Conversion tables and equivalents for use in work relating to insect control

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Material Information

Title:
Conversion tables and equivalents for use in work relating to insect control
Physical Description:
25 p. : 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Nelson, R. H
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Weights and measures   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Control   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 25).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"November 1940."
General Note:
"E-517."
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.H. Nelson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030271295
oclc - 778788248
System ID:
AA00023019:00001

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Capacity tables (liquid)
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Capacity tables (dry)
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Linear-measure tables
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Area-measurement tables
        Page 11
    Volume (cubic measure) tables and dilutions of insecticides
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Conversion of small-scale dosages to large-scale quantities
        Page 22
    Fumigants
        Page 23
    Miscellaneous
        Page 24
    Literature consulted
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text


E-517 Novonhber 1940
U .
DEPA RTMkN T
or
AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF
NTOMOLOGY AND
PLNT QUARANrN




CONVERSION TABLES AND EQUIVAL1ENTS FOR USE IN WORK RELATING TO INSFACT CONTROL

By R. H-. Nelson, Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations




Contents
Page
Introduction................ ........ ...... ...... ............ ........ ....... 2
Weight tables.. ............ .....-_...........__- ........... ...... 3
United States avoirdupois weight.................. ...... ... 3
Metric weight........ ............___ ........ ....... ......... ........... 3
Apothecaries' weight.... __ ............... .......__.............. 3
Imperial (British) avoirdupois weight............... ........... ....... ...... 3
Equivalents of weight in the four systems ...... ........ ...... ...._....... 4
Capacity tables (liquid) ..... ........ ....... .......... ........... 5
United States liquid measure.............................. .............. 5
Metric capacity measure. ......... .......................... ......., 5
Imperial capacity measure......... ..__.......... ....... ...... ........ ............ 5
Equivalents of capacity in' the three syst ems .. ............6
Equivalents for teaspoonful, tablespoonful and cup................... 7
Capacity tables (dry)............ ...... ...... ........... ...... .... ...... 7
United States dry measure..,...... .......... ......__........ ...... ....... 7
Metric capacity measure.. ..._.... ...... .................. 7
Imperial capacity measure-................. ................... ............ ........ 8
Equi-valents of capacity ir the three syst,.em5s,, .................. .........- 8
Linear-measure tables.,... ..... .................. ...... ........... ....... ...... 9
United States system.,.._............ ....-_. _................ ... ...... .. .......... 9
Metric system..... .......... _........................ ............... ......... 9
Imperial system .....___............. ............ ......... ........ .......... 9
Equivalents of length in the three systems .... ............. ............ .... 10
Area-measurement tables .... .......... ....... .................. .........1
United States system.. .................... ......... ...... ....... ............ 11
Metric system... .... ........... ........ .........................11
Imperial system ................ .............. ........ ........... ........ 11
Equivalents of area in the three systems... ............... ........... ....... 11






-2

Volume (cubic measure) tables........... . ...... 12
United States system.............. ..... ......... ...... 12
Metric system.................. ....... ...... 12
Tmperial system....._.......... .... ........... .. .. 12
Equivalents of volume in the three systems............ 12
Dilutions of insecticides..... .... .. .. *.... ..... 12
Equivalent quantities of insecticidal material for various
quantities of water.. ............... .. ..... .. ...... . ... .. 12
Dilutions of insecticides in part by weight and by liq' . 17
Quantity of insecticide on basis o' active ingredient........ ..... 20
fercentagE of active ingredient when insecticide is diluted b cats 21 Erjuivalent dilutions of active ingredient in parts and perce. e .. 21 Corversicn 7i srall-scale dosages to large-scale quantities..... .. 22
D:.sts and soil insecticides.................... 22
Fumi-ants. ..... .................................... ..... 23
Miscellarce .... .... ............ .... 24
Capacity of sprayer tanks......................... ........... 24
Pil>:ti on of alco'hol and other liquids........ ..... ....... 24
Teiperature conversion........ ... ..... 25
Lit-.ature consult.es............... ............. ........ ........ 25


INTRODUCTION

: r' li ar uE coonomic entoiology the weights and no ures use.d : cxp. United Seatt can British unite, by Bcame (1), of the National Bureau of Standards, was also consulted.

Tables for ilut: ions of iincticides, methods of calculating dilutions vi. !,:.6 bo.is of acLive ingredients, and certain other miscelaneous information useful to entomologists working with insecticides have also been included.

Ix. the tables of equivalents the values shown are correct to the decimal place P but in most cases are not to be taken as exact. Thy are. Lowevcer. cGerried uot far enough so that the individual worker may round out a' thn decL:'li place best suited for his equipment and the can ice. of his expriment with a minimum of error,

TI.. obrevi Lions used axe those recogxiizeu in the Jo: 0:9
edition : thy UitcJ btateis Goverseent Printing Office Side iG).






3

WEIGHT TABLES

United States Avoirdupois Weight

27 11/32 grains (gr.) = 1 dram (dr.) 16 drams 1 1 ounce (oz.)
16 ounces 1 pound (lb.) 7,000 grains
100 pounds 1 hundredweight (cwt.)
2,000 pounds 1 short ton
2,240 pounds 1 long ton

Metric Weight

1,000 micrograms 1 milligram (mg.)
1,000 milligrams 1 1 grain (gm.)
1,000 grams 1 kilogram (kg.)
1,000 kilograms 1 metric ton

Apothecaries' Weight

20 grains (gr.) = 1 scruple (s.)
3 scruples = 1 dram (dr.)
8 drams = 1 ounce (oz.)
12 ounces 1 pound (lb.) = 5,760 grains

Although not commonly used in entonological work, the system of apothecaries' weight is included for purposes of comparison. In all other parts of this paper the terms "dram," "ounce," and "pound" refer to avoirdupois weight unless otherwise specified.

Imperial IBritish) Avoirdupois Weight

27 11/32 grains 1 dram
16 drams 1 ounce
16 ounces 1 pound 7,000 grains
14 pounds 1 stone8 stone
112 pounds) 1 hundredweight
20 hundredweight)
2,240 pounds )= 1 ton

The imperial avoirdupois units, although differing in definition,
are for practical purposes equal to the United States units of the same name. The same conversion values may be used with either. This table is included to show certain variations ini terntinology between this system and that commonly used in the United States.






-4

Equivalents of Weight of the Four Systems


Avoirdupois,
United States Metric Apothecaries'
and imperial

1 grain 64.7989 milligrams 1 grain

l_ dram 1,771.85 milligrams 0.4557 dram
1.77185 grams

1 ounce 28.3495 grams 0.9115 ounce

1 foundd 453.59 grams 1.21528 pounds
0.45359 kilogram


0.015432 grain I milligram 0.015432 grain

15.432 grains 15.432 grains
0.56436 dram l_gram 0.2572 dram
0.03527 ounce 0.03215 ounce

35.2740 ounces 1 kilogram 32.1507 ounces
2.2046 pounds 2.6792 pounds


0.7314 draw 1,295.98 milligrams Iscruple
1.29598 grams

2.19429 drams 3.8879 grams 1 dram

1.0971 ounces 31.10348 grams 1 ounce

0.&229 pound 373.24 grams 1 pound
0.37324 kilogram





5

CAPACITY TABLES (LIQUID)

United States Liquid sure

8 fluid drams (fl. dr.) 1 fluid ounce (fl. oz.)
4 fluid ounces 1 gill
4 gills 1 pint (pt.)
2 pints 1 quart, (qt.)
4 quarts I gallon (gal.) 231 cubic inches

At maximum density, 39.1640 F. (3.980 C.), a gallon of pure water weighs 8.345 pounds; at 590 F. (150 C.) Oho weight is 8.333 pounds.

Metric Capacity Measure

1,000 milliliters (ml.)1/,- 1 liter (i ) 1.000.027 cubic
centimeters
10 liters I dekaliter (dkl.)
100 liters I hectoliter (hl.)
1,000 liters 1 kilo].iter (k.)

Imperial C2city Measure

8 fluid drams I fluid ounce
5 fluid ounces 1 gill
4 gills 1 pint
2 pints 1 quart
4 quarts 1 gallon --- 277.42 cubic inches

An imperial gallon of pure water weighs 10 pounds at 620 F. (16.670 C.)

The units of the imperial system for liquid measure have the same names as those used in the United States system. In no case, however, are they equal. The imperial gallon, quart, and pint are about 20 percent larger than the United States units of the same name, whereas the imperial fluid dram and fluid ounce are about 4 percent smaller than homonymous United States units.

1/ The term "cubic centimeter (cc. or cm.3)" has been commonly used in chemical and entomological literature instead of "milliliter (ml.)." Technically this is not correct, since the cubic centimeter is a measure of volume, not of capacity. Their relationship is: milliliter ., 1.000027 cubic centimeters. For practical purposes, however, they may be regarded as equal in the same sense as 1 gallon equals 231 cubic inches.







Equivalents of Capacity in the Three Systems


Si ed States Metric Imperial

L1 21 i:^ rm 3.69E8 milliliters 1.0408 fluid drams

L 1u c::rce 29:5729 milliliters 1.0408 fluid ounces

1il 118.292 milliliters 0.83268 gill
0.118292 liter

11_ 473.1C7 milliliters 0.83268 pint
0.473167 liter

1 rt 946.33 milliliters 0.83268 quart
0.94633 liter

LJJL 3,785.33 milliliters 0.83268 gallon
3.78533 liters


7' 1 t, j6ran 1 milliliter 0.28157 fluid dram

Srar..s (281.57 fluid drams
nces) 1 liter ( 35.20 fluid ounces
nosuar ) ( 0.880 quart
I >7 i allon ) ( 0.2200 gallon

2. C4 lions 1 dekaliter 2.200 gallons

2-4 llons 1 hectoliter 22.00 gallons

C4.i 7 a11on s i kiloliter 219.98 gallons


0 uid dram t.a5 illiliters 1 fluid dram

u.id ounce 28,.412 milliliters 1 fluid ounce

1 i 142,06 milliliters 1 gill
0.14206 liter

f 2 ts 568.245 milliliters 1 pint
0.568245 liter

1,136.45 milliliters 1 auart
1.13649 liters

milliliters 1 g811l11
4.9396 liters





-7

Equivalents for Teasooful, Tablsoofi and QlIP

A measuring cup and measuring spoons, the latter obtainable in nests of several sizes, are useful in making dilutions under practical conditions where great accuracy is not required. The values given below are also use(.ful in transposing the precise measurements of the laboratory into com monly used and understood units when an insecticide is recommended to dooryard gardeners. The values as given are those recognized by the B~ureau of Standards.

3 teaspoonfuls 1 tablespoonful
2 tablespoonfuls 1 fluid ounce
16 tablespoonfuls) 1 cup
8 fluid ounces)

3 teaspoonfuls) "I fluid ounce ) .1 tablespoonful
4 fluid dramns
15 milliliters

16 tablespoonfuls)
2 gills)
~pint ) 1 cup
8 fluid ounces 237 milliliters

1lpint
16 fluid ounces) 2 cups
473 milliliters )

CAPACITY TABLES (DRY)

United States Dry~ Measure

2 pints (pt.) =-1 quart (qt.)
8 quarts 7-1 peck (pk.)
4 pecks =1 bushel (bd.) z 2,150.42 cubic inches

In the United States system the pint and quart of dry measure are about 16 percent larger than the units of the same name used in. liquid measure. Wherever these unit names are used in this paper, other than in this section, they refer to liquid measure.

Metric Ca2acity Measure

In the metric system both dry and liquid capacity are measured by the liter and its secondary units. See Capacity Tables (Liquid), p 5.





-8
....... 7!! i s
Imperial Capacity Measure

2 pints 1 quart 8 quarts 1 peck
4 pecks 1 bushel = 2,219.34 cubic inches

T1e pint and quart of the imperial system are the same for both liquid ai fiy measure. The imperial gallon may also be used as a unit of dry vca<,'r; The pint and quart of the United States dry measure are approxiralJ* 3 percent smaller thav the imperial units of the same name. The
LLi( Sates bushel is the same as the Winchester bushel, sometimes menLice in publications from the British Empire.

Equivalents of Capacity in the Three Systems


U n'itcd1 States Metric Imperial

inL 550.60 milliliter 0.96895 pint
0.55060 liter

1.10120 liters 0.96895 quart

] Vck 8.810 liters 0.96895 peck
0.8810 dekaliter

1 buhel 35.238 liters 0.9695 bushel
3.5238 dekaliters
0.35238 hectoliters


i 6 pints 1 liter 1.760 pints
0. 908 quart 0.880 quart
0 i 5 peck 0.110 peck

S155 pecks 1 dekaliter 1.10 pecks
0.>378 bushel 0.275 bushel

21W78 bushels 1 hectoliter 2.75 bushels


pits 568.245 milliliters 1 Pint
0.568245 liter

,O52O5 quarts 1.13649 liters 1 quart

I ).O pecks 9.092 liters 1 peck
0.9092 dekaliter

0jw!(, bushels 36. 368 liters 1 bushel
3.6368 dekaliters
0.36368 hectoliter

A






9

LINEAR-MEASURE TABLES

United States System

12 inches (in.) 1 foot (ft.) 3 feet 1 yard (yd.)

5V yards) 1 rod (rd.)
161 feet )

320 rods )
1,760 yards) I mile
5,280 feet )

Metric System

1,000 millimicrons 1 1 micron 2
1,000 microns 1 millimeter (mm.)
10 millimeters 1 centimeter (cm.)
10 centimeters 1 decimeter (dm.)
10 decimeters 1 meter (m.)
10 meters 1 dekameter (dkm.)
10 dekameters = 1 hectometer (hm.)
10 hectometers 1 kilometer (km.)

Imperial Sytem

Except for small differences in standards, this system is the same as that used in the United States and the same conversion values may be used.



Abbreviation is "Im" followed by the Greek letter "mu."
Abbreviation is the Greek letter "mu."





10

Equivalents of' Length is the Three Systems


United States and
Imperial Metric

25.4 millimeters
1 inch 2.54 centimeters

30.48 centimeters
1 foot 3.048 decimeters

9.144 decimeters
2. yard 0,9144 meter

5.029 meters
1 rod 0.5029 dekameter

1,609.35 meters
1 mile 1.60935 kilometers


0.03937 inch 1 millimeter

0.3937 inch 1 centimeter

3.937 inches
0.328 foot 1 decimeter

'39.37 inches
1 .0936 yards 1 meter

1.98838 rods 1 dekameter

19.8838 rods 1 hectometer

398.838 rods
0.621.37 mile 1 kilometer




-11

AREA-MEASUREMENT TABLES

United States System

144 square inches (sq. in.) square foot (sq. ft.)
9 square feet 1 square yard (sq. yd.)
301 square yards 1 square roc (sq rd,)
43,560 square feet
4,840 square yards) 1 acreo
160 square rods )

Metric System

100 square millimeters (mm. 2) 1 square celtimeeie e cm. 2)
100 square centimeters 1i square decimeter (Jo 2)
100 square decimeters 1 square meter (nm )
100 square meters i are (a.
100 ares 1 hectare (ha.)

Imperial Sisem

Except for slight differences in standards this is the sa.e ats the United States system for area measurement, and the two are A.bAJ.ia .: the following table:

Equivalents of Area in the Three Systems

United States and Imperial Metric

1 square inch 6.452 square cen Limeters

square foot 903 sO uare S

lsuare yard 0 8361 square et

2. 29
1 square rod 0 2529 are

1 acre 0 40Q69 Iectar


0.00155 square inch S rU ill:iwter

0.155 square inch 1 square centimeter

15.5 square inches
0.1076 square foot 1 sqare decimeter

1,1960 square yards 1 square meter

3.9537 square rods 1 are

2.471 acres I hectare




12

VOLUME (CUBIC MEASURE) TABLES United States System

1,728 cubic inches (cu. in.) = 1 cubic foot (cu. ft.)
27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard (cu. yd.)

Metric System

1,000 cubic millimeters (ml. 3) 1, cubic centimeter (cc. or cm 3)
1,000 cubic centimeters 1 cubic decimeter (dm.3)
1,000 cubic decimeters 1 cubic meter (m.3)

Imperial System

This is the same as the United States system except for small differences in standards, and the two are combined in the following table:

Equivalents of Volume in the Three Systems


United States and Imperial Metric

1 cubic inch 16.39 cubic centimeters

1 cubic foot 28,317 cubic decimeters

1 cubic yard 0.7646 cubic meter


0.061 cubic inch 1 cubic centimeter

61.023 cubic inches
0.0353 cubic foot 1 cubic decimeter

1.308 cubic yards 1 cubic meter


DILUTIONS OF INSECTICIDES

Equivalent Quantities of Insecticidal Material for Various Quantities of Water Dry material.--The cantity of powdered insecticide recommended for usce against a given insect is usually stated in pounds per 50 or 100 gallons crf water. Tables 1 and 2 sho.Yw the quantities necessary for making the same dil,"tions in smaller quantities of watcr" as are made with 1 to 10 pounds, inclusive, in 100 gallons. It will be noted in table 1 that the number of pciuds per 100 gallois is the sa z as t -e umber of ounces per 6- gallons, and that the same is true for 50 and 3- gallons. For 21 gallons, which is a convenient amount of spray solution for usc in most knapsack sprayers, the quantities are given in bo~h ounces and grains to one decimal place.





13

In table 2, for quantities of water of 1 gallon or more, the nrest correct value at one decimal place is given. For values of less han 1
pound the equivalent quantities are given in grams directly beneath the United States values. The gram being of smaller mass than the dram and the ounce, the metric values are, in most cases, more nearly correct than Lhe avoirdupois values. The quantities to be used in 1 quart and 1 i f f
water are given only in metric units and are carried out to three pJoces, since they will presumably be used for small-scale, precise experiment.

Table l.--Equivalent quantities of dry insecticidal material
for certain aliquots of 100 gallons of water


Quantity of material in indicated quantity of water
100 50 25 12 61 312

gal, gal. gal. gal, gal, gal. gal.

lb. lb. 4 oz. 2 oz. oz. oz, 0.4cz.
113 gin.

2 b. 1 lb. 8 oz. 4 oz. 2 oz. 1 oz. 0.8 oz,
22.7 gin.

3 lb. 1L lb. 12 oz. 6 oz. 3 oz. 1 oz. 1.2 oz.
34.0 gm.

4 b. 2 lb, 1 lb. 8 oz. 4 oz. 2 oz. i6 oz.
45.4 gin.

5 lb. 21 lb. 11 lb. 10 oz. 5 oz. 2 oz. 2.0 oz.
56.7 gm.

6lb. 3 lb. 11 lb. 12 oz. 6 oz. 3 oz. 2.4 oz.
68.0 gin.

7 lb. 31 lb. 1- lb. 14 oz. 7 oz. 3L oz. 2.8 oz.
79.4 gm.

8 lb. 4 lb. 2 lb. 1 lb. 8 oz. 4 oz. 3.2 oz,
90.7 gm.

9 lb. 41 lb. 2 lb. 1 lb. 9 oz. 4 oz. 3.0 oz.
102.1 gm.

10 lb. 5 lb. 2! lb. 1 lb. 10 oz. 5 oz. 4.0 oz.
113.4 gm.











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Liquid material.--Tables 3 and 4 have been worked out in a manner similar to tables 1 and 2 but are in fluid measure for use with liquid insecticides, wetting agents, and the like, The relationship of poe:, d ounces noted for table 1 holds for pints and fluid ounces in Ioble 3. Quantities for 2- gallons are given in both United States and metric uts to one decimal place.

In table 4 an equivalent value in fluid ounces is given for te fractional pint values. For quantities of less than 1 pinti qnivalent quantities in milliliters are given for the fluid-ounce and fauid-dram values.

Table 3.--Equivalent quantities of liquid insecticidal material for
certain aliquots of 100 gallons of water


Quantities of material for indicated quantities of water

100 50 25 12- 6 31 2'
gal. gal. gal. gal, gal. gal. al.

f pt. 4 pt. 2 fl.oz. 1 fl.oz. fl.oz. ( fl.oz. 0.2 fl.oz.
4 fl.oz. 5.9 nil.

1 pt. pt. 4 fl.oz. 2 fl.oz. 1 fl.oz. 4 fl .oz. 0.4 fi.oz.
8 fl.oz. 11.8 ml.

2 pt. 1 pt. 8 fl.oz. 4 fl.oz. 2 fl.oz. 1 fl.oz. 0.8 1i.oz.
1 qt. 23.7 ml.

3 pt. 1 pt. 12 fl.oz. 6 fl.oz. 3 fl.oz. 1 fl.oz. 1.2 fl.oz.
1I qt. 35.5.ml.

4 pt. 2 pt. 1 pt. 8 fl.oz. 4 fl.oz. 2 fl.oz. 1.6 1 oz.
2 qt. 1 qt. 47.3 ml.

5 pt. 24- pt. 1* pt. 10 fl.oz. 5 fl.oz. 24 fl.o7. 2.0 fl.oz.
21 qt. 1 qt. 59.1 mnil.

6 pt. 3 pt. 14 pt. 12 fl.oz. 6 fl.oz. 3 fl.oz. 2.4 7l.oz.
3 qt. 1- qt. 71.0 nil.

7 pt. 3- pt. 1 pt. 14 fl.-t. 7 fl.oz. 3- fl.oz. 2.8 fl.oz.
31 qt. l1 qt. 82.8 ml.

8 pt. 4 pt. 2 pt. 1 pt. 8 fl.oz. 4 fl.oz. 3.2 f].oz.
1 gal. 2 qt. 1 qt. 94.6 ml.




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17

Dilution of Insecticides in Parts by WeiRht and by Liquid Measure

The quantities of dry insecticidal material giving certain dilutions
by weight in various quantities of water are given in table 5. In calculating these quantities the weight of I gallon of water was considered as 8.345 pounds, or 3.785.3 grams. Quantities of less than 1 pound are given in both ounces and grams.

Table 6 contains similar data worked out in liquid measure for certain dilutions of liquid insecticides.

In both tables the quantities to be used in 1 gallon or more are calculated to the nearest correct value at one decimal place. For 1 quart and I liter these values are carried out to three places.


















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20

Quantity of Insecticide on Basis of Active Ingredient

Ii preparing sprays or dusts with certain insecticides, notably the
ground rotenone-bearing roots, the dilution is based upon the percentge (y 'eight) of the active ingredient desired in the finished combination. Thc :
Water suspensions or solutions.--To determine the quantity of insecticido! rn~~essary for a given percentage of active ingredient in the diluted sp --y -utiply the number of gallons of water by $,345 by the percentage
cf ve ingredient desired in the spray, and divide by the percentage of acieve in gredient in the insecticide. If, when making up small quantities ci spry, it is desirable to calculate the quantity of insecticide in grams, ubsui ute 3,785.3 for 8.345.

>amTple: Fifty gallons of spray containing 0.025 percent of rotenone i: desired. The powdered root to be used contains 3.9 percent of rotenone. Th- quantity of this powder to be used is

50 X 8.345 X 0.025 = 2.7 pounds.
3i9

Co determine the percentage of active ingredient in a given quantity
S.. c iied spray when the quantity of powder used and its active of ingredient
are known, multiply the number of pounds of powder by the percentage C ie ingredient it contained and divide by the number of gallons of
spray times 8.345.

Example: One pound of ground derris root containing 4.8 percent of
rto~e was used to nkiae 50 gallons of spray, The rotenone content of
h sp ''y was

1 X 4.8 0.0115 percent,
50 X 8.345

Dusts To determine the quantity of insecticide to be used in preS a ust containing given percentage of active ingredient, multiply
Sage of active igredient desired by the number of pounds of dust c, e and divide by the percentage of active ingredient in the insectidt1 be used.

mple One hundred pounds of dust containing 0.50 percent of ro ). is to be prepared. The powdered rc- t to be used contains 4.0 perCs of rotenone. The quantity of the root necessary is

0.50 X 100 .. 12.5 pounds.
4.0

>L
,u determine the percentage of active ingredient in a dust when the
q y of insecticide used, its percentage active ingredient, and the 111 Li of the prepared dust are known, multiply the number of pounds < .fficide used by Lhe percentage of active ingredient it contains and djvi(_ ylie number of pouod of dust prepared.





21

Example: Twenty pounds of ground cube root cataun.I c of
rotenone had been used in making up 100 pounds of "ar. T. r .orne
content of the dust was

20 X 4.0 = 0.8 percent.
100

Percentage of Active Ingredient When Insecticide Ts Dilttcd : Pr

When the percentage of active ingredient (rotenone, etc.) in the insecticide is known, the dilution, in parts, necessary to give a stated percentage of the active ingredient in the spray is obtained o follows: Divide the percentage of active ingredient in the insecticde by th. percentagA desired in the diluted spray.

Example: A spray containing 0.05 percent of nicotio Sc OSired. The insecticide contains 40 percent of nicotine.

40 = 800
0.05

The dilution is therefore 1 part of the insecticide to 800 parts of wacer.

When the percentage of active ingredient in the insccicide and the dilution (by parts) that was used are known, the percentage of active ingredient in the dilute spray may be obtained as foles: Divide the percentage of active ingredient in the insecticide by the dilution used.

Example: An alcoholic extract of pyrethrum containing 2 percent of total pyrethrins was diluted 1 to 400. The percentage of pyrethrine in the diluted spray was

2 = 0.005 percent.
400

Equivalert Dilutions of Active Ingjredient in Parts ar1 PerrcA, s

Dilutions of rotenone and pyrethrins are often giver a: 1-5,000, 1-10,000, etc. The equivalent percentages for a number of these ilutions are given below.

Parts Percent Parts Percent
1-500 0.2 1-5,000 0.02
1-1,000 0.1 1-6,000 0.017T1-1,500 0.0667- 1-7,000 0.01431-2,000 0.05 1-8,000 0.0125
1-2,500 0.04 1-9,000 0.0111+
1-3,000 0.0333+ 1-10,000 0.01
1-4,000 0.025 1-20,000 0.005




22

CI VIR'SION OF $IAALL-ZCALE P03A0-ES TO LAROL-CALL QVAN-ITIEs

Dusts 'and Soil Insecticides

;hquva~itiis of dvust or soil irisectic2.Ies i-iets7ary fur largeo-2 Cp 7 ~c C 1 in pounds per acre, ray becailcla t>! qt-initties

co. Zi~r square foct by 43,560, or per square yo-rd by-,b0 and divide by if& 59 K e cOsOage is In grans, aic1 by 10 if it is Jr.

Example: A dust has been fo-uud effective i-1 J.- ae ets v;he n
uZ-ed at the rate of 0.30 gramn per square foot. _J~ ouiin dosae per
acre would iLe

0.30 X 43,L560 =29 pounds,


To determine the number of square feet (or squa-e aris) that 1 pound
of gien ateialwill cover when the snmail-zcalle Tc..,o pr square foot
(c :. .yard) J~ known, Clvide 453.59 by this dosage_ if' Ki in grams,
and 16 by this dosage if it is in ounces.

Kamrpie: in the case of the 0.30 gram per squaee __ut do,=_age mentioncd tbuve, 1 pound of the material would cover

453.59 or 1,512 square feet.
0.30

To 6tormine the quao~tity of material to be use( d for 1 square foot
;~ho K arge-scale dosage is known, nult'ply the n,,iie of I pons p ar
by 'I3d oobtaiii dosages in grams, and by 10 to obli dsae iin ounces,
anc -,ho e product by 43,560. For dosages per square yar, th1e, divisor
is 4,840.

F"pes: A doage equivalent to 30 pounds par acre of a given dust is to 'be t:iied on a sirmall scale. The dosage per- square foot is

30 X 453.59 =-0.31. gram.
43,50

or 30 X 16 :-0.011 ounce.
43,560

tcovalues that have beenk wuVork'A cot ai-1 i4ay becoriet :~i ;o~c.ar( given in the following table:_




23


Equivalent small- and large-scale dosages

Fouds
Dosage per square foot Square feet that 1 pound will cover petr ao

Gram
0.1 4,536 9.6
.10413 4,356 1.00
.15619 2,904 .0
.25 1,814 24.0
.26032 1,742 25.0

Ounce
0.005 3,200
.008 2,000 2i .78
.01 1,600 27 22+
.016 1,000 ).3
.025 640 .3+
.064 250 174,24
.16 100 435.6


FUMIGANTS

The dosages of fumigants used in laboratory tests are readily converted to quantities to be used in large-scale work by the following relationship: Milligrams per cubic decimeter (liter) is approximately equal to ounces per 1,000 cubic feet.
The concentration of a given fumigant in the gaseous state within the fumigation chamber, generally determined by aspiration, is usually calculated in milligrams per cubic decimeter, and therefore, the same relationship would apply.
A series of tables, and formulas to use in connection with them, on the maximum weights of a number of common fumigants that can exist in vapor form in a 1,000 cubic foot fumigation chamber has been published by Rcark and Nelson(5).





24

MISCELLANEOUS

Capacity of Sprayer Tanks

The capacity of the tanks of hand or power sprayers, in gallons, be calculated by 0.0034 as follows:

Cylindrical tanks: Multiply length by square of the diameter, in inches,
by 0.0034.

RectangLular tanks: Multiply length by width by depth, in inches, by 0.004329. Tanks with elliptical cross section: Multiply length by short diameter by
long diameter, in inches, by 0.0034,


Dilutions of Alcohol and Other Liquids

From the commercial grain alcohol of 95 or any other known percentage, soluticus of lower percentage can be prepared as follows: Into a l00-ml. gradualte pour as many milliliters of the stronger solution as the percentage required Ln the weaker. Then add water until the mixture reaches the milliliter mark equivalent to the percentage of the stronger solution.

For example, to make 70-percent from 95-percent alcohol, pour into the graduate 70 ml. of the 95-percent solution and fill to the 95-mi. mark with water. The result is 95 ml. of a 70-percent solution.

The same procedure can be used for any other liquid, such as acetone, that is miscible with water, and in fact for any pair of miscible liquids.

The percentages obtained by this procedure must be expressed in terms of volume, not weight.





25

Tfw eratture Conversion

Degrees Fahrerheit to degrees Cetgae C. 32 X 5/9.

Degrees Centigrad~e to deL!rees Fahieci': F. C X 9/5 + 32.

A number of equivc ci t of -the tw~o zscales are. I0 -17.76 110
10 -12.22 120 79
14 -10 122 2
20 6.07 130
30 3. 11 1340
32 0 1 Ew0
40 4.4415
50 10 fh "i 11
G0 15,56 )10 76. G7
68 240 81 0
70 21.1110822
90 26.67 19S7.73
86 30 19.1 0
90 32.22 200 93
100 37.78219.9
104 40 212 100I

LITERATURE CONSULTED

(1) Bearce, Henry W.
1936. Uiitod Stateb z, Eritisi) uitsvSuts sW o.ue Sci.
Monthly 43:5( -568.

(2) National Eurecau of Starl(' arcs-,:.
1914. Units of wei~jiK, aXn c~xs V Uffl.O 3 af tables of
equivalents, U. S. De'pt. Conmrco Fu~r. CrJs Cr 47,
68 pp.

(3) National Bureau of Standahrds.
1920, H o ,obId weights aud meas urcs. U. S, Cept. C n rccvee, Bur.
Standards, Misc. Pub, 39, 2 pp.

(4) Natici:al ReocarchCorc1
1925. >.tc> c ~ ~ti irn c~ ~aI ISC a, c- oa fhss
c~ ~~i ty Crci technology. v. .1, p.1--6 e Yoi.

(5) Reu ~ arid Nelson, 0. A.
.>nA~n:. weights of various i'uwif~ L- which __--xit in vapor cr~in a 1,000 onbic foot Vu~Vta ~~e our. Econ.
.-t. 22:381-387.

(b) un> PczrictFrintingf f'4 cc
1939 ~ naiiualre;.V-. ed. 346p. nant.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09224 7393