A bibliography of quassia

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A bibliography of quassia
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Busbey, Ruth L ( Ruth Lawless ), 1909-1990
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Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Bibliography
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Subject index
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Chronological index
        Page 55
    Junior author index
        Page 56
Full Text
LIBRARY
STATE PLANT WARD


E-483 June 1939

United States Department of Agriculture
Bureau of Entomolo&y and Plant Quarantine


A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF QJASSIA

By R. L. Busbey, Division of Insecticide Investigations



INTRODUCTION


The term "quassia," as employed in the entomological and med-
ical literature, may refer to either of two plants, both members of
the family Simaroubaceae. Quassia amara L. is a small branching tree
or shrub native to Surinam and found in Brazil, Guiana, Colombia,
Panama, and the West Indies and also in some tropical countries.
About the middle of the eighteenth century, a negro of Surinam, named
Quassi, acquired a reputation for treating the malignant fevers of
that country by a secret remedy, which he was induced to disclose to
Rolander, a Swede, for a valuable consideration. Speciments were
taken to Stockholm by the latter in 1756 and the medicine soon became
popular in Europe. The generic name of the plant is derived from the
name of the negro. This Surinam c lassia has now been largely replaced
in use by Jamaica quassia (Aeschrion excelsa (Swartz) Kuntze)l, a
closely related plant, which occurs in much greater abundance. A.
excelsa is a lofty tree, sometimes attaining a height of 100 feet or
more, inhabiting Jamaica and the Caribbean Islands.

The water extract of the wood of these two species is employed
medicinally as a bitter tonic in the treatment of dyspepsia and also
finds some use in agriculture as an aphicide. Where any distinction is
made between the two, it is usually in favor of the Surinam quassia.
The Jamaica quassia comes on the market usually in the form of chips,
raspings, or billets; the Surinam quassia generally is obtained in
billets. When the wood is prepared for use, it is turned into small
chips and kiln dried.

The active bitter principles of the two species are not identical
but are very similar. The principle occurring in Quassia amara, which
is spoken of in the literature as quassin or quassiin, is believed to
be a mixture of several closely related compounds. The principle in
Aeschrion excelsa, which has been variously called quassin, quassiin,
and picrasmin, is also thought to be a mixture of substances which
appear to be related to those occurring in a. amara. In many instances
the literature speaks merely of quassin or quassiin without specifying
the plant from which it is derived.
~- --------------- ----------------- ---- -- -- -- --
1/ Synonyms: Quassia excelsa Swartz, Simarouba excelsa DC.,
Picraena excelsa Lindl., and Picrasma excelsa Planch.






-2-


A1TO]H5YLIOUS.
(1)
TEST OF THE QTJASSI1M OF A. V. ZEIDEL.
Kiev Soc. Igr. and Indus. Rept. 1913: 106. 1914. [In
Russian. Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 3: 104. 1915.]

The importation of quassine from abroad being prohibited
in Russia, it has been pre]?rxed byr A. V. Zeidel and the tests
conducted by a special committee of the Kiev Society showed
that this preparation is onc o- the most effective remedies
against Hyponomeutt- m linellus rnd. a-ohids. The composition
of this substance is not given, but the proportion used for
spr ying during the tests was 2 pounds of potash soap and 2
tubes of quassine (their size being constant) in nbout 108
gf-llons of water; the spr, yings were carrid out on firs ag-inst
aphids and on apple trees ainst zphido and H. mnlinellus.

-- (2)

THE PRINCIPAL qITERIES OEIV/E- N '.0 M CENTRAL P-YTOPLTHOLOGICAL
STATION DU0-ING 1914. Discesos of Plants 9(1-2): 44-66. 1915.
[in Russian. Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)4: 23-24. 1216.]

Sprn.ing with q t-sia solution is sgcsted as a remedy for
leaves of o ,k ((uc rcus mongolica) injured by Phylloxera coccinea
Heyden.
(3)

REPORT ON THE WORK OF THE RIGA DRAMITCH OF THE ILPTIAL RUSSIXAN
SOCIETY OF HORTICULTURE FOR 1914. !iessenier Short Fruit
Growing and Market Gard., 11-12: 793-817. 1915.
FIn Russian. Abstract in Rev. Ap-l. Ent. (A)4: 215. 191C]

A decoction of quassia was effective against Aphis piini.

(4)

DE BESSEIBLADWESP, PT R01US RI3ESI[, SCOP. (1idATUS V 10RICOSUS,
LATR.) Inst. v. Phytopatologie, Wageningen, Vlugschr. 17, 6 1p.
1917.

Qassia-soap solution may be used for spraying against
Pteronus ribesii Scop.

(5)

REPORT ON THE OCCUR NCE OF INSECT AM FUNGUS PESTS ON PLANTS
DT ENGLAND AYTD UAI-S IN Tt2 YE1.R 1917. Bd. Ar. Fisheries
[London] Misc. Pub. 21, 32 pp. 1918.

Phyllotreta nemorum L., on turnips, was successfully con-
trolled by spraying with a quassia and soap mixture.





-3-

(6)

THE CABBAGE FLY. Rural Econ. Com. Sub-Dept. (for Control of
Pests) [Petrograd], 4 pp. 1919. [In Russian. Abstract in
Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)9: 553. 1921.]

Watering with emulsions of quassia and soap is advocated
as a remedy for the cabbage fly (Phorbia brassicae) on cruciferous
plants.

ADRIAN and MOREAUX (7)

DE LA QUASSINE, SA PREPARATION SOUS FORMS AMORPHE ET CRISTALLISME.
Repert. Pharm. [n. s.] Il: 246-50. 1883. [Abstract in Amer.
Jour. Pharm. 56: 98-100. 1884.]

Thin shavings of Quassia amara wood are exhausted with boiling
water, with the addition of 5 g. of potassium carbonate per kilogram
of quassia. The liquor is concentrated to a soft extract and the
extract suspended in hot 900 alcohol. After standing for a short
time, the alcohol is decanted, and the process repeated twice. The
alcoholic liquour is allowed to stand 24 hours, the liquid then
decanted, and sulphuric acid diluted with 900 alcohol (1: 10) added
until a precipitate is thrown down. The liquor is filtered, milk
of lime added (12 to 15 g. eer kilogram of wood or 4 to *5 g. of
caustic lime), and after some hours the liquor'is again filtered.
It is neutralized-by a current of carbon dioxide and again filtered.
The alcohol is thji distilled off, leaving about 8 g.- of the amorphous
quassiin of Adrian per kilogram of wood.

If crystalline quassiin is desired, the distillation is stopped
while some alcohol remains, the liquid filtered to remove resin,
and the rest of the alcohol then removed. The quassiin, which
crystallizes on cooling, is purified'by retryOtallizat'on from
alcohol. About 1.25 to l..5 g. of quassiin per kciogram of quassia
is obtained.

Additional uncrystallizable quassiin may be obtained from
the mother liquor and wash alcohol of the first crystallization
by extracting with chloroform.

Crystallized quassiin is white, very soluble in chloroform,
soluble in about 90 parts of cold absolute alcohol, in 35 to 40
parts of 900 alcohol, scarcely soluble in ether, and soluble in
about 300 parts of hot water, from which it crystallizes on cooling.
Uncrystallizable quassiin is very soluble in absolute alcohol,
more soluble in ether than crystallized quassiin, and less soluble
in water.







-4 -


MLLBERG, O, (8)

1ARTTRIPSEN (KAKOT-URIPS ROBUSTUS UZIL). Moddel. Centrnlanst.
Forsoksv. JordbruksomreAct LBicdoni 406 Lnandbrukscntom Avd. 63,
11 pp. 1932

The lifo history and control of the pea thrips (kc,'.othrips
pisivorus Westw. (robustus Uzel)) are discussed. In hot or sunny
weather when the pods ore developing, some lrarvae remain exposed on
the free surface of the pods, where they could be killed by quassia
or nicotine sprarys, but those are few compared with those in the
flowers, etc.

AINSLIE, We (9)

MATERIA. IVfICA. 2 v. London. 1826.

The bark of Ailanthus oxcclsa has a pleasant and somewhat
aromatic taste, and is prescribed by Hindu native practitioners
in infusion, in dyspeptic complaints (v. 2, p. 302)

IiERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION (10)

THE NATION1L FOPE LARY. Ed. 5, 546 pp. Baltimore. 1926

Directions arc given for the proparrtion of Fluidex-
tractum quassiie (p. 95) -md of Tinctur. quassiac (p. 258).

A.NTONIBON, A. (11)

AZIONE COMPARATA DELLA qUASSINA NEI VERTEBRATI E INEGLI IYSETTI.
Arch. Intornatl. Pharmacodyn. et Th0r. 33: 77-84. 1927.

The minimum lethal dose of quassiin for the rabbit is four
times as great when introduced by wi8r of the stomach as when
administered intravenously. It is only slightly soluble (1
percent) and is dissolved in and absorbed from the stom-ch with
difficulty. The lothal doses for insects such as the silkvorm
and for the rabbit are much the same. The supposed greeter
toxicity for insects is due to an error in calculating the dose
absorbed. The seat of action is the nervous system, torpor
and muscular relaation with rapid apparent death being produced
in insects, whereas in rabbits there is muscular tremor and later
p aralysi s

A zIPOV, P. (12)

THE INDUSTRIAL CULTIVATION OF ROSE TRIES FOR GRAFTING.
Orchard and Market Gard. 32(10-12): 210-223. 1916.
[In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)5: 255. 1917.]

The rose aphid can be controlled by spraying with quassia
decoction, for which an extract of quassia amara, not of Picraena
excelsa, should be used.










-5 -


ATHERTON, D. i. (13)

E)MERIMENTS WITEH BAITS FOR THE CONTROL O CERTAIN COTTON PESTS.
ueenslard Agr. Jour. 4C: 183-190. 1933.

Bait e:,er'me-:ts were commenced with a view to obtaining
a practicable mcnthod fc, the control of the corn earorm on
cotton. One of the bIts used -,as c..npo.ed of honey and water
(i-7) cuassie c1:i-s hv'vir, leen scacd. -previously in the water
at the rate of I pound to 2 gallons fur 18 hours. None of the
baits were effective.

AVERI, V. G. (14)

ON THE ELECTED ?1P LGE' OF 1C7STS I,- 1S13. Pests of Agricul-
ture and Methods of i-g '.ne. Lu:l. 1, S pp. 1213.
Issued by the Entomolo-icn. and Phy-topathological Bureau of
the Zemr*-vo eo ho' 'In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Apple.
Ent (A"' 1 1i-1 -1

'imely., spra'-ilng is rcz.o.mended. against Psv]la mali with
the folo 5 gallons of wate' h.Lf of the w-.te -T eT& ates, when another
2.7 gallons is .rlbd .--. the lIcuor is racl cd off; 2 pounds of
green sea is thc1 added, and the whole made un to 16 to 17
gallons with water.

B., A. C. (15)

THE CELERY MLY AND PARSNIPS. Gard. Chron. (3) 61: 261. 1917.

Spraying of parsnip foliage with qucss-a extract is recom-
mended to p-revent oviposition by the celery fly.

BAKER, J. L. (16)

MALT AND M1ALT LIQUORS. In Allen' s Comrercinl Organic Analysis.
Ed. 4, v. 1, pp. 133-=64. Philadelphia. 1912.

A. C. Chapman (JAniyst 25: 35. 3.900) has devised a method
for distin 7jshi:.: between hops and quassia, which is based
upon the production of valeric acid when the ether extract of
hops is oxidized ith an alkaline solution of potassium
permanganato. T1- valeric acid can be identified by its odor.
In the case of quassia the ac'.d libenstcd is chi-fly acetic.
This matho'i is a-ooliceb~e to the examinarticn of hop-bitter
preparations (of a medicinal character), hop extracts, and
similar products.









-6 -


DUfON, A. (17)

CONTRI3XTION L' TUDE DES PLANTES OLIAGINEUSES DE L'AFRIfJE
EQUATORIALE. Ann Mus. Colon. Marseille. (4) 7 (1): 5-56.
1928.
The seeds of Quassia gabonensis Pierre (Odyendyea gabonensis

Pierre), which occurs in the Cam~eroon and in the Congo, are
consumed by the natives, who boil them to eliminate the bitter
principle which they contain, and then dry them and keep them.
These seeds are of potential interest because of their abundance
and their large content of oil.

BAUER, A. (is)

EINIGE BEITRAGE ZUR LEBENSWEISE mND BEKIPFUNG DER HOPFENBITTLAUSE.
Arb. Deut. Sekt. Landeskult. Bbhmen 34, 28 pp. 1925.

Solutions of quassia are recommended for the control of the
hop aphid (Phorodon humuli).

BAUINACKE (19)

EIN ARGER FEIND DER STACHEL- UND JORANNISBEERSTRYJUCH R.
Kranke Pflanze 2: 95-97. 1925.

Quassia-soar emulsion is useful in combating Nematus ribesii
Scop., a pest of currants and gooseberries. The spray may be
prepared by boiling 2 kilogram of quassia chips in 50 liters of
water and mixing the filtered decoction with a solution of 3
kilograms of soft soap in 50 liters of water.

BLOM, C. M. (20)

LIGNEM QUASSIAE. Amoenitates academicae 6: 416-429. 1764.

An inaugural dissertation. The first full account of Quassia
amara published.

BOAS, J. B. V. (21)

AEDELGL\.NSLUS.NE. Dansk Skovforenings Tidskr. 3: 191-276. 1918.

Spraying with quassia is suggested for the control of
Chermes piceae and Mindarus abietinus damaging silver fir in
Denmark.











-7 -


BOERICKE AND TAFEL, Publishers (22)

THE YJRICAN HOMEOPATHIC PK&RMACOPOEIA. Ed.9. 549 pp.
Philoede]ph .a. 1911.

Both Quassia amara and Picrasma excelsa are given as
sources of quassia. The tincture is prepared as follows:
The dried wood of the branches and trunk of the tree is
coarsely powdered, covered with 5 parts by weight of alcohol,
and allowed to remain 8 days in a well-stoppered bottle, in
a dark, cool place, being shaken twice a day. The tincture
is then poured off, strained, and.filtered (p. 384).
A tincture of Simaruba officinalis is similarly prepared
from the bark of the root (p, 7413).

BOGDANOV-KATKOV, N. N. (23)

CABBAGE APHIS AND ITS CONTROL. All Russian Union of Rural-
Economic Co-operation [Petersburg], 22 pp. 1922. in
Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)10: 233. 1922.]

Instructions are given for the preparation of quassia
sprays for combating the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne (Aphis)
brassicae L.

(24)

THE CABBAGE FLY. Ed.2. 35 pp. Leningrad. 1929. [In
Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)17: 646-647. 1929.]

One of the remedial methods advocated for use against
Phorbia (Hylemia) brassicae is watering infested plants with
emulsions of quassia at intervals of 4 or 5 days.

BORODIN, D. N. (25)

THE FIRST REPORT ON THE WORK OF THE EiNTOMOLOGI3AL BUREAU
AND A REVIEW OF THE PESTS OF THE GOVEREENT OF POLTAVA IN
1914. Ent. Pare. Govt. Zeqstvo of Poltava. 87 pp. 1915.
[In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)4: 329-331.
1916.]

Carbolic or kerosene emulsion an4 cW sa soap proved
successful against Hyalopterus arundIn t. (Pruni F.).

BOURCART, E. (26)

INSECTICIDES, FIUNGICIDES, and WEED.KTLIZ English ed.2.
London. 1925.











-8-
7
.:L0,:., P. (27)

THE CIVIL AND NATUbLAL HISTORY OF JR-LICA. 503 pp. Londo-n. 1789.

Of terebinthus, the birch or turpentine tree, the author says
that the bark of the root is thought to be the Sima-rouba of the shops,
which is the most effective remedy yet known in bloody fluxes
(p. 345).
CARIM INI, 11. (8

GLI AFIDI DELI PIAUE DA FRUTTO E I MEZZO PER COvBATTEPII.
Note Fruttic.?(5): 90-98. 1931. [Abstract .n Rev. 4ppi. Znt.
(A)20: 438. 1,32-]

The aphids infesting fruit trees in spring in Italy are
Hyalopterus arundinis F. (pruni F.) on plum, peach, apricot,
and almond; yzus cer si F. on cherry ; Anuraphis azygdli
Buckt. (persicae Boyj. on peach, which is also attacked by
A.persicae-niger Smith; and Aphis pomi DeG. (mali F.) which
occurs on apple and pear without doing much harm. Sprays of
quassia and soap are recommended.

CALOS, A. s. (29)

THE MANUFACTURE OF INSECTICIDES Aj2D F[-UICIDES. V. MATERIALS
USED. Pert. Feed. Stuffs, and Farm Supplies Jour. 16:
302-303. 1931.

quas. ,t wood, which consists of the trunks and branches
of Picraena excels,-3eaO. suic asvia azra, imported from Jamaica,
is white or yellowish, not hard, az-d has a bitter taste but no
odor. The wood of q. ),,xn (Surinam quas.;iP) is deep yellow
rnd is harder and heavier than the other variety. 4uasisa wood
is easily cleft and is usually met with in commerce in the
forT. of sulintery, raspings or coarse chips. The method of
making the chips and. drying the wood is outlined. The chips
are sold for use in marking home-made w-.shos or are used in
the manufazture of quassia extract for the production of
insecticides. A simple commercial method of extracting quassia
is described.

The active principle is qunssine, a c rstolline alkaloid
slightly soluble in water, but more so ia -acohol or other
orga-nic solvents. It is present irn. the chips to the extent
of about 0.75 percent. It is a powerful insecticide but non-
poisonous to higher animals.


.V I.. ,









- 9-


CARSON, J.

0? t7 2SSA AMARA, ....US. .Anor. Phnrm. (n.s.14) 20:


The Quassi a omegra belongs to the family Simarubeae
(Richard) or Simarubaceae (Lindley), the essential
characters of which are briefly given. This is a small
family, and a remarkable analog exists among all its
members. They Iave been found to contain a bitter, toxic
principle, upon which their medical properties depend. This
is the same in all, and has been called quassin from the
generic rame qlcxssia.

The generic ,nd specific characteristics of QZuassia
=mara are discussed. It is a snall trce 6 to 10 feet high
straight, irrogularly branched, with ash-colored, smooth bark.
The leaves axe spfrsc, smooth pinnate; the leaflets sessile,
in ppirs, usually twc with an odd one, entire, cllipticaJ,
acute, reticulated, 7a little revolute on the mrgin,
of a deep green, with reddening of the veins cabove,
and lighter beneath; pctiole winged, with tie joints
cuncate. Racemes long, simple, terminal. Flowers large,
scarlet, with short pedicles and a recurved bract at base.
The fruit is black and ovoid, drpaceous. This ; 2lant is
a native of Surinam, G'uiana, and other parts of South
America and is cultivated in the West Indie.;.

At the tim,- of the sojourn of Rolander, a Swedish
naturalist, in Surinam, a negro by the name of Quasi was
in the habit of treating the fevers of the country with
the root. The naturist procured some of this and took
it to Europe about 1756. He supposed it to be derived
from Zygo~pyllun -- stivans (family Rutacece). However,
Dahlberg, a military officer, had the tree pointed out
to him and after cultivating it in his garden transmitted
specimens of the organs of fructification to Linnaeus,
who determined the true position under the name Quassia amara
The first full specific account, with a drawing, wsas pub-
lished by Blom, in an inaugural essay, in the Ainoenitates
Academiae for 1763, v. 6.

According to Pereira, Formin mentions thzt about 1714
the flowers were highly valued in Surinam for their stomachic
properties. In 1730 the root is said to have been found
in the collection of Seba, a celebrated spice dealer of
Amsterdam. Hollor refers to it as having boon well known
in 1742. That Qaassia was known as a remedy long before the
tree was described is evident from the statement of Blom
that Linnaeus lectured on the virtues of thc wood. But
whether this knowledge dates further back than the return









- 10-


f P.olr nd~r is nct easily settled. In his Materia Medica,
Cullen .entions it as a bitter tonic and refers to Murray' s
.Apparatus Medicainum for an- account' of. the drug.

All part of the tree are intensely bitter because of
the quassin present. Although this plant does not afford the
article now used, a more frui tful source having been discovered
in the jamaica tree, it is of great interest as having produced
the originally introduced article.

(31)

ON QUASSIA EXOCLSA. Amer. Jour. Pharm. (n.s. 15) 21: 1-4. 1849.

This plant has been made the basis of a now gonus by
Lindloy and DeCandolle. The absence of generic characters
which would olace it with Quassia are apparently due to
abortion, and the author has preferred to retain the old
nae of Swartz. The synonomy is given thus:

Quassia excelso. Picraena excelsa-Lindley. Picrania amarn-
Wright. Simaruba excel sa-DeCandollc. Quassia polygoma-Lindsay.
The generic -zxd specific character s -e. briefly discussed.

In Jamaica, where it is (bunda:1t, the plant is called
bitter ash and bitterwood. The wood is imported ix- billets,
covered with smooth, grayish, sometimes silvery bark. It
is white, light cnd even in texture but d, r'rns on exposure.
It contains the bitter principle quc.ssn -s well as a trace
of volatile oil, gummy extractive, pectin, woody fiber, and
seIts.

Qussin was first isolated by Thomson of Glasgow. It
occurs in small, white, prisriatic cryst-als, fusible, odor-
less, intensely bitter, readily soluble in alcohol, but
only slightly so in water or ether. Its solubility in
water is increased by several salts and vegetable principles.
Its aqueous solution is precipitated white by tannin, not
by iodine, chlorine, corrosive sublimate, salts of iron,
acetate or diacetate of lead. It is a neutral body, though
soluble in sulphuric and nitric acids. its composition is
indicated by the formula ClOH603.

The medical effects are those of a pure, bitter, tonic
and roborant, 'and as such quassia wood is used in convalescence,
dyspepsia, etc. The mode of exhibition is in cold infusion,
made from the chips or raspings, in tincture or extract. In
France it is a practice to have cups turned from the wood, and
to allow water to stand in them until it becomes imbued with
the active principle.








- 11 -


The wood is excellent timber and is used in flooring.
It is so obnoxious to insects that it is sometimes used for furniture,
e.g., bedsteads, and clothespresses.

CHEVALIER, A., and RUSSELL, W. (32)

SUR UN QUASSIA AFRICAIN UTILIS PAR LES NOIRS COIME PLAkTTE
I&ICINALE. Rev. Bot. Apple. et Agr. Trop. 16: 364-367. 1936.

The authors have recently received branches and racemes
of Quassia africana Baillon. This shrub, known as Simigala
in the Eshira idiom and Isindu Igala in Punu, is employed
medicinally by the natives, rn extract of the root in cold
water being administered for ailments of the stomach.

The structure of the leaves and stem is described.
Quassia amara differs considerably from q. africana morpho-
logically, but anatomically the chief differences are in the
epidermis of the leaves and in the palisade tissue.

CII STENSEN, A. (33)

UEBER qJASSIIN. Arch. Pharm. [3] 220: 481-492. 1882. CAbstract
in Jour. Chem. Soc. [London] 42: 1302. 1882]

The author exhausted quassia with water and precipitated
the quassiin by tannin, after neutralization with sodium
carbonate. The tannate was mixed with lead carbonate (or
calcium hydroxide), dried, and the quassiin was extracted by
alcohol. The author found the amount of quassiin in the
quassia to vary largely, some specimens yielding scarcely
any. Pure quassiin, purified by recrystallization from hot
alcohol, crystallizes in very thin rectangular plates,
which are biaxial and doubly refracting. It is bitter,
odorless, permanent in the air and its solutions are
neutral. It melts at 2050, swelling up slightly to a
resinous mass of unchanged quassiin. It is readily soluble
in alkalies and is reprecipitated by acids. It is soluble
in boiling alcohol, less so in cold. Ether and light petro-
leum dissolve it with difficulty, chloroform very easily.
It is dextrorotatory, its specific rotatory power for
[ D being 3 7.8. Its formula is C31H4209. It is precipi-
tated by tannin. it i not a glucoside, but by the prolonged
action in the water-bath of Zi percent sulphuric acid, a body,
C31H3809, is formed, which dissolves sparingly in water,
giving no precipitate with tannin. Unlike quassiin, its
aqueous or alcoholic solution reduces silver nitrate. A
resin is simultaneously formed by the action of the dilute
acid. A bromo-derivative of quassiin (m. p. 750) was formed
by the action of bromine in chloroform solution. Contrary
to the statements of Bennerscheidt, the author found free
fatty acids in quassia wood, but no essential oil.






- 12 -


CL.&Rk, E. P. (34)

QUASSIN. I. THE PREPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF
QUJASSIN AND EOqJASSIN WITH INFORMATION CONCERNING
THEIR MOLECULAR FORMUAS. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc.
59:787-789. 1937.

A method is described for the preparation of "quassin"
from quassia (Quassia amara L.) chips by extracting with
hot'water and adsorbing from this solution with active
charcoal. The substance is removed from the dried carbon
with chloroform, the chloroform extract evaporated to dry-
ness under reduced pressure, the residue dissolved in
methanol, and hot water added. Crystallization of crude
quassin from the filtered liquid was completed in 2 days.
The crude material consisted principally of two isomers
which were separated by fractional crystallization from
methanol. One crystallizes in thin colorless rods and
micaceous plates, which melt at 205-2060C. It is proposed
to retain the name quassin for this. The other, which the
author calls neoquassin, separates as dense, colorless, six-
sided prisms and quadrilateral plates, melting at 225-2260.
The molecular formula of these two compounds is C22H3006.
Their optical properties are discussed. The action of
concentrated hydrochloric acid on qaassin in acetic acid
yielded quassinol, C20H2406,m.p. 2620. By acetylation of
quassinol with acetic anhydride in pyridine, acetyl quassinol,
C22H2607, m.p. 2320, was obtained. The action of acetic
anhydride and sodium acetate upon quassin produced an
anhydroquassin, C22H2805, m.p. 1960, a dehydroquassin,
C22H2806, m.p. 2540, and a third substance, C22H3006,
melting at 2140, which when mixed with picrasmin, m.p.
215-2160, gave no depression of the melting point.
Treatment of quassin with chromic acid yielded a product,''
C22H3006, melting at 2210. Treatment of this material
with acetic and hydrochloric acids gave just twice the
yield Of quassinol that was obtained from quassinol itself.

CLAUDEL, L. (35)

SUR LE QJASSIA AFRICANA BAILLON ET SUR LE PANCOVIA
HECUI CLAUDEL ZJI LUI EST SUBSTITUt. Ann. Inst.
Colon. Marseille 3(2). 3d mermoire. 49 p. 1895. [Published
separately 1894.]

Quassia africana, a plant indigenous to the east coast
of Africa, was pointed out for the first time by Baillon,
but his description was not complete, as he lacked the fruit'
and seed. The present author gives the results of his
study of the plant, which are presented under the following
divisions: 1. Morphology; 2. Histology; 3. Chemical study;
4. Physiological and therapeutic study.








- 13 -


On the basis of a rather extensive chemical examination
of the bitter principles present in the plant, and of a
comparative study with quzssin, it is stated that this
principle appears to be identical with quassin. The organ-
oleptic and therapeutic properties also support this
assumption. The plant is almost identical histologic.lly and
very similar morphologically to the American species, quassia :J:Zna.
CLEARE, L. D,, Jr. (06)

.EPORT OF THE ENT0MOLOGICAL DIVISION FOR THE YEAR 1930.,
Admin. Ralpt. Dir. Akr. Brit. Guiana 1930. p. 87-90.
1031. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 19: 629. 1931.]

The locust Tropidacris latreillei Party, the nymphs
of which attacked coconuts, had boen feeding on Quassia.

cULLE, w (37)

A TREAT ISE OF THE MAERIA MICA. 2 V. Dublin. 1739.

Quassia is an excellent bitter and will do whot 'any
pure and simple bitter will do, but probably no more.
The extraordinary commendz-tions given of it n-cr: to be as-
cribed to the partiality so often shown to new medicines.

Simaruba [Aeschrion] is P genus of the snmo family -s
Quassia and seers to be very nearly of the s..mo qu.1lities.
The virtues -,scribed to it in dkyscntery htavc not buen con-
firmed by the author's experience (v. 2, pp. 61-62).

CUNLIFFE, N., nd YLE B. (38)

THE CO!%IFM SPI1TMING MITE ON SITKA SPIUCE, OLIGONYCH'US
(PARATXRAW7YRCjUS)UUNjjTGUIS JAZOBI. Quart. Jour. Forestry
17 1): 359-362. l923-, Abstract in Rev. Appi. Ent. (A)1l:
110. 1923.1

Quassia-nicotino emulsion has beer. successfully used in
Sweden for thc control of this mite in nursrrics.

CUStoY, A. R. (39)

A TEXTBOOK OF PHAMACOLOGY AND THMAZIPEUTICS. e.. 8,
707 pp. Philadelphia -uind NIci York. 1924.

uassia, the wood of Picraon cxcelsa or of
Qu(assia amara, is listed as a simple bitter. Cnascia
infusion ( percent) is olso injected as an enoma
for roundworms in children.









JA4


DAJI' N. (0

1A 1_a-- I1TDIAN REMEI. Pharm. Jou r. and Trans. [London] [3] 1:
154156, 175-17,6, 193-194, 13,70.

The bark of the Indian tree Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.
has been chemically examined by the author, wzho states that
it posses3es medicinal virtues which depend upon an
azotized bitter principle of an acid nature, which he
names ailanthic acid This substance he obtained as
follows: Exhaust the bark by boiling repeatedly with
water and concentrate the combined "ecoctionse Cool
and ada sufficient strong oxa.lic doid solution-to pre-
cipitate the lime. Add strong basic lead acetate solu-
tion, which precipitates rum, extractive matter, colouring
matter, and excess oxalic -dciiand filter. Concontrate
the filtrate and when col' treat with bydrogen '1phide to
-orec2i-1tate the lead, boil, ...tcr. nd cvaport e Th e
chemical. properties of thne alanthic acid thus obtained
and of i ts lead Vnd lime at's tro iscusod.0

This tree possesses the characteristic medicinal
end ph'yJsiological properties of. the family (Stnarubacaea)
to which it belongs. They rese--mble so closely those of
Picreena excelsa, or Jamaica quassia tree, that the
Indian plant may safely be considered a substitute for
it. These properties are discuosed at some length.

The synonomy is given thus: Ailanutnus excolsa Roxb.;
U. and A. Prod. 1. p. 1,; Roxb. fl. ind. i. 9. 430;
De Cand. Prod. ii. r. 99; Spr. Syst. i. p. 9A:,; Wild. iv
974; Roxb. Cor. P. t. 23; Wightol il. Id. 3ot. i. 4. 67.
In the vernaculars of India it is known by the following
names: Aralu (Sanskrit); Araduso (Gujarati); har-dkha;
Mahadu.nga, Mahaniimba, (Mlrathi); Peru maram (Taril); Pedda
nan choetu, Peda! mln, Ped.da m-u (Tolugu); Arar madara
(Hindi, Allaliabad). Thc lbotnical characteristics are given.

DEssIA.ov, G. (41)

ROS: CULTIVATION IN SOIL .07 L-D ER GLASS. Prog.
Fruit Growing and T.Irket Gard., Sup. 128 p. 1914,
[I1. Russian. Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 2:
7 19-720-: 1914.]

Rose bushes attacked by Aphis rosae should be sprayed
with quassia extract prepared, f rom chips of Quassia amara,
not of Picraena excelsa. When the bushes are badly infested,
a vigorous syringing with water before spraying is very useful.








- 15 -


DEY, X. L. (42)

THEE INDIGENOUS DWGS OF INDLA. Ed. 2, 327 pp. Calcutta. 1896.

The wood of Picrasm. quassioides, a small tree
belonging to the subtropical Himalayas, has been advocated
as a aubstitute for the true qupssia, Picraena excelsa, of
the West Indies. The wood might be employed as a bitter tonic
and stomachic in the same way as the imported drug (p. 236).
DIXON, W. E. (43)

A IITJAL OF PHARMACOLOGY. Ed. 6, 479 pp. London. 1925.
Among the drugs listed as simple bitters is quassia,
the wood obtained from Picraena excelsa.

DOBROVLIANSKY, V. V. (44)

REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. Report on the work
of the Kiev station for the control of pests and plants
of the South-Russian Agricultural Syndicate for 1914.
Husbandry 1915: 532-539, 564-568, 594-599, 621-626, 655-
660, 697-702 and 763-766. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 3: 638-641. 1915.]

Quassia soap, 1 pound in 11 or 12 gallons of water,
proved less effective against Aphis pomi Degeer than quassia
soap decoction containing 3 pounds of quassia shavings and
2 pounds of green soap in 25 gallons of water.

ENDERS, L. (45)

UEBER DIE E!14ITTEL[UNG FREMDER BITTERSTOFFE IN DEM
BIERE, NAPMETLICH DERJEN1IGEN DER QUJASSIA, DES BITTER-
YEE' S UND WERMUTH' S. Arch. Pharm. 185: 209-225. 1868.

The author prepared quassiin from quassia wood by
extracting with hot water, precipitating with tannic acid,
removing the tannic acid from the precipitate with lead
carbonate, and taking up the bitter substance in alcohol.
The tannic acid-lead carbonate treatment was repeated, the
resulting alcoholic solution evaporated, water added and
then lead acetate, which caused a slight precipitate.
The filtrate was freed of lead with hydrogen sulphide and
the filtered liquid warned to remove excess hydrogen
sulphide. Evaporation gave an amorphous mass, which was
dissolved in alcohol and water added and evaporated slowly.
The residue was taken up in chloroform and filtered, the
solution evaporated, and the residue recrystallized from
alcohol and water.









- 16 -


The quassin thus obtained is almost insoluble in
water, readily soluble in alcohol and chloroform, in-
soluble in ether. It i.s not a glycoside, but reduces
ammoniacal silver oxide, dissolves without color in con-
centrated nitric acid and with a brown coloration in
sulpharic acid. Solutions of quassiin are not affected by
lead acetate, sugar of lead, or iron chloride, but are pre-
cipitated by tannic acid.

EVEBS, X. (46)

TIM CHEMISTRY OF DRUGS. 247 pp. London. 1926.

"Quassia Wood is obtained from Picrasma excelsa,
a tree growing in Jamaica. It is used in medicine as a
bitter. The bitter principles may be extracted by the
following method: An aqueous infusion of the wood is
prepared, neutralized, and precipitated with tannic acid.
The tannate is decomposed with lead carbonate, and on extrac-
tion with alcohol crude quassin is obtained.

"Quassin, when purified, crystallizes in slender,
colourless needles, molting at 210 to 2110. It consists
of a mixture of two substances: I-picrasmin melting at
2040, and A-picrasmin melting at 2091 to 2120. By the
action of hydrochloric acidc-picrasmin yields picrasmic
acid. Surinam quassia from Quassia amara yields similar
but-not identical bitter principles. On hydrolysis with
hydrochloric acid the quassin obtained gives a dibasic
acid, quassic acid, and two molecules of methyl chloride,
so that quassin is probably the dimethyl ether of quassic acid
(p. 215).

FLUCKIGER, F. A. (47)

PHARMAKOGNOSIE DES PFLNZENP !KES. 1049 pp. Berlin. 1883.

Lignum quassiae surinamense and Lignum quassiae jamaicense
are discussed. The weak narcotic action of quassiin is well
known to be distinctly exhibited toward insects (flies)
(pp. 493-500).

FRENCH, C., jr. (48)

INSECT PESTS OF THE FRUIT, FLOWER, AND VEGETABLE' GARDEN
AND HOW TO TREAT THEM. Victoria Dept. Agr. Jour. 14:
213-218, 214-317, 433-438, 495-498, 604-611. 1916.

Quassia is recommended for the control of the following
pests: green peach aphid (Myzus sp.), metallic tomato fly
(Lonchaea splendida), thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind.), and rose
aphid.







- 17 -


To prepare quassia water, soak 1 pound of quassia
chips in 1 gallon of cold water over night, and* boil
gent4,y for 4 hours. Strain off the chips and dissolve 1/2
pound of soft soap in the solution. This will make 10
gallons of spray.

FRYER, J. C. F. (49)

PLUM APHIDES. Jour. Bd. Agr. [London] 23: 661-664. 1916.

The leaf-curling plum aphid (Aphis pruni Reaumur)
may be controlled by means of contact insecticides such
as nicotine and soft soap, quassia and soft soap, or
.paraffin emulsion, the spray being applied just before
the blossom opens or after the petals have fallen, but,
in the latter case, before the leaves have curled.

GEOFFROY. (50)

TRAITS DE LA MATInR MZDICALE. 9" v. Paris. 1743.

Simarouba is the bark of a tree which grows in Guiana.
It is yellowish white, odorless, slightly bitter tasting,
composed of pliant fibers attached to the white, light,
insipid wood of the racemes, shoots, and trunk, from which
it is readily separated. Simarouba is composed of resinous
gum of a not unpleasant taste. It fortifies the stomach by
its slight bitterness, appeases pains and cramps by its
balsamic and unctuous properties, and arrests hemorrhages
and flux [d~ysentery] by its astringent and vulnerary virtue.

This bark was first brought to France in 1713 from
Guiana, where it is used for dysentery. In 1718 de Jussieu
employed it successfully in the treatment of dysentery fol-
lowing fever. Some directions are given for its use
(v. 2, sec.l, pp. 363-367).

GINTZENBERG, A. A. (51)

THE CHERRY AND ITS CULTIVATION. Fruit Growing Sup. pt. 1,
108 pp., 1914; pt. 2, ill pp., 1915. [In Russian.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 3: 604-605. 1915.]

One of the best remedies against Myzus cerasi F. is
spraying with quassia decoction, Lignum quassi surinamensis,
L. quassi rospatum, the J e-quassia, not being effective.

GLCKSMANN, C. (52)

UEBER EINE NEUE IDENTITATSRUAKTION DES QULASSIINS.
Pharm. Monatsh. 1: 176-180. 1920.
If a quassia extract is prepared by the use of a
menstruum consisting of equal parts of water and spirits, the
dry extract obtained therefrom displays the following properties:







- 18 -


A trace of the dry extract disaoived in water and
diluted til colorleS still tastes distinctly bitter.

If a trace of phloroglucin and about 5 cc. of fuming
hydrochloric acid are mixed with about 5 cc. of a
filtered, alcoholic solution of the extract (prepared from
1 part extract to 50 parts strong spirits) a rose-red color
develops in a short time. This reaction is based on
Wiesner' s lignin reaction, quassiin being closely related
to lignin.' It may serve for the identification of Tinctura
.uassiae. j0:

GOP.IAINOV, A. A. (53)

TF2 PESTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS IN THE GOVERNMENT OF
RIAZAN. Published by the Zemstvo of the Government of
Riazan, 67 pp. 1914. [in Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 3: 203-206. 1915.]

A remedy against the nymphs of Psylla mali is spraying
with quassia when they have not yet penetrated into the
buds.

(54)

EXPERIMENTS WITH SOME VEGETABLE AND MINERAL INSECTICIDES.
Protect. of Plants from Pests. Friend of Nature, Sup.
No. 1-2 (28-29); pp. 1-28. 1916. [In Russian. Abstract
in Rev. Appi. Ent. (A)5: 24-26. 1917.1

Decoctions of quassia (Quassia surinamensis) are
well known as contact poisons, and experiments showed
that they are also effective as stomach poisons. Quassia
decoction (3 pounds of quassia in 6 gallons of water boiled
down to half the original volume, strained and mixed with
2 pounds of soft soap and, before use, diluted in about 8
gallons of water) produced a death rate of about 60 percent
among the caterpillars of P. [ieris?] rapae and Barathra
(Mamestra) brassicae.

GRANI, G. (55)

DI ALCUNI AFIDI COMIUEiENTE DANNOSI ALLf
AGRICOLTURA. R. Scuola Super. Agr., Portici, R. Lab.
Ent. Agr. Cir. 3, 22 pp. 1921. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A)9: 343-344. 1921.]

Among the sprays mentioned for combating aphids is an
infusion of quassia (Picrasma excelsa) which is especially
suited for use on peach because there is no danger of
injuring the delicate leaves.







- 19 -


G[RIFF-7-TH], R. E. (56)

SIMARL BA. Amer. Jour. Pharm. 8: "?-22. 1836.

The first account of Simaruba is that some of the
bark was sent to Europe in 1713 by the Count of Porchartrain,
as an article used by the natives with signal success in the 2ure
of diseases of the bowels. In 1741 little additional in-
formation appears to have been acquired, as Geoffrey (50)
srzys: "est cortex radicis arboris ignotae in Qaiana nascentis,
c:t ab incolis simaruba nuncu.atae." Jussieu, however, used
it with benefit in 1718 in -m epidemic dysentery prevalent
in Paris.

in 1753 Linnaeus, who had not yet seen specimens
of the tree, ascribed it to a species of Pisttcia, or
Terebinthus mor btulao cortice fructu trizrJmt ri. In
1756 Browne (27) described a terebinthus, or turpentine tree,
the roots of which he was of opinion furnished, the Simaruba
bark.

In 1763 Linnaeus had cha.yed his opinion a-nd stated
that the bork was furnished by the Bursera giammifera, referring
to the Pistacia of former ecltions ant to Browne and. Sloane,
and in his alpocndix also to re-inthus amric man poLy
and to the Gumi elemi trne of' Catesby. Jacquin, on visit to
the West Indies somc years later, found that thte roots of this
Burscra f.arnishci a bark much 6.iffecrent from Simaruba.

in 1773 Wright, in JrmIc., found that it w,.s derived
from a species of qua ,z ia.o a:d senrt sTcomcihs of fruit and
root bark to Hope of 'dinburgh and. a1sm the n"t *er to
Fothcrg-ill of London, The latter transmitted them to Linnaeus.
who acknowledged the correc--nc- of Wrghtfs ob servations by
adopting this ncr.c in the supplement to his Systemo. V 'gtabilium.

The synejmy of this species appears to be as follows:
"Quassia siT-arba Lin.'" Sup7lem. 234; Willd. Spec. ii. 568.
Poiret. Dlict,. vj. vi'.5. L arck. Illustrate. t. 343,
f. 2. Botoo(W> e. ii. or 11. i, t. 76. Simarouba.
Aublet, ACt. Pai;. 4 .77. Su o ,amra Aub1. Guian. ii,
859, t. 331, 332, S. of.c: Guyjaxiersia. R ichar d. Elem. 7Ist. Nt. ii. 786, etc."

GRIPPO, N. (57)

M ZZI PER C0 3ATTEP 1 LE MALATTIE DELLE PIANTE ITEL PERIOD
PRIMAYARIIE. Picentino 14(3-4": 53-55, 1925.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)13: 32". 1925.1

izyzus pericae and 14. amygdali infesting the peach
require a solution of cabolic tobacco extract or a de-
coction of quassia (4 or 5 percent) for their control.







- 20 -


KAPE, H. A., CASPARI, C., and RUSBY, H. H. (58)

THE NATIONAL STANfDARD DISPENSATORY, Ed. 3, 2,081 pp.
Philadelphia and New York. 1916.

Quassia consists of the wood of Ficrasma excelsa
(Swz.) Planch. (Zuassia e. Swz.; Q. p ama Lindsay;
Picraena e. Lindl.; Simaruba e. fD.), Jamaica quassia,
or (uassia anmara L., and Surinam quassia. "Quaszia is
official in al ipharmacopoelas, though most of them do
not specify the first-nrmed variety. Those which do, for
the most part, employ the zyno m tPicraena. H oamy specify
instead the second-named, or Surinam variety. The
Portuguese permit the utse of both, while others expressly
forbid the use of the J'mai ca variety."

Quassia is a bitter tonic, employed in the treatment of
dyspepsia. nd anorexia following ciute fevers. An infusion
of qiassia is used as an enema for the removal of thread
worns or seat-worms (Oxyuris vermicularis).

Under "Allied Drugs" it is stated that the bnrks of
the two quassias s'e usbd separately. The wood of P.
quassioides (Buch.-Hcm.) Benn. (Nima q. Buch.-Hom.nT is
used in an exactly similar wv in India. P. ailantoides
(2ungc) Planch., a Japncsc spccics there known as nigaki
(bitter-wood), was found to contr1in in the bark a principle
very similar to quassin. The bark of P. javanica, a large
tree, is used in Borneo as a bitter tonic and febrifuge,
under the name Napawsaw. An African quassia which can be
scarcely distinguished from Surinam quassia and contains
a principle apparently identical with quassin has been
reported from the Congo region. Under the name ironwood
or Ostrya (also leverwood and hop hornbeam), the heartwood
and bark of Ostraya virginiana (Mill.) W. (Carpinus v.
ifill.; 0. virginica .) are used as quassia substitutes.
In the Philippines and the East Indies the wood of
samadera indica Gaertn. (called Manungal in the Tagala
diaect is used as a quassia substitute. The important
bitter principle of Jamaica quassia is a neutral, crystalline
substance, commonly known as quassin, but determined by
!Eassute, to be a mixture of two crystaline bodies, which
he denominated.- andfA- picrasmin. aassin is extracted by
neutralizing the aqueous infusion with soda, precipitating
with tannin, and decomposing the precipitate with lead oxide
or lime. It crystallizes in needles or prisms and is soluble
in alcohol and chloroform and in 1200 parts of cold water.
It is very bitter. The ;-picrasmin (C H 0 0) melts at 2040
C. ,nd thcI4-picrasmin (C36H48010) at P9- 1 C. The bitter
principle of Surinrnn quassia is closely related but not
identical. To it the nanme quassin is commonly applied
(pPi. 1353-1354).





-21-


HOOPEP, D. (59)

3APK OF AILANTHUS EXCLSA. Pharm. jour. and Trans. [London]
55: 345. 1895.

The bark and leaves of Ailanthus excelsa are considered to
have medicinal value in Madras snd have received favorable notice
from Ainslie and Wight. In the Telugu country the bark is re-
garded as a powerf-al febrifuge and tonic in cases of debility.
It is also good for dyspepsia and bronchial and asthmatic complirints.

The only previous notice of a chemical examination of the
bark apPecared in 1370 when iNer~yan Daji read a paper on the subject
(Phcrri. Jour. -md Trans. [London] [3] 1: 154. 1870.). He se-aXatcd
an acid principle, which he crllcd rdlanthic acid, sand also found
a bitter, noncrystl1lizable principle, but he attributed the
medicinal virtue to tho former.

The present author has examined a simple of the bark
supplied by Watt of Calcutta. The powdered bark was macerated
and percolated with rectified sirit and the percolate evaporated
to dryness. An aqueous solution of the residue. was extracted with
ether and other sol-vents, which r.ove a brown, nonbitter
substance. The aqueous .olr.ution was treated with tannin, the
precipitate filtered and mixed "ith frc-h load hydrate and dried.
The dried tanin cot.onid was -Powdcred and boiled with successive
portions of alcohol, and the blue fluorescent fluid was evaporated.
The residue was a light brown granular substance, not distinctly
cnrstclline, intensely bitter, neutral in reaction, soluble in
water and spirit with a fluorescence, not readily soluble in
ether, but distinctly so in chloroform. It gavc a purplish
color with sulphuric acid and yellow %with nitric acid. Its
solution was precipitated by iodin in potassium iodide, potassio-
mercuric iodide, and tannin. The bitter principle was not
shalken out of acid neutral or alkaline solutions by other or
chloroform. From this exninatien it would seem that the bitter
princi-lo of Ailanthus excolsa lark should not be called an
acid, but rather belongs to a neutral class of substances
related to quassiin. The cedrin obtained by Lewy in the seeds
of Simaba codron, the principles sopriratcd by Warden from
the wood of Picrasma quassioidos, and by Shimojnam and Hirano
from P. ailathoidcs, and the samaderin from Samadcra indica
may on more complete analysis prove to be one and the same
active principle, qutssiin.

ILIUCUIU, Y. (60)

THE WCRX OF TI CHIEF IISTR UCTOR IN HORTICULTURE IN TE
M=OF SALAYJrD IN 1914, Agr. of Turkestan 11(7):
pp. 620/619.' 1916. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A)5: 251-252. 1917.]

Aphids were controlled by spraying with soap quassia emulsion
( 2 pounds of quassia and 3 pounds of soft soap in about 18
gallons of water).







- 22 -


JATZENTKOVSKY, E. V. (61)

EXPERIMENTS ON THE CONTROL OP-TRIOSOMA (SCHIZONTURA) LANIGERUM,
HAUSM., IN THE PROVINCE OF TEtK. Agr. Gaz. (Petrograd)
no. 42(158): 1101-1102. 1916. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev.
Apple, Ent. (A)5: 395-396. 1917.]

Quassia emulsion (5 pounds of quassia and 6 pounds of
grey soap in 25 gallons water) was of no use against Eriosoma
lanigerum.

JEGEN, G. (62)

DIE ROTE SPINVE. Schweiz. Ztschr. Obst- u. Weinbau 27:
177-182. 1918. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)6: 381. 1918.]

A mixture of equal parts of 3 percent soft soap and 2
percent quassia solutions is one of the best sprays against
Tetranychus (red spider).

KITCRUNOV, N. I. (63)

CULTIVATION OF BUSH-FRUIT. Prog. Fruit Growing and Market-
Gard., Sup. 139 pp. 1916. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev.
Apple. Ent. (A)4: 333. 1916.]
Pests of currants include Aphis pomi (mali), which can be
controlled by spraying with quassia.

KONDRATIEV, P. (64)

ON THE QUESTION OF FIGHTING INSECT PESTS. Prog. Fruit Growing
and Market Gard. 30: 933-934. 1914, [In Russian. Abstract
in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)2: 615. 1914.]

The following recipe is given for a preparation used
with success in the author' s hothouses:, A wine bottle
half filled with equal parts of tobacco extract and quassia
is filled up with crude spirit; this mixture is left for 10
to 12 dav-, in a warm place and then, after dilution with an
equal quixtity of water, is evaporated to half its bulk,
when the spirit evaporates and a watery extract of tobacco
and quassia remains; to this a piece of camphor the size of
a walnut is added. This mixture is evaporated over a lamp in
the hothouse at night.

KORFF, G. and B*ONING, K. (65)

SELLERIEWANZEN U1D IHRE BEAMPFUNG. Prakt. B1. Bayer.
Landesamt. Pflanzenbau u. Schutz (n.A.) ll: .221-226. 1934.

Experiments were carried out with sprays containing
soft soap alone and with added agents for the control of







- 23 -


celery leaf bugs. The added agents tested were insect powder,
lysol, petroleum, spirit, tobacco extract, and quassia. The
following sprays killed 100 percent of the bugs within 2 hours:
soft soap 2 percent plus lysol 1/2 percent, soft soap 1/8
percent plus petroleum 2 perc;..nt, soft soap 2 percent plus
quassia 1 percent, and soft soap 2 percent plus quassia 1/2
percent (10 bugs in the first three tests and 11 in the last).
Soft soap alone at a strength of 3 percent killed 80 percent
of the bugs and at a strength of 1 percent killed 90 percent
of the bugs. Insect powder plus sulphur (2:1), Polvosol
1 percent, alkali and kainite solution 10 percent were also
tested and gave inferior results.

KOROLKOV, D. M. (66)

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO GARDENS. MATERIALS FOR TIE STUDY OF TE
INJURIOUS INSECTS OF TE GOVERNISINT OF MOSCOW DURING TEE
YEAR 1912. Published by the Zemstvo of the Government
of Moscow, 1912-1913, p. 1-25. 'In Russian. Abstract
in Rev. Appl. E nt. (A)l: 205-209. 1913.]

As an insecticide for the control of Psylla mali Fbrst.
the author recommends a decoction of quassia with soft
soap prepared as follows: Boil 3 pounds of quassia chips
in water for 2 hours and strain, make up to 22 gallons with
water and add 1-1/2 pounds of soft soap.

LINDSAY, J. (67)

AN ACCOUNT OF THE QUASSIA POLYGAMA, OR BITTER-WOOD OF
JAMAICA AND OF TIC4:-, A NEW SPECIES
OF- JESjITt S BARX FOU l'J T'.11- SAiFE ISLAND. Roy. Sec.
Edinb. Trans. 3: 20,-.4. 1794.

Quassia Poly- maa (Q. ex-elsa Sw., Picrania amara
Wright) is a tall tree (100 feet or more) with smooth gray
bark, yellow wood, subalternate, oval-shaped leaves, and small
greenish-yellow flowers in clusters. The fruit is a
smooth black drupe the size of a pea. There is little
pulp and the nut covers a round kernel. Except for the
fruit pulp, all parts of the tree are intensely bitter.
In taste and virtues it is nearly equal to the Surinam
quassia and is said to be safely used in all cases where
Quassia amara has been thought proper. It is recommended
for remittent fevers, ague, dysentery, amenorrhea, chlorosis,
dyspepsia, and dirt eating. The dose of the bark is 15
grains to 1 dram. A wine glass full of infusion is given
every 3, 4, or 6 hours.
LA30AIRD


7 -TA A j [








- 24 -


LLOYD, J. U. (68)

ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF ALL THE PHARMACOPEIAL VEGETABLE
DRUGS, CHEMICALS AND PREPARATIONS, with Bibliography.
Vol. 1, Vegetable Drugs. 449 pp. Cincinnati. 1921.

"Quassia amara takes its name from a slave of Surinam
named Quassi, who used the plant as a secret remedy with
great success in the treatment of malignant fevers common
to his locality and climate. Daniel Rolander, a Swede,
became interested in the drug, and 'in consequence of a
valuable consideration', purchased from the slave Quassi
a knowledge of the drug composing his remedy. Rolander
returned to Stockholm in 1756, when he introduced the drug
to Europe. In 1760 or 1761 Carol Gust. Dahlberg, an officer
.of the Dutch army and an eminent botanist, a pupil of
Linnaeus, returned to Sweden from Surinam, where he too
had become acquainted with the slave Quassi, and through
kindness to him had so gained his affection that he revealed
not only the composition of his secret remedy, but even showed
to him the tree from which the drug was derived. Dahlberg
procured specimens of the root, flowers, and leaves of the
tree, preserved them in alcohol, and presented them to Linnaeus,
who named the wood Lignum quassiae, in honor of the slave, and
established a new genus for the plant, which he named Quassia
amara. The drug was brought to the notice of the medical
profession by Linnaeus' lectures on materia medica, as well as
through a dissertation written under his direction, in 1763,
by one of his pupils, Carolus M. Blom. Rather more than a
questioning, however, seems to exist, as to the exact plant
employed by the slave Quassi. As pointed out by Wright, the
leaves pictured in the Linnaean Dissertation belonged to
another species than the Quassia amara, an error corrected
by the younger Linnaeus.

"In this connection it may be stated that Phillipe Fermin,
a French physician and traveler in Surinam, spelled the
name of the slave Coissi, questioning somewhat the fact of
his having discovered the uses of the remedy, which Fermin
states had been used in Surinam as early as 1714. It may
also be noted that, according to Murray, a spice dealer of
Amsterdam, Albert Seba, is said to have had in his collection
a specimen of a bark of a tree named quasci as early as 1730.
Be this as it may, the drug known as quassia under the empirical
introduction given by the native of Dutch Guina became known
to European civilization, and in 1788 became official in the
London Pharmacopeia. Concerning the origin of the drug, the
German Pharmacopeia, 1872, demanded that the wood employed
be that of Quassia amara. In the second edition, 1882, that
of Picraena excelsa was concurrently admitted. Either species
furnishes the official quassia of the present Pharmacopeia of
the United States" (pp. 259-61).





- 25 -


LUJIDBLAD, 0. (69)

MOROTBLADLOPPAN TR!OZA VIRIXj-LA ZET. DESS BIOLCGI OCE
IPPTPAD?,DX SCM MkDJR I SVERIG3. Medd. Cent. Anstt
Fbrsbksv. Jordbr. no. 350 (Lantbruksent. avd. no. 55),
45 pp. J.?9. [With sumfarary, in English. Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A)13S: 23.193d.0

Uniformly good results were obtained in the control
of Trioza viridiUa Zett. on carrot'o from 1923 to 1928 with
nicotine sprays, but the cost is hgh and. cheaper materials,
such as quassia, have been found almost as satisfactory.

LYONS, A. B. (70)

PLArT IWES SCIIYTIFIC A.0 POPULAR. -,30 pp. Detroit. 1907.

"Picrasma, Flume I1L5. Cuassia. Sinarru',aceae. Syn.
Aeschrion, Yel. 1.27, >A craena, Lind!. 836; Ha, Ham.,
Quassia' Simarv'ba, in pert. Trees. About 8 species, warmer
regions, ld and. Ncw !orei. See Quassia and Simar~.ba.

"a. P. &xc~lja (Swz.) Panch. (Q. etel.sa Sw. Q. polygama
Linds., Picraena Lcelsa lin.l. (Kew) S. excelsa D.C.)
West Indies. Jaiua"ca Qaassiv, Titter Ash, 5itterwood tree,
Lofty Quassia. ood, Cuissia !,ood, Jamaica Bitterwood:
Quassia, W. S. F. (in part), Quassiae lignnm, Br., Lignum
muscarum v. muscicidum; Ger. Janaika-quassia; Jamaikanische
Quasienholz, Fliegenholz; Fr. Quaszie de la Jamaioue; bitter
tonic, insecticide. (b) P. aiiantoides (3unge) Planch.,
Nigaki of Japan and (c) P. ouaqsioidos (Ham.) Dn (Nima
quassioides Eam.) of northern india 'ave the same properties."

"Quassia, L. 1762. 0Quassia. Simaru-aceae. Names for
Quassi (or (Thoisi) a negro of Surinam. Trces with bitter
bark and wood. Four species, Africa and tropical America.

'a Q. amara L. Surinam. Surinam 0uassia. wood,
Lignum Quassiae P. G., in part (See Ficrasma excclsa) Lig.
quassiae surinamensis; 'et. Q0uassienholz, Bitterholz,
Fliegenholz; Fr. Zuassie amere, Bois amer dct Surinam (Codex);
Sp. Cuasie; bitter tonic."

"Siviaroioba, Aubl. 17775. Simarabaceae.

From vernacular name of (a) Guiana. Syn. Simaruba, D.C.
Trees with bitter bark and wood. About 6 species, tropical
America; 1 in U. S. See Picrasma.

"a. S. amara Aubl. (S. officinalis D.C., Q. Simaruba L. f.).
Guiana to Brazil. Mountain Damson, Bitter Damson, Paradise
tree, Stavewood (Slavewood); in Guiana called Simaruba, in
Martinique, Bois blanc. Bark of the root, Simaruba bark;






- 26 -


Ger. Sima-Lbarinde, Ruhrrinde; bitter, tonic.

"b. S. a-ca D.C. (Q. glauca Spreng., S. officinalis Macf.
not DC., S. med'Icirialis Endl.). W'et Indies and. Central
(a) erc,'~ ~.&~~a- (, A ," trb. :",m c(] .. .s of
(a)........... vc., ..z b Ba ork, cortex
per~Jb' e, rj-p1t2. brti, te to snakie poison."

McIYDO00, Y. E., and S72ERS E, A. F. (71)

.QUIJSStA. T,,T AS A. CONTACT INSECTICIDE. Jour. Agr. Research
10: 497-51 i17.

A st cf various m-:thods of preparing qunsMia extracts
and. of th ..... f T..zhe extracts or n ahis is re-ported. It is
stated th;.., oVI 9g to the poor is~cticidxl properties of
quasin, c a.:n *never becomem e a gene:' ,l insecticide for all
aphi..s. 7 A Tol" effective ext!'b,, used was prtared by soaking
22 prf-,,i.-s .: cuazsia c1!ips in 100 -allons of fish oil-soap
solto.n (1.6 po-crus o f soan to 100 gallons of vac'er) for 24
houro',,, T results recorded e comnaraboe to those obtained by
using nicotine sulfate, but because of the slow action of quassin,
this spray is much less reliable than nicotine sulfate.

MAIENOTTI (72)

GLI AFIDI DEL PRS;0. 4 pp. Verona (Oss. fitopat. Veneto)
1933. [Abstrrct in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)22: 116-117. 1934.]

Sprays used for the control of aphids attacking peach
included a preparation called quassina, which appears to
prevent the roung aphids from attaching themselves to foliage
covered with it.

MASSUTE, F. (73)

BE!TPiaGE ZUR KEN1TNIS DER CHEMISCHEN BESTANDTEILE VON
QUASSIA A14AIA L. UND PICRAENA EXCELSA LINDS. Arch. Pharm.
28: 147-17.. 1890. rAbstract in Jour. Chem. Soo. 58: 791-
792. 1890.]

The coarsely powdered drug Qassia amara was digested
three times with 50-60 percent alcohol, the liquids mixed and
treated with a little freshly burned magnesia, a little acetic
acid added, if.necessary, to produce a slight acid reaction, and
the solution filtered, after which the alcohol was expelled at
the lowest possible temperature. The aqueous solution thus
obtained was warmed gently in an open dish, and the water was
replenished from time to time, so as to get rid of all alcohol.
On cooling, the separated resin was removed and the liquid
-repeatedly shaken up with chloroform. From the separated
chloroform solution-the chloroform was distilled off and the
residue treated with a mixture of absolute alcohol and ether;









- 27 -


this was evaporated anl the residue was dissolved in absolute
ether, which, on slow evaporation, gave crystals of quassiin,
which further treatment with ether and alcohol rendered nearly
pure. This process insures the isolation of the bitter
principle actually existing in the plants and avoids the
formation o:C decomposition products. Repeated rc-crystallization
of the product led to thC sLparation of four compounds differing
in their solubilities an. mclting points. The melting points
were 210-2i7o, 2-21, -- 0o, and 2Z9-2420. The first and
last compounds co- ld not ba further Pxa-iind bec-ause of the lack
of material; but the first agrees with the quss' in obtained
by boiling the wood witn watsr, a- in Chri;tensen' s extraction
method, and in crystallii e form and !,elting oint is the same as
that observed by !igers and by Oliveri and Denaro. Zuassiin,
melting point 215-6i7o, on analysis pave 375t460i0
melting point 22i-22G gave C35Ol. The btter principle
picrasmin, obtained ae above from Pi'racna excel-a, melted at
206-2080 and was a mixture of two varieties, one melting at 2040
and the other at 2Ci9-21 So.e co-nmerci-i crystr.lin, material
was purifiedA and the tv- varieties !ere readily isolated; that
melting at 2040 was found to ive the formvia C35 46010 while
the other gave Cc7_%010. It is pro .ab.e that q'-assiin and
picra-mi.n u ue 7no, idier',ical but :fcrm two se:rirs of homologous
compounds. To ecidate this -point, soLe of the decomposition
procd-.cts of picr:< :.in wrcre stucni d. ydrr-chloric acid in a
close-d tub- with .cras in pr cnuwed pi-ra3ni 2 aciJ d; the barium
salt of thick acid was aw~lyzcz. and showed. t'h, ecid to be dibasic;
its formation may be thus represented: C31400 (200'1e)0 +
2 iC1 C31H40O6(COCO)2 + afeC1. Zeisel' s rcactio- in which
picrasminn is trea-ted with fuming h;rdriodic acid in a current of
carbon dioxide, shows that three meho-yl groups are present,
but only two of these are attached to zarboxjl, as shown by
treatment with- hydrochloric acid. Qjirassiiric acid, C30H38010,
obtained by ODiveri and Denaro, and 7ierasric acid, C33H42010 +
5F20, obtained b:- the author, stre then the view, of the
nonidentity of quaseiin and pic-as: ,.

(74)

BBITRAGE ZUR KE~ITlq'S DER CF-.h',ISC174, BESTM:YDTEILF VON QCJASSIA
ARt L. UJD PTCh.j_ 27 ELSA LI.DS. 29 pp. 2iss. Erlangen.
Berln 180

Similar to the preceding article. (73).

MOON, A. (75)

A CATALOGUE OF TE INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC PLATTS GROWING IN
CEYLON. In seven sections, totaling 158 pp. Colombo, 1824.

Ailanthus excelsa is listed.






- 28 -


IV10',:'_T ~jTHAN(76)

BECAEPIT!TG AV GEOMITRA-LARVER PAA B GMPIPLANTER VED SPROJTNING
1iZD FLJUEG'T. Fra Skoven og Traemaredet 1(13). 2 pp. 1919.
[Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)7: 469. 1919.]

The caterpillars of moths such as Hbernia defoliaria
and allied species, which were defoliating beech seedlings,
have been successfUlly combated' by spraying with quassia extract.
This method. was employed because it was impossible at the time to
proc-re arsenical sprays. The extract was made from 10 pounds of
quassi. shavings in 2 gallons of boiling water, the fluid after 1
hour bcing Dassed through a sieve and mixed with lime wetter.

MORSTATT, H. (77)

B 0$AC1,1UGE, LTBhR DAS AFTRETEN VON PFLANZEITI EITEN
IM Ji*HE 1912. Der pflEnzer 9: 211-224. 1918.

A 2 percent spray of Floria-quassia-soap was very effective
for thc control of lea f wasps (Athalia sp.) on mustard and black
radi sh.

NAGdBAKOV, V. (78)

THE FIGHT AGAIITST SCHIZONEUMRA LI.!IGERA, HAUSM; DURING THE 1914
SEASON. Agr. of Tirkestcn no. 8: 742-745. 1914. [In Russian.
Abstract in Rev. Al'pl. Eat. (A)2: 701. 1914.]

Spr.--1g with qvwss a emulsion was undertaken -gainst
Schizoneura lanigcra in the orchards of the Tashkent district of
Turkestan. The mode of preparation was as follows: 30 pounds of
quassi a chips wcrc boiled in 6oout 27 gallons of water for 2 to 3
hours, the decoction after, vards being strained and mixed with
20 pounds of green soap, dissolved- in warm, soft water; the whole
was then made up with water to a total volume of 210 to 240 gallons.

N1?RIT, A. (79) -

SCHADLINGE AN C HYSA}IWIUMM IDICUM. Krankc Pflanze 3: 185-188. 1926.

It is difficult to control Lygus crmpestris, L. pabuli nus,
L. bipunctatus, Calocoris binotatus, and similar bugs on
Chrysanthemum indicum. Some success follows repeated spraying
with quissi, -soap cmulsion, preferably in the early morning
when the insects are still "night-stiff."

OL, I. A. (80)

THI CONTROL OF APHIS P:01I, DE GME. Prog. Fruit Growing
and Mvrkct Gard. 1 3307: 718-719. 1916. [In Russian.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)4: 415. 1916.]










- 29 -


A; his pomi, mr bc controlled by spriyLng in sping, before
the. ioves have been curled, 7it. quL.;sip crulsior witn sorp.
the cu! z ion i 2 pe-f2Yea t,; boiling 3 pmzndo of qas ia sh-Kvi:g's in
asbout 6 o o2 wactcr* fir 2 or Z hcars rd adding 2 ur 3 pounds
of soft soa.; di sUIved in a sm:vll quantity of wat.e;r to the straicd
li quo r.

OLTZI V.

COTSTiTTiII 7 U QT.A.2S!13,. Ca7. Chim. Ttr. 1,:" 7-.
i8 [i-n ite L.i, Abst-- -ct i-7 j,,ur, C^*emr.. S-c. [London],
54: .311. 138e.

OJ.. the acriv-,ivcc (f Ps.iL, q1.-.as-ic acf.d 00ms2
to be tho compound best ,,-r. D for i o to obtain
on i~'~1f.,,it into t % Cri.t. .L C s,, mL 's n. To .,JroPr-,-e the
aIciC i, is C.. ip2,,a to ":' t,, o. s'ell q tiie, of qussin
at a t,: c ('- 'iu 1cct. at C, or 1 hoyr in a sealed
tube ceith L; ,ochlor~c o.c: i (43 co.) 'iVtor with i ts o7n vollme
of at r, '..c,, ior .....p- s -paotcd fro: r c matter by
filtr io n -'pd r1oipitatc.J ito ,ato,7 he 'meciit-to, after
in tCd. in- c ad S.cvCr6C ti( fror -I.cohol, by
w _hich ,rcv v::, ....cre- IS i .'sily iv the
qaoi c aciih is c etv y s 1JJ Lcodrohl

quassic acid, CZO jjI, crrsta' izes in s 1;U!, color-
less, ironoclnic : fisms, conts'--ng 1 inrel oi' .u-t,-', wl'ich
they lose at 1000. it melts vith decomgocItion at about 244.-
2451, is solul:e z boili r elcoho2 >ub& only -aring{ly in cold
alcohol and cther, T dissolves ir ." -'ra, ad. -n sol-).tions
of e!::.1ine ca.bon tes ; zit a '>lliw-ccor, moore :r less
incli..o 1. to recd. Its atn'oniac-1l so.. O i'*vo s 'ecirittes
w i rcr-ic chlo-Lde, -.eio;:L acetat> co-oer suJ ehete, and
ferric ch.jor-7 "do, 1.d r2e& -'e es silver Liiratc- its a.queous
solution is colored sre sn ye!ow 2, ferric hloride.

In a previous comm-nication ( 5 ) assin was
reg-red rs the dinethyl ester of u-scic )ci d. -'Is the
au thor >as ncw confir.ied by provi- . methyl chlorie
is :or.od by the action o' hyd.:c.llos-c a.ci( on quassin, and
that quassic acie is dibasic. For th .s ur- se several of
its sa-lts wore pr'0ared and analyzed. Bariuz'. quassate,
C30H{36010 B forms a yellowish-red, crTstalline mass.
The lad salt, Pb, 6H2O, is thrown down as a yellow
precipitate, on a-6in leed acetate to a neutral solution
of amIonium quassate; ferric quassa.te, (C,20-01) Fe, is a
brownish-green, amorphous preciiitL.t-.

'Then a solution of ydroxylcmne hydrochloride is added
(6 S.) to quassic acid (10 g.), dissolved in sodium






- 30 -


carbonate, an abundant precipitate of the dioxime of quassic
acid, C28H3608(C:NOH)2, is-thrown down after a little time.
It may be purified by cr Istallization from dilute alcohol,
when it is obtained i-n yellowish rectanxguar prisms; it melts
at 228-.230o with decomposition.

Uhen quassin is heated with concentrated hydriodic acid
(sp. gr. 1.70) and some amorphous phosphorus for 20 hours, at a
temperature of 1500, gradually increased to 2800, a reducing
action takes place, which varios with the temperature; at 1500
methyl iodidc is produced, whilo at the higher temperature
resinous products and a mixture of hydrocarbons are obtained.
The latter, separated from the filtered and neutralized solution
by distillation with stean, appeared as a yellowish, oily liquid,
which on being subjected to fractional distillation yielded three
definite hydrocarbons. The first, boiling -t 188-1950, was
fond to have the composition of a-durene, C10H16, and by
treaticent with bromine yielded a brominated derivative crys-
ta-llizing in colorless noodles melting at about 2000. The
second fraction, boiling at 220-2400, had the composition
CljjHI'- and gave a brominzte'l derivative which crystallized from
alcohol in colorless needles, melting at about 1500 and subliming
at a lower temperature. The residue which did not come over at
2400 contained anthracene. The author considers it proved that
quassin contains four hydroxyl groups, two carboxymethyl groups,
and two ketono gro.ps. From other results obtained, which he
hopes soon to publish, it' would appear that quassin is an
anthraquinone de rivtivo.

(82)

CONSTITUTION OF QUASIN. Gaz. Chim. Ital. 18: 160-170. 1888.
[in Italian. Abstract in Jour. Chem. Soc. [London] 56:
278. 1889.]

in a previous communication (81) the otuthor pointed out
that quassic acid contained 2 ketonic groups since it gave rise
to a dio:-imc. It seemed desirable to establish that these CO-groups
existed also in quassin, and for this purpose the author prepared
the compound of quassin with phenolhk-drazine. quassin (3 g.)
and phenylhy0.razinc hydrochloride (4 g.) were dissolved in the
smallest possible quantity of alcohol, a solution of sodium
acetate added (6 g. in 15 cc. water) and the whole heated at
1000 for an hour. The yellow, r'morphous deposit formed on
Allowing it to rerivin for a doy was thoroughly washed with
water and attempts made to obtain it in a crystalline state
but without success. An analysis showed that it had the composition
C30H4008 (CN.i1HPh)2. It is formed from phenylhydrazine and quassin,
with elimination of the clcnents of van'ter, thus: %0H4008(CO)2 +
2INI2. PC30H408( CiT. iHPh) 2+ 2H20.










- 31 -


-ar1 DEHiTRO, A. (83)
0UAS-.T A TuS C03:STi-T 1C G-). 'Thin. It-1. 14: 1-9. 1884.

Akier. Jn1r Phcni. 57: -o0' 235. LIn italian. Abstract in
Jour. Chvn, Soc. [Lender] 46: ll92-1193. 3834.]

To pre par. quassin from qu-.ssia, 10 kilograms of finely
divided wood are twice extracted with 45 1. of boiling water
and tho solution evaporated to -0, 1. at gentle heat. When
cold, the q aassi Ls -re.citced by tannin, collected, washed,
mixed with lead carboncte, and cried. The productt is then
extracted with boiling alcohol, the alcohol distilled off,
and the quassin allowed to crystalliz., af'tor which it is
purified. by eeted crystall1ation froi di?.ute alcohol;
30 >ilograms of w o v 10 -, or p,' qrassin. it crystallizes
in very slen(dor, coorce, irLdesccnt, monoclic needles.
It i.eltv at -20-?LI0 ard s vey- solblc in- alcohol,
chloroform, ir -ctic a u d, ba r oJ;" other.
100 parts e' wattr at ;.2 di-oolve 0,45.2D Lerts?] Tho
aqueous solution becs 2eliow on c-:poszwc to the air, is
dextroret0tory, oxc,,csiV ;1.- bi tc:', and r7shling' s
sol.ion. 'L ul-ts o' nyses cr'c, noaly ,itI the formula
C32Zd410.

'Jhen (furssin zs hooted vwith 4 rerccnt sllouric acid
at 90 for s.me hours, it yic-!o quasside, O me p.
192-1011, by. rcm ov.-J of 2. mocce.lc of water Qiarsidu is also
forlcd i hor q-Lascin is bo-icc' with ace tic thy,-Lridc, but
if sodium Cccttc -ifs prcs nt t-a.re ; oopowrful reaction,
andl several ost '--iccs va-' o,e c p &c. d. Bromine n cetic
acid. rcts on quassin in ti. slon solvcrt, and when water is
C "rouj sub.tanc is ob inc This mclts
with dcompositin 't 1530, rrid rosults of -Mclyscs suggest the
fo rivi-, 1u H- -rCo. T1- c, on of n trick acid on rn acotic
acid solution of c:uassin sees to0 rise to nitro dorivativc,
which is piocipitated on addition of wter. It dis.solves in
boiling alcohol and, as the solution ccols, is deoosited gain
a-s -" -vllowish powder, m. p. 1300. If' quassin is heated with
cone-tratcd lydrocbloric ancid in scated tubes fo: 4 hours at
100 cth-+l chlc ri e is .,volved, ad the a: d solution, when
dilutA with w'vtor, deposits first o resiroms s, bstcane and
later a col>'lcss substance in small nodules, Tho latter, which the
ithors cil qusc c acid, C0 H9 0COOL or C2 H3806 (COO)
is :ar lcs-s olublo in alcohol than qaassin, crystallizes in
silk-y neodles, in. p. 245), and reduces Fehling' s solution and
oumonic.! silver nitrate. The )ctf on of nascent hydrogen and
of !oiling dilute nitric -,cia on qupssin gives resinous products.
Fusion .ith )otash r-d oxidation 'with chronic anhydride were
unsa'ti ofac tory.









The resinous matter obtained in the preparation of
crystallized quassin was distilled with zinc dust. The brown
oily product was trcratced with sodium and fractionally distilled.
The portion passing over at 170-1900 when rodistilled gave an
oil boiling at 173-1781 of the formula while crystals
melting at 76-780 woere obtained from the residue.

- and DEK1 O, A. (84)

QUASSIN. Gaz. Chim. Ital. 15- 6-8. 1385. [In Italian. Abstract
in Jour. Chem. Soc. [London] 48 (ii): 907. 1885.]

The authors, in continuation of their investigations
on quassin, point out that by heating it in a current of dry
air at 1500 it can be converted, with a loss of 1 mol of water,
into s anhydride, quasside, C32H4209. I heated with acetic
anhydride a d sodium acetate, however, 2 mols of water are
removed with formation of a second anhydride, C H 0., which
forms a white, pearly, emorphous mass, soluble in alcohol,
chloroform, and ether, and melts at 150-1580. Phosphorus penta-
chloride reacts violently with quassin to yield a pentachloro-
Jerivative, C-EH90eel5, a yellow powder melting with decom-
position at ls hi5is probably derived from quassin by
the substitution of two hydroojl groupings and three hydrogen
atoms by chlorine.

OZOIJS, E,. (85)

ZALIX BURTMITJ LAPU UTS (TRIOZA VIRID-LA ZETT.) Lauksaimniec7-bas
pTrvaldos izdeuns, Kr~jun pie "Letas", 32 pp. Riga. 1925.
[Uith su-Hmary in English. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
14: 137. 1926.]

A decoction of quv.ssia is one of the best remcdies for carrots
attacked by Trioza viridula Zett.

PAILLOT, A. (86)
A
LA FAUSSE CHENiLLE DU PECHIM. Rev. Hort. Algerie 26: 110-112.
1922.

Treatment with nicotine or qaassio, tmara gives excellent
control of NeurotorL, (Lyda) nemoralis. The quassia spry I is
prepared as follows: Make a decoction of 1 kg. of quassia chips
in about 10 liters ofwtater; heat for 2 hours and then cool. Dissolve
2 kg. of black soanp in several liters of water. Add the quassia
decoction; pass a little water again over the chips. Matike up
to 100 1. Spraying should be done with a spray rod about 2 m. long
rnd the loaves should be well wet. The first spr.-Z should be
appliod 4 or 5 dovs before oviposition and n second 4 days after
the maximum oviposition.


- 32 -







- 33 -


(87)

SUR UN PARASITE NOUVEAU DES PLANTATIONS DE PECKERS DANS
LA VALL9E DU RHONE. Prog. Agr. et Vitic. 77: 69-71. 1922.

The following formula is given for an insecticide for
combating Neurotoma (Lyda, Penphyus) nemoralis on peach trees:

Quassia (chips) ----------------1 kg.

Black soap-- ------------------1.500 kg.

Water-------------------------- 00 1.

The chips are boiled for 2 hours in a few liters of water.

Badly infested peach trees sprayed with this mixture on
May 14 were found to be in very good condition on May 28.

PAPE, H. (88)

TOMATENSCA.DLINGE. Gartenwelt 1925, nos. 36-37. tAbstract in
Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 14: 99. 1926.]

Spraying with quassia-soap is recommended for the control
of the bugs L pabulinus L. and L. pratensis L., which occur
on the leaves of tomatoes.

PARKER, W. B. (89)

QUASSIIN AS A CONTACT INSECTICIDE. U.S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 165.
8 pp. 1914.

Experiments which were carried out on the solubility
of quassiin (from Picrasma excelsa Swz.) in a number of
solvents and solutions gave the following results:







- 34 -


Solvent


Chloroform

Ether

Methyl R
alcohol
Ethyl
alcohol
Hot water

Cold water S

Kerosene N

Gasoline

Carbon
tetrachloride
Benzine

Turpentine P
Potassium R
hydroxide
solution


Solubility
of quassiin

Readily soluble

Not soluble

eadily soluble


paringly soluble
(1:1200)
ot soluble


osbibly soluble
eadily soluble
yellow


Solvent


Sodium hydroxide
solution
Calcium hydroxide
solution
Potassium cyanide
solution
Sodium carbonate
solution
Hydrocyanic acid
solution
Ammonium hydrate
solution
Whale oil soap
(alk) solution
Sodium Chloride
solution
Hydrochloric
acid solution
Sulphuric acid
solution
Nitric acid solut
Acetic acid solut


Solubility of Quassiin


Readily
soluble
I,



,




'!


Yellow
solution



0

ti

,f


Apparktly insoluble


Tests to compare the insecticidal action of quassiin with that
of nicotine sulphate upon the hop aphis (Phorodon humuli Schrank)
and the prune aphis (Hyalopterus pruni Fab.), in which soap bark
(2 pounds to 100 gallons was used as a spreader, showed that quassiin
used at the rate of 0.4 g. to 2,000 cc. was almost as effective as
nicotine sulphate at the same concentration, and that quassiin at the
rate of 0.4 g. to 1,000 cc. was fully as effective, killing practi-
cally 100 percent of the insects.

A formula is suggested for a spray which contains 3 pounds of
quassia chips (0.75 percent quassiin) and 3 pounds of whale-oil soap
to 100 gallons.


PATRIS, J. B.


(90)


SUR L'HISTOIRE NATURELLE ET MfDICALE DU CASSIE. Jour. Phys., Chim.,
Hist. Nat. et Arts 9: 140-144. 1777.

"Cassie" was introduced from Surinam into Cayenne, where it is
cultivated. The plant is described and the author states that,
whereas he at first considered it a species of Simarouba, he now
knows it to belong to a new genus and he gives the following
description of this "first known species": "Quassia pontaphylla,
pediculis alatis, floribus racemosis, terminalibus, coccineis
fructu penta spermo. J. B. Pat."







- 35 -


All parts of the plant are very bitter, particularly
the bark o2 the root, the flowers, and the seed&;. It possesses
all the Food qualities of ciachona, andi. fever which resisted
the action cf Peruvian bark, heve often yielded to infusion
of the leaves of "Cassie". The tealike infusion of the flowers
is more efficacious than the leaves. According to a letter
from de Cromelin and de Piedmond in 1772, the doctors of
Surinam ust; only the fresh root and employ it less as a
febrifuge than as a stomachic in the slow fevers, which
commonly follow acute fevers.

PEREIRA, J. (91)

TI2 LELUTS OF :.iATZPIA MYEDICA AND THLL .AUTICS. 2 v.
Philadelphia. 1852-1854.

Simaruba amara Aublet. (bitter siaruba or mountain
dcmson) and Picraent- excels Lindley (the lofty bitterwood
tree) are described Ind their medicinal use discussed.
-Wright tells us that no insect will live near cabinet work
made of P. (Qussia) excelsa. It has long boon known that
an aqueous infusion of this sabstanoe is an excellent fly
poison (v. 2, pp. 871-875).

PHARMACEUTICALS SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN. (92)

TYIE BRITISH PHAIvIACEUTICAL CODEX. 1768 pp. London 1934

Quassia wood (quassiac lignum) is obtained from the trunk
and branches of Picraena exclsa Lindl. [Picrasma e. Swa"rtz.
(Pla:nchon)], a tree indigenous to Jamaica. The wood is imported.
in billets and logs, which are cut into chips and kiln dried.
The chief constituent is picrasmin or quassin, a mixture of
two homologous crystalline, bitter principles,A and.-picrasmin.
Quassia is a pure bitter, employed to increase the appetite.
An infusion of quassia- (1:2C) or "liquor quassiac concontratus",
mixed with an equal quantity of w,-ter, is used as ail injection
for the thrcadworms of children. A similar solution painted
on the skin keeps nway small insects.

Quassin m,,y be obtained by exhausting Jamaica quassin wood with
50 percent alcohol, neutralizing with mgnesia, n-oking acid with
t artaric acid, and removing the ethyl alcohol by distillation.
The residue is shaken with chloroform, the latter evaporated to
a syrup and dissolved in a mixture of equal volumes of absolute
alcohol and ether; evaporated and dissolved in little absolute
alcohol. Cover this concentrated solution with a loyer of
ether and set aside to crystallize. Recrstallize from alcohol.
A mixture of two homologouis, crystalline, bitter principles.
0\-picrasmin, C35 H 46010 m, p. 2040 and.(-Picrasmin, C 36H 48010 m. P








- 36 -


209-2120 is obtninrd ,s white, odorless, crystcllinc needles or prisms,
neutral, dextro-rotatory, and permanent in air.

The principle of Surinin quassia is closely allied, consisting
of a mixture of principles, C35H46010 and C37H50010. A purified
extract, ,n vmorphous, granulated, stic1W powder, a yellow brown,
is comr.ercinlly known as quassin.

PICKEL, B. (93)

DUAS PRAGAS DO TOMATEIRO. Chaccras c Quintaes 33(2): 14-147.
1928. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 16: 683. 1928.]

A quagsia-soap spray is very efficient against Corythaica
nonacha Stal, which occurs on a number of species of Solanum
in Brazil. Attention is drawn to thb fact that Quassia amara
grows extensively in Brazil.

POIR'ET, J. L. M.i (94)

MTCYCLOPEDIE METPTHODIQjE. Botaniquc 6: 23-25. Paris. 1804.

Generic characteristics of Quassia are listed and- the
species Q. arnarc,, Q. simarouba (Simarouba am.ra) and Q. excelsa
(polygama) are described.

RIEDER, C. (95)

MTE.SUCHUNGEN UBE. DEN EIIMLUSS EINBS BITTERSTOFFES AU
DMN VORGATG DEP PISORPTIOiT. Arch. Expt. Path. u. Pharmakol.
63: 304-330. 1910.

The experiments reported were carried out to show that
bitter substances, in this instance Merckts quassin, may
cause delayed resorption. Resorption with and without quassin
was determined by the following methods: (1) The effect upon
the rapidity of onset and the duration and character of symptoms
of strychnine poisoning; (2) determination of the quantity of a
sodium thiosulphate solution remaining in the stomach after in-
gestion through a stomach tube; (3) determination of the amount
of solol excreted in the urine; (4) determination of iodine
excreted after ingestion of potassium iodide; (5) determination,
by x-ray- examination and by the usc of a duodenal fistula, of
the spod of movement of the stomach contents into the intestine&
The results obtained by methods (1), (3), and (4) support the
conclusion that certain quantities of a bitter substance may
deleg the movement of dissolved substances from the lumen of the
digestive tract into the blood. The other methods did not show
,ny difference between animals with and without quassin.







- 37 -


RITCHIE, A. H. (96)

ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY IN JAMAICA. Jamaica Dept. Agr. Bull.
(n.s.) 2: 335-338. 1915.

Bitterwood (Picraena excelsa Swz.) grows in goodly
quantity in the island of Jamaica and over four thousand tons
is exported annually. Brief information is given on its use
as an aphicide, which is taken from U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 165,
Quassiin as a Contact Insecticide, by W. B. Parker (89).

ROYE, J. F. (97)

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BOTANY AND OTIER BRANCHES OF THE NATURAL
HISTORY OF THE HIMALYAN MOUNTAINS AND OF THE FLORA OF
CASHMERE. v. I. London. 1839.

Under the Simarubeae it is stated that Samadera of Gaertner,
to which Adrien has referred Vittmannia Vahl and Niota Lam.,
is found in Madagascar and Java and in Ceylon and the southern
parts of India. In the Himalayas there is a representative of
this family in Nima quassioides of Hamilton, referred by Dow
to Simaba. The Simarubeae are as closely allied botanically
as in the possession of a similar intense, pure bitterness,
diffused over every part, owing to the presonco of the bitter
principle quassine (p. 158).

SACHAROV, N. (98)

PESTS OF MUSTARD AND METHODS OF FIGHTING THEM (PRELIMINARY
0BSERVATIONS). Rept. Ent. Sta. Astrachan Soc. Fruit Growing,
Market Gard,, and Agriculture. 42 pp. 1914. [In Russian.
Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)2: 355-358. 1914.]

As a remedy against the sucking pests of mustard, Eurydema
ornatum, E. festivum, and Carpocoris purureipennis, the author
recommends spraying with quassia and green soap emulsions. In
his experiments these insecticides killed 20 to 50 percent of
the larvae. The spraying must be done during flowering and
after it is over. He describes the mode of preparing the
emulsions and gives the cost of a vedro (2.7 gals.) as about
6 cents for quassia.

SAVTCHENKO, I. (99)

FROM THE DISTRICT OF MELITOPOL (GOVERNMENT OF TAURIDA). Hort.
15(6): 334-335. 1916. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 4: 381. 1916.]

Owing to the increased price of tobacco, quassia emulsion
was used against aphids. Four pounds of quassia are boiled for
about 2 hours in 8-1/2 or 9 gallons of water; the decoction is
left overnight to settle and is then filtered; 3 pounds of
soft soap dissolved in hot water are then added and water to
make a total of 27 to 30 gallons.









- 38 -


SC'--' 'c~ and. SC'-. OS; .,, E 10

UTJ3R DIE HERZIRKUNG VON qJASSIN UND LIGUM QUASSIAE.
Arch. Expt. Path. u..P.haxmakol. 158: 198-200,1930,

A study is reported of the action of quassia and
macerated Iignum quassiae on .the isolated, hearts of
frots,' rabbits; anfctsat.. The authors conclude that insofar
as there is any action at all the heart function is un-
favorably influenced. The hastening action reported by
eger was not observed.

SCOTT, Es U., ABBOTT, W. S., and DUDLEY, j. E,, Jr. (101)'

RESULTS OF EX PERIiTS WITH'MISCELLANEOUS SI-BSTAEOES
AGAIITST BEDBUGS, COCKROACHES, CLOTHES MOTHS, AND CARPET
BEETLES. U. S. Dept. Air. Bull. 707. 36 pp. 1918
Quassia chips were found to be ineffective against
becibugs, cockroaches, and clothes moths.

SHIPELEV, K. (12)

THE CONTROL OF PESTS OF RASPBERIES. Prog. Hort. and
Market Gar6.. 13(2): 51-56. 1916. Cin 1ussicn. Abstract
in Rev. Aippl. Ent. (A)4: 140. 1916.]

4phis urticari a and Siphonophora rubi, which are the
most corznon aphids attacking raspberries, are controlled.
by spr Wing with quassia decoction or emulsion.

SIROMOLO1, (103)

THE CULTIVATION OF CA,7LLCU-P IMELONS ITT THE EIOTAIEVSK
DISTRICT OF THE GCVER-1'.iC!T OF ASTRACHAT. Fruit Grown.
no. 9-10: 536-551. 1915. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev.
Asipl. Ent, (A)4: 55-56. 1916.]

Against aphids, spra:'ing twice with quassia solution is
ad.vised. Control measures should be began as soon as these
pests axe noticed and before the plants become large.

SPIEiTGEL, K. CTrans. byr A. J. L. Jourd.an] (104)

HISTOIZE Z LA ,1EDECIE. 9 v. Paris. 1815-1832.

According to Hailer (Bibliothica botrannica, 2 v., Tiguri.
1771), Quassia excelsa wrso employed in Europoe in 1742, but no
other author gives arx. trrce of its use until Daniel Rolander,
Suvedish naturalist, returned from Surinam in 1756 and gave a
quantity of the wood to Linnaeus. According to Rolander and Rottboell








- 39 -


"D't _e~ lta'ur Surin;a:i, Haya. 1776),
a native named Qassi sold the wood as secret re!m edy.
This -va.s the reason for the systematic name which Linnaeus
gave to the tree. Kratzenstein first made known the
difference between the wood of the root and that of the
trunk. Linnaeus had made his first trials with the root;
later only the wood of the trunk was received in Europe.
Schlacger, Paarmann, beling, and Patris carried out excellent
chemical and practical researches on this medicament.

Another species of this genus, Quassia simaruba, had
been madc known to the French by Barrlre in 1723.
Jussieu found this to possess very energetic curative virtues
in dysentery. Dgner, Zimmermann, Monro, Crall, and Wright
recognized also that the bark was outstanding cinong the
fortiU4ing medicaments (v. 5, pp. 489-491).

STRICKLAITD, 2. H. (I 05)

POISO0D MOLASSS FOR TH ESTRUCTION OF NOCTUID MOTHS.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 15: 214-220. 1922.

A poison bait used experimentvlly for thu coot:ol of the
noctuid moth Porosagrotis orthogonia 1orr. (pfc. storn
cutworm) consists of a 10 percent solution of c .nu molasses,
the 71"ucrt being wtcr in: which ?uassia chi-, have 10-nh
sopaled overnight at the rate of 2 ounce- to tc quart. In
each bottle of this solution is inserted one commercial
fly pad (conltaining arsenic), sufficient sa xcivrincs to cover
SC.nadicn 5 cent pieco (1 g,), -_an 8 drops of -,myl acetate.
Females as well as males are attracted to the bait, and with
the combination of quassia and arsenic very few are able
to lay eggs subsequently to feeding. Quassia is nonpoisonous
to stock and is distasteful to them.



BLATTLAUSE A: PFIRSICH. Kranke Pflance 4: 82-84. 1927.

Against the homey-louse on pear, various nicotine-
or quassia-containing sprays work very well. Homemade
quassia-soap emulsion has been used for many years with the
best results. Experiments by the author in preVious years
with nicotine-quassia-soap (Hinsberg) also have given equally
good- results. The materials are applied with a fine, atomizing
spr yer.

...." -- -(107)

ZUL K0ILSCHABEIMEKAIPFUNG. Krarnke Pflanzc 5: 121-122. 1928.

The following measures are worthwilo for tombnting cabbage








- 40 -


noths on cabbage plants of which the hearts have already
closed:

Spraying with nicotine- or quassia-containing sprays,
such as nicotine-soap solution Or quassia-soap solution The-
latter is prepared by boiling 1.5 kg. of quassia chips in
10 1. of water, allowing to stand for 24 hours after cooling,
decanting, mixing with a solution of 2.5 kg. of soft soap in 5
liters of water, and diluting to 100 1. A prep-ration called
Fefo-Quassia is also listed along with some other ready-to-use
insecticides.

THEOBALD, F. V. (108)

THE APHIDES ON MANGOLDS AND ALLIED PLANTS. Jour. Bd. Agr.
[London] 19: 914-922. 1913.

A spray of soft soatp and quassia (8 pounds of soap and 5 pounds
of quassia per 100 gallons of water) is advised for combating the
"collier"' or black fly (Aphis rumicis) which attacks mr-mgolds,
beans, and beets.

(109)

APHIDES ATTACKING VEGETABLES AND MARIET-GARDEN CROPS.
Jour. Roy. Short. Soc. 50: 28-45. 1925.

Spraying with soft soap and quassia is mentioned as a control
measure for the green pen aphid (Macrosiphum pisi Kalt.) and the
black fly or "collier" (Aphis rumicis-7 which attack peas and bans,
and for aphids rttncking potatoes, nrimely, the green and pink
potato and rose aphid (iacrosiphum solanifolii Ashm.).he allied
green potato aphid (1.yzus pseudosolani Theobald), the green peach
aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer), and the small potato aphid (Aphis
solanina Passerini).

TRAGARDH, I. (110)

BIDRAG TILL KA ZMMEN OM SPINKVALSTRmN. (TETP ANUCUS, DW.)
1.Ieddel. no. 109 Centralanst. Eors6ksv. Jordbruksomrkdet.
Stockholm, Ent. Adv. no. 20, 1915. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A): 252-254. 1915]

In experiments conducted against the gooseberry mite
(Bryobia praetiosa Kocli in which lime-sulphur spray 1 to 5 (210 B,)
was used, 8.5 percent of the mites survived; when the strength was
1 to 10, 8 percent survived. The bushes were, however, too
thick, which made it difficult to wet all the leaves. In order
to increase the wetting power of the fluid, Vermorol and
Dzuiton i s method of addig gelatin was adopted (10-15 g.
per 100 1. of water), the concentration being 1 to 20 of
the spray, and quassia and nicotine were used for comparison*




- 41 -


the number of mites, which on the unsprayed bushes was 18.6 per
leaf, after the spraying 4inis2ahod.-to 1 when lime-sulphur
spray was used, to 2.6 with quassia, and to 2.8 with nicotine.
Against the greenhouse mite (Tetrany;Lhus althaeae von Hanstein)
a still weaker solution of lime-sulphur emulsion spray was
used, 1 to 40, with the addition of gelatine and quassia nicotine
emulsion, 40 g. per 1. The result surpassed all expectations;
the spray covered the leaves completely with a thin film and
an examination on the following day revealed that all the mites
were dead. An examination a fortnight later showed that all
the eggs were destroyed.

(111)

VI!A VA1NLIGA SPINVKVALSTR OCR DES BEWAMD Centralanst.
Frsksv. JordbruksomrRdet., Stockholm, Flygblad no. 58.
Ent. Adv. no. 13. 4 pp. 1916. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent.
(A)4: 353. 1916.]

Spraying of plants in greenhouses with quassia is very
useful as a control for spinning mites.

TROITZY, N. N. (112)

ABOUT CABBAGE, CHORTOPHILA BRASSICAN AND PLASMODIOPHORA
BBASSICAE. Proc. 2d All-Russian Ent.-Phytopath. Meeting in
Petrograd, 25th-30th Oct., 1920, pp. 165-177. 1921. [In Russian.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)10: 433. 1922.]

As it is almost impossible to free the roots of cabbage
seedlings from the larvae and eggs of Phorbia (Chortophila)
brassicae Bch., disinfection with the following substances has
been tried: Quassia, quassia and green soap, green soap alone,
and kerosene emulsion. The plants were dipped with the surrounding
earth into the insecticide until the earth was saturated, after
which they were transferred to the field. The harvest from the
disinfected plants, particularly those treated with quassia,
Was greatly increased in comparison with untreated plants.

TULLGREN, A. (113)

SKADSTUR P1 HALLONBUSKAR. Trdgarden no. 20: 158-159. 1916.
[Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)4: 355. 1916.]

Certain aphids occur on raspberries, but seldom in sufficient
numbers to cause serious injury. They are easily controlled by
spraying with quassia.

(114)

SUADUR I SVERIGE REN 1912-1916. Meddel, Centralanst.
Jorsbruksfrsbk no. 152. Ent.Avd, no. 27. 104 pp. [Abstract
in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)6: 145-151. 1918.]
ph4oyba rosae L., chiefly on roses, was successfully
Combat -- spraying with quassia.






42: '

UPENIECKS N.

AN EXPERIMENT IN ORGANIZING GANGS OF WORDK FOR THE CONTROL
OF PESTS OF CITIES TREES IN .1915. Russian Subtropics
no. 11-12: 29-72. 1916. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Apple.
Ent. (A)5:356-357. 1917.)3

Aphids on citrus can be effectively controlled with a
decoction of quassia containing 1.3 percent of soft soap.

V., S. (116)

ON THE REPLACEMENT OF QJASSIA BY TOBACCO. Fruit -Growing:27( 8-9):
378-379. 1916. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev. AppI. But.
(A)4: 495. 1916.]
As a substitute for quassia decoction and soap, tobacco and
soap may be used.

VELICHEKEVICH, A. I. (117)

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO ONIONS IN THE NOVGOROD GOVERNMENT.
Defense des Plantes 4(4-5): 717-728. 1927. [In Russian.
Abstract in Rev. Apple. Bnt. (A) 16: 367., 1928.]

As Hlemyia antigua Meig., Eumerus strigatus Fall., and
Muscina stabulans Fall. may begin to lay eggs on onions in the
store or before they are transplanted, it is advisable that
they be treated before being planted. The various substances
recommended by others for this purpose are enumerated the
best results being obtained with quassia.

WABHL (8)

DIE BEKNFUNG DER BLATTILUSZ (APHIDAE). Reprint from.
Monatsh. Landw. 1913, Wien, 4 pp. -[Abstract in Rev, Appl.
Ent. (A) 1: 471. 1913.]

Among the summer remedies for the common green fly (aphis)
is the following:

quassia and soft soap mixture: 3 pounds of quassia chips
are boiled in 2 gallons of water and left standing 24 hours;
the liquid is then poured off; this is mixed with an equal volume
of neutral soap solution, made by dissolving 5 pounds of soap
in 2 gallons of water.
WAHI, C. von (119)
DIE GESPINSTMOTTEN. Hauptetelle fMr Pflanzenschutz in Baden au
der Grossh. Landw. Vertuchsanstalt Augastenberg. Flugblatt
no. 5. 1916. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)8: 288. 1920]

Remedial measures against Hyponomeuta malinellus and H.
variabilis are spraying ith soft-soap solutions containing
nicotine or quassia,










BEKAV1PFUNG DER SPIIT\RIBMT. Mitt. Landiv. Bakt. U.
Pflanzenschutzsta. Wien, 12 pp. n. d. [ostract in
Rev. Lppl. Ent. (1)8: 262t 1920.1

The measures _dvocated foi' the control of the rod spider
include the application, of quassia sprays.

WIGGERS, A. (121)

UI3MER DEN QUASSIT. Liebigs Ani. Chem. 21: 40-48. 1837.

The author prefers the name "Qua,-si tl to quassi:n, as being
indicative of the indifference of the materiel to acids. His
method of preparation is as foio'Vs:

The cut-up wood is repoat-dly boilOd with water. The
filtered decoction is evapo:' tcl to three-fourths
the weight of the wood usc-, stirred vith a measured quantity of
sl~eJed lime, allowed to stand for -r dty with frequent shaking, and
then filtered. The filtered liquid "s evaporated to dryness and
the reside extracted with 80-to 90-percent alcohol. When the
alcohol is distilling off a::. the solution rva".oratod to dryness,
there is left bright-yullor, crystallinc, deliquescent, bitter-
tasting mass, which dissolves readily in watcr end alcohol. To
seootrxate the quassit pure from this. mtas, it is rcpoatedlyr dissolved
in the smallest possible quantity of alcohol, a large quantity of
ether is added, and. the liquid is filtered from the material
preciTitated by the ether axid evaporated. This i s repeated until
the quasnit remains colorless. Finally the alcohol-ether solution
is poured into a little water and allowed to evaporate spontaneously
in order to obtain cnrystals.

Q-assit forms very smal, white, opaque prisrs. The prevcnce
of water is necss r'r for cirstaliization. There is alw:eys a
part which does not crystallize. Quassit is stable in air, odor-
less, and very bitter-tasting. It is difficultly soluble in water
(100 parts at 120 dissolve 0.45 pztt;, but its solutions aLe almost
unbearably bitter. Its solubility in water is increased by salts
aeo easily soluble organic substances. Aqueous solutions of quassit
ar7e precipitated by tannic acid, but not by iodine, chlorine,
sublimate, iron solutions, or lead acetate. Quassit is only slightly
soluble in ether, alcohol being The best solvent. The solutions
ac colorless and neutral. Dilute acids and calkalies increase
the solubility in water, but do not react. Concentrated sulphuric acid
dissolved quassit without coloration or decomposition in the cold,
but charring occurs upon heating. Cold nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.250)
dissolves quassit redily cnd epprently without change, but on
heating red fumes arc evolved and the quassit is converted to ox.-lic acid.


(120)


WAHL, R.





- 44-


Upon heating quassit melts like a resin and at a temperature
only slightly above that of rosin. Results of analyses
indicate the following composition for quassit: C20H2506.

WILLDENOW, C. L. (122)

SPECIES PLANTIARUM. Ed. 4, v. 2, pp. 567-569. Berlin. 1799.

Quassia eamara, Q. simaruba, and Q. excelsa are described.

WOOD, H. C., IMEITGTON, J. P., and SADTLE, S. P. (123)

THE DISPEN7SA2TORY OF THE TITED STATES OF AVIERICA. Ed. 19,
1,947 pp. Philadelphia. 1907.

Syrupus quassiae is prepared as follows: Maceate
during 34 hoirs 1,000 parts of quassia wood with 5,000 parts
of water, then boil for 1/2 hour, set aside for 24 hours, and
press; 1ii.x: the liquid with 150 )-arts of molasses and evaporate
to 200 Rrrts. From this, Fly water or fly plate is prepared
by mixing 200 -prts of the synip, 50 parts of alcohol and
750 parts of water. It is use. by moistening with the
mixture a cloth or filter paper on a plate.

"1uassi, rPicrmin excelsa is official] has in the highest
degree all the pro jc,.ties of the simple bitters. It is purely
tonic, invigorating the digestive organs, with little excite-
mont of the circurIticn or increase of animal heat." It is
useful in fTilure of appetite, constipation duo to debility
of tho muscular and intestinal coats, and dyspepsia. Compardon
asserts that quassin, the active principle, acts in moderate
doses as a stimulant to the salivry, hepatic, and renal
secretions ard in overdoses caused burning pain in the esophagus,
with headache, nausea, vertigo, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscular
cramps. quassia is given in infusion (0.5 1 fl.oz.), tincture
(0.5 1 fl. drachm), extract (0.5 1 grain), or fluidextract
(5-10 minims) (pp. 1032-1033).

WOOD, H. C., jr., aid LAWALL, C. H. (124)

THE DISPFNSATORY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AvIRICA Ed. 22. 1894 pp.
Philadelphia. 1937.

About the middle of the eighteenth century a negro of Surinam,
ncmcd Quassi, acquired a reputation for treating the malignant
fevers of that country by a secret remedy, which he *ad induced to
disclose to Rolander, A Swede, for a valuable consideration.
Specimons were taken to Stockholm by the latter in 1756 and the





- 45 -


medicine soon became popular in Europe. The name of the negro
has been perpetuated in the generic title of the plant. But
the quassia of Surinam is now comparatively little used, having
been superseded b-r the product of Picrasma excolsa from the
West Indies.

A lofty tree, soret.mes attainiri a height of 100 feet or
more, with straight, smooth tapering trunk, often 3 feet in
diameter near the base, with smooth gray bark. Loaves pinnate
with naked petiole and oblong pointed leaflets standing upon
short footstalks, in opposite pairs, with a single leaflet at
the end. Flowers are small, yellowish green, disposed in
panicles, polygamous, and pentandrous. Fruit a small W-ack drupo.
Longitudinal section of this wood exhibits elongated cells
containing sille crytal; eof calcium oxa-late. Transverse
section exhibits medullary rrJs, mostly 2 or 3 cells in width.
This species inhabits Jamaica 1nd the C-ribbean Islands, h re
it is called bitter ash.

Caassia anara, or bitter quassia, is a smll branching
tree or shrub, with alternate leaves consisting of 2 pairs of
opposite pinnac with an odd one at the end. Leaflets elliptical,
pointed, sessile, smooth, of a decp-green color on uppcr surface,
and paler on urdor surfrcc. Common footstrlk is articulated
and Jinged. Fl owers are h'imaphrodi te and decandrous, bright
rod, and terminate the branches in long racemes. Fruit is a
2-celled capsule containing globular seeds. Is a native of
Surinam and is found in Brazil, Gviana, Colombia, Panama., and
the Test Indies, as also in some tropical countries of the Old
World. The root, bark, and wood are intensely bitter.

qaassia is at first whitish, but becomes yellow cg exposure
and sometimes has blackish spots or markings, due to the presence
of the mycelium of a fungs. Jama'ica quassia occurs usually in
chips, raspings, or billets; Surinan quassia usually in billets.

A medicine was formerly obtained from Qassia mara, but
more than 20 years ago iamarck stated that because of the
scarcity of this tree q. excelsa had been resorted to as a
substitute (pp. 907-9097.
WOODVILLE, W, (125)

JEDICAL BOTMY. 5 v. London. 1832.

Under order XO0II, Giruinales (v. 5, pp. 60-62),
Quassia excelsa, lofty or ash-leaved quassia, is discussed.

"Synonyma. Qaazia excelsa. Sartz in Stockh. Trams.
for 1738, p. 302, t. 8; Prodr. Ind. Occid. v. 2, 742;





- 46 -


Wild. Sp. Pl. v4 2, p. 569. Simaraba excelsa. DeCand.
in Ann. du MUS. v. 17, p. 424; Prodr. v. 1, p. 733; Unchte
Quassie, Nom. Triv. Wild. Quassia Polygama. Trans. Roy Soc.
Edlin. v. 3. p. 205 t. 6.

"Class, Decandria. Ord. Monogynia.

"Nat. Ord. Gruinales, Linn. Magnoliae, Juss. Simarubeae,
Rich. de Cand.

"Gen. Char. Calyx, five-leaved. Petals, five. Nectary,
composed of five scales. Drupes, five, distant, bivalved,
placed on a fleshy receptacle.

"Spec. Char. Flowers, polygamous. Stamens, five. Leaves,
pinnate. Leaflets, opposite, petioled; common stalk naked."

This tree has also been known as Picrania amara,
lpicram, Xylopia glabra, bitter-wood or bitter ash.

The chemical properties of the bitter substance quassine,
which is obtained from a watery infusion of the quassia wood,
are brief4j discussed.

WRIGHT, W. (126)

A BOTANICAL ATD 1-:2DICAL ACCOUNT OF THE QUASSIA SIMARUBA,
OR A T LrE 1WH:i1H PRODUCES THE CORTEX SIMARUBA. Roy. Soc.
Edinb. Trans. 2: 73-81. 1790.

The first knowledge of cortex simaruba was in 1713 when
dePorchartrain sent to France the bark of a tree, called by
the natives simarouba, which they used successfully in
dysentery. In 1741 Geoffroy says of this bark "Est cortex
radicis arboris ignotae, in Guiana nascentis, et ab incolis
simarouba nuncupatae." In 1772 the author discovered in
Jamaica the tree which produced the bark and sent specimens
of fruit and root-bark to Hope in 1773, with a botanical
account of the tree. The following year specimens and
description were also sent to Fothergill, who forwarded them
to Linnaeus.

The tree is common in all woodlands in Jamaica. It
is very tall. The trunk of old trees is black and a
little furrowed, of young ones smooth and gray. The inside
bark of trunk- and branches is white, fibrous, tough, and
slightly bitter. The wood is hard and useful for buildings.
It has no sensible bitter taste. The branches are alternate
and spreading. The leaves are numerous and alternate,
smooth, shining, deep green on the upper side, and white on
the under side. The flowers are yellow and placed on
spikes. The fruit is an oval, black, smooth, shining drape.





- 47 -


The pulp is a nauseous sweet, the nut is flattened and winged
on one side, the kernel small, flat, and sweet. The thick
roots have a rough, scaly, warted bark, which is yellow and
bitter but not disagreeable. The tree is known in Jamaica as
mountain damson, bitter damson, and stavewood. It is
dioecious. Simaruba is employed in the treatment of dysentery,
lienteria, habitual colics, immoderate fluxes of the menses
from piles, and as a vermifuge. It is administered as follows:
2 drams simaruba bark, boiled from 24 ounces of water to 12
ounces and then strained. This is divided in 3 equal parts and
the whole taken in 24 hours.

ZACHsR., F. (127)

SOMMERGEFAHMEN IfR DIE FABRIIATION IND MN HANDEL VON
StSSWAMREN. ,$itt. Gen. Vorratsschutz 3(4): 45-56. 1927.
[Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)15: 558. 1927.]

In the case of a severe infestation of cacao by
Ephestia elutella (Hbn.) the larvae climb the walls of the
store-room to pupate high up. The walls and ceiling may be
washed with a solution prepared as follows: 3 pounds of
quassia chips are boiled in 2 gallons of water, and after
standing for 24 hours the decoction is poured off and mixed
with a solution of 5 pounds of soft soap in 1 gallon of water,
and finally diluted to 20 gallons.







- 48-


SUBJECT INDEX

(References are ,made to the citations :by number)


Aeschrion sp., 70
Ague, 67
Ailanthic acid, 40, 59
Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., 9, 40, 59, 75
Almond, Hyalopterus arundinis F. (prn F.) on, 28
Amenorrhea,. 67
Anhydroquassin, 34
Anorexia', 58
Anuraphis amygdali Buckt. (persicae Boy.), 28
Anuraphis persicae-niger Smith, 28
Aphids, 1, 3, 12,_18, 23, 28, 41, 44, 48., 49, 55, .60, 63, 72, 80, 89
96, 99, 102, 103, 108, 109, 113, 115, 118
Aphis brassicae, 23
Aphis pom De (Mali F.) 28, 44, 63, 80
Aphis pr4 Reaumur, 3, 49
Aphis rosae, 41
Aphis rumicis L., 108, 109
Aphis solanina Passerini, 109
Aphis urticaria, 102
Apple, aphids on, 1, 28
----, Aphis pomi (mali), on, 28
Apricot, Hyalopterus arundinis (pruni) on, 28
Arsenic, 105
Ash-leaved quassia, 125
Athalia sp., 77
Baits, 13, 105
Barathra brassicae, 54
Beans, Aphis rumicis on, 108, 109
Macrosiphum pisi on, 109
Bedbugs, 101
Beech, Hybernia defoliaria on, 76
Beets, Aphis rumicis on, 108
Bitter-ash, 70, 124, 125, 130
Bitter damson, 70, 126
Bitter properties of quassia, 37, 39, 42, 43, 58, 92, 123
Bitter simaruba, 91
Bitterwood, 58, 70, 96, 125
Black fly, 108, 109
Black radish, Athalia sp. on, 77
Brevicoryne brassicae L., 23
Bryobia praetiosa K., 110
Cabbage, Phorbia (Chortophila) brassicae on, 112
Cabbage aphis, 23
Cabbage fly, 6
Cabbage moths, 107







49 -


Cacao, Ephestia elutella Hb. in stored, 127
Calocoris binotatus, 79
Camphor, 64
Cantaloupes, aphids on, 103
Carpinus virginiana Mill., 58
Carpocoris purpureipennis, 98
Carrots, Trioza viridula Zett. on, 69, 85
"Cassie" 90
Caterpillars, 76
Cats, action of quassia on hearts of, 100
Cedrin, 59
Celery fly, 15
Celery leaf bugs, 65
Chermes piceae, 21
Cherry, Myzus cerasi, F. on 28
Chlorosis, 67
Chortophila brassicae, 112
Chrysanthemum indicun, Lu campestris, L. pabulinus, L. bipunctatus,
ar. Calocoris binotatus on 79
Citrus, aphids on, 115
Clothes 73ths, 101
Cockroa( tes, 101
Coissi (see Quassi)
Colic, 126
Collier, 108, 109
Conifer spinning mite, 38
Constipation, 123
Corn ear worm, 13
Corythaica monacha Stal., 93
Cotton, corn ear worm on, 13
Cruciferous plants, Phorbia brassicae on, 6
Currants, Nematus ribesii Scop., on, 19
Damson, bitter, 70, 126
mountain 70, 91, 126
Dehydroquassin, 34
Dirt-eating 67
Dysentery 27, 37, 50, 67, 104, 126
Dyspepsia, 9, 31, 58, 59, 67, 123
Ephestia elutella Hb., 127
Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm., 61
Bumerus strigatus Fall., 117
Burydema festivum, 98
Eurydema ornatum, 98
Febrifuge, 58, 59, 69, 90
Fefo-quassia, 107
Firs, aphids on, 1
Chermes piceae and Mindarus abietinus on, 21
Fluid extract of quassia, 10, 52, 123
Fly-poison, 91, 123
Frogs, action of quassia on hearts of, 100
Fumigation, 64








- 50 -


Gelatine, 110
Gooseberries, Bryobia praetiosa K. on 110
..... ,Nematus ribesii Scop. on, 19
Gooseberry mite, 110
Green and pink potato and rose aphis, 109
Green fly, 118
Green pea aphis, 109
Green peach aphis, 48, 109
Green potato aphis, 109
Greenhouse mite, 110
Heart fiinction, action of quassia on, 110
Honey-Iouse, 106
Hop apnis, 18, 89
Hop-hornbeam, 58
Hops, 16
Hyalopterus arundinis L. (pruni F.) 25, '8, 89
Hybernia defoliaria, 76
Hylemia brassicae, 24
Hylemyia artiqua Mg., 117
Hyponomeuta malinellus, 1, 119
Hy-ponomeuta variabilis, 119
Insect powder, 65
Ironwood, 58
Jamaica bitterwood, 70
Jamaica quassia, 12, 22, 29, 31, 39 43, 46, 47, 58, 70, 89, 91,
92, 96, 123, 124, 126
Java quassia, 51
Kainite, 65
Kakothrips pisivorus Westw. (robustus Uzel), 8
Kerosene emulsion, 112
Leaf wasps, 77
Leaf-curling plum aphis, 49
Lever-wood, 58

Lime water, 76
Locust on Quassia, 36
Lofty bitterwood tree, 91
Lofty quassia, 70, 125
Lonchaea splendida, 48
Lyda nemoralis, 86, 87
L bipunctatus, 79
Lygus campestris, 79
Lygus pabulinus L., 79, 88
Lygus pratene4 L., 88
Lysol, 65
Macrosiphum pisi Kalt., 109
Macrosiphum solanifolii Ashmead, 109
Mamestra brassicae, 54
Mangolds, Aphis rumicis on, 108
Menorrhagia, 126
Metallic tomato fly, 48







- 51 -


Mindarus abietinus, 21
Moths, clothes, 101
Mountain damson, 70, 91, 126
Muscina stabulans Fall., 117
Mustard, Athalia sp. on, 77
Mustard, Eurydema ornatum, E. festivum and Carpocoris purpureipennis
on, 98
Myzus amygdala, 57
Myzus cerasi F., 28, 51
Myzu .s persicae Sulz., 57, 109
Myzus pseudosolani Theobald, 109
Mzus sp., 48
Nematus ribesii Scop., 19
Neoquassin, 34
Neurotoma nemoralis, 86, 87
Nicotine, 8, 38, 49, 69, 86, 106, 107, 110, 119
Nicotine sulphate, 89
Nima quassioides, 58, 70, 97
Niota, 97
Noctuid moths, 105
Oak, Phylloxera coccinea Heyden oa, 2
Odyendyea gabonensis Pierre, 17
Oligonychus uniungais Jacobi, 38
Onions, iylemYja antigua, Eumerus strigatus, and Muscina stabulans
on, 117
Ostrya virginiana W. virginicaa W.), 58
Oxyuris vermicularis, 58
Paradise tree, 70
Paratetranycbas unijnguis Jacobi, 38
Pea thrips, 8
Peach, Anuraphis amygdali Buckt. (persicae Boy.) and A. persicae niger
Smith on, 28
-- aphids on 28, 55, 72
-, alopterus arundinis (prui) on, 28
MYzus persicae and M. amygdali on, 57
-, Neurotoma (Lda, Pemphylus) nemoralis on, 86, 87
Pear, Aphis pomi (mali) on, 28
honey-louse on, 106
Peas, Macrosiphum pisi and Aphis rumicis on, 109
)etroleu 65
Phorbia orassicae Bch., 6, 24, 112
Phorodon humuli Schrank, 18, 89
Phyllotreta nemorum L., 5
Phylloxera coccinea Heyden, 2
Picraena excelsa Lindl., 12, 29, 31, 40 43, 58, 70, 73, 91, 92, 95,
96, 100, 124, 129
Picrania amara, Wright 31, 67, 125
Picrasma ailantoides Planch., 58, 59, 70, 73
Picrasma excelsa Planch., 22, 39, 46, 55, 58, 70, 89, 92, 123, 124
Picrasma Javanica, 58
Picrasma quassioides Benn., 42, 58, 59, 70
Picrasmic acid, 46, 73







- 52 -


Picrasmin, 34, 73
alpha-Picrasmin, 46, 58, 92
beta-Picrasmin, 46, 58, 92
,P[ieris?] rapi, 54
Piles, 126
Plmn, Hyalopterus arundinis (pruni) on, 28
Polvosol, 65
Porosagrotis orthogonia Morr., 105
Potato, I-acrosiphum solanifolii, Myzus pseudosolani, Muzus persicae,
and Aphis solaniana on, 109
Prune aphis, 89
Psylla mnli Forst., 14, 53, 66
Pteronus ribesii Scop., 4
qaacy see FctSsi)
kuassi, 30, 68, 104, 123
Quassia, Tropidacris 1atreillei on, 36
Quassia africana Bailon, 32, 35
quasi rnnara L., 7, 12, 20, 22, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 39, 41, 46,
58, 67, 68, 70, 73, 86, 93, 9,1, 122, 124
quas i o excels. Swz., 31, 58, 67, 70, 91, 94, 104, 122, 124, 125
*:-ssia gabonensis Pierre, 17
Quasi. insecticides, 1-6, 8, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21
23-25, 28, 41, 44, 18, 49, 51, 53-55,
57, 60-63, 65, 66, 69, 76, 77, 78-80,
85, 86-89, 93, 98, 99, 102,103, 106-120, 127
QuassiL polygmna Linds., 31., 58, 67, 70, 9 4, 125
Qusoi a rospatum, 51
Quassi a simaruba L., 56, 94, 10,, 122, 126 1
Quassia surin~mensis, 55
Quassia-4honey bmit, 13
quassin-nicotine emulsion, 38
Quassia-sofp sprays, 1, 4-6, 14, 19, 25, 28, 44, 48, 49, 54, 60-62,
65, 66, 77, 78-80, 86-89, 93, 97, 98, 99,
106-109, 112, 115, 116, 118, 119
quassic acid, 46, 81-83
quasside, 83, 84
Quassiin, 7, 11, 33, 45, 47, 58, 59, 73, 75, 89, 93, 96, 100
Qiaassiinic acid, 73
Quassin, 1, 7, 11, 29, 31, 33-35, 45-47, 58, 59, 73, 81-84,
89, 92, 95-97, 121, 123, 125
Quassin, anhydro, 34
-.. ., dehydro, 34
neo, 34
Quas sina, 72
Quassine, 1, 29, 97, 125
Quassinol, 34
Quassit, 121
Quassy (see Quassi)
Rabbit, action of quassia on heart of, 100
lethal dose of quassiin for, 11







- 53


R~dish, Athalia sp. on, 77
Raspberry, aphids on, 113
.----, APhis urticaria and Si~honophora rubi on, 102
Red spider, 62, 120
Resorption, delayed, 95
Rose, Aphis rosae on, 41
--- ------ Typhocyba rose on, 114
Rose aphis, 12, 48-
Roundworms, 39
Samadera, 97
Samadera indica Gaertn., 58, 59
amadrin, 59
8chizoneura lanigerum, 61, 78
ea tworms, 58
Silkworm, lethal dose of quassiin for, 11

timaba cedron, 59
Simauba e Simaruba)
Simuraba, 27, 37, 50, .56
Simarub amara Aubl., 56, 70, 91, 94
S"imuba iesa DC., 31, 58, 70, 124, 125
Simaiuba glauca D.C.. 70
Simaruba guyanensis Richard, 56
Sim ruba officinalis, D. 0., 22, 56
Simaruba officinalis MacF,,. 70
Simaruba versicolor St. Hil., 70
Siphonophora rubi, 102
Sitka spruce, Oligogyhus uniipgis Jacobi on, 38
Slavewood, 70
Small potato aphis, 109
Soap, 1, 4, 5, 6, 14, 19, 25, 28, 44, 48, 49, 54, 60-62, 65,
66, 77, 78-80, 86-89, 93, 98, 99, 106-109, 112,
115, 116, 118, 119
Soap bark, 89
Solanum sp., Corythaica monacha StSl. on, 93
Solubility of quassin, 89
Spinning mites, 111
Spirit, 64, 65
Sproys, 1-8, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 23-25, 28, 41, 44, 48,
49, 51, 53-55, 57, 60-63, 65, 66, 69, 72, 76, 77,
78-80, 85, 86-89, 93, 97, 98, 99, 102, 103, 106-111,
113-116, 118-120
Stavewood, 70, 126
Substitutes, quassia, 58
Sulphur, 65
Surinam quassia, 7, 12, 22, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 39, 41, 46, 47, 51,
54, 58, 70, 86, 93, 94, 104, 122, 124
Synonomy, 31, 40, 56, 58, 67, 70, 124, 125
Syrup of quassia, 123










Terebinthus, 27
Tetr4&hus, 62
Tetranychus althaeae von Hanstein, ,10
Threadworms, 58, 92
Thrips, 48
Thrips, pea, 8
Thrips tabaci Lind., 48
Tincture of quassia, 10, 22, 52, 123
Tincture of Simaruba officinalis, 22
Tobacco, 99, 116, 121
Tobacco extract, 57, 64, 65
Tomatoes, I~gus pabulinus and L. pratensis on, 88
Tonic properties of quassia, 31, 59, 104, 123
Toxicity of quassiin, 11
Trioza viridula Zett., 69, 85
Tropidacris latreillei Pnrty, 36
Turnips, Phyllotreta nemorum on, 5
Turpentine tree, 27
Typhlocyba rose L., 114
Vermifuge, 58, 92, 126
Vittmannia, 97
Wasps, lenf, 77
Xylopia glabr 125
Xkrlopicrum, 125






- 55 -


CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX


Year


1743
1764
1777
1789
1790
1794
17 2
1804
1815-32
1824
1826
1832
1836
1837
1839
1848
1849
1852-54
1868
1870
1882 L?]
1883
1384
1885
1887
1888
1890
1895
1896
1907
1909
1910


Reference No.


50
20
90
27,37
126
86
122
94
104
75
9
126
56
121
97
30
31
91
45
40
33
7, 47
83
84
81
82
73, 74
35,59
42
70, 123
16
95


Y car

1911
1913

1914

1915

1916



1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922

1923
1924
1925

1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1936
1937


Rcfercncc No.


Z2
14, 26, 66, 77,
108, 118
1, 41, 53, 64,
78, 89, 98
2, 3, 25, 44, 51,
96, 103, 110,
12, 48, 49, 54,
58, 60, 61, 80,
99, 102, 111,
113-115, 119
4, 15
5, 21, 62, 63, 101
6, 76
52, 120 [?J
55, 68, 71, 112,117
23, 86, 87, 90, 91
105, 109
38
39
18, 19, 43, 57, 85,
88, 109
10, 46, 79
11, 106, 117, 127
17, 93, 107
24, 69
100
28, 29, 36
8
13, 72
65, 92
32
34, 124





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
56 -3 12 09236 6904


JUNIOR AUTHOR INDX




Abbott, W. S., 101
Boning, K., 65
Caspari, C., 58
Dencro, A., 83, 84
Dudley, J. E., Jr., 101
Ljawcll, C. H., 124
Moreaux, 7
Remington, J. P., 123
Rusby, H. ., 58
Russell', W., 32
Ryle, G. B., 38
Sactler, S. P., 123
Schlossmarn, H., 100
Sievers, A. F., 71
Tafel, 22