A bibliography of cyanide compounds used as insecticides, 1934

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Title:
A bibliography of cyanide compounds used as insecticides, 1934
Physical Description:
57 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Young, H. D ( Harry Dashiell ), 1883-
Busbey, Ruth L ( Ruth Lawless ), 1909-1990
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Insecticide Investigations
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Insecticide Investigations
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Subjects / Keywords:
Cyanides -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Insecticides -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"October 1939."
General Note:
"E-493"--Cover.
General Note:
"E-494."--P.1.
Statement of Responsibility:
by H.D. Young and R.L. Busbey.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030269677
oclc - 32905780
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lcc - Z5858.E2 Y68 1939
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AA00022984:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Bibliography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
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        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
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        Page 57
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    Back Cover
        Page 59
        Page 60
Full Text









November 1939


A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CYANIDE COMPOUNDS USED AS INSECTICIDES, 1934

By H. D. Young and R. L. Busbey, Division of Insecticide
Investigations, Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of
Agriculture


INTRODUCTION

This bibliography is the fifth of a series dealing with the
insecticidal uses of cyanide compounds. Previous numbers of this
series are United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, mimeographed publications E-354,
EF-368, E-381, and E-4`3, which cover the literature for 1930, 1931,
1932, and 1933 respectively. It has been prepared by consulting
the following abstract periodicals for 1934:

Biological Abstracts
British Chemical Abstracts A
Briti1-h Chemical Abstracts B
Chemical Abstracts
E-reriment Station Record
Review of Applied Entu.nlogy Series A
Review of Applied Entomology Scries B.


AITO YMOUS (1)

THE HORNET AND METHODS OF CO 1BATING IT. Palestine Dept. Agr.
Vet. Serv. Ser. 7, 6 pp. 1933. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
22(A): 13, 1934.]

Vcesipa orientalist F. is the chief enemy of bees in Pales-
tine. Among the methods of control recommended is fumigation
of the nests with calcium cyanide.

(2)

ENTOMOLOGY. .n.ine Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 369: 551-557. 1933.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 309. 1934.]

In the control of wireworms fumigation of the soil with
hydrocyanic acid is reported to be effective in the summer but
not in the spring.

(3)

SPECIFICATIONS FOR CERTAIN INSECTICIDES AND FUNGICIDES. [Gr.
Britain] Jour. Min. Agr. 41: 225-228. 1934. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 436. 1934.]


E-494







-2-


Specifications have been prepared by the Association of
British Insecticide Manufacturers, members of which have agreed
to conform to the standards here laid down. The specifications
include, among a number of others, those for potassium cyanide,
sodium cyanide, and calcium cyanide.

ANONYMOUS (4)

INSECT PESTS AND THEIR CONTROL. Agr. Gaz. New South Wales
45: 255-260. 1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 476.
1934.]

In cases of heavy infestation (of citrus) fumigation
with hydrocyanic acid may be necessary.

(5)

INSECT PESTS AND THEIR CONTROL. Agr. Gaz. New South Wales
45:383-387. 1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A):622.
1934.]

The use of a sodium arsenite bait and fumigation with carbon
disulfide, potassium cyanide, or calcium cyanide dust are recommended
against ants.

ACHARD, C., and BINET, L. (6)

THE EFFECTS OF SODIUM HYPOSULFITE ON INTOXICATION BY POTASSIUM
CYANIDE. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris] 198: 222-224. 1934.
[In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2406. 1934.]

Sodium hyposulfite prevents, and has some curative action
on, intoxication of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by potassium cyanide.

ACHAIA, C. N. (7)

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRUSSIC ACID IN CHOLAM
(SORGHITM VULCAi7.E). Indian Jour. Agr. Sci. 3: 531-560.
1933. [ Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1379. 1934.]

The hydrocyanic acid content of a normal crop of cholam
decreases progressively from 0.2 or 0.3 percent at the early
stages of growth until it reaches the fl wering stage, when it
can be considered harmless. The leaves contain about 60 percent
of the cyanogen compounds present in the plant, an& contain a
higher percentage on a dry basis than do the stems and roots.
The total hydrocyanic -'cid content of a plant and the percentage
on the dry matter are lowest in the morning, then increase up
to about 2 p. m., after which there is a slight decrease till
6 p. m. followed by a rapid decrease in the night. Young
seedlings (less than 40 days old) and plants stunted by drought,
ratoong, and secondary shoots contain the highest percentage
of hydrocyanic acid.






-3-


A method for determining the hydrocyanic acid content
of cholam is described. Thirty two references are given.

ADAMOVICH, L., and AVPASIN, YA. (8)

THE FORMATIOIT OF CYANIDES IN THE BLAST FURNACE PROCESS. Stal
3 (9): 62-73. 1933. [In Russian. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
3037. 1934.]

The cyanide content in the outgoing gases is increased by
increasing the coke ratio, temperature, and pressure, and by
decreasing the oxygen content and maintaining a basic slag. The
presence of chlorine decreases cyanide formation.

ADEL, A., and BARKER, E. F. (9)

VIBRATIONAL ENERGf LEVELS OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE. Nature 133: 29.
1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1925. 1934.]

Data are given concerning infrared bands observed in
hydrogen cyanide vapor.

(10)

THE VIBRATIONAL ENERGY LEVEL SYSTEM OF THE LINEAR MOLECULE HCN.
Phys. Rev. 45: '277-279. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2997.
1934.]

New measurements of the absorption spectrum of hydrogen
cyanide are given and the frequencies for deuterium cyanide are
predicted.

ARHLBERG, 0., and PALMGARD, A. (ll)

INVESTIGATION ON THE PRACTICABILITY OF HYFfDROCYANIC ACID AS
A MEANS OF CONTROLLING INSECT PESTS IN GREEiNHOUSES. Medd.
Vaxtskyddsanst. No. 8, 18 pp. Stockholm. 1934. [In Swedish.
Abstract in Aev. Aprl. Ent. 22(A): 669. 1934.]

Tests to determine the effectiveness for greenhouse fumigation
of hydrocyanic acid generated from cyanogas dust (which contains 40
percent of calcium cyanide) were carried out in Stockholm during
1931-3?. The rates at which this fumigant can be applied at temperatures
of 12-22 C. and humidities of 50-75 percent without injury are shown
in relation to over 200 greenhouse plants. In tests with insects
satisfactory control of Thysanoptera and aphids was obtained with 6-hour
exposures to weak concentrations (3-3-1/2 oz. cyanogas to 10,000 cu. ft.)
but three to'four treatments with high concentrations and long
exposures were necessary to kill fully developed mealybugs. Fumigation
with 6 oz. to 1,000 cu. ft. for 17 hours in an air-tight chamber killed
only 2 to 3 percent of Tetranychus telarius (L.) althaea v. Hanst., the
highest dosages supported by the hardiest greenhouse plants being 1-1/2-
2 oz. to 1,000 cu. ft. Larvae of Gracilaria azaleella Brants on







-4-

azalea were not affected by fumigation for 10 hours at 7 oz. per 10,000
cu. ft., and similar negative results were obtained against Phytomyza
atricornis Mg. on chrysanthemum, 5 oz. being.considered the rate safe
for chrysanthemum and azalea. The cost of various proprietary preparations
embodying hydrocyanic acid is discussed and. compared with that of other
materials used- in the control of greenhouse insects.

ANDRUSSOW, LEONID (12)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. United States Patent.1,934,838, issued
Nov. 14, 1933; applied for Apr. 6, 1931; in Germany, Apr.
14, 1930; assigned to I. G. Farbenind. -A.-G. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 584. 1934.]

For the production of hydrocyanic acid a gaseous mixture
containing ammonia, a vaporous or gaseous hydrocarbon material
such as methane, etc., and sufficient oxy-gen to make the reaction
exothermic (but less than would cause complete combustion) is
contacted with a hot oxidation catalyst such as platinum containing
rhodium (suitably at 900-1000).

-- and HUBERICH, KARL (13)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. United States.'Pateft 1,957,749, issued May 8,
1934; applied for Dec. 14; 1931; in Germany,, Dec. 19, 1930.
Assigned to I. G. Farbenind, A.-G. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 4185. 1934.]

The production of hydrocyanic acid by the interaction of
aammonia, hydrocarbon material such as natural gas, and a gas
comprising free oxygen such as air at a temperature of 750-1250
and in the presence of a catalyst such as platinum and rhodium
is claimed. Some details of a'paratus are given.

ASKo7, H. (14)

DETERMINATION OF TYDROCYAITIO ACID IN WHITE CLOVER. New Zeal.
Jour. Sci. Technol. 15: 227-233. 1933. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 2033. 1934.7

Digestion of water for 24 hours at ordinary temperatures
or heating to 45 for 4 hours give the highest titration figures
for hydrocyanic acid. Distillation o0 'he digested mash was carried
out in the presence of a large quantity of water (1 liter for 50 g.
sample) to avoid formation of undesirOble compounds. Cool storage
of the samples up to. 6 day-s did not decrease the yield. The hydrocyanic
acid content varies seasonally and is greater for the leaf than for
the stem.






-5-


BA!R, G. (15)

THE RELATION BETW=E ISOSTERISM AND CHEMICAL CHARACTER IN THE CASE
OF ACETYLENE A:D HYDROCYANIC ACID AND THEIR DERIVATIVES... Ztschr.
Phys. Chem. (A) 168: 363-369. 1934. [In German. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 5725. 1934.]

BALLARD, E. (16)

REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SERVICE. Palestine Dept. Agr. and Forests,
Rept. '1931-32. 239 pp. Jerusalem. 1933. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. 22(A): 234. 1934.]

The author states that 45,503 citrus trees in' the Jaffa District
were fumigated with calcium cyanide in 1931. The number of infested
trees was reduced by 44 percent.

BALTHAZARD AND MELISSINOS (17)

CARBON MONOXIDE POISONIITG: VALUE OF THE INTOXICATION COEFFICIENT.
Ann. Med. Legale Criminol. Police Sci. 14: 1-13. 1934. [In French.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2412. 1934.] .. ......

The higher the carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere
the shorter the time for complete asphyxiation and the higher the
intoxication coefficient. The toxicity of other gases which may
be present with the carbon monoxide, is not likely to have any action,
as carbon monoxide acts much more rapidly thn any of the others
(except hydrocyanic acid which is not likely to be present with
carbon monoxide.

BARNES, D. F., and FISHER, C. K. (18)

STIMULATION OF FIG INSECTS BY CERTAIN FUMIGANTS. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 27:860. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 7409. 1934.]

In this study, stimulation refers to the percentage of
insects the fumigannts caused to leave the dried figs before death
occurred. Nearly all dosages were eventually 100 percent lethal.
Against adults and larvae of the beetle Carpophilus hemipterus
and adults.of the moth Ephestia figulilella the stimulating effect
of the fodr compounds used was: chlor. icrrinethylene'clichloride-
carbon tetrac'iloride mixture>carbon disulphide >calcium cyanide.
The beetle larvae and adults responded to the stimulation to a greater
"degree than the moth larvae.

BATTLING, F. (19)

SODIUM CYATIDE PRODUCTION. United States Patent 1,957,129,
issued May 1, 1934; applied for Mar. 24, 1931; in Germany,
Apr. 14, 1930. assigned to Alterum Kredit-A.-G. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 4187. 1934.]









- 6-


In making briquettes of loose porous: structure for
cyanide production, a mixture of coke and sodium bicarbonate
is pressed into crude briquettes and these are preheated with
exclusion of air to about 300-400 to effect calcining and,
liberation of gas from sodium bicarbonate.

BARTON, N. V., CHAPIIAI, J,, and ASSOCIATED FUMIGATCRS, LTD. (20)

FUMIGANT. British Patent 407,792, issued Mar. 29, 1934; applied
for Dec. 13, 1932. [Abstract in Ohem. Abs. 28: 5193. 1934.]

A hydrocyanic acid fumigant comprises an inherently
acidified cellulosic medium as the vehicle or carrier. The
material is packed into sheet metal boxes, the hydrocyanic acid added,
the bisulfite and sulphurous acid in the cokcs p.cting as
stabilizers.

BAUMA1IT, E. J., SPRINSON, D. B., and :.4ETZGER, N. (21)

TIEE BELATI0- OF THYROID TO THE CCIVEIRSICIT OF CYA1IIDES TO
THIOCYANATE. Jour. Biol. Chem. 102: 773-782. 1933. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 1096. 1934.]

After injection of potassium thiocyanate into rabbits about
90 percent of it was recovered in the urine within 5 days. Similarly,
of injection of potassium cyanide or benzoiitrile, 80 percent was
recovered as potassium thiocyanate in the urine, and thyroidectoqj
did not reduce the potassium thiocyanate excretion. However,
injection of acetonitrile was followed by partial excretion of
potassium thiocyanate by normal rabbits and no excretion by thyroi-
d&ctomized animals. Eence the thyroid has no effect on cyanide meta-
bolism, but does control demethylation of acetonitrile, a reaction
similar to that observed by Stuber et al. (Cheu. Abs. 18: 2199),

V LLO 1 (22)

DOSAGE TABLES IN THE FIlIGATION OF CITRUS TIEZS WITH HYDROCYANIC
ACID GAS. Ann. Iat., Sup. Aar, Portici (5) 6 (1933): 14-252.
1934. [In Italian. Abstract in Rev. Arpl. B t. 32-(): 492. 1934.]

The author nurqreys the problems presented by tent fijlgtion of
citrus trees with hydrocyanic acid and discusses the history cmd.
technique of the principal methode.s employed in various countries and
the published dosage tables, which are here reproduced. He gives a
revised table, constructed on the basis of the above data and of
practical experiment, that is applicable' to the fumigation of in-
dividual trees infested by Chrysomiphalus lictyospermi Morg. in Italy,
the gps being generated froi sodium cyanide by neans of dilute sulfuric
acid. One hundred and seven references.







- 7-


3ELLIS, C. J. . (23)

ZF.ECT OF TCYAID ON PRIA,,ikY MUiSCLE TPES. Jour. Pharmacol.
50: 21-27. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2413. 1934.]

After cyanide administration, frog skeletal muscle showed
little c?:anre in the contraction curve other than a slight
ler.ngthningr of contraction phase; rectal muscles showed less
relaxation, with shortening of latent and contraction periods;
equivalent doses killed the frog heart but stimulated the
turtle heart; the rabbit heart was first stimulated, then slowed,
te.--porary revival beinr produced by glutathione or adrenaline,
and finally stcpfed in extreme rigor.

BEN LL C, M)., M:.nd DEL CANIZC, J. (24)

T2E MJM:IGATION OF OLIVE IUES WITH C CIUMi CYANIDE AGAiiST
L. OLAE. Bol. Pat. Veg. nt. A,-r. 7: 54-59. 1934. [In
Spanish. Abstract in Rev. kpol. Ent. 22(A): 507. 1934.]

Olive trees in Spain were fujniatcd under terts with
"Cyanogas" (40-50 percent) calcium cyanide), and "Calcid"
(82.49 percent calcium cyanide).

E--RA;, F. ( .(5

ImFLUT CZ OF GASSIl' WITH _YOCYAM'CC ACID OF FRUIT. Ztschr.
Untersuch. Lebensrmtl. 66: 317-321. 1933. [in 'erman.
Abstr: ct in Chum. Abs. 28: 1417. 1934.]

Various types of apples and pears were :asst. with Zyklon-B
and pure hydrocyanic acid. The hydrocyanic acid content of the
7a.ssed fruit was deter-.in:ad, amlnd the influence of various eonstls
of gassing was observed for cyanide retention.

j--.TMRE, J. G. (26)

P-KELI]i,'%IARY MSTRIILAF-TS WITH Qfr'1CYA!TIC ACID GAS ACAi'ST
.IC Y EUGS AND TWIG-3C'R-S. Arch. Koffiecult. Ied.-Ini.
7 (2): d-1-103. 1933. [In Dutch, with a sumirary in Enrlish.
Abstract in Re-v. Appi. Ent. 22(A): 167. IC3-1.]

Zxperlments in the tent f-TA.igation of coffee bushes are
discussed. A dust containin- 40-50 percent calcium cyanide, spread
on the ground by means of a hand duster at the rate of 2.7 oz.
per 100 cu. ft., killed over 90 perce it of Pre-rcocci.s citri
PJssO and. Fe_"_,ese,;.." vir-.,t-i. Ckil. without hrni n-; the plants
in daylight fu'iia-tion. A dozago of 4 oz. did not kill more mealy-
bugs but was sufficient for the purpose. Cocmis (Lecarium) viridis
Green, was completely eradicated, lu-Aiation proved useless against
the twiG borer, ver,- little success being obtained even at the rate
of 8 oz. in closed glass cases.






-8-


BEWLEY, W. F. (27)

TOMATOES: CULTIVATION, DISEASES, AID PESTS. Bull. Min. Agr.
Fish. [London.] 77, v+71 pp. 1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
22(A): 630. 1934.]

This bulletin includes directions for fumigating with
sodium cyanide. The tolerance of the plant is given as 1/4 oz.
per 1,000 cu. ft. and the necessary dosage 1/5 1/4 oz. per
1,000 cu. ft.

BLANCHARD, R. A. (28)

CONTROL OF APHIDS ON ALFALFA IN THE ANTELOPE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA.
U. S. Dept. Agr. Circ. 307, 6 pp. 1934. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. 22(A): 219. 1934.]

The seasonal history of Macrosiphum onobrychis Boy. (Illinoia
pisi Kalt.) is discussed. The control measures recommended include
the application of granular calcium cyanide at 22-25 pounds per acre.

BLANK, E. W. (29)

MICRODETECTION OF GASES AND VAPORS. Jour. Chem. Ed. 11; 523-525.
1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6392. 1934.]

A simple apparatus is shown and described which is suitable
for detecting carbon dioxide, hydrocyanic aci2, fluorine, ammonia,
hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, arsine, stibine, phosphine, and iodine.
Details are given for making the apparatus and for testing.

BOBEST, BELA (30)

ABSORPTION AND ECOVEEY OF HYDROCYANIC ACID. Hungarian Patent
107,883, issued Jan. 2, 1934; applied for July 11, 1932. [In Hungarian.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2473. 1934.]

Hydrocyanic acid is absorbed by a mixture or suspension of alkali
and alkali earth, or heavy metals. The cyanides formed are leached
out with water and hydrocyanic acid is regenerated.

BODENHEIMER, F. S. (31)

SPRAYING VERSUS FUMIGATIOIT IN BED SCALE CONTROL. Hadar, 6: 285-286.
1933. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 71: 222. 1934.]

The author concludes that in controlling the California
red scale both spraying and fumigation are necessary, and that the
introduction of liquid hydrocyanic acid is an important step in the
progress of the citrus industry of Palestine.






-9-


BCDI,73, J. H. (32)

THE EFFECT OF CYA.IDZ ON THE OXYCTZ CCITS.PYTIC`7 OF 1TCG:AL ASD
BLOCKED E -BRYOTIC CELLS. (OP.THOPTIUA. ) Jour. Cellular Comp.
Physiol. 4: 397-404. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5540. 1934.]

Developing eggs of Melar.oplus differentialis are markedly cyanide-
sensitive, small doses preventing all but the cyanide-insensitive
portion of the respiration. Diapoase or blocked eggs, having an oxygen
consumption representing the c.yanide-irneLsitive respiration, are
practically completely resistant to cyanide.

3CITD, H. A. (33)

VAPORIZIITG F03MAMIDE. United States Patient 1,950,875, issued
March 13, 1934; applied for July 9, 1939; assind to E. I. du Pont
de Temours & Co. [Abstract in Cb,.m. Abs. 2,?: 3534. 1934.]
A process for vaporizir.- forma.rjile ir, the m,.r.'ifacture of
hydrocyanic acid is claimnLd.

3m2T, R. (34)

TNEUtJRO-MUSCULAR ACTI01' OF Ai.iZ.LS ":! D C1 -I:.-S. Coapt. Rend. Acad.
Aci. [Paris] 198: 1880. 1914. [in Yrenc?,i. Abstract in Brit.
Chem. Abs. 1934(A): 925. 19,4.]

Acetzmnide and urea at a concentration of 0.093 C. nitrogen.
per 100 cc. are not toxic to nerve or muscle. At a concentration
of 0.7 g. per 100 cc. they poison muscle onl,/. At a mutch lovier
concentration (1/2 and 1/8 r-srectively) h drocyanic acid and potassium
cyanide poison 2,oth nerve and muscle. Urea thus behaves as an amide and
not as a cyanide.

BORCHARDT, H., and PRIiGSHEIM, H. (35)

ACTIVATION OF PA-"CH-EATIC AJ,-LASE GLr .AT.I0-10!. Biochem.
Ztschr. 259: 134-137. 1933. [In German. Abstract in Biol. Abs.
8: 2179. 1934.]

Pancreatic amylase was activated by potassilu- cyanide or
glutathione. Copper poisoning was inhibited c;' potassium cyanide.

BOUR1IE, A. I., and WHITCOI.3, W.D. (36)

DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY. Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 305 (Ann. Rept.
1933): 28-36. 1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 473. 1934.]
Dormant treatment of f1rdiolus corms with :'hdrocyanic acid or
naphthalene prevented serious development of thrips until late in the
season.






- 10 -


BRENDER A' BRAIDIS, G. A. and KEEMAN, W. (37)

THE EARMFLL EFFECT OF AMMOIA LIqTJUOR. AND STILL WASTE OF COKE
PLANTS ON THE FISH IN PUBLIC WATERS. Het Gas 54: 2-13. 1934.
[In Dutch. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2819. 1934.]

Data are given on the toxicity of a number of compounds,
including hydrocyanic acid, for fish. An extensive reference list
is given.

BRINER, E., and WAKKER, C. H. (38)

FIXATION OF NITROGEN AS OXIDES OF ITITROGC-EIT OR AS HYDROCYAIJC 0
ACID. British Patent 400,431, issued Oct. 26, 1933; applied
for iov. 21, 1932. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2136. 1934.]

BRIJLEY_, F. J. (39)

THE EFFECT OF CYANIDES ON THE PLASMA ME3P.AIE. Mich. Acad. Sci.
Arts and Letters, Paper 13: 241-248. 1931. [Abstract in Biol.
Abs. 8: 392. 1934.]

BRITTON, H. T. S., and DODD, E. N. (40)

MECTROMETRIC STUDIES OF THE PRECIPITATION OF TnHYDROXIDES, XII.
REACTION OF SODILUM HYDROXIDE ON PLATINIC CHLORIDE IN SOLUTION.
REACTION OF POTASSIUM CYAITIDE ON PLATINIC CHLORIDE. Jour. Chum.
Soc. [London] 1933: 1429-1431. [Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A):
44. 1934.]

Aqueous platinic chloride reacts with potassium cyanide liberating
bydrocyanic acid by virtue of the acid formed by hydrolysis. The
platinic oxychloride is not decomposed by excess potassium cyanide and
no platinic cyanide is formed.
I
BRUWM-ER, E., and CSORDAS, I. (41)

ABSORPTION OF HYDROCYANTIC ACID. Hungaripan Patent 107,582, issued
Dec. 1, 1933; applied for June 21, 1932. [In Hungarian. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 2473. 1934.]

An aqueous or alkaline solution is sprayed into the space
containing gaseous hydrocyanic acid. The solution ua::- contain a
substance that binds hydrocyanic acid to form a solid compound.
The liquid is collected and the solid compound containing the
hydrocyanic acid is filtered off.

BRUNS, B., and MAKSIMOVA, M. (42)

THE ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF OXIDIZED CHARCOAL. Jour. Phys. Chem.
[U.S.S.R.] 4: 554-561. 1933. [In Russian. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 5308. 1934.]







- 11 -


The adsorption of a number of substances including hydrocyanic
acid from a gaseous state on pure charcoal and charcoal oxidized
by the method of Xruyt shows the distinctly acid character of the
oxidized film. Molecules from basic groups are adsorbed more
strongly by oxidized than by unoxidized charcoal.

BRUYLANTS, P., and i'.ERCKX, R. (43)

REFRACTOMETRIC CONSTANT OF THE CN GROUP. Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg.
19: 1003-1016. 1933. [In French. Abstract in Brit. Chen.. Abs.
1934(A): 132. 1934.]

BUCHANAK, G. H., and -7IIJER, G. B. (44)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. United States Patent 1,967,051, issued July
17, 1934; applied for Mar. 25, 1924. Assigned to American Cyanamid
Co. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5937. 1934.]

A crude material containing a cyanide which is unstable in
aqueous solution is treated with water vanpor under subatmospheric
pressure to form hydrocyanic acid. Apparatus is described.

BULGER, J. W. (45)

ADDITION TO OUR KI TCWLEDE OF THE TOXICITY OF STOI.,:ACH POIS0iTS
TO INSECTS. Jour. Econ. Ernt. 25: 261-268. 1932. [Abstract in
Biol. Abs. 8: 469. 1934.]

The sandwich method was used to stud the toxicity of a
number of poisons including cuprous cyanide.

BUZZO, A., and CARBRAT.LA, R. E. (46)

THE COIBI1TATI01: OF AMIL NITRITE WITH SODILUh THIOSULPHATE 1iT
THE TREAT1MIT OF POTASSIUMi CYA1:IDE POI3C:T'75G. Semana Lied.
[Buenos Aires] 2: 1772-1775. 1933. [In Spanish. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 1775. 1934.]

Inhalation of amnyl nitrite combined with intravenous
injection of sodium thiosulfate gives an effective treatment in
potassium cyanide poisoning. The former causes the formation of
methemoglobin which gives a stable compound with cyanide and
facilititates the action of sodium thiosulfate. The sodium
nitrite is still more effective. Am,,l nitrite has the advantage
of easy application.

CALIFANO, L. (47)

THE NATURE OF THE MELA1IOGENIC EiTZYflE. Sperimentale 88: 11-26. 1934.
[In Italian. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5482. 1934.]


The enzyme is destroyed by hydrocyanic acid.






- 12 -


CAMPUS, L., BENABD, H., and MEEKLEIT, F. P. (48)

ACTION OF POTASSIUM CYANIDE ON THE RESPIRATIONT OF THE DOG WITH
REFERENCE TO THE RESPIRATORY NERVE CENTRES AND THE REFLEX ZONES
OF THE CAROTID SINUS. Compt. Rend.. Soc. Biol. 115: 614-618. 1934.
[In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs, 28: 2789. 1934.]

CARLISLE, P. J., and DANGELMAJER, C. (49)

CALCIUM CYANIDE. United States Patent 1,950,879, issued Mar. 13, 1934;
applied for Oct. 15, 1928; assigned to E. I. du Pont de ITemours
& Co. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 3537. 1934.]'

A pulverulent hydrated calcium cyanide product is prepared by
suspending powdered unslaked lime in ethyl ether, adding liquid
hydrocyanic acid to the suspension, effecting reaction by adding water
in accelerating quantity, and then separating the pulverulent product
from the associated liquid.

CARO, N., and FRANK, A. R. (50)

ALKALINE EARTH CYANIDES. German Patent 588,943, issued Nov. 30, 1933;
applied for Mar. 27, 1928. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
2133. 1934.]

Alkaline earth carbide is treated with nitrogen and the fused
or plastic product is rapidly cooled to 400-500 to prevent formation of
cyanamides. Thus calcium carbide is heated and treated with nitrogen to
give calcium cyanide.

CHAPLrIN, R. (51)

THE ADSORPTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE BY ACTIVATED CHARCOALS Il THE
PRESENCE OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND HYDROGEN CYANIDE. Trans.
Faraday Soc., 30: 249-260. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
2241. 1934.]

The low pressure carbon dioxide isothermals at 25 were
determined for several different active charcoals in the presence
of carbon tetrachloride and hydrocyanic acid adsorbed singly and
together. The vapors adsorbed singly impede but do not change the
nature of the adsorption process for carbon dioxide; when adsorbed
together, however, they suppress the irreversible adsorption of
carbon dioxide completely and allow only superimposed simple adsorption.
The theory is advanced that neither carbon tetrachloride nor hydro-
cyanic acid adsorbed singly can completely occupy all the active points
on the charcoal surface because their molecules are too large. This
theory is based mainly on considerations of the adsorption and displace-
ment of carbon dioxide at low pressures but is supported by other facts.






- 13 -


CLA1TCY, D. Y. (52)

LONG-TAILED IMEALY BUG AYUITDA1TT ON CITRUS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26: 1171.
1933. [Abstract in PRev. Appi. Ent. 22(A): 100. 1934.]

Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid under tents .,.ve excellent
results.

CLAWS01T, A. B BUYEAI H., and COUCH, J. F. (53)

EL.:EDIES FOR CY-P.71E POISONING IN SHEZ? A2TD CATLE' Jour.
Wash. Acad. Sci. 24; 369-385. 1934. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 7367. 1934.]

The mirimnum lethal dosce-es in rm. of '-'drocyanic
acid per kg. of body wei.-,-.t administered by drench (orally) as pot-
assium cyanide were, sheep, 2.315, and cattle, 2.042. The
minimumrr toxic doses were 0.992 and 0.882 respectively,. :'ethylene
blue, sodium tetrathionate, sodium thiosulrhate, sodium nitrite
and combinations of the last two, administered intravenously
proriiptly after cyanide, protected against certain lethal doses
of cyanide. The most marked effects were in cattle where 10 cc.
of 20 percent sodium nitrite and 30 cc. of 20 percent sodium. thiosulphate
protected a cow that hi-d receivc-d two fatal doses of cyanide.

COATES, J. E., and TAYLOR, E. G. (54)

ELECTRICAL CCW::DJCTIVITY OF SALTS IN A!TjRACUS HfDROGEW CYATID3.
Nature 134: 141. 1934. [Abstract in Cher. Abs. 28: 6048. 1934.]

COOPER, K. (55)

FLMAIGATING CC:.OSITI0:7. United States Patent 1,967,290, issued
July 24, 1934; applied for June 2, 1924; assigned to A:Lrican
Cyaniz id Co. [Abstract in Chen. Abs. 28: 5918. 1934.]

A composition suitable for destroying insects, scales, etc.,
comprising a mixture of a soluble cyanide such as calcium cyanide
and a hygroscopic salt such as calcium chloride which is decomposed
by moisture.

COTTERELL, G. S. (56)

INFESTATIOIT OF STOPRD COCOA BY WEEVIL (ARAECESUS FASCICULATUS)
AND MOTH (EPF STIA CAUTELIA). Gold Coast Dept. Agr. Bull. 28,
14 pp. 1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 618. 1934.]

Some data on the life history of the two insects are given,
and methods of control, including fumigation with hydrocyanic acid
and carbon disulfide are discussed.






- 14-


DAVIDSON, J. (57)

THE "LUCEfMIE FLEA" S1AYNTHRUSTJ VIRIDIS L. (COLL3M30LA) IN AUSTRALIA.
Coun. Sci. Indus. Res. Aust. Bull. 79, 66 pp. 1934. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A); 448. 1934.]

All the eggs were destroyed in laboratory tests by fumigation
with carbon disulfide (0,4 cc. per 3,000 cc. volume for 25 hours)
or hydrocyanic acid (2.5 mg. to 10 cu, ft. for 17 hours or 3.75
mg. for 3 hours.

DAVIES, C., Jr. (58)

PURIFYING FUEL GAS. United States Patent 1,942,050, issued Jan.
2, 1934; applied for May 7, 1939; assigned to the Koppers Co.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1844. 1934.]

A process for removing ;rdrocyanic acid from fuel gas is
claimed.
DELUTSC?.HE GESELLSCAFT F JR SC-Ti LINiS1-,K.'PFLTG (M. b. I.) (59)
CONTAIiMER FOR r1YDRCCYAITIC ACID. German Patent 601,640, issued
Aug. 21, 1934; apolied for Tr,v. 30, 1932. [In German. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 7438. 1934.]

The container is made of chlorina-ted rubber.

DIETERLE, P. (60)

CYAITOGEN CHLORIDEj. United. States Patent 1,938,324, issued Dec. 5, 1933;
applied Mar. 14, 1927; assigned to ITNational Aniline and Chemical Co.
[LAbstract in Chem. Abs. 28; 1148. 1934.]

Reaction is effected between chlorine and-an alkali metal
cyanide in the presence of a halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon such as
carbon tetrachloride and of an organic monocarborylic acid such as
glacial acetic which is soluble in the halogenatel bh.-drocarbon used,
in the substantial absence of water. By the use of bromine instead
of chlorine a similar reaction mav be effected.

TRUCKER, J., LUEM, P., and W7EISE, P.

ALKALI METAL CYA:IDES. United States Patent 1,955,229, issued
April 17, 1934; applied, for June 8, 1933; in Germany Sept. 22, 1926.
Assigned to I. G. Farbenind, A.-G. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
3847. 1934.]

An excess mixture of ammonia and carbon monoxide is caused
to act on an alkali metal oxide, hydroxide, carbonate, sulfide6
sulfate, format, or acetate at a temperature of about 580-550 in the
absence of solid carbon.






- 15 -


DUSTANM, A. G. (62)

THE GLADIOLUS TIRIFS AND ITS CONTROL. Quebec Soc. Protect. Plants.
23d and 24th Ann. Repts. 1930-1932: 32-37. 1932. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 28:' 2113. 1934.]

Excellent control of the insect was obtained by fumigating
the plants with calcium cyanide under oilcloth or brown paper tents.

EDWARDS, W. H. (63)

REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT 2ITT0,MOLOGIST. Jamaica Dept. Agr. Rept.
1932: 16-18. 1933. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 66. 1934.]

Gryllus assimilis F., in gardens and citrus nurseries,
was controlled by soil fumigation with calcium cyanide.

ELDRIDGE, E. F. (64)

REDUCING THE TOXICITY OF CYANIDE WASTS. Er-. News-Record .11: 677.
1933. [Abstract in Chemi. Ab. 28: 845. 1934.]

EULER, U. S. (65)

THE ACTION OF DI1;IT.O-A-'APTI,: -:CLP, .-'YLE- BLUE, AND RELATED
COMPOUNDS AS R!S7IRATOHY STiJLA3T... Arch. Internat. Pharmacodyn.
et Ther. 43: 67-85. 1932. [;n French. Abstract in Biol. Abs.
8: 1974. 1934.]

FESEFELDT, H. (66)

ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF SALTS WITH HALOID CCMPLE': IC:.S. Nachr. Gesell.
Wiss. Gottingen, Math. Physik. Kl. 1932: 353-355. LIn German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2268. 1934.]

FLEMING, W. E., and BAKeR, F. E. (67)

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STO!.ACH-POIS01T INSECTICIDES oCi: THE
JAPANESE BETLE. Jour. Agr. Research 49: 39-44. 1934.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 634. 1934.1

The effectiveness of several stomach poisons on the
Japanese beetle was determined urni`Lr controlled conditions.
A cuprous cyanide paste, containing 43 percent cuprous cyanide
was found to be a little less than half as effective as lead
arsenate.

FLINT, W. P., et al. (68)

ETTOMOLOGY INVESTIGATIC1TS. Ill. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 46
(1932-33): 137-163. 1933. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
22(A): 356. 1934.]
Mention is made of the control of mushroom mites with
hydrocyanic acid.






- 16 -


FOBESTI, B. (69)

THE REACTION OF CYANIDE IONS WITH TETRATHIONATE AND PENTA-
THIONATE IONS. Ztschr. Anorgan. Allg. Chem. 217: 33-47. 1934.
[In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2635. 1934.]

The reactions between potassium cyanide and alkali tetrathionate
and pentathionate were studied. In the presence of buffers in the
pH range 7-8 the formation of the CNS ion from the OCN ion was
quantitative, and it was not necessary to express the reactions
in neutral and alkali solutions by different equations. In un-
buffered solutions 1/8 of the CN ion is transformed before the
reaction is halted. With both the tetrathionate and pentathionate
ions the reactions with the ON ion were of the second order. The
velocity constants at pH 7.31 were 5.44 and 25.05. At pH 7.54 the
constants changed to 10.25 and 51.2. The effect of pH was about the
same on both reactions. The reaction of the S506 ion with the CN ion
takes place in two steps. The pentathionate ion reacts with the ON
ion forming CNS ion and tetrathionate which in turn reacts with a
second ON ion. It appears that the pentathionate ion might be useful
as antidote in hydrocyanic acid poisoning.

---- (70)

THE STUDY OF TE REACTIONS BETWEEN HYDROCYANIC ION AND
TETRATHIONATE AND PEITTATHIONATE IONS. Atti. Soc. Ital.
Prog. Sci. [Bornome] 22 (2): 263-264. 1934. [In Italian.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6383. 1934.]

From examination of the reaction products at various
pH values, the author thinks that the reaction between ON-
and S406--ions is: S406-- + CN- + 20H--S203- 4- S044 -+
CNS- + H20. The reaction between ON- and S506"- is: S506--+-
CN---S406-+-CNS- and then the S406-- reacts with the CIT-
as above.

FOX, D. L. (71)

THE SILVER IODIDE TEST FOR IHYfDROCYANIC ACID. Science 79: 37.
1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 990. 1934.]

Grignard's test with sodium picrate papers is very delicate
for detecting hydrocyanic acid in the air, but it is not specific.
The following test is valuable for confirmation. Place one drop
of a 5 percent potassium iodide solution, 1 drop of 0.001 N silver
nitrate and 1 cc. of 5 percent potassium hydroxide in a small clean
test tube. A faint bluish cloud of silver iodide will form. Draw
air through the liquid and if hydrocyanic acid is present in the air,
the turbidity will disappear.






- 17 -


FRANCK, H. H., and BAUK, H. (72)

CHEMISTRY OF CALCIUM CYATAiIIIDE. IV. AZOTIZATI0i" EQUILIBRIUM OF
THE ALKALIIE EARTH CARBONATES WITJ AM;i.IOi:IA A''D AL ALIj-= EARTH
OXIDES WITH hYDROCYANIC ACID. Ztschr. Anorgan. Allg. Chem. 215:
415-426. 1933. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1593. 1934.]

The equilibrium MeCIT2,3H20- MeC03 4 2N7H3 was measured for
calcium, strontium and barium. The equilibrium MeO 2HCU1 = l>eC I2 -
CO0 -11 H2 was measured for calcium and magnesium from both sides and good
agreement obtained. From this equilibrium the conventional chemical
constant for hydrocyanic acid was found to be i 3.5.

------ and BURC-, W. (73)

CALCIUM CYAIUAMIIDE V. CYAITIDE-.'.LT PROCESS AND ITS I.I'ivESIOI:
(PREPARATION OF CALCIUM CYANAMIDE J.-CM SODIUM CYAITIDE). Ztschr.
Elektrochem. 40: 686-692. 1934. [In German. Abstract in Brit.
Chem. Abs. 1934(A): 1175. 19C4.]

The inversion of the reaction CaCN2+C-2NaC-- CaCl2+-2NaCl' has
been studied at 900, 1,000, and 1,100. The formation of calcium
cyanide is favored by lowering the temperature.

FREITAG (74)

POISONING BY PREPARATIONS FOR CLEANING SILVER. Chem. Ztg. 58: 701.
1934. [In German. Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(B): 929. 1934.]

An epidemic of nonfatal poisoning cases in America wos traced
to the use of a sodium cyanide silver-cleaning preparation containing
20 percent sodium cyanide.

FRICKHINGER, H. W. (75)

GAS IN JITSECT CCITTRCL. 87 pp. Berlin [In German. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 28: 2087. 1934.]

iTearly half the text is devoted to y4drocyanic acid.

FRIEDHEIM., E. A. H., and BAER, J. G. (76)

STUDIES ON TEE RESPIRATIOT OF DIP1KYLLO30-HRIUMj LATUM (L). STUDY
OF THE RESPIRATORY EITZYMES. Biochem. Ztschr. 265: 329-337. 1933.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 789. 1934.]

Potassium cyanide suppresses the respiratory activity" of
the egg completely, but that of the adult worm only partially.






- 18 -


FUKUI, T. (77)

THE EFFECT OF THE INJECTION OF POTASSIUM CYAITIDE UP01iT THE OXYGEN
DISSOCIATION CURVE OF THE BLOOD, ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO THE
EFFECT OF THE CYANIDE UPON THE ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS HORMONES. I.
THE EFFECT OF THE INJECTION OF SMALL DOSES OF INSULIN AND OF
INSULIT AND DEXTROSE. Folia Endocrinol. Japon. 8: 94-96. 1933.
[In Japanese. Ref. in Chem. Zentr. 1933, II. 235, 1937.]

II. IN RELATIOIT TO THE THYROID GLAND. Ibid. 96-97.

III. THE EFFECT OF THE GENITAL GLANDS UPON THE ACTION OF POTASSIUM
CYANIDE. Ibid. 103-104.

IV. THE EFFECT OF SUPRARENAL CAPSULE CORTEX AND ADREINALI1TE UPON THE
ACTICI1 OF POTASSIUM CYANIDE. Ibid. 106-107.

V. THE EFFECT OF CASTRATION UPON THE ACTION OF POTASSIUM CYANIDE.
Ibid. 107-108.

VI. THE EFFECT OF THE EXTIRPATION OF THE SPLEET UPON THE ACTION OF
POTASSIUM CYANIDE. Ibid. 9: 2-3. 1933.

GASSNER, L. (78)

WAPR1II'G OF HYDROCYANIC ACID FUMIGATIO1T. United States Patent
1,949,466, issued Mar. 6, 1934; applied for Jan. 12, 1929; in
Germany Jan. 16, 1928; assigned to Deutsche Ges. fir SchAdlings
Bek mpfung m. b. H. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2812. 1934.]

A warning agent having a higher vapor pressure than hydrocyanic
acid, such as cyanogen chloride or bromide, and another warning
agent having a lower vapor pressure than hydrocyanic acid such as
bromacetophenone is added to a hydrocyanic acid fumigating composition
so that warning will be given throughout the period that a toxic con-
centration exists.

GEIT, K. H., and HARTECK, P. (79)

ADDITION REACTIONS WITH HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN ATOMS AT LOW TEMPERATURES.
Ber. Deut. Chem. Gesell. 66B: 1815-1825. 1933. [In German. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 983. 1934.]

The reaction of hydrogen atoms at -190 and of oxygen atoms at
-183 with hydrocyanic acid and other substances was studied.

GENAUD, P. (80)

ACTION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID ON NEUROMUSCULAR EXCITABILITY. Compt. Rend.
Soc. Biol. 116: 852-854. 1934. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 6480. 1934.]





- 19 -


GECRGE, P. V., and. WESTER, W. J. (81)

PLAGUE IITQ-FJ- i!I THE CT2ME.. VALLEY, SOUTH I1DIA. Indian Jour.
Med. Research 22: 77-104. 194. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent.
22(3): 220. 1934.]

Apparently satisfactory results have been obtained from
the fumigation of rat burrows with cyanoa s calcium c-rani de, but
further observations are necessary before the exact value of
fumigation can be assessed. Notes are riven of the techz-ique ust.;
in fumigating.
GESSLLSCHAFT FUR KOELlTTCfi.IK (M. b.H.) (82)

SODITU CATI.D3. French Patent 751,191, isnu,:d Aug. 28, 1933;
applied for FO). 21, 1933. [In -French. Ab:tract in Chem. Abs.
28: 1150. 1934.]

Sodium carbonate contair'in,- water of cr;stnllization is
subjectrdto dehydra-tion u-nder a temperotur- reich that there is no
solution, fusion, or frittir.:- of the salt, and hy'rhoc..-zjic acid is
afterward directed at a hifpL.r tcmpeprature onto the dehydrat*2d salt.
In a modification eodium bicarbornate is heated under v..cui to
temperature not above 1020 and. hy'rrocyanic acid is directed onto
the calcined salt at a hilrher temper. turr.

(8.3)

HYDROCYAITIC ACID. French Patent 752,296, issued Sept. 20, 1933;
applied for Haar. 11, 19'3. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 862. 1934.]

P-, irocyanic acid is obtained by treatin;r compounds, contaii nr
a thiocyanate radical, in the form of a :-a.s or fine division at a
high temperature, separatelJ or in the presence- of other gases or
vapors, by air in the pre scnce or not of catalysts. The heat
necsspr for th. volatilization of the thiocynnato compound, evapor-
ation of the materials accomparnring it, and oxidation of the thio-
cyanate radical is obtained by introducing the thiocyanate compourn.s
into hot combustion gaises containing an excess of air and causing
the mixture to pass through an oxidation chamber.

----- (84)

SODIUM CYANIDE. British Patent 398,732, issued Sept. 21, 1933;
applied for Feb. 21, 1933; in Germany Feb. 26, 1932. See French
Patent 751,191. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1481. 1934.]

---- (85)

HYDROCYANTIC ACID, (Gluud, W., and Keller, K., inventors.) German
Patent 576,531, issued Nov. 18, 1933; applied for Mar. 17, 1932.
See French Patent 752,296. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 1476. 1934.]







- 20-


EF.iLER, A. 0., and ST. GEORG.E,. A., V. (86)

CYATIDE POISONING. Amer. 'Jour. Clin. Path. 4: 429-4.37. 1934.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6848. 1934.]

A discussion, including the relative incidence of cases
over a period of 15 years, patfholoer, and mechanism of the action
of cyanides, chemical tests for identification and means of
differentiatin:- cases of poisoning.: by inhalation and. ingestion.

G1TS3UR;, J.M. (87)

LABORATORY TESTS WITH VARIOUS FUMlIGANITS ON CODLING MICTH LARVAE.
Jour. Agr. Research 46i 1131-1136. 1933. [Abstract in Expt.
Sta. Rec. 70: 65. 1934.]

GOELLER. K. H. (88)

DEPILATICT WITH CYANIDES. Jour. Intern. Soc. Leather Trades Chem.
18: 388-393. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6337. 1934.]

Skins were limed with mixtures containing sodium cyanide
together with sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate,
sodium chloride, etc. in varyinrg mounts fnd combinations. In the only
successful tests, a paint contti.inini-, calcium oxide, sodium h-'iroxide,
=Xd sodium cyn)ide was used and this was followed by liming with calcium
hydroxide and sodium sulfide. Sodium cyniile in the used liquor is
not considered dangerous, as it is rapidly converted to cyanate b:-
oxidation. Skin scrap may contain srnll amounts (0.02 0.03 percent
Sodium cyanide on dry skin basis), which it is believed would be removed
or destroyed in gelatin manufacture.

GOETE, W. (85)

IIVESTIGATIIT OF THE INFLUENCE OF HABITAT FACTORS ON TI E STR7CIURBE
OF CERTAIliT LILIES AITD THE I:TTFJEREETCE OF EYiDROCYAI.IG ACID
FUI:.IGATIO:I. Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. 19: 35-66. 1931. [In German.
Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 2326-2327. 1934.]

GOL1MAR, H. A. (90)

PURIFYING GAS COITTAIITI1TG HYDROGEN SULFIDE AIND HYDROGEN CYAITIDE.
LUnited States Patent 1,971,779, issued Aug. 26, 1934; applied for
Jan. 8, 1932; assigned to Koppers Co. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
6554. 1934.]

C-GRANGC-ERS MAIUFACTURINTG COMPANY (91)

ALKALI CYAMIDES. French Patent 754,970, issued Nov. 17, 1933; applied
for Apr. 29, 1933. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1477. 1934.J




- 21 -


White alkali cyanides are obtained by heating- them to a point
considerably .bovt the melting point, e.g., to about 1,200, and cooling
relatively slowly to the melting point. A small amount of air or other
oxidizing agent may be introduced during the heating.

GBAITGERS MA 0uFAC TURITG COMPAMf (92)

ALKALI CYAITIDES. French Patent 754,971, issued Nov. 17, 1933;
applied for Apr. 29, 1933; in the United States July 15, 1932.
[In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1477. 1934.1

A concentrated solution of alkali cyanide is heated
rapidly to a point above the boiling point of the solution. The
layer of cyanide formed is removed rapidly from the moist air.

c.UAY G. P. (93)

FMIGATI:NG CLOSED SPACES WITH FU/MIGA2'TS Sl'CH AS IN DESTP.OYI S
SCALES O T=S-S. United States Patent 1,967,304; issued July
24, 1934; applied for. Aug. 27, 1929; assigneld to American Cyanamid Co.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5918. 1934.]

Various details of apparatus anr1 methods are given.

GREAT BRITAIN MI:;ISTia OF ItALTH (94)

EPCRT ON THE 3EDBUG. Rept. Publ. Health. Med. Subj. 72, 46 pp. 1934.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. 2nt. 22(B): 131. 1934.]

Upholstered furniture and infested houses were successfully
fumigated with hydrocyanic acid.

CUBA, 3. F., and HOLLATD, E.B. (95)

EFFECT OF HYDROCYAITIC GAS ON CUCUMBER PLANTS PPEV:IOCJUSLY SPRAYED
WITH COPPE2 R-q1iGICIES. Mas-. Agr. Exipt. Sta. Bull. 303: 2-16.
1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5166. 1034.]

Cucumber plants were not injured when spi'reyed with commercial
copper carbonate or basic copper sulfate followed by fumigation
with hydrocy'--Liic acid. Laboratory-prepared neutral bordenux
mixtures with gas were injurious. When the plants were spra-.'ed
with basic copper sulfate to which calcium hydroxide had been added,
injury followed the use of the gas and increase.' proportionately with
the alkali present. When the plants were svrcy.ad with acid copper
fungicides, i.e., normal and basic copper acetates, acid bordeaux
prepared with calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide,
injury resulted from or was intensified by an application of gas.
Copper sulfate solutions containing up to 0.07 percent copper sulfate
were not injurious when used alone or in combination with hydrocyanic
acid gas. The spray residue from injured leavs- yielded soluble copper,
and the amount of copper and the degree of injury increased in proportion
to the amount of alkali present in the fungicide. The toxic salt is
presumably calcium cuprocyanide or a similar soluble copper cyanide.







- 22 -


GUERI!:, P. (96)

HYDROCYANIC ACID IN GRASSES: MELICA A1I, GQ'yERITJIA. Compt. Bend. Acal.
Sci. [Paris] 198; 38Z-384. 1934. [In French. Abstr.act in Chc-m. Abs.
28: 3762. 1934.]

The leaves of Molica ciliata collected in June contain
0.151-0.306 g. hydrocyanic acid per kg. and those of M. nutans or
M. uniflora 0.10-0.15 g. Hydrocyanic acid is also detected in the roots
but not in the fruit. The leaves of Gynerium argenrteum contain .23 g.
hydrocyanic acid in June, but the amount decreases as autumn approaches
(0.054-0.068 g. in Sept.). The open inflorescence contains 0.28 g.
but in the fruit hydrocyanic acid is absent.

GTTCROV, I. G. (97)

CUPROUS CYANIDE. -Russiaw Patent 32,487, issued. Oct. 31, 193 -..
[In Russian. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 3537. 1934.]

Potassium cyanide is treated with cupric oxide in the presence
of sodium sulfite.

HALE, W. P., et al. (98)

DISIIFECTAITTS, FUMIGATTS A!TD CLEA3TI':G IiATERIALS. Amer. iP. En,-in.
Assoc. 35 Bull. 362: 640-643. 1933. LAbstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
2123. 1934.]

The majority of disinfectants sold are usually various mixtures
of cresol. Formalin is considered more effective. H"-droca..nic acid,
sulfur dioxide, and pyrethrum powder are uzvcd wid-lyr for fu-i--.ation,
but ethylene dichloride and ethylene oxide and carbon dioxide are
being tried.

HANSEN, C. J. (99)

REMOVAL OF CYANOGiT COiLOI 'DS FP[JM GASES. United Stat .cnt
1,924,206, issued 29, 1933, applied for Jan. 23, Il";
in Germany Jan. 30, 1930; assigned to the Koppers Co. [Abstract
in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(B): 489. 1934.]

HARA, P.. (100)

ALKALI CYAITIDE. Japanese Patent 100,143, issued Mar. 17, 1903.0.
[In Japanese. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2474. 1934.]

Alkali cyanamide is prepared by heating alkali cyanide
and alkali metal in an atmosphere of nitrogen at 400-650 with a
catalyst (such as powdered iron). The product is converted to
alkali cyanide by heating at 650-850 with carbon.








- 23 -


HARIG, G. (101)

INTESTIGATIO:T OF, THE EY PERIME_"TAL !.FLTJUENCE OF GROWTH S'i,.!-'LI
0:. VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION AIID PEGEIIERAT70'. Ztschr. Wiss. 3iol.
Abt. E. Planta. 15: 43-104. 1931. [In German. Abstract in Biol.
Abs. 8: 873. 1934.]

HABMAN, S. W. (102)

CODLING MOTH CONTROL EXPERIMENTS DUP.ITG 1933, Jour. Econ. Ent.
27: 222-225. 1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 289. 1934.]

Cuprous cyanide proved ineffective against the codlin. moth.

HARTED, B. K. and DEEK, 0. J. (103)

THE INDUCED OXIDATION OF CYANIDE. Jour. Biol. Chem. 104: 727-736.
1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 3719. 1934.]

"The oxidation of sodium cyqmanide, yielding as the principal
products oxalate and ammonia, is inducted by the oxygc-nation of
alkaline glucose solutions. About 1/2 of the extra oxygen absorbed
by the alkaline glucose system under the influence of cyanide is
used in the oxidation of the cyanide; the remainder, in a more complete
oxidation of the sugar. Certain simil-Lrities in the beh.-.vior of
glucose in the two systems and more especi21l:1 the stirmilating
effects of cyaniice make it necessary to consider the possibility that
the results with the glucose-alkali cyanide a:stems have a counterpart
in tissues." ''

HARRIS, H. M., and DECKER, G.C.. (104)

PAPER BAPRIrIS FO. CINCH BUG COITTROL. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27:- 854-857.
1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 648. 1934.]

Post `nles to the bugs were dug at intervals 4-6 inches
from t ine of the `!arrier of creosote-soaked paper and were dusted
with calciul cyanide.

HATMA N, C. (105)

PLATT FOF:-:.".IC:: DITISIO0, OFFICIAL PLANT Ii'S"ECT:IO:J IiT 1932 IN THE
FFR ET 1YB S>URG. Jahresber; Inst. i.ngew. Bot. Hamburg. 50:
88-116. 19.[. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 5. 1934.]

Experiments in fumigating rose oushes with hydrocyanic acid
indicated that they are not injured by a gas concentration of 0.1 percent
by volume.







- 24 -


HELY, P. C. (106)

CITRUS RED SCALE EXPERIMENTS WITH LIQUIFIED HYDROCYAITIC ACID' GAS
FUMIbGGATION,. Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales 44: 823-826. '19333. [Abstract in
.Chem. Abs. 28: 2110. 1934] ....

Fumigation with liquid hydrocyanic acid was slighty,"more
effective than with an equivalent amount of calcium cyanide in
controlling red scale (Chrysomphalus aurantii Mask.) on Valencia orange
trees. Higher kills were obtained under closely woven light calico
tents than under those made of heav,r calico, ...

HERCE, P. (107)'

THE CONCENTRATION OF RYDROCYANIC ACID GAS IN FUMIGATED SPACES.
Bol. Pat. Veg. Ent. Agr. 7: 155-165. 1934. [In Spanish. Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 609. 1934.]

A method of sampling the air within a fumigated space by
aspiration is described.

HEYMA1TS, C., BOUCKAERT, J. J., v. EULER, U. S., mand DAUTREBAinDE, L. (108)

CAROTID SI1US AND VASOMOTOR R'3FIEXES. Arch. Intornat. Phr-rmacodyn.
et Ther. 43: 86-110. 1932. [In French. Abstract in Biol.' Abs. 8:
2231-2232. 1.934.]

HILTNER, U., and GF.R1DINAJU, W. (109)

DIRECT POTE:ITIOMETRIC DETEiMINATION OF HEAVY METAL IitS -ITH PO1ASSI.;
CYANIDE AND SODIUM SULPHIDE. Ztschr. Anorgan. Cheim. 218: 1-15. 1934.
[In German. Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A): 746. 1934.].

HIMWICH, H. E., FAZIKAS, J. F., and HUJRLBURT, M. H. (110)
EFFECT OF !,THY:L1EI BLUE AI D CYA;IDEF ON RESPIRATION OF COZB-Y-AL
CORTEX, TESTICLE, LIVER, AID XIDilEY. Soc. Expt. Biol. and Med.
Proc. 30: 904-906. 1933. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 1165. 1934.]

A preliminary paper.

HITCHCOCK, A. E., CROCKER, W., and ZIMMERIAA1, P. W. (ill)

TOXIC ACTION IN SOIL OF ILLUMTITATIIG GAS CONTAINING iffiDROCYANIC ACID.
Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 6: 1-30. 1934. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 3443. 1934.]

The flow of gas through soil in which plants were .grown caused
injury depending on the rate of flow. Plants are injured by the
residual products remaining in a gas-treated soil. Such toxicity is not
due. to ethylene, propylene, acetylene, butylene, carbon monoxide or lack
of oxygen. The addition to the soil of potassium cyanide, phenol, ben-
zene, toluene, or drip oil caused injuries to tomato plants similar to








-25 -


those caused by gas. Soil exposed to air lost its toxicity at 20-80;
sealed samples eventually lost toxicity.

(112)

TOXIC ACTION III SOIL OF ILLU.INATING GAS COILTAIIIITG HYDROCYANIC ACID.

Amer. Jour. Bot. 20: 674-675. 1933. [Abstract in Exr-t. Sta. Rec. 71:
170. 1934.3

HOPKINS, F. G., and ELLIOTT, K. A. C. (113)
THE RELATION OF GLUTATHIONE TO CELL FESPIA.STION WIS' SPECIAL Z1ERENCE
TO HEPATIC TISSUE. Proc. Boy. Soc. [London] B109: 56-88. 1931.
[Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 2186. 1934.]

HOUGH, W. S. (114)

COLORADO AID VIRGINIA STRAINS OF CODL-:; MOT R I:: ELATION TO THEIR
ABILITY TO ENTEP. SPRAYED AID t"JSPFAYED APPLES. Jour. Agr. Research
48: 533-553. 1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 499. 1934.]

Colorado larvae reared under Virginia climatic conditions since
1928 have consistently demonstrated a distinct superiority over Virginia
larvae in their ability to enter unsprfryed apples, or apples sprayed
with lead arsenate, cuprous cyanide, etc.

HUG, E. (115)

CYAITDE INTOXICATION IV. MITvIIE OGLOBIN-FOR!-IING T.7STKACES AS APTIDOTES.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Biol. 8: 523-526. 1932. [In Spanish. Abstract
in Biol. Abs. 8: 1698. 1934.]

(116)

INFLUEhCE OF NITRITE AND SODIUM THIOSULPHATE IN CYANIDE ITTOXICATION
IIT DOGS. Rev. Soc. Argentina Biol. 9: 197-201. 1933. In Spanish.
Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 2232. 1934.]

Dogs survived 18 mgm. (6 fatal doses) of hydrocyanic acid when
given sodium nitrite followed by sodium thiosulfate.

(117)

USE OF SODIUM I1TITRITE AND THIOSULPHATE TOGETHER IN THE TREAT. IBrT OF
HYDROCYAINIC ACID POISONING IN DCGS. Coript. Rend. Soc. Biol. 114:
711-714. 1933. [In French. Abstract in Cher. Abs. 28: 1101. 1934.]

The experiments previously reported for rabbits were repeated with
dogs; the same results were obtained.







- 26 -


FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE TOXICITY OF HYDROCYANIC ACID.
Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 115: 459-461. 1934. [In French.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 3478. 1934.]

When injected into either a saphenic or mesenteric vein
at the rate of 0.2 mg. per kg. of body weight per minute the lethal
dose of hydrocyanic acid for dogs is 0.8 mg./ kg. Under ether
anesthesia the lethal dose is smaller. Normally injection at the
rate of 0.5 mg./ kg. is supported for 10 hours or more, i.e., the
hydrocyanic acid is detoxified at this rate. Subcutaneously the
median lethal dose is 3 mg./ kg.

(119)

COMBINED ACTION OF VARIOUS ANTIDOTES FOR HYDROCYANIC ACID,
ESPECIALLY SOD40"I i-TIRITE ANKID T.IOSULPHATE. Compt. Rend. Soc.
Biol. [Paris] 115: 462-464. 1934. [In French. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 28: -147S. 1934.]

Injected intravenously in dogs 0.02 g. of sodium nitrite
detoxifies 6-8 mg. of hydrocyanic acid. One gram of sodium thiosulfate
detoxifies 1.2 rng. of hydrocyanic acid. A mixture of both salts gives
better results. Methylene blue added to the mixture does not increase
its efficacy. 2, 4-Dinitrophenol is not an antidote for hydrocyanic
acid.

.------- (120)

THE SUPERORITY OF THE COMBINATION OF SODIUM NITRITE WITH SODIUM
THIOSUTPFiATE IN THE TREATMETNT OF CYANIDE POISONITITG. Presse Med.
[Paris] 42: 594-597. 1934. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 6199. 1934.]

The combined effect is more than a mere addition. The
dosage is 5-10 cc. of a 2 percent solution of sodium nitrite and
afterward 10-20 cc. of a 30 percent sodium thiosulfate solution
given intravenously. Inhalation of amyl nitrite is recommended
during the first injection.

---- and MARENZI, A. D. (121)

THM FIXATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID BY ERYTHROCYTES CONTAINING
METHEMOGLOBIN. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. [Paris] 114. 84-86. 1933.
[In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 526. 1934.]

Dog blood corpuscles were treated with sodium nitrite, phenyl-
hydrazine, or other reagents to convert the hemoglobin to methemoglobin,
washed with physiological salt solution, and treated with hydrocyanic
acid solution. The methemoglobin formed by sodium nitrite fixed more
than one but less than two equivalents of hydrocyanic acid, that formed
by the other reagents less than one equivalent.








- 27 -


----- (122)

MECHANISM OF TME ANTIDOTAL ACTION OF SODIUM.i 17ITRITE INi HYDROCYANIC ACID
!ITOXICATION. Ibid. pp. 86-87. 1933. [in French. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 526. 1934.]

Dogs were used. The sodium nitrite forms methemo2lobin which fixes
the hydrocy.anic acid. There is some evidence that the hydrocyanic acid
is then slowly converted to thiocyanate and excreted in the urine.

(123)

COI3INED ACTION OF SODIUM NITRITE AND SODIUM THIOCYA:ATE IN THE
TREATMEiNT OF HYDROCYANIC ACID INTOXICATION IN RABBITS. Ibid.
pp. 87-89. 1933. (cf. Chem. Abs. 27: 135.) [In French. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 526. 1934.]

Rabbits survived several times the lethal dose of hydrocyanic acid
when it was followed by 0.02 g./kg. of sodium nitrite, then 1 g./kg.
of sodium thiosulfate given intravenously.

I. G. FARBENIJIrJSTRIE, A.-G. (124)

HYDROCYAUIC ACID. French Patent 42,610, issued Aug. 23, 1933;
applied for "Jov. 30, 1932. 2nd aldn. to 715,052. [In French.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:1144. 1934.]

Derivatives of hydrocarbons, particularly those containing oxygen
or halogens, e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, eth:-l chloride,
or ethylene dichloride are used instead of hydrocarbons in the process
of French patent 715,052.

(125)

ALKALI CYANIDES. German Patent 597,304, issued Ma;- 22, 1934; applied
for Dec. 1, 1927. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5186. 1934.'

---- (126)

REMOVING WEAK ACIDS FROM GASES. French Patent 765,519, issued June 12,
1934; applied for Dec. 15, 1933. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 6986. 1934.]

A method is given for removing hydrogen sulfide and hydrocyanic
acid from gases by the use of various bases.

IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES, LTD. (127)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. French Patent 749,665, issued July 27, 1933;
applied for Jan. 28, 1933. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 584. 1934.]







- 28 -


A rapid liberation of a determined amount of gaseous
hydrocyanic acid is obtained by causing a determined amount of an
alkali metal cyanide to react with about the stoichiometric amount
of an alkali metal bisulfate, in.the. presence of a determined
amount of water such that the average liberation of hydrocyanic acid,
measured during a relatively short time is a maximum or nearly so.

Il-TmES, J. R. M. (128)

EFFECT OF CYANIIDE ON T- BAT THIYBOID GLAND. Endokrinologie 14: 12-21.
1934. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 4486. 1934.]

Daily injection of large doses of acetonitrile failed to
produce goiter in rats. The difference in the response of/the rat
and'the rabbit to cyanide is accounted for by the fact that the rat
elaborates -and stores in its adrenal gland sufficient quantities of
ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which exerts an antigoiterous action. The
rat also shows a high resistance to cyanide which diminishes after
adrenalectomy.

IONESCC-MATIU, A., and PCPESCO, A. (129)

DETEMI.IIATION OF CYANIDES AID I TIOTYAiATES BY ThE MERCTURIMETRIC
METHOD. Chin. et Indus. [Paris]. Spec. Nos. 1011-1013. 1933.
[In French. Abstract in- Chem. Abs. 28: 432. 1934.]

The method is applicable to the determination of cyanides and
thiocyanates, either alone or in the presence of each other, with the
same degree of accuracy as present standard iiethods.

----- (130)

DETEMIINATIOU OF CYANIDES AND THIOCYANATES BY THE MERCURIi4ETRIC
METHOD. Jour. Pharm. Chim. 19: 54-61. 1934. [In French. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 5005. 1934.]

Details are given of an analytical method which, it is
claimed, is as exact as the standard methods.

IWAI, J. (131)

THE CHANGES IN THE BLOOD DUE TO CALCITTi CYANIDE POISONILiG AS
WELL AS THOSE DUE TO THE USE OF ALCOHOL. Fukuoka-Ikwadaigaku-
Zasshi (Fukuoka Acta Medica) 25: 2208-2241. 1932. [In Japanese,
with a German su-nmary. Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: ,195. 1934.]

JACOBI (132)

FATAL HYDROCYANIC ACID POISONIiG DUE TO THE USE OF BITTER ALMONDS.
Deut. Ztschr. Gesell. Gerichtl. Ivied. 21: 337-341. 1933. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 3131. 1934.]


A case report.








- 29 -


JONES, L. H. (133)

ERADICATION OF NEMATODES IN GREENHOUSE SOILS BY THE USE O0 CHEi.ICALS.
Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 18. 1933. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28:. 7411. 1934.].

When used with calcium cyanide, o-dichlorobenzene did not
prove to be a satisfactory substitute for p-dichlorobenzene in the
treatment of greenhouse soils for nematode control. The poisonous
effects remained longer and the nematode kill was less.

JULIANO, J. B. (134)

ADDITIONAL CYANOPHORIC PLANTS OF THE MAQUILING REGION. IV.
Philippine Agr. 22: 254-257. 1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 505. 1934.]

A list is given of botanical species in the organs of
which hydrocyanic acid was found in a systematic testing of plants
in the region.

KARSTEN, A. (135)

EFFECT OF CYA!IIDE ON BLACK HILLS TROUT. Black Hills En,:. 22:
145-174. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5562. 1934.]

Cyanide concentrations over 1 p.p.m. are certain to kill
all the trout in a stream in 20 minutes or less. Concentration
as low as 50 x 10- is effective in.about 120 hours. A concentration
of 20 x 10-9 was found non-effective in 650 hours, and such a
concentration is considered as the minimum lethal concentration
that a stream can carry as far as the usual species of trout are
concerned.

KELLER, K. (136)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. United States Patent 1,931,441, issued Oct. 17,
1933; applied for June 6, 1930; in Germarny, June 6, 1929; assigned
to Ges. fur Kohlentechnik M. b. H. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
265. 1934.]

A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is created with nitric acid
which is always maintained in excess of 1 percent in the reaction
mixture.

KIKUTA, T., and IZUMI, J. (137)

STUDIES IN FLUID EXCHANGE. XVIII. THE EFFECT OF HYDROCYANIC ACID
UPOT THE FORMATION OF URINE. Tohuku Jour. Expt. Med. 22: 167-173.
1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 830. 1934.]
1BRlARy
or W iLAT 8A






- 30 -


Sodium cyanide perfused through the kidney of a toad
temporarily decreases the excretion of urine because of a direct
action on the epithelium of the kidney.

KISTIAKOWSKY, G. B., and GERSHINCWITZ, H. (138)*

THERMAL DISSOCIATION OF CYANOGEN INTO CYANIDE RADICALS. Jour. Chem.
Phys. 1: 432-439. 1933. [Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A):
30. 1934.]
CORRECTIONS. Ibid., p. 885. [Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A): 145.
1934.]

KNOWLTON, G. F. (139)

INSECT PESTS IN UTAH. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Leafl.'Nos. 1-6. Nov. 1933.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 68. 1934.]

In the fourth leaflet it is stated that Erythroneura comes, var.
ziczac Walsh, and var. elegans McAtee, are the most serious pests of
Virginia creeper, causing complete defoliation by the end of August in
severe cases. Calcium cyanide, preferably a coarse type, is effective
against all stages and is probably the best material for use in midsummer.
When convenient, the dust may be applied to the vinesunder a canvas or
cotton covering.

----- (140)

INSECT PESTS IN UTAH.. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Leafl. 43, 1934. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 499. 1934.]

A discussion of Nysius ericae Schill., a pest of numerous ve:--etable.
and small fruits. It may be controlled on the crops by a dust of calciumli
cyanide. !

XRISHITA AYYAR, P. N. (141)

A VEIT DESTRUCTIVE PEST OF STORED PRODUCTS Il SOUTH IIDIA, CORCYRA
CEPRAL01OICA, STAIiT. (LEP.) Bull. Ent. Research 25(2): 155-169. 1934.
LAbstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 488. 1934.]

Corcyra cephalonica Staint., all stages of which are described,
has recently become the most abundant and destructive of the various
lepidopterous pests of stored products in southern India. Carbon
disulfide and hydrocyanic acid are considered to be the most satisfactory
fumigants, though they are reported to have failed to control the eggs.

KULIBERG, L. M., and SEMETTZOV, Y. A. (142)

IDENTIFICATION OF SILVER CYANIDE AND SILVER THIOCYANATE. Ukrain. Khem.
Zhur. 8 Wiss. Teil. 168-170. 1934. [In Riusian and German. Abstract.
in Chem. Abs. 28: 5006. 1934.]

th'en ignited silver cyanide gives a violet red and silver thio-
cyqnftl blue fljmpI





- 31 -


LACRY, B. S. (143)
s>
VAPORIZING FOPXLMID'T. United States Patent 1,934,433, issued Nov.
7, 1933; applied for Aug. 17, 1929; assignd to E. I. du Pont de
Nemouls & Co.. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 584. 1934.].

To vaporize formamide, as in the production of hydrocyanic acid,
liquid formamide is brought into contact with a surface such as a silica
tube heated to a temperature &bove the atmospheric boiling point of
formamide at such" a rate that no liquid formamide remains unvaporized
in contact with 'J'theeatiLa- surface for any ayireciaole period of time.
The apparatus is Oescribe.i.

LAINDAUER, E. (144)
TEE LSS OF TZATR CS IN I7IGCACjIN WITH fYDPOGEN CYANIDE. Chinese
Ae&l. Jour. 47: 8G6-06. 19Z3. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5589.
1934.]

The efficiency of cysi-o-:n chloride, benzyl bromide, and chloro-
picrin, as inC.icators for th presence of hydroc:'anic acid when used as
a fumigant increases iun tihe order given.

LE AA,. S. -(145)

LABOPATCRY EPLRIiETTYS WITH, VARIOUS FTUIGUTTS ACAI1IST THE W7IREWOFA
LI.:OnT:US (P:LE) C.11FC_1'IiS 'A.21i.. Jour. Econ. EnrLt. 26: 1042-1051.
1933. [Abstract ir5 Cher. dr.s. 2'3: 6917. 1934.]

A number of funigaints, including acetonitrile, were tried. With
the median le'hsl concentration in rmg./l. for carbon disulfide=-1, that
for acetonitrile was greatest (192.9).

LENTZ, 0., and GASSi-EI, L. (146)

INS-CT CC'TFOL WITH EIGHLY POISOrO:LTS IL.T2IAS. IrART I HYDROCYANIC
ACID 1S-:L :NLSJ.IFL"L;G IiIT FOCE C- IFTIC-:T STOFFTN. HFZT I:
BLAUS.JJR2). Berlin. 72 pp. 1934. [In German. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 5916. 1934.]
LE7IS, G. N., and SC=-TZ, P. W. (147)

VATFORP. PPFSSb CF LIQUID AID SOLID DEUTOOYANIC ACID (D-UTEFJ.URI CYAINIDE).
Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 36: 1002. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 2967. 1934.]

The vapor pressure of hydrocyanic acid (1.) can be expressed by the
equation log 10 p = 7.795 1467/T; for the solid, log 10 p = 9.372 -
1877/T; the va2or pressure of deutocyanic acid (1.), log 10 p = 7.695 -
1440/T 175/T ; for the solid, log lOp 9.467 1907/1T. There is very
little difference between the vapor pressures of the liquid forms of
hydrocyanic acid and deutocyanic acid. The freezing point of hydrocyani'
acid is calculated to be 259 K., of deutocyanic acid, 261 K.





- 32 -


LINDDERSTROM-LANG, K. (148)

ANTAGONISM OF ZINC AND HYDROCYANIC ACID IN THEIR ACTION 01. PEPTIDASE
ACTIVITY. Ztschr. Phbsy. Chem. 224: 121-126. 1934. [In Germnn.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 4078. 1934.]

MACALLUM, A. D. (149)

CYANIDE PRODUCTION. United States Patent 1,966,253, issued July 10,
1934; applied for Aug. 8, 1933; assigned to E. I. du Pont de
Nemours & Co. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5609. 1934.]

A cyanide-forming gas, such as hydrocyanic acid or formamide
vapor, is treated with an alkali metal carbonate, such as sodium
carbonate, at a high temperature (suitably about 200-5000), and the
resulting gas mixture is treated to remove at least one of the
gaseous byproducts comprising water vapor and carbon dioxide, and the
residual gas is passed into further contact with carbonate at a high
temperature.

McDANIEL, E. I. (150)

MICHIGAN TERMITES OR "WHITE ANTS." Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. Bull..
150: 3-14. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6915. 1934.]

Termites can be eradicated by treating infested soils
with sodium cyanide applied at the rate of 160 pounds per acre. The
cyanide is dissolved in 12,000 gallons of water to facilitate even
application.

MACKIE, D. B. (151)

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIVISION OF ENTOiOLOGY. Calif. Dept. Agr. Mo. Bull.
22: 1933, 457-472. 1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 532.
1934.]

The grape leafhopper (Erythroneura comes Say) continued to be the
chief vine pest; calcium cyanide dust and nicotine were the principal
insecticides used in its control.

MacMULLIN, R. B. (152)

SODIUM IMIDOCARBOXfLATE AND ITS DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS. British
Patent 407,200, issued Mar. 15, 1934; applied for Mar. 27, 1933;
assigned to Mathieson Alkali Works. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 4846.
1934.]

If heating of sodium imidocarboxylate is effected in a reducing
atmosphere or in the presence of a reducing agent, sodium cyanide and
sodium carbonate are obtained.





- 33 -


MAKAROV, P. (153)
_IYrC-S OF THE ACTION OF CAY30hs MCN3ZIfID AND OF CYA"Ir:S ON THE CELLS
I T.AT, kcTC-. IRS1 0 '..TIO TH3 IAL -PI I TLIUML OF T0IE
FL.CJ. 1 :o-pl.7sa a30: 530-54. 1934. [1n German. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 4080. 1934.]

MALZAC, A. C. (154)

INSFCTICI r. French Patent 750,708, issued Aug. 17, 1933; applied for
May 13, 1932. abstractt in Chem. Lbs. 23: 1133. 1934.3

An insecticide is composed of a viscous solution containing hydro-
cyanic acid which is- liberated progressively. For example glycerol
containing wrter 20 percent and hydrocyanic acid 4 percent.

IvAV!N, C. J. and w:J(:R, M. (155)

YDPfYr...,TTC, ACID. United States Patent 1,950,899, issued .'ar. 13, 1934;
ap)Cied for L- 14, 1931; assigned to E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
[Abstract in Chem. 'Jbs. 283: .'4. 1934.]

An acid such as sulfuric acid is caused to react with a sodium
cyanide solution containing 0. 0(XC'-*0.002 moles of a metal sulfite such
as sodium sulfite per mole of cddi-im cyanide the sulfite serving to
inhibit the formation of decorpnosition pro lucts.

MEISEL, M. (156)

CHlITGES FRC:UCED ::T LIV7:'C- PL:.;TT CELLS BY C_:'IICAL A':-JIES. I.
'LT:,':CaOSC3PIO STC--P CF .E CELLS OF ALLIT SATI1UM. Bull. Acad.
Sci. [U. S. S. R.] 7: 983-994. 1933. [In TRussian. Abstract in
Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A): 708. 1934.]

The nuclei of normal cells are frintly op-ilescent when viewed
in dark field illumination. This opalescence is greatly reduced by
potessiu:a cyanide.

---- (157)

THE ACTION OF CYA:TIDE SALTS OT THE DEVELOPLIIT OF YEASTS. Zentbl. Bakt.
Parasitenk. II. Abt. 88 pp. 449-459. 1933. [In German. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 28;: 1074. 1934.]

The following salts were toxic to yeast in the order given:
mercuric cyanide> sodium cyanide- potassium cyanide >ammonium cyanide.
Long exposure to a wek cyanide solution caused a loss of fat in yeast
cells, but-brief exposure to stronger solutions did not have this effect






- 34 -


MENTZEL, A. (158)

POTASSIUM CYANIDE. German Patent 590,231j ieamed Dec. 29, im;
applied for Mar. 18, 1932. tin German. Abstract in ekom. Abs. 28:
2134, 1934.3

A mixture of coke and potassium bicarbonate is briquetted, heated
to 300-400 in the absence of air, and then treated with nitrogen at
about 830.

MILOVIDOVA, A., and GLAZUNOVA, Z. (159)

DETERMINATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN CYANIDES. Zavod. Lab. 3; 463. 193-
[In Russian. Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(B): 831. 1934.]

Barium nitrate is added to the aqueous cyanide, the solution
made to known volume, and the excess of barium determined in an aliquo
of the filtrate.

MInSSEN, H. (160)

MANNA GRASS (GLYCERIA SPECTABILIS), A SPECIES OF HIGH HYDROCYANIC ACID
CONTENT. Landw. Ver. Sta. 117: 279-312. 1933. [In German. Abstrac-
in Chem. Abs. 28: 6451. 1934.]

The relatively large proportion of hydrocyanic acid in manna gras
probably occurs as an easily decomposable compound other than a gluco-
side. Ensilage of the material reduces the hydrocyanic acid content.
The liberation of hydrocyanic acid is accelerated by treatment of leave
with 1 percent tartaric acid solution. Small quantities of bydrocyani,
acid also occur in the female inflorescence of maize.

MIZUTANI, K. (161)

THE EFFECT OF POTASSIUM CYANIIDE POISONING ON THE RESPIRATION OF
TISSUES, ESPECIALLY THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT HORMONES ON THE
ACTION OF THE POTASSIUM CYANIDE.

I. THE EFFECT OF INSULIN, THYROID SUBSTANCE AND ADRENALINE ON THE
ACTIOn: OF POTASSIUM CYANIDE. Folia Endocrinol. Japon. 8: 35-36.
1933. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 1933(I): 1149, 1970.]

II. THE EFFECT OF THE GENITAL GLANDS ON POTASSIUM CYANIDE POISONING.
Ibid., pp. 36-37.

III. THE EFFECT OF THE INJECTION OF EXTRACT OF SUPRARENAL CAPSULE
CORTEX AND ALSO THAT OF THYROIDECTOMY ON THE ACTION OF POTASSIUM
CYANIDE. Ibid., pp. 42-43.

MOORE, W. (162)

STUDIES OF THE "RESISTANT" CALIFORNIA RED SCALE AONIDIELLA AURANTII
MASK. IN CALIFORNIA. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26: 1140-1161. 1933. [Abstra p
in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 99. 1934.]




- 35 -


It appears from the data so far accumulated that the difficulty
involved is that of reach.in- the coccid through its scale rather than of
overcomin- any distinct iuvunity of thie insect itself. Under conditions
favorable to the absorption or adsorption of the gas, resistant and non-
resistant st:-ai:s may be killed equally well, whereas under conditions
unfavorable to absorption but fgvorab.e to the action of hydrocyanic
acid on the tissues of the ccccid, the mortality of resistant strains
is reduced appreciably but that of nonresistant strains little if at all.
Such conditions are previous exposure to low concentrations, high
teLrerature and low relative humidity during fur.igation, and low
humidity preceding, or low temrperatures following, fumigation.

MOIlAINi-MOIIVAL, P., and PARIS, R. (163)

TK'IO0METRIC STIDY OF FOMATI'OrT- 0 ITO.MRGANIC C01-TLX:S. Compt. Rend.
Acad. Sci. [Paris]: 1154-1156. 1934. [In French. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 3022. 1934.]

MORRIS, S., and LILLY, V. G. (164)

DISTILIA.TIC(i; OF HfDIROCYAXIC ACID FRO:,I SULF-TJRIC ACID SOLUTIONS.
Indus. and Zng-in. Cl.ei., A.lyt. Ed. 5: 407-408. 1933. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 23: 432. 1934.]

In distilling hV.roc-vanic acid from sulfuric acid solutions no
retardation was cased by the rre:ence of chloride ions. Loss of
hydrocyanic acid occurs unrls t'i rubber stoppers are covered with
tinfoil. Feiroc.,.%anide is a comiori impurity in cormercial "C.P."
cyanides, and when it is present high results are obtained. With
ferrocyanide-free cyanide the method of ?n.l and Carlson (Chem. Abs. 27:
243) is ncc-r-te. The rr.te of h.-drolysis of .hydrocyanic acid is a
function of the acid concentration. Thirteen references are given.

NUCH, E., and NICOLAI, F. (165)

HYDPOCYAITIC ACID i..:: FO.MUrID. United States Patent 1,951,520,
issued Mar. 20, 1934; applied for Mar. 31, 1927; assigned to I. G.
Farbenind, A.-G. [Abstract in Chen. Abs. 28: 3534. 1934.]

MUGGERIDGE, J. (166)

METHODS OF CYAITIDIITG IN GLASS HOUSES. ECONOMICAL CCOJTROL OF
WHITEFLY. New Zeal. Jour. Ar. 42: 47-4?. 1934. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 252. 1934.]

The use of hdrocy-anic acid in :Tev Zealand greenhouses
against the whitefly is discussed. A dosage of 1/5 1/4 oz.
sodium cyanide per 1,000 cu. ft. will kill all the adults and 90
percent of the scale stages, but not the eggs, so it must be
repeated in 2-3 weeks. Generation of the gas with sulfuric acid
is being largely supplanted by the use of a dry mixture of
sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate.






- 36 -


MUITRO, F. L., and 1EWTO01., W. (167)

INHIBITION OF GROWTH OF'FUNGI BY CHEMICALS. Sci. Agr. 14: 560-564.
1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6917. 1934.]

Sixteen compounds including potassium cyanide are reported on,
*the concentrations which destroyed or inhibited Fusaria,
Rhizoctonia, and Pythium being tabulated.

MUNTIOYLER, E., and BINNS, D. (168)

THE EFFECT OF CYANIDE AND OTHER SUBSTANCES ON TE OXYGEN UPTAKE
OF RAT TISSUE. Amer. Jour. Physiol. 108: 80-90. 1934. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 6197. 1934.]

MURATA, J., and MISHIMA, R. (169)

CONTROL OF CEROPLASTES RUBENS MASK. ON DIOSPYROS KAKI.
Agr. and Hort. 9: 1135-1144, 1325-1330. 1934. [In Japanese.
Abstract in Rev. Appi. Ent. 22(A): 524. 1934.]

This coccid feeds on the young shoots of persimmon,
doing great damage. Pruning the infested twig's in winter, fumigating
the seedlings with hydrocyanic acid, and spraying with resin wash
in the winter and during the hatching period are recommended for control,

N. V. STIKSTOFFBINDINGSINDUSTRIE "EDER3LA1TD."' (170)

ALKALI CYANIDES. British Patent 401,627, issued Nov. 16, 1933;
applied for Aug. 3, 1933. See German Patent 588,823.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2856. 1934.]

(171)

ALKALI CYANIDES. German Patent 588,823, issued Nov. 27, 1933;
applied for Aug. 5, 1932. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
2132. 1934.]

Alkali thiocyanates are heated to 400-800 in the presence
of oxides of alkaline earth or heavy metals and carbon monoxide or
gases contn.ining carbon monoxide. Thus sodium thioc:.,nate is heated
with zinc oxide and carbon monoxide to give sodium cyniide, zinc
sulfide, and carbon dioxide. Yields of 96-98 percent c:.yanide are
given.

INEUWIRTH, F. (172)

PURIFICATION OF CYAJTIDE-CONTAINING WASTE WATERS. Berg-und-
HuttenmAnnisches Jahrb. 81: 126-131. 1933. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 2819. 1934.]




- 37 -


Tao methods are described to free waste waters of cyanides
in solution. 1. By the action of carbon dioxide containing waste
gases which libei'rte .hydrocyanic acid. 2. By the action of ozonized
air. This reaction is C:olwhrt slow but can be hastened by addition
of iron and magnesi,'um salts as carriers of oxygen. The latter method
also destroyed phenol in phenol-containing waste waters.

TEWY JT, L. J. (173)

TE@ SAN JOSE SCALE ASPIDIOTJS PEfTTCIOSUS (CCMSTOCI:). Jour.
Dept. Agr. W. Aust. 1C(2) 495-502. 1953. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. 22(A): 201. 1934.]

Compulsory measuIres for the control of San Jose scale in
Western Australia include fuii:ation of fruit trees and other plants in
nurseries with hydrocyanic acid.

NEWTON, W., HASTI11GS, R. J., and BOSEER, J. E. (174)

STERILIZATION OF :TA2ISSJS BULBS BY II.2E?.IOu IN SILVER ITITRATE-
POTASSIUM CYA'TIT' SOLUTIC, I VACU%. Canad. Jour, Research 9: 31-36.
SSci. Agr. 14: 51. 1933. [Abptr.ct in Chem. Abs. 28: 1132. 1934.]

A mixtu-re of silver nitrate 0.05 percent and potassium cyanide
0.15 percent combined in the ratio of 1 to 3 proved most effective for
sterilizing narcissus bulbs.

NICOLAI, I., IVANOV, N., and iZ A, L. (175)

HYDROCYATIC ACID AS A SOUF-CE OF :JITRO:E%] FOR ASPERGILLUS NIGER.
Biochem. Ztschr. 271: 22-31. 1934. [In Germa'-i. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 5499. 1934.]

In the presence of sugar Aspergillus niger grown on a nitrogen-free
medium can vigorously assimilate hydrocyanic acid, the nitrogen content
of its mycelium thereby increasing manyfold. Grown on a nitrogen-free
mediuiL the mold continues to throw off nitrogen, which, however, it
cannot again utilize in spite of this severe nitrogen starvation.

1IOS.JLEVICH, I. M. (176)

HYDROLYSIS OF AQLUOUS SOLUTIONS OF ALKALI CYAUIDES 01 EVAPORATI0iT.
Ukrain. Kern. Zhur. 8 Wiss. Tech. Teil. 226-236 (In German 236).
1934. [In %hssian. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 3973. 1934.]

Experiments were conducted on the hydrolysis of aqueous solutions
of potassium cyanide on evaporation under various conditions of con-
centration and vacuum. It was found that at atmospheric pressure hydro-
lysis proceeds at the rate of 10 percent an hour for 3 hours regardless
of concentration. As the process continues the rate falls off with
increase in concentration. A study of hydrolysis at 20, 40, 80 mm.
pressure shows that it decreases linearly and directly with pressure at
the rate of 0.32 percent for every 10 am. until a minimum is reached at




- 38 -


20 mm. Below this hydrolysis increases inversely with pressure. This
is particularly true for less concentrated solutions. As to the effect
of concentration of potassium cyanide on hydrolysis during evaporation
in general, maximuxr hydrolysis occurs at 4.5-5 nitrogen concentration.

NYBOER, J. (177)

COMPARISON OF CHANGES IN CARDIAC AND RESPIRATORY RHYTHMS EFFECTED
IN THE DOG BY CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS. Amer. Jour.
Physiol. 106: 204-224. 1933. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 1970-1971.
1934.]

O'DANIEL, E. V. (178)

FUMIIGATING GRAIN. United States Patent 1,956,620, issued May 1, 1934;
applied for Dec. 26, 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 4168. 1934.]

A suitable amount of a solid material such as calcium cyanide
for liberating hydrocyanic acid is added to the grain. Apparatus is
described.

AFFORD, H. R., and VAN ATTA, G. R. (179)

PLANT KILLER. United States Patent 1,913,141, issued June 6, 1933;
applied for July 24, 1929. [Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(B):
162. 1934.]

Sodium thiosulfate (11 pts.) is heated at 110 with cuprous
cyanide (1 pt.) to form a complex tetrathiosulfatocyano-cuprite which
is highly toxic to plant life and may be used for removing plants
from roads, paths, etc.

ORSTRAM, A. (180)

THE INFLUENCE OF HYPERTONIC SOLUTIONS COUTTAIITIITG POTASSIUM CYANIDE ON
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEA URCHIN EGGS. Arkiv. Zool. (Stockholm) 24B:1-5.
1932. [In Swedish. Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 2186. 1934.]

PAGE, A. B. P. and LUBATTI, 0. F. (181)

THE APPLICATION OF FUMIGANTS TO SHIPS AID WAREHOUSES. I.
DISTRIBUTION OF ETHYLENE OXIDE IN EM=PY WAREHOUSES. II. DISTRIBUTION
OF HYDROGEN CYAITIDE IN EMPTY WAREHOUSES. III. PENETRATICiT OF HY-DROGENT
CYANIDE INTO BAGS OF RAW CACAO STACKED IN PILES OF DIFFERENT SIZES.
Jour. Soc. Chem. Indus. 52: 309-316T, 316-323T, 323-326T. 1933.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 2. 1934.]

Biological and chemical difficulties affect the value of laboratory
determination of the toxicity of fumnigants to insects. The chief chemi-
cal difficulty is that of accurate dosage under standard conditions of
temperature and humidity; if the correct dosage has been found, success-
ful commercial fumigation depends on the even distribution of the fumi-
gant and the maintenance at every point of a sufficiently high con-
centration. In other words, the fumigation will be defined by the







39 -

Scourse of the time-concentration curves at every point of the space
under treatment.

These papers belong to a series that will deal mainly with a study
of the curves obtained with different fumigants applied in various
spaces, both empty and filled with goods and including the concentrations
in large spaces, where bulk movement of the fumigant may occur, and also
that in small ones, such as cracks, where penetration depends mainly on
diffusion.

The first two papers contain accounts of work against the hiber-
nating larvae of Plodi. interpunctella Hbn., Ephestia elutella Hbn., and
E. cautella Walk., on loose timber or in cracks of the fabric of empty
warehouses: In large buildings where surface effects are not of great
importance, the actual maxiram concentration of hydrocyanic acid aver-
ages 60 80 percent of the theoretical. A cheap experimental method of
vaporizing hydrocyanic acid is discussed.

The third paper deals with the penetration of hydrocyanic acid into
bags of raw cacao, stacked in different ways. The results appear to
show that where bags are stacked in bulk it is impracticable to obtain a
lethal concentration in the less exposed ones. The quantity of residual
hydrocyanic acid varied from 32 p.p.m. in sheltered bags to 40-45 p.p.m.
in exposed ones. It is emphasized that other factors besides the method
of stacking are imncrtant and require investigation.

PELFFO, P. (182)

TOXICOLOGICAL DETECTION O' HYDROCYAUIC ACID. An. Assoc. Qwim. Farm.
Uruguay 36: 95-118. 1933. [In Sranish. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
990. 1934.]

A discussion, with bibliography.

----- (183)

TOXICOLOGY OF YfDROCYAIIIC ACID. An. Assoc. Quwm. Farm. Uruguay 37: 3-26.
1934. [In Spanish. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5367. 1934.]

A review of methods, with critical comments and some modifications.

PERRET, A., and PEPROT, R. (184)

CATALYSIS AND TRAISFOI IATION OF THE ALKALINE EARTH CYANIDES INTO
CYAHAMIDES. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris] 197: 764-766. 1933.
[In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 702. 1934.]

The equation CaC12 + 2 1TaCIT-- CaNCN + C + 2NaCl represents a
chemical change which is irreversible because of the change of calcium
cyanide to calcium cyanamide and carbon. Finely divided metals, iron,
cobalt, nickel, and manganese hasten the decomposition and consequently
the primary reaction.




- 40 -


PERROT, E.


(185)


THE DATE IN THE OASES OF THE ALGERIAN SAHARA. Not. Cent. Doc
P1. Med. No. 41, 70 pp. Paris. 1934. [In French. Abstract i
Appl.'it. 22(A): 709. 1934.]

In this report on the cultivation of date palms, brief reference
is made to infestation with scale. Among the many measures tested
against it, only fumigation with hydrocyanic acid has shown promise.


FETCH, C. E., and MALTAIS, J. B.


(186)


THE CARPE'-'TER WCEM (PRIO!OXf STUS ROBINIAE P3CK) AND ITS CONTROL.
Quebec Soc. Protect. Plants. 23d and 24th Ann. Rept, 1930-32:
131-136. 1932. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2113. 1934.]

Excellent control of the insect on shade trees was obtained
by forcing a thick mixture of solid calcium cyanide and linseed oil
into the larval tunnels in the tree trunks.


PETERS, G.


(187) .


HYDROCYANIC ACID IlI INSECT CONTROL. Stuttgart, 75 pp. 1933. [In
German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1808. 1934.]

S (188)

A SHORT GUIDE TO TREE FUMIGATION. 2d. Ed. 191 pp. Frankfort-on-Main.
1934, [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A).: 84. 1934.]


PINCA


PIP,


S, H. (189)

CONVERSION OF CYANAMIIDE INTO CYANIDE. Indus. Chim. 21: 413-415. 1934.1;
[In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5605. 1934.]

A general discussion of the principal and side reactions involved:!*'
in the production of cyanide from calcium cyanamide.

w. (190)
i


HYDROCYANIC ACID. German Patent 586,861, issued Oct. 27, 1933;
applied for Feb. 22, 1927. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
,1476. 1934.]

Formamide, mixed with steam or steam and indifferent gases, is
over catalysts at high temperatures. The steam, etc., is preheated
a temperature which, with the reaction temperature, raises the catal4
to the desired heat. I


PLUGGE, H.


(191)


THE PERMEABILITY OF FROG KIDNEY. PflAger's Arch. Physiol. 230:
1932. [In German. Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 3303. 1934.]







- 41 -


PRANKE, E. J. (192)

CYIANIDES. British Patent 398,454, issued Sept. 14, 1933; applied for
Apr. 24, 1933 assigned to Grangers Mfg. Co. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 1478. 1934.]

Alkali metal cyanides are decolorized by heating to considerably
above their melting points and cooling relatively slowly to a point
near but above their freezing point. They may then be cooled to
ordinary temperature at any desired rate. During the process the carbon
is oxidized by the cyanates and carbonates present. A small quantity of
air or other oxidizing agent may be added to the fused mass.

----- (193)

SODIUM CALCIUM AND SODIUM. CYAIJIDES. British Patent 400,949, issued
Oct. 30, 1933; applied for Jan. 30, 1932. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 2135. 1934.] (See French Patent 730,426 and United States
Patent 1,905,304.)

----- (194)

SODIUM CYANIDE. British Patent 411,177, issued June 7, 1934; applied
for Dec. 7, 1932; in the United States July 15, 1932. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 28: 6954. 1934.]

Sodium cyanide is obtained from its solutions by rapidly heating a
thin layer thereof by contact with a hot body having such a temperature
above the boiling point of the solution that evaporation to the dry salt
is effected in a brief time. The process is applicable to drying a
moist mass of sodium cyanide or the hydrate, these becoming solutions
at an increased temperature.

----- (195)

SODIUM CYANIDE FROM SODIULi CALCIUM CYANIDE. United States Patent
1,947,570, issued Feb. 20, 1934; applied for Au-,. 1, 1930.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2858. 1934.]

----- (196)

CYANIDE PRODUCTION. United States Patent 1,961,569; issued June 5, 1934;
applied for Jan. 3, 1929; assigned to Grangers Mfg. Co. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 4847. 1934.]

A melted mixture of calcium carbide and sodium chloride is
treated (as in a rotating horizontal furnace) so that portions
are successively raised and dropped in an atmosphere of nitrogen
and the reaction product is cooled. Apparatus is described.






- 42. -


PRATT, S. F., SWAIN, A. F., and ELDRED, D. N. (197)

STUDY OF AUXILIARY GASES' FOR IITCREASIiG T'-E TOXICITY OF HYDROCYANIC GAS.
I. STUDIES WITH LADYBIRD BEETLES AS Iir)ICES OF TOXICITY. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 26: 1031-1041. 1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5589.
1934. ]

Almost 200 chemicals, covering a wide range of organic and
inorganic compounds, were tested to determine the action of their
vapors on coccinellids (chiefly Hippodamia convergens Guer.), in con-
junction with hydrocyanic acid. Several were toxic in themselves, such
as cyanogen chloride, but few approached hydroc.yanic acid in toxicity.
Soine such as salic',l aldelhyde were extremel:r irritating to the insects
and some, such as carbon dioxide were- stupefying. In general those that
increased the toxicity of hydrocyaric acid were predominantly toxic or
moderately toxic and irritating. Although the vast bulk .of the compound
tested had no effect, the studies suggest that the toxicity of hydro-
cyanic acid can be decidedly enhanced by the use of auxiliary gases,
particularly salicyl aldehyde, of which both man and plants appear to
be quite tolerant.

PRICE, W. C. (198)

ABSORPTIOI SPECTRA OF FORMAIDFETDE AhD IHYDROGEN CYMTIDE IN THE FAR ULTRA
VIOLET. Phys. Rev. 46: 529. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 7157.
1934. 3

Absorption bands were found in hydrocyanic acid at 1450 to less
than 1000 A.

PP.IIIS, E. C., and LE,1.EIITS, J. F. (199)

PURIFYING MLATERIALS BY THE USE OF SELECTIVE SOLVENTTS. United
States Patent 1,955,016, issued Apr. 17, 1934; applied for Sept.
22, 1931; in the Netherlands Sept. 11, 1930. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 3812. 1934.]

Such materl.l as a crude alkali cyanide mixture'is extracted
with a good solvent for the desired product, such as alcohol containing
10 percent ammonia; there is also used a pcor solvent for the desired
substance capable of dissolving extrated impurities; the -:ood solvent
is distilled from the resulting extract, this causing separation of the
desired substance by crystallization and the crystals are separated.
Crude sulfur, caliche, etc., may be similarly treated.

PROTEUS (200)

FIFTY YEARS OF GAS PURIFICATION. Gas World 100: 447-452. 1934. [Abstrac
in Chem. Abs. 28: 3872. 1934.]

Not only hydrogen sulfide, but also organic sulfur, hydrocyanic 1
acid, and benzene removal and gas dehydration are reviewed.







- 43 -


QUAYLE, H. J. (201)

BORDEAUX SPRAYING A1,D FUMIGATION INJURY. Calif. Citrograph 18: 166,
184. 1933. [Abstract in Ohem. Abs. 28: 4528. 1934.]

Small lemon seedlings were sprayed with 4-4/5-50 bordeaux,
4-4-50 bordeaux, and 4-4-50 zinc-lime sprays, and later fumigated with
hydrocyanic acid at the rate of 10-25 cc. per 100 cu. ft. of chamber
space for 45 minutes. After two weeks the check trees (unsprayed but
fumigated) and those sprayed with zinc-lime showed little or no injury.
Trees sprayed with 4-4/5-50 bordeaux were more or less injured while
those sprayed with 4-4-50 bordeaux were more severely injured. Citrus
trees were severely injured by fumigation with hydrocyanic acid after
copper sulfate had been applied to the soil in such manner as to come
in contact with the roots.

------ (202)

EFFECT OF TF1PEPRATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FUMIGATION FOR RED SCALE.
Calif. Citrograph 19: 264. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6919.
1934.]

In laboratory experiments no significant difference in the control
of red scale on lemons was obtained by fumigating the fruit with hydro-
cyanic acid in the temperature range 50-90o F. when the temperature of
the fruit was increased directly from room temperature. Better control
was obtained by Ireconditioning the fruit at 35-50 F. for 4-48 hours
(70 percent relative humidity) than by preconditioning at 75-90 F.
Higher kills of scales were obtained by fumigating at 22-50 percent
relative humidity than at 90-100 percent. Fumigation injury to rooted
lemon cutting was greater at 50 than at 90 F. (70 percent relative
humidity). Cuttings in dry soil were injured to a greater extent than
those in wet so1.

RAiDALL, W. H. (203)

EFFECT OF SODIUM, CYANIDE OIT COi.'3LE..ElTT HAEMOLYSIS. Proc. Soc.
Expt. Biol. Med. 30: 1412-1413. 1933. [Abstract in Brit. Chem.
Abs. 1934(A):675. 1934.]

RAVINA, A., and LYON, S. (204)

TREATMEiTT OF CYANIDE AND CARBON iOIMTOXIDE POISONING -ITH iiETHYLENE
BLUE. Presse Med. 41: 1651-1653. 1933. [In French. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 28: 4484. 1934.]

A discussion.

REFER, N. (205)

CHRONIC HYDROGEN CYANIDE POISONiING. Gasmaske 6:19-20. 1934. [In
German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2410. 1934.]






- 44 -


Two cases are described of chronic hydrocyanic acid poisoning due
to long continued breathing of hydrocyanic acid. The symptoms were
loss in weight and appetite, headache, nausea, occasional collapse,
numbness in the limbs, muscle pains. In one patient a characteristic
acne aTppered on the hands. Both subjects recovered when proper pre-
cautions were observed.

REIINE L, (206)
R TIHERL.LTO BE TW-" :J TY

THE RLATION BETW2- TOXICITY, RESISTA1NCE, .Ai TIME OF SURVIVAL, AND
BRELATED PHENOMENA. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 17: 409-444. 1934. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 4792. 1934.]

RICCA, B., and MIDURI, P. (207)

.-CHAIISM OF THE OXIDATION O ALKAIJ.E SOLUTIONS OF, iERPCURIC CYANIDE
WITH EYPOBROI.:ES AND PER.I2TGAITATES. Gazz. Chem. Ital. 64: 113-117.
1934. [In Italian. Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A): 614. 1934.

RICHARDSOr, H. H .. ... (208)

E-:*RhIY:TTS O1 T: COCITROL1 OF P^1,A-'OCCVS GOSSYPII IN THE U7.I17D STATES.
Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 36: 49. 1934. A.Astract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
22(A): 324. 1934.]

The most satisfactory control was obtained by fumigation with
calcium cyanide, 3/8 1/2 oz. per 1,000 cu. ft. It resulted in a
high rate of mortality to all stages except the' epgs and caused no
injury to Chrysanthemum in arny stage of bloom.

RIGG, T., ASKE-W, H. 0., and KIDSC01, E. B. (209)

OCCURRENCE OF CYANOGEITETIC GLUCOSIDES IN :--LSCIi PASTURE PLANTS.
New Zeal. Jour. Sci. Tech. 15: 222-227. 193[. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 203.. 1934.]

H ydroc,'anic acid in plants was determined by grinding, digesting
20-24 hours with water, filtering, and distilling in the presence of
a few cc. 2N sulfuric acid solution. The alkaline distillate, not less
than 100 cc., was titratedd with silver nitrate solution. For grasses,
red clover, alsvke, subterranean clover, and Lotus major the hydrocyani
acid ranged from 0.0001 to 0.0005 percent; for white clover from 0.0016
to 0.0124 percent, averaging 0.0045 percent.

ROBB, G. P., and WEISS, S. (210)

A METHOD FOR THE L.-ASUREMETT OF THE VELOCITY OF THE PULMONARY AND
PERIPHERAL VE1OUS BLOOD FLOW IN MAN. Amer. Heart Jour. 8: 650-r70.
1933. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 1971-1972. 1934.]
Sodium cyrnide in amounts sufficient to stimulate respiration was
injected into 35 normal persons, and the effect on respiration and
circulation observed. The avera-e optimur. dose for injection into the
antecubital vein was 7 mgm. or 0.11 mgm. per kgm., of body weight.







- 45 -


ROBERTS01O, R., and CALVERT, H. T. (211)

REPORT OF THE WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH BOARD FOR THE YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30, 1932. [Gt. Brit.] Dept. Sci. Ind. Research Rept.
53 pp. 1932. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2817. 1934.]

In a survey of the River Tees, cyanides in coke-oven
wastes were found to be killing large numbers of fish. The
cyanides could be rendered harmless by mixing with spent pickle
liquor (ferrous chloride) or b;.- aeration at 600.

ROESSLER AND HASSLACHER CHEiICAL CO1PIANY (212)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. British Patent 401,351, issued Nov. 13, 1933; applied
for May, 12, 1932; in the U. S. May 14, 1931. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 2473. 1934.]

In the manufacture of hydrocyanic acid by the dehydration of
formamide or the decomposition of sodium cyanide by sulfuric acid
stabilizing concentrations of sulfur dioxide are maintained in the
reacting system and retained in the hydrocyanic acid formed.

ROHDE, I. G. (213)

COMPOUNDS FROM SALICYLIDENE AND HYDROCYANOSALICYLID El7AiTILI E
AS WELL AS ANALOGS AND RELATED SUBSTANCES. Jour. Prakt. Chem. 139:
17-43. 1934. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1671. 1934.]

A discussion of Schwab's compound prepared from potassium
cyanide salicylidene aniline. Most of the details are given in
dissertations to which reference is made.

ROSS, G. A. P. (214)

SHIP FUMIGATION AT THE PORT OF DURBAN. Jour. Roy. Sanit. Inst.
54: 35-40. 1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 550. 1934.]

Dusting with calcium cyanide is used. in concentration of slightly
over 1 to 11,000, or 60-80 g. dosages per 1,000 cu. ft. Compressed
air and steam have been used to drive the gas from ill-ventilated
places.

SAMUEL, R., and KHAN, M. J. (215)

THE THEORY OF COORDITATICIT BONDS: IV. RAMA.i EFFECT OF SOME COMPLEX
CYANIDES. Ztschr. Phys. 84: 87-91. 1933. [In German. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 412. 1934.]

All investigated cyanides show one Raman line which the authors
interpret as due to the oscillation of the carbon against nitrogen,
while some of them show also a second line which is ascribed to
the oscillation of cyanogen against the rest of the molecule. The
latter line appears to be present only in complexes with the coordina-
tion No. 6.





- 46 -


SAPIENZA, S. (216)

THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE POISOTI!'G '7I1TH FRESHLY PREPARED SODIU
TETIRATHIONATE. Bol. Soc. Ital. Biol. Spcr. 9: .59-60. 19:3-1.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5133. 1934.]

The best antidotes for cyanide poisoning are sodium tetrathionate
and sodium pentathionate. The latter is more efficient but is difficult
to obtain and preserve. Sodium tetra4hionate is easy to prepare but
difficult tp preserve. For practical use the product resultin- from
the reaction 2NP2S2-O33I2= 211-I1 + Na2S406 is injected. If a 20
percent solution pf sodium thiosulfate is mixed with an equal volume
of 10 percent of iodine (in 13 percent sodium iodide) the resulting
solution contains 5.3 percent sodium tetrathionate. Therapeutically the
dose is limited by the toxicity, which for rabbits is 0.0005 g. mol.
per kilogram. The maximum dose for man would be 5 gin. Dogs and
rabbits which had been injected with a dose of potassium cyanide 5
times the lethal quantity were saved by injecting this antidote, even
when the synptonris of the poison were very evident.

SAVARD, J. (217)

IONTIZATION POTENTIAL AiND ENERGIES OF FORMATION OF NON-POLAR 1,,I0LECbLES.
Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris]. 198: 751-753; Jour. Phys. Radium
5: 27-36. 1934. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2582. 1934.

D. (energy of union) calculated from relations previously
deduced agrees with the value determined theri.ochemically or
spectrographically for a number of substances, including hydrocyanic
acid.

SCHEERLINCK. (218)

PRINCIPAL INSECTS AlD DISEASES OF AZALEA :I'DICA. Off. Hort. Min.
Agr. Cl. Mo:'ennes. Ser. Ph ytopath. 3, 21 pp. Brussels. 1933.
[In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 271. 1934.]

The chief pests of Azalea indica in Belgium are enumerated,
and notes are given on the three most important. Among the control
measures recommended for greenhouse practice is fumigation with
calcium cyanide at the rate of 0.27 oz. per 1,000 cu. ft.

SCHMIDT, 0. (219)

DETECTION OF HYDROCYAIIIC ACID IN CADAVERS IN CASES OF POISONING.
Deut. Ztschr. Gesell. Gerichtl. Med. 21: 3 4-336. 1933. [In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 3028. 1934.]

To 2 cc. of 10 percent potassium hydroxide solution add water
and about 10 drops of yellow ammonium disulphide solution. Moisten a
strip of filter papcor with this solution and hang in a closed vessel,
as in the Schonbein-Pagenstcher Euaiac-copper sulfate test, before
using for the cadaver material. The addition of dilute sulfuric acid
liberates hydrocyanic acid. If mercuric cyanide poisoning is suspect*







- 47 -


it is necessary to add sodium chloride. The potassium cyanide
formed on the paper strips is converted to potassium thiocyanate by
careful heating in a test tube. Cool and ad a slightly acid solution
of ferric chloride; if 0.1 mg. per liter is present, red ferric thi'-
cyanate is formed.

SCHMITT, F. 0., and NICOLL, P. A. (220)

HEAVY METAL CATALYSIS IN S.00TH MUSCLE CC_1RACILUrE. Amer. Jour.
Physiol. 106: 225-237. 1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 789. 1934.]

Contractions of smooth muscles, normally caused by drugs and
chemical stimulants, are inhibited by sodium cyanide, hydrogen sulfide,
and carbon monoxide.

SCHMITT, F. 0., and SKOW, R. K. (221)

NERVE CATALASE. Amer. Jour. Physiol. 106: 404-413. 1933. [Abstract
in 3iol. Abs. 8: 2224. 1934.]

Sodium cyanide strongly inhibits nerve catalase.

SCHUAifl, C., FICH, R., and OB3EREIT, 3. (222)

DOUBLE COMPOUND OF CALCIUM CYANIDE AND A.2,101IA. United States Patent
1,934,823, issued Nov. 14, 1933; applied for May 14, 1928; in Germany
May 20, 1927. assigned to I. G. Farbeninl. A.-G. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 587. 1934.]

A double compound of calcium cyanide and ammonia in the form
of microscopic crystals having a diameter of at least 0.2 mm. is
produced by the reaction of a calcium compound such as calcium oxide,
calcium bydroxide, or a water-soluble calcium salt such as calcium
nitrate with hydrocyanic acid and ammonia in the presence of water.
This double compound decomposes into calcium cyanide and ammonia on
heating.

SHULL, W. E., RILEY, M. K., and RICHARDSCON, C. H. (223)

SOME EFFECTS OF CERTAIII TOXIC GAS-S ON THE BLOOD OF THE COCKROACH,
PERIPLANETA ORIENTALIS (LIIPT.). Jour. Econ. Ent. 25: 1070-1072. 1932.
LAbstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 1760-1761. 1934.]

Hydrocy:anic acid was one of 34 gases tested. It produced no
visible effect.

SLOTTA, K. H. (224)

BROMOCYANOGEN AND ANHYDROUS HYDROCYANIC ACID. Ber. Deut. Chem. Gesell.
67 B: 1028-1030. 1934. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5046.
1934.]

Directions are given for preparing these compounds in the
laboratory.





- 48 -


SMITH, F. F.


(225)


TEE CYCLAIEN MITE AITD THE BKLOAD MITE AID TIEIR CONTROL. U. S.
Dept. Agr. 'Circ. 301; 13 p. 193-. EAbstract in Rev. Appi.
Ent. 22(A): 128. 1934.]

The life histories of TarL-oneirius pallidus Banks (cyclamen
mite) and T. latus Banks (broad mite) are discussed and the two
mites differentiateJ. Amnong the control measures recommended is
fumigation with calcium cyanide (3 fumigations at intervals of 4
days), 3/8 1 oz. per 1,000 cu. ft. of space (a dosage injurious
to some plants).


SMITH, G.


(2 26)


REPORT ON (THE DETERMIIATIO-l, OF) OC'AII' ACID IN 1 COSIDE-
2EARII7G MATERIALS. Jour. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chem. 17: 182-185.
1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 468&.. 1934. ]

A collaborative comparison of the alkal.ino titration method,
the pruassian blue method, and the acid titration method showed clearly
that the alkaline titration method is not suitable for the determination
of such small qLantities of hydrocyanic acid as are found in linseed
meal. (Extremec variation 1Z0-1033 p.p.m.). Considerable, though
smaller, variations 'nerc obtained with the acid titration method
(97-132 p.p.m.) and the prussian blue method (80-259 p.p.m.). A
gravimetric method is proposed for study.


SMwTH, C. P., and McALPI.E, K. B.


(227)


DIPOLE MOMENTS OF PHOSGEIE, HYDROGE1T CYA1TID-, AND CETAIN SUBSTITU-TED
METHATES. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 56: 1697-1700. 1934. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 28: 5727. 1934.]

Values are given for the atomic polarization, the molar,
refraction, the dipole moments, and for a and b in Debyels equation
for polarization, for the vapors of phosgene, hyirocyanic acid,
and methyl nitrite; the dipole moment is given n for chloropicrin. Twen t
one references.

SOLANDT, 0. M., SOLANDT, D. Y., F.OSS, E., and OERAPD, R. W. (228)

METHIEMOGLOBIN AD MEMTHYLE=B BLUE AS CYANIDE ANTAGOIIISTS. Soc. Expt.
Biol. Med. Proc. 31: 539-541. 19,4. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
4488. 1934.]

Ciliated gill tissue of the quahog (Venus mercenaria) was
isolated in sea water and its oxygen observed in Warburg manometers
at 22. Resi.iration was inhibited by cyanide and restored by suitable
concentrations of methylene blue which appeared to act as a substitute
for the cyanide-poisbned respiratory cata.lyst. The addition of
sufficient methemoglobin completel' reversed cyanide inhibition and
prevented it when the pigment was added along with the cyanide. In th.


llll ]H ,i







- 49 -


intact vertebrate, methylene blue may act not only as a respiratory
catalyst but also indirectly by forming methemoglobin which unites
with cyanide and frees the normal respiratory enzyme.

SOUTHGATE, B. A., PETTLOW, F. T. X., and BASS;::DALE, R. (229)

TOXICITY TO TROUT OCF POTASS.U:7 CYAIIIDE Cj7D P-CRESOL IN
WATER CONTAINING DIFFEPNTT CCNTCETRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXTGEN.
Biochem. Jour. 27: 983-985. 1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 533. 1934.]

At low oxygen concentrations the toxicity of the cyanide
and p-cresol solutions increases rapidly with the decrease in the
oxygen concentration.

SPENCE, A. W. (230)

THE EFFECT OF CYA)IDE.S 0:7 THE THYFROID GLAND OF CHICKENS. Jour.
Pharmacol. 48: 327-331. 1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 212.
1934.]

Chickens are extremely resistant to acetonitrile, the
injection of 3 cc. resulting in no more than a narcotic effect.
Presumably the cyanide radical is not split off by the chicken
body. Repeated large doses have some goitrogenic effect.

STARE, F. J., and ELREHJEM, C. A. (231)

STUDIES ON THE RESPIRATION OF AinI.AL TISSUES. Amer. Jour.
Physiol. 105: 655-664. 1933. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8:
1669. 1934.]

The maximum cyanide inhibition ranges in different
tissues between 48 and 87 per cent, the c.verige being about
60 percent.

STICKSTOFF7ERKE, G. (M.b.H.) (232)

ALKALI CYANIDES. German Patent 579,886, issued July 3, 1933; applied
for Feb.6 1927. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 1145.
1934.]

Alkali carbonates are heated to redness in a current of
hydrocyanic acid and hydrogen or ammonia, carbon monoxide, and
hydrogen. Thus soda is heated to 770-875 in a current of
hydrocyanic acid and hydrogen to give a 99.6 percent yield of sodium
cyanide.

STINER, H. (233)

TREATMENT OF INCOMING SUPPLIES IS A SAFEGUARD AGAINST INSECT PESTS.
Food Indus. 6: 160-162. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6559.
1934.]






- 50 -


The use of sever-l funigants including, hydroc.anic acid isR
discussed.

STRACEIER, L. (25-)

INSECTS OF STORED RICE IN LOUISIANTA AND THEIR CONTROL. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 27: 767-771. 1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28; 6915.
1934. 3

Chiefly a recommendation to use carbon disulfide and carbon dioxide.
Hydrocyanic acid is considered extremely- dangerous to use end its
penetration poor.

SULMAN, H. L., and PICARD, H. F. C. (2.5)

HYEROCYA!TIC ACID FRO'' }.L.Y '1ETAL CYA7TIDES. United States Patent
1,938,469, issued Dec. 5, 1933; applied for Oct. 17, ,932; in Great
Britain Dec. 18, 1931; arsic-ed to General Engineering Co. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 1144. 1934.]

A heavy metal cyanide such as that of residual l].iquors from cyanide
plants is heated in a reduc-n.; hudiroe^en-containing atmosphere and in
the presence of an added metallic sulfide such as ground p ,rites to a
temperature sufficient to set free h.'drocyanic acid and to cause the
heavy metal to combine with the sulfur set free from the metallic sul-
fide. An arrangement of apparatus is described.

SUMIRVILL2, W. A. T. (236)

QLJEEITSLAITD CITIES SCALE INSECTS AND THEIR COITTP.CL, queensland Agr.
Jour. 41: 450-486, 568-591; 42: 4-0.-, 185-207. 1904. Also in
Queensland Dept. Agr. Div. Ent. Bull. 10, 101 pp. 1934. [Abstract in
Rev. Apple. Ent. 22(A): 711. 1934.]

The various chemical measures for control are discussed and the
results of experiments are given. A spra-; of resin, sodium hybdroxide,
and fish oil gave results not much inferior tc fumigation with hydro-
cyanic acid.

TAYLOR, G.W. (27)

TEE EFFECT OF HORMI0Q1ES AND CEWTAIT OTHER S'OSTAIJCES ON CELL
(LTJMINOUS BACTERIA) RBSPIPATION. Jour. Cell. and Comp. PhFsiol.
1: 297-331. 1932. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 86. 1934.]

Evidence is offered to show that luminous bacteria afford
a very rapid and easy method of measuring the rate of oxrgen con-
sumption sufficiently accurate for most purposes. Using this method
it was found that methylene blue accelerated the respiratory rate 953
percent while M/10,000 potassium cyanide decreased the rate 92 percent.







- 61 -


TZETTAMATZI, A. (238)

THE DZT.MrI1TATIO OF TIT-ROGEN IN CYANIIDES BY TIHE IJELDflL T0JD.
Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, Classe Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. 68: 153-160.
1933. [In Italian. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2296. 1934.1

The Kjeldahl method for nitrogen is found to be applicable,
without any modifications, to the determination of nitrogen in cyanides.
The method is applicable when the more rapid titration methods of
Volhard and "Liebig fail, as well as for all insoluble, -complex,
and nonelectrolyte cyanides.

THOIAvLS, C. A. (239)

PJRTHE- 0BSERVATIO.S 0IT MUSHR001. INSECTS. Jour. Econ. -Ent. 27: 200-208.
1934. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5588. 1934.]

The practical use of calcium cyanide, nicotine, carbon disulfide,
and heat to control insects is discussed.

TRAUTMAIT,. J. A. (240)

hTEfLEIIE BLUE IN THE TRZATIENT OF rfDROCYAiIC. ACID GAS. POISOITJTG.
U. S. Pub. Health Repts. 48: 144:<-1447. 1933. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs..28: 1103. 1934.]

It is apparent from experiments on rabbits, white rats, and
guinea pigs that injections of 1 percent methylene blue solution were
of no value in treatment of hydrocyanic acid gas poisoning v'her the
animals had adsorbed, by breathing, lethal or near lethal doses of gas
in a short period of time.

TRUSZ.r-OWSKI, R. (241)

URICASE AND ITS ACTION. V. FURTHER EXAMINATION OF C=DXDHE7Y URICASE.
Biochem. Jour. 26: 285-291. 1932. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8:
341. 1934.

Uricase was irreversibly inactivated by a number of agents
including neutral solutions of potassi't-im c; anide.

UNITED STATES DEPARKTIvEINT OF AGRICULTUI-, B3 .IU OF PLA;T= Q.JAVTIl (242)

SERVTIC.J A:TD I) GULATOYi ANITOT.ITCEiI:TTS 118: 1-30 (JAN. MARCH, 1934.)
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Znt. 22(A): 571. 1934.]

Announcements include the fumigation of bananas in refrigerator
cars by liquid hydrocyanic acid at the rate of 6 ounces or 3 pounds
of 88-percent calcium cyanide.







- 52 -


UNO, s. (243)

THE EFFECT OF POTASSIUM CYANIDE UPON THE RETICULOCYTES AND THE IN-
FLUENCE OF THE THYROID UPON THIS EFFECT. Folia. Endocrinol. Japon.
9: 22-23. 1933. [In Japanese. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6201.
1934, and Chem. Zentr. 1933, II: 3582.]

(244)

THE. ACTION OF ADRENALINE AND INSULIN ON THE RETICbTLOCYTES AND
THE EFFECT OF POTASSIUM CYANIDE ON THE ACTION. Folia Endocrinol.
Japon. 9: 28. 1933. [In Japanese. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 6201.
1934. Chem. Zentr. 1933, II: 3001.] -

VAN HERK, A. W. H., and BADENHUIZEN, N. P. (245):

RESPIRATION ALD CATALASE ACTION IN THE SAUROMATOUM SPADIX. Acad. Sci.
Amsterdam Proc. 37: 99-105. 1934. [In Dutch. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 3762. 1934.

The article deals with the inhibiting effect of hydrocyanic acid.

VIANA, C., COGNOLI, H., and CENDON, J. (246>

ACTION OF SODIUM NITRITE IN CYANIDE POISONING. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol.
[Paris] 115: 1641-1645. 1934. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
5131. 1934.]

Two attempted suicides were saved by treatment began 10 minutes and
15 minutes after ingestion of about 5 g. and 2 g., respectively, of
potassium cyanide. The treatment consisted of inhalations of anyl
nitrite and intravenous injections of 20 cc. of 2 percent solution of
sodium nitrite followed by 20 cc. of 30 percent sodium thiosulphate.
The injections were repeated after 2 hours.

WAGLE, P. V. (247)

THE MANGO HOPPERS AND THEIR CONTROL IN THE KONKAN, BOMBAY
PRESIDENCY. Agr. Live-Stock in India 4: 176-188. 1934. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 442. 1934.]

The life histories of three species of Idiocerus are
reviewed and control measures discussed. Sulfur dust (2-3
applications at intervals of 2 weeks), which killed the nymphs,
repelled the adults, and controlled mildew, was the most
profitable treatment. Combinations of sulfur with calcium cyanide
dust "A" (6 : l) or with tobacco dust (5 : l) were no better
than sulfur alone.








- 53 -


WALKER, ALIa' F' (EXECUTRIX FOR MAWK WALKER, DECEASED), AITD MiRVIF, C. J.
.. .. ..(.... 248)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. Canadian Patent 339,124, issued Jam. 30, 1934;
applied for Jan. 6, 1933; assigned to the Canadian Industries, Ltd.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 2473. 1934.]

A mixture of sodium cyanide and a metal sufite is made to
react with acid so that there is 0.05-0.5 percent by weight of
sulfur dioxide in the hydrocyanic acid collected therefrom. A
stable water-white hydrocyanic acid is obtained.

WALTER, L. A., and McELVAIN, S. M. (249)

REDUCTION OF CYANIDES. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 56: 1614-1616. 1934.
[Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A): 994. 1934.]

WARBURG, 0., NEGEL2IN,, E., and HAAS, E. (250)

SPECTROSCOPIC DEMONSTRATION OF THE OXY GEN-TRATSFERRING ENZYME IN
THE PRESHNCE OF CYTOCHROME. Biochem. Ztschr. 266: 1-8. 1933.
[In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 791. 1934.]

WASER, E., and STHiLI, M. (251)

INVESTIGATIONS OF TOBACCO SMOKE IV. Ztschr. Untersuch., Lebensmtl.
67: 280-284. 1934. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 3522.
1934.]

The hydrocyanic acid content of the smoke ranges between
0.020 and 0.034 percent in the types of cigarette tobacco investigated,
and based on the dry tobacco smoked. The values found are quite
constant for the same type of cigarette and under similar conditions
of investigation. The hydrocyanic acid content is independent of the
nicotine content but increases with increased speed of smoking. The
introduction of water or "Bonicot" liquid into the cigarettes had no
measurable influence on the amount of hydrocyanic acid in the smoke.
The amount of hydrocyanic acid found in cigarette smoke is so small
as to be without direct danger to the smoker.

WATANABE, A. (252)

THE EFFECT OF POTASSIUM CYANIIDE AND METHYIEFE BLUE ON THE RESPIRATION
OF GREEN ALGAE. A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ALGA. Acta
Phytochim. 6: 315-335. 1932. [In German. Abstract in Biol. Abs.
8: 1408-1409. 1934.]

WEBSTER, R. L. (253)

INSECT TOLERANCE (FOR INSECTICIDES). Jour. Econ. Ent. 26: 1016-1021.
1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5584. 1934.]







-54-


The acquired resistance of San Jose scale (Aspidiotus pernicious)
.to lime-sulfur solution, 'of .-the red (Chishphalu-"aurentj) and the
black (Saissettia oleae) scales to hydrocyanic acid and. of strains of
the codling 7oth (Carpocapsa oPele to lead arsenate are discussed.

WENTIDEL, WM. B. (254)

OXIDATION BY ERYTHROCYTES AND THE CATALYTIC INFLUENCE OF
METHYLENE BLUE. II. METHEMOGLOBINI AND THE EFFECT OF CYANIDE.
Jour. Biol. Chem. 102: 385-401. 1933. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
28: 1066. 1934.]

Solutions of methemoglobin in the presence of normal
dog erythrocytes or erythrocytes in which the pigment has been
converted to methemoglobin by arnyl nitrite are able to oxidize
lactic acid to pyruvic acid, but the oxidation is inhibited by
hydrocyanic acid. If, however, methylene blue is added, the
oxidation is greatly increased, and the increase is not inhibited,
or is even accelerated by hydrocyanic acid. The increased oxidation
is therefore not due to methemoglobin (cf. Warburg and Christian,
Chem. Abs. 26: 5976.). The rate of oxidation is proportional to the
amount of methylene blue added at concentrations below 3.10C-2 L.
Further, since both hydrocyanic acid and semice.rbazide accelerate
the oxidation, while additional pyruvic acid inhibits it, the
reaction is probably reversible, as it is in other biological
systems (cf. Baumberger, Jurgensen, and Bardwell, Chem. Abs. 27:
5621, and Wurmser and DeBoe, Chem. Abs. 26: 5819).

UERTHEIMER, E. (255)

THE EFFECT OF BROMACETIC ACID AND HYDROCYANIC ACID ON
If
FLAGELLAR AND CILIARY MOVEMENT. Pfluger's Arch. rhysiol.
231: 155-168. 1932. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
4488. 1934; also Physiol. Abs. 18: 406.]

Hydrocyanic acid inhibits the motility of guinea pig
spermatozoa, but has no effect on the motility of Faramecium;
the action on the spermatozoa is prevented by the addition of small
concentrations of dextrose, whereas fructose, galactose,
hexosemonophosphoric acid, dihydroxyacetone, methylglyoxal,
pyruvic acid, and lactic acid are effective only in much higher
concentrations.

WEST, W., and FARNSWORTH, M. (256)

VIBRATION SFE:TRA AND STRUCTURE OF THE CYANOGEN HALIDES.
Jour. Cnem. Phys. 1: 402-405. 1933. [Abstract in Brit. Chem.
Abs. 1934(A): 10. 1934.]

WHEELER, T. S. (257)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. U. S. Patent 1,934,610, issued Nov. 7, 1933;
applied for Mar. 18, 1903; in Great Pritain Mar. 27, 1929;
assigned to Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 28: 584. 1934.]







- 55 -


A gas containing a hydrocarbon such as methane or ethane
together with more than one molecular proportion of ammonia for each
atomic proportion of carbon is rapidly passed, at a temperature of at
least 1150 through an unpacked reaction chamber under conditions (such
as those of suitable "space velocity") which are unfavorable to
decomposition of the reagents into their elements.

TWINDER, C. V,, WINDER, H. 0., and GESELL, R. (258)

THE SEAT OF ACTION OF CYAITIDE ON PULMONARY VENTILATION. Amer.
Jour. Physiol. 105: 310-336. 1933. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8:
1679-1680. 1934.]
'I
WIRTH, W., and LAYMERHIRT, F. G. (259)

DETOXICATION OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE. Biochem. Ztschr. 270: 455-459.
1934. [In German. Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A): 805. 1934.]

Administration of sodium tetrathionate or sodium nitrite to
an animal delays reaction to inspired hydrocyanic acid, and if the dose
is sublethal assists in recovery, but if it is lethal, does not assist
in keeping the animal alive.

WITTEK, H. (260)

CYANIDE3 AND CYANAMIDES. German Patent 588,761, issued Nov. 25, 1933;
applied for Dec. 24, 1930. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:
2133. 1934.]

A furnace for forming cyanides or cyanamides from ammonia and
univalent or bivalent metals is described.
'!
WOHLER, L., KRALL, E., and DOR1ITHFER, 0. (261)

CYANIDE AND FEROCYANIDE FROM CALCIUM CYANAI:IDE. Angew Chem. 47:
733-734. 1934. [In German. Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A):
1341. 1934.]

The technical conversion of calcium cyanamide into alkali
cyanide can be effected economically only with the finely divided
fresh dry product. Sodium carbonate not sodium chloride must be
used with carbon, which is advantageously replaced by calcium carbide
or aluminum carbide. Fusion with potassium carbonate and iron filings
or preferably powdered ferric oxide effects quantitative conversion of
calcium cyanamide into potassium ferrocyanide.

WOGLUM, R. S., LAFOLLETTE, J. R., LANDON, W. E., and LEWIS, H. C.

HANDBOOK OF CITRUS INSECT CONTROL FOR 1934. Calif. Fruit
Growers Exch. Bull. 11, 29 pp. 1934. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. 22(A): 578. 1934.]







- 56 -


In fumigation with hydrocyanic acid it was found better
to begin on the side of the grove sheltered' from the wind, so as to
prevent "protective stupefaction" of coccids by gas leaking from
the tent.

WORTHLEY, H. N. (263).

CODLING MOTH SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS IN PENNSYLVANIA IN 1933. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 27: 240-244. 1934. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 22(A): 292.
1934.

Cuprous cyanide, which probably possesses fungicidal as well as
: insecticidal properties, was tested as a substitute for lead arsenate.
Although not highly effective at 2 pounds per 100 gallons it deserves
further trial at higher concentrations with' an adhesive.

YAGATA, M. (264)

THE ACTION OF POISONOUS GASES ON THE LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTION.
Japan Jour. Gastroenterol. 6: 280-314. 1934. [In Japanese.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5533. 1934.]

Hydrocyanic acid and chlorine act more strongly on the
kidneys than on the liver.

YAKUSHIJI, E. (265)

THE CATALASES AND THEIR ROLE IN PHOTOSYIThESIS. Acta Phytochim.
(Tokyo) 7: 93-115. 1933. [In German. Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8:
1405. 1934.]

YALAMOTO, A. (266)

THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN POISONS ON THE CONSUMPTION RATE OF
RESPIRATION DURING THE GROWTH OF FUNGUS. Acta Phytochim. 7: 65-92.
1933. [In German. Abstract in Biol. Abs. 8: 1409. 1934.]

YAOI, H., and KASAI, H. (267)

EFFECT OF SOME CHEMICAL FACTORS ON THE SURVIVAL OF PURIFIED
VACCINE VIRUS. Jap. Jour. Expt. Med. 9: 619-635. 1931. [Abstract
in Biol. Abs. 8: 151. 1934.3

Purified vaccine virus is found to be more resistant to
potassium cyanide than any known organii sm.

ZAIIOTTI, V. (268)

THE ACTION OF HYDROCYANTIC ACID ON THE ENZYME MIXTURES MALTIN
AND PANCREATIN. Boll. Chim. Farm. 73: 524-525. 1934. [In Italian.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 7270. 1934.]







57 -

Hydrocyanic acid destroys the saccharifying diastatic enzyme
in maltin and pancreatin but has action on the proteolytic enzyme of
pancreatin. The amount of enzyme destruction after a given time of
exposure is directly proportional to the quantity of hydrocyanic acid
used.

ZAPPI, E. V., and MAITINI, A. (269)

BAPID IDENTIFICATION OF SILVER CYANIDE IN PRESEITJCE OF SILVER HALIDES.
Anal. Asoc. Quim. Argentina 22: 21-23. 1934. [In Spanish. Abstract
in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1934(A): 857. 1934.]












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