Information about bee culture

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Title:
Information about bee culture
Physical Description:
10 p. : ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
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United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Rev.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Bee culture -- United States   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"E-276, Revised ; February 1953."

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030269063
oclc - 778690456
System ID:
AA00022972:00001

Full Text
STATE; PAI\
February 1953 E-276, Revised


United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


INFORMATION ABOUT BEE CULTURE


Most persons appreciate that the only source of honey and beeswax
is the honey bee. Few realize, however, that, although this insect in
the United States produces in excess of 200 million pounds of honey and
4 million pounds of beeswax annually, these are merely by-products, and
that its principal role is in the pollination of some 50 agricultural
crops for the production of seed and fruit. While many other insects
are of value as pollinators, their numbers have been so depleted in the
course of agricultural development that they can no longer be relied
upon. In practically all agricultural areas honey bees are now the most
numerous flower-visiting insects. The transfer of pollen from flower to
flower is so essential that beekeeping must be carried on to maintain a
profitable agriculture.

Although keeping bees on a commercial scale requires that they be
located in areas with an abundant acreage of honey plants, a person can
keep a few colonies as a hobby, or to furnish honey for his table, or to
increase the supply of pollinating insects in practically all cultivated
areas of the country. Because bees can be kept so universally, many
persons own bees,but not enough keep bees efficiently or make beekeeping
a specialty. Efficiency in beekeeping is based upon a thorough knowledge
of the life and behavior of bees, the proper use of equipment, and careful
attention to marketing problems.

This circular lists publications on bee culture issued by the
Department of Agriculture and its State cooperators, and also books and
journals. It lists bee supply houses and beekeeping organizations. The
beekeeping activities of the Department of Agriculture are outlined and a
few paragraphs giving advice to beginners are included. If your beekeeping
questions are not answered in this and other Department publications,
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine will be glad to render
further assistance. Address all inquiries to Division of Bee Culture and
Biological Control, Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Md.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLICATIONS

Some of the following publications are available for free distribution.
All are obtainable by purchase from the Superintendent of Documents,
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C., or can be consulted in
libraries. Do not send money or any other kind of remittance for
publications to the Division of Bee Culture and Biologoical Control.





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Farmers' Bulletins:
Cents
961, Transferring Bees to Modern Hives........................5
1713, Treatment of American Foulbrood...........................5

Circulars:

386, The Wax Moth and Its Control ........................... ...5
392, Diagnosing Bee Diseases in the Apiary.................... .5
554, Honey and Pollen Plants in the United States.............10
650, Factors Affecting Usefulness of Honey Bees in
Pollination............... ............. .......... .. 10
702, Productive Management of Honey Bee Colonies
in the Northern States .................................10
876, Use of Honey Bees in Alfalfa Seed Production ............. 5

Technical Bulletins:

656, Cost of Producing Extracted Honey in California ...........10
716, Investigations of the Physical and Chemical
Properties of Beeswax........................ ..... ....... 5

The following publications of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine are obtainable without cost from that Bureau, Washington
25, D. C., or from the Division of Bee Culture and Biological Controls

E-297, List of Dealers in Beekeeping Supplies, Package Bees,
and Queens.
E-531, The Use of Pollen Traps and Pollen Supplements in
Developing Honey Bee Colonies.
E-536, The Role of Pollen in the Economy of the Hive.
E-693, Two-Queen Colony Management.
E-749, Bee-Gathered Pollen in Various Localities of the
Pacific Coast.
E-763, Tests with DDT on Honey Bees in Small Cages.
ET-250, A Manual for the Artificial Insemination of Queen Bees.
ET-291, Thresher and Separator for Red Clover Seed Samples.

FEDERAL-STATE COOPERATIVE PUBLICATIONS

The following State publications, reporting investigations in
cooperate on with the United States Department of Agriculture, can be
obtained from the indicated State Agricultural Experiment Station or
consulted in libraries:

Nectar and Pollen Plants of Oregon, by H. A. Scullen and George H.
Vansell. Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 412, 1942.

The Beginner Beekeeper in Louisiana, by E. Oertel. Louisiana State
Department of Agriculture and Immigration. Ed. 2, 1947.

Pollen and Nectar Plants of Utah, by George H. Vansell. Utah
Agricultural Experiment Station, Circular 124. 1949.





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Growing Alfalfa for Seed in Utah (Contains section on pollinating
insects by G. E. Bohart, G. F. Knowlton, W. P. Nye, and F. E. Todd).
Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Circular 125. 1950.

Feeding Pollen Supplement and Pollen Substitutes to Honey Bees, by
". Levin, W. Nye, G, Knowlton. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station,
Bulletin 237. 1951.

Honey Bees for Higher Yields of Alfalfa Seed in Utah, by G. Bohart,
G. Knowlton. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Circular 154. 1951.

Other information available from various agencies in the Department
of Agriculture is indicated below:

Semi-monthly Honey Report. This report, issued on the 1st and 15th
of each month, gives quotations on honey and beeswax, the condition
of bees and honey plants, data on imports and exports of honey,
and other pertinent information relating to the marketing of honey
and beeswax. Copies are available without cost through the
Production and Marketing Administration, Washington 25, D. C.

Production Statistics. Honey and Beeswax Production. This is an
annual report usually issued in January. Gives statistics on the
number of colonies, and production of honey and beeswax. Available
without cost from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Washington 25,
D. C. An annual report on the number of queen bees and pounds of
package bees shipped is available from the same source.

United States Standards for Grades of Extracted Honey Effective
April 15, 1951. Send request to Processed Products Standardization
and Inspection Division, Fruit and Vegetable Branch, Production
and Marketing Administration, Washington 25, D. C.

Honey Diversion Program. Payments of 41 cents per pound are made on
honey sold by packers or dealers to manufacturers for use in
approved new outlets. Further information available from the
Fruit and Vegetable Branch, Production and Marketing Administration,
Washington 25, D. C.

Honey Export Subsidy Program. Payments of 4j cents per pound or up
to 50 percent of the f.a.s. price, whichever is lower, are made
to exporters of honeys meeting set specifications. Information
available from Fruit and Vegetable Branch, Production and Marketing
Administration, Washington 25, D. C.

Honey Price Support Program. The Agricultural Act of 1949 makes honey
price support for beekeepers mandatory at levels ranging from
60 to 90 percent of parity. The 1952 program provides for the
support of most flavors of honey meeting U. S. Grade C specifications
at an average of 11.4 cents per pound delivered in 60 pound or






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larger containers, through approved farm-storage or warehouse-storage
loans or purchase agreements. Honey on which loans are not repaid
will be taken over by CCC. Most of the honey acquired by the Department
is utilized in school lunch and institutional feeding outlets.
Inquiries on this subject should be addressed to Fruit and Vegetable
Branch, Production and Marketing Administration, Washington 25, D. C.
t
Permanent Glass Color Standards for Extracted Honey, Circular 307,
Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry. Obtainable from
Eastern Regional Research Laboratory, Philadelphia 18, Penna.

Honey-Marketing Cooperatives. Information obtainable from Farm Credit
Administration, Washington 25, D. C.

Motion Picture Film. "The Realm of the Honey Bee". This is a silent
four-reel film showing the life history and behavior of the honey bee.
It is replete with close-ups of bees gathering nectar and pollen,
performing the "food dance", and driving out drones and robber bees.
It shows how bees sting, and also records a fatal encounter between
rival queens. The film closes showing how honey is removed from
the hives and prepared for market, and a few of the ways in which
honey can be used. Copies of this film in 35-millimeter width may
be purchased through the Motion Picture Service, Office of
Information, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C.
Copies of 16-millimeter width may be purchased direct from United
World Film, Inc., 1445 Park Ave., New York 29, N. Y.

BEE SUPPLY HOUSES

C. W. Aeppler Co................................Oconomowoc, Wis.
Dadant and Sons..... .... ........................Hamilton, Ill.
Diamond Match Co................................Chico, Calif.
Walter T. Kelley Co.............................Clarkson, Ky.
Leahy Manufacturing Co.......................... Hi.ginsville, Uo.
G. B. Lewis Co................... ...... ..........Watertown, Wis.
August Lotz Co ................................ . Boyd, Wis.
Marshfield Mfg. Co., Inc..................W.....Marshfield, Wis.
Fred W. Muth Co........... ........ ........ ..Cincinnati, Ohio
A. I. Root Co............. ........ ... ............Medina, Ohio
Williams Brothers Mfg. Co........................Portland, Oreg.
A. G. woodman Co............................... .Grand Rapids, Mich.
Superior Honey Co...............................Ogien, Utah,and
Los Angeles, Calif.
The Hubbard Apiaries............................Onsted, Mich.

See also: List of Dealers in Beekeeping Supplies,
Package Bees, and Queens. U. S. Bur. Ent.
and Plant Quar. E-297





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BOOKS ON BEEKEEPING

Books for sale by bee supply houses (see page 4) and book dealers.
Prices are approximate. Some of these books may be in your public library.

ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture (1950)........ A. I. and E. P. Poot....63.95
Allen Latham's Bee Bee Book (1949).......Allen Latham............ 2.95
American Honey Plants (1947)............. Frank C. Pellett........ 6.00
Anatomy and Physiology of the Honey Bee (1925)R. E. Snodprass.... 3.50
Backlot Beekeeping (1949)................C. H. Pease............. 2.00
Bee Hunting (190) .......................John R. Locar......... .50
Beekeeping (1928)........................E. F. Phillips.......... 4.00
Beekeeping for Beginners (1.949)..........G. H. Gale, Jr.......... 1.00
Beekeeping as a Hobby (1941).............Kyle Onstott............ 2.00
Bee Venom Therapy (1935).................Podog F. Peck (M.D.).... 5.00
Bees, Vision, Chemical Senses, Language (1950).K. von Frisch..... 3.00
Beeswax (1951)......... ......... ..... .. H. H. Root....... .... ... 4.75
Better Queens (1949)......... ............Jay Smith.............. 4.00
City of the Bees (1949)..................Frank S. Stuart......... 3.00
Dadant System of Beekeeping (1932).......C. P. Dadant............ 1.00
First Lessons in Beekeeping (1951)Rev....C. P. Padant ........... 1.00
Five Hundred Answers to Bee nuestions(1942)....G. S. DeMuth...... .50
Following the Bee line (1931)............ Josephine Morse......... 1.00
Golden Throng (1940)........ .............. Edwin Way Teale.... .... 5.00
History of American Beekeeping (1938)....Frank C. Pellett........ 2.50
Hive and the Honey Bee (1949)............ Roy A. Grout ........... 4.00
Honey Bees and Their Management (1951)...S. B. Whitehead and
F. R. Shaw........ .... 3.50
Honey Getting (1948)............ .........E. L. Sechrist.......... 1.00
Honey in the Comb (1951).................Carl E. Killion......... 3.00
Honey and Your Health (1944).............B. Beck, D. Smedley..... 3.00
Honey Plants of North America (1926).....J. J. Lovell............ 1.50
How to Grow Queens (1938)................Walter T. Kelley........ .50
How to Succeed with Bees (1930)..........Atkins and Hawkins...... .55
Langstroth on the Hive and Honey Bee (1927)....C. P. Dadant...... 2.00
Life of the Bee (1904)...................M.Maeterlinck.......... 3.00
Living from Bees (1946)..................Frank C. Pellett........ 2.50
Practical Queen Rearing (1945) ...........Frank C. Pellett........ 1.00
Productive Beekeeping (1923).............Frank C. Pellett........ 3.00
Queen Rearing (1946).....................L.E. Snelgrove......... 5.00
Queen Rearing (1950).....................J. Eckert and
H. Laidlaw............ 2.50
Queen Rearing Simplified (1923)..........Jay Smith............... 1.25
Starting Right with Bees (1945)..........H. G. Rowe.............. .75
The Bee Hunter (1949)....................G. H. F.dgell ............. 2.50






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BEE JOURNALS

The following are issued monthly at about $1.50 to $2.00 per year:

American Bee Journal, Hamilton, 111.
Gleanings in Bee Culture, Medina, Ohio
Modern Beekeeping, Clarkson, Ky.

ORGANIZATIONS IN THE BEEKEEPING INDUSTRY

American Bee Breeders Association-Roy S. Weaver, Secretary,
Weaver Apiaries, Navasota, Texas.

American Beekeeping Federation--Glenn 0. Jones, Secretary, Atlantic,
Iowa. A national organization of beekeepers comprised of State
and county beekeepers' organizations and individual beekeepers.
Annual dues $5.00

American Honey Institute--Mrs. Harriett M. Grace, Director
Commercial State Bank Building, Madison, Wis. An organization
sponsored and supported by bee-supply companies, beekeepers'
organizations and individuals. Its purpose is to give publicity
to honey through demonstrations, lectures, radio talks, honey
recipes, and other literature.

Apiary Inspectors of America-F. L. Thomas, Secretary, Texas
Ap-ricultural ExpFeriment Station, College Station, Texas.

Bee Industries Association--Gordon G. Frater, Watertown, Wis.
Representing supply manufacturers.

Honey Bee Improvement Cooperative Association--Charles A. Reese,
Secretary, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. A nonprofit
organization to promote the distribution of improved strains of
the honey bee.

Southern States Beekeepers' Federation---David Dunavan, President,
Clemson, South Carolina. An organization of honey producers, shippers
of package bees, and queen breeders devoted to the interest of
beekeeping in the Southern States.

State Beekeepers' Organization--A beekeepers' association exists
in practically every State. Information about such associations
can usually be obtained through your State Department of Agriculture
or your Agricultural College or Experiment Station.






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BEEKEEPING AND POLLINATION RESEARCH LABORATORIES, BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY
AND PLANT QUARANTINE, U. S. D. A.

Research work on beekeeping and insect pollination is centered in
the Division of Bee Culture and Biological Control, Agricultural
Research Center, Beltsville, Md.

Arizona--Southwestern States Bee Culture Laboratory at Tucson.
Frank E. Todd, in charge. Cooperating with the Agricultural
Experiment Station of the University of Arizona.

California-Pacific States Bee Culture Laboratory at Davis. Geo. H.
Vansell, in charge. Cooperating with the California Agricultural
Experiment Station, the University of California and the Oregon
Agricultural Experiment Station.

Louisiana--Southern States Bee Culture Laboratory, University Station
at Baton Rouge. Warren Whitcomb, Jr., in charge. Cooperating with
the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station and the University of
Louisiana.

Mary land--Headquarters, Division of Pee Culture and Biological Control,
Bureau of Entcmology and Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Research
Center, Beltsville, Md. Jas. I. Hanbleton, in charge.

Utah-Legume Seed Research Laboratory, Logan. George E. Bohart is
in charge of the insect-pollination phases. Cooperating with the
Utah Agricultural College and Utah Agricultural Experiment Station.

Wisconsin-North Central States Bee Culture Laboratory at Madison.
C. L. Farrar, in charge. Cooperating with the Wisconsin Agricultural
Experiment Station and the University of Wisconsin.

Wyomin--Intermountain States Bee Culture Laboratory at Laramie.
A. P. Sturtevant, in charge. Cooperating with the Wyoming Agricultural
Experiment Station and the University of Wyoming.

ADVICE TO BEGINNERS

Beekeeping is a specialized industry requiring fundamental knowledge
of bee behavior and a genuine liking for handling bees. Locating colonies
close to available sources of nectar is important, since to insure good
crops the bees should be within flying range, that is within 1 or 2
miles, of an abundance of nectar-secreting plants. Good beekeeping
locations are found in practically every State, so that the selection
of apiary sites resolves itself into choosing locations where nectar-
secreting plants occur in profusion and where living conditions are
desirable.








With proper experience and a liking for bees, a person in a favorable
location can obtain from beekeeping a return that compares favorably with
that from most agricultural pursuits. Beekeeping, however, can easily
become a profitless undertaking, and to avoid this we advise beginners
not to invest heavily. Practical knowledge gained through a season's work
with an experienced beekeeper should be invaluable to a beginner. If a
person cannot spend time with a beekeeper, the next best thing is to
acquire two or three colonies and do the best he can. A number of State
educational institutions offer resident or correspondence courses in
beekeeping.

A common method of starting a colony is to purchase a package of
bees, preferably 3 pounds, with a queen and to install this package in a
hive equipped with frames containing full sheets of brood foundation.
Instructions for installing usually accompany the package.

If established colonies are purchased, they should be (1) in modern
hives, (2) acquired from a reliable beekeeper, and (3) accompanied by a
certificate of inspection to insure freedom from disease.


The best time to begin beekeeping with
established colonies is in the spring, when

A beginner's outfit may consist of the
is suggested that catalogs from some of the
for comparable information

1 10-frame hive, consisting of:
1 bottom board
2 10-frame hive bodies complete
with frames and brood founda-
tion
2 to 4 shallow supers complete
with frames and thin super
foundation
1 outer cover and 1 inner cover


either package bees or
fruit trees are in bloom.

following items, although it
bee supply houses be consulted


1 3-lb. package of bees with
queen
1 smoker
1 bee veil
1 hive tool
10-15 lb. of granulated sugar
4 oz. of No. 28-gage wire
1 spur imbedder


Such outfits, including a subscription to a bee journal, cost
approximately $20. The equipment can be varied, and more can be added
after a person has become experienced and learns how to manage large
colonies. The standard 10-frame hive is the type generally used in the
United States.

While factory-made equipment ordinarily gives the most satisfactory
results, some beekeepers prefer to construct their own beehives. If this
is done, it is a good plan to purchase or borrow a complete hive to use
as a model. It is essential that all dimensions be carefully adhered
to; otherwise the bees will build combs and add propolis where it is not
desired. Likewise careful construction is necessary so that all hive
parts are readily interchangeable.





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The Italian bee is the kind recommended for the beginner in this
country. It is hardy, industrious, and fairly gentle, and can be readily
obtained in pure stock since it is the bee most commonly kept in the
United States.

You should consult your Agricultural College, State Department of
Agriculture, or Agricultural Experiment Station for information on State
beekeeping publications, extension work in beekeeping, inspection service,
good beekeeping locations, beekeeping associations, and the like.

CARDINAL POINTS TO BE OBSERVED IN KEEPING BEES

1. Bees need an abundant store of honey (25 or more pounds during
the active season and 50 to 60 pounds during winter), pollen, plenty of
room for brood rearing, a source of water, protection from the wind,
and exposure to sunlight.

2. Swarming results in the loss of honey, and therefore should be
controlled.

3. There should be empty comb space in the hives at all times
preceding and during a honey flow. If every cell becomes occupied with
brood, pollen, or honey, the bees will swarm or stop working, in either
case causing a loss of honey if just before or during a flow.

4. For successful wintering a colony should have a young queen of
high producing stock, a large cluster of young, fall-raised bees, 60 or
more pounds of sealed honey, and several combs containing large areas
of pollen. For these requirements a colony must have a 2-story standard
hive with a gross weight, in October, of about 130 pounds.

5. It is unprofitable and, in many States, illegal to keep bees in
box hives or "gums."

6. It does not pay to cultivate any plant for bees alone. Nectar
resources may be improved, however, by planting such crops as sweet clover
on waste lands.

7. Starvation is one of the principal causes of unprofitable
beekeeping. If bees are short of honey stores, a syrup of two parts of
clean granulated sugar to one of water should be fed. Plan carefully
and avoid having to feed the bees by leaving them plenty of honey at all
times.

8. Diseases of bees cause large annual losses of bees, honey, and
equipment. Beekeepers should learn to recognize the symptoms, particularly
of American foulbrood.




-. LIBRARY

STOZ PL.A$T BOARD,





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 09236 7183
DISEASES OF BEES

Although it is normal to find a few dead bees at the entrance of a
hive, the presence of large numbers should cause the beekeeper to examine
the colony for some abnormal condition. The presence of trembling or
paralyzed bees, or of bees crawling and apparently unable to fly, should
arouse suspicion. Two of the commonest abnormal conditions of adult bees
are poisoning by insecticides and Nosema disease. A laboratory diagnosis
can be made for Nosema disease and insecticide poisoning, although at
times a diagnosis of any abnormal condition of adult bees may require
actual observation of the colony affected.

In many parts of the country beekeepers suffer losses from American
or European foulbrood, the two most serious brood diseases. European
foulbrood can be controlled by proper corrective measures, but American
foulbrood, the more serious and prevalent of the two, requires a mere
drastic treatment. The bees and combs of colonies infected with American
foulbrood should be burned.

Apiary inspection is a function of the States, and is maintained by
most State Departments of Agriculture, to which should be referred all
questions concerning apiary inspection, diagnoses, and proper methods of
control. As a service to beekeepers, however, the Division of Bee Culture
and Biological Control examines, without cost, samples of brood and adult
bees. Reports of these diagnoses are sent to the beekeepers and copies to
the proper State apiary officials.

For diagnosing brood diseases, send a sample of comb about 4 by 4
inches containing the affected brood or brood remains. Avoid including
any honey if possible. For diseases of adult worker bees, send from 100
to 200 (preferably the latter) sick or dead bees. Mail all samples in
a wooden or heavy cardboard box. Do not use tin, glass, or waxed paper.
Address all samples to the Division of Bee Culture and Biological Control,
Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Md.