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Table of Contents
Page 1 Introduction Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Capacity tables (liquid) Page 5 Page 6 Capacity tables (dry) Page 7 Page 8 Linearmeasure tables Page 9 Page 10 Areameasurement tables Page 11 Volume (cubic measure) tables and dilutions of insecticides Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Conversion of smallscale dosages to largescale quantities Page 22 Fumigants Page 23 Miscellaneous Page 24 Literature consulted Page 25 Page 26 
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E517 Novonhber 1940 U . DEPA RTMkN T or AGRICULTURE BUREAU OF NTOMOLOGY AND PLNT QUARANrN CONVERSION TABLES AND EQUIVAL1ENTS FOR USE IN WORK RELATING TO INSFACT CONTROL By R. H. Nelson, Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations Contents Page Introduction................ ........ ...... ...... ............ ........ ....... 2 Weight tables.. ............ ....._...........__ ........... ...... 3 United States avoirdupois weight.................. ...... ... 3 Metric weight........ ............___ ........ ....... ......... ........... 3 Apothecaries' weight.... __ ............... .......__.............. 3 Imperial (British) avoirdupois weight............... ........... ....... ...... 3 Equivalents of weight in the four systems ...... ........ ...... ...._....... 4 Capacity tables (liquid) ..... ........ ....... .......... ........... 5 United States liquid measure.............................. .............. 5 Metric capacity measure. ......... .......................... ......., 5 Imperial capacity measure......... ..__.......... ....... ...... ........ ............ 5 Equivalents of capacity in' the three syst ems .. ............6 Equivalents for teaspoonful, tablespoonful and cup................... 7 Capacity tables (dry)............ ...... ...... ........... ...... .... ...... 7 United States dry measure..,...... .......... ......__........ ...... ....... 7 Metric capacity measure.. ..._.... ...... .................. 7 Imperial capacity measure................. ................... ............ ........ 8 Equivalents of capacity ir the three syst,.em5s,, .................. ......... 8 Linearmeasure tables.,... ..... .................. ...... ........... ....... ...... 9 United States system.,.._............ ...._. _................ ... ...... .. .......... 9 Metric system..... .......... _........................ ............... ......... 9 Imperial system .....___............. ............ ......... ........ .......... 9 Equivalents of length in the three systems .... ............. ............ .... 10 Areameasurement tables .... .......... ....... .................. .........1 United States system.. .................... ......... ...... ....... ............ 11 Metric system... .... ........... ........ .........................11 Imperial system ................ .............. ........ ........... ........ 11 Equivalents of area in the three systems... ............... ........... ....... 11 2 Volume (cubic measure) tables........... . ...... 12 United States system.............. ..... ......... ...... 12 Metric system.................. ....... ...... 12 Tmperial system....._.......... .... ........... .. .. 12 Equivalents of volume in the three systems............ 12 Dilutions of insecticides..... .... .. .. *.... ..... 12 Equivalent quantities of insecticidal material for various quantities of water.. ............... .. ..... .. ...... . ... .. 12 Dilutions of insecticides in part by weight and by liq' . 17 Quantity of insecticide on basis o' active ingredient........ ..... 20 fercentagE of active ingredient when insecticide is diluted b cats 21 Erjuivalent dilutions of active ingredient in parts and perce. e .. 21 Corversicn 7i srallscale dosages to largescale quantities..... .. 22 D:.sts and soil insecticides.................... 22 Fumiants. ..... .................................... ..... 23 Miscellarce .... .... ............ .... 24 Capacity of sprayer tanks......................... ........... 24 Pil>:ti on of alco'hol and other liquids........ ..... ....... 24 Teiperature conversion........ ... ..... 25 Lit.ature consult.es............... ............. ........ ........ 25 INTRODUCTION : r' li ar uE coonomic entoiology the weights and no ures use.d : cxp. Tables for ilut: ions of iincticides, methods of calculating dilutions vi. !,:.6 bo.is of acLive ingredients, and certain other miscelaneous information useful to entomologists working with insecticides have also been included. Ix. the tables of equivalents the values shown are correct to the decimal place P but in most cases are not to be taken as exact. Thy are. Lowevcer. cGerried uot far enough so that the individual worker may round out a' thn decL:'li place best suited for his equipment and the can ice. of his expriment with a minimum of error, TI.. obrevi Lions used axe those recogxiizeu in the Jo: 0:9 edition : thy UitcJ btateis Goverseent Printing Office Side iG). 3 WEIGHT TABLES United States Avoirdupois Weight 27 11/32 grains (gr.) = 1 dram (dr.) 16 drams 1 1 ounce (oz.) 16 ounces 1 pound (lb.) 7,000 grains 100 pounds 1 hundredweight (cwt.) 2,000 pounds 1 short ton 2,240 pounds 1 long ton Metric Weight 1,000 micrograms 1 milligram (mg.) 1,000 milligrams 1 1 grain (gm.) 1,000 grams 1 kilogram (kg.) 1,000 kilograms 1 metric ton Apothecaries' Weight 20 grains (gr.) = 1 scruple (s.) 3 scruples = 1 dram (dr.) 8 drams = 1 ounce (oz.) 12 ounces 1 pound (lb.) = 5,760 grains Although not commonly used in entonological work, the system of apothecaries' weight is included for purposes of comparison. In all other parts of this paper the terms "dram," "ounce," and "pound" refer to avoirdupois weight unless otherwise specified. Imperial IBritish) Avoirdupois Weight 27 11/32 grains 1 dram 16 drams 1 ounce 16 ounces 1 pound 7,000 grains 14 pounds 1 stone8 stone 112 pounds) 1 hundredweight 20 hundredweight) 2,240 pounds )= 1 ton The imperial avoirdupois units, although differing in definition, are for practical purposes equal to the United States units of the same name. The same conversion values may be used with either. This table is included to show certain variations ini terntinology between this system and that commonly used in the United States. 4 Equivalents of Weight of the Four Systems Avoirdupois, United States Metric Apothecaries' and imperial 1 grain 64.7989 milligrams 1 grain l_ dram 1,771.85 milligrams 0.4557 dram 1.77185 grams 1 ounce 28.3495 grams 0.9115 ounce 1 foundd 453.59 grams 1.21528 pounds 0.45359 kilogram 0.015432 grain I milligram 0.015432 grain 15.432 grains 15.432 grains 0.56436 dram l_gram 0.2572 dram 0.03527 ounce 0.03215 ounce 35.2740 ounces 1 kilogram 32.1507 ounces 2.2046 pounds 2.6792 pounds 0.7314 draw 1,295.98 milligrams Iscruple 1.29598 grams 2.19429 drams 3.8879 grams 1 dram 1.0971 ounces 31.10348 grams 1 ounce 0.&229 pound 373.24 grams 1 pound 0.37324 kilogram 5 CAPACITY TABLES (LIQUID) United States Liquid sure 8 fluid drams (fl. dr.) 1 fluid ounce (fl. oz.) 4 fluid ounces 1 gill 4 gills 1 pint (pt.) 2 pints 1 quart, (qt.) 4 quarts I gallon (gal.) 231 cubic inches At maximum density, 39.1640 F. (3.980 C.), a gallon of pure water weighs 8.345 pounds; at 590 F. (150 C.) Oho weight is 8.333 pounds. Metric Capacity Measure 1,000 milliliters (ml.)1/, 1 liter (i ) 1.000.027 cubic centimeters 10 liters I dekaliter (dkl.) 100 liters I hectoliter (hl.) 1,000 liters 1 kilo].iter (k.) Imperial C2city Measure 8 fluid drams I fluid ounce 5 fluid ounces 1 gill 4 gills 1 pint 2 pints 1 quart 4 quarts 1 gallon  277.42 cubic inches An imperial gallon of pure water weighs 10 pounds at 620 F. (16.670 C.) The units of the imperial system for liquid measure have the same names as those used in the United States system. In no case, however, are they equal. The imperial gallon, quart, and pint are about 20 percent larger than the United States units of the same name, whereas the imperial fluid dram and fluid ounce are about 4 percent smaller than homonymous United States units. 1/ The term "cubic centimeter (cc. or cm.3)" has been commonly used in chemical and entomological literature instead of "milliliter (ml.)." Technically this is not correct, since the cubic centimeter is a measure of volume, not of capacity. Their relationship is: milliliter ., 1.000027 cubic centimeters. For practical purposes, however, they may be regarded as equal in the same sense as 1 gallon equals 231 cubic inches. Equivalents of Capacity in the Three Systems Si ed States Metric Imperial L1 21 i:^ rm 3.69E8 milliliters 1.0408 fluid drams L 1u c::rce 29:5729 milliliters 1.0408 fluid ounces 1il 118.292 milliliters 0.83268 gill 0.118292 liter 11_ 473.1C7 milliliters 0.83268 pint 0.473167 liter 1 rt 946.33 milliliters 0.83268 quart 0.94633 liter LJJL 3,785.33 milliliters 0.83268 gallon 3.78533 liters 7' 1 t, j6ran 1 milliliter 0.28157 fluid dram Srar..s (281.57 fluid drams nces) 1 liter ( 35.20 fluid ounces nosuar ) ( 0.880 quart I >7 i allon ) ( 0.2200 gallon 2. C4 lions 1 dekaliter 2.200 gallons 24 llons 1 hectoliter 22.00 gallons C4.i 7 a11on s i kiloliter 219.98 gallons 0 uid dram t.a5 illiliters 1 fluid dram u.id ounce 28,.412 milliliters 1 fluid ounce 1 i 142,06 milliliters 1 gill 0.14206 liter f 2 ts 568.245 milliliters 1 pint 0.568245 liter 1,136.45 milliliters 1 auart 1.13649 liters milliliters 1 g811l11 4.9396 liters 7 Equivalents for Teasooful, Tablsoofi and QlIP A measuring cup and measuring spoons, the latter obtainable in nests of several sizes, are useful in making dilutions under practical conditions where great accuracy is not required. The values given below are also use(.ful in transposing the precise measurements of the laboratory into com monly used and understood units when an insecticide is recommended to dooryard gardeners. The values as given are those recognized by the B~ureau of Standards. 3 teaspoonfuls 1 tablespoonful 2 tablespoonfuls 1 fluid ounce 16 tablespoonfuls) 1 cup 8 fluid ounces) 3 teaspoonfuls) "I fluid ounce ) .1 tablespoonful 4 fluid dramns 15 milliliters 16 tablespoonfuls) 2 gills) ~pint ) 1 cup 8 fluid ounces 237 milliliters 1lpint 16 fluid ounces) 2 cups 473 milliliters ) CAPACITY TABLES (DRY) United States Dry~ Measure 2 pints (pt.) =1 quart (qt.) 8 quarts 71 peck (pk.) 4 pecks =1 bushel (bd.) z 2,150.42 cubic inches In the United States system the pint and quart of dry measure are about 16 percent larger than the units of the same name used in. liquid measure. Wherever these unit names are used in this paper, other than in this section, they refer to liquid measure. Metric Ca2acity Measure In the metric system both dry and liquid capacity are measured by the liter and its secondary units. See Capacity Tables (Liquid), p 5. 8 ....... 7!! i s Imperial Capacity Measure 2 pints 1 quart 8 quarts 1 peck 4 pecks 1 bushel = 2,219.34 cubic inches T1e pint and quart of the imperial system are the same for both liquid ai fiy measure. The imperial gallon may also be used as a unit of dry vca<,'r; The pint and quart of the United States dry measure are approxiralJ* 3 percent smaller thav the imperial units of the same name. The LLi( Sates bushel is the same as the Winchester bushel, sometimes menLice in publications from the British Empire. Equivalents of Capacity in the Three Systems U n'itcd1 States Metric Imperial inL 550.60 milliliter 0.96895 pint 0.55060 liter 1.10120 liters 0.96895 quart ] Vck 8.810 liters 0.96895 peck 0.8810 dekaliter 1 buhel 35.238 liters 0.9695 bushel 3.5238 dekaliters 0.35238 hectoliters i 6 pints 1 liter 1.760 pints 0. 908 quart 0.880 quart 0 i 5 peck 0.110 peck S155 pecks 1 dekaliter 1.10 pecks 0.>378 bushel 0.275 bushel 21W78 bushels 1 hectoliter 2.75 bushels pits 568.245 milliliters 1 Pint 0.568245 liter ,O52O5 quarts 1.13649 liters 1 quart I ).O pecks 9.092 liters 1 peck 0.9092 dekaliter 0jw!(, bushels 36. 368 liters 1 bushel 3.6368 dekaliters 0.36368 hectoliter A 9 LINEARMEASURE TABLES United States System 12 inches (in.) 1 foot (ft.) 3 feet 1 yard (yd.) 5V yards) 1 rod (rd.) 161 feet ) 320 rods ) 1,760 yards) I mile 5,280 feet ) Metric System 1,000 millimicrons 1 1 micron 2 1,000 microns 1 millimeter (mm.) 10 millimeters 1 centimeter (cm.) 10 centimeters 1 decimeter (dm.) 10 decimeters 1 meter (m.) 10 meters 1 dekameter (dkm.) 10 dekameters = 1 hectometer (hm.) 10 hectometers 1 kilometer (km.) Imperial Sytem Except for small differences in standards, this system is the same as that used in the United States and the same conversion values may be used. Abbreviation is "Im" followed by the Greek letter "mu." Abbreviation is the Greek letter "mu." 10 Equivalents of' Length is the Three Systems United States and Imperial Metric 25.4 millimeters 1 inch 2.54 centimeters 30.48 centimeters 1 foot 3.048 decimeters 9.144 decimeters 2. yard 0,9144 meter 5.029 meters 1 rod 0.5029 dekameter 1,609.35 meters 1 mile 1.60935 kilometers 0.03937 inch 1 millimeter 0.3937 inch 1 centimeter 3.937 inches 0.328 foot 1 decimeter '39.37 inches 1 .0936 yards 1 meter 1.98838 rods 1 dekameter 19.8838 rods 1 hectometer 398.838 rods 0.621.37 mile 1 kilometer 11 AREAMEASUREMENT TABLES United States System 144 square inches (sq. in.) square foot (sq. ft.) 9 square feet 1 square yard (sq. yd.) 301 square yards 1 square roc (sq rd,) 43,560 square feet 4,840 square yards) 1 acreo 160 square rods ) Metric System 100 square millimeters (mm. 2) 1 square celtimeeie e cm. 2) 100 square centimeters 1i square decimeter (Jo 2) 100 square decimeters 1 square meter (nm ) 100 square meters i are (a. 100 ares 1 hectare (ha.) Imperial Sisem Except for slight differences in standards this is the sa.e ats the United States system for area measurement, and the two are A.bAJ.ia .: the following table: Equivalents of Area in the Three Systems United States and Imperial Metric 1 square inch 6.452 square cen Limeters square foot 903 sO uare S lsuare yard 0 8361 square et 2. 29 1 square rod 0 2529 are 1 acre 0 40Q69 Iectar 0.00155 square inch S rU ill:iwter 0.155 square inch 1 square centimeter 15.5 square inches 0.1076 square foot 1 sqare decimeter 1,1960 square yards 1 square meter 3.9537 square rods 1 are 2.471 acres I hectare 12 VOLUME (CUBIC MEASURE) TABLES United States System 1,728 cubic inches (cu. in.) = 1 cubic foot (cu. ft.) 27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard (cu. yd.) Metric System 1,000 cubic millimeters (ml. 3) 1, cubic centimeter (cc. or cm 3) 1,000 cubic centimeters 1 cubic decimeter (dm.3) 1,000 cubic decimeters 1 cubic meter (m.3) Imperial System This is the same as the United States system except for small differences in standards, and the two are combined in the following table: Equivalents of Volume in the Three Systems United States and Imperial Metric 1 cubic inch 16.39 cubic centimeters 1 cubic foot 28,317 cubic decimeters 1 cubic yard 0.7646 cubic meter 0.061 cubic inch 1 cubic centimeter 61.023 cubic inches 0.0353 cubic foot 1 cubic decimeter 1.308 cubic yards 1 cubic meter DILUTIONS OF INSECTICIDES Equivalent Quantities of Insecticidal Material for Various Quantities of Water Dry material.The cantity of powdered insecticide recommended for usce against a given insect is usually stated in pounds per 50 or 100 gallons crf water. Tables 1 and 2 sho.Yw the quantities necessary for making the same dil,"tions in smaller quantities of watcr" as are made with 1 to 10 pounds, inclusive, in 100 gallons. It will be noted in table 1 that the number of pciuds per 100 gallois is the sa z as t e umber of ounces per 6 gallons, and that the same is true for 50 and 3 gallons. For 21 gallons, which is a convenient amount of spray solution for usc in most knapsack sprayers, the quantities are given in bo~h ounces and grains to one decimal place. 13 In table 2, for quantities of water of 1 gallon or more, the nrest correct value at one decimal place is given. For values of less han 1 pound the equivalent quantities are given in grams directly beneath the United States values. The gram being of smaller mass than the dram and the ounce, the metric values are, in most cases, more nearly correct than Lhe avoirdupois values. The quantities to be used in 1 quart and 1 i f f water are given only in metric units and are carried out to three pJoces, since they will presumably be used for smallscale, precise experiment. Table l.Equivalent quantities of dry insecticidal material for certain aliquots of 100 gallons of water Quantity of material in indicated quantity of water 100 50 25 12 61 312 gal, gal. gal. gal, gal, gal. gal. lb. lb. 4 oz. 2 oz. oz. oz, 0.4cz. 113 gin. 2 b. 1 lb. 8 oz. 4 oz. 2 oz. 1 oz. 0.8 oz, 22.7 gin. 3 lb. 1L lb. 12 oz. 6 oz. 3 oz. 1 oz. 1.2 oz. 34.0 gm. 4 b. 2 lb, 1 lb. 8 oz. 4 oz. 2 oz. i6 oz. 45.4 gin. 5 lb. 21 lb. 11 lb. 10 oz. 5 oz. 2 oz. 2.0 oz. 56.7 gm. 6lb. 3 lb. 11 lb. 12 oz. 6 oz. 3 oz. 2.4 oz. 68.0 gin. 7 lb. 31 lb. 1 lb. 14 oz. 7 oz. 3L oz. 2.8 oz. 79.4 gm. 8 lb. 4 lb. 2 lb. 1 lb. 8 oz. 4 oz. 3.2 oz, 90.7 gm. 9 lb. 41 lb. 2 lb. 1 lb. 9 oz. 4 oz. 3.0 oz. 102.1 gm. 10 lb. 5 lb. 2! lb. 1 lb. 10 oz. 5 oz. 4.0 oz. 113.4 gm. %a go 14 a% 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 Vo 04 0 zo in r ZD ro y 0 pi 11 r 0 0 0 N N WILD w xr w *4 zm 1116 ce E 4r :Q ?I 0 0 A) 0 ba 0 ca 0 0 1 r 0 0 0 W 0 0 a,, p . 0 %D, ts 0 0 w t0 %4 w r%) %D OCA ON w tt, ADA C:l w CYN N w $a 4 2 ca ko 6 2 ;3 n . ONO w 0% aN 4r :0 to 4r % O lm ra 0 Co ro 0 '0 0 0 0 0 9 0 CR 4 01% w ka w V w am w # ?%0 m WIN 6 t: 0 F;6 0 0 A 0 Ir r 17, :4 6 at w 0 r 0 6 0 0 4re 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 r I cr% 0 04 Ch %10 %4 04 10 .1ro kA 0 w 0 60 ZD 0 0 0 0 0 r I r 0 0 0 0 rv w ro w P4 %A .a" 0 a' 6 PS Z1 0% r rZD 6 '10 6 f IM4 0 Zn 0 ID 0 %A 0 crt 0 0 V 0 alk o 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 w w MM M In N ;N,,O ; ZD a% 9 %A . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ju 4r PJ r I r I r ! r r ! I 1 Ir 0 0 0 0 0 0 IF r )Sk w 1 r4 1 r rm 5 %WA v o ? Ch W I d & V? o tQ fu o 4 w a 0 0 at 0 4v 4 a% 0 1 r 4 1 t 0 0 0 0 %* %n 1%) 6 ZD 0 at 0 %Coo oft 15 Liquid material.Tables 3 and 4 have been worked out in a manner similar to tables 1 and 2 but are in fluid measure for use with liquid insecticides, wetting agents, and the like, The relationship of poe:, d ounces noted for table 1 holds for pints and fluid ounces in Ioble 3. Quantities for 2 gallons are given in both United States and metric uts to one decimal place. In table 4 an equivalent value in fluid ounces is given for te fractional pint values. For quantities of less than 1 pinti qnivalent quantities in milliliters are given for the fluidounce and fauiddram values. Table 3.Equivalent quantities of liquid insecticidal material for certain aliquots of 100 gallons of water Quantities of material for indicated quantities of water 100 50 25 12 6 31 2' gal. gal. gal. gal, gal. gal. al. f pt. 4 pt. 2 fl.oz. 1 fl.oz. fl.oz. ( fl.oz. 0.2 fl.oz. 4 fl.oz. 5.9 nil. 1 pt. pt. 4 fl.oz. 2 fl.oz. 1 fl.oz. 4 fl .oz. 0.4 fi.oz. 8 fl.oz. 11.8 ml. 2 pt. 1 pt. 8 fl.oz. 4 fl.oz. 2 fl.oz. 1 fl.oz. 0.8 1i.oz. 1 qt. 23.7 ml. 3 pt. 1 pt. 12 fl.oz. 6 fl.oz. 3 fl.oz. 1 fl.oz. 1.2 fl.oz. 1I qt. 35.5.ml. 4 pt. 2 pt. 1 pt. 8 fl.oz. 4 fl.oz. 2 fl.oz. 1.6 1 oz. 2 qt. 1 qt. 47.3 ml. 5 pt. 24 pt. 1* pt. 10 fl.oz. 5 fl.oz. 24 fl.o7. 2.0 fl.oz. 21 qt. 1 qt. 59.1 mnil. 6 pt. 3 pt. 14 pt. 12 fl.oz. 6 fl.oz. 3 fl.oz. 2.4 7l.oz. 3 qt. 1 qt. 71.0 nil. 7 pt. 3 pt. 1 pt. 14 fl.t. 7 fl.oz. 3 fl.oz. 2.8 fl.oz. 31 qt. l1 qt. 82.8 ml. 8 pt. 4 pt. 2 pt. 1 pt. 8 fl.oz. 4 fl.oz. 3.2 f].oz. 1 gal. 2 qt. 1 qt. 94.6 ml. UBRARY STATE pLANT BOARD m w w ro w 04#0* .4,04, .40 %AA ;a ot Ar V ON h) ot 74r, fm %A N 4;r 4 PJ orl ) 4 0 1t 6 ort liD 0 0 0 0 0 D CM .r Olk %OA2 N ok a*% 0 "D in 0 0 0 0 0 JA p 0 A oa ON ol 1\3 kA o h) 4r w R) a WkA kA (YNYI 4r;Q w 74 S g r %A 47\ OR W ;h:3 ZD ZA 'o o o o w kA %0 %.A 4 A) vt w "A w w %.n \D Pi on 4 \JD 0 F P r P 0 0 %.o % w CQ ro j ro w WA 4 w We %." 4D r Div 'r. . %.04 at r r mko 4w ir4 ot w I'D i r 0 m 4+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 :4 ro m 0 BW N Jo W r:l w N tQ w r4 4r \A CY% 4 %,A Fj \B v CN Q1 ON 17 Dilution of Insecticides in Parts by WeiRht and by Liquid Measure The quantities of dry insecticidal material giving certain dilutions by weight in various quantities of water are given in table 5. In calculating these quantities the weight of I gallon of water was considered as 8.345 pounds, or 3.785.3 grams. Quantities of less than 1 pound are given in both ounces and grams. Table 6 contains similar data worked out in liquid measure for certain dilutions of liquid insecticides. In both tables the quantities to be used in 1 gallon or more are calculated to the nearest correct value at one decimal place. For 1 quart and I liter these values are carried out to three places. %A cr "Of w 44 0 0 0 0 w to OR WA w N N ft %W w %A 10 ;r 2 ? .o I " 4%A j 4 ov.4 .n ;, CQ 0 'A 0 :4 0 ZY, o Ire 'j, tA ri 0 0 0 0 w W .sr %il R) 4 W %0 IkA ro 0% %.Pf w ro ..4:4 rzA W M:4 %A 0 W W ." 4?4 m D ?%Ikja *.A I ZA w C% I n 0 0 0 0 %A 0 :4 0 %A 0 Cr%* 4r 0 0 84 0 04 P. IL .A I. w WA w a*, P4 w w .9ro W ;> X6 12:4 %04*0 0 cn 0 0 0 0 0 0 0%0 %Do ."o o r ? ? !4 0" 0 pr 04 0 0 ta P0 w %A 1a 11.4 cr*t ri 4 w kA $A fo V I., 47% ; o o 'j, 14 0 D P_ Cr% W oQ 1_4 W N W %A W %.Pl pa 4:, .a (7% f%) %D %A Cr% %A H IA :4 04 ir 0 0 o ZY, 0 w 04 I w ri ru w A %Yl N w v m 04 m 0 m coo 44 Cr% w N 6 0 %A 10 IN 0 ZD :4 :4 6 *$r 0 zo "A 6 1 0 cm 0 w 0 or r r 1" 4 w O'k %A I., w %,n N 0 %" I C." 4 %A Pa ok w 44 IA ON cr%%Ja _n % A I w 0 " P. ON w ZO 4 ;o ZD 4 0 W 4 W o W %04 100 4r %0 I orl k.P 'A ZD w W Aj Pi Olk %A pi % I'dm 40 Caw. g II r' w~ w' 5.' w W~ w 4r~t d a ZZ Id d W 4# W...4 0 4 tI~ 00 a 5 U~~ 0 ** ~ *Cn N I' 1..e3 4 C.F rat;* *'1 :I'd at 9,4~~~~~y td ;. % p* ~ d 4 4 0 0.4 .* g F c*. 4 *Y .% 4r w 0 Ot'%i J3" W'J ZIA F.'* %WA *CAe ** .* .. Os F' 0 .1 4%,A %A 04 0C %A aN% 0 .0 *o wo Pi A) %A or % :1 ZD ZR %A* A) ~ 9.. ..* .4 .lY%3 e N 0 rv 20 Quantity of Insecticide on Basis of Active Ingredient Ii preparing sprays or dusts with certain insecticides, notably the ground rotenonebearing roots, the dilution is based upon the percentge (y 'eight) of the active ingredient desired in the finished combination. Thc : Water suspensions or solutions.To determine the quantity of insecticido! rn~~essary for a given percentage of active ingredient in the diluted sp y utiply the number of gallons of water by $,345 by the percentage cf ve ingredient desired in the spray, and divide by the percentage of acieve in gredient in the insecticide. If, when making up small quantities ci spry, it is desirable to calculate the quantity of insecticide in grams, ubsui ute 3,785.3 for 8.345. >amTple: Fifty gallons of spray containing 0.025 percent of rotenone i: desired. The powdered root to be used contains 3.9 percent of rotenone. Th quantity of this powder to be used is 50 X 8.345 X 0.025 = 2.7 pounds. 3i9 Co determine the percentage of active ingredient in a given quantity S.. c iied spray when the quantity of powder used and its active of ingredient are known, multiply the number of pounds of powder by the percentage C ie ingredient it contained and divide by the number of gallons of spray times 8.345. Example: One pound of ground derris root containing 4.8 percent of rto~e was used to nkiae 50 gallons of spray, The rotenone content of h sp ''y was 1 X 4.8 0.0115 percent, 50 X 8.345 Dusts To determine the quantity of insecticide to be used in preS a ust containing given percentage of active ingredient, multiply Sage of active igredient desired by the number of pounds of dust c, e and divide by the percentage of active ingredient in the insectidt1 be used. mple One hundred pounds of dust containing 0.50 percent of ro ). is to be prepared. The powdered rc t to be used contains 4.0 perCs of rotenone. The quantity of the root necessary is 0.50 X 100 .. 12.5 pounds. 4.0 >L ,u determine the percentage of active ingredient in a dust when the q y of insecticide used, its percentage active ingredient, and the 111 Li of the prepared dust are known, multiply the number of pounds < .fficide used by Lhe percentage of active ingredient it contains and djvi(_ ylie number of pouod of dust prepared. 21 Example: Twenty pounds of ground cube root cataun.I c of rotenone had been used in making up 100 pounds of "ar. T. r .orne content of the dust was 20 X 4.0 = 0.8 percent. 100 Percentage of Active Ingredient When Insecticide Ts Dilttcd : Pr When the percentage of active ingredient (rotenone, etc.) in the insecticide is known, the dilution, in parts, necessary to give a stated percentage of the active ingredient in the spray is obtained o follows: Divide the percentage of active ingredient in the insecticde by th. percentagA desired in the diluted spray. Example: A spray containing 0.05 percent of nicotio Sc OSired. The insecticide contains 40 percent of nicotine. 40 = 800 0.05 The dilution is therefore 1 part of the insecticide to 800 parts of wacer. When the percentage of active ingredient in the insccicide and the dilution (by parts) that was used are known, the percentage of active ingredient in the dilute spray may be obtained as foles: Divide the percentage of active ingredient in the insecticide by the dilution used. Example: An alcoholic extract of pyrethrum containing 2 percent of total pyrethrins was diluted 1 to 400. The percentage of pyrethrine in the diluted spray was 2 = 0.005 percent. 400 Equivalert Dilutions of Active Ingjredient in Parts ar1 PerrcA, s Dilutions of rotenone and pyrethrins are often giver a: 15,000, 110,000, etc. The equivalent percentages for a number of these ilutions are given below. Parts Percent Parts Percent 1500 0.2 15,000 0.02 11,000 0.1 16,000 0.017T11,500 0.0667 17,000 0.014312,000 0.05 18,000 0.0125 12,500 0.04 19,000 0.0111+ 13,000 0.0333+ 110,000 0.01 14,000 0.025 120,000 0.005 22 CI VIR'SION OF $IAALLZCALE P03A0ES TO LAROLCALL QVANITIEs Dusts 'and Soil Insecticides ;hquva~itiis of dvust or soil irisectic2.Ies iiets7ary fur largeo2 Cp 7 ~c C 1 in pounds per acre, ray becailcla t>! qtinitties co. Zi~r square foct by 43,560, or per square yord by,b0 and divide by if& 59 K e cOsOage is In grans, aic1 by 10 if it is Jr. Example: A dust has been fouud effective i1 J. ae ets v;he n uZed at the rate of 0.30 gramn per square foot. _J~ ouiin dosae per acre would iLe 0.30 X 43,L560 =29 pounds, To determine the number of square feet (or squae aris) that 1 pound of gien ateialwill cover when the snmailzcalle Tc..,o pr square foot (c :. .yard) J~ known, Clvide 453.59 by this dosage_ if' Ki in grams, and 16 by this dosage if it is in ounces. Kamrpie: in the case of the 0.30 gram per squaee __ut do,=_age mentioncd tbuve, 1 pound of the material would cover 453.59 or 1,512 square feet. 0.30 To 6tormine the quao~tity of material to be use( d for 1 square foot ;~ho K argescale dosage is known, nult'ply the n,,iie of I pons p ar by 'I3d oobtaiii dosages in grams, and by 10 to obli dsae iin ounces, anc ,ho e product by 43,560. For dosages per square yar, th1e, divisor is 4,840. F"pes: A doage equivalent to 30 pounds par acre of a given dust is to 'be t:iied on a sirmall scale. The dosage per square foot is 30 X 453.59 =0.31. gram. 43,50 or 30 X 16 :0.011 ounce. 43,560 tcovalues that have beenk wuVork'A cot ai1 i4ay becoriet :~i ;o~c.ar( given in the following table:_ 23 Equivalent small and largescale dosages Fouds Dosage per square foot Square feet that 1 pound will cover petr ao Gram 0.1 4,536 9.6 .10413 4,356 1.00 .15619 2,904 .0 .25 1,814 24.0 .26032 1,742 25.0 Ounce 0.005 3,200 .008 2,000 2i .78 .01 1,600 27 22+ .016 1,000 ).3 .025 640 .3+ .064 250 174,24 .16 100 435.6 FUMIGANTS The dosages of fumigants used in laboratory tests are readily converted to quantities to be used in largescale work by the following relationship: Milligrams per cubic decimeter (liter) is approximately equal to ounces per 1,000 cubic feet. The concentration of a given fumigant in the gaseous state within the fumigation chamber, generally determined by aspiration, is usually calculated in milligrams per cubic decimeter, and therefore, the same relationship would apply. A series of tables, and formulas to use in connection with them, on the maximum weights of a number of common fumigants that can exist in vapor form in a 1,000 cubic foot fumigation chamber has been published by Rcark and Nelson(5). 24 MISCELLANEOUS Capacity of Sprayer Tanks The capacity of the tanks of hand or power sprayers, in gallons, be calculated by 0.0034 as follows: Cylindrical tanks: Multiply length by square of the diameter, in inches, by 0.0034. RectangLular tanks: Multiply length by width by depth, in inches, by 0.004329. Tanks with elliptical cross section: Multiply length by short diameter by long diameter, in inches, by 0.0034, Dilutions of Alcohol and Other Liquids From the commercial grain alcohol of 95 or any other known percentage, soluticus of lower percentage can be prepared as follows: Into a l00ml. gradualte pour as many milliliters of the stronger solution as the percentage required Ln the weaker. Then add water until the mixture reaches the milliliter mark equivalent to the percentage of the stronger solution. For example, to make 70percent from 95percent alcohol, pour into the graduate 70 ml. of the 95percent solution and fill to the 95mi. mark with water. The result is 95 ml. of a 70percent solution. The same procedure can be used for any other liquid, such as acetone, that is miscible with water, and in fact for any pair of miscible liquids. The percentages obtained by this procedure must be expressed in terms of volume, not weight. 25 Tfw eratture Conversion Degrees Fahrerheit to degrees Cetgae C. 32 X 5/9. Degrees Centigrad~e to deL!rees Fahieci': F. C X 9/5 + 32. A number of equivc ci t of the tw~o zscales are. I0 17.76 110 10 12.22 120 79 14 10 122 2 20 6.07 130 30 3. 11 1340 32 0 1 Ew0 40 4.4415 50 10 fh "i 11 G0 15,56 )10 76. G7 68 240 81 0 70 21.1110822 90 26.67 19S7.73 86 30 19.1 0 90 32.22 200 93 100 37.78219.9 104 40 212 100I LITERATURE CONSULTED (1) Bearce, Henry W. 1936. Uiitod Stateb z, Eritisi) uitsvSuts sW o.ue Sci. Monthly 43:5( 568. (2) National Eurecau of Starl(' arcs,:. 1914. Units of wei~jiK, aXn c~xs V Uffl.O 3 af tables of equivalents, U. S. De'pt. Conmrco Fu~r. CrJs Cr 47, 68 pp. (3) National Bureau of Standahrds. 1920, H o ,obId weights aud meas urcs. U. S, Cept. C n rccvee, Bur. Standards, Misc. Pub, 39, 2 pp. (4) Natici:al ReocarchCorc1 1925. >.tc> c ~ ~ti irn c~ ~aI ISC a, c oa fhss c~ ~~i ty Crci technology. v. .1, p.16 e Yoi. (5) Reu ~ arid Nelson, 0. A. .>nA~n:. weights of various i'uwif~ L which __xit in vapor cr~in a 1,000 onbic foot Vu~Vta ~~e our. Econ. .t. 22:381387. (b) un> PczrictFrintingf f'4 cc 1939 ~ naiiualre;.V. ed. 346p. nant. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09224 7393 