjunction with the season's trapping activities, surface application of lead arsenate was made to soil and sod in infested sections. Throughout the summer, trap inspectors made six applications of poison spray containing attractants. to foliage in the infested district of the city. Traps distributed in Erie during 1931 yielded 170 beetles. Catches of 282 beetles were made in 1932, an increase which is not considered significant.
Application of lead arsenate to the twosmall sections in Detroit, Mich., where a few beetles were trapped in August 1932 was completed: in September. This suppressive work was a joint project with the authorities of the State of Michigan and the city of Detroit. Similar poison application was made at the site where two beetles were trapped at Florence, S.C. Lead arsenate for the latter work was supplied by the State of South Carolina.
Community spraying for Japanese-beetle control, in cooperation with the Maryland State Horticultural Department, was carried on during June 1933 in






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 13

Laurel, Colgate, and near Elkton. These infestations are separated from the continuously infested sections centering about Philadelphia. Infestations in these localities approach conditions found in the densely infested sections farther north. Excellent coverage with coated lead arsenate of all foliage in the sprayed communities assured protection to vegetation, some of which during several years past has been subject to complete defoliation. Instead of adding geraniol and syroline to the spray mixture, as was done at Erie, Pa., during the summer of 1932, perforated metal cages each containing a small jar of geraniol-eugenol mixture, equipped with a wick for volatilizing the liquid, were hung in sprayed shrubs and trees of the species known to be preferred food plants of the insect. Beetles thus attracted to the poisoned foliage consume enough of the lead oleate-lead arsenate insecticide to receive a toxic dose.
Beetle depopulating demonstrations were performed in Philadelphia, Pa., and Trenton, N.J., during the summer of 1932. In Philadelphia, the operation of 472 traps for a period of 9 weeks on 6 poisoned plots planted to a preferred food planL of the insect resulted in catches of about 2,800 pounds of beetles. Maintenance of 63 traps at Trenton during the season resulted in a total catch of over 633,000 beetles. Despite the quantities of beetles codected in connection with these demonstrations, the number of the insects in the immediate vicinity of the traps was not greatly depleted.
Large-scale trapping activities initiated during July and August by the State of New Jersey in the densely infested sections of Salem County, in southern New Jersey, resulted in the collection in 2,100 traps of over 500 millions, or 55 tons, of beetles.
An improved method of baiting the traps was adopted, liquid bait, containing geraniol and eugenol, being substituted for the bran bait mixture formerly used. mall jars equipped with wicks are used to vaporize the oils. The advantages accruing from The use of the liquid bait are reduction in time required to prepare the bait, reduced bulk and weight, and consequent lower haulage costs in moving Lrge quantities of trap equipment for long distances.

ROAD STATIONS
Border patrol stations, established during the previous April, were already in operation on 18 highways at the beginning of the fiscal year. These vehicularinspection stations were concentrated on the highways leading from the regulated sections of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. Highways chosen for the road-inspection work were the mainly traveled routes from heavily infested zones to points west and south. Thirteen of the stations were continued until fall. Five other stations were closed and reopened as the seasonal movement of quarantined articles justified. Road-inspection work was discontinued for 1932 with the closing between November 9 and 26 of the 17 stations then in operation. The 1933 border-patrol activities began with the reestablishment of stations in Maryland and Virginia late in March. Reorganization of the work in Pennsylvania and New York followed as rapidly as inspectors could be instructed in their duties. At the close of the fiscal year 25 established road-inspection stations were located at the borders of the regulated territory in Virginia, Maryland, and along the Pennsylvania-West Virginia and Pennsylvania-Ohio State lines. A roving patrol of 4 Pennsylvania State inspectors covers 8 roads leading into the nonregulated section of northwestern Pennsylvania. Another Pennsylvania inspector maintain an established post. Road-inspection work was revived in New York State with the establishment in mid-April of a mobile patrol of four State-employed inspectors who alternate their hours between 10 highways over which most of the quarantined articles move west from the regulated portion of northern New York.
Stations in operation during the fiscal year stopped 1,349,323 road vehicles, 1M,729 of which were found to be carrying contraband material. Among the i t material removed from the contraband surrendered at the road stations were 253 grubs and adults of the Japanese beetle.
CERTIFICATION AND TREATMENT OF NURSERY STOCK
Under revised interpretation of the nursery classification regulations, effective iOctober, class III status is now confined exclusively to establishments on w beetles or grubs have been found, or establishments quite definitely deted as in a generally infested section and within 500 feet of which beetles been collected. Under this interpretation of the regulations 68 nurseries hhad been given a class III status were reassigned to class I, and thereby






14 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1933

permitted to ship their stock without chemical treatment or freeing it from soil. All establishments returned to class I were scouted during the summer of 1932 and their actual premises found free from beetles.
A joint certification plan was inaugurated in the spring of 1933 whereby, in territory in which inspection and certification requirements under the gypsymoth and Japanese-beetle quara ,ntines overlap inspections may be made and certificates issued by either the gypsy-moth or Japanese-beetle inspector. Ins pectors performing this joint certification are supplied with rubber stamps with which they may affix to packages containing inspected material a joint certificate showing compliance with both Quarantines Nos. 45 'and 48. All men thus engaged were instructed in their duties by the appropriate cooperating project. Records of the materials jointly certified are furnished to the field offices of both projects.
Nursery and greenhouse establishments maintaining classified status under the quarantine regulations have increased in number during the year from 1,676 to 2,424. While extension of the area accounts for a large proportion of the increase, surveys within the previously regulated territory to acquaint plant growers with their privileges under the regulations have also resulted in the addition of many classified premises. Since the recent extension of area, many shippers in centrally located sections of the regulated territory have relinquished their classified status, as their shipments of plant material are now wholly within the zones under regulation.
With the growth of the regulated territory and the increase in the number of classified nurseries and greenhouses in infested sections, supervision of interdealer movement of certified stock between classified establishments has grown to considerable proportions. Since classified establishments are obliged, under the precautions necessary to assure eligibility of their entire stock, to receive only certified stock on their premises, large quantities of stock moving to such premises require inspection and certification, although portions of material so received may not eventually be reshipped to nonregulated States.
Results of analyses by chemists of the Technological Division of soil samples collected in lead-arsenate-treated nursery plots and coldframes were made available from April to June. Upon receipt of the data, the information was in turn transmitted to the nursery concerned. As a result of the analyses, 44.5 acres of nursery plots and frames, containing 210,887 plants, were re-treated prior to July 1 with lead arsenate in sufficient quantity to restore the treated frames or plots to the prescribed dosage of 1,500 pounds per acre.
A supplement to the requirements for the disinfection of nursery products issued in August 1932 permits the treatment of potting soil with lead arsenate. Previously soil for use in potting plants -later to be shipped under certification required treatment in a closed container with raw carbon disulphide. Treatment of the soil with lead arsenate must be pei-formed prior to August 1. The poisoned soil may then be used between October 1 and the following June 15.

CERTIFICATION OF FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND CUT FLOWERS

Seasonal regulation of movement of quarantined farm products became effective on June 15. Rapid disappearance early in September of adult Japanese beetles made possible lifting of the farm-products-certification requirements on September 17 Active adult flight of the insect ceased several weeks prior to the lifting of the summer restrictions. What few beetles were still in evidence in mid-September were largely inactive, confining their feeding to the blooms of specially favored food plants, such as the dahlia. This latter condition made it necessary that the inspection and certification of all cut flowers moving to nonregulated territory be maintained until October 15. Inspectors operating in the wholesale-cut-flower establishments in Philadelphia were still removing beetles from inspected blooms as late as September 30.
The presence of large numbers of adult beetles in the market and waterfront districts of Philadelphia persisted from July 12 to August 12. As has been the practice in past years, inspection service during this period was confined to the daily hours of beetle inactivity.4
Fruits and vegetables subject to quarantine restrictions, during the summer of
1932 were limited to nine farm products which are especially susceptible to beetle A; infestation in the fields where grown. Reduction in th 'e number of classes of farm products under restriction and enlargement of the New York regulated area considerably curtailed the amount of quarantined farm products and cut flowers shipped under certification. Despite the reduced quantity of articles 1






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 15

offered for inspection during the seasonal quarantine, approximately 45,500 lot shipments of these certified articles moved from the regulated area. Inspections were made at 67 inspection centers conveniently scattered throughout the infested zone, and 1,843 beetles were removed from articles presented for inspection.
Construction of a fumigation house was completed in the spring of 1932 by a cooperative blueberry grower's association at New Lisbon, N.J. All blueberries certified for movement from the regulated zone, and a large proportion of berry shipments to infested sections, were fumigated with carbon disulphide. Although fumigation of the latter shipments is not required as a requisite for their movement, the chemical treatments were made to kill any Japanese beetles that might be present in the cellophane-wrapped packages. Japanese beetles feeding in such closed packages have been found to affect the salability of quality berries. The municipally owned fumigation house at Hammonton, in the blackberry- and raspberry-growing sections of southern New Jersey, was continued in operation while beetles were in flight during the summer of 1932.
Modification of the requirements for the disinfection of bananas unloaded from boats docked at Philadelphia during the active flight period of the insect permitted the use of liquid hydrocyanic acid gas as a fumigant for refrigerator cars loaded with this product. Heretofore a calcium compound of the acid had been prescribed as the medium for liberating the poisonous gas. This modified practice permits a reduction in the cost of materials per car from approximately $3.45 to $0.38. Greater care must be exercised in injecting the quickly volatilizing liquid into the car and the operator is equipped with a gas mask, which was unnecessary when the solid form of fumigant was used.
Commercially packed apples are exempt from the requirements for certification under the quarantine regulations effective at the beginning of 1933. For quarantine purposes, the definition of commercially packed apples is restricted to apples in closed barrels, boxes, or baskets, of sizes and types customarily used in the apple trade, or apples in open packages when such apples have been graded above the grade of Unclassified in accordance with official State or Federal standards and the containers are marked with such grade.
Demand for inspection and certification of string beans from infested fields in southern New Jersey resulted in the development of a mechanical beetle separator, since beans cannot be fumigated without injuring them. Construction of several separator models finally resulted in the adoption of a type of machine involving essentially a sloping, revolving cylinder 7 feet long, covered with %2-inch mesh wire, and mounted on an iron frame. Beans are poured through a hopper into the higher end of the cylinder. As the cylinder is revolved by means of a hand crank, the beans tumble without injury to the lower end of the cylinder, where they empty into a hamper. Any beetles present are shaken off and fall through the wire mesh. Surrounding the inner cylinder is a similarly constructed cylinder of larger diameter to catch any beans which may slip through the meshes of the inner cylinder. In tests conducted with the machine and with inspectors making visual inspections of the beans, the mechanical separator in every case proved more efficient than the inspector in ridding beans of known infestations of beetles.
Inspection and certification of green stringless beans and wax beans from an extensive bean-growing section within a radius of 20 miles of Baltimore, M.Nd., were handled largely through the periodic scouting of 425 bean farms, and the accrediting of uninfested growing sections. Bean shippers in Baltimore desiring suibsequent certification of their purchases in carload lots receive in their screened bean houses only certified beans. Beans from accredited farms receive immiediate certification. Products from inifested fieldisrequiire inspection at aplatiformi maintained in the market district during the effective period of the seasonal quarantine on fruits and vegetables.

SUMMARY OF CERTIFICATES ISSUED AND OP VIOLATIONS INVESTIGATED

A total of 554,056 certificates of all types wias issued during the 12-month period.
Table 4 shows the quarantined articles intended for shipment from the regulated area and for use in certified greenhouses, or surface soil in nursery plots, heelingin, or plunging areas, which were fumnigated or sterilized during th~e fiscal year.







16 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE; 1933

TABLE, 4.-Materials fumigated or sterilized 'under Japanese-beetle-quarantine regulations, fiscal year 1933

Number treated withMaterial treated Carbon
Artenate disul- Naph- Hydroof lead, phide thalene Steam cyanic
gas or acid
emulsion

Plants --------------------- ---------------- number-- 417,548 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------Potting soil ---------------------------- cubic-yards' A 2,639 ---------- 717 ---------Mushroom soil -------------------------------- do ---- ---------- 369 ---------- ---------- ---------Manure-, ------- do ---- ---------- 25 ---------- 34 ---------Leaf mold -------------------------------------------------- do ---- ----- ---- ---------- ---------- 15 ---------Sand ------------------------------------------ do ---- ----------- 11191 ---------- 80 ---------Peat ------------------------------------------ do ---- ---------- 5 ---------- ---------- ---------Surface soil ------------------------------ square feet-- 314,827 14,881 2,159 ---------- ---------Surface soil with plants ----------------------- do ---- 2,671,070 ------ ---- ---------- ---------- ---------Bananas ----------------------------------- bunches -- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 94,459
Berries --------------------------------------- crates -- ---------- 14,966 ---------- ---------- ---------Nursery and ornamental stock, sand, earth, peat, compost, and manure were certified for shipment from the regulated areas- during the fiscal year in the following quantities:
Plants ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ number-- 34,268,557
Sand, earth, and clay ---------------- ----------------------------------------------- carloads-- 3,809
Peat ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ do ---- 83
Manure and compost ------------------------------------------------------------------- do ---- 174
Fruits, vegetables, moss, and cut flowers certified during the seasonal quarantine on these articles were as follows:
Fruits and vegetables ---------------------------------------------------------------- packages-- 3,629,434
Moss ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ bales-_ 355
Cut flowers ------------------------------------------------------------------------- packages 49,737
Over 1,000 reports of apparent violations of the Japanese-beetle-quarantine regulations were received from all sources during the 12-month period. Investigations were made of all such irregularities, and proceedings were instituted in United States district courts for eight violations of the Plant Quarantine Act arising from shipments contrary to the regulations.
STATE AND MUNICIPAL COOPERATION

Mutually satisfactory relations continued with officials in cooperating States. Appropriations for regulatory and control work were available from the States of Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jerse New York,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. In addition, the &ate of South Carolina supplied lead arsenate for the treating work in Florence, and the Michigan State and city authorities concerned cooperated in financing the treating work in Detroit. Numerous community spraying campaigns locally financed in heavily infested cities were again repeated in .1932. Considerable spraying work was performed by private contractors in the environs of Philadelphia. Beetle-collecting contests were held by a number of garden clubs or local officials in newly infested territory. The application of lead arsenate in large quantities to lawns on infested estates and to private golf courses in Philadelphia suburbs has come to be a common practice.

PINK BOLLWORM
ERADICATION MEASURES IN FLORIDA
The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) was discovered infesting a species of wild cotton in southern Florida in'June 1932. Such of this cotton as grew along the highways and in other easily accessible places constituted an especial danger, as tourists and other travelers could unintentionally distribute the insect to new localities. The eradi cation of this roadside cotton was therefore
immediately begun and was soon completed to the extent that one could pass through the area without finding wild cotton, unless he should take special pains to do so.






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 17

A survey was then started to locate all cotton, either wild or domestic, in the southern part of the State. Commercial cotton is not grown south of Alachua County, with the exception of a few small experimental plantings in Sumiter, Pasco, and Hillsborough Counties. Wild cotton was, however, found growing along the coast and on keys or islands. On the east coast, the only wild cotton found above Miami consisted of four small colonies on a peninsula in Brevard County, opposite the town of Grant. On the west coast, wild cotton occurs rather generally on both the mainland and adjacent keys from Cape Sable northward to St. Petersburg. The only wild cotton found above this point was a small colony located on a key near Hudson, in Pasco County.
In connection with this survey, it was found that a considerable percentage of the wild cotton was infested. Infestations were discovered along the west coast as far northward as Terra Ceia Island, in Manatee County, while on the east coast the most northerly infestation was discovered on dooryard cotton plants at Lake Worth, in Palm Beach County.
Field inspection of commercial plantings of cultivated cotton in north-central Florida, and the operation of one of the portable gin-trash machines there resulted, on September 26, 1932, in the finding of a specimen in trash from the gin at High Springs, in Alachua County. Inspectors were immediately concentrated in this area, and on October 10, 14 specimens were found in a field 10 miles northwest of High Springs, in Columbia County. Another specimen was found in this same field the following day. On October 8 a pink bollworm was found with the machine in trash from a gin at Lake City, and by field inspection an infestation was located in a field 5 miles southwest of Alachua, in Alachua County, on October 26, two specimens being taken. Field and gin-trash inspections were continued as long as material was available, but no other specimens were found.
As a result of these discoveries, a public hearing was held to consider the advisability of extending the quarantine to cover this area. It developed that several counties east and south of Alachua and Columbia Counties did not have ginning facilities, the cotton produced in such counties being ginned in the infested counties. For this reason Baker, Bradford, Union, and Gilchrist, together with Alachua and Columbia Counties, were placed under regulation effective October 29, 1932. An inspector was placed at Lake City to supervise compliance with the various regulations.
Not a great deal of cotton was grown in the immediate vicinity of the two infested fields, and it was therefore possible to clean all fields within a 5-mile radius of each known infested field. This was done following the conclusion of cotton picking and was completed in December. A total of 169 fields, covering 8471 acres, was cleaned in the two counties. The average cost per acre for labor and for fuel for burning the material was $2.43. The six gins operated in the two counties were thoroughly cleaned at the end of the season; so also were the three oil mills in southern Georgia which had handled seed from the area.
Most of the cotton had been ginned before the regulated area was established. As the gins were not equipped with facilities for sterilizing the seed, a portable sterilized was constructed and sent to the area. The seed belonged to a number of different individuals and firms, and while the bulk of it was more or less concentrated, it was necessary to bring the seed to the machine from some 40 different locations. An accurate record was kept of the heat of the seed as it was run through the machine. Approximately 90,000 pounds of seed were sterilized. Germination tests were later made, and they showed that the sterilized seed had slightly better germinating qualities that did the unsterilized seed.
As a result of the survey made in the fall, it was found possible to eliminate the wild cotton from southern Florida and the adjacent islands. This work was begun early in the calendar year 1933. By the end of June, all the cottonll on the west coast from Naples northward had been destroyed, thus widening the gap between the wild cotton and domestic plantings by fully 150 miles, making the total distance about 300 miles. The wild cotton on the east coast was also destroyed, but a considerable amount still remains on the islands in Florida Bay and on Cape Sable. None of the cotton on Cape Sable can be reached until the next dry season.
During this eradication campaign over 625,000.nmature, 816,000 seedling, and 1,000 sprout plants have been destroyed. By seedling plants is meant those up to the size of walking canes; mature plants are any plants larger than this. Some of the mature plants reach a height of 15 to 20 feet and arc 3 or 6 inches in diameter, although the majority are not so large. Many wild and domestic cotton plants are grown in yards as ornamentals, and during the eradication work these have also been destroyed. After the danger was explained, all the owners, except 1 or 2, allowed uch plants to be destroyed.
12988-33--3







18 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT' OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

The eradication of the small' experimental plantings of cultivated and wild cotton at Chapman Field has been carried on in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry. A few plants have been left in each of the plots so as to avoid any possibility of driving the pests to some other malvaceous plant. All thefruit was removed from the plants which were left, and throughout the yearthe blooms have been removed daily. These blooms were found to be infested during the summer of 1932, but from October 7 to March 3, 1933, the examinations were negative., During the period March 3 to 24,1933,,11 pink-bollworm larva& were taken from blooms in one of the plots,- but all examinations between then and the end of the fiscal year have been negative. This would apparently indicate that the light infestation was due to overwintering larvae in the soil and not to reinfestation from outside sources.
CLEAN-UP OF BIG BEND AREA OF TEXAS UNDERTAKEN
The Big Bend section of Texas is comprised of the counties of Brewster and Presidio, most of the cotton acreage being in Presidio. During the 1931 crop. season the infestation was heavier than ever before, practically all bolls beinginfested before the end of the season, and'the loss to farmers was exceedingly heavy. Early investigations indicated that the infestation would be even heavier during the 1932 crop season. Such intense infestation -makes the prevention ofspread by quarantine methods all the more difficult, and plans were accordingly made to try to reduce this infestation to insure that the quarantine would give, the necessary protection to the Cotton Belt proper. The plans were to make B& thorough clean-up of the fields after picking had been com leted, have the farmers, delay the planting date for the following crop, and make use of trap plots of cotton.
Complications, however, prevented these plans from being carried out in f ull detail. In the early part of September a flood came down the Conchos River of Mexico, which empties into the Rio, Grande about 2 miles above Presidio. All the cotton acreage on the Mexican side of the river, and approximately 1,200 acres in Presidio County, were flooded. About 3 ''weeks later floods came down the Rio Grande and theConchos River at.the same time and covered practically all the cotton acreage of the Big Bend. This made the field clean-up much more difficult than it otherwise would have been. Silt was deposited about the fields which prevented the use of machinery; it was necessary, therefore, to cut the stalks with machetes and have the clean-up done by hand.
The work was begun early in November and completed the latter part of January. A total of 4,106 acres was cleaned at an average cost of $4 per acre. There was considerable drift material along the river containing cotton which had been washed from the fields, and after the field clean-up was completed, this drift material was burned. Following this a house-to-house canvass was made, and all places where cotton had been stored were cleaned as were also all trucks and other vehicles which had'been used to transport cotton. All seed cotton in mattresses and pillows was replaced with'linters.
The peak of moth emergence in the Big Bend is completed by the latter part of May. Cotton planted after April 15 does not have blooms before the middle of June; therefore, all farmers were requested not to plant cotton before this date (April 15), so that the peak of moth emergence would be over before the cotton reached the point where the insect could be propagated. Every farmer willingly obeyed this request, as they were all familiar with the damage the pink bollworm' could do.
In order to attract moths emerging later in the season early plots of cotton were planted in advance of the main crop to act as traps. This plan had worked out very well in the Salt River Valley of Arizona, where stub cotton could be used as a trap. Such stub cotton was not available in the Big Bend; therefore, it was necessary to plant cotton in hotbeds and later transfer it to the fields. After an early set-back from cold weather, this cotton began growing very nicely and had blooms about a month in advance of the main crop. A total of 67 plots, containing about 200 plants each, were set out, which gave an average of I plot to each 37.7 acres of cultivated cotton. The blooms from this cotton were collected daily, and after being inspected they were burned. The first infested blooms were collected early in June. By the end of the fiscal year infested blooms were being found in 47 of the 67 plots. A few blooms were beginning to appear in the coin-mercial cotton fields, and infested blooms had been found in some 14 fields, but the pink-bollworm moths were clearly being attracted to the early cotton plots much more readily than to the cotton fields.






B3UREAUJ OF PLANT QUARA-NTINE 1

In connection with the work in the Big Bend, there was some apprehension that the two floods might have carried infested material down the river to points where cotton is grown, and thus spread infestation. Therefore, during the crest t of the second flood, which was considerably higher than the first, inspectors of this project and of the port and border service, working in cooperation, were stationed on bridges and other points of vantage fromn Del Rio to Brownsville to, make observations of the drift material carried by the river. In no case was any cotton debris seen. After the lowlands along the river had dried -sufficiently, a thorough examination was made of the drift material from Eagle Pass northlward for a distance of about 65 miles. Several cotton stalks, bolls, and small, seedling plants were found near Eagle Pass; however, it later developed that this material undoubtedly originated from some 300 acres of cotton along the river in Mexico, above Eagle Pass, which had been flooded and some of the cotton washed away. No cotton debris of any kind was found above this point. After this work was completed a thorough inspection was made of all cotton fields within 5 miles of the Rio Grande from Laredo southward to Brownsville. All the inspections were negative. The evidence indicated that the floods did niot carry infested material from the Big Bend to the cotton fields southeast of Laredo, a distance of over 500 miles.

SALT RIVER VALLEY
Intensive inspections were made during the year in the Salt River Valley where eradication measures have been under way. The inspection of squares and bolls was begun as soon as they were available in the spring of 1932, most attention being given to the Laveen and Goodyear areas in Maricopa County, where the only infestations found in the 1931 crop season were located. Field inspections were continued during the summer until the ginning season got under way, after which they were replaced by gin-trash inspection, six machines being operated during the peak of the ginning season. Practically all the available trash was inspected. Toward the close of the season, in the spring of 1933, field inspections were resumed, and a supply of bollies was also collected. Inspection of the bollies had not been completed by the end of the fiscal year; but the results of the inspections so far as they had been finished in the Salt River Valley were all negative, and it is hoped that the infestation in that valley may have been eradicated.

COMPENSATION CLAIM BOARD
The work of the Compensation Claim Board in connection with claims ariingout of the 1930 noncotton zone in 4Arizona, authorized under the provisonsof Public Resolution No. 42, approved February 8, 1930, which has bendiscussed in previous annual reports, was completed with. the close of' thefisalyear 1933. During this fiscal year awards were submitted by theBoar on seven claims, on which payments were made totaling $2,269.88.
At the close of June 30, 1933, the Federal Government had paid 945 claims,
rersnting 39,519.3 acres, in the total amount of $635,982.10, which inclued$14,304.12 paid on the claims of Indian farmers. The total amiounit. paid, deduce from the original appropri-ation of $675,000, left an unlobligated balance of $3,017-90 which reverted to the general funds of the United States, Treasury at the close of the fiscal year.
Under the provisions of the said public resolution these claims were paid by the Federal Government on the agreement by the State of Arizona, except as to Indian claims, to reimburse the Unite d States Treasury in one half of the amounts so expended, or the sumn total of $310,838.99. Of this amount,
th8tate has paid $309,704.05, leaving a balance due the F'ederal Government of $1,134.94, not including interest, pending payment at the close of the fiscal year.
A complete statement of Federal payments, State reimbursements, and net,
cssof claims arising out of the noncotton zone of 1930 is given in table 5.







20 .ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRJCUTJTURK7, 1933

TABLE 5.-Federal expenditures 'and State reimbursements on claims arising .amt
of the noncotton zone of 1930 in Arizona

Item Total Total acre- Payments Total payclis age ments

Federal payments- Number Acres -Dollars Dollars
To Indian farmiers------------------------------ 100 7,56 14,304.12
To white farmers------------------------------- 845 38,763.3 621,677.98
635, 98a~ 10
Reimbursements by the State of Arizona to the Federal Treasury:
Fiscal year 1932----------------------------- ------------ --------I 163,750.00
Fiscal year 1933--------------------------- ------------ ------------ 1145,954.05
Fiscal year 1933, payment pending ---------------------- ------------ 11,134.94
310,838.99
Net cost to Federal Government of noncotton zone claims ----------------------------------- ------------ ------------ -------------- 325,14&I11

I Amount represents principal and does not include interest on overdue payments.

SITUATION IN OTHER INFESTED AREAS
Intensive gin-trash inspections were carried on in the Midland, Tex., district during the season, two machines being operated at the peak of the ginning operations. In addition, field inspection was performed in Ector and Andrews Counties, where the cotton acreage is too small to support a gin. A supply of bollies was also collected, and the examination of these has already been completed. All results in'the Midland district were negative. In the remaining districts only enough gin-trash inspection was performed to obtain accurate, information as to the degree of infestation. It was found that the infestation in El Paso County was heavier than ever before, but in the remaining districts it was lighter. Hand inspection of gin trash in the Juarez Valley of Mexico, which is adjacent to the El Paso Valley, showed that infestation in this district was also heavier than'last season. The number of bushels of gin trash inspected and the number of specimens collected in each of the districts under regulation are given in table 6.

TABLE 6.-Summary of gin-trash inspection for the pink bollworm in regulated areas, crop season 1932

Gin Pink Gin Pink
trash boll- as bol
District i- worms District tras wormspected C0-spected collected lected

Bushels Number Bushels Number
Midland, Tex------------------ 3,426 0 Duncan Valley, Ariz. and N.Mex- 73 0
Pecos Valley, N.Mex ------------ 1, 505 16 Safford Valley, Ariz'------1,621 2
Pecos Valley, Tex---------------- 936 75 S alt River Valley, Ari z------60, 454 0
Big Bend, Tex------------------- 34 47,602 Tucson, Ariz------------------- 80 0
Hludspeth County, Tex. (south- Northern Florida ----------------'352 2
eastern part)------------------- 142 1,926
El Paso Valley, Tex-------------- 525 1,207 Total-------------------- 70,933 60,947
Mesilla Valley, Tex. and N.Mex__. 1, 749 115
Tularosa, N.Mex----------------- 36 2 Juarez Valley, Mexico ------------- 71 2,010
Demning, N.Mex----------------- 0 0


INSPECTIONS OUTSIDE OF REGULATED AREAS
During the two previous crop seasons, inspections in States east of the Missis8ippi River have been limited to laboratory inspection of green boils. The finding of pink-bollwvorm infestation on wild cotton in southern Florida, previously mentioned, made it necessary to do more thorough scouting in these States, and a Separate inspector was accordingly stationed in.Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi, and one inspector for North Carolina and South Carolina combined. In addition to gin-trash inspection, these men collected green bolls and bollies for laboratory inspection and did a small amount of field inspection. In addition to these States, gin-trash inspections were also ma~de in Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Texas, Arizona, and California. A machine was also operated






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 21

at Mexicali, Lower California, about 2% months. A total of 89,406 bushels of gin trash was inspected outside of the regulated areas, the results all being negative. It takes approximately 10 acres to produce a bushel of gin trash; therefore the number of bushels examined would represent the inspection of 894,060 acres. The number of bushels of gin trash inspected in each State is shown in table 7.

TABLE 7.-Summary of gin-trash inspection for the pink bollworm outside regulated areas, crop season 1932

Gin Gin Gin
State trash Strash rash State trash
Statin- in- inspected spected spected

Bushels Bushels Bushtls
Alabama .............----------- 2,975 Louisiana---------------............... 3,362 Texas ..............-----------------. 37, 629
Arizona .............. ------------4,074 Mississippi. -------------2,309 Lower California, MexArkansas.............----------- 2,653 North Carolina --------- 746 ico------------------................ 13, 561
California............... ---------7,760 Oklahoma.............. --------------3,373
Florida------------................. 2,460 South Carolina.......---------. 1,951 Total ------------ 89, 406
Georgia ..------------.............. 5, 524 Tennessee------------............... 1,029

As in previous years, a quantity of green bolls was collected from the various cotton States, these collections being largely confined to areas where no other means of inspection were available. This season approximately 11,704 samples of 100 bolls each were collected; also, 1,405 bushels of bollies. The inspection of this material is now nearing completion. In addition, samples of cottonseed were collected from the Delta area of Mississippi, Arkansas, and southwestern Tennessee, where cotton production is extremely heavy and the amount of gintrash inspection was not considered sufficient. These seed samples were collected late in the season from representative gins and oil mills, a total of 7,400 pounds being secured in 10-pound samples. The inspection of these samples is also nearing completion. The results of this inspection have been negative to date.
CHANGES IN REGULATIONS
There were three changes made in the pink-bollworm-quarantine regulations during the fiscal year 1933. The first change, effective September 15, 1932, released from the fumigation requirement cotton produced in Grant and Hidalgo Counties, N.Mex., and in Maricopa and Greenlee Counties, and those parts of Pinal and Graham Counties, Ariz., not under additional regulations on account of the Thurberia weevil.
The second change became effective October 29, 1932, under which the following counties in Florida were added to the regulated area: Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Columbia, Gilchrist, and Union.
The third change became effective on February 28, 1933. Under this change the following counties in Texas were released from the regulated area: I.oving, Winkler, Andrews, Ector, Crane, Upton, and that part of Midland County which had been under regulation.

CONTROL MEASURES ENFORCED TO PREVENT SPREAD
The most important safeguards which have been in force for a number of years to control and prevent the spread of the pink bollwvorni from infested areas are
(1) disposal of gin trash, (2) sterilization of seed, (3) supervision of oil mills,
(4) fumigation and compression of lint, and (5) road-inspection stations.
Disposal of gin trash.-Gin trash is disposed of daily by burning, sterilization, or grinding, as many pink bollworms are discharged in this trash (during the process of ginning. The State regulations of Texas and New Mexico require this daily disposal of trash up to December 1 of each year, the average killingfrost date being prior to this, after which the trash mnay be returned to farms for feeding, fertilizer, or other purposes. In areas where a killing frost has not
occurred prior to this date, the ginners have always cooperated wholeheartedly
in continue the daily disposal of trash until there has been a killing frost.
Seed steriization.-One of the most important and useful measures in preventing the spread of the pink bollworm is seed sterilization. All girls in the regulated area are equipped with sterilizers, whereby the seed is heated to a temperature of 145 F. as a continuous process during ginning, the sterilizers being euied with thernographs so that the temperature of the seed is recorded







22 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

at all times. Prior to the 1932 ginning season a survey was made of all sterilizer equipment and anyserious defects corrected, so that seed sterilization was more efficient last season than ever befor6'.- A new method of installing the thermograph bulb was worked out by the Technological Division of the Bureau, and was in use at many of the gins. Practically all of the remaining winners expect to make the installation before the next season, as it gives a more accurate reading and also results in considerable saving in fuel to the winners. During the 1932 crop'season, 126 machines were operated, and they handled approximately 80,541 tons of seed.
Supervision of oil mills.-The lack of oil mills in certain parts of the regulated areas makes it necessary to authorize mills outside, but close to such areas, to handle quarantined seed. This season. the mills at Colorado and Sweetwater, Tex., were again designated, and after a regulated area was established in northern Florida,- mills at Tifton, Camilla, and Valdosta, Ga., were designated. The seed is hauled to the mills in sealed cars and segregated until crushed, the cars being thoroughly cleaned before being released. The seed is required to be crushed in such manner as to destroy the pink bollworm and, to prevent contamination, finished products are required to be segregated until treated in accordance with the regulations. Approximately 80,000 tons of seed were crushed at the 20 mills operating this season. A. number of mills are equipped with the roller system for treating second-cut or mill-run linters, 8,752 bales being so treated.
Fumigation and compression.-Fumigation plants were operated at Alpine and El Paso, Tex., and Tucson and Phoenix, Ariz. The plant at Phoenix operated only a short time, as that area was released from the fumigation requirement early in the season. The greater part of the regulated area is now designated as lightly infested, so that only 7,150 bales of lint and 1,727 bales of linters were fumigated during the season. In addition, 212 bales of linters from the Juarez Valley of Mexico were imported and fumigated at El Paso, Tex. At the 5 compression plants operated, 122,221 bales of lint and 2,684 bales of linters were compressed during the season.
Road stations.-Road-inspection stations were operated at Alpine, Fort Davis, and Van Horn, Tex., and Las Crucesi N.Mex. The station was at first operated at Las Cruces as a further protection against the eastward movement of infested material from regulated areas of Arizona. After the fumigation requirement was removed from these areas it was not felt that this station was warranted, therefore it v as discontinued on September 15, 1932. The three stations in Texas were established as a protection against the movement of infested material from the Big Bend area. After the clean-up was completed in the Big Bend, there was no material left which might spread infestation, therefore these three stations were discontinued on January 31' 1933, During the period the stations were in operation 36,307 automobiles were inspected, and 286 articles were confiscated. The material confiscated consisted of 17i lots of cottonseed, lint, or seed cotton, 5 cotton plants containing bolls, 5 cotton-picking sacks, 69 quilts, pillows, or mattresses, made of seed, cotton, and 10 miscellaneous articles. In addition, 185 cotton-picking sacks were treated and passed, and 18 automobiles, trucks, and trailers were cleaned before being allowed to pass the station. Three of the confiscated articles were found to be infested with the pink bollworm, 14 living and 14 dead larvae being taken. It is of interest to note that the live specimens were found in seed cotton, while the dead specimens were found in cottonseed which, had been sterilized.
Cooperation with Mexico.-In previous years some of the cotton produced in the Juarez Valley of Mexico, which is immediately adjacent to tile El Paso Valley of Texas, has been imported into-tbe United States. In order to facilitate the issuance of permits, gins in this area are equipped with seed sterilizers and are operated under the direct supervision of inspectors of this project. The two oil mills in that area are also operated under direct supervision, and as all the seed is sterilized, cake and meal produced at these mills are allov ed entry into the United States under permit. The Mexican authorities and citizens involved have always given the best of cooperation in carrying on these activities.
THURBERIA WEEVIL
A
The principal characteristics of the Thurberia weevil and its importance have been fully discussed in previous reports. The area infested by this insect is the Santa Cruz Valley in Pima County, Ariz. The cotton acreage has decreased, due principally to the difficulty in obtaining water for irrigation, until there are now only some 800 acres in cultivated cotton. Field inspections were made







-BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 23

earlier in the season, and after ginning began the inspection work was confined to the examination of gin trash. One gin was sufficient to take care of the acreage planted, and as a result there was not sufficient trash available to justify the operation of a machine. Therefore, the inspection of such trash was all done by hand, and it was possible to inspect practically all the trash produced. No specimens of either the Thurberia weevil or the pink bollworm were found in the gin trash. On January 13, 1933, specimens of the Thurberia weevil were found while a field near Marana was being inspected. Later, inspections in this same field resulted in the finding of additional specimens, a total of 65 being found during the period January 13 to 25. The inspection of all other fields in the area was negative. A supply of bollies was collected and is now being inspected, no additional specimens having been found in any of the material examined to date. Specimens were found in two fields near Eloy, in Pinal County, last season. Intensive inspections in this area during the present season have all been negative.
The same safeguards used in controlling the pink bollwvorm are also used against the Thurberia weevil. These include the disposal of gin trash, sterilization of seed, compression and vacuum fumigation of lint, and clean-up of gins, oil mills, etc., at the close of the season's operations. The results of each of the above activities are included in the figures given for the pink bollworm.
MEXICAN FRUIT FLY
INFESTATIONS IN TEXAS

The most important development in the Mexican fruit fly eradication program in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas was the remarkable decrease in the number of fruit flies taken during the fiscal year, following the intensive suppressive measures carried out the previous season. A total of 2,396 specimens of fruit flies had been taken from 61 groves during the winter and spring of 1932. Despite the intensive inspections carried on during the past season, no larvae could be found in valley fruit and only six adult flies were caught in the traps. Of these, 3 were taken in January and 1 each in March, April, and May. Four of these adults were trapped in Hidalgo and two in Cameron County. None was taken in Willacy County. Only one of these groves, that of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at Weslaco, was found infested in the fiscal year 1932.
A number of factors contributed to this decrease in the fly population of the valley. The bearing trees of the quarantined counties were sprayed in July 1932 and again in August with a nicotine-molasses spray. The thorough cleaning of all groves at the opening of the host-free period was undoubtedly effective in reducing the number of flies in the orchards. The temperature from September through Decemberwas about 50 F. lower than during the same period of 1932, and this probably aided in retarding to some extent the development of the various stages of the fly. The price of fruit was considerably better than during the preceding year, resulting in much of the crop being harvested early in the season. This, together with the short crop produced, materially reduced the amount of cull or dropped fruit in groves and made possible the maintenance of very effective grove sanitation, thus reducing to a minimum the possibilities of increase from any flies which might have survived the host-free period and spraying operations.
OTHER ANASTREPHA
The operation of traps resulted in the recovery during the year of a number of other species of the fruit-fly genus Anastrepha on the Texas side of the Rio Grande, including 97 A. pallens, 2 A. fraterculus, and 1 A1. serpentina, in addition to the 6 A. ludens. The details are shown in table 8.
The taking of the Anastrepha serpentina was of considerable interest since, so far as is known, this was the first specimen of this species of fruit fly ever found in continental United States. The two specimens of A.1. fraterculu s were collected in the Harlingen and Weslaco districts. One adult of this species had previously been trapped in the spring of 1932 in the Donna district. No explanation is available to account for the presence of these species in valley groves.
Anastrepha paUllens, which is not known to attack commercial fruit, was found in fewer numbers, both in the citrus groves and in 13Bumelia angustifolia, the native host plant, than in the fiscal year 1932.







24 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

TABLE 8.-Infestations of fruit flies in Texas, fiscal year 1933

Adults Adults
Date trapped District Date trapped District
Males1 I Fe ae e

Jan. 14 -------McAllen ----------1---------kApr. 3 --------Harlingen -- -- -- -- --- -- - 21
Jan. 14 -------- Weslaco --------- -------- 2 1 Apr. 12 ------ ----- do-----------1 ---Jan. 21--------- McAllen--------- 1--------- May 1--------- Mission ------- 1-------Jan. 24 -------- Weslaco ------1--------Feb. 24 -------- Harlingen------- --------3 1 Total --------------------- 1 63
Mar. 10------ ----- do----------- 1----1All 6 males were Anastrepha ludens; 43 other specimens of this species were taken in Matamoras, Mexico, as shown in table 11. Anastrepha pallens is not known to attack commercial fruit and is therefore omitted from both tables.
2Anastrepha' faterculus.
3 Anastrepha serpentina.

Also of incidental interest was the taking of an adult papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda, in the Weslaco district. This is the second of this species, observed in the valley, the first having been taken in this same district during:the previous year.
INSPECTIONS

Because of the light crop and curtailed harvesting season the number of groveinspections required during the past year was considerably less than during the. preceding season. A total of 30,957 inspections were made; of these it was., necessary temporarily to withhold only 740 certificates of inspection, which indicates that groves were kept in excellent condition throughout the harvesting period.
In addition to the regular grove inspections, which were made for the purposeof locating infestations and enforcing sanitary conditions, trapping was carried. on throughout the year. During the harvesting period approximately 1,200 flytraps were operated regularly on the Texas side of the border. This number was increased to about 6,000 during the host-free period.

COLLECTION OF SPECIMENS
Invaluable experience in the most effective methods of inspection was gained by all inspectors during the spring of 1932 when infestations were generally distributed over the valley. Based on this experience, inspections during the last season were confined largely to apparently sound fruit, since experience had shown that larvae of Anastrepha ludens were more likely to be found in that class of fruit than in decaying fruit, in which scavenger larvae are most common. For that reason the number of collections and specimens submitted for identification showed a decided decline from the number of the previous year. A total of 3,388 collections were made, comprising 18,349 specimens. Larvae of 10 families of Diptera were commonly encountered in decaying fruit.
ERADICATION MEASURES

It was not deemed necessary or advisable to declare infested zones around the six groves in which adult fruit flies were taken this year. The commercial crop of fruit had been completely harvested in 1 and partly harvested in the other 2 groves in which adults were taken during January. The owners of these groves were notified of the taking of the adult flies, and they immediately completed the harvesting of all remaining commercial fruit and cleaned the trees of all culls. This was followed by a thorough application of the nicotine spray, which was applied under the direct supervision of the district inspectors. There was, of course, no fruit in the groves in which adult flies were found subsequent to March 1. These groves were also given an especially thorough application of the spray during the regular spraying program in the spring of 1933.







BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 25

HOST-FREE PERIOD

On account of the light crop of fruit produced, there was little or no demand for
-an extension of the harvesting period, which ended March 1. As in previous years, in order to expedite the work and to make the host-free period effective over as long a period as possible, laborers were employed to examine, under ,direct supervision of the inspectors, all bearing trees of the valley. The work was particularly difficult this season on account of the unusual amount of "offbloom" fruit which the trees were carrying. In many of the groves a complete crop of this fruit was present on the trees. This condition was the result of a ,severe frost in March 1932, when the trees were in full bloom, and the lick of irri.gation during the ensuing summer months. It was found that the great majority of growers had made an earnest effort to remove this fruit, but a considerable amount had been overlooked, which it was necessary to have removed by the
-laborers. This was to be expected in view of the large amount present and the difficulty of distinguishing the green fruit from the leaves. Very little complaint was voiced by the growers on being required to remove the October-bloom fruit, but a number objected strongly to removing fruit which would have ripened in from 4 to 6 weeks.
The tree-to-tree inspection was completed in about 15 d(lays.
ELIMINATION OF ALTERNATE HOST-FRUIT TREES

A total of 308 alternate host-fruit trees were destroyed during the fiscal year. These included 175 guava, 92 peach, 34 plum, 4 pear, and 3 apple trees. The great majority were seedlings which had come up from carelessly tossed out seed. A number of the old trees which the owners had consistently refused to take out died of root rot. A total of 40,293 of such alternate host trees have been voluntarily destroyed by the owners since the quarantine was inaugurated in 1927.

POISON SPRAY

In order to supplement the host-free-period requirement as an eradication measure, arrangements were completed during the last months of the fiscal year 1932 to spray the bearing trees of the quarantined area with a solution of nicotine :sulphate and blackstrap molasses. The formula used had been worked out by the Bureau of Entomology, and consisted of 1 gallon of 40-percent nicotine sulphate and 20 gallons of molasses in 179 gallons of water. The first application of this spray was started early in July and was completed in about a month. The poison was applied to 3,645,034 trees on 11,841 premises during the first application. A total of 18,779 gallons of molasses and 940 gallons of nicotine sulphate were required for this application.
The second application was started on August 15. Several changes were made in the methods of distribution of the material which allowed the work to proceed much more rapidly than in the first application. The spraying was completed by the 1st of September, with the exception of a number of groves which were too wet to work. Some 390,000 less trees were sprayed in the second application than in the first. These were young trees in isolated developments which experience had shown were unlikely to be infested. A total of 3,25533,480 trees on 11,644 premises were sprayed during the second application. This required 17,053 gallons of molasses and 854 gallons of nicotine sulphate.
A third application of spray was given to the groves which were found infested in the spring of 1932 and the groves adjoining these. This work was conducted by the Texas State Department of Agriculture in the late fall and was completed in January 1933. A total of 106 groves containing 81,631 trees were sprayed. For this work 720 gallons of molasses and 36 gallons of nicotine sulphate were reuired.
intensive inspection and the operation of traps resulted in the taking of only ix adult fruit flies during the winter and spring months of 1933. This was a marked decrease as compared to the 2,396 specimens collected during the same period of 'the preceding year. The application of nicotine-molasses spray, tarted in the summer of 1932, was accordingly continued as an additional eradication measure, and enough material was purchased and forwarded to the Valley to allow three applications of the poison spray to the bearing trees in the spring of 1933.
actual spraying operations of the first application of the 1933 season were started during the last days of March and were completed near the end of April.
12988-33--4







26 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

There were sprayed, during this application, 4,460,20 2 trees on 13,867 premises. The material used amounted to 23,520 gallons of molasses and 1,176 gallons of nicotine sulphate. Weather conditions as regards rainfall were ideal throughout and following the application.
The second application was started May 22 and was practically completed by June 21. A number of young trees in isolated locations were omitted in the second application, leaving only 3,875,075 trees on 13,040 premises which were sprayed. In the second application, 21,23%gallons of molasses and 1,060 gallons of nicotine sulphate were used.
Because of the abnormally dry conditions prevailing during the spring and early summer of 1933 when the two applications of spray were made, and since traps operated throughout, the valley after May 1 had given negative results, the remaining material was reserved for use in the event that infestations should become established in the future.
Approximately 500 knapsack sprayers were used in applying the poison spray. These sprayers were furnished by the State of Texas and the three counties involved. City governments, civic organizations, and individuals assisted in the work by furnishing labor, storage space, and miscellaneous supplies. Without the excellent cooperation of the industry as a whole, the 100 percent coverage of the producing trees of the quarantined area would have been impossible. Even with the assistance rendered by the various organizations, the absenteeowned and abandoned groves constituted a most difficult problem to handle, and the complete coverage of bearing trees was possible only because of the resourcefulness and ingenuity exhibited by the district, inspectors.
Details of the spraying activities are gi ven in table 9.

TABLE 9.-Summary of spraying operations, fiscal year 1933

Properties sprayed Material used

County and application Non- Trees NicoCom- com- sprayed Mo- tine
mer- mer- Total lasses Sulcial cial phate

Hidalgo: Number Number Number Number Gallons Gallons
First application, July 1932 -------------------- 3,868 2, 239' 6,107 2,311,769 11,577 580
-Second application, August 1932 --------------- 3,578 2,298 5,876 2,034,125 10,566 528
Third application, April 1933 ------------------ 5,179 2,310 7,489 2,876,981 14,808 740
Fourth application, June 1933 ----------------- 4,446 2,341 6,787 2,521,683 13,468 671
Cameron:
First application, July 1932 -------------------- 2,585, 2,902 5,487 1,286,787 7,016 351
Second application, August 1932 --------------- 2,579 2,943 5,522 1,176,032 6,309 317
Third application, April 1933 ------------------ 3,164 2,808 5,972 1,498,066 8,269 413
Fourth application, June 1933 ----------------- 2,913 2,746 5,659 1,292,198 7,513 376
Willacy:
First application, July 1932 -------------------- 149 98 247 46,478 185
Second application, August 1932 ---------------- 141 105 246 45,323 178 0 9P A
Third application, April 1933 ------------------ 179 227 406 85,155 442 22
Fourth application, June 1933 ----------------- 132 92 224 61,194 258 13
Special application (Hidalgo and Cameron Coun- j
ties), winter 1932 -------------------------------- 106 -------- 111 81,111 721 16
Total --------------------- ------------------ 29,019 21,109 50,128 15,317,422 81,309 4,065


CERTIFICATION OF FRUIT'

Several millionpermit tags are required each season to certify the fruit moving out of the quarantined area. To avoid difficulties in keeping an accurate check on the use of these permit tags, a system of requiring a master permit to accompany each commercial shipment of six or more packages of fruit was instituted at the beginning of the shipping season last fall. These master permits were issued by the inspectors upon exhibition of a bill of sale by the trucker covering the fruit in the load, upon, request of the grove owner making the sale, or to cover the movement of fruit from approved packing houses. By this method the inspectors were enabled to identify the groves in which all fruit leaving the A
.4
quarantined area originated. These permits were issued when the load was
M
ready for shipment regardless of the hour of day or night. Many were issued after office hours and on holidays.






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 27

Total shipments equivalent to 4,661 carloads were certified during the season. Approximately 32 percent of this fruit was moved by truck. While the majority of truck shipments went to Texas points and were certified under the State regulations, 1,816 master permits were issued for shipments by road vehicles destined to 24 other States and the District of Columbia. In addition, many out-of-state truckers secured loads of valley fruit in the markets of San Antonio, Dallas, Houston, and other Texas cities.
ROAD TRAFFIC INSPECTION
Traffic-inspection stations were maintained on the two highways leading out of the valley from the first of November to the first of March. As will be seen from table 10, a total of 38,839 vehicles were inspected of which 14,071 were carrying fruit. Of the latter, 1,390 were transporting fruit in violation of the State or Federal regulations. These tourists were given the option of returning the fruit'to the valley for proper certification, or of having it destroyed at the stations. Only two complaints were registered during the year by travelers who were required to destroy the fruit they were carrying.

TABLE 10.-Road traffic inspection, fiscal year 1933

Vehicles Vehicles Packhaving having, Packages of ages Packages returned
Total vehicles properly contraband fruit passed de- to area
packed and contraband in- stroked
Mot tagged fruit fruit stroe
Hay- Pas- Pas- Passpeleted ing Trucks senger Trucks senger Trucks senger Boxes; Boxe e ls cks
fruit autos autos autos

November. 7,025 2.303 1,151 887 26 265 121,756 1,634 22 ...... 35 December... 9,654 4,121 1,917 1,889 2 12 312 160,878 4, 107 49 26 21~ 5 January.... 11,392 4,10:3 2,072 1,550 1 480 1S6,706 2,935 60 ...... 25! .....
February... 10,768 3,544 1,946 1,284 -------- 314 169,002 2,728 44 3 ......
Total 38,839 14,071 7,086 5,610 19 1,371 638,342 11,404 176 2 85%4 5

1 Field box equivalent to 1 bushel.
3 Part of load O.K.
The ranch roads leading out of the valley to the northwest were patrolled during December. No fruit was observed moving out of the valley by these routes.
CENSUS OF FRUIT TREES
For administrative reasons it is necessary to know the number of trees coming into bearing from year to year over which it will be necessary to maintain supervision. Such information is gathered each spring by the various district inspectors. This census shows that 540,740 citrus trees were planted in orchard form, between April 1, 1932, and March 31, 1933, bringing the total number of citrus trees in the quarantined area to 8,404,740. Of the new trees planted, 427,153, or 79 percent, were grapefruit; 105,291, or 19 percent, were oranges, and 8,296, or 2 percent, were miscellaneous citrus. Of the citrus trees in orchard form 4,813,640, or 57 percent, are of bearing age.
Most of the trees planted during the past year were set out by individuals rather than by development companies as has been the case in previous seasons. Individual growers took advantage of the low price of trees to round out their plantings, while the general economic conditions in the country deterred the land companies from expanding their holdings.
VIOLATIONS
About the usual number of minor infractions of the Federal regulations was encountered during the season, but none of them could be considered willful or deliberate.
Of a more serious nature was the refusal of a number of growers in the Lyford community in Willacy County to clean the ripe and offbloomn fruit from their trees at the opening of the host-free period prescribed under State law. The plantings in this cornuinity are of the back-yard type from which very little, if







28, ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

any, fruit is handled commercially. The owners of these trees conceived the idea that the only penalty for allowing the fruit to mature during the summer months would be a refusal of shipping permits, which would be no hardship to them. After persuasive methods had failed, the case was turned over to the State department of agriculture for legal action. The fruit on two of these places -was officially condemned as a public nuisance by the commissioner of agriculture and was destroyed by laborers under the protection of the sheriff's office of Willacy County. The owners ofthe other four premises, on seeing the determined action of the State officers, allowed their fruit to be removed without further objection.

INFESTATIONS IN MATAMOROS, MEXICO
The work of the Mexican Department of Agriculture in suppressing infestations at Matamoros and attempting to prevent the introduction and sale of infested fruits from other parts of the Republic is helping greatly to prevent t4e reintroduction of the Mexican fruit fly into the citru-growing area on the Texas side of the border.
All citrus and other fruits arriving in Matamoros from interior points are inspected on arrival before being released to the consignees. Following such release, all fruit that shows signs of decay or infestation is collected daily from the markets and after inspection is destroyed by burning. Inspection of f ruit on arrival in Matamoros and of that spoiling in the markets resulted in the finding of 6,654 larvae and 33 pupae during the year. These specimens were taken from apples, guavas, mangoes, oranges, quinces, and from the box used in transporting spoiled fruit from the market to the office of the Mexican inspector. As in previous years, mangoes were found to carry the heaviest infestation of any fruit reaching Matamoros. Some wormy fruit is undoubtedly sold to the citizens before any external evidence of infestation is apparent. When the purchaser later finds this fruit wormy, it is, in many instances, thrown out in the patio, which accounts for the continued taking of adult fruit flies in Matamoros.
Approximately 200 flytraps were operated continuously during the year in Matamoros. These traps captured 43 adult fruit flies on 12 premises. This was about half the number taken during the preceding year.
As a result of these activities, the development of local infestation in Matamoros is largely prevented. Only three such local infestations were discovered during the year. These were found in July and October 1932, and April 1933, respectively. The facts indicated that a single female, in all probability, was responsible for each of these infestations, these females having evidently escaped the traps and poison spray until after they had laid eggs.

TABLE ll.-Infestations of Anastrepha ludens in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, fiscal year 1933

Local fruit Imported fruit

Larvae found
Month in- Larvae found in- Total
Adults Pupae
in
trapped mango
Orange, Sar- UnApple Guava Mango Orange Quince
sour gentia known

July ------------ 2 169 ------ ------- -------- 37 6 -------- -------- -------- 214
August --------- 1 . . . . . . . 2 1 . . . . . . . . 1 26 -------- -------- 9
September ------ -------- -------- ------ 4 -------- r ------ 21 .2 2 -------- 29
October -------- 22 5 ------ ------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 27
November ------ 3 -------- ------ ------- -------- -------- 3 -------- -------- -------- 6
December ------ -------- -------- ------ ------- -------- -------- 67 -------- -------- -------- 67
January -------- -------- -------- ------ ------- -------- -------- 3 3
February ------- -------- -------- ------- ------- 39 15 -------- -------- -------- -------- 24
-------- -------- -------March ---------- 1 -------- ------ ------- -------- 58 1 -------- -------- -------- 60
April ----------- 11 -------- ------ ------- -------- 337, 6 -------- -------- -------- 364
May ------------ -------- -------- 11 ------- -------- 891 3 -------- -------- -------- 905
June ------------ 3 -------- ------ ------- -------- -------- -------- 33 1,217
Total ----- 43 174 11 5 9 6,519 ill 8 2 33 46,915

I Specimens taken from box in which fruit was carried from market to office.
3 Anastrepba species-not typical A. ludem.
3 Probably A. 8triata.
4 2,521 of these specimens were forwarded to Mexico City for Identification.







BUJREAUJ OF PLANT QUARANTINE 29

Eradication measures were promptly undertaken not only with respect to the three instances in which larval fruit flies were captured in local fruit but also ini every case in which adult fruit flies were caught in the traps. All fruit trees within the four blocks surrounding each of the infested premises were sprayed with the same materials used in the case of similar outbreaks in the Texas area. In addition, two city-wide applications of the spray were made subsequent to the arrival of shipments of heavily infested fruits on the markets. Following the finding of larval infestations all fruit was stripped from the trees on the infested premises and, after being carefully examined, was destroyed by burial. The trees on these premises were given an additional application of the spray. Infestations did not develop to an extent necessitating a city-wide host-free period.
The careful and systematic collection and destruction of infested fruit reaching the city from the interior of Mexico reduce to a considerable extent the chances of an infestation's becoming established. This risk is still further reduced by the operations of the flytraps, in which many adult flies are caught before their eggs have had an opportunity to develop.
The fruit-fly findings in Matamoros are shown in detail in table 11.
DATE-SCALE ERADICATION

Systematic inspection was continued in the date-growing areas of Arizona and California. Careful scouting for unlisted palms was also continued. Several small abandoned date plantings of no value were dug out and destroyed, and previously cleaned acreage was checked for volunteer plants and parts of stumps. The details are given in table 12.

COACHELLA VALLEY

During the past year 123,759 palm inspections were made in the Coachella Valley. No Parlatoria scale was found. This is the first year since the beginning of the project that scale has not been found, and is the second successive year in which no new infestation has been discovered. There were dug out and destroyed during the year 775 date palms of no value, many of which had previously been infested, and 219 previously infested palms were stripped of fiber to examine the leaf bases for scale.

TABLE 12.-Palm inspection and treatment, date-scale eradication project, fiscal year 1933

Arizona California

Item Phei uaCoachella Imperial Total
Phstrncx disric Valley Valley
disric dstrctdistrict district

Palm inspections-------------------------------- 41,242 2,376 123,759 43,347 210,724
Newlinfested properties ----------------------------- 0 0 0 0) 0
Total infested properties------------------------- 1 0 0 4 .5
Date palms infested---------------------------- i1 0 0 2 3
CJanary TIand palms infested -------------------- 0 0 0 5 .5
Total--------------------------------------- 1 0 0 7 a
Treatment:
Dgout and destroyed-------------------------- 1 0 0 1 2
Deoitdan pa e --------------0 0 0 68
Total ----------------------- --------------- i1 0 0 7 4
Vleesplsdug out in infested areas; not in- 00 759 7


IMPERIAL VALLEY

In the Imperial Valley, 43,347 palmn inspections wre miade during the 'ycar.. To infested date palms, 'were found on 2 properties-both ()d iufe.-talkill s-a scared with 14 infested late palms on 7 propertics-4 o)ld andI 3 new infestation-found during the fiscal year 1932. In1 additiOnl to the, 2 infested da2te plsfound in the fiscal year 1933, 5 Canary blandI palms were found inlfestedl







30 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

as compared with 33 Canary Island and 10 fan palms found infested in 1932. A total of 7 infested palms was thus found on 4 properties in this valley in 1933, as compared with 57 infested palms on 11 properties in 1932. Six new infestations were found in 1932, and none in 1933. Careful scouting was carried on in 233 sections to locate unlisted palms. A -number of small date palms, one infested, noted above, were discovered. Ninety-five date palms on infested properties were dug out and destroyed.
PHOENIX DISTRICT

In the Salt River Valley of Arizona, 41,242 palm inspections were made and 1 infested palm was found on a previously infested property. The palm was dug ouit and destroyed. This is the only infested palm found in Arizona during the past 2, years. Scouting for unlisted palms was continued and 413%4 sections covered.
YUMA DISTRICT

In the city of Yuma and vicinity, 2,376 palm inspections were made and no scale found.
MODIFICATION OF QUARANTINE

Effective December 1, 1932, the quarantine was amended by removing the Phoenicococcus scale (Phoenicococcus marlatti) from consideration, as it was found that this insect is not serious commercially. Evidence of freedom from the Parlatoria scale now constitutes the basis for issuing Federal permits for the
-shipment or transportation of date palms or date-palm offshoots from the regulated areas; namely, Imperial County and that part of Riverside County lying east of the San Bernardino meridian in California; Yuma, Maricopa, and Pinal Counties in Arizona; and Webb County in Texas.
QUARANTINE ON DOMESTIC NARCISSUS
During the past year, special attention has been given to increasing the efficiency of bulb inspection and. treatment methods. Under a reorganized plan of cooperation with the Bureaus of Plant Industry and Entomology, progress was made in the development of the vapor-heat treatment, and7 on June 26, 1933, that method was authorized as a basis for narcissus treatment to eliminate greater bulb flies. Vapor heat has also been found very effective as an eelworm. control, and experiments are now being. carried on to determine whether it can be relied on to eliminate the nematodes entirely, without injuring the bulbs.
Difficulties in obtaining satisfactory -results from the hot-water treatment have also been the subject of investigation, and certain modifications in tank design and equipment have been devised to increase the agitation of the water and thereby bring about a higher eelworm mortality through better heat distribution.
The treatment and inspection instructions issued in June 1932 have been consistently adopted by the State inspectors carrying out the field and warehojise bulb examinations, and this has increased uniformity, of action in the different bulb-growing areas. A number of conferences were held with growers and inspectors in nearly all the leading narcissus-producing sections during the year, and differences in methods and interpretations were cleared up. Among other questions, the problem of handling large blocks of bulbs which show very slight and recent eelworm infestations was intensively studied, and instructions have been issued specifying the conditions under which parts of some such blocks may be certified as free from infestation.
For the season of 1932 the State nursery inspectors of the various States reported to the Bureau the inspection of 302,323,265 narcissus bulbs grown in 29 States and the District of Columbia. This represents a decrease of 71,942,429 bulbs under the figures for the previous year. Of the total, 169,815,503 consisted of Paper White and other polyanthus types of bulbs grown in the Southern States, and 132,507,762 consisted of bulbs of the hardy daffodil types grown in the North. Of the polyanthus types, 148,736,581 were reported as being certifled as uninfested and eligible for shipment without treatment, while 2,188,109 were either fumigated or given the hot-water treatment and certified for ship-' ment on that basis. Of the daffodil types, 19,629,551 were certified as uninfested) and shipment without treatment was authorized, and 84,580,213 were either fumigated or given the hot-water treatment, and certified on that basis.






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 31

Infestations with eelworms (Tylenchus dipsaci) were reported in 1932 in one or more plantings in California, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington. In addition to the records for 1932, this species had previously been reported in narcissus plantings in Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Rhode Island, Utah, and Wisconsin. Some of these plantings have not since been reported as inspected, and infestation may possibly be persisting in them.
Greater bulb flies (Merodon equestris) were reported in California, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, and Washington. They have also been reported in previous years in narcissus plantings in Illinois, Ohio, and Utah.
The lesser bulb flies (Eumerus spp.) were removed from consideration under the Federal narcissus-bulb quarantine in an amendment which became effective on June 20, 1932. Accordingly, most of the State inspectors did not report the presence or absence of the lesser flies in 1932.
Detailed information on the numbers of plantings and bulbs and the extent of treatment in the individual States and the District of Columbia is given in Circular B.P.Q.-349, issued on February 17, 1933.

BLACK-STEM RUST QUARANTINE
The quarantine on account of black-stem rust (Puccinia gramninis), under which Federal permits are required for all shipments of barberry and mahonia plants (except Berberis thunbergii and its rust-immune varieties) consigned into or between 13 of the North Central States, is designed to assist those States in protecting grain from black-stem rust infection.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry, the premises of some 30 applicants for permits were inspected, and permits were issued to 25 firms, an increase of 5 over the previous year. Sixteen violations of this quarantine were intercepted at transit-inspection points during the year.
According to the Bureau of Plant Industry, the protected States, which have been engaged for a number of years in a barberry-eradication campaign, destroyed in cooperation with that Bureau 175,951 barberry bushes, seedlings, and sprouts during the calendar year 1932, making a totalof 18,665,403 since the campaign was started in the spring of 1918. The States in which this work is being carried on are Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
PHONY-PEACH DISEASE QUARANTINE REVOKED
The phony-peach disease quarantine was revoked, effective March 1, 1933. When the quarantine was placed by the Department, effective June 1, 1929, it was believed as a result of surveys in 1926, 1927, and 1928, that the disease was confined to the States of Georgia and Alabama, although it was known to have been present in Georgia for some 50 years. Surveys during the next 2 years disclosed infections in Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Surveys in 1931 showed further infections in Florida and Illinois. During 1932, infected trees were found in southern Oklahoma and in southeast Missouri. Scattered infections were also found during the year in new localities in Arkansas, Illinois, and Texas.
The widely separated infections in some of the States concerned have made the enforcement of intrastate quarantine regulations by these States impracticable, thereby complicating the problem of maintaining Federal control of interstate shipments, and this condition indicated that further control of spread
could be handled more satisfactorily by improved and modified nursery-inspection methods in the various States than by enforcement of the type of Federal quarantine regulations previously in effect.
The investigations of the Bureau of Plant Industry point so strongly to the peach borer as the carrier of the disease, that the future activities of this Bureau with respect to phony-peach-disease control will be confined largely, insofar as funds and facilities permit, to assisting the States in the development and adoption of improved culling practices to eliminate all peach-borer infested or injured stock, and increasing the efficiency of inspection in peach-growing nurseries and the environs by directly aiding in such surveys.
The States of Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Mississippi, and Oklahoma promulgated State regulations directed against this disease after the Federal quarantine was taken off. Oiher interested States are handling the problem of prevent-







32, ANN-UAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICU-LTUJRE, 1933

ing the spread of infection by administratively controlling it through the usual nursery-inspection organization in cooperation with this Bureau. Federal aid in bringing about the eradication of the disease is under the direction of the Bureaut of Plant Industry.
Table 13 shows that 19 shipments moving in violation of the phony-peach disease quarantine were intercepted between July 1, 1932, and March 1, 1933, the date on which the quarantine was revoked.
WOODGATE-RUST QUARANTINE
The Woodgate-rust quarantine, which has been in effect since November 1928, was issued for the purpose of preventing the spread of the Woodgate rust, a, disease which attacks Scotch and other hard -pines. No spread of the disease, outside the present regulated area comprising -the counties of Clinton, Essex,. Franklin, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Madison, Oneida, and St. Lawrence, N.Y., was reported, and no violations of the quarantine were inter-cepted during the fiscal year.
WHITE-PINE-BLISTER-RUST QUARANTINE ENFORCEMENT
A revision of the quarantine regulations on account of the white-pine blisterrust (Cronartium ribicola Fischer) effective January 1, 1933, greatly extended the area into- which protected white pines might be shipped from the infected States. Prior to 1928, it was necessary to rely largely on embargoes prohibitingthe shipment of blister-rust host plants from generally infected areas to other sections of the country. For several years since that time, the protection of~ five-leafed pine nursery stock by eliminating currant and gooseberry plants. (Ribes) in the vicinity has been tried out in a limited way. Under the new revision, the general principle of growing five-leafed pine for interstate movement, under such protected conditions has been extended and the shipment of such protected pine to noninfected States has been authorized.
This change was based (1) on. increasing evidence of the effectiveness and practicability of Ribes eradication for the protection of nursery stock, and (2) on the discovery that the natural spread of the disease had carried it from 16. Northern States where it had been known for some time to 5 additional adjoining States.
The newly infected States which it was necessary to add in this revision of' the regulations are Iowa, Maryland, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia. In each of the States named blister rust was found at only a f ew points, and theinfections were light. The District of Columbia is also classed as infected because of its location between Maryland and Virginia, although the blister rust has not yet appeared within the District limits.. The rust was discovered in most cases only on wild currant or gooseberry plants or on European black currants in gardens, having reached the new localities apparently by wind spread from infected pines in adjoining States.
The new regulations greatly extend the market for white pines and other fiveleafed pines grown under protected 'Conditions, by authorizing their movement. under permit throughout the United States or into such States as may be specified in the permit.
For all or parts of the shipping season of 1932-33, permits were in effect covering 10 nurseries in the infected States, and 2 additional seed beds were covered by tentative permits, the environs being subject to reinspection before the pines. would be old enough to ship. At the close of the fiscal'year inspections of the; I premises and environs of 38 nurseries were under way to determine whether they were entitled to permits for the coming fall and spring. The premises of many applicants have been found not to comply with the requirements in full, and it has not been possible to issue permits to the owners of the nurseries involved.
The revision also simplified the interstate shipment of currant and gooseberry plants from. the infected States. Hereafter, such plants will not be required to be disinfected in lime-sulphur, unless shipped with active buds.
During the year 107 shipments of five-leafed pines or Ribes were intercepted as moving in violation of the blister-rust quarantine. regulations.
TRANSIT INSPECTION
Transit inspection consists of checking shipments of plants moving by mail, express, and freight, to determine whether they have met the safeguards required under domestic plant quarantines.







BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 33

Such quarantines can prevent the transportation of serious pestsf. into new localities only if infested products are prevented from being shipped froml the qu1ai'antined districts to outside points. Such infestations may be carriedI to new areas by those ignorant Of, or indifferent to, the required safeguards. The transit inspectors work in important post offices and at express anid freight transfer points through which quarantined products move, and, on discovering tin1certified shipments which may carry infestation, return them to the sender.
This work is particularly necessary when new areas or new products ire brought under quarantine. In such cases, interested shippers cann-ot all be reached or their indifference overcome, until a cecek is made on the movement of the plants or other products concerned. The Department has found that when such checking is not carried out a considerable proportion of plant shipments are sent without having been inspected or having complied with the safeguards needed to prevent the spread of infestation. With transit inspIection in opertohwv, the number of quarantine violations is reduced to 1 or 2 shipments in every thousand, and these are intercepted and turned back. For example, western Pennsylvania was brought within the area regulatedl under the Japanese-beetle quarantine in the fall of 1932, but checking on common-carrier shipments was not started until May 20, 1933. Thirty-four shipments moving in violation of the Federal and State quarantines onl account of this pest were intercepted during the first 8 days of such checking. Within the next 2 weeks thereafter shippers had so familiarized themselves with the requirements that the number of violations was reduced to less than one a day.
The return of the plants to the sender under such conditions is proving a much more desirable procedure than prosecuting the shipper. Since this project was organized several years ago, prosecutions have been instituted only in the case of apparently intentional violations or where gross carelessness was involved.
The most important change in the project during the year consisted of the establishment of transit inspection at Jacksonville, Fla., in August 1932, in cooperation with the State plant board. The number of interceptions reported immediately showed the importance of this point for the protection of the State against the introduction of the Japanese beetle and other pests, as well as for the enforcement of the narcissus-bulb quarantine.
The number of violations intercepted at the various inspection points during the fiscal year 1933 totaled 1,486, out of 873,153 shipments, 625 carloads, and 1,276 trucks checked. A synopsis of the work is given in tables 13 and 14. The information given in table 13 includes interceptions of this type made by inspectors employed on other projects working in direct cooperation with transit inspectors but does not include reports from State inspectors at points of destination, except in the case of Florida where, as stated, the work is carried onl in direct cooperation with the Department. The numbers of shipments inspected and of interceptions, respectively, are lower than during the past several years, partly on account of reductions in the number of inspectors owing to reduced appropriations, and partly on account of lessened total traffic in plants resulting from the depressed economic conditions throughout the country.
12988-33-5










34 ANNUAL REPORTS -OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933


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BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 35

TABLE 14.-Shipment 8 of nursery stock and other plants and plant products inspected

in transit during the fiscal year 1933

Packages Carloads
________of nursery
Station Istockand Trucks
Parcel liesoc
pot xpress Freight Totallietc


Albany -------------------------------- 963 333 28 1,324----------Atlanta ------------------------------- 2,166 2,940 490 5,596 1 ----Boston-------------------------------- 23,041 38,400 80 61,521 18 ----Chattanooga--------------------------- ---------- 269 69 338----------Chicago ------------------------------ 117,229 23,087 1,896 142,212 ill 1,276
Dallas--------------------------------- 1,045 2,577 17 3,639----------Jacksonville --------------------------- 11,007 19, 578 12,063 42,648 198........-Kansas City--------------------------- 35,133 9,079 ----- 44,212----------Memphis ----------------------------- 794 1,642 306 2,742----------Meridian------------------------------ ---------- 107 13 120----------Milwaukee ------------------------------- 74 8 ----- 82................--Nashville ------------------------------ 192 406 271 869----------New York ---------------------------- 116,429 21,803 1,381 139,613 61 ----Omaha-------------------------------- 19,871 3,929 1,935 25,735----------Philadelphia -------------------------- 150,063 62,969 1,256 214,288 198 ----Pittsburgh ---------------------------- 25,093 6,600 243 31,936----------Portland ------------------------------ 18,292 7,132 2,364 27,788----------St. Louis ------------------------------ 2,009 1,816 ----- 3,825----------St. Paul------------------------------- 28,978 6,338 8,310 43,626 23 ----Salisbury and Spencer, N.C --------------- 125 667 516 1,308----------Seattle-------------------------------- 18,512 3,704 288 22,504----------Shreveport, La------------------------- ---------- 230 7 237----------Spokane ------------------------------ 32,723 2,893 810 36,426----------Texarkana ----------------------------- 364 2,972 107 3,443 1 ----Washington---------------------------- 4,747 10,038 2,336 17,121 15 ----Total --------------------------- 608, 850 229, 517 34, 786 873, 153 626 1, 276


In addition to the figures given in table 13, the transit inspectors intercepted 141 shipments moving intrastate in violation of State quarantines relating to pests covered by Federal quarantines and enforced by the States concerned in cooperation with this Bureau.

FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

The 22 foreign plant quarantines and regulatory orders of the Department prohibiting or restricting the entry of various plants and plant products into the United States are enforced through the Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines by inspectors and collaborators stationed at the more important ports of entry and foreign-mail distributing points, and working in close cooperation with employees of other Government departments. Detailed information on these quarantines and orders is available in other publications and is therefore omitted.
In succeeding sections explanations of enforcement activities in connection with these quarantines and orders are given in more detail and are acconipanlied by' tables presenting in condensed form records which indicate the scope of thle work or which summarize its results.

RECORDS OF IMPORTS OF RESTRICTED PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

Under the various foreign quarantines certain plants and plant lproduct-s are restricted as to entry, are subject to inspect in and, if neesrdsnetofor the purpose of excluding plant diseases and ineto~sts. Ak11Mng SuhV rc"tricte(l
plants and plant products are nursery% stock, plants, bulbs, and se(ls; fruiits and vegetables; grains from certain countries; Cotton, cotton l se coItton rapig
(bagin), and cottonseed products; also cottonseedl, seedI Cottonl, :1nd( cottoi.Skt'(l
hul rom the Imiperial Valley, L~ower Cal1ifornia, MeIco A roc(I f i
deportation of the products inspected by inspectors of the Bu1reaul and, if nccessary, treated under their supervision, Is givenl.






36 ANN-UAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRIGULT-URE, 1933

IMPORTATIONS OF NURSERY STOCK) PLANTS, BULBS, AND SEEDS

The importations recorded in tables 15 to 18, inclusive, are entered under regulation 3 of Quarantine No. 37, under permits that are valid until revoked and that do not limit the quantity that may be imported. The restrictions under this regulation are intended merely to afford opportunity to inspect and, if necessary, to safeguard the products as they are entered. Table 15 records the number of importations of fruit and nut cuttings and scions and rose stocks inspected and, if necessary, safeguarded, during the fiscal year 1933. This table also shows the total number of such importations similarly handled during the fiscal year 1932. A record of certain bulbs entered under permit subject to inspection and treatment is furnished in table 16. Table 17 records the number of various kinds of bulbs entered under permit for each of the past 8 years. Table 18 shows the number of pounds of tree seeds imported under permit for the fiscal year 1933 and the countries of origin of such seeds.
In addition to the foregoing there were imported from Canada under regulation 15, Quarantine No. 37, 119,990 bulbs, plants, trees,-'and cuttings, as compared with 190,408 during the fiscal year 1932. To authorize the importation of this material 696 permits were issued during the fiscal year 1933, as compared with 605 issued during the fiscal year 1932.
The record of entry under special permits issued under the provisions of regulation 14 of Quarantine No. 37 for the purpose of keeping the country supplied with n ow, improved, or unavailable varieties and necessary propagating stock and for experimental, educational, or scientific. purposes is given in table 19.












BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE




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BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 39



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BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 41

TABLE 19.-Special-permit importations, fiscal year 1933, with combined total for fiscal years 1920-33

Fiscal year 1933 Total for fiscal years 1920-33'

Importations Importations
Class of plants Permits issued under permits Permits issued under permits

Num- Quantity Num- Quantity Num- Quantity Num- Quantity
ber authorized ber imported ber authorized ber imported

Dahlia ------------------------ 71 2, 156 62 1,859 843 58, 381 724 42, 283
Gladiolus --------------------- 109 111,197 99 85, 812 1,989 50, 803, 171 1,683 28, 730, 627
Iris, bulbous ------------------ 56 1, 137,883 91 1,794, 589 1,591 53, 627, 689 1,372 39, 193,464
Iris, rhizomatous -------------- 49 1,325 47 1,206 1,566 293, 662 1,380 158,861
Narcissus ------------------- 70 220,674 79 1,076, 356 1,401 163,079, 733 1, 176 79,220, 053
Orchid -------------------- 195 15,148 169 11,526 2,115 244,445 1,891 189,368
Peony---------------------29 1,387 33 1,342 1,259 1,399,089 1,043 684,842
Rose -------------------------- 82 5,290 82 4,675 1,453 270,988 1,295 192,728
Fruit (trees and small fruits)-.. 16 955 14 696 227 20,816 163 10, 179
Herbaceous ----------------- 87 29,404 159 34,446 1,719 4,870,979 1, 382 3, 045,034
Miscellaneous bulbs, roots, etc- 128 85, 208 122 67, 643 1,907 13,029,492 1, 663 6, 829, 297 Ornamental ------------------- 344 57, 766 302 48, 144 2, 561 3,993,023 2, 268 2, 295,929

Total ------------------------ 1,668,393 ------ 3,128,294 ------291,691,468 ------160,592,665

I Complete totals for Hawaii included for the first time. Previous reports carried Hawaiian totals for 1931 and 1932 only.
NOTE.-The disparity in the number of bulbs, plants, etc., imported, as compared with the number authorized entry, may be explained by the fact that permits for some classes of plants, particularly narcissus and bulbous iris, are usually issued during 1 fiscal year and the importations made during the following fiscal year.

During the year 1,145 permits were issued authorizing the entry of 1,668,393 plants, bulbs, etc. A total of 3,128,294 plants, bulbs, etc., were imported under 1,074 permits, as compared with 3,547,552 in 1932. While it would appear that more plant material has been imported than was authorized entry, this disparity is explained in the note following table 19. Importations of narcissus were 562,830 bulbs less, and those of bulbous iris 153,089 bulbs more than in 1932. Small increases in quantities imported are recorded for dahlias, gladiolus, and ornamentals, while the total importations of rhizomatous iris, orchids, peonies, roses, fruits (trees and small fruits), herbaceous, and miscellaneous bulbs, roots, etc., were less than for these classes of plants in 1932. The greatest rate of increase in importations occurred in gladiolus, and the heaviest rate of decrease is noted in rhizomatous iris. A comparison of the records shows an increasing use of the mails for these importations. In 1933, 71 percent of the importations were authorized to come forward by mail as compared with the 60 percent so authorized in 1932. A summary of special permits issued during the entire period of the quarantine to date is given in table 20.







42, ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

TABLE 20.-Special-permit importations, yearly totals for fiscal years 1920-33'


Permits issued Importations un- Permits issued Importations under permits der permits
Fiscal year -________-- Fiscal year
Num- Quantity Num- IQuantity Num- Quantity Num- Quantity
her authorized her imPorted her authorized ber imported

1920________-311 10,752,844 171 3,484,195 1928_____----1,638 37,955,017 1,386 24,645,001 1921 ---------623 13,965, 113 411 8, 132, 634 1929 -------1, 389 16,981,012 1,377 17,972,441
1922________-751 9, 573, 223 519 3,344,050 1930________1,343 11,219, 533 1, 102 2,073, 116 1923 -------- 902 15, 176,718 723 10,358,921 1931- ------ 1,418 8,230,924 1,300 10,121,457
1924________1, 115 15, 381,913 869 12,,561, 574 1932- ------ 1, 306 6, 276, 579 1, 195 3,547,552 1925________1,249 9, 518, 620 1,099 8, 575, 741 1933 -------1, 145 1, 668, 393 1,074 3, 128,294 1926-------__1,465 80,983,487 1,220 6,022,041 1927________1,480 54, 008, 092 1, 279 46, 625, 648 Total- 16, 135 291, 691,468 13,725 160,592,665

1Complete totals for Hawaii included for the first time. Previous reports carried Hawaiian totals for 1931 and 1932 only.
NOTE.-The disparity in the number of bulbs, plants, etc., imported, as compared with the number authorized entry, may be explained by the fact that permits for some classes of plants, particularly narcissus and bulbous iris, are usually issued during'one fiscal year and the importations made during the following fiscal year.

The number of varieties considered has now reached a total of 62,570 (an increase of 3,242 during the year), of which 60,214 have been approved for entry. Table 21 shows the distribution of these varieties among the various classes of plants as w 'ell as a comparison 'of the 1933 importations with those of 1932 for each class. The distribution of special-permit material by States is shown in table 22, which is cumulative.

TABLE 21.-S'pecial-permit material: Number of different varieties of plants
requested and approved for the fiscal years 1920 -33,' and comparison of importations for the fiscal years 1932 and 1933


Number of varieties of plants
for which permits were Number of plants,
requested and approved, bulbs, etc., imported
1920-33
Class of plants____-___Permits Permits Percentrequested approved age ap- 1932 1933
proved

Dahlia--------------------------------------- 4,071 3,889 95. 53 1,813 1,8.59
Gladiolus ----------------------------------- 2,474 2,298 92.89, 76,455 85,812
Iris, bulbous--------------------------------- 562 561 99. 82 1,641,500 1,794,589
Iris, rhizomatous----------------------------- 3, 163 2,982 94.28 13,213 1,206
Narcissus ------------------------------------ 2,524 2,514 99. 60 1,639,186 1,076,356
Orchid--------------------------------------- 11,895 11,875 99.83 12,967 11,526
Peony -------------------------------------- 2,547 2,279 89.48 3,720 1,342
Rose -------*-------------------------------- 5,505 5,024 91.26 8,975 4,675
Fruit (trees andf small fruits)--------------------- 359 343 95. 54 1,042 696
Herbaceous----------------- ----------------- 7,924 7,727 97.51 37,165 34,446
Miscellaneous bulbs, roots, etc ------------------ 3,680 3,639 98.89 71,597 67, 643,
Ornamental--------------------------------- 17,866 17,083, 95.612 39,9119 48,144,
Total----------------------------------- 62,570 60,214 96.23 3,547,552 3,128,294;

IExclusive of varieties considered in Hawaii.







BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 43

TABLE 22.-Distribution, by States, showing number of plants, bulbs, etc., of specialpermit material imported for the fiscal years 1920 -L' )3


T-IS bulb- Iris,
State or Territory Dahlia Gladiolus L' us rhizom- Narefssus Orchid Peony
atous

Alabama --------------------- -------- 15,115 30,980 ---------- 6,000 ---------- 50
Arizona ----------------------- 14 12 ------------ ---------- 11000 14 -------Arkansas --------------------- -------- ------------ 20,000 ---------- ------------ ---------- -------California -------------------- 6,722 1,935,515 11,125,123 34,578 5,680,294 40,625 4,185
Colorado --------------------- 66 44,197 33,490 ---------- ------------ 2,055 10
Connecticut ------------------ 1,301 16,744 84,822 1,584 57,293 1,527 113
Delaware --------------------- -------- 2,000 169,300 22 28 1,909. 1,018
District of Columbia --------- 166 516 215 93 267 385 -------Florida ----------------------- -------- 48,930 357,362 ---------- 6,915,130 2,983 -------Georgia ----------------------- 360 9,210 330,479 181 14,760 ---------- -------Hawaii I ---------------------- 12 298 ------------ 534 ------------ 10,696 -------Idaho ------------------------- -------- 1,248 2,534 24 ------------ ---------- -------Illinois- 937 3,286,307 901,938 15,714 306,410 2,448 47,93.3
Indiana ----------------------- 207 2,390,112 502,765 3,123 1,371 360 10,213
Iowa ------------------------- -------- 112,225 10,0,15 10 250 ---------- 24,012
Kansas ----------------------- 99 ------------ 32 2,263 141 ---------- 3,070
Kentucky -------------------- 408 ------------ 51,200 ---------- 564 415 133
Louisiana --------------------- 129 2,695 32,744 ---------- 10,363 2,070 -------Maine ------------------------ -------- 350 ------------ 43 ------------ 12 26Z
Maryland- 546 41,842 844,490 413 1,923,488 648 20,83a
Massachusetts ---------------- 2,335 3,456,15o 542,250 3,523 102,539 28,593 6,761
Michigan --------------------- 4,514 12,384,515 1,188,486 3,919 2,642,333 705 87,719,
Minnesota---- 214 89,202 345 3,485 11,000 822 7, 54%
Mississippi ------------------- 49 6,500 52,776 9 9,260 ---------- -------Missouri ---------------------- 253 3,173 281,211 641 1,238 4,706 991
Montana ----------------------------- 32 ------------ ---------- ------------ ---------- -------Nebraska --------------------- 276 1,142 ------------ ---------- ------------ ---------- 14
New Hampshire -------------- 7 40,065 21,862 71 147 185 -------Now Jersey ------------------- 7,965 123,839 1,108,169 11,481 1,254,814 28,451 41,009,
New Mexico ------------------ -------- ------------ 5,123 6 270 ---------- -------New York -------------------- 4,883 2,656,649 6,241,879 45,039 15,870,921 36,983 223,09&
North Carolina --------------- 82 775,417 6,195,895 15 1,609,305 845 -------North Dakota ---------------- -------- 63,615 ------------ ---------- ------------ ---------- 7
Ohio -------------------------- 2,823 492,382 67,079 20,761 1,301 652 129,391
Oklahoma -------------------- -------- 510 14,000 ---------- ------------ ---------- -------Oregon ----------------------- 1,864 76,157 1,331,936 1,746 2,757,385 ---------- 2,831
Pennsylvania ----------------- 2,053 394,156 462,768 2,997 3,569,418 18,823 53,970
Puerto Rico ------------------- -------- ------------ ------------ ---------- ------------ 184 -------Rhode Island ----------------- 1,078 2,49S 258,101 1,599 316,800 157 5,200
South Carolina --------------- ------ -- ------------ 297,500 2 8,890,684 ---------- -------South Dakota ----------------- -------- 1,701 ------------ 11 ------------ ---------- 2#443
Tennessee -------------------- 623 -------- 194,002 803 839,257 ---------- 232
Texas ------------------------- 1 2,666 960,. 170 50 7,766,143 30 -------Utah ------------------------- 7 1,131 30,750 ---------- 11,400 ---------- -------Vermont --------------------- -------- 27,062 8,010 36 ------------ ---------- 2,359
Virginia ---------------------- 313 20,465 2,919,363 4 5,611,838 45 1,682
Washington ------------------ 1,710 148,795 2,400,316 3,538 12,767,386 1,030 3,656
West Virginia ---------------- -------- 230 4,000 ---------- ------------ ---------- -------Wisconsin -------------------- 266 109,96-1 269,250 1,014 3,952
Total I ------------------ 42,283 28,730,627 39,193,464 158,861 79,220,053 189,36S 6K 842

Complete totals for Hawaii Included for the first time. Previous reports carried 11awaiian, totals for 1031 and 1932 only.







44 ANN-UAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRIC-ULT-URE) 1933

TABLE 22.-Distribution, by States, showing number of plants, bulbs, etc., of
special-permit material imported for the fiscal years 1920-33-Continued


MiscelHerba- laneous OrnaState or Territory Rose Fruit I ceous I bulbs, mental Total
roots,
etc.

Alabama -------------------------------- 174 -------- 115 335 1,879 54,648
Arizona --------------------------------- 9 -------- 237 4 5,227 6,517
Arkansas -------------------------------- 50 -------- ---------- ---------- ------------ 20,050
- California ------------------------------- 42,922 454, 4,979 134,129 2,101,451 21,110,977
Colorado -------------------------------- ---------- -------- 100 ---------- 5,887 85,945
'Connecticut ----------------------------- 31,608 -------- 2,572 566 157,885 356,014
Delaware ------------------------------- ---------- -------- 42 175 5,319 179,813
District of Columbia -------------------- 320 ------- 2 803 379 3,146
Florida --------------------------------- 21 -------- 221 85,855 279,026 7,689,528
,Georgia --------------------------------- 108 2 ---------- 180 3,279 358,559
Hawaii 2 -------------------------------- ---------- 1,181 13 1,893 4,654 19,281
Idaho ----------------------------------- ---------- -------- 6 193 31 4,036
Illinois ---------------------------------- 10,191 7 3,116 6,134 229,199 4,810,334
Indiana --------------------------------- 2,780 -------- 604 7,983 30,846 2,950,364
Iowa ------------------------------------ ---------- 875 126 ISO 14,373 162,086
Kansas ---------------------------------- 60 -------- 50 133 574 6,422
Kentucky ------------- ------------------ 2 -------- 92 ---------- 64 52,878
Louisiana -------------------------------- 190 -------- 106 773 1,615 50,685
Maine ------ 7 --------------------------- ---------- -------- 172 980 1,013 2,832
Maryland ------------------------------- 4,855 6 1,058 2,083 79,244 2,919,506
Massachusetts -------------------------- 3,442 24 1,573 4,609 438,239 4,590,028
Michigan ------------------------------- 335 -------- 16,791 17,182 574,178 16,920,682
Minnesota ------------------------------- 160 --------- ---------- 3,621 35,628 152,026
Mississippi ------------------------------ 70 -------- ---------- 5 252 68,921
Missouri -------------------------------- ---------- -------- 274 167 19,803 312,457
Montana ----------- -------------------- ---------- -------- ----------- ---------- 100 132
Nebraska ---- 7 -------------------------- ---------- ------- ---------- 351 1,783
New Hampshire ------------------------ ---------- 6 ii 602 1,514 64,606
New Jersey ----------------------------- -41,600 451 69,154 21,969 2,707,179 5,416,081
New Mexico ---------------------------- ---------- -------- ---------- 12 ------------ 5,411
New York --- r -------------------------- 28,294 309 52,781 302,257 3,080,160 28,543,250
North Carolina ------------------------- ---------- -------- ---------- 20,505 764 8,602,S28
North Dakota -------------------------- 1 -------- 63,623
Ohio ------------------------------------ 164 8, 88 14,403 773,019 1,515,330
Oklahoma ------------------------------ ----------- -------- ---------- ---------- 198 14,708
'Oregon ---------------------------------- 2,045 -------- 562 69,080 55,186 4,298,792
- Pennsylvania --------------------------- 12,238 -------- 610 12,071 256,095 4,785,199
Puerto Rico ----------------------------- ---------- -------- 400 ---------- 302 886
Rhode Island --------------------------- 552 -------- 173 2,239 46,491 634,897
South Carolina -------------------------- ---------- -------- 69, 33 3 9,188,291
South Dakota --------------------------- 37213 7 ------- 12 ---------- 896 8,276
Tennessee ------------------------------- 87 -------- ---------- 637 3,462 1,039,103
Texas ----------------------------------- 808 36 10 ---------- 76,357 8,805,605
Utah ------------------------------------ ---------- -------- ---------- ---------- 4,747 48,035
Vermont -------------------------------- ---------- -------- ---------- 98 2,610 40,175
Virginia --------------------------------- 16 -------- 104 4,623 45,939 8,604,392
Washington ----------------------------- 790 3 1,226 33,259 162,371 15,524,086
West Virginia --------------------------- ---------- -------- ----------- ---------- 36 4,266
Wisconsin ------------------------------- 520 -------- 1,121 2,13, 493171 491,175
TotaJ2 ----------------------------- 4 192,728 3,518 166,711 752,406 11,267,804 160,592,665

Prior to 1929 this material was recorded under ornamentals, etc.
2Complete totals for Hawaii included for the first time. Previous reports carried Hawaiian totals for 1931 an& 1932 only.

IMPORTATIONS OF COTTONy COTTON WRAPPINGS (BAGGING), COTTONSEED AND COTTONSEED PRODUCTS

Tables 23 to 26, inclusive, indicate, respectively, the importations during the fiscal year of cotton, cotton waste, cotton wrappings (bagging), cottonseed and cottonseed products which were inspected and when necessary fumigated or otherwise treated under supervision. The actual number of bales of cotton, cotton waste, and bagging is indicated, and inasmuch as bales vary in size they are referred to as running bales.












BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 45



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48 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

TABLE 26.-Importation of cottonseed, cottonseed hulls, and cottonseed products, fiscal year 1933


Cotton- Cotton- Cotton- Cotton- CottonPort seed seed hulls seed seed seed
cake meal oil

Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Gallons
Boston -------------------------------------------- ---------- ------------ 4,000 36,000 ---------Calexico ------------------------------------------- 114,568 15,231,449 ---------- ---------- -- : -------El Paso ------------------------------------------- ---------- ------------ ---------- 12 1 V4
Laredo -------------------------------------------- ---------- ------------ ---------- 8 Y4
Total ---------------------------------------- 14,568 5,231,449 4,000 36,020 1 Y2

Entry of cottonseed, seed cotton, and cottonseed hulls grown in the Imperial Valley, Lower California Mexico, is allowed under permit. No seed cotton was imported this year.

In addition, the Bureau supervised the entry of 6,825 samples of cotton, cotton Enters, and cotton waste imported by freight, express, and parcel post, and as passenger baggage.
IMPORTATIONS OF GRAIN AND BROOMS

Table 27 indicates importations of shelled corn inspected under the provisions of Quarantine No. 41.

TABLF, 27.-Importation (pounds) of clean shelled corn under Quarantine ATo. 41,
by port of entry and country of growth, fiscal, year 1933


Country Balti- Boston Detroi I t Douglas El Paso New York Niagara Nogales
more Falls

Argentina ---------- 747,815 55,800 ---------- ---------- ---------- 3,984,962 ---------- ---------Canada ------------ ---------- ---------- 383 ---------- ---------- ------------ 80 ---------Mexico ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- 86 40 ------------ ---------- 359
Union of South
Africa ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 96 ---------- ---------United States (returned) ---------- ---------- ---------- 510 ---------- ---------- ------------ ---------- ---------Total'-------- 747,815' 55,800 893 86 40 3,985,058 80 359

Puerto Rio San
Phfla- WashCountry delphia Rico (all Grande Fran- Seattle ington Total
ports) city Cisco

Argentina --------------- 2,774,480 150,000 ---------- 19,440 ---------- ---------- 7,732,497
Canada ----------------- ------------ ------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- 1 464
Cuba -------------------- ------------ 1,704,504 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 1,704,504
Dominican Republic ---------------- 2,957,783 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 2,957,783
Haiti -------------------- ------------ 9,900 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 9,900
Mexico ------------------ ------------ ------------ 8 ---------- ---------- 1 Y2 494Y2
Union of South Africa ------------ ------------ ---------- ---------- 6 ---------- 102
United States (returned) ------------ -------- --- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 510
Total --------------- 2,774,480 4,822,187 8 19,440 6 22 12,406,254,/


Effective March 1, provision was made for the entry under Quarantine No. 41 of shelled corn through the mails, and of corn on the cob without permit from adjacent areas of Canada for local consumption, and under permit from certain areas in Canada and from certain other foreign countries. Since that date, 1,427 pounds of green corn on the cob were imported under. inspection from Cuba and j.:
Mexico.
In addition, inspection was made under Quarantine No. 41 of 1,406 brooms made of broomcorn, and of seed other than corn as follows: Jobs-tears, 1 gram; millet, 36,109% pounds; and sorghum, 1% pounds.
In addition, the Bureau supervised the entry under Quarantine No. 55 of 70,655 pounds of seed or paddy rice.







BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 49

IMPORTATIONS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Tables 28 and 29 indicate, by countries of origin and ports of entry, respectively, the fruits and vegetables imported into the continental United States and into Hawaii and Puerto Rico during the fiscal year under permit and subject to inspection at the port of first arrival under the provisions of Quarantine No. 56, and under the regulations governing the importation of potatoes into the United States.
TABLE 28.-Fruits and vegetables imported fiscal year 1933, by countries of origin [Imported under Quarantine No. 56 unless otherwise designated]

Kind Country and quantity Total

Apple.... ..---------- pounds.- England, 35; Ireland, 30; Netherlands, 150 ..... 215
Apricot-----........ -----do... Chile, 7,748 ----------------------------------------------- 7, 745
Aralia cordata..------ do Japan, 1,095 ..------------------------------------------- 1,095
Arrowhead-.....------- do .... China, 162,999; Japan, 250 ..222... 2222..... ...... 2 163, 249
Arrowroot --------- do China, 200; Dominican Republic, 285 .....------------------------- 485
Artichoke (Globe) .. do ... Chile, 2,285 ..... ... ................. .... 2, 285
Asparagus .....-------- do .. Argentina, 86,3S,; Chile, 4,400; Mexico, 4,663 ------------------ 95,451
Avocado.......----------. do .... Cuba, 8,015,505; Mexico (seeds removed), 20,392 --------------- 8,035, 897
Balsam apple.... ------do.... Cuba, 10,610; Mexico, 563.. .. ......-------------------------------- 11, 193
Banana.. -------- bunches-- Bermuda, 1; British Honduras, 94,082; Colombia, 2,763,&.'-2; 42, 336, 312
Costa Rica, 3,719,472; Cuba, 2,673,004; Dominican Republic, 6,922; Ecuador, 27,885; Grenada, 2,107; Guatemala, 3,065,065; Haiti, 42,887; Honduras, 15,246,440; Jamaica, 2.271,074; Mexico, 5,100,90t; Nicaragua, 3,289,352; Panama (including Bean (green): Canal Zone), 4,032,273; St. Lucia, 197; Trinidad, 763. Bean (re)
Faba--------.......... pounds.. Mexico, 175.............................. ...........--------------------------------------------- 175
Lima........---------.... do.... Cuba, 4,077,393; 'Mexico, 107,231; Virgin Islands, 85........... ---------4, 185,409
String --...-------.... do --...- Cuba, 7,655; Mexico, 2,169,871..............................---------------------------.. 2, 177, 526
Beet.... -------------.... do.... Bermuda, 100; Mexico, 207,685 ----....---------------------------- 207, 785
Berry (Rubus) .......----- do---- Norway, 1,635 ----------------------------------------- 1, 635
B russels sprouts .... do.... B elgium 110; M exico, 3.... .... ... ......------------------------------------ 113
Cabbage--------........--.... do --...-- Cuba, 39,070; Mexico, 19,210 Newfoundland, 150 ------------- 5430
Cacao bean pod ....... do Costa Rica, 180; Trinidad, 1,840 2---------------------------- ,.020
Carrot................do.... Bermuda, 100; Mexico, 327,754; Virgin Islands, 160..._..__ 3, 014
Cassava--------........ --d..o --.- Cayman Islands, 250; China, 1,560; Cuba, 157,448; Dominican 159, 4S
CRepublic, 200.
Cauliflower ........... do.... Mexico, 576.......................... ..................--------------------------------------------- 576
Celery---------..........--.... do --..-- Bermuda, 23,800; Mexico, 47 -----------------------.............------.....23,1,847
Chayote-----------..............do.... Cuba, 18,761; Dominican Republic, 3,508; Mexico, 1,638....... 23,907
Cherimoya:
Natural-------...........do .... Chile, 180----------------------------------------------..................................................... 180
Frozen --------do....- Chile, 48 -.......------------------------------------------------.............................................. 48
Cherry:
Dried, sour-----.......do----.... Italy, 399,220; Yugoslavia, 837,460............................. 1, 236, 680
Fresh--------............ do.... Chile, 22,043................................................. 22,043
Cipollino....---------........ do.... Morocco, 2,559,453; Spain, 44,092---------------------------.............................. 2, 603, 545
Citrus uedica------.........do.... Albania, 2,700; Cuba, 95; Italy, 3,956; Palestine, 14,144........ ---------, 895
Clover top---------............do--....-- Mexico, 517............. ..............................---------------------------------------------.... 517
Coriander------.........--...do-.... Mexico, 208 .......--------------------------------------------- ...........................................20
Cowpea ----------- .do---- Mexico, 12.----------------------------------------------12
Crosnes----------............... do--.-- Belgium, 818 .......................................--------------------------------------- ......... 811
.Cucumber...- ....do .... Chile, 1,320; Cuba, 2,675,596; Oermany, 20; Mexico, 4,204..... 2. ,81, 140
Dasheen (includes colocasia, Azores, 238,968; China, 355,624; Cuba, 241,7'8; Dominican 2,G091, 79
inhame, malanga, taro, Republic, 1,084,732; Japan, 168,845; Mexico, 1,827; Nicaragua,
and yautia) (pounds). 5.
Eggplant-------..........pounds... Cuba, 1,884,723; Mexico, 223,032; Virgin lands, 1,070......... 2, 10, 25
Endive-----------..............do.... Belgium, 1,245,641........................................ ------------------------------------ 1, 215,611
Fennel------------................do.... Portugal, 25................................................ 25
Garbanzo---------............. do....- Mexico, 5,05..................... ....------------------------... -------....... 50------Garlic------------ ................do.... Argentina, 3,858; Chile, 1,619,427; China, 1,36; Italy, 759, M1; 6, 229, .3
Mexico, 1,496,605; Morocco, 13,513; Spain, 2,330su.
Ginger (crude)------........do.... China, 39,719; Cuba, 64,202; Jamaica, 16,076; Japan, 3,7(00; 473, 709
GMexico, 2; Nicaragua, 10.
Fresh (not hothouse) Argentina, 7,578,154; Chile, 1,669,339; Metico, 2 ........ 1 5
(pounds).
Frozen------........ pounds.. Italy, 928 ...........................................----------------------------------------------. 2s
Hothouse ........------ do.... Belgium, 144,950 ............... 1-------------------------------------- 44,
Processed....... do.... Italy, 35,200..................-.........-----......------- 35.
Grapefruit ------------.........do.... Cuba, 7,879,182; Haiti, 10...................---------7, 342
orseradish----------.......... do.... i Germany, 114,769; Sweden, 8,331 ................. 143, 101
usk tomato------......... do.... M exico, 6,870............ ..............................6, 70
Japanese horseradish .do.... Japan, -................. ....................- ... -----Kale.------------............. do .--- Bermuda, 20,605; Mexico, 4....................-----------. 200,
Kohlrabi---------.............do.... Mexico, 61 ......... -------.................. ....- ..... 1
Kudzu-----------...............do.... China, 69,)03; Cuba, 354 ...... ........... ....--.....-----. 69,47
Leek----........--....do.... Me xico, ....-------------------..................---...........-...... --------Lemon. ...---- ...... do.... Azores, 5; Chile, 24,216; Cuba,. 619; 1)oniniC, i0; l)ominican 10, 534, 3. 7
Republic, 376; Italy, 1,500,286; Mexico, 76; 'ale~tine, 3,877; Portugal, 4,752.
Lettuce...........----------.. do ..-- Mexico, 29,512 ....................................----------------------------- 2, 512








50 ANN-UAL REPORTS OF -DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULT-URE, 1933

TA13LE 28.-Fruits and vegetables imported fiscal year 1933, by countries of originContinued

Kind Country and quantity Total

Lily bulb (edible) -pounds- China, 35,995; Japan, 315 -------------------------------------- 36,310
Lime (sour) ---------- do---- Antigua, 3,400; Chile, 1,069; Costa Rica, 291; Cuba, 13,910; 5,221,631
Dominica, 910,469; Dominican Republic, 4,566; Grenada, 9,235; Haiti, 679; Honduras, 8,228; Jamaica, 708,798; Mexico, 2,933,313; Montserrat, 45,050;, Nicaragua, 1,890; St. Lucia, 444,340; St. Vincent, 2,700; Trinidad, 128,223; Virgin Islands, 5,470.
Mango (seeds removed, Philippine Islands, 365 ---------------------------------------- 365
frozen) (pounds).
Mangosteen ---------- do ---- Honduras, 25 -------------------------------------------------- 25
Melon ----------------- do ---- Argentina, 83,358; Chile, 5,514,896; France, 25; Mexico, 1,767,684; 8,176,447
Portugal, 10,420; Spain, 800,064.
Mint ------------------ do ---- Mexico, 88 ---------------------------------------------------- 88
Mushroom ----------- do ---- Japan, 1,190 --------------------------------------------------- 1,190
Mustard -------------- do ---- Cuba, 9,732; Mexico, 66,332 ------------------------------------ 76,064
Nectarine ------------ do ---- Belgium, 23; Chile, 315,517 ------------------------------------ 315,540
Nuts:
Acorn ------------ do ---- Greece, 900,000; Turkey, 17,904,359 ---------------------------- 18,804,359
Chestnut --------- do ---- China, 24,100; Italy, 12,124,868; Japan, 530,387; Portugal, 15,548,834
1,230,791; Spain, 1,638,688.
Okra ----------------- do ---- Cuba, 1,420,362; Mexico, 789 ----------------------------------- 1,421,151
Onion ----------------- do--_ Australia, 55,608; Bermuda, 780; Canary Islands, 41; Chile, 3,985,890
343,680; China, 1,270; Dominican Republic, 552; Egypt, 542,150; England, 17,920; Italy, 2,205,046; Mexico, 67,158; Netherlands, 17,920; Spain, 725,015; Virgin Islands, 8,750. Orange:
Under Quarantine No. Cuba, 63,030 -------------------------------------------------- 63,030
56 (pounds).
Mandarin (Quarantine Japan, 1,528,371 ----------------------------------------------- 1,528,371
No. 28) (pounds).
Parsley ------------ pounds-- Mexico, 17,918 ------------------------------------------------- 17,918
Parsnip --------------- do---- 'Mexico, 2 ----------------------------------------------------- 2
Pea ------------------- do---, Cuba, 3,339; Mexico, 9,566,831 ------------ I -------------------- 9,570,170
Peach ---------------- do---- Belgium, 123; Chile, 73,458 ------------------------------------ 73,581
Pear ------------------ do---- Chile, 589 ----------------------------------------------------- 589
Pepper ----------- ----- do ---- Cuba, 177,223;,Mexico, 1,657,174; Virgin Islands, 4,917 --------- 1,839,314
Pigeon pea ----------- do ---- Cuba, 762; Dominican Republic, 263 -------------------------- 1,025
Pigweed -------------- do--'-- Mexico, 881 ---------------------------------------------------- 881
Pineapple ----------- crates-_ Azores, 33; Cuba, 748,008; Ecuador, 44; Haiti, 26; Honduras, 44; 779,708
Mexico, 27,599; Philippine Islands, 3,954.
Plantain ----------- pounds-- British Honduras, 43,120; Cuba, 5,034,797; Dominican Repub- 15,215,319
lic, 9,089,248; Haiti, 8,091; Honduras, 806,726; Nicaragua, 3,180; Panama (including Canal Zone), 229,457; St. Lucia, 700.
Plum ----------------- do ---- Chile, 164,866 ------------------------------------------------- 164,866
Potato: I
Under Quarantine No. Bermuda, 1,826,527 --------------------------------------------- 1,826,527
56 (pounds).
Under potato regulations Canary Islands, 59,564; Cuba, 2,199,826; Mexico, 52,100; Spain, 2,571,447
(order of Dec. 22, 259,957.
1913) (pounds).
Pricklypear -------- pounds-- Mexico, 2,182 -------------------------------------------------- 2,182
Pumpkin ------------- do---- Cuba, 142,390; 'Dominican Republic, 39,613; Jamaica, 350; 191,011
Mexico, 8,658.
Purslane -------------- do---- Mexico, 1,24.6 -------------------------------------------------- 1,246
Radish --------------- do---- Mexico, 73,327 ------------------------------------------------- 73,327
St. Johns bread---- -_ --do- Cyprus, 400,000; Greece, 132,161; Italy, 236,659; Portugal, 680; 814,100 Sicily, 44,600.
Salsify ---------------- do ---- Mexico, 1,166 -------------------------------------------------- 1,166
Spinach -------------- do ---- Cuba, 88; Mexico, 48,667 -------------------------------------- 48,755
Squash --------------- do ---- Cuba, 21,056; Mexico, i57,497 ---------------------------------- 178,553
Strawberry:
Natural ---------- do ---- Mexico, 20 ----------- ------------------------------------------ 20
Frozen ------------ do ---- Chile, 34 ------------------------------------------------------ 34
Sweetpotato_____ -----do---- China, 9,600; Virgin Islands, 54 -------------------------------- 9,654
Swiss chard ----------- do---- Mexico, 2,902 ------------------------- 2,902
Tamarind bean pod -do ---- Antigua, 55,372; Cuba, ,050; India, 69,147 V
Lucia, 8,400.
Tangerine ------------ do ---- Cuba, 125 ----------------------------------------------------- 125
Tomato -------------- do ---- Bahamas, 256,879; Canary Islands, 4,746; Chile, 96; Cuba, 57,716,383
23,093,488; Dominica, '294; Mexico, 34,079,525; Montserrat, 3,120; Virgin Islands, 278,235.
Turnip --------------- do---- Cuba, 336; Mexico, 2A,515; Newfoundland, 150 ----------------- 215,001
Vaccinium (cranberry, etc.): M
Natural--- -pounds- Estonia, 3,960; Finland, 1,200; Newfoundland, 249,057 ---------- 254,217
Q:
Frozen ----------- do---- Newfoundland, 1,516,560 -------------------------------------- 1,516,660
Water caltrop, -------- do--.- China, 13,985 -------------------------------------------------- 13,985 1
Waterchestnut -------- do ---- China, 1591910 ----------------------------------------------- 1,591,910 ..A
Watercress ------------ do ---- Mexico, 5,238 -------------------------------------------------- 5,238
Waterlily root -------- do ---- China, 22,561; Cuba, 61,783 ------------------------------------ 84,344
Watermelon ---------- do---- Cuba, 230,485; Mexico, 1,111,816 ------------------------------- 1,342,301
Yam ----------------- do-.-. China, 26,285; Japan, 16,260 ----------------------------------- 42,545
Yam bean root ------- do---- China,,20,510; Mexico, 969 ------------------------------------- 21,479








BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 51



TABLFe 29.-Fruits and vegetables imported fiscal year 1933, by ports of entry

[Imported under Quarantine No. 56 unless otherwise designated)

Kind Port and quantity Total

Apple----------pounds-- Boston, 35; New York, 180 ----------------------------------- 215
Apricot ------------ do- New York, 7,748 --------------------------------------------- 7,748
Ara/ia cordata ------.. do.... Hawaii (all ports), 1,095 ---------------------------------- 1,095
Arrowhead --------do-....... Boston, 8,100; Buffalo, 17,100; Cleveland, 492; Detroit, 500; 163,249
Hawaii (all ports), 31,287; Los Angeles, 300; New York, 21,600; Niagara Falls, 2,900; San Francisco, 75,90; Seattle, 5,070.
Arrowroot--------d...o.... New York, 285; Niagara Falls, 200 ---------------------------- 485
Artichoke (globe)-.do .... New York, 2,285 ---------------------------------------- 2,285
Asparagus--------- do .... Calexico, 4; El Paso, 2; Naco, 5; New York, 90,788; San Ysidro, 95,451
4,652.
Avocado ----------- do.... Boston, 480; Brownsville (seeds removed), 3,367; Douglas 8,035,897
(seeds removed), 333; Eagle Pass (seeds removed), 3,272; El Paso (seeds removed), 5,667; Hidalgo (seeds removed), 1,876; Key West, 699,287; Laredo (seeds removed), 3,824; Miami, 103,245; Naco (seeds removed), 17; New Orleans, 1,999,294; New York, 2,532,469; Nogales (seeds removed), 1,963; Philadelphia, 468; Rio Grande City (seeds removed), 36; Roma (seeds removed), 37; Tampa, 2,680,262. Balsam apple ------ do....... Calexico, 583; New York, 10,610 ---------------------------- 11, 193
Banana -------- bunches. Baltimore, 2,182,267; Boston, 4,050,280; Brownsville, 72,751; 42,336,312 Calexico, 1; Charleston, 804,733; Detroit, 1,375; Eagle Pass, 5,999; Eastport, 4; El Paso, 62,756; Galveston, 2,199,536; Hidalgo, 820; Key West, 1,113; Laredo, 224,388; Los Angeles, 1,163,352; Miami, 185,162; Mobile, 2,276,084; New Orleans, 10,856,307; New York, 12,182,356; Nogales, 388; Norfolk, 262,290; Philadelphia, 3,978,544; Puerto Rico (all ports), 6,855; Rouses Point, 25; San Francisco, 1,370,756; San Ysidro, 3; Sault Ste. Marie, 2,680; Savannah, 13,681; Seattle, 16,603; XTampa, 410,696; Trout River, 14; Wilmington, 4,493.
2Bean (green):
F a ------- pounds Calexico, 8; Nogales, 167 ------------------------------------ 175
Lima ---------... do.... Laredo, 32,290; New York, 4,077,633; Nogales, 74,941; Puerto 4,185,409
Rico (all ports), 545.
String --------- do..... Brownsville, 83,028; Calexico, 838; Douglas, 1,342; Eagle Pass, 2, 177, 5262,071; El Paso, 66,334; Laredo, 833,564; Naco, 662; New York, 7,655; Nogales, 1,119,859; Rorna, 15; San Ysidro, 62,158. eet.-------------do....... Calexico, 843; Douglas, 4,223; Eagle Pass, 278; El Paso, 192,985; 207,785
Naco, 180; New York, 100; Nogales, 9,176.
.erry(Rubu.) ------do ... New York, 1,635 --------------------------------------------- 1,635
Brussels sprouts --- do-_ Calexico, 3; New York, 110 ----------------------------------- 113
Cabbage ----------- do....-- Boston, 150; Calexico, 948; Douglas, 2,845; Eagle Pass, 123; 58,430
El Paso, 324; Naco, 563; New Orleans, 225; New York, 38,845; Nogales, 14,407.
acao bean pod ..-... do-,--- New York, 2,020 --------------------------------------------- 2, 020
Carrot ----------- do...-.... Calexico, 1,439; Douglas, 2,871; Eagle Pass, 251: El Paso, 328,014
303,625; Naco, 289; New York, 170; Nogales, 19,279; Puerto Rico (all ports), 90.
Cassava ..---------- do...... Key West, 7,749; New York, 131,529; Philadelphia, 200; Seattle, 159,458
1,460; Tampa, 18,520.
C.aulflower --------do.... Calexico, 5; El Paso, 9; Naco, 6; Nogales, 556 ------------------ 576
Celery -----------...... do-. New York, 23,800; Nogales, 47-----------------------------23, 847
Chayote ---------- do ----. Calexico, 1; El Paso, 538; Key West, 470; Laredo, 1,070; New 23, 907
Orleans, 4,815; New York, 16,984; Nogales, 29. Vherimoya:
Natural -------do.... New York, 180 ----------------------------------------------- 18
Frozen -------- do....-- New York, 48 ------------------------------------------------ 48
Cherry:
Dried, sour ------ do .... New York, 1,107,852; Philadelphia, 128,828 ------------------- 1,236,680
Fresh -----------do--- New York, 22,043 -------------------------------------------- -22, 03
lno --------- do .... Boston, 44,092; New York, 2,515,416; Philadelphia, 44,037------2, 603,545
me.ica ------do .... Detroit, 195; El Paso, 5; New York, 20,695 -------------------- 20, 5
Co tp .----------- do .... Douglas, 517 ----------------------------------------------- 517
Coria ------------do .... Calexico, 208-.. -------------------------------------------- 8
owpea.--------- do.... Calexico, 12 ------------------------------------------------ 12
------------do.... New York, 818------------------------------------------818
.br--------do.... Baltimore, 20; Calexico, 374; El Paso, 2,7; Key West, 2,360; 2, 681, 140
Laredo, 1,421; Miami, 9,646; Naco, 206; New Orleans, 99,,31; New York 2,565,079; Nogales, 1,916.
D (inclu descolocasia, Boston, 6,675; Butfalo, 5,70; Calexico, 1,827; Cleveland, 705; 2,0 1,789
inhame malanga, taro, Detroit, 1,000; Hawaii (all ports), 32o; Key West, s,96; Los and yauta) (pounds). Angeles, 23,3W; Miami, 415; New York, 9tJ6,6 ; Niagara
Falls, 13,840; Providence, 156,190; Puerto R'ico (all ports), 414,066; San Francisco, 330,946; Seattle, 115,618; Tampa, 15,552.
E nt ------ pounds.. Boston, 36; Calexico, 142; El Paso, 8,3,; Laredo, 3,843; New 2, 10,825
Orlean, 55,341; New York 1,830,416; Nogalos, 210,693. Endive-- ----do.... Los Angeles, 1,989; New York, 1,241,144; San Francisco, 1,708; 1, 245, 641
Seattle, 800.








52 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTuRE, 1933

TABL, 29.-Fruits and vegetables imported fiscal year 1983, by ports of entry-Con.


Kind Port and quantity Total

Fennel ------------ pounds-- New York, 25 -------------------------------------------------- 25
Garbanzo ------------ do ---- Brownsville, 5,058 --------------------------------------------- 5,058
Garlic ------------------ do ---- Boston, 188,086; Brownsville. 1,225; Calexico, 176,636; Douglas, 6,229,843
2,998; Eagle Pass, 12,904; El Paso, 30,390; Hawaii (all ports), 1,836; Laredo, 872,294; Los Angeles, 4,200; Mobile, 5,500; Naeo, 444; New Orleans, 152,108; New York, 1,939,082; Nogales, 3,873; Puerto Rico (all ports), 2,822,637; San Francisco, 2,635; San Ysidro, 12,995.
Ginger (crude) ------- do---- Boston, 11,170; Buffalo, 11,600; Calexico, 2; Chicago, 500; De- 473,709
troit, 1,200; Hawaii (all ports), 2,000; Los Angeles, 9,500; Now York, 148,294; Niagara Falls, 13,164; Portland, 400; ,San Francisco, 267,345; Seattle, 18,534.
Grape:
Fresh (not hothouse) Calexico, 71; Eagle Pass, 265; El Paso, 105; Laredo, 120; New 8,648,055
pounds. York, 8,647,493; Nogales, 1.
Frozen- -------pounds-- New York, 928 ------------------------------------------------ 928
Hothouse-- -----do ---- New York, 144,955; San Francisco,, 25 ------------------------- 144,980
Processed --------- do ---- New York, 35,200 --------------------------------------------- 35,200
Grapefruit ------------ do ---- Key West, 1,707,008; New Orleans, 1,827,540; New York, 7,879,342
4,344,654; Tampa, 140.
Horseradish ---------- do ---- New York, 143,100 -------------------------------------------- 143,100
Husk tomato --------- do ---- Brownsville, 120; Calexico, 2; El Paso, 6,748 ------------------- 6,870
Japanese horse radish- do ---- Hawaii (all ports), 588 ----------------------------------------- 588
Kale ----------------- do ---- Calexico, 4; New York, 206,605 -------------------------------- 206,609
Kohlrabi ------------- do ---- Calexico, 36; El Paso, 25 --------------------------------------- 61
Kudzu --------------- do ---- Boston, 2,900; Buffalo,,2,900; Chicago, 200; Detroit, 400; Los 69,437
Angeles, 600; New York, 12,852; Niagara Falls, 4,500; San Francisco, 43,540; Seattle, 1,536.
Leek ----------------- do ---- Calexico, 8 ---------------------------------------------------- 8
Lmon --------------- do ---- Boston, 75,503; Brownsville, 76; Buffalo, 22,357; Detroit, 198; 10,534,397
New Orleans, 1,047,293; New York, 9,328,942; Pensacola, 59,680; Providence, 8; Puerto Rico (all ports), 140; Trout River, 200.
Lettuce --------------- do ---- Brownsville, -84; Calexico, 557; Douglas, 2,171; Eagle Pass, 777; 29,512
El Paso, 62; Naco, 718; Nogales, 25,143.
Lily bulb (edible) ---do ---- Boston, 3,470; Buffalo, 2,518; Detroit, 600; Hawaii (all ports), 36,310 1,955; Los Angeles, 300; New York, 6,884; Niagara Falls, 3,600; Portland, 10; San Francisco, 15,093; Seattle, 1,880. Lime (sour) ---------- do---- Boston, 17,185; Brownsville, 34,603; Eagle Pass, 253,737; El 5,221,631
Paso, 77,176; Key West, 1; Laredo, 2,2-85,570; Los Angeles, 213,782; Miami, 2,719; Mobile, 34,421; New Orleans, 58,778; New York, 2,173,008; Nogales, 43,926; Norfolk, 13,009; Philadelphia, 5,640; Puerto Rico (all ports), 360; San Francisco, 5,664; San Ysidro, 482; Seattle, 900; Tacoma, 670. Mango (seeds removed, New York, 91; Portland, 100; San Francisco, 174 --------------- 365
frozen) (pounds).
Mangosteen ------- pounds-- Boston, 25 ----------- 25
Melon ---------------- do---- Baltimore, 25; Boston, 6,650; rownsville, 834; Calexico, 8,176,447
446,503; El Paso, 19,027; Hidalgo, 3,575; Laredo, 1,272,259; Mercedes, 557; Naco, 35; New York, 6,402,088; Nogales, 24,894.
Mint ----------------- do---- Calexico, 2; Douglas, 5; El Paso, 80;'Nogales, 1 ---------------- 88
Mushroom ----------- do---- Hawaii (all ports), 1,190 --------------------------------------- 1,190
Mustard -------------- do ---- Calexico, 26,589; Douglas, 1,632; El Paso, 29,576; New York, 76,064
9,732; Nogales, 8,535.
Nectarine ------------ do ---- New York, 315,540 -------------------------------------------- 315,540
Nuts:
Acorn ------------ do ---- New York, 18,676,492; Philadelphia, 127,867 ------------------- 18,804,359
Chestnut --------- do ---- Hawaii (all ports), 191,470; Los Angeles, 165,580; New York, 15, W, 834
15,002,787; San Francisco, 157,397; Seattle, 31,600. Okra ----------------- do---- Brownsville,' 160; Calexico, 20; El Paso, 528; Key West, 1,421,151
17,442; New Orleans, 596,425; New York, 546,039; Nogales, 81; Tampa, 260,456.
Onion ---------------- do---- Boston, 1,011,545; Brownsville, 278; Calexico, 5,456; Douglas, 3,985,890
8,022; Eagle Pass, 2,363; El Paso, 22,284; Naco, 2,344; New j
York, 2,849,757; Nogales, 26,411; Puerto Rico (all ports), 552; San Francisco, 39,378; Seattle, 17,500.
Orange:
Under Quarantine No. Miami, 42; New Orleans, 50,509; New York, 12,479 ------------ 63,030
56 (pounds).
Mandarin (Quarantine Seattle, 1,528,371 ---------------------------------------------- 1,528,371
No. 28) (pounds).
Parsley- -----pounds- Calexico, 82; Douglas, 70; El Paso, 17,108; Naeo, 7; Nogales, 651- 17,918 V
Parsnip --------------- do ---- Calexico, 2 ---------------------------------------------------- 2
Pea ------------------- do ---- Calexico, 248; Douglas, 641; Eagle Pass, 39; El Paso, 110; Laredo, 9,570,170
2,255; Naco, 5; New York, 3,339; Nogales, 9,399,412; San Ysidro 164,121.
Peach ---------------- do ---- New York, 73,581 --------------------------------------------- 73,581
Fear ------------------ do ---- I New York, 589 ------------ ------------------------------------ 589
I Okra was admitted from Tamaulipas, Mexico, through the port of Brownsville under special conditions.







BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 53

TABLE 29.-Fruits and vegetables imported fiscal year 1933, by ports of entry-Con.


Kind Port and quantity Total

Pepper --------- pounds.. Boston, 252; Brownsville, 3,982; Calexico, 1,627; Del Rio, 6,982; 1,839,314
Douglas, 7,851; Eagle Pass, 61,314; El Paso, 225,519; Hidalgo, 3,610; Laredo, 115,726; Naco, 1,207; New Orleans, 11,835; New York, 169,918; Nogales, 1,224,593; Puerto Rico (all ports), 135; San Ysidro, 4,653; Ysleta, 110.
Pigeon pea -------- do...-.... New York, 1,025 ---------------------------------------- 1,025
Pgweed ---------- do-....... Douglas, 635; Naco, 125; Nogales, 121 -------------------------- 881
Pineapple-------- crates-- Brownsville, 1,941; Douglas, 2; Eagle Pass, 1; El Paso, 4,196; 779,708 Key West, 338,095; Laredo, 20,917; Miami, 2,273; New Orleans, 89,745; New York, 305,502; Nogales, 41; Portland, 3,049; Providence, 28; San Francisco, 944; Seattle, 5; Tampa, 12,969.
Plantain ---------- pounds. Boston, 14,250; Key West, 402,830; Miami, 129,486; Mobile, 15, 215, 319
1,340; New Orleans, 410,757; New York, 4,157,716; Norfolk, 27,192; Philadelphia, 119,570; Puerto Rico (all ports), 9,093,580; Tampa, 858,598.
Plum--------------- do--. Ne'w York, 164,866---------------------------------------- 164,866
Potato:
Under Quarantine No. New York, 1,826,527 ---------------------------------- 826, 527
56 (pounds).
Under potato regula- Douglas, 24,895; Key West, 54; Naco, 4,630; New Orleans, 2, 571,447
tions (order of Dec. 22, 61,822; New York, 2,151,530; Nogales, 22,575; Puerto Rico
1913) (pounds). (all ports), 305,941.
Prickly pear-.... pounds.. Calexico, 8; El Paso, 290; Laredo, 1,880; Nogales, 4 ------------- 2, 182
Pumpkin ---------do...-.... Brownsville, 975; Calexico, 1,527; Douglas, 3,358; Eagle Pass, 191,011
546; Key West, 6,043; Laredo, 1,399; Naco, 746; New Orleans, 350; New York, 175,960; Nogales, 91; Rio Grande City, 16. Purslane ----------- do.... Calexico, 214; Douglas, 270; Nogales, 762 ----------------------- 1,246
Radish -----------do....... Calexico, 2,681; Douglas, 239; Eagle Pass, 29; El Paso, 63,423; 73, 327
Naco, 43; Nogales, 6,912.
St. Johns bread ------ do..----. New York, 814,100---------------------------------------- 814,100
Salsify -----------do...-.... Calexico, 26; San Ysidro, 1,140 ------------------------------ 1,166
Spinach----------do....... Calexico, 1,179; Douglas, 1,377; El Paso, 28,590; Naco, 626; New 48, 756
4York, 88; Nogales, 16,895.
Squash -----------do...-.... Calexico, 2,916; Douglas, 7,617; Eagle Pass, 1,049; El Paso, 178,553
39,174; Laredo, 84,213; Naco, 712; New York, 21,056; Nogales,
strawberry: 21,686; Rio Grande City, 12; San Ysidro, 118.
Natural -------- do.... Nogales, 20_ __---------------------------------------------- 20
Frozen --------- do .... New York,_34 -------------------------------------------- 34
Sweetpotato -------do-....... Hawaii (all ports), 9,600; Puerto Rico (all ports), 54 ----------- 9,654
Swiss chard -------- do.... El Paso, 2,872; Nogales, 30 -------------------------------- 2,902
Tamarind bean pod. -_do....-- Calexico, 3; El Paso, 110; Laredo, 200; New Orleans, 1,530; New 69,147
Tdo York, 67,302; Nogales, 2.
Tangerine ----------- do- New York, 125 ----------------------------------------------- 125
Tomato -----------. do.--- Boston, 177,477; Brownsville, 4,310; Buffalo, 116.586; Calexico, 57,716,383
8,898; Del Rio, 4,508; Douglas, 15,192; Eagle Pass, 40,779; El Paso, 144,652; Hidalgo, 1,847; Key West, 375,496; Laredo, 955,136; Los Angeles, 7,839,176; Miami, 19,500; Naco, 2,588; New Orleans, 687,184; New York, 22,270,695; Niagara Falls, 20,660; Nogales, 23,605,508; Puerto Rico (all ports), 92,650; Rio Grande City, 3; Roma, 5; San Diego, 17,280; San Francisco, 1,236,723; San Ysidro, 1,530; Seattle, 78,000. Turnip -----------do .... Boston, 150; Calexico 78; Douglas, 780; Eagle Pass, 5; El Paso, 215,001
(206,289; Naco, 29; New York, 336; Nogales, 7,334.
Vacnum(n ber, etc.):
Natural ------- pounds.. -Boston, 25,830; New York, 228,387 ---------------------------- 254,217
Frozen .......... do.... Boston, 434,830; New York, 1,081,730 ------------------------- 1, 516, 560
Water caltrop ------do....... Boston, 500; Hawaii (all ports), 5,480; New York, 1,305; San 13,98
Francisco, 6,700.
SWaterchestnut -----... do.... Boston, 69,214; Buffalo, 88,433; Chicago, 64,000; Cleveland, 1, 591,910
7,071; Detroit, 31,500; Hawaii (all ports), 120,262; Los Angeles, 46,240; New York, 312,776; Niagara Falls, 55,743; Portlanid, 8,600; San Francisco, 505,653; Seattle, 282,418. watercress --------do.... Calexico, 78; Douglas, 752; Naco, 138; Nogales, 4,270 ----------- 5, 238
Waterlily root ------- do .... Boston, 2,372; New York, 61,783; Niagara Falls, 500; Portlild, 4, 3-4
360; San Francisco, 7,800; Seattle, 11,529. Watermelon -------... do ...- Brownsville, 137,080; Calexico, 495,319; Douglas, 670; El Paso, 1,342,301
805; Hidalgo, 173,640; Mercedes, 20,700; Naco, 352; New Orleans, 45,315; New York, 185,170; Nogales, 281,113; Rio Grande City, 1,437; Roma, 700.
Yam.-------------do...-.... Hawaii (all ports), 42,545 ------------------------------------- 42,545
am bean root ------ do....- Hawaii (all ports), 3 ;220' El Puso, 969; Los Angeles, 1,300; New 21,479
York, 3,100; Sar Francisco, 12,890.



TI






.54 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS ENTERED FOR EXPORTATION OR FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EXPORTATION
In addition to the regulated imports for consumption entry recorded in tables 15 to 29, this Bureau supervised the entry under permit, either for exportation
-or for transportation and exportation, of considerable quantities of plants and plant products, as follows: Flower bulbs, corms, and tubers, 1,285,690; fruit
-trees, 54,128; cacti and succulents, 21,711; orchids, A95; miscellaneous plants, 5,521; acorns, 379,575 pounds; apples, 163,891 pounds; bananas, 6 bunches; beans (string), 195,300 pounds; cherries, 700 pounds; chestnuts, 43 pounds; ,cipollini, 190 pounds; Citrus medical, 180 pounds; eggplants, 35,758 pounds; ,garlic, 2,452,816 pounds; ginger, 683 pounds; grapes, 61,853 pounds; grapefruit, 10,549,001 pounds; husk tomatoes, 1,608 pounds; kudzu, 754 pounds; lemons, 7,849,514 crates; lily bulbs (edible), 955 pounds; limes (sour), 7,970 pounds; mangoes, 50 pounds; melons, 535,502 pounds; nectarines, 1,400 pounds; onions, 5,916,823 pounds; oranges, 1,167,841 pounds; peas, 1,330,176 pounds; peaches, 18,397 pounds;, peppers, 84,409 pounds; pineapples, 103,997 crates; plums, 1,336 pounds; potatoes, 664,501 pounds; pumpkins, 963 pounds; St. Johns bread, 110 pounds; tamarind bean pods, 44 pounds; tangerines, 1,600 pounds; tomatoes, 13,203,197 pounds; waterchestnuts, 2,300 pounds; waterlily roots, 679 pounds; watermelons, 215,770 pounds; yam bean roots, 200 pounds; corn, 818,820 pounds; cotton, 74,QO3 bales and 15 packages, including 920 bales and 5 packages of linters; cottonseed cake, 1,665,950 pounds;, cotton waste, 156 bales and 4 packages; seed or paddy rice, 9,471 pounds.
MARITIME-PORT INSPECTION
SHIP INSPECTION

The inspection of ships from foreign countries and from Hawaii and Puerto Rico has been continued along the lines described in'previous annual reports.
The inspection at ports in California, Florida, Hawaii, and certain ports in 'Puerto Rico has been performed by State and Territorial officials serving as collaborators of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine at a very small cost to the Department.
A record by ports of the ship inspection appears in table 30.


















Y










BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 55


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56 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

CARGO INSPECTION
All importations of Iants and plant products subject to quarantine restrictions were inspected at the port of entry or the port of first arrival and a record of such importations by port appears in table 31.

TABLE 31.-Inspection of shipments of plants and plant products offered for entry, fiscal -year 1933

Ship- Ship- Shipments ments ments
in- Ship- in- Ship. in- Shipspect- ments spect- ments spect- ments
Port ed and refused Port ed and refused Port ed and refused
en- entry en- entry entered tered tered entry
under under under
permit permit permit

Baltimore -------- 200 0 Hidalgo ---------- 214 0 Port Huron ----- 53 3
Bellingham ------- 81 0 Honolulu I ------- 491 139 Portland, 0reg___ 19 0
Blaine ------------ 15 0 Houston ---------- 201 0 Presidio ---------- 9 0
Boston ----------- 1,033 1 Key West I ------- 587 0 Providence 2 ...... 19 0
Brownsville ------ 437 0 Laredo ----------- 2,193 0 Puerto Rico (all
Buffalo -------- -_ 299 1 Mercedes --------- 9 0 ports) ---------- 637 0
Calexico ---------- 353 0 Miami I ---------- 73 1 Rio Grande City- 6 0
Charleston------- 61 1 Mobile ----------- 112 4 Roma ------------ 27 0
Chicago ---------- 19 1 Naco ------------- 5 0 San Francisco 1 1,227 10
Del Rio ---------- 102 0 New Orleans----- 1,684 3 San Pedro 542 2
Detroit ----------- 333 59 New York -------- 11,128 22 San Ysidro ------- 153 0
Douglas ---------- 41 0 Nogales----------- 2,681 4 Savannah -------- 75 0
Eagle Pass------- 351 1 Norfolk ---------- 216 1 Seattle ----------- 233 1
El Paso-----..---- 5,007 0 Pensacola I ------- 2 0 Tampa I ---------- 864 0
Fabens ----------- 1 0 Philadelphia - - 364 15
Galvest on -------- 282 3 Port Arthur ------ 2 0 Total ------- 32,441 272

1 Collaborators are stationed at these ports.
2 Work handled by inspectors stationed at Boston, Mass.

In addition to the importations credited to the Mexican border ports there were several thousand 'importations which were so small that no duty was assessed by customs and no entry made.
Disinfection is required of certain commodities as a condition of entry and of other commodities wh en inspection reveals the presence of injurious insects or plant diseases. The following plant material was treated under supervision of inspectors of this Bureau during the fiscal year: Cotton, 108,648 bales (including 212 bales of linters) and 6,675 cotton samples; cotton waste, 2,665 bales; bagging 1,818 bales; chestnuts, 15,323 cases; tree seeds, .3,909 pounds and 16 packages; miscellaneous plant material, 984 packages; narcissus bulbs imported under special permit, 1,076,356; and bulbous iris, 1,106,428.
It has also been necessary for inspectors at several ports to devote considerable time to the inspection of miscellaneous cargoes in order to establish the true status of the material and to supervise the cleaning by importers of products contaminated with objectionable material such as soil.
The demand for inspection of docks and ships for the presence of insects injurious to flour decreased considerably over the previous fiscal year. At Galveston 8 ship inspections were made, at Houston 24 ship inspections, and at New Orleans 23 ship and 1 dock inspections.

AIRPLANE, INSPECTION
Airplanes from foreign countries were inspected at the following 10 ports of entry: Brownsville, El Paso, and Laredo, Tex Nogales, Ariz.; Calexico and San Diego, Calif.; Miami and West Palm *Aeach, Fla.; San Juan, P.R.; and Seattle, Wash. A total of 3,427 airplanes was inspected during the year, and 626 interceptions of prohibited plant material were made.

FOREIGN PARCEL-POST INSPECTION
Through cooperation with the customs and post-office officials, all mail packages from foreign countries which are found to contain plants or plant products are referred to inspectors of the Bureau for examination. Such packages arriving at







BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 57

ports of entry where there are no representatives of the Bureau are forwarded by the postal officials to the nearest port at which a plant quarantine inspector is
stationed.
Table 32 indicates by port the number and disposition of foreign-mail packages
inspected during the fiscal year.

TABLE 32.-Number of inspections of foreign parcel-post packages, fiscal year 1933


Re- Refused Divert- fused DivertPotIn- entry ed to PotIn- entry ed to
spected (entire Wash- Potspected (entire Washor in ington or in ington
part) part)

Baltimore-------------- 1,408 96 71 Naco -------------------- 42 1 0
Boston ---------------- 2, 206 139 380 New Orleans ------------- 62 25 30
Brownsville--------------6584 5 0 New York -------------- 1,905 567 437
Buffalo ------------------ 44 27 1 Nogales ------------------ 5 1 2
Chicago---------------- 3,952 493 56 Norfolk --------- --------- 1 0 1
Detroit---------------- 4,703 202 206 Philadelphia ------------ 7,822 354 166
Douglas-----------15 0 0 Portland----------------- 25 2 10
Eagle Pass--------------- 171 0 0 Presidio------------------ 37 0 0
El Paso ----------------- 467 10 37 Puerto Rico (all ports) -- 19 11 0
Honolulu I----------------- 1,010 94 2 St. Paul 3------------------ 2,978 282 82
Houston----------2 0 0 San Diego I ------------------32 0 0
Jacksonville ----------350 19 93 San Francisco I ------------4,284 344 0
Laredo.---------492 33 11 Seattle ------------------ 601 68 1
i Los Angeles 1 2 ---------- 4,799 185 0 Tampa I---------------------- 1 1 0
Miami I ---------------------36 30 4
obe---------13 2 0 Total------------ 38,066 3, 0139 1, 590

Collaborators are stationed at these ports.
p372 packages were diverted to San Francisco for treatment.
SRecords cover the period October 1932 to June 1933, inclusive.

MEXICAN BORDER SERVICE

The movement of railway cars from Mexico continued to decline over the last
fiscal year. A total of 13,382 freight cars was inspected in the Mexican railway yards. Of these, 12,448 entered the United States, 3,090 being fumigated as a I condition of entry. Four hundred and ninety-nine cars were found to be contaminated with cottonseed and were required to be cleaned before entry was permitted. The usual fee of $4 was collected foi each car fumigated, and all
fees collected were covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.
A summary of the railway-car inspection and fumigation is given in table 33.

41 TABLE 33.-Inspection and fumigation of railway cars crossing the border from Mexico, fiscal year 1933


PortCars in- Cars with Cars en- Cars fui- Fees colPortspected cotton- tered migated lected
seed

Brownsville-------------------------------------- 240 31 183 22 $&88
Douglas------------------------------------- 377 11 377 14 56
Eagle Pass-------------------------------------- 1,104 92 1, 036 33 1 1,400
El Paso ---------------------------------------- 2,303 414 2,151 1 460 1, 692
Laredo ------------------------------- ---------- 4,704 207 4,375 1,5o28 6, 144
Naco ------------------------------------------- 514 7 15141 6 241
i: Nogales ---------------------------------------- 4, 046 106 3, 798 726 3,000
Prealdio ------------------------------------- 14 1 143 12
Total --- ----------------------------- 13,302 49 12,448-1 3,090~'2,1

Includes 3 cars not from Mexico.
The apparent discrepancy in fees collected and the number of cars fumigated may be explained by the
fct that it Is customary for the railroads to purchase fumigation cou~pons in advance.







58' ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

In addition to the freight cars listed in table 33, 2,525 Pullman and passengercoaches crossed the border and were inspected.
Plant-quarantine inspectors on the Mexican border take an active part in cooperation with the Customs Service, in the inspection of vehicles, baggage, personal effects, and express packages from Mexico. Approximately 3,500,000 vehicles crossed the border from Mexico during the fiscal year, and a total of 100,833 pieces of baggage was examined. The inspection of these vehicles and baggage resulted in the interception of a large quantity of prohibited plant mate-rial. A record of such interceptions appears in table 38.
While there was a decided increase in the small lots of fruits and vegetables brought over for local consumption, the carload shipments of fruits and vegetables were considerably below normal. One thousand six hundred and one cars of tomatoes, 673 cars of green peas, 588 cars of bananas, and 287 cars miscellaneous fruits and vegetables entered at the various ports.
INSPECTION IN PUERTO RICO AND HAWA11
In addition to the enforcement of the foreign-plant quarantines and regulatory orders, inspectors stationed in Puerto Rico also enforce the provisions of Quarantine No. 58. This involves the inspection of fruits and vegetables in the fields, in packing houses, and on the docks, and all shipments of such products moving to the mainland have been certified as free from pests.
Parcel-post packages originating on the island and destined f or points on the mainland are also inspected. A total of 892 such packages was inspected during the year, and 95 were found to contain prohibited plant material and were returned to the sender.
Insular quarantine inspectors rendered valuable assistance in the enforcement of the foreign-plant quarantines and regulatory orders.
A record by months of the number of containers of fruits and vegetables inspected and certified for shipment to the mainland appears in table 34.
Inspectors stationed in Hawaii are engaged principally with the enforcement of Quarantine No. 13, on account of the Mediterranean fruit fly and the melon, fly. Inspections were made in the fields, packing sheds, and on the docks of such fruits and vegetables as are permitted to move to the mainland.
The inspection of parcel-post packages, originating in the Hawaiian Islands, and destined for points on the mainland was continued throughout the year. A total of 75,962 packages were opened and examined; 89,770 packages were inspected without opening, and 103 packages were found to contain prohibited, plant material.
As an accommodation to travelers between Hawaii and the mainland, it hasbeen the practice for someyears to inspect and seal baggage in Honolulu, thuseliminating delay incident to the inspection of baggage at destination. During the year 2,157 pieces of baggagewere inspected and sealed under this arrangement.
A record of the number of containers of fruits and vegetables inspected and: certified for shipment to the mainland appears in table 35.











BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 59.


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-60' ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

TABL, 35.-Number of containers of fruits and vegetables inspected and certified
for shipment from Hawaii to the mainland, fiscal year 1933


Month Bananas I Pine- Taro Coco- Ginger Lily Permits
apples nuts root root 2 issued

July ------------------------------ 3,606 5,758 17 f69 0 87 118
August --------------------------- 3,357 2,256 .301 1 7 119 102 101
September ------------------------ 5,404 3,131 195 178 107 103 107
October -------------------------- 5,834 2,085 0 48 17 97 75
November ------------------------ 8,434 3,125 2 349 187 152 95
December ------------------------ 6,901 4,046 51 278 420 198 121
January -------------------------- 6,738 4,209 0 239 20 156 89
February ------------------------- 7,686 5,431 7 8 26 130 99
March ---------------------------- 11,133 6,468 1 4 216 159 110
April ----------------------------- 6,253 4,132 0 ill 174 118 96
May ------------------------------ 7,788 3,473 17 74 245 92 127
June ----------------------- 5,303 4,531 0 13 112 13 136
Total ----------------------- 78,437 48,645 591 1,378 1,633 1,487 1,274

Bunches.
2 This edible root (Nelumbium nelumbo) is also known to the trade as Lotus root.
NOTE.-In addition to the fruits and vegetables listed above, inspectors in Hawaii certified 2,915 crates
-of potatoes, 12 crates of onions, 3 crates of asparagus, and 5 crates of gobo for shipment to the mainland.

INSPECTION OF SPECIAL-PERMIT AND DEPARTMENTAL PLANT MATERIAL

As in previous years, all plants imported under special permit have been inspected at ports of entry designated for such material. A tabular record of special-permit importations is presented in tables 19 to 22, inclusive. The majority of such special-permit importations have been, as in former years, inspected
-at Washington, D.C., and these together with departmental importations and distributions from Washington, including domestic plants entering and leaving the District of Columbia, are inspected and certified for shipment at the Department inspection house, in the nursery, or in freight, express, or post offices. A
-summary of the inspections made at Washington, D.C., is given in table 36.

"TABLE 36.-Summary of plants and plant products offered for inspection in the District of Columbia, fiscal year 1983


Other- Infested Infected
Material inspected For- Domes- Fumi- wise with with
eign tic gated treated insects diseases


.Lots of seeds (departmental) -------------------------- 2,883 4,035 2,981 573 240 84
Plants, cuttings, bulbs, roots, rhizomes, etc. (departmental) --------------------------------------------- 65,606 123,169 68,597 30,039 1569 1249
Miscellaneous unclassified material, other than plants and seeds (departmental) --------------------------- 105 192 50 139 4 1
-Shipments of plants under regulation 14, Quarantine No. 37 (commercial) --------------------------------- 847 -------- 130 106 193 271
.-Shipments of plants and plant products under regulations 3 and 15, Quarantine No. 37 (commercial)----- 815 -------- 306 240 34 170
Containers of domestic plants other than departmental
(mail, express, freight, and truck) - - : -- -------- 8,820 -------- -------- -------- --------Shipments of plants for distribution by Td._jioiamc Garden ---------------------------------------------- -------- 368 1 368 94 -------.,Shipments of plants by private individuals ------------ --------- 4,178 18 338 56 317
Interceptions of plants and plant products referred to Washington ----------------------------------------- 950 -------- 382 196 67 21
-Cotton samples referred to Washington --------------- 5,336 -------- 5,336 -------- -------- -------I Lots.

An effort is made to inspect, in the field, plants imported under regulation 14 of Quarantine No. 37 during at least two growing seasons to determine their freedom from plant pests, particularly plant diseases, which may have escaped detection or which were in such an early stage of development as to make detection impossible at the initial inspection at the time of entry, prior to shipment to the field. Only the more recent of the importations shown in table 22 are
-still under the observation of the Department. During the year field inspections were made of imported plants and their increase, a total of approximately '26,000,000 plants. As a result of inspections in 1933 and those of preceding






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 61

years, a total of 36,821,485 plants were released from further observation. This total represents imported plant material and its increase produced during the two or more growing seasons it was under observation, which was found to be apparently free of important plant pests likely to become established in this country.
During the fiscal year 650 collections of plant pests were sent in for verification and determination, 461 of which were diseases and 189 insects. Among the more interesting pests found were the following: Nematodes-Tylenchus dipsaci in bulbous iris in California, Michigan, New York, and North Carolina and in narcissus in Maryland, New York, North Carolina, and Washington, root knot (Heterodera marioni) in bulbous iris Wedgewood, a new host; diseasesBotrytis convoluta on Iris susiana in California, Hemileia oncidii on orchid in Hawaii, mosaic or mosaiclike symptoms on azalea, camellia, dahlia, Eremurus app., iris, narcissus, orchid, peony, rhododendron, and tigridia, Puccinia iridis on iris spp. in California, and on Iris sp. in Louisiana, Stagonospora curtisii on Nerine spp., Uredo nigropunctata on orchid in Maryland, and Urocystis colchici in Delaware, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Washington on Colchicum spp.; insectsBregmatothrips iridis (thrips) on iris, Eumerus sp. (Syrphidae) in narcissus and Valotta purpurea (Scarboro-lily), Frankliniella sp. (thrips) on Hemerocallis sp. (daylily), Lepidosaphes tuberculata (Coccidae) on orchid, 3erodon equestris (narcissus-bulb fly) in narcissus, and Taeniothrips gladioli (gladiolus thrips) on gladiolus and Tritonia sp.
INSPECTION OF PLANT-INTRODUCTION AND PROPAGATING GARDENS
As heretofore, plants grown and distributed by the Bureau of Plant Industry from its plant-introduction and propagating gardens were inspected and certified prior to shipment. Plants shipped from Mandan, N.Dak., Chapman Field, Fla., and Chico Calif., were inspected by officials of the States concerned cooperating with this Bureau. Those distributed from Savannah, Ga., were examined by an inspector of this Bureau. Table 37 indicates the number of plants inspected and certified for distribution.

TABLE 37.-Number of plants, bud sticks, cuttings, tubers, roots, and shipments of
seeds examined for distribution from plant-introduction and propagating gardens, S fiscal year 1988

Bud sticks,
Station Plants cuttings, Shipments
tubers, and of seeds
roots

Bell................................................................ ----------------------------------------------------27,949 421 1
Chico.............................................................. --------------------------------------------------16, 012 532 21
Chapman Field..................................................... -------------------------------------------6,021 181 94
Savannah..........................................................------------------------------------------------ 1,027 22
District of Columbia .............................................. --------------------------------------- 5,838 50, 449 4, 298
Mandan, N.Dak -----------------------------------------................................................... 253, 210 .........-------------------............Beltsville --------------------------------------------------........................................................... 38 6, 642 .........
Total......................................................... ---------------------------------------------310, 095 58, 247 4,414

INTERCEPTIONS OF PROHIBITED PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS
A record of the number of interceptions of prohibited plants and plant products made by inspectors and collaborators of the Bureau at all ports appears in table 38. Many of these interceptions were found to harbor insect pests and plant diseases, and many others, while no infestation or infection was noted, must be considered potentially dangerous since they came from countries where pests not present in this country are known to occur. For example, 1,723 interceptions, representing 21,424 individual units of known hosts of the Mediterranean fruit fly, from countries where that insect is reported to occur, were made.
Interceptions made at footbridges, ferries, and crossings at the Mexican and Canadian border ports have all been listed as having been taken from baggage.








-62, ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 19~33

1?A]BLE, 38.-Number of interceptions of contraband plants and plant products, fiscal

year 1933

-n In In In iin I nIn In
Port bag- cag .mi quar- stores Port bag- carg mil In'str
gage caro ai gage cagomal str

Baltimore ---------31 0 92 36 59 New Orleans------314 8 8 378 81
flellingham --------23 0 0 0 2 New York ------1,370 322 572 82 19
~Blaine ---------- 1,745 0 0 0 0 Nogales --------- 2,312 0 1 0 0
Boston ---------- 331 1 194 103 3 Norfolk---------- 10 0 0 105 65
Brownsville -----1,965 0 6 0 0 Pensacola 5-----1 0 0 4 14
Brunswick I ---- 0 0 0 01 1 Philadelphia--- 37 21 467 82 118
Buffalo----------- 442 0 27 0 0 Port Arthur6...... 1 0 0 25 12
-Calexico --------- 2,333 0 0 0 0 Port Huron5----- 239 3 0 0 0
Charleston ---------3 1 0 116 9 Portland, Oreg --- 2 0 2 1 7
Chicago---------- 0 4 555 0 16 Presidio---------- 131 0 0 0 0
Columbus2--------83 0 0 0 0 Pro vidence7___ 63 1 0 0 0
Corpus Christ!..--- 0 0 0 7 0 Puerto Rico (all
Del Rio ---------- 498 0 0 0 0 ports) ---------- 162 1 0 3 1
Detroit.3--------- 564 59 245 0 0 Rio Grande City- 60 0 0 0 0
Douglas---------- 508 0 0 0 0 Roma------------ 278 0 0 0 0
Eagle Pass ------1,994 0 0 0 0 St. Paul 8----------0 0 203 0 0
El Paso --------- 6,192 0 118 0 0 San Diego5------- 10 7 0 8 42
Fabens----------- 176 0 0 0 0 San Francisco 5. --- 284 29 50 457 148
*Galveston --------- 0 4 0 54 19 San Pedro 5------ 33 6 0 18 51
Gulfport4----------0 0 0 5 3 San Ysidro ------6,775 0 0 0 0
Hidalgo ---------- 722 0 0 0 0 Sasabe---------- 177 0 0 0 0
Honolulu 5--------- 724 145 108 0 4 Savannah--------- 1 0 0 41 4
Houston--------- 35 2 0 8 25 Seattle----------- 105 1 51 0 1
-Jacksonville 5-..-.-.- 0 0 19 6 25 Tampa5 -----------2 0 1 5 11
Key West65-------375 0 0 92 14 -West Palm
Laredo ---------- 3,872 0 18 0 0 Beach5---------0 0 o 0 11 20
Los Angeles5___ 0 0 114 0 0 Ysleta------------ 244 0 0 0 0
Mercedes -------- 343 0 0 0 0 Zapata ----------- 17 0 0 0 0
-Miami5 --------- 624 14 31 432 36
iMobile----------- 7 4 2 62 53 Total--- 36,494 633 2,885 2,141 863
Naco------------- 276 0 1 0 0 I

I Work handled by inspector stationed at Savannah, Ga.
2 This Port closed June 14, 1933.
31Interceptions in baggage are recorded at 1 customs station only, and the number reported represents
-only part of the total for Detroit.
4 Work handled by inspectors stationed at Mobile, Ala.
3 Collaborators stationed at these ports.
61Includes interceptions made at Beaumont and Sabine, Tex., and Lake Charles, La.
7 Work handled by inspectors stationed at Boston.
8 Records cover the period October 1932 to June 1933, inclusive.

PESTS INTERCEPTED

During the fiscal year the inspectors and collaborators of the Bureau collected from foreign plants and plant products insects belonging -to 958 recognized species and others distributed among 789 genera and families, fungi and bacteria belonging to 175 recognized species, nematodes belonging to 10 recognized species,
-and numbers of interceptions of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes, or other agents that could be referred to family, genus, or other group only. Many of these interceptions were of considerable economic or scientific importance.
A total of 21,190 interceptions of insects and plant diseases were made during
-the fiscal year 1933. A summary of these interceptions appears in table 39.








BUREAU OF PIANT QUARANTINE 63

'TABLE 39.-Number of interceptions of insects and plant diseases made during fiscal year 1933


Cargo Stores Baggage Quarters Mail Total

Port
In- Dis- In- Dis- In- Dis- In- Dis- In- Dis- In- Dissects eases sects eases sects eases sects eases sects eases sects eases


Baltimore --------------- 25 8 77 113 10 5 26 9 20 8 158 143
Bellingham ------------- 14 7 16 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 12
Blaine ------------------- 1 0 0 0 20 4 0 0 0 0 21 4
Boston I ---------------- 94 71 279 264 94 27 64 I5 64 39 595 416
Brownsville-_____ ......24 1 0 0 273 9 34 0 0 0 331 10
Buffalo ---------------- 1 29 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 3 30
'Calexico ---------------- 12 2 0 0 10 2 0 0 0 0 22 4
Charleston ------------- 420 3 28 77 0 0 4 8 0 0 452 88
Chicago ---------------- 8 4 0 2 0 0 0 1 15 10 23 17
Columbus ............... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Corpus Christi ------------ 1 0 27 45 0 0 2 0 0 0 30 45
Del Rio ------------------- 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Detroit ----------------- 25 123 0 0 1 0 0 0 23 27 49 150
Douglas ------------------ 4 2 0 0 11 3 0 0 0 0 15 5
Eagle Pass-------------- 42 9 0 0 77 30 0 0 0 0 119 39
ElPaso ---------------- 60 33 0 0 133 162 1 0 5 7 199 202
Fabens ------------------- 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2
-Galveston --------------- 16 1 60 59 0 0 1 3 0 0 77 63
Hawai ..--------------- 472 1 10 0 59 0 16 0 280 6 837 7
Hidalgo ------------------ 1 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 11 0
11ouston ---------------- 16 2 5 16 2 2 0 0 0 0 23 20
Jacksonvile34 ............ 3 1 9 161 0 0 0 1 8 4 20 167
Key West 34 .............. 0 0 6 4 22 0 2 2 0 0 30 6
Laredo ------------------- 229 8 1 0 87 2 0 0 0 0 317 10
LosAngeles 3 4 ............ 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 39 0 52 0
Miami 3 ............7 1 15 2 63 1 59 1 2 2 146 7
Mobile s--------------264 12 121 123 7 2 15 3 0 0 407 140
Naco --------------------- 4 1 0 0 36 8 0 0 0 0 40 9
New Orleans------------ 334 47 101 155 31 7 75 16 11 1 552 226
'New York -------------- 671 259 234 140 206 43 22 1 15 21 1,148 464
Nogales ------------------ 1,477 801 4 6 123 48 0 1 0 1 1,604 857
Norfolk ------------------ 17 11 62 191 0 0 27 15 0 0 106 217
Pensacola 4 -------------- 4 1 54 93 0 0 7 2 0 0 65 96
Philadelphia ------------398 287 394 828 57 19 87 70 364 191 1,300 1,395
Port Arthur 6---------- -7 1 6 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 15 5
Portland, Oreg ------------ 4 1 2 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 7 4
Presidio-----------------5 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 07 2
Rio Grande -------------- 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
om---------0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
St. PauI___----------0 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 4 0 4 0
SanDiego .............. 4 0 14 1 3 0 4 0 4 0 29 1
SanFrancisco 3 .-------- 2,576 33 449 353 313 8 420 9 317 42 4, 07 5 445
San Juan ----------------- 42 6 12 0 3 2 4 0 2 0 63 8
San Pedro 3 4 ------------ 326 0 159 5 66 0 24 0 0 0 57.5 5
San Ysidro --------------- 5 2 0 0 8 3 0 0 0 0 13 5
-6asabe ------------------- 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Savannah --------------- 16 0 18 81 0 1 9 2 0 0 43 84
Seattle ------------------- 86 30 45 40 38 12 42 21 10 6 22 1 109
Tampa- ................. 0 0 0 12 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 13
Tayer -- ----------- 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 S 0
Washingtn .C 274 25o 0 0 0 1 0 0 794 466 1, 06 723
West Palm Beach 3 -..----2 0 0 0 3 0 0 4 1 4) 6 0 1 72
Ysleta ------------------- 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2
-------------------- 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
M iselanou ------------- 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 4 1
Total ------------- 8,003 2,054 2,208 2,786 1,783 409 952 181 1,982 ,,32 14.925 6,:l2

I Includes interceptions at Providence, R.I.
SClosed June 10, 1933.
3Collaborators stationed at these ports.
4 California and Florida interception figures refer to numbers of pests inter(epted, while figures fur ot her
-ports refer to numbers of lots of infested and infected material, each lot often containing several pests.
5Includes interceptions at Gulfport, Miss.
6 Includes interceptions made at Beaumont and Sabine, Tex., and Lake Charle4, La.
NOTE.-InSpeCtOrS stationed at Puerto Rico made 27 interceptions of insects and 5 interceptions of plant during their field and packing-house inspection of fruits and vegetables for shipment to the mainCERTIFICATION FOR EXPORT

NThe demand for inspection and certification of fruits aud vegetables and nursery
stock for shipment to foreign countries increased to a marked degree (111ug the 'fical year 1933. Five thousand seven hundred and sixty-six shipments, representng -2,464,321 containers, were inspected and certified. This represents an in-







64 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT 'OF AGRICULTURE,, 1933

crease over last year of approximately 71 percent in the number of shipments certified and approximately 210 percent in the'number of individual. containers.
The more important commodities inspected and certified were: Apples, 2,242 shipments, consisting of 1,225,428 boxes, 90,110 barrels, and 39,543 baskets; pears, 1,065 shipments, consisting of 663,592 boxes, 37,644 baskets, and 527 barrels; potatoes, 791 shipments, consisting of 159,058 bags, 8,402 barrels, and 43 crates and baskets; miscellaneous fruits and vegetables, 899 shipments, consisting of *96,406 packages; and nursery stock, including seeds, 292 shipments, consisting of 846 lots.
Through the cooperation of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, most of theapples and pears were inspected at shipping point by Federal-State inspectors, and certified at the port of export on the basis of such inspection.
A charge of $1 was made for each certificate issued, and all fees collected were covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

QUARANTINE CHANGES
Various changes made during the year affecting foreign plant quarantines,. among which the fruit and vegetable quarantine of Puerto Rico is included for practical enforcement reasons, are here summarized.
The avocado fruit order of February 27, 1914, together with its regulations, was revoked, effective July 1, 1932, thus allowing avocado fruits to come under the fruit and vegetable Quarantine No. 56, and avocado nursery stock to fall under the provisions of the nursery stock, plant, and seed Quarantine No. 37.
Quarantine No. 19, on account of citrus canker and other citrus diseases, was modified, effective July 1, 1932, to release citrus seeds from a prohibited status and thus permit their' entry under the regulations of Quarantine No. 3 7.
Regulation 3 of Quarantine No. 37, the nursery stock, plant, and seed quarantine, was revised, effective July 1, 1932, to permit entry of all species of Fritillaria; to permit the entry of mango seeds from North America, Central America, South America, and the West Indies; to allow entry forpropagation purposes of certain plant materials admitted for consumption under Quarantine No. 56; toprovide forte entry of oriental fruit cuttings, scions, and buds, released from a prohibited status by the revocation of Quarantine No. 44; And to provide likewise for citrus seeds excepted from Quarantine No. 19.
Regulation 7 of this quarantine was also revised, effective July 1, 1932, to, waive the requirement of freedom from sand, soil, and earth in connection with Canadian-grown plants.
A considerable liberalization of the restrictions on the entry of corn and related plants was brought about in a revision,, effective March 1, 1933, of the regulations of Quarantine No. 41, governing the importation of Indian corn or maize, broomcorn, and seeds of related plants.
By the revocation of Quarantine No. 44, effective July 1, 1932, provision was made that stocks, cuttings, scions, and buds of fruits from the Orient should hereafter be enterable under Quarantine No. 37.
The seed- or paddy-rice Quarantine No. 55, was revised, effective July 1, 1933, to include rice straw and rice hulis.
By amendment no. 5 to regulation 2 of the fruit and vegetable Quarantine No. 56, effective July 15, 1932, it was made possible to relax restrictions in reference to a particular portion or area of a foreign country when it is considered that importation from that portion can be safely permitted.
Amendment no. 1 to the regulations of Quarantine No. 58, the fruit and vegetable quarantine of Puerto Rico, effective January 1, 1933, affected regulation 3 only, and provided for the admission to the rest of this country of a con.!siderable number of fruits and vegetables additional to the limited number listed in the original regulation.
A new quarantine, no. 69, on packing materials, came into effect on July 1,
1933. This quarantine prohibits the entry as packing of certain plant materials, of which rice straw is the most important, and brings under a moderate type of restriction several other materials, among which cereal straw other than rice, and grasses and hay, are the most commonly used for packing purposes.
Amendment no. 1 to this quarantine, effective July 1, 1933, permits exceptions to be made in the case of prohibited materials when these have been so prepared, manufactured, or processed that their entry is judged to involve no pest risk.






BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE 65

TECHNOLOGICAL DIVISION

The work of the Technological Division during the fiscal year 1933 was carried
-on cooperatively with other divisions and projects of the Bureau on problems relating to the sterilization of plants and plant products.
A new form of cottonseed sterilizer for destroying pink-bollworm larvae in cottonseed and adapted to continuous operation in handling the seed as it comes through the gin was designed, built, and tested. The machine is so constructed that it can be heated by steam or, if a boiler is not available, a vaporizing burner of the type in common use for commercial operation can be used as a source of heat. In the tests the sterilizer was found to be efficient and economical and readilyheated the seed to a temperature of 1451 F., the temperature required for sterilization.
A method of installing thermograph bulbs in cottonseed sterilizers was developed which allows a more accurate determination of the temperature of the seed and also increases the efficiency of the machine. A special stream-lined bracket for holding the bulb was designed and installed in the conveyor in such a way that the bulb is buried in a mass of seed whenever the sterilizer is in operation. This mass of seed prevents the escape of steam from the conveyor and results in more efficient operation. The cost of sterilization is reduced, as much less steam is used to perform the operation.
In cooperation with one of the large cotton companies, a method of treating cotton lint was developed which consists in passing the lint through heavy steel rollers as it comes from the gins and before it reaches the press box. Careful tests showed that such treatment is effective in crushing all seeds which may be in the lint so that any pink bollworms present will be destroyed. The equipment costs approximately $250 installed, and the operating costs are about 1 cent per bale, as compared with a cost of $1 to $2 per bale for fumigation.
A method for treating hardy perennial plants in pots was worked out in cooperation with one of the large nurseries. The concentration of lead arsenate sufficient to kill the larvae of the Japanese beetle, but low enough so that the plants would not be injured, was determined. A treatment was developed which is effective in destroying the larvae and which can be applied to most perennials without injury. In the tests with plants, only 6 varieties out of 61 showed injury. Several thousand individual plants were included in these tests.
Analyses of the soil for lead arsenate in plots of growing plants, heeling-in areas, and plunging frames were made to determine the amount necessary to add to bring these areas up to the 1,500 pounds in the first 3 acre-inches. This lead arsenate content is necessary to insure that no live Japanese beetle larvae are present, so that the plants may be shipped outside the regulated area without danger of spreading the infestation. In all, 872 samples from 392 plots of growing plants, 317 plunging frames, and 34 heeling-in areas were analyzed. These comprised a total of 5,726,153 square feet, of which 3,358,271 square feet needed the addition of some lead arsenate to bring the content up to 1,500 pounds in the first 3 acre-inches. Analyses were made of plots in 22 different nurseries, of which 1 was in Delaware, 16 in New Jersey, and 5 in Pennsylvania.
A treating tank for applying the hot-water treatment to bulbs, as required by both domestic and foreign plant quarantines, was designed, built, and teste(, and proved to be more efficient than many of the tanks now in commercial use. Plans have been prepared for the construction of this equipment, and they will be furnished to bulb shippers when desired.
A number of alterations and additions have been made to the car-funiiigatjig houses along the Mexican border. Vacuum-fumigating equipment has heel installed at four ports to treat small shipments of infested or suspected iian(trial; new doors have been built; a new roof was applied to the fumigation house at Nogales, Ariz., and numerous minor repairs have been made.
Considerable service work and work of an advisory nature has been dole with the other projects in the Bureau.

TERMINAL INSPECTION OF MAIL SHIPMENTS OFJ PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS
During the fiscal year, the list of terminal inspection points in California for the inspection of plants and plant products, under the authority of the act of March 4, 1915, was revised, as were also the lists of plants and plant proulicts subject to such inspection in Florida and Georgia. The details of these reasons are given in the Service and Regulatory Announcements of this Bureau.







66 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1933

Louisiana and Puerto Rico inaugurated terminal inspection during the year,, while three States, Idaho, Wyoming, and Georgia, found it necessary, on account. of lack of funds, to discontinue such inspection.
Terminal inspection is now maintained by the following: California, Arizona, Montana, Florida, Washington, Arkansas, the District of Columbia, Mississippi, the Territory of Hawaii, Utah, Oregon, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and the Territory of Puerto Rico.
CONVICTIONS AND PENALTIES IMPOSED FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE, PLANT QUARANTINE ACT
The following convictions and penalties imposed for violations of the Plant. Quarantine Act were reported to the Bureau during the year:
Avocado order: Two convictions, with 1 fine of $25 and I jail sentence of 5 months.
European corn-borer quarantine (domestic): One conviction, with fine of $50.
Japanese-beetle quarantine: Four convictions, with fiDes aggregating $105, and, in one instance, defendant was placed on probation for 6 months.
Quarantines affecting Mexican plant products: Fines aggregating $156.85 were imposed by customs officials on the Mexican border against 37 persons caught attempting to smuggle in from Mexico prohibited plants and plant products.
Quarantines affecting Canadian plant products: Fines aggregating $38.90 were imposed by customs officials on the Canadian border against eight persons caught attempting to smuggle in from Canada prohibited plants and plant products.










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09241 5800