The effectiveness of concentrated sprays in the control of certain forest insects

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Material Information

Title:
The effectiveness of concentrated sprays in the control of certain forest insects
Physical Description:
6, 1 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Potts, S. F ( Samuel Frederick ), b. 1900
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Forest insects -- Control   ( lcsh )
Spraying and dusting in agriculture   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-515."
General Note:
"November 1940."
Statement of Responsibility:
by S.F. Potts.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030272341
oclc - 778792781
System ID:
AA00023031:00001

Full Text

November 1940


iTATA ( i DEPARTMENT "
OF
AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF
ENTOMOLOGY AND
PLANT QUARANTINE



THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCENTRATED UPRAYS IN ThE
CONTROL OF CERTAIN FOREST INSECTS

By S, F. 1Otts, Division of Forest Insect Investigations



This paper presents information, in condemned form, concerning the
more important tests made with concentrated spr'ays against 12 species of
chewing and sucking insects, 10 of which are pests of for-est or shade trees,
Th.e investigations were conducted during the seasons of. 1935 to 1938,
inclusive, at various points in Massachusetts, Cc New Hampshire,
and New Jersey. Special ground equipment and an autoiroe equipped with
devices for atomizing and disseminating highly concentrated spray were used.

The results of these investigations are given in tables 1 and 2 and
figure lo Data are given on the insect species investigated, the kind and
quantity of material applied, and the degree of effectiveness of the treat-
meits, The sprays listed in table 1 and figure 1 were applied from the
ground,. while those in table 2 were applied from t' c air.

The first 13 mixtures of table 1 were applied to O.C2-acre plous of
dense, mixed deciduous growth, 4 to 7 feet in height, by means of a quart-
sized .hand atomizer. Fresh foliage was taken from these plots and fed to
insects held in 14-inch-square, wooden-framed tr~;s. For each of these 13
tests, 200 larvae were placed in each of 2 trays, and a record was kept of
the daily mortality of larvae feeding o~n sprayed foliage as compared with
that of an equal number of larvae feeding on unsprayed foliage. The feeding
experiments covered a period of 15 days. The effectiveness of treatment,
expressed as "feeding, in percent of normal feeding" (column 7), was found
by comparing the quantity of frass voided per larva feeding on sprayed
foliage with the quantity of frass voided per larva feeding on unsprayed
f.liage.

Mixtures 14 to 17 (table 1) were applied to red pines, 6 to 10 feet
high, infested with the European pine shoot moth, in areas ranging from 0.02
to 1 acre, by means of a portable, 2-gallon-capacity paint sprayer. The
degree of control recorded (column 6 in the table) was found by comparing
the number of larvae per 1,000 shoots on unsprayed trees with the number of
larvae per 1,000 shoots on sprayed trees.


E--515






-2-


Mixture 18 was applied to two 1-acre plots infested with the white
pine weevil, each plot including approximately 1,200 white pine trees which
ranged in height from 6 to 12 feet. The leading shoot of each tree was
-prayed by using a knapsack sprayer with an extension rod and a special
nozzle (figure 1, A, in E-508) developed for applying concentrates in a
solid-cone type of spray. The extension rod was bowed so that the nozzle
directed the spray down on the pine leader from above. The degree of control
was found by comparing the number of infested leaders per 1,000 unsprayed
trees with the number of infested leaders per 1,000 sprayed trees.

Mixtures 19 to 23 were applied to plants infested with aphids, by
means of the same equipment that was used for mixtures 14 to 17, The
effectiveness of these mixtures was determined by comparing the number of
living aphids per plant or per square foot of ground immediately before
treatment with the number of living aphids 24 hours after treatment. The
smallest number of aphids counted per unit of measurement before treatment
was 1,148.

Figure 1 represents two series of feeding experiments (not given in
the tables) with foliage from 7 plots sprayed from the ground. The tests
of the first series were started immediately after the spraying, and those
of the second series 15 days later. The insecticides used were lead arsen-
ate, derris (containing 4 percent of rotenone), nicotine sulfate, derris
extract (containing 25 percent of rotenone), and free nicotine. The first
3 plots were treated with standard spray concentrations, without an adhesive,
by means of a knapsack sprayer. The other 4 plots were treated with con-
centr--ed sprays, containing an adhesive oil, and the same quantities of
arsenical, rotenone, and nicotine were used per plot as for the *taidard
sprays.

The mixtures of table 2 were applied by an autogiro to 40 woodland
plots having a total woodland area of' about 1,000 acres. In the tests with
Anisota senatorial, foliage sprayed with mixtures 10 to 14 was brought from
the plots to the laboratory, and the effectiveness of the treatment was
delermi~ied in the same manner as described for the first 13 mixtures of table
1. In the case of all the other mi_-tuie- of table 2 the effectiveness of
the Lreatment was found by comparin[ tie quantity of frass recovered per
9-square-foot cloth-bottom tray in the unsprayed plot with the quantity of
frass recovered per tray in the sprayed plots (column 6).

The derris extract ir:dflued I tlo. tables was in dry form and con-
tained 25 percent of rotenone and 75 pei~cent of other extractives. The
iowdencd derris used contained 4 percent of rotenone. All the lead arsenate
used was of the ordinary acid form.

Discussion of Results

No foliage injury resultcd from the application of any of these
insecticides. Good control of i t resulted from the use of all mixtures
except number 6 of table 2. It is believed that poor atomization of this






-3-


mixture was partly s-o' ible 'or te fact that !:iv:c coi ud 29 percent
as much foliage in this plot as in the che2k aica

Ten .... e Ce ith fourth-
instar larvae of Ans sen~torK K. f' o of table 1).
The results odt ... Uc oraic .. e .:e applied
in coiao,. c- 'ciently to
reduce gi- Gly ti: Ke iocatio 01 oira ij Aght, air, and
moisture.

The resiues of 10 to 14 (K.1b 2) < e.ncsed to 2.33
inches of: rrefer ofeeied to
the larvae One 7 0 K) of
all 5 mixtures, except n'.uer 13.
Tn another sei lo Jests (. ot given in tie K ) the organic

residues (i SuL 12 to 14)at nten .. e rJ n, the
feeding wa s Veo one--kiA) 20 one-half less tia C' K e eies (table 2)
tiat had been exposed

Drying oils aid voile oils r0e not o toxic to aphids as semi-
drying oils, No:&:yin= plait oils iv ere slightly ':orc iooic to aphids than
semidrying r la1 t oi K. .. a giv.n ity o ai a n
qtL>n i ie s undiluted
oil and as mnsoibie oil cr oil emu].sion, te iutCC for was much more
effective against aphids on goldenrod and as'esL- K n .. ,.d emulsified
water suspension, Thin may e due to the difference in chemicl and physical
properties of the two forms of' spray. T e .es:ltr also suggested the
possibility of ising undieutd scm yn it oi a i -nrcking insects
when it is necessary to avoid injury to ter pci Is.

Data and obese-,aions showed Ln i o of resistance
to the ilieticides vp1Kied the ir-:ec e: fe2. ii the following order:
Striped oak worm, fozest tent caterpillar, eastern : t epitar, European
spruce sawfly, gypsy oth, and cankecwors.

It was found -7 t awfly larvae. eaate 'ten Cc.erpillars, and
forest tent oaterpillats va.-e \ ery susCeptble -1 U lfur (mixture 8,
t ble 1) and uscptile to fur ee to fungicides
were applied as stomiach poisons.
Although conventicia! sn1ayii and uLa c hods .ave not teen

successful against h. wi itc pime weevil,
t' e application .o oC 4'ced gor co o, e it wias possible
to cover tle d. and needles 11 ompetely with V eay iic4eticidal deposit.
This deposit wzas ve'y liK[e affected by rain.





-4 -


Table 1.--on:mary of results obtain v 4h o io 0 ;oicent.rated spray
ri xtures applied from thie LVolLud 1 1 DXG.i93'/, and 1938


Proport ion (bLy wei ~v of mate
in xlu ure/


c da'. auent
ac..ed jJer
a~crie


Ca .lows of
total mix-
ture applied
per acre


Percent of F'eedin,. tin


mortality


p-rcent of
normal
feeding


,oiest tent
caterpillar,
_ l-ccsom3
disstria fn.(last
2 larval instars)

Eastern tent
caterpillar.
M -lI cosoma
mericana (F .) (last
2 larval instars)

European
spruce sawfly
IlipEion
pl 4ytomuIm (Htg. ) (last
3 larval instars)


Striped oak
wo rm
ni sota
en (fourth larval
instar)


L.A., 1; C.O., 0.2; S.L.S., 0.C3; W.,I.3
Derris, 1; C.O., 0.3; spreadv' di, o.o-;
W., 6



L.A.,l; C.0.,0.2; S.L.S.,0.03; W.,1.3
Same as for No. 3


5 L.A.,l; C.0.,0.2; S.L.S.,0.03; W.,l.3
6 Derris, 1; C.O., 0.3; spreader A, 0.04;
W., 6
7 Derris extract, 1; C.S.O., 2; acetone,
0.5; spreader A, 0.2; W., 7
8 Lime-sulfur concentrate

9 L.A.,I; C.0..0.2; S.L.S.,0.03; W.,1.3
LO "a-me as for No. 9
I1 Derris, 1; C.v., 0.3; spreader A, 0.04;
W., 5.5
L2 Derris extract, 1; C.S.O., 2; acetone,
0.5; spreader A, 0.2; W., 7
13 50% nicotine solution, 1; soybean oil,
3; W., 5


Mixture
No.


2.5


100

100


1.7

5.1


3.7
2.5


12.


3.8
17.


100
100


100

100

100
100

100
100

100


2.0
2.8


1.2

1.4
3.0

0.8
1.3

1.5

2.0
1.4


2.5
1.3

3.8

1.2
5.5


1
52/


1 -11,







-5 -


European pine
shoot moth,
PRhyjIc i cna
buoliana (Schiff.)


White pine
weevil,
Pissodes strobi
(Peck)

An aphid on
red pine


An aphid on
aster


An aphid on 23
goldenrod


14 L.A.,I; C.0.,0.3; spreader A,0.04; W.,3
15 Same as for No. 14
i6 berris, 1; C.O., 0.3;, spreader A, 0.04;
W. 7
17 Same as for No. 16

18 L.A.,l; C.0.,0.3; spreader A,0.04; W.,5




19 Soybean oil (undiluted)
20 Derris extract, 1; acetone, 1; soybean
oil, 6


Corn oil (undiluted)
Derris extract, 1; acetone, 1; C.O., 6

Derris extract, 1; C.S.O., 10; white
mineral oil (40 Saybolt), 30


1/ L.A., lead arsenate. C.O., corn oil. S.L.S., sodium lauryl sulfate. W., water. Spreader A, alkylphenylbenzene-
sulfonic acid (aresket). C.S.O., cottonseed oil.
2/ Two and one-half pounds of nicotine.
3/ These represent percentages of control instead of percent of mortality (see text for mixtures 14 to 18).


8.5
4.3


20.
8.


3.3


10.


92V/
963/

973/,
98 /

983/




96

100

97
100


100








-6-


Table 2.--Sunmary of results obtained with various concentrated spray
applied from an autogiro in 1936, 1937, and 1938


mixtures


Proportion (by weight) of materials
in mixture/


Pounds of
insecti-
cidal agent
applied per
acre


Gallons of
total mix-
ture applied
per acre


Feeding, in
percent of
normal
feeding


CarIkerworms,
Paleacrita
vernata (Peck)
and Alsophila
pometaria (Harr.)


Gypsy moth,
Porthetria
dispar (L.)



Forest tent
caterpillar,
Malacosoma
disstria Hbn.

Striped oak
worm,
Anisota
senatoria
(A. &S.)


1 L.A., 1; F.O., 0.35; P.O., 0.05;
W., 2.7


L.A., 1; F.O., 0.4; W., 2.7
Same as for No. 2
Same as for No. 2
C.A., 1; F.O., 0.4; W., 2.5
Derris, 1; F.O., 0.4; W., 6

L.A., 1; F.O., 0.4; W., 2.7
Same as for No. 7
Same as for No. 7


10 L.A., 1; F.O., 0.24; W., 1.5
11 C.A., 1; F.O., 0.24; W., 2
12 Derris, 1; F.O., 0.3; P.O., 0.1;
spreader A, 0.04; W., 6
13 Derris extract, 1; acetone, 1;
F.O., 3; P.O., 1; W., 18
14 50% nicotine solution, 1;
soybean oil, 5; W., 16


_/ L.A., lead arsenate. F.O., fish oil. P.O., parafin oil. W., water.
2/ Feeding was noticeably less than for the gypsy moth and cankerworms.
3/ One pound of nicotine


C.A., calcium arsenate.


Insect
species


Mixture
No.


8.8





6.
8.
12.
7.6
22.


7





8.6
6.6
2.6
12.0
29.0


0.5
0.6

5.0

10.0

3.7


4.3
5.

12.

6.

5.4







L.A. w LEAD ARSENATE. O.S. ORDINARY SPRAY CONCENTRATION.
C.S = CONCENTRATED SPRAY.
lzFEEDING BY LARVAE STARTED IMMEDIATELY AFTER TREATMENT.
In FEEDING BY LARVAE STARTED 15 DAYS AFTER TREATMENT -
Inn.,


A4


7
IJ


z
0 P-W
o ZC) 00.

4 (1) I) W_
0 0 z 0 Z0 cc Lo 0 IL0
Xr -- II W
U_. o ,W o o 0.=,, ,


0.5.


OS. O.S.


Figure l.-Degree of effectiveness of certain organic and inorganic
insecticides, in reducing the feeding of fourth-instar larvae of
Anisota senatoria, when applied as concentrated spray mixtures,
containing fish oil, before and after 1.38 inches of rain and
15 days of field exposure, as compared with three ordinary spray
mixtures without fish oil.
The ingredients in the last four boxes are represented by
figures as ratios, by weight. In the third box, 3 pounds of
solid soap was used per pound of nicotine sulfate.


4





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