Carbon disulphide fumigation of bulk potting soil for the white-fringed beetle

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Title:
Carbon disulphide fumigation of bulk potting soil for the white-fringed beetle
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Livingstone, E. M
McGough, J. M
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( Washington, D.C )
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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 30285389
oclc - 779489479
System ID:
AA00023066:00001

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STATE I-LA, 1U JAI) _iBP A&RY
STATE PLANT BOARD
E-553 October 1941

U.S.
\ DEPARTMENT
OF
U(,AGRICULTUREN'
BUREAU OF
ENTOMOLOGY AND I
rLATNT QUARANTINE



CARBON DISULFHIDE FUMIGATION OF BULK POTTING SOIL
FOR THE WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE

By E. M. Livingstone and J. M. McGough,
Division of Control Investigations



Carbon disulphide is commonly used for fumigating bulk soil, prior
to its use for growing potted plants, to destroy infestations of the edaphic
stages of insects and other arthropods. All stages of the white-fringed
beetle (Pant'omorrs leucoloma (Boh.)) are more or less inhabitants of the
soil, and, under the provisions of Fedpral Quarantine No. 72, potted plants,
to be eligible for movement from greenhouses in the quarantined area to
outside points, must, among other requirements, be grown in soil free of
this insect. The purpose of the experimental work reported in this }:3.nr was
to determine the dosage of carbon disulphide and the length of exposure re-
quired to produce complete, mortality of the white-fringed beetle in bulk
quantities of potting soil. Experiments were also conducted with the
congeneric species perelgrius Buch., the smaller white-fringed beetle.
Although these species are closely related and it is probable that treatments
applicable to one are applicable to both, studies with each were made, and
the data are presented sernirately. The experimental work was carried out in
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

A method of disinfesting bulk potting soil of the white-fringed
beetle by fumigation with methyl bromide has been previously described. l/

Method and Procedure

A U. S. P. grade of carbon disulphide having a specific gro'.:ity of
1.25 at 68 F. was used. The general properties of this chemical zI-e well
known and, being sorLev'hat constant, need not be given here. Its uses have
been fully reviewed by Fleming and Baker. 2/ The vapors are highly

1/ Livingstone, E, Ii. Fumigation of bulk soil with methyl brnM*ide
for the white-fringed beetle in New Orleans. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. LiAt. and
Plant Quar., E-512, 4 pp. (mimeographed), September 1940.
2/ Fleming, W. E., and Baker, F. E. The use of carbon disulphide
against the Japanese beetle. U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bul. 478, 91 pp.,
July 1935.






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i..-laLmable and ex losive and extremely injurious to plant life.

For iu.-toria, metal drums holding 0.15 Zand 0.23 cubic yard of soil
were usei. 7.e :..o'th of soil in these r.,:i-ed f:"-.n 18 to 34 inches. The
liquidC fiiantc vwas --rplied fr.rz a gradu.:ied .l:s.?s cylinder to the surface
of the soil, he dosage betr.: divided a7',o,1 sr.ll holes about 3 inches deep,
,hi -er recei.". '.he ftuiigiant, were covered with a handful of soil.
T7'.- : oria vere covered: with friction-fitting metal covers during a con-
stant exposu.eb of 48 hours.

Insec materi:- in the soil bulk -.--s confined in small screen-wire
.,.es distributed randomly at specific locations or was scattered unconfined
ch,.. out it Adults were usually callow, but so,.e older, more hardened,
lo..-eaeed iivi..'Is were included. Fr,,.e were of all ages. Larvae in
*._1 s. es of ..eil.;. .:.t e;-c&pt newly ,. tch.d ones '.-7re included; aproxi-
nately .- percent were full-gic.-.,n, nonfeedii g inCivicdtals. Adults, Fu-ae,
and 1-rvae were collected in the field; .gs *.re laid in the laboratory by
field-c~ll.cted ..:IIts, 'dere of varying ages v.pen used, and were ircistejed,
a pl ,r .;uisite 1o hatching, after fuLiiation. (CL..ck or control lots of un-
treated -*.s yielded satisfactory hatches,

,C,,sages of ',. fumigant ranged f.,t,,, one-half pound to 2 pc.i-i:'s er
cubic .. of bulk soil and varied with the tl'e of soil treated. ;,t the
end of the j,--iour exposure the insect material was removed from the soil
and set aside on i-.ist white sand for observations on mortality.

The nix, I' s of ilM. soil fumigated were representative of ty --es used
b4 greenhousemen in g, .,'.ing potted plants commercially. licne v.-.s v'.et when
fumigatLc.l ut all 'were friable and sli4,tiy ,.oist. The manure in th.? mix-
tures was ...i r-ot.cd and had teen sifted to ,i.ove lum-ps.

A.':- experii.eits were conduct.2i u:...cr natural ieDFerature cC'..ihtions.


Results of Experiments with the White-fringed Beetle,
P,!.n t,'-c rus lei'colc,'.:. ( E h.)

In the i', ." on t,-.. white-fr_.,...,^. Leetle, larval and c s:.,.oes
were CILployed ad the tests carried out at r,... Crli.-ns, La., .a T,.inll
Springs, Ala.

','ee : of .u.il -.". -I- fuiip.' ,c- i in I e., Crl 1'.:.' Tlie soil pril.ci-
l.'ly emplL 'e ws a mixture of a-l.roxirately c u:.l parts of bio,.i, -iver
siic, swamp l ..mold, ,ll-rot ,t-'l ni . and ,id or fi,;3d -.cil. This
mixture, c:-lle.' "potting .il" in this 1...i. .', .. friable, rich in hn.u.'s,
and li Lh ly asorplive. O.lhier kinds of sil fih..L ate.d ,'.?ere allu'i.2 silt,
such as is *j.ipu i Lted in the batture of the lower ?.is*issipi Fi'.'r, a'.d
swamp leufmold obtained from the cutover, drO i....d s...unplziids of i.C',' Orla..s
and vicinity, "i-. $.1ta obtained on the li:arval :j.ge with various ...'..,es
,.,i.i t, '- of -1il in I;u,', Orleans are ii.'i in 4taLle 1.






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Table 1.--Fumigation of three types of bulk soil with carbon disulphide
for the larva of the white-fringed beetle, Pantonorus leucolcira
(Boh.), with various dosages for 48 hours at New Orleans, La.

Series : Type of soil : Dosage in Size of Temper- : Larvae
No. : : lbs. per soil ature _______
: : cu. yd. bulk in range :Number:Percent
: : of soil cu. yds. in F. : used : killed

1 Potting soil 2 0.13 42-66 96 100.0

2 Do. 2 0.13 42-66 162 100.0

3 Do. 2 0.13 42-66 111 100.0

4 Do. 2 0.13 42-66 152 100.0

5 Do. 2 0.13 42-66 93 100.0

6 Do. 2 0.13 42-66 117 100.0

7 Alluvial silt 1/2 0.28 76-85 210 100.0

8 Do. 1 0.28 76-85 209 100.0

9 Swamp leafmold 1/2 0.28 76-85 203 84.7

10 Do. 1 0.28 76-85 201 99.5

11 Do. 2 0.28 76-85 2C8 100.0



















UBA lm'

STATE i~rBO









These data show that in "pottin-. soil" a dosage of 2 pounds of carbon
sulhi ,-r cubic .-rd for an e..uo..re of 48 h:urs gave a complete mor-
talit of test larvae at temperatures rziijin- from 42 to C66 F. In s,.amp
I. 'iold hAlf-pon. .. nd l-,.jund dcsaes for *I3 hours failed to kill ai1 the
larvae, u a -..' :- e for the 7:, period gave complete mortality at
t-_.-.Lr rtures .:ii.- frozi 76 to .>. "ith alluvial silt, which contained
only a ..1; p.h ..: rti,:,i of orai.ic nt Jter, 1/2 p uiund and I Fcun., for 48
hours crodcd .c.-plete mortality at '.e:, raLuxs ranging fro.2 76 to 850.

At 7' 1. Sprrni-;, Ala., i:otting soil :wa.e of red sandy loam tc.,. soil
and well-ro tted ,.re in varying proper Lions ',.s fumigated with 'cc.-es of
1 I, and a pounds. t:. *:ta obtaineJ with the larval and egg st?.es :-re
giv.ei in table 2.

.e data in table 2 show that 2...-es of 1 and 2 pounLs of carbon
disulphide per cubic ,.:'.d of soil produced complete mortality of test larvae
in miixtures c ..posed or ,'*-: sandy loam top soil and well-rotted .anaure in
the follow,' p; ortions: 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. 7coeratures rangsd from a
j,.,rA:: .. of 59) to a a.'-:.:,. of 61 F. A dc. ge of 1 :..eund per cubic yard" of
soil 0 ailed o give a cfd..lete kill at somewhat 1:i-l.2r te.Cerat .c It
should r-e poied out ( that while co'.Llete _iortality was obtained with the
l-j->ond C. s^, observations on the condition of the larvae following fumi--
gation indica, ted that this do,.ge was only a little ).ove the ccr centration
which would produce a i." -.eroent kill. ,. 2-pound d-osage, as eviCen'ed
.y observations on the fumigated larvae, r-' ed to be well above this
point.

E_ were dfumigated in a soil mixture composed of 1 part of red
s am a parts of well-rocted .re with ,los,.ges of I Jcu,'.i and 2
pounds. in te tests with .. e this nixt *.. repe-senivted tlhe hi ..3t in
orgVn c matter and therefore probably had the highest absorptive capacity.
.he data for the e-. s'. ..e given in tal ie 2 -'.-:,w that the l-,.,und ..- e
f.-ed t give a complete kill in a tL-2,:..erature ;rie of 38 to 49t F. The
.-;-s tha survived were on the surface oi the scil b'lk. The 2-p?,. ... ,,.s-Le
gaie a cJ..,ete kill at `'.r:+eratures ranging from 45 to 590.

Results of L..,eri.ents with the -. 1er .te-rinfed Beetle,
i-.,, '_,_ rrs L rinus Buch.

in f. eriments 2ith the smaller whi e-frl,.:-d b eetle the :'Ilt, ]. 1..I,
l rval, and < s ges '.re "',- -', ,. i the work was ..'ile at 2`u1i' 1 ,2rit a'.d
%aucier, "'-. Var .._ dosages of f.... _ant were i *-. :'. Several mi <' .*r--s of
soil ..-.,ed o va ing e r |._.rtions of rr y -. .-', icam top soil well-
rottdu mfanure were f.,.i Led. The *. -.rilents xere perfor:.'"-. at h.'--her
teaper.-tu-r...: han were the greater part of those with Pan t cm 1, 1 in I.

I..., data fo I1 sl i:; are given in able 3 and .h,,, i.t ..!1 were
kIl,. by a 2-- .1., ... e at F. o"F.eratures tha ranged from a .:i;i,.U..i.!i of 72
to 0 ..,. of L F '. soils fumigated we e gray -:.-ndy lc..m ,. ,.i:.tures
of Iand ..,..ii-roltted n. 1.* in p 'op.,rLi of 1:3, 1 ani 3.1. ;.Lt all
s ,, .s were f.... i:,'Ld in each wixturi .








Table 2.--Fumigation of several types of bulk soil with carbon disulphide
for the larva and egg of the white-fringed beetle, Pantworrs
leucoloma (Boh.), with dosages of 1, 1.5, and 2 pounds per cubic
yard of soil for 48 hours at Tunnel Springs, Ala.


Type of soil*


: Dosage in
: ilbs. per
: cu. yd.
: of soil


: Size of :
: soil :
: bulk in :
: cu. yds.:


Temper-
ature
ran rige
in F.


: Number: Perclnt
:used :killed


Fumigation of Larval Stage


48M Top soil 3 parts;
manure 1 part.
51M Do.
43M Do.
54M Do.
34M Do.

47M Top soil 1 part;
manure 1 part.
5CM Do.
42M Do.
53M Do.
35M Do.

46M Top soil 1 part;
manure 3 parts.
49M Do.
41M Do.
52M Do.
38M Do.
36M Do.
37M Do.


1.0

1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0

1.0

1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0

1.0

1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0


0.28

0.28
0.28
0.28
0.28

0.28

0.28
0.28
0.28
0.28

0.28

0.28
0.28
0.28
0.28
0.15
0.15


35-50

39-51
41-52
45-61
45-59

36-48

39-51
42-52
45-61
45-59

38-49

41-51
43-54
45-61
45-53
45-59
47-59


280 99.6


275
3C2
280
319


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


283 100.0


276
306
278
310

281

278
301
278
360
284
312


100.0
100.0
100.0
1CO.0


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


Fumigation of Egg Stage


46M Top soil 1 part;
manure 3 parts.


38M
37M


Do.
Do.


iThe top soil used was red sandy loam, and the manure was well


Series:
No. :


1.0

2.0
2.0


0.28

0.28
0.15


412 96.6


38-49

45-53
47-59


146
321


100.0
100.0

rotted.


,.i 5 "





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T7:cie 3.--Fumi,-.tion of bulk soil with carbon disulphide for the adult,
':. lar'.j, and egg of the smaller mhite-fringed beetle, Fanto-
EJr.s ~eregrinus Buch., with a constant dosage of 2 pounds per
cu'ic yard for 48 hours at Gulfport and Saucier, Miss.


S;,.e of soil'


: Dosage in
: lbs. per
: cu. yd.
: of soil


: Size of :
: soil :
: bulk in :
: cu. yds.:


Temper-
ature
range
in F.


: Insects
:Numb er:Percent
:used :killed


Fumigation of Adult Stage


Top soil 1 part;
a'h:iure 3 parts.
Top soil 3 parts;
manure 1 part.


0.28

0.28


76-88

76-88


7 100.0

67 100.0


Fumigation of Pupal Stage


81G Top soil 1 part;
manure 3 parts.
8CG Top soil 1 part;
manure 1 part.
7G 'Icp soil 3 parts;
manure 1 part.
,5G Top soil


0.28

0.28

0.28

0.28


76-88

76-88

76-88

72-88


10 100.0

15 100.0

73 100.0

38 100.0


Fumr.iation of Larval Stage


81G Top soil 1 part;
manure 3 parts.
6;G Top soil 1 part;
manure 1 part.
L Top soil 3 parts;
manure 1 part.
75G Top soil


0.28

0.28

0.28

0.28


76-88

76-88

76-88

72-88


199 100.0

298 100.0

221 lCO.O

179 100.0


Fumigation of Egg Stage


0. r. -
. :.0


Top :3il 3 parts;
mranuie 1 part.


76-88


330 100.0


*.Ie top soil used was gray sane:, loam, and the manure was well rotted.


Series:
No. :


81G

7SCG


79G






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Summary

Experimental work with carbon disuiphide as a fumigant for variouss
types of potting soil in bulk quantities showed that infestations of Panto-
morus leucolowa (Boh.), the white-fringed beetle, and P. Peregrinus Buch., the
smaller white-fringed beetle, were destroyed by dosages of lj pounds per
cubic yard and an exposure of 48 hours at temperatures that ranged from a
minimum of 39 to a maximum of 88 F. Because of the known tendency of
insects to revive at long intervals following fumigation with carbon disul-
phide, many tests were carried out with the slightly higher dosage of 2
pounds. At this dosage there appeared to be no likelihood of revival taking
place.




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