A bibliography of nicotine

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Material Information

Title:
A bibliography of nicotine
Physical Description:
2 v. in 4 (257, 628 p.) ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Busbey, Ruth L ( Ruth Lawless ), 1909-1990
McIndoo, N. E ( Norman Eugene ), 1881-1956
Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Nicotine -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Tobacco -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Insecticides -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Part 1 has cover title only.
General Note:
Part 2 by McIndoo, R.C. Roark (Division of Insecticide Investigations) and Busbey.
General Note:
Publication no. E-384, E-392 of the Bureau.
General Note:
Annotated.
General Note:
Includes indexes.
Statement of Responsibility:
by R.L. Busbey, Division of Insecticide Investigations, and N.E. McIndoo, Division of Control Investigations.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030268849
oclc - 78912220
System ID:
AA00022966:00003

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
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    N. Lepidoptera (1813-1934)
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    O. Miscellaneous pests (1885-1934)
        Page 453
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    P. How nicotine kills, reactions, symptoms, minimum dosage, etc. 1900-1934
        Page 497
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    Q. Nicotine tannate and oleate, 1918-1934
        Page 515
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    R. Oil emulsions and miscible oils combined with nicotine, 1915-1934
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    S. Nicotine dusts, (1908-1934)
        Page 538
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        Page 540
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    Index of authors
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    Index of subjects
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    Back Cover
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Full Text














E-392

UNITED STATES D PARTI.:NT OF AGRICULTURE

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine








A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NICOTINE PART II


THE INSECTICIDAL USES OF NICOTINE AID TOBACCO


By N. E. McINDOO, senior entomologist, Division of Control Investigations, R. C. ROARK, principal chemist, and Mrs. R. L. BUSBEY, junior chemist, Division of Insecticide Investigations.





SECTION 3











Vashington, D. C. September 1936




















Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013













http://archive.org/details/bibliographyofniOOunit-0








E-392 DO,. FL 'I' September 1936

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NICOTINE

PART II. THE INSECTICIDAL USES OF NICOTINE AND TOBACCO


By N. E. McIndoo, senior entomologist, Division of Control Investigations, R. C. Roark, principal chemist, and Mrs. R. L. Busbey, junior chemist,
Division of Insecticide Investigations, Bureau of Entomology and Plant quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture.

CONTENTS OF PART II

SECTION 1

Citations
SIntroduction
A. Early publications, 1690-1900 - - - - - - - - 1-132
B. Proprietary nicotine preparations, 1885-1933 - - - - 133-200
C. Condensed tobacco juice and titrated nicotine, 1882-1928 - 201-256
D. Homoptera: Aphididae (1836-1934)
1. Wooly apple aphid, 1836-1934 - - - - - - - 257-299
2. Other aphids on apple trees, 1904-1934 - - - - - 300-347
3. Aphids on peach trees, 1903-1933 - - - - - - 348-383
4. Aphids harmful to other fruits, 1907-1933 - - - - 384-438
5. Nasturtium or bean aphid, 1915-1934 - - - - - 439-459
6. Aphids on cabbage and turnip, 1908-1926 - - - - 460-470
7. Aphids on potato, 1915-1930 - - - - - - - 471-485
8. Aphids on other vegetables, 1895-1932 - - - - - 486-499
9. Aphids on hop, cereals, and tobacco, 1904-1931 - - - 500-517
10. Melon or cotton aphid, 1906-1930 - - - - - - 518-536
11. Aphids on shrubs, and shade and forest trees, 1907-1934 537-566 12. Other aphids, 1912-1934 - - - - - - - - 567-584
E. Homoptera: Aleyrodidae and Coccidae (1894-1933)
1. Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), 1905-1932 - - - - - 585-594
2. Coccids, mealybugs, and scale insects (Coccidae),1894-1933 595-667 F. Homoptera: Other families (1828-1934)
1. Jassids, including apple, potato, and grape leafhoppers
(Cicadellidae), 1828-1934 - - - - - - - - 668-753
2. Cicadidae, Fulgoridae, Cercopidae, and Membracidae, 1914-34 754-769
3. Apple sucker, pear psylla, and other psyllids (Chermidae),
1913-1934 - - - - - - - - - - - - 770-833
Index to section 1

SECTION 2

G. Heteroptera (1903-1934)
1. Tarnished plant bugs, apple bugs, redbugs, and other capsids
(Miridae), 1903-1934 - - - - - - - - - 834-909
2. Lacebugs or tingids (Tingidae), 1914-1933 - - - - 910-930
3. Chinch bugs and other lygaeids (Lygaeidae), 1913-1933 - 931-952
4. Squash bug and other coreids (Coreidae), 1913-1933 - - 953-964 5. Pentatomid bugs and other Heteroptera, 1912-1933 -------965-975










H. ThysAnoptera (thrips), 1877-1934 976-1085
I. Acarina (1902-1934)
1. Red spiders, 1904-1934 1086-1119
2. Other mites, 1902-1933 1120-1149
J. External parasites on man and animals, 1866-1931 -------1150-1207 K. Diptera (1795-1934)
1. Flies as pests of man and animals, 1795-1932 -------1207-1238 2. Mosquitoes, 1900-1933---------- ------ --- 1239-1250
3. Midgelike flies, 1879-1934 ----------------1251-1278
4. ,ushroom flies, 1912-1933 -----------------1279-1285
5. Beet fly, 1917-1933 ----------------------1286-1296
6. Root maggots, 1857-1929 ------------------1297-1316
7. Other flies, 1912-1934 ------------------1317-1340
L. Eymenoptera (1898-1934)
1. Apple sawfly, 1929-1934 ------------------1341-1350
2. Other sawflies, 1898-1934 --------- ------1351-1391
3. Ants, 1908-1933 ----------------------1392-1400
4. Bees, 1910-1933- ----------------------1401-1406
M. Coleoptera (1899-1934)
1. Flea beetles, 1903-1934 -----------------1407-1444
2. Cucumber, asparagus, and raspberry beetles, 1899-1933 1445-1464
3. Other beetles, 1905-1934 -----------------1465-1533
Index to section 2

SECTION 3

N. Lepidoptera (1813-1934)
1. Grapevine moths, 1870-1933 ----------------1534-1595
2. Codling moth, 1897-1934 ------------------1596-1711
3. Oriental peach moth, 1917-1930 --------------1712-1740
4. Leaf miners and casebearers, 1911-1933 ----------1741-1756
5. Fruit-tree borers and budmoths, 1813-1932 ---------1757-1776
6. Caterpillars (Hyponomeuta) on fruit trees, 1913-1934 1777-1786
7. Olive moths, 1903-1929 ------------------1787-1793
8. Leaf rollers, 1912-1933 ------------------1794-1802
9. Cranberry moths, 1890-1933 ----------------1803-1815
10. Other Lepidoptera harmful to fruits, 1825-1934 ------1816-1844
11. Cabbage insects, 1910-1934 ----------- ------1845-1872
12. European corn borer and corn ear worm, 1905-1934 -----1873-1882
13. Lepidoptera harmful to shrubs, and shade and forest trees
1905-1934 --------------------1883-1906
14. Other Lopidoptera, 1902-1933 ---------------1907-1961
0. Miscellaneous pests (1885-1934)
1. Springtails and Lepisma, 1921-1933 ------------1962-1969
2. Orthoptera, earwigs, and termites, 1909-1930 -------1970-1981 3. Species of insects not named, 1903-1934 ----------1982-2043
4. Species of insects named, 1901-1933- ---------- 2044-2088
5. Greenhouse pests, 1885-1929 ----------------2089-2115
6. Millipedes and centipedes, 1917-1925 -----------2116-2120










P. How Aicotine kills, reactions, symptoms, minimum dosage, etc.
1900-1934 2121-2179
Q. Nicotine tanrate and oleate, 1918-1934 -----------2180-2202
R. Oil emulsions and miscible oils combined with nicotine,
1915-1934 ------ ---------------------2203-2268
S. Nicotine dusts, (1908-1934)
1. Kinds and early history, 1908-1924 ------------2269-2281
2. Preparations of dusts, dusting machinery, and principles
involved, 1921-1932 -------------------2282-2347
3. Against Homoptera (1921-1934)
(a) Aphids, 1921-1934 ------------ ------2348-2403
(b) Psyllids and leafhoppers, 1921-1934 --------2404-2421
4. Against Heteroptera, 1921-1933 --------------2422-2436
5. Against Coleoptera, 1922-1933 --------------- 2437-2460
6. Against Diptera, 1925-1933 ---------------- 2461-2468
7. Against Lepidoptera, 1922-1931 - - ----------2469-2474
8. Against thrips, springtails, and mites, 1921-1934 - - 2475-2497 Index to section 3









359

N. LEPIDOPTERA, 1813-1934

1. Grapevine Moths, 1870-1933

REGEL,~E. (Ed.) (1534)

1870. 7EIN KRANKEITEN. GCartenflora 19: 87-88.

Bunches of grapes infested with the caterpillars of the grapevine moths are dipped in a decoction, made by using 1/2 lb. tobacco
in 6 1. of water. The caterpillars soon die and there is no bad
effect on the grapes.

NESSL~ER, DR. (1535)

1885. ZUR BEK IMPFUNG DES HEU--DE SAUERMURMES. Gartenflora 34: 315-316.

The following mixture was found effective against the larvae
of the vine moths: 21 g. soft soap, 16 g. or 20 cc. fusel oil, 15 g.
tobacco, and 1 1. water (p. 316).

GRUVEL, A. (1536)

1906. EXPFRAIENICES COITRE LE COHKYLIS ET L'EUDEMIS. Bull. Soc. Etudes et
Vulg. Zool. Agr. 5 (6): 173-176.

Against the vine moths a spray mixture, consisting of 1,000 g.
titrated nicotine and 100 1. water, has given satisfactory results
in France.

CAPUS, J., and FEYTALD, J. (1537)

1907. EXPERIENCES CONTRE L'EUDIEMIS. Bull. Soc. Etudes et Vl41g. Zool.
Agr. 6 (4): 106-114.

Five titrated nicotine spra- mixtures were tested against Eudemis,
The first consisting of 1 kg. nicotine, 10 kg. lime, and 100 1. water, gave a mortality of 43 percent. The second containing 1 kg. nicotine, 1 kg. glucose, and 100 1. water, gave a mortality of 55 percent. The
third containing 1 kg. nicotine, 2 kg. copper sulphate, 1 kg. lime, and 100 1. water, gave a mortality of 59 percent. The fourth consisting of 1.33 kg. nicotine, 2 ke. copper sulphate, 1 kg. lime, and 100 1. water,
gave a mortality of 68 percent. And the fifth, consisting of 1 kg. nicotine, 1 kg. copper sulphate, 0.5 kg. sodium carbonate, and 100 1. water,
gave a control of 96 percent in the cleane& lot and 79 percent in the
rncleaned lot.

---- and FEYTAUD, J. (1538)

1908. EXPERIENCES CONTRE LIEUD1MIS. Prog. Agr. et Vitic. 50: 77-87.

Against the vine moths the following spray mixture is rocommended: 1 kg. titrated nicotine, 1.33 kg. copper sulphate, 0.33 kg.
sodium carbonate, and water to make in all 100 1. Another similar






360

mixture has the nicotine increased to 1.33 kg. The percentages of
larvae killed are 68, 72, and 79.

FEYTAUD, J. (1539)

1909. US TRAITEMTTS DE PRINTOPS ET D''Ti CENTRE L'EUDIS. Bull.
Soc. Etude et Vulg. Zool. Agr. 8 (1): 12-30; 8 (2): 51-61.

In all, 8 nicotine spray mixtures were used in the spring against
Eudemis. The percentages of mortality were 67, 52, 78, 82, 84, 60, 57, and 45 (p. 20, 21, 26). As summer applications, 6 nicotine spray mixtures were used with the following percentages of mortality: 43,
45, 55, 60, 71, and 73.

CAPUS, J., and FEYTAUD, J. (1540)

1910. LA LUTTE CONTRE LIEUDEMIS ET LA COCHYLIS. Rev. Vitic. 33: 291-294.

In one observation of 100 grapes which had been sprayed with
nicotine, only 8 to 13 were infested with the eggs of vine moths,
whereas the authors counted as many as 168 eggs on 100 grapes which had not been treated. Nicotine acted, therefore, as a repellent to
the moths and deterred oviposition.

hen grape vines were sprayed with a. mixture, consisting of
1.33 kg. nicotine per 100 1. bordeaux solution, practically all of
the eggs failed to hatch.

CAPUS, J. (1541)

1911. ESSAIS DE TRAITE1MENTS INSECTICIDES XTERNES. Rev. Vitic. 36: 10-11.

A spray mixture, consisting of 13 C. nicotine, 3 kg. soap, and
100 1. water, killed 83 percent of the larvae of Eudemis and 57 percent
of Cochylis. Another mixture, consisting of 133 g. nicotine, 3 kg.
soap, 3 1. kerosene and 100 1. water, killed 99 percent of Eudemis
and 100 percent of Cochylis.

VERIMOREL, V., and DANTONY, E. (1542)

1911. LA NICOTINE MOUILIANTE. Prog. Agr. et Vitic. 55: 772-773.

Against the vine moths in France the following spray mixture was
very effective: 1.3 1. titrated nicotine (1C-percent), 1CO g. Solvay
sodium carbonate, 200 g. white oleime soap, and 100 1. water.

CAPUS, J. (1543)

1912. DE LITEUDDMIS ET DE LA COCHYLIS EN 1911. Rev. Vitic. 37: 773-778.

Against the larvae of vine moths nicotine arsenate was used.
The mixture always contained 21 percent metallic arsenic, but the
nicotine ranged from 1 to 0.025 g.'per 1. The effectiveness against






361

Cochylis ranged from 31 to 79 percent, distinctly showing the effect
of the increased nicotine concentration. The effectiveness against
Eudemis ranged from 81 to 91 percent, but the nicotine seems to have
had no effect.

MOIZ, E. (1544)

1913. CHEMICAL IMEANS OF COMBATING PESTS OF CULTIVATED PLANTS. Ztschr.
Angew. Chem. 26 (77 and 79): 533-536, 587-588. [In German. Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 2: 209-211. 1914.]

Nicotine is an important ingredient in many insecticides. In
the form of tobacco extract it is an important contact poison; more
recently it has been found to be an efficient stomach poison and
has been used successfully against Clysi ambiguella and Polychrosis
botrana.

REUTLINGER (1545)

1913. A SUCCESSFUL METHOD OF COMBATING THE VINE-MOTH. Weinbau der
Rheinpfalz, Neustadt a. Hdt. 1 (24): 308-311. [In German. Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 2: 182. 1914.]

The grubs were successfully controlled by using the following
formula: (a) 2 gal. water, 1 lb. soft soap, 1 lb. fusel oil, and 1 1/2
oz. raw nicotine (98-percent); or the alternative formula: (b) 2 gal.
water, 1 lb. soft soap, 1 lb. methylated spirit, and 1 lb. tobacco extract.

ANONYMOUS (1546)

1914. STATE AID IN COMBATING VINE PESTS IN LUIMBURG. Luxemburger
Teinztg. 2 (7): 98-100, April 1. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 2: 537. 1914.]

By paying a surcharge of from 2 to 5 percent, according to their
tax assessment, non-members of the Vinegrowers Union are permitted to
purchase insecticides at the samne prices as members. The following
maximum quantities per quarter acre may not be exceeded: For the
first and second generations of Clysia ambiguella Hb. each: nicotine
5 lb., copper sulphate 3 1/4 lb., soap 1 1/2 lb.

CIMATTI, V. (1547)

1914. L'USC DELLA NICOTIIX IN AGRICOLTURA. Riv. Agr. 20: 489-490.

Against vine moths the following spray mixture is recommended
in Italy: 140 g. nicotine, 100 g. sodium carbonate, 300 g. soap, and
100 1. water. Against aphids the following spray mixture is recommended: 100 g. nicotine, 1,000 g. sodium carbonate, 1,000 g. black soft
soap, 1,000 cc. wood alcohol, and 100 1. water.

ESMENARD, G. (1548)

1914. THE VINE MQ@THS. OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS IN THE ALTO CANAVESE
REGION. Consigliere Agr. [Tuhrin] 2 (6): 190-194. [In Italian.






362

Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 2: 635. 1914.]

Satisfactory results were attained in the control of Clysia
ambiguella and Pol chrosis botrana with ordinary bordeaux mixture
to which from 1 1/2 to 2 percent of tobacco extract had been added.
Spraying against the first generation was carried out between May 25
and June 2 and against the second between the 16th and 20th July. In
a vineyard at Ivrea 8.57 percent of treated grapes and 53.66 percent of untreated ones were injured, the other conditions being equal. At
Palazzo the figures were 17.6 and 34.1 respectively in one vineyard,
and 8 and 16 in another. Neither leaves nor grapes were scorched except in one instance where an overdose of nicotine had been used, nor
was the flavor of grapes or wine affected. Nicotine is always preferable
to arsenicals which should never be used after the middle of July.

F., P. (1549)

1914. THE EFFECT OF NICOTIN USED AGAINST CLYSIA AMBIGUELLA ON THE TASTE
OF MUSTS AND WINES. Luxemburger Weinztg. 2 (14): 228-230, July 15.
[In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 2; 682. 1914.]

Authorities are quoted to show that a carefully prepared nicotine
spray applied at the proper time communicates no taste to musts and
wines, at any rate when copper sulphate is nearly or entirely absent.
The spray solution should therefore contain only nicotine and soap.

SCHILLING, K. (1550)

1914. COMBATING THE VINE-MOTH. Luxemburger 7einztg. 2 (2): 28-30. 1914.
[in German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 2: 239-240. 1914.]

Nicotine-soap gave very fine results, The spray was made up of
20 gal. of a 1/2-percent lime-copper-sulphate solution, 4 1/2 oz. of
90-percent purified nicotine and 2 lb. of soft soap. Nicotine-soap is
mainly a control of the second generation and must be applied immediately
after the moth flight is over.

V., C. (1551)

1914. I PREPARATI INSETTICIDI NELLA DIFESA DELLE PIANTE. Riv.' Agr. 20:
378-379.

Against leaf-eating caterpillars on apple trees the following
spray mixture is recommended: 200 g. nicotine, 500 g. sodium carbonate,
200 g. soap, and 100 1. water. Against the vine moths the following
spray mixture is recommended in Italy: 1 1. nicotine (10-percent),
200 g. sodium carbonate, 200 g. white soap, and 100 1. water.

VOGLIN0, p. (1552)

1914. POLYCHFROSIS BOTRANA AND CLYSIA A1iBIGUELLA IN PIEDMONT IN 1913.
Osserv. Consorziale Fitopat. in Torino [Turin], 35 pp. [In Italian.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 2: 666-667. 1914.]







363

Bordeaux mixture with 2 to 2.5 percent of tobacco extract was
an effective dressing, but the addition of 1 percent of sodium carbonate
to plain tobacco extract was a more efficient dressing. Tobacco dust
had no effect upon the larvae of vine moths. Lead arsenate-against the
first generation of larvae is likely to gi,e the best results until
a reliable standard of nicotine extract can be obtained. During July
and A-Ligust it is better to use tobacco extract, 2 to 2.5 percent, as
it acts as an insectifuge and avoids the difficulties of arsenate.

WAHL, C. V., and MULLER, K. (1553)

1914. THE REPORT OF THE CHIEF PLANT-PROTECTION STATION IN BADEN, AT THE
AUSTEMERG AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT INSTITUTE OF THE GRAND DUCHY FOR
1913. Stuttgart, 70 pp. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
2: 499-501. 1914.]

Against vine moths (Clysia ambilella and Polychrosis botrana )
efficient results are obtained by thorough spraying with nicotine,
applied at the right moment. In one case good results were obtained with a spray containing 11 lb. of Muth~s compound, 8 3/4 lb. nicotine
and 8 3/4 lb. soft soap. Against Aphis mali, solutions of soft soap and
nicotine or quassia were efficacious where the leaves had not curled
too much. Abraxas grossulariata and Nematus were effectively controlled with tobacco dust and basic slag. Phorodon humuli was controlled with applications of nicotine and $oft soap.

ZSCHOKKE, K. (1554)

"1914. REPORT ON THE OCCURR1CE AND CONMOL OF VINE PESTS IN THE
PALATINATE IN 1913. Wbinbau der Rheinpfalz 2 (8): 86-90. [In German.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 2: 538-539. 1914.]

Bait sprays were practically abandoned as being ineffective and
costly; and sprays, especially of tobacco extract, were chiefly resorted to. This was made up of 1 lb. soft soap and 1.5 lb. tobacco extract (10 percent nicotine) in 10 gal. water. The best results were obtained where both generations of C ygg ambiguella and Polychrosis botrana were sprayed. Nicotine spray retards ripening of the grapes, but it is thought that by reducing the amount of soap this defect may
be remedied. When used even against the second generation nicotine
spray does not impart a bad flavor to the wine.

RAVAZ, L., and (BIEDOFF, S. (1555)

1915. EXPERIMENTS IN CONTROLLING CLYSIA Ab1BIGUELLA AND POLYCHROSIS
BOTRANA. Prog. Agr. Vitic. [Montpellier] 64 (49): 540-547, illus.
[In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 4: 78-79. 1916.]

In France 2 plots in a vineyard were treated with insecticides
and 1 plot was kept as a control. The first plot was treated with bordeaux mixture to which 1/10 percent of nicotine had been added.
In the second, bordeaux mixture was used with the addition of 1/4
percent of lead arsenate. From all points of view the lead arsenate
proved its superiority, and nicotine occupied a second place.






304

VOGLINO, P. (1556)

1916. THE LIFE HISTORY AD CONiTROL OF THE VINE MOTES,. CONCHYLIS
AMBIGUELLA AND POLYCHROSIS BOTRANA: OBSERVATIONS MADE IN 1914 BY TZE PLANT DISEASE OBSERVATORY OF TURIN, ITALY. Internatl.
Rev. Sci. and Pract.- Arr., Monthly Bull. Agr. Intel. and Plant
Diseases [Rome] 7 (6): 906-908. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 5: 31-32. 1917.]

A 2 percent nicotine solution gave good results in some localities,
A 2 percent tobacco extract gave good results against the second generation, but the most effective remedy against the larvae of the first
generation is lead arsenate. Though tobacco extract is recommended, it
is at present very costly and its nicotine content is variable. Its use
may result in scorching.

GUEEiTAUTX, G. (1557)

1917. SPRING AND SUMLIER TREATMENTS FOR CLYSIA AMBIGUELLA AND POLYCHROSIS BOTRANA. Vie Agr. et Rurale 7 (22) 397-398. [In French.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 5: 351. 1917.]

Spraying in spring with lead arsenate is recommended for the
control of Clysia ambiguella and Polychrosis bo.trana. In summer nicotine is used. The formula recommended is ordinary bordeaux
minixture 20 gal., titrated extract of nicotine 1 1/8 pt., ordinary
soap, 4 lb. Barium chloride may be used instead of the nicotine.

TOPI, M. (1558)

1917. EW CONTROL EXPERIMENTS AGAINST THE VINE MOTHS. Minerva Agr.
[Milan] 9 (13-14): 167. [In Italian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 5: 485-486. 1917.]

Vines were sprayed with a solution of 2 percent tobacco extract
and 0.2 percent soft potash soap. The reduction in the number of larvae ranged from 71 to 85 percent. Other insecticides were also used, but it was concluded that the vine moth control was not entirely solved.

MAZIPRES, A. DE (1559)

1918. EiTQUETE SUR L'EUDMIS. Rev. Hort. Algerie 22 (3): 35-39.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6: 273. 1918.]

For the control of the vine moths Polychrosis botrana and Clysia
a 'biuella two treatments are used, namely, two sprayings in spring with
arsenicals and a summer treatment with nicotine. Summer treatment begins as soon as the grapes begin to develop; for this nicotine should
be mixed with a copper solution.







365

MOLLPR-THURGAU, H. (1560)

1918. NOTES ON COMBATING THE FIRST ANID SECOND GERAThIONS OF THE VINE
10TH, CLYSIA M1BIGUELLA IN SUM R. Schweiz. Ztschr. Obst. u. einbau
27 (11): 165-170. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6: 381. 1918.]

The use of arsenicals is deprecated in favor of nicotine. Spraying against the second generation should take place about 8 days after
the chief flight. The solution should contain a minimum of 0.13 percent nicotine and though the addition of 1 percent soap may permit a
less amount to be used such a reduction is not advised. Bordeaux
mixture may be used as a carrier.

FEYTAUD, J. (1561)

1919. E)ERIMENTS IN LATE ARSITICAL TREATMENTS AGAINST POLYCHROSIS
BOTRANA. Ann. Serv. Epiphyties 6 (1918): 313-31.9. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 9: 27. 1921.]

The efficacy of arsenicals against the second generation is
very inferior to that of a preventive nicotine treatment made toward the end of July. It is suggested that an arsenical or
nicotine preventive treatment be given before the blossoming to destroy the eggs and larvae of the first generation, this being
followed by a preventive nicotine treatment against the eggs and
larvae of the second generation.

FAES, H. (1562)

1920. LA LUTTE CENTRE LE VER DE LA VIGNE (COCHYLIS) EN 1919. Terre
Vaudoise 12 (25): 240-242. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 8:
400. 1920.]

The best means of combating 3lsia ambieuella in the canton of
Vaud consists in spraying the first generation of caterpillars with
pyrethrum soap and then spraying the eggs laid by the second generation adults with nicotine.

LtSTNER, G. (1563)

1920. T~ SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTIC Ej PERIENMTS HITERITO MADE IN THE
PRUSSLAN V I-GR riTG DISEJRIDTS IOR M THE PURPOSE OF -CECKIZEG THE
FIRST A D SECOND GJ EhATIDONS OF THE VINE MOTHt. Centbl, Dakt.
Parasitologie u. Infectionskr. 2 Abt., 50 (1-4): 88-175. [In
German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 8: 522. 1920.]

Nicotine (1 to 1 1/2 percent) is of practical value on a large
scale for the control of the vine moths Clysia ambiguella and
Polychrosis botrana. Tobacco dust was less effective than the liquid
extract. Nicotine soap is more effective against the second generation than against the first. Its use does not give any unpleasant taste or
smell to thie grapes.






000

STELL7AAG, F. (1564)

1920. ARSENIC PREPARATIONS AGAINST PESTS OF VINES AND FRUIT TREES.
Ztschr. Angew. Ent. 7 (1): 172-180. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 9: 2-3. 1921.]

In 1917 the supplies of nicotine were just sufficient to spray
against the first generation of the vine moths (Clysia ambiauella and Polychrosis botrana); and vine growers resorted to arsenicals against the second generation with great success and without untoward consequences.

(1565)

1920. REPORTS ON THE OCCURRENCE AND CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF VINEYAPS
IN 1918 AND 1919. Ztschr. Angew. Ent. 7 (1): 192-196. [In German.
Abstract in.Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 9: 4. 1921.]

In 1918 the second generation of the vine moths (C01ysia ambiguella
and Polychrosis botrana) was combatted with arsonicals, nicotine having
been used against the first generation. Mites (Phyllocoptes and Eitrimerus vitis Nal.) were treated with nicotine-soap in the spring with
satisfactory results.

ANONIYiAOU-S (156 6)

1921. AGAINST VINE MOTHS. Riv. Agr. [Parma] 26 (17): 241-242, April 29.
[In Italian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 9: 342. 1921.]

The best treatment against vine moths, (Clysia anbiguella and
P6lychrosis botrana),consists in a spray of lead arsenate before
flowering and one or two of nicotine after flowering for the second
generation.

MULLER-T 1U.GAU, H. (1567)

1921. THE US1 OF T1AD A.SENATE AGAINST THE FIRST AIND SECOND GELERATION
OF Cr7T IN D L AN D POLYCHROSIS BOTH. A. Sc hwei. ZtsK-r. Obst.
u. --einbau 30 (15): 198-200. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. () 9: 427.
1921.]

Lead Prsenate should be used only for spring spraying against vine
moths and should be prohibited in July and August on the bunches. Nicotine which is the substituto in the lator work has many disadvantages;
it delays ripening and tends to impart a disagreeable flavor.

SCHELENIBERG, A. (1568)

1921. A R1PCRT ON A TOUR OF STUDY IK THE GEL.:AT VIi1E-GRO7ING REGIONS.
Landw. Jahrb. Schweiz, [Lucerne] 35 (6): 75-754, illus. [In German.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 10: 185. 1922.]







367As nicotine has risen to about forty times its pre-war price
in Germany, arsenicals are being used to control the vine moths.

DALMASSO, o. (1569)

1922. WORK AGAINST THE TVINE MOTHS. 86 pp., illus. Casale Monferrato.
[In Italian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 10: 220. 1922.]

About 8 10 days after the maximum number of moths [ Clycia
(ConchYlis)ambiuella Hb. and Pol chrosis (Eudemis)botrana Schiff.] has been noticed a first spraying is required with bordeaux mixture containing 1 percent of lead arsenate or 3 percent of a tobacco extract containing 5 percent nicotine. About 10 days later a -second
treatment similar to the first must be made. Two sprayings, 10 -ays
apart, are again made in July.

FAES, H., and STAEHELIN, M. (1570)

1922. LES TRAITEIMTS CONTRE LA COCHYLIS (VR DE LA VIGNE) EN 1921.
Ann. Agr. Suisse 23 (1): 17-25. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
10: 320. 1922.]

The tests described confirm the efficacy of pyrethrum-soap and
nicotine-copper sprays against Clysia ambig-uella. The difficulty of
determining the appropriate moment for nicotine treatment makes the
pyrethrum-soap spray preferable against the larvae of the first generation; nicotine on the other hand is indicated for the destruction of
the eggs laid by the second generation.

STELL7 -AAG, P. (1571)

1922. ARSEITICALS, VITICULTURE A.TD PLANT PROTECTION. Ztschr. Angew.
Ent. 8 (2): 427-436, illus. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 10: 500. 1922.]

Nicotine sprays proved very useful against vine moths (Cl~sia
ambignella Hb. and Polychrosis botrana Schiff.). By 1915 nicotine was
proved to be effective against both the spring and summer generations
of the vine moths, but by 1917 tobacco products were too costly and almost unobtainable, and it became necessary to find a cheap and effective insecticide. Arsenicals cost only a small fraction of that of
nicotine, oaa be inecrporateo "n )liA-oopper sprny, ni satisfy all re-quirer~ents.

GESSNER (1572)

1923. THE FIRST AND SECOimD GERATIONS OF VINE MOTHS IN BADEN IN 1922-23
A~D THEIR CON1TROL. Badische BlE1tter f. SchidlingsbekLmpfung- 1 (1): 4-8,
illus. [Abstract in Rcv. Appl. Ent. (A) 12: 340. 1924.]

Nicotine is considered to be the best insecticide for the vine
moths Clysia ambi,-uella Hb. and Polychrosis botrana Schiff.






368

J G G. (1573)

1923. C0UTRIBUTIONS TO A KITOLEDGE OF THE SPRING AND SUMER GENERATIONS
CF VIIE MOHS AD THEIR CONTROL WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO ARSTICAL
COMPOTIS. Schweiz. Ztschr. Obst. u. 7einbau 32 (2-6): 30-35, 49-53, 65-69, 79-84, 97-98, illus. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 11: 255. 1923.]

Nicotine has been largely used, but if the summer generation is
to be checked it is necessary to spray the bunches and this insecticide may delay ripening and affects the flavor.

C011SOLA.TI, G., and DAL ASSO, G. (1574)

1924. A BRILLIANT SUCCESS IN THE WORK AGAINST VINE MOTHS. Contadino
della Marca Trevisana. Reprint, 14 pp., illus. [In Italian. Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 12: 339. 1924.]
Calcium arsenate controlled the spring generation of Polychrosis
botrana Schiff. so effectively that very little spraying with nicotine
(3-percent solution) was needed for the second generation.

VIIT, E., et al. (1575)

1924. THE FIGHT AGAINST THE VINE HOTH IN ALGERIA. Rev. Agr. Afr. Nord.
22 (241): 161-176, illus. [Algiers] [In French. Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 12: 195. 1924.]

The spring treatment of sodium arsenate should begin as soon
as the moths (Polychrosis botrana Schiff.) begin to fly, 2 or 3 applications being made before the flowering of the vine, and should
be followed by sprays of copper sulphate and nicotine or of pyrethrumsoap solution directed against the eggs and larvae of the 2nd and 3rd
generations.

GORJAT, R. (1576)

1925. ETUJDE COMLPA2ATIVE DES DIFFR.TTS HOYES DE LUTTE COiNTRE LES VERS
D TLA VIGNE. Terre Vaudoise 17 (52): 767-789; 18 (1 and 2): 9-10,
21-23. [Abstract in Rev. App2. Ent. (A) 14: 117. 1926.]

Disbudding should be practised before the treatment against the
first generation of vine moths (Clysia ambiuella hb. and Polychrosis
botrane Schiff.) with nicotine or pyrethrum. For use against the second
generation an insecticidal powder to supplement nicotine treatment is
needed.

MARTELLI, G. (1577)

1925. THE VINE MOTH, POLYCHROSIS BOTRANA SCKIFF. R. )sserv. Fitopat.
per le Puglie Circ. 4, 3 pp. [In Italian. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 13: 266-267. 1925.]







369

Following applications of lead arsenate, a third spray containing 2 percent tobacco extract and 1 percent soap should be
applied in the middle of July if necessary.

BERRO, J. M. (1578)

1925. THE CATERPILLAR OF GRAPES FOR EXPORT, POLYCHROSIS BOTRATA SCHIFF.
Estac. Pat. Veg. Almeria, Divulgacion, 56 pp. [In Spanish. Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 15: 121-122. 1927.]

Lead arsenate is recommended for use against the first generation and a spray of 1 lb. 40-percent nicotine sulphate and 80 gal.
bordeaux mixture is advised against the second generation.

MOREAU, L., and VINET, E. (1579)

1926. LA LUTTE CONTRE LA COCHYLIS ET LEUD AIS. COM1,ME1TT REDUIR~ EN
NO1ERE ET EN IMPORTANCE LES GRADES INIVASIONS. Compt. Rend. Acad.
Agr. France 12 (12): 400-404. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 14:
214-215. 1926.]

Lead arsenate has proved more popular than nicotine or pyrethrumsoap for the control of the vine moths Clysia ambiguella Hb. and Polychrosis botrana Schiff.

SPRENGEL, L. (1580)

1926. THE OUTBREAK OF A VINE PEST (CLYSIA AMBIGUELLA HUBN.) IN THE
PALATIiATE. Anz. Schidlingsk. 2 (1): 1-5, illus. [In German.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 14: 136. 1926.]

Nicotine and arsenical sprays were used, and it was proved that
if an arsenical spray be applied at the proper time, it produces excellent results.

FAES, H., and STAEHELIN, M. (1581)

1927. LA LUTTE CONTRE LES PARASITES, IIISECTES ET CHAMPIGNONS DE LA
VIGUE EN 1925 ET 1926. Ann. Agr. Suisse 28 (4) 373-396, illus.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 1i: 169. 1928.]

Th srpras recommended for application to the fruit only, as soon
as the main flight of the first generation is ended are 2 lb. paris
green, 10 to 20 lb. lead arsenate or calcium arsenate or 10 lb. nicotine, titrated at 15 percent, to 100 gal. bordeaux mixture. Treatments should
be repeated at an interval of 8 to 10 days. In the case of the second
generation the bordeaux-nicotine spray should be applied to the fruit
only, 6 to 8 days after the main flight.

GLODEN-SCHENGEN, N. (1582)

1927. A NOTE OH THE CONTROL OF THE VINE-MOTHS WITH NICOTINE. Luxemburger
Weinztg. 15 (5): 41-43. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
15: 226. 1927.]






370

Nicotine sprays have proved excellent in Luxemburg against the
second generation. of the vine moths Cly sia ambiguella Hb. and Polychrosis botrana Schiff. The minimum effective strength of pure nicotine
is 1.5 per mille. The nicotine can be used with bordeaux mixture but
is better in water containing 1/2 percent soft soap.

MIESTINGER, K. (1583)

1928. ON THE CONTROL OF VINE MOTHS BY THE COMBIINATION OF PARIS GREEN
AND TOBACCO EXTRACT. A11g. Weinztg. 1928 No. 10, 2 pp. [In German.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 17: 209. 1929.]

The spray used in Austria and Genrmany with satisfactory results
against the vine moths (Polychrosis botrana Schiff. and Clysia ambiLuella Hb.) consists of bordeaux mixture containing 0.15 or 0.20 percent paris green, 0.75 or 1.00 percent quicklime and 2.5 percent
tobacco extract.

CHAPPAZ, G. (1584)

1929. LA LUTTE CONTRE LA COCHYLIS ET L'EUDMIS EN 1928. Rev. Agr.
France 1929 (6), pp. 55-59. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 17:
571. 1929.3

The substitution of lead arsenate for nicotine against the second
generation of Clysia ambiguella Hb. and Polychrosis botrana Schiff. is recommended, since not only is it as effective and less expensive, but
it has been found that nicotine is more likely to affect the quality of
the wine.

MARSAIS, P. (1585)

1929. LATE TREATMENT OF GRAPES TO PROTECT THEM AGAINST MILDEW AND WORMS.
Rev. Vitic. 71: 69-73. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 2541.
1930.]

Wines made from grapes which had been treated throughout the 1929
season with nicotine, copper, and arsenic sprays were examined for quality (taste) and for the presence of nicotine. Nicotine was not
found in sufficient quantity to be injurious to health, but there was sufficient to seriously affect the taste, especially with wines from
grapes sprayed late in the season. Most of the nicotine was found in
the lees. The nicotine content was appreciably greater than in either
1927 or 1928 wines from the same district.

FAES, H., STAEHELIN, M., and BCVEY, P. (1586)

1930. LA LUTTE CONTRE LES PARASITES DE LA VIGNE, INSECTES ET CHAPIGNONS
EN 1929. Ann. Agr. Suisse 31: 123-133. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 18: 604-605. 1930.]







371

One percent nicotine in bordeaux mixture, applied 7 days and
again 14 days after the maximum flight of the moths gave better results than Volck oil (1 1/2 percent) against the eggs of the second
generation of vine moths Clysia ambiguella Hb. and Polychrotis botrana
Schiff.

MIESTINGER, K. (1587)

1930. MODERN EXPERIENCE ON THE CONTROL OF VINE MOTHS. VTeinland, No. 5,
p. 170 (reprint 2 pp.) [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
19: 157. 1931.]

Very good results have been obtained in Austria with a mixed
spray containing paris green, bordeaux mixture, and 1.5 to 2 percent
tobacco extract.

FAES, H., STAEHELIN, M., and 3BOVEY, P. (1.538)

1933. LA LUTTE CONTRE LES EImKEMIS DE LA VIGNE EN 1932. Landw. Jahrb.
Schweiz. 47(10): 1147-1159. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. nt. (A) 22: 161.
1934.]

The percentage of the first brood of Clsia ambiguella killed by
two applications of 1 percent bordeaux sprays containing 1.5 to 2 percent summer oil or 1 percent nicotine as an ovicide was 95 100, as compared
with 79 87.5 by 1 percent sprays of lead or calcium arsenate.

CATONI, G. (1589)

1913. THE STRUGGLE AGAINST THE GRAPE CATERPILLAR (ARCTIA COJA L.).
Bull. Off. Gouvt. Gen. Algerie 19 (11): 176-177. From Il
Coltivatore. [In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 1:
250-251. 1913.]

Grape vines in the south of France were sprayed with the following spray mixture: 2.5 lb. tobacco extract, 6.5 oz. soft potash soap, and
20 gal. water. The number of caterpillars was considerably reduced.
The strength of the tobacco juice and of the soap should be standardized,
but waS not in these tests.

MARTINI, S. (1590)

1913. THE STRUGGLE~ AGAINST THE VINE TINEIDS. Riv. Vitic., Enol., ed
Agr. [Coneglianol (5) 19 (8): 178-179. [In Italian. Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 1: 230-231. 1913.]

Grape vines in Italy infested with tineid moths were sprayed with
bordeaux mixture combined with 2 percent phenicated tobacco extract;
1,140 bunches of grapes were sprayed and only 5.61 percent were attacked.
"Estratto fenicato di tabacco" is a preparation of tobacco juice, to
which a certain portion of phenol is added to prevent its use for
other purposes, sold by the Italian Government to agriculturists.







372

ANONIMOUS (1591)

1917. PER COMBATTERE LE LARVE GRIGIE DELLA VITE. Riv. Agr. [Rome] 23
(44): 575.

In Italy it is recommended that grapes infested with cutworms
be sprayed or watered with a mixture consisting of 2 kg. black soap,
1 1. kerosene, 1 1. nicotine, and 100 1. water. Dissolve the soap in
20 1. of water and add the other ingredients.

AIONMous (1592)

1917. POUR COMBATTRE LES VERS GRIS DE LA VIGNE. Vie Agr. et Rurale
7 (32): 102. August 11. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 5: 452. 1911

For controlling the caterpillars of Feltia exclamnationis spraying
at night with the following is recommended: 10 lb. black soap dissolved in 10 gal. boiling water to which are added while stirring 1/2 gal. paraffin and then 1/2 gal. nicotine (100-percent) and lastly another 40 gal.
water.

FEYTAUD, J. (1593)

1917. NOTE ON THE CATERPILLARS OF FELTIA EXCLAMATIONIS. Rev. Vitic.
46 (1190): 247-248. April 19. [In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 5: 354. 1917.]

Artificial means of control include spraying with nicotine and
arsenical solutions.

VIGT, G. (1594)

1931. RM ARKS ON THE GRAPE LEAF MIER, ANTISPILA RIVILLEI STT. Anz.
Sch;dlingsk. 7 (8):90-93, illus. [In German. Abstract in
Biol. Abs. 8 (7): 1679. Entry 16,570. 1933.]

The control of this insect in its pup._l stage may be successfully effected by singeihg the grape poles and fence posts with a
torch and ly spraying the young larvae before they enter the leaves
with a 0.1 to 0.2 percent solution of nicotine sulphate.

WILLIA:MS, L. L. (1595)

1931. T=E GRAPE-BE.RY MOTH PROBLEM DURING 1930. Peninsula Hort. Soc.
[Del.] Trean-. 1930, pp. 131-139. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
19: 270. 1931.]

The addition of 40-percent nicotine sulphate (1: 800) to the
last application of a lead arsenate and fish-oil spray resulted in a
greater efficiency than without the nicotine. Nicotine sulphate should
be incld.&ed in the 10-d.ay spray, since it is effective against the grape-borry moth Polychrosis viteana Clem. and the grape leafhopper
(Erythroneura comes Say.).







373

2. Codling Moth, 1897-1934

LA2iBERT D. (1596)

1897. LES M ILLE S POIRES A CULTIVER. Lyon-Horticole 19: 115-118.

It is recommended. in France that diluted tobacco juice should be
repeatedly sprayed on apple trees during the blooming period to control
Cprpocapsa nomonella, the codling moth.

WELDON, G. P. (1597)

1909. REPORT OF FIELD ET-TOMOLOGIST. Colo. Agr. Exypt. Sta. 22a Ann.
Rept. p. 31-35.

A block of apple trees (Ben Davis) were sprayed. with various insecticides to control the codling moth. Black Leaf (1: 50) allowed
23 percent of wormy apples; sulphate of nicotine (10 oz. to 50 gal. water)
allowed 30 percent wormy; and sulphate of nicotine (12 oz. to 50 gal.)
27 percent wormy. Unsprayed. trees were 41 percent wormy, and lead
arsenate '(3 lb. to 100 gal.) allowed. only 4 percent wormy. Nicotine preparations are of very little value, if any, in controlling the coaling moth

GILLETTE, C. P. (1598)

1910. KEgW SPRAYS FOR THE CODLLIG MOTH. Jour. Econ. Ent. 3: 29-32.

Apple trees were sprayed. with Black Leaf Extract (1: 50) and
Sulfate of Nicotine (1 to 750). In regard to the first spray, 77 percent of the fruit was free from insect injury, and in regard to the second spray, 73 percent was free from injury. The check fruit was
58.9 percent free of injury.

CIATI, v. (1599)

1912. C0 NTf.O LA TIGZ0JOLA DEL 11ELO. Riv. Agr. 18: 301.

Against the moth Carnocpsa pomonella on apple trees the followIng spray mixture is recommended. in Italy: 2 kg. nicotine, 1 kg. sodium
carbormte,l kg. denatured alcohol, and 100 1. water.



1915. AN A~aLYSIS OF SPRAYING METHODS AGAINST THE CODLING MOTH. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 7: 164-170. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 3: 445. 1915.]

Lime-sulphur and lead and nicotine are the substances most largely
used at present for spraying apple trees.

DeSELL:11, F. E. (1601)

1916. NICOTINE SULPHATE FOR CODLING MOTH CONTROL. Yakima Co., Wash.,
Hort. Dept. Ann. Rept., pp. 62-72.






374

The experiments conducted indicated. that nicotine sulphate (1 to
800 of soap solution) acts as a material check to the work of the codling moth. Then it and lead arsenate were used side by side, the
former was as efficient as the latter in codling moth control and kept the trees from all sucking insects. Nicotine also acted as a material
check to the spread of the San Jose scale.

(1602)

1916. NICOTI*TE SULPHATE ALND ARSENATE OF LEAD EXPERIMENTS FOR CQWTfROLLINq
LMOTH. tlash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 12th Ann. Meeting 1915, pp.91-97.

From the data presented nicotine has either acted as a repellent
to the codling moth or the larvae refused to eat. The foliage of the
trees sprayed. with nicotine were a deeper green than is usual and were
free from aphids and red spiders. Nicotine also eradicated nearly all
the San Jose scale from tree D. From an economical standpoint it would
be impracticable to use nicotine sulphate at the present prices, instead
of lead arsenate, in controlling the codling moth. But, if the prices were reduced, the growers could then use it in controlling this insect
and also to check the scale during the growing season.
(1603)

1917. NICOTINE SULPHATE 1K CODLITG MOTH CONTROL. Wash. State Hort. Assoc
Proc. 13th Ann. Meeting 1917, pp. 111-121.

The work during 1915 and 1916 indicates that nicotine sulphate
acts as a material check to the work of the codling moth and to the
spread of the San Jose scale. At the present prices of nicotine it would
not be advisable to substitute nicotine sulphate for lead. arsenate in
controlling the codling moth alone, but where aphids and sucking insects
are to be controlled the omission of lead arsenate will result in considcralle saving. When nicotine sulphate and lead arsenate were used
side by side, the former proved as efficient as the latter in controlling
the codling moth and. kept the trees free from all sucking insects. It
was not necessary to use nicotine stronger than 1 to 800 for the codling
moth and 1 to 1,024 gave nearly as good results. Soap should. be used wit
it.

EATON, J. S., and WATLBURY, H. Z. (1604)

1917. CODLING MOTH EXPERIvMNTAL WOKP IN ROSS ORCHARD. Yakima Co., 7ash.,
Dist. Horr. Insp. Ann. Rept. pp. 27-42.

The results of DeSellem (1916) are reviewed. Their own results
on nicotine sulphate do not corroborate those of DeSellem (pp. 29-30, 35,
36). Their conclusions are not favorable to nicotine sulphate as a
codling moth control where infestation is heavj.

LOVETT, A. L. (1605)

1917. NICOTINE SULPHATE AS A POISON FOR INSECTS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 10:
333-337. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 11: 3369. 1917.]







375

Nicotine sulphate at from 1 to 400 to 1 to 1,200 on foliage was
strongly repellent to tent caterpillars (Malacosoma pluvialis) and those which ate the foliage were killed quickly. A field test with
nicotine sulphate 1 to 400 as a spray against the codling moth on
apple showed in one instance a 50-percent reduction in the amount of
injured fruit.

FROMME, F. D., and .SCHOEE, W. J. (1606)

1918. DUSTING AID SPRAYING FOR APPLE SCAB AND CODLING MOTH. Va. State
Ent. and Plant Path. 11th Rept. 1916-1917, pp. 22-26, illus. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 7: 207. 1919.]

Spraying with lime-sullphur and nicotine sulphate gave less satisfactory results against codling moth than a lime-sulphur and lead
arsenate spray.

HOWARD, L. 0. (1607)

1918. REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent., 24 pp.
1918. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 7: 100-104. 1919.]

Tests on the ovicidal action of nicotine have shown that it is
not sufficient to control Cydia nomonella satisfactorily when used
alone.

LOVETT, A. L. (1608)

1918. NICOTINE SULPHATE AN EFFECTIVE OVICIDE FOR CODLING MOTH EGGS.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 11: 149-150. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6:
208. 1918.],

Black Leaf 40 (1: 1,200) plus fish oil soap 4 lb. to 100 gal.
killed 100 percent of the eggs of the codling moth.

WATERBURY, H. E. (1609)

4t 1918. 'EXP2IMNTALT ENTOMOLOGICAL 7ORK. Yakima Co., Wash., Dist. Keort.
Insp. Ann. Rept. 1917, pp. 25-54, illus.; Wash. Dept. Agr. Bion. Rept.
3 (1917-18): 78-87. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 41: 160. 1919.]

The results obtained from the use of nicotine sulph~te daring the
year failed to confirm the earlier results (Expt. Sta. Rec. 38: 653), and
led to the conclusion that nicotine under lower valley conditions is not
so effective against coddling moth as is lead arsenate. In one experiS mental plat the nicotine was as effective as the lead but no more effective

HOARD, L. 0. (1610)

1920. REPORT OF TIHE ENTOMOLOGIST. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. Ann. Rept.
1920, 36 pp. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 9: 110-114. 1921.]

Tests against Cydia nomonella are being made with a dust composed








of a fungicide, lead arsenate, and tobacco extract. Against the potato
leafhopper, Empoasca mali, bordeaux mixture proved a satisfactory repellent while nicotine sulphate and kerosene emulsion were ineffective.

LOVETT, A. L. (1611)

1920. INSECTICIDE INVESTIGATIONS. Ore. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 169, 55 p:
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 8: 372. 1920.]

Nicotine sulphate is a powerful repellent for tent caterpillars,
and if feeding does take place even weak solutions kill almost instantly
It is an effective ovicide for codling moth, especially with the addition of soap, but is not to be recommended as a substitute for the stand
ard arsenate sprays in codling moth control.

FEYTAUD, J. (1612)

1921. ESSAIS DE BUILLIES MIXTES POUR LE TRAITEMENT DES ARBRES FRUITIERS
Ann. Epiphyties 7: 195-236, illus.

The following is one of the spray mixtures recommended against
the larvae of the codling moth ('Carnocasa pomonella L.) on apple and pear trees: 15 parts titr.te! nicotine extract, 6.6 parts copper sulphate, 30 parts slaked lime, and 1,000 parts water (p. 199). A few
eggs of the codling moth, which were treated with the above bordeauxnicotine mixture, were all aborted (pp. 231-232).

McIiD00, 7. E., SIMANTON, F. L., PLANK, H. K., and FISKE, R. J. (1613)

1921. EFFECTS OF NICOTINE SULPHATE AS AN OVICIDE AND LARVICIDE ON THE
CODLING MOTH AND THREE OTHER INSECTS. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 938, 19
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 9: 576. 1921.]

Nicotine sulphate (40-percent) is effective in destroying the
fresh eggs of Bombyx mori, L.; in older eggs hatching is more or less
retarded by it. The exhalation from leaves dipped in the solution 1 to 5 days previously proved fatal to newly hatched larvae, and when
fed on the leaves 6 to 11 days after dipping, they also succumbed.

Against eggs of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) nicotine
sulphate did not prove effective, only about 20 percent of the eggs
failing to hatch. Larvae placed on pears that had been sprayed 1 or
2 days previously were reduced by about 75 percent, the mortality decreasing to about 25 percent on the sixth and seventh days. Similar
experiments carried out with eggs of Le-ptinotarsa decemlineata, L.
(potato beetle) and Hemerocampa leucostigma S. & A. (tussock moth)
proved the inefficiency of nicotine sulphate as an ovidide in the case
of these species.

Ly chemical and histological methods it was shown that nicotinesulphate spray solutions, containing soap, do not pass into the leaves
sprayed, nor does the dust in the film of adhering nicotine sulphate
enter the stomata of the leaves (p. 14 of original).






377

Field experiments show that nicotine sulphate (1:800) with soap,
is fairly efficacious against the larvae bf Cydia pomonella, but it is
inferior in action to a spray of 1 lb. powdered lead arsenate to 50 gal.
water. There is apparently no advantage in combining nicotine sulphate
and lead arsenate against this pest.

STEARNTS, L. A., and HOUGH, 7. S. (1614)

1923. SPREADER TESTS ON APPLES AID PEACHES. Jour. Econ. Ent. 16: 198-201.
S[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 11: 334. 1923.]

Nicotine sulphate (40-percent) and a casein spreader were found
to be incompatible.

KLEIN, J. (1615)

1925. CONTROLLING CODLING MOTH IN WAIANUTS. Calif. Cult. 64 (21):
583,587, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 14: 248. 1926.]

Dusting and spraying have been used for the control of codling
moth in walnuts with almost identical results. The spray consisted
of 16 lb. lead arsenate, 1 pt. nicotine sulphate and 4 lb. spreader in 400 gal, of water. It was pumped under 400 lb. pressure and an average
of 27 gal. was used per tree. The damage in the sprayed areas ranged
from 4.2 to 7.1 percent as compared with 12 to 22.2 percent in unsprayed ones.

GURIEY, 7. B., and BRERETOIT, T7. LeG. (1616)

1926. THE CONTROL OF '700LLY APHIS, METHODS THAT ARE AVAILABLE. Agr.
Gaz. T. S. Males 37 (7): 545-551. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
14: 550-551. 1926.]

One grower reports great success in the last two years in controlling the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) with an
autumn spray of 2 lb. caustic soda, 3/4 pt. nicotine sulphate (40-percentj
and 100 gal. water. TThen early fungicide treatments are necessary very
good results have been obtained by combining winter strength lime-sulphur and tobacco wash or commercial nicotine extract applied when the buds were
swelling. In Victoria a combination of 1 gal. oil and 1 pt. 40-percent nicotine sulphate to 80 gal. water gave great success as a winter spray
against Z. laniaerum. Tobacco wash prepared without soda and many of the
commercial extracts may be safely combined with lead arsenate and can be used against both the woolly oaphid ?nd the codling moth (.Cdia pomonella
L.) Nicotine sulphate (40-percent) is generally diluted to 1 pt. to
100 gal. of water for Z. lanigerum. The addition of miscible oil, using
2, 3, or 5 pt. to 100 gal. tobacco spray, increases its efficiency.

BOURiE, A. I., and. THITC01B, 7. D. (1617)

1927. THE CODLING MOTH IN M.ASSACHUSETTS. Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull.
233, pp. 55-72. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 16: 361. 1928.]







378'The addition of nicotine sulphate to lead arsenate sprays
against the eggs of Q. pomonella appears to be uneconomical unless
it serves to control other pests as well.

FOW7LER, R. (1618)

1927. FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS INTO COlLING MOTH CONTROL. SECOND
?PORT OiN EXPERIMENTS CARRIED OUT AT BLACKWOOD EXPERIMENT ORCHARD.
Jour. Dept. Agr. So. Aust. 31 (5): 480-492. [Abstract in Rev.
Apple. Ent. (A) 16: .285-286. 1928.]

The spray that gave the best results consisted of 2 lb. lead
arsenate to 50 gal. water. The addition of lime-sulphur or 40-percent
nicotine sulphate did not improve the efficacy of the sprays to any
a)-reciable extent.

HOARD, L. 0. (1619)

1927. REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. Ann.
Rept. 29 pp. [Abstract in Rev. Apl)1. Ent. (A) 17: 272-275. 1929.]

Nicotine sulphate (1:800) used in three cover sprays following a
calyx and first cover spray of load arsenate, gave very satisfactory
results against the codling moth.

AOo"TJUS (1620)

1928. REPORT OF THE DIVISION OF ENTOiOLOGY OF THE WASHINGTON STATION.
7ash. Col. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 229, pp. 27-29. [Abstract in
Expt. Sta. Rec. 60: 842-843. 1929.]

Excellent results were obtained with 2 percent nicotine dusts,
but the high cost of some of these treatments prevents their use except
for checking the influx of potato flea beetles at the edges of potato
fields early in the season.

In the 1927 experiments with the coaling moth, it was found that
nicotine sulphate (1:600) could be used as a substitute for load arsonat
in the second and third cover sprays, although this combination was
somewhat less effective. The indications are to the effect that some combination of nicotine sulphate may be of value in reducing arsenical
residue and still serve to keep the codling moth well in check.

---- (1621)

1928. INSECT PESTS IN IDA10 IN 1927. Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 160,
pp. 21-23. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 17: 316. 1929.]

Nicotine in combination with soap was much less effective than
in combination with 1/2 percent oil emulsion in controlling the codling
moth (Cvdia nomonclla L.).







379HARTZELL, A., and WILCOXON, F. (1622)

1928. ANALYSES OF SPRAYED APPLES FOR LEAD AND ARSENIC. Jour. Econ. Ent.
21; 125-130. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 16: 394-395. 1928.]

Treatment with a spray containing 4 lb. lead arsenate powder, 2 lb.
casein-lime, and 1 1/2 pt. nicotine sulphate to 150 gal. gave 96 percent
control of the codling moth. Five applications were made, two before
and two after the calyx spray. Lime-sulphur was combined vith the
first four sprays.

HEADLEE, T. J. (1623)

1928. AN OPERATION IN PRACTICAL CONTROL OF CODLINTG MOTH IN A HEAVILY
INFESTED DISTRICT-SECONTD REPORT. Jour. Econ. Ent. 21: 774-778. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 23: 467. 1929.]

A report on procedure which resulted in 82 percent of the apples
picked being free from codaling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella) injury. The
timing, composition, and method of applyinginsecticides, including nicotine, were the most important factors in producing this result.

LEVICK, G. T. (1624)

1928. CODLING MOTH CONTROL. Jour. Dept. Agr. Victoria 26 (8): 459-462.

Nicotine sulphate was used in combination with lead arsenate,
but it did not appear to have any effect in reducing the codling
moth infestation.

MARLATT, C. L. (1625)

1928. REPORT OF THE ENTOIOLOGIST. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. 34 pp.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 17: 272-275. 1929.]

Nicotine sulphate (1:800) used in three cover sprays, following
a calyx and first cover spray of lead arsenate, gave very satisfactory
results against the coaling moth.

MOTE, D. C. (1626)

1928. DEPARTMENT OF ENTOIOLOGY. Oreg. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bien. Rept.
1926-28, pp. 101-109. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 18: 78. 1930.]

Nicotine sulphate substituted for lead arsonate in the last cover
spray for the control of the coaling moth (C dia pomonella L.) gave
slightly inferior results.

DeSELLEM, F. E. (1627)

1929. RECEiNT DEVELOPLINT IN CONTROLLING CODLING MOTH wITH NICOTINE-OIL.
Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 25, pp. 95-107, illus.






380

The nicotine-oil combination has proved more efficient than
lead arsenate alone the past two seasons in controlling the second brood end simplifies the residue removal. It is a well-known fact
that if too many lead-oil sprays are applied the removal of the
spray resiae is a serious question.

The nicotine-oil combination if properly spaced in the codling
moth program along with lead arsenate and lead-oil will control the codling moth larvae, orchard mites, aphids, leafhoppers, and summer
crawlers of San Jose scale and will also simplify residue removal.

FLINT, U. P. (1628)

1929. ORCHARD INSECT CONTROL FOR 1928. Ill. Hort. Soc. Trans. 1928,
62: 97-109. [oAbstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 17: 387-388. 1929.]

Experiments were carried out with oil sprays for the control of
second and third brood larvae of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) Two sprays with a 2 percent thite oil emulsion reduced the infestation to 1.1 pcrcont and 0.7 percont respectively. The same oil at 1 percent
with nicotine sulphate (1:800) allowed an infestation of 0.3 percent.

HERBERT, F. B., and LEONTAPD, !i. D. (1629)

1929. OBSERVATIONS ON THE OIL-NICOTINE C0BIN2TATION FOR THE CONTROL OF
EE CODLI'TG OTH A D OTHER APPLE IeSECTS IN THE PACIFIC IORTHEST.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 22: 72-78. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 17:
369-370. 1929.]

A combination of oil and nicotine gives better results than
those obtained with lead arsenate with or without oil in the control of
Cydia (Caroocapsa) pomonella L. and the other more important pests of
apple. Oil with.nicotine.usually gave commercial control of mites, San Jose scale (Asnidiotus nerniciosus Comst.), and the green eaphid
(Ahis 22m DeG. ),and considerably reduced the numbers of woolly apple
aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.).

LEVICK, G. T. (1630)

1929. CO TROL OF THE CODLITG MOTH (CYDIA POMIONELLA LINN.) Jour. Dept.
Agr. Victoria 27 (9): 533-542. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 18:
107. 1930.]

The addition of nicotine sulphate and lime-sulphur to lead
arsenate did not increase its efficiency in controlling the codling moth.
.ith lead arsenate sprays alone, codling moth infestations amounted to
22, 13, and 58 percent respectively in 1926-7, 1927-8, and 1928-9.

McALISTER, I. C., JR. (1631)

192t9. PRELIMIiARY REPORT ON CONTROL OF HIBERNATING CODLING MOTH IARVAZE,
Jour. Econ. Ent. 22: 424-425. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 23: 3534. 1929.






381

Nicotine was less efficient than undiluted kerosene and ethylene
dichloride in killing the hibernating larvae of the codling moth
(Car-ocapsa _omonela).

NE0C0M:ER, E. J. (1632)

1929. THE CODLING MOTH IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: STATUS OF PRESENT
SPRAY PRACTICES AD PROSPECTS FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN CONTROL MEASURES.
4th Internatl. Cong. Ent. 1928. 2 (Trans.) pp. 567-570. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 18: 313-314. 1930.]

In the future the later sprays for codling moth control will consist of oil, nicotine, or some other material that will reduce the
residue hazard and the losses from stings.

PETTEY, F. 7. (1633)

1929. CODLING MOTH CONTROL. EXPERIMENTS 7ITH SUlIMER OIL SPRAYS.
Farming in So. Africa reprint No. 56, 13 pp. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 18: 102-103. 1930.]

No radical changes in the present methods of control can be
adopted; the indications are that a program may ultimately be adopted allowing the reduction of lead arsenate sprays to 2 or 3 applications
to be followed by 3 or more combination oil-nicotine, oil-pyrethrum
or oil-derris sprays and so obviating the necessity of removing arsenical residue.

SMITH, R. H. (1634)

1929. ADDITIONAL INFO RMATION ON CONTROLLING CODLING MOTH BY SPRAYINTG
AND DUSTING. Diamond Walnut News 9 (1): 8-9. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 17: 386-387. 1929.]

Tests were carried out with a number of insecticides against
newly hatched codling moth larvae, and it was found that 3/4 pt. of
nicotine sulphate with 1 lb. caseinate spreader in 100 gal. water was
the most satisfactory, giving a mortality of 42.3 percent.

(1635)

1929. BEHAVIOR OF iT2 NETLY-IAT~KED CODLING MOTH WOM ON WALNUTS.
Calif. Cult. 72 (22): 634-635. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 4 (7-9):
2094. Entry 22,207. 1930.3

Nicotine spray and dust killed a large percentage of Carpocapsa
pomonella on English walnuts.

SPUIER, A. (1636)

1929. MORE EFFICIENT CODLING IMOTH CONTROL. Idaho Hort. Assoc. Proc.
34th Ann. Meeting, pp. 100-111. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
17: 710-712. 1929.]







382

Nicotine sulphate used alone was not effective, but a combination
of nicotine sulphate and oil proved as effective as lead arsenate or
more so. Owing to the high cost of this material and possible injury to
fruit end trees, this combination is riot recommended for more than 2
or 3 treatments, which should be made when most of the eggs of the
first and second broods are being laid.

(1637)

1929. SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS FOR CODLI G 1OTE CONTROL. Wash. Dept. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Bull. 232, 70pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(.) 18: 273-275. 1930.]

Nicotine sulphate acts as an ovicide and larvicide, but soon loses
its insecticidal value and cannot be used alone unless applied at
frequent intervals. The addition of 1 lb. aluminum sulphate to 100
gal. nicotine -sulphate (1:800) prolonged its insecticidal value,
but produced russeting or blotching. Nicotine oleate was not so effective as nicotine sulphate. A combination of oil and nicotine proved equJl to or better than the standard lead arsonate spray in four tests.
This sjray, which is also effective against mites, loafhoppers, and aphids, may therefore be used as a substitute.for some of the lead
arcn:ate sprays.

WA2LAND, C. (1638)

1929. SOiE RESULTS FROM OIL EMJTULSION SPRAYS FOR CODLING MOTH CONTROL
IN 1927 AIM 1928. Idaho Hort. Assoc. Proc. 34th Ann. Meeting, pp.
64-77. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 17: 710. 1929.]

Certain combinations of oil and lead arsenate or of oil,
nicotine sulphate, and lead arsenate were more effective in controlling the codling moth than lead arsenate alone, but were more
ex)ensive. Oil or oil and nicotine also reduce infestation by
certain other insects and may sometimes be added with advanta e to
one or more of the codling moth treatments on this account.

RIGHT, U7. H. (1639)

1929. TIHE DOLLAR SIGN N IT WALJT PEST CONTROL. Calif. Dept. Agr.
iionthly Bull. 18 (4): 278-282, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 17: 519. 1929.]

In regard to the codling moth and aphids on walnuts, both pests
may be controlled by a spray of 15 lb. basic lead arsenate, 1 pt. 40percent nicotine sulphate, 3 lb. spreader to 300 gal. water, If aphids
occur alone, nicotine dust m;ay be used.

ALLMA.N, S. L. (1640)

1930. CODLING MOTH EXPERIMENTS, 1929-30. SUIMLARY OF RESULTS OBTAINED A
BATHMURST EXPERIMENT FARM. Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales'41 (11): 834-844.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 194-195. 1931.]






383

T7hite oil (1:80) with nicotine sulphate (1:800) gave fair
results, being mainly ovicidal in its action, but caused a certain
amount of injury to the fruit.

ANON Y~lOUS (1641)

1930. ENTOiOLOGY. Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 48 (1928-1929) Bull.
446, pp. 78-93, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 18: 550-552.
1930.]

The addition of nicotine to lead arsenate and oil sprays greatly
increased the mortality of codling moth larvae during the first 48
hours after spraying, but from that time onward little difference in
infestation was noted. Apple trees sprayed with lime-sulphur at dormant strengths with the addition of nicotine sulphate (1:800 or 1:1000)
were almost entirely free from aphids (Anuraphis roseus Bak.). The
most effective spray against A phi o-mi DeG. is nicotine sulphate 3/4
pt. to 100 gal. water, to which is added 3/4 gal. commercial miscible
oil or 1 gal. oil emulsion.

...... (1642)

1930. DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY. Ore. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bien. Rept.
1928-1930, pp. 86-90. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 201-202.
1931.]

In tests with substitutes for lead arsenate against the codlirg
moth carried out under field conditions in Oregon, calcium arsenate
gave as good control as lead arsenate. Of the other materials, pyrethrum
gave the best results, and those secured with nicotine sulphate, and
sodium and barium fluosilicates warrant further tests.

GROSS, C. R., and FAHEY, J. E. (1643)

1930. SO M OF THE GCHMICAL PROB=LZS IN CODLINIG MOTH CONTROL. Northwest
Fruit Grower, Hay June, pp. 7, 22. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. nt.
(A) 18: 646-647. 1930.]

A nicotine and oil combination held the nicotine better than any
other combination tried; other combinations nicotine tannate plus fish oil, and nicotine sulphate plus corn syrup and glycerine were,
however, better than nicotine sulphate applied alone. Nicotine oleate gave poor control and scorched the foliage. The degree of control was
found to be correlated in general with the amount of nicotine remaining
on the foliage.

HEADLEE, T. J. (1644)

1930. SOLE SUBSTITUTES FOR ARSENIC IIT CODLING MOTH CONTROL. ,mer.
Fruit Grower Mag., p. 25, Feb. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 5 (3): 854,
Entry 8,520. 1931.]

A spray, which controlled Caroocasa romonella as well as
arsenical sprays without leaving a harmful residue on the fruit, was






384

nicotine tannate made from 3 lb. commercial tannic acid, 1 lb. 50percent free nicotine, and 100 gal. water.

LADLE, T. J., GINSBURG, J. L., and FII~R, R. S. (1645)

1930. SCLE SUBSTITUTES FOR ARSENTIC INT CO1TTROL OF CODLI1TG OTH. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 23: 45-5'3. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 18: 386-387.
19:30.]

Nicotine tannate (3 lb. tannic acid to 1 pt. 50-percent nicotine
sulphate) gave 73.2 percent fruit free from codling moth injury as
compared with 57.5 percent from standard arsenical-treated rows.
Trees treated with nicotine tannate were as well protected against
the Japanese beetle as those treated with standard arsenical sprays hnd were very largely protected against injury from late broods of
leafhoppers.

KELSALL, A., HOCKEY, J. F., and WALKER, G. P. (1646)

1930. EXP-RIM CENTS 7ITH YEW SPRAY HIXTU ES. Pomol. Fruit Growers',. So..
36th Ann. Rept., Quebec 1929, pp. 26-37. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 19: 473-474. 1931.]

With regard to sprays for apples, in pre-blossom applications
as much as 1.5 lb. calcium arsenate, but after blossoming not more than 0.75 lb. can be used, and in the last application 0.5 lb. nicotine sulphate may be added. The addition of iron sulphate to lime-sulphur
eliminates injury; used alone or with nicotine this mixture is a poor
fungicide. Preliminary tests with calcium monosulphide indicate that
this is an effective and safe fungicide for use on apple trees that can be coTmbined with lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, or nicotine sulphate.

LE0ITARD, -. ). (1647)

1930. 1TaTHZ EXPI:~Ts WITH iICOTINTE-CIL FOR THE CONTROL OF THE
CODL G i:OTH IN I. PACIFIC NORTHEST. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23: 61-75.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 18: 387-388. 1930.]

Commercial scale tests are reported. In most dases 1/2 pt. of
40-percent nicotine sulphate to 100 gal. was employed. A consideration of the conoarative results indicated that nicotine-oil combinations undoubtedly give better results vwhen used only in the last 2
or 3 cover sprays than when used in all the cover sprays or in the early
ones only. In most cases it is best to start the season with 1 or 2
applications of lead arsenate (2 lb. to 100 gal.) followed by 2 of lead arsenate-oil, completing the schedule with 2 or possibly 3 applications of nicotine-oil. This pro-ran appors to be the most efficient in controllin the major costss of apples and also the most economical from
the point of view of net returns to the grower.

NEWCDI, E. J., and SPULBR, A. (1648)

1930. SUGGESTIONS FOR USE OF OIL SPRAYS IN 1930. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23:
289-290. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 3311. 1930.]






385


Petroleum oil should be used in sprays containing nicotine
sulphate to control the codling moth (Carpocapsa nomonella). The oil-nicotine sulphate spray is recommended for use after July 25.

PETTEY, F. v. (1649)

1930. NEV METHODS FOR THE CONTROL OF CODLING HOTH. EXPERIvENTS
CARRIED OUT DURING 1930. So. Africa Dept. Agr. Bull. 90, 10pp.,
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 19: 59-60. 1931.]

The addition of nicotine sulphate (1:1,200) to any of the oilarsenate cover sprays will control the wooly aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) if the sprays are thoroughly applied. V~hen desirable for controlling other pests on pears or apples, 1 percent medium oil and nicotine sulphate I to 800 or 1 to 1,200 may be used ,ibh advantage as a
substitute for one or two of the lead arsenate sprays; more than two appli
cations are not recommended on account of expense.

REGAN, 7. S. (1650)

1930. RESULTS OF INSECTICIDE TESTS FOR THE CONTROL OF CODLING P1OTH AND
OBSERVATIONS ON CODLINiG MOTH ACTIVITY DURING THE SEASON OF 1929 IN THE
YAKIMA VALLEY, WASHINGTON. 16 pp. Calif. Spray Chemical Co., Berkeley, Calif. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 5 (10): 2391. Entry
24,221. 1931.]

Orchard experiments showed greatly improved control of codling
moth (Caruocausa nomonella) under Northwest conditions by the combination of arsenate of lead with summer oil. The possibility of good
results with reduction of the arsenical dosage in this combination is
shown, as well as the substitution of a combination of nicotine sulphate
and oil for lead arsenate.

ROBINSON, R. H., FISHER, D. F., and SPULER, A. (1651)

1930. THE WESTERIT COOPERATIVE OIL SPRAY PROJECT (1929). Science 71
(1843): 440-441.

The use of oil sprays late in the summer was found to complicate
seriously the problem of spray-residue removal. TWhere not more than
two applications of oil spray are made in combination with lead arsenate
for the first brood of codling moth or where the nicotine-oil combination without lead arsenate is used for the second brood, the arsenical
residue problem has not been seriously complicated.

SPULER, A., and DEANT, F. P. (1652)

1930. NEV COMBINATION SPRAYS FOR CODLING MOTH CONTROL. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 23: 53-61, illus. LAbstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 18: 387.
1930.]

Nicotine-oil combinations have proved as effective as lead
arsenate when applied as cover sprays for the first brood, and






386

decidedly more effective if applied in second brood. sprays. The
combination of oil, 1 to 100, and nicotine sulphate (1/2 pt. to
100 gal.) has given a control of the codling moth equal to that of
lead arsenate, 1 lb. to 50 gal. In view of the removal of residues,
combinations of mineral oil or fish oil with lead arsenate should be applied in first-broo. sprays and mineral oil-nicotine sulphate
combinations in second-brood sprays.

AL.LIT, S. L. (1653)

1931. CODLING MOTH EXPERILENTS, 1930-31. RESULTS OBTAINED AT BATHURST
EXPERI.1ENT FARM. Agr. Gaz. N. S. 7ales 42 (10 and 12): 810-816,
955-961, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 20: 186. 1932.]

Lead arsenate foned. the common basis of the most satisfactory
spray mixtures; of the non-arsenicals tried, a combination of white
oil and nicotine sulphate proved the best. A mixture of nicotine
sulphate and tannic acid (nicotine tannate) gave little control.

FARRAR, 1. D. (1654)

1931. THE USE OF OILS IN THE APPLE SPRAY PROGRAIA. Tenn. State Hort.
Soc. Proc. Ann. Cony. 26: 84-89. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 7 (5):
1163. Entry 11,457, 1933.]

White oils combined. with nicotine sulphate give increased insecticidal efficiency against the codling moth.

(1655)

1931. EFFECT OF OIL SPRAYS 0N ORCHARD FRUIT AND FOLIAGE. Ind. Hort.
Soc. Trans. 1930, pp. 76-80. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 6 (5): 1429.
Entry, 13,925. 1932.]

Nicotine sulphate (1:800) combined with oil emulsion gave
control comparable to lead arsenate.

NE7COL, E. J., YOTHMS, I. A., and 7HITCO1,3, T7. D. (1656)

1931. CONTROL OF THE CODLING MOTH IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. U. S. Dept.
Agr. Farmers' Bull. 1326, revised., 26 pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 628. 1931.]

This is a revision of previous bulletins (Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
12: 247; 18: 384), the principal additional information dealing with
the use of oil emulsions combined with lead arsenate sprays against the first brood or with nicotine sulphate against the second brood.

PETTEY, F. 77. (1657)

1931. THE CODLING 1,0TH A1D EXPERIHIMTS FOR ITS CONTROL IN APPLE RC-HARDS
OF THE HIGH VELDT DURING 1930-31. Union So. Africa Dept. Agr. Sci.
Bull. 104, 30 pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 267-268.
1932.]I





387

The addition of 1 percent medium or light grade summer oil with
40-percent nicotine sulphate (1:1200) and calcium caseinate to the
3d, 5th, and 7th sprays in the standard lead arsenate spray program
gave satisfactory control of severe infestations of the woolly aphids
(Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmr.), Similar sprays containing more nicotine
sulphate (1:800), calcium caseinate, and no oil gave equally good results ,and improved the control against the codling moth. A program of double strength lead arsenate with a spreader, in which nicotine sulphate (1:800) was added in the 3d. spray to control the
woolly aphid, gave almost as good results against the codling moth as the standard one with 1 percent medium grade oil and spreader added to the 3d, 5th, and 7th sprays, and nicotine sulphate (1:1,200) added to
the 3d and 5th.

QUAINTANCE, A. L., et al. (1658)

1931. REPCRT OF COMM01ITTEE TO FOPMJIUATE PLANS FOR INVESTIGATIONS OF THE
CODLING MOTH FROM BIOLOGIC AND CONTROL STAIDPOINTS. Jour. Econ. Ent.
24 (1): 18-23.

Reports on oil-nicotine by Spuler, Sherman, Newcomer, Haseman,
Ackerman, Gilmer, Flint, Davis, and Thompson are given. Some of
these investigators say that the oil-nicotine combination gave results
equal to those obtained with lead arsenate, while others did not get such good results (p,20). Favorable reports on nicotine tannate by
Headlee, Spuler, Newcomer, Stearns, and Lothrop and Sazama are also given
(p. 21).

REGAN, i S.- (1659)

1931. RESULTS OF INSECTICIDE TESTS FOR THE CO1,TROL OF CODIJING MOTH ANM
OBSERVATIONS ON CODLING MOTH ACTIVITY DURING THE SEASON OF 1930 IN
THE YAKIMA VALLEY, TASH. 22pp. Berkeley, Calif. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 632. 1931.]

Nicotine sulphate (40-percent) with the oil instead of lead
arsenate in late sprays gave efficiently good control to indicate the possibility of using this material where residue removal is a
serious problem.

SHEMAN, F. (1660)

1931. RECENT EXPERI,1ENTAL 7ORK ON CODLING MOTH. Mich. State Hort. Soc.
Ann. Rept. 60: 48-50. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 6 (5): 1423, Entry
13,859, 1932.]

One application of oil and nicotine on strawberry apples for
summer brood larvae gave better control than a single applcation of
lead arsenite. Apples treated with lead arsenate had an excessive
arsenical residue, while those treated with oil and nicotine showed
less than the world's tolerance. Oil-nicotine is not effective on
late varieties when applied as a substitute for lead arsenate at the
times indicated in the spray calendar for spraying with lead arsenate.
Sunoco oil used at rate of 1 gal. with 3/4 pt. nicotine sulphate to 100
gal. of water is unsafe on apples.






388

SHERAI, F. III (1661)

1931. SPRAYING TO CONTROL TIE CODLING MOTH IN SOUTHWESTERN MICHIGAN.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 24 (5): 1075-1077. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent.
(A) 20: 34. 1932.]

Sprays of oil with nicotine sulphate gave good results on an
early variety, but were less satisfactory on later varieties. In all cases where oil with nicotine was employed in the summer brood
sprays, the arsenical residue on the fruit was greatly reduced. Oil
sprays, where applied, alone for the summer brood larvae, were ineffective. One proprietary oil when used. in combination with nicotine
sulphate caused injury to the fruit.

SPULER, A., et al. (1662)

1931. VALUE OF C01NATIONS WITH =EAD ARSENATE AND STJ1.Q' OILS IN
CODLING MOTH CONTROL. Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 26 (1930), pp.
59-72, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 19-20. 1932.]

A series of spray progreuns was tested.. The best results were
obtained from the following materials per 100 gallons: A calyx spray of
3 lb. lead arsenate, a first cover spray of I gal. oil with 2 lb. lead.
arsenate, a second and third. covcr spray of fish-oil with 2 lb. lead arsenate, a fourth cover s-)r-y identical with the calyx spray, and a fifth and sixth cover spray of 1 gal. oil and 0.5 pt. nicotine. The
foliage in this case showed practically no scorching and. was free
from injury by leafhoppers and mites. The residue was 0.061 as compared with 0.078 in a plot treated with lead arsenate only.

SPULER, A., SPULER, F. end GREEN, E. L. (1663)

1931. OIL SPRAYS FOR STE=\4R USE. Wash. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 252,
39pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 19: 581-582. 1931.]

With regard to the codling moth, nicotine sulphate and oil
sprays have been as effective as lead arsenate (2 lb. to 100 gal.) in
preventing entry into the fruit, when used in any or all the cover
sprays, and have been decidedly more effective than lead arsenate
in preventing stings."

WESTER, R. L. (1664)

1931. TRENDS IN CODLING MOTH CONTROL IN TH PACIFIC NORTHWEST. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 24: 672-676. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 543-544.
1931.]

The oil-nicotine combination, consisting of 1 gal. summer oil
and nicotine sulphate (3/4 pt. to 100 gal.), is-recommended to replace
lead arsenate late in the season on account of the residue problem.
It has proved fully as efficient as lead arsenate for cover sprays
against the second brood. Foliage treated with cover sprays, including the oil-lead arsenato combination together with nicotine-oil, was found
to be particularly free from injury by red spider, leafhoppers, and aphids.







389

LATHROP, F. H., and SAZAMA, R. F. (1665)

1932. A LABORATORY-FIELD METHOD FOR THE STUDY OF TkH EFFIC'IENTCY OF
CODLIUG MOTH SPRAYS. Jour. Econ. Ent., 25 (1): 83-101, illus. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. '(A) 20: 290-292. 1932.]

The treatments included lead arsenate and lime for the first
brood followed by summer oil with or without nicotine sulphate for
the second.. The orchard results show that the oil-nicotine spray was
somevwhat superior to lead arsenate and lime, probably as the result
of superior ovicidal effects. In regard to 1 percent oil with nicotine (1:1,600), there was a decrease in coloration of the fruit of selected
apples, but no material injury to foliage was observed.

101EE, 17M. (1666)

1932. COIMARISONS BET7EENq NICOTINE TThI 'ATE AI'TD ARSENATE OF LEAD AS
CODLING MOTH POISONS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 25 (3): 554-559. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 515. 1932.]

Foliage treated with nicotine tannate under New Jersey conditions
has shown that about 75 percent of the nicotine has usually disappeared at the end of 10 days (Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 358), but a determinable
anount always remains for 30 days or more. These small residues seem
to control the codling moth better than lead. arsenate. Subsequent
studies of the toxicity of nicotine tannate have shown that it kills
the more mature eggs and crawling larvae as a contact poison and persists
as a stomach poison on foliage in quantities toxic to the young larvae
for at least 21 days. The cost of nicotine tannate is not greater than
that of lead arsenate, and the former appears to exceed the latter in
toxicity. Tannic acid is only satisfactory when made from Chinese galls
(Rhus semialata),inferior tannins causing severe foliage injury, The
tank should be filled two-thirds full of water, and after the agitator
has been started, 2 lb. tannic acid should be added for each 100 gal.
After this has dissolved, 1 pt. 50-percent free nicotine for each 3 lb.
tannic acid should be added and the tank filled up before applying the
spray. Nicotine tannate can be used with pure sulphur but cannot be
mixed with soap, lime-sulphur, calcium caseinate, or other alkaline or
acid substances. Its compatibility with dried milk or other protein
or organic base is open to question.

NEWCOMER, E. J., et al. (1667)

1932. A CODLING MOTH CONTROL SCHEDULE FOR 1932. Wash. State Hort. Assoc.
Proc. 27 (1931), pp. 46-50, illus.; also in Better Fruit 26 (8): 8-9,
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 278. 1932.]

Oil emulsions may be safely used with lead arsenate in the second
and subsequent cover sprays, provided that lime-sulphur has not been
applied too late in the spring. After July they must be combined with some other insecticide, such as nicotine sulphate (1/2 or 2/3 pt. per
100 gal.), etc.







390EZ70T.IR, E. J., and YOTH=,S, 14. A. (1668)

1932. EXPE--IENTS ITH INSECTICIDES FOR CODLING-MOTH CONTROL. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 281, 28pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 20: 367-368. 1932.]

Nicotine sulphate was somewhat toxic to the eggs and larvae of
the codling moth in warm weather, but by itself was of less value than lead arsenate. Of the materials tested to prevent too rapid volatilization of the nicotine, lubricating oil gave the best results, and. a very good control was obtained. with a combination of
nicotine sulphate (1:800 or 1:1,600) and. 1 percent lubricating oil.
This combination is of value when substituted for lead arsenate in
one or more cover sprays.

SPULR, A., et al. (1669)

1932. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COST OF CODLING MOTH CONTROL. 7.ash.
State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 27 (1931), pp. 31-43, illus. FACTORS LIiITIG
THE USE OF TEAD ARSENATE FOR CODLING MOTH CONTROL. Better Fruit
26 (8): 5-7, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 20: 277-278.
1932.]

Nicotine, when used alone, appears to be of little value against
the codling moth. The use of mineral oil with nicotine sulphate or
pyrethr= increases the time the nicotine or pyrethrum remains on the fruit, and the spray combines both ovicidal and larvicidal properties
and controls other pests such as aphids and mites. A spray of oil
(1:100) combined with nicotine sulphate (1:1,600) proved. as effective against the codling moth as lead arsenate when used in any or all of
the cover sprays, and. also controls other pests and avoids an excessive
deposit of arsenical.

STEAMIS, L. A., HADEN, 7. R., and MACCRZARY, D. (1670)

1932. RESULTS TITH SOiv OF THE SPRAYS SUGGESTED RECENTLY FOR IMPROVE
CODLING-MOTH CONTROL. Peninsula Hort. Soc. [Del.] Trans. 1932: 78-88.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28: 5379. 1934.]

Substitution of nicotine tmnnate or Verdol for lead arsenate in
the second and. third-brood cover sprays did not give increased control
of the codling moth on apples, but greatly reduced. the arsenical residue
on the fruit.

WBSTER, R. L. (1671)

1932. DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. Wash. Col. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 275,
pp. 31-34.

The nicotine-oil combination, when used. in the late cover sprays,
has Fiven excellent results for several years when directed especially against the codling moth. This treatment and that of lead arsenate are
a approximately equal in their efficiency.







Nicotine tannate, when combined with emulsified mineral oil in
the last two cover sprays, gave protection equal to a straight lead
arsenate treatment on apples.

CROSBY, C. R., MILLS, T. D., and BLAUVELT, U. E. (1672)

1933. PROTECTING OPRCHARD CROPS FROM DISEASES AND INSECTS. N. Y.
[Cornell] Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 498 (revised), 83 pp., illus. [pbstrat
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 22: 300. 1934.]

Spraying twice a month (a calyx and 6 cover sprays) with 2.5 lb.
lead arsenate and 2 gal.summer oil in 100 gal, water gave 96 percent
uninjured fruit in 1933, and the residue was easily removed. To make
washing unnecessary, 1 pt. nicotine may be substituted for the arsenical
in the last four sprays.

CUTRIGHT, C. R., and HOUSE, J. S. (1673)

1933. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS IN CODLING MOTH CONTROL WITH LATE SUbER CIL
APPLICATIONS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26 (2): 380-383. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 21: 333. 1933.]

The trend of results in experiments in which nicotine sulphate
was added to the oil slightly favors lead arsenate, but the difference
is very small.

FOL, R. (1674)

1933. SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS FOR CODLING MOTH CONTROL BLACKVOOD, 1931-32.
Jour. Dept. Agr. So. Aust. 36 (6): 647-660, illus. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 21: 265. 1933.]

The general results indicated that it is possible.in a year of
heavy crop of fruit to control the codling moth with five sprays of
lead arsenate (4 lb. per 100 gal.) with the addition of a spreader in
the last four, but the substitution of an oil and nicotine sulphate spray for the last one increases the effectiveness. The cost is a
little higher, but the arsenical residue is decreased to within Oxport tolerance., By using combined oil-arsenate sprays good results
can be obtained with 3 lb. arsenate and 3/4 gal. oil in 100 gal., the
oil-nicotine combination being used in the last cover spray.

HAPUN, s. 7. (1675)

1933. CODLING MOTH CONTROL. N. Y. [Geneva] Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 627,
31 pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 21: 461-462. 1933.]

Nicotine sulphate in combination with oil sprays proved an effective substitute for lead arsenate in the fourth cover spray (p. 462).

JARVIS, H. (1676)

1933. CODLING MOTH CONTROL EXPERIM ENTS, 1930-33. Queensland Agr. Jour.
40 (1): 25-34. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 21: 570-571. 1933.]







392

In an attempt to discover a material harmless to man and. as efficient as lead. arsenate in sprays against the codling moth, several
substances were applied. four times. Thite oil alone (1:64) gave as good.
control (nearly 98 percent) as lead arsenate. Combinations of oil (1:80)
with nicotine sulphate (1:640) were slightly more efficient, but much
more expensive.

LOCKVOOD, S. (1677)

1933. A REVIEW OF CODLING MOTH CONTROL MEASURES. Calif. Dept. Agr.
monthly Bull. 22 (2-3): 170-178. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
21: 595. 1933.]

For those with equipment for washing their fruit, it is recommend.ed. that the lead arsenate in the second cover spray be red.uced. from
3 to 2 lb. per 100 gal., followed. on late-ripening fruits by a third.
cover spray of 3/4 pt. nicotine sulphate and. 1 gal. oil in 100 gal.
water (Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 544). Where the fruits are only to be
wiped, oil-nicotine should. be used for the second. cover spray also.

.OORE, Win. (1678)

193. A NEW DEVELOP ENT IN THE FIXATION OF NICOTINE. Jour. Econ. Ent.
26 (3): 723-726. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 21: 474-475. 1933.]

Attempts to prevent the dissolving away of nicotine tannate on
sprayed. fruit and. foliage have failed, but a new insoluble nicotine insecticide has now been prepared. by heating an aqueous solution of nicotine, resorcinol and formaldehyde. A finely divided. precipitate is obtained. The washed, air-dried. product contains about 22 percent
nicotine, which dissolves in water to the extent of 0.004 g. in 100 cc. as against 0.015 0.02 g. of the nicotine in nicotine tannate.
Prepared as a paste, the new material was mixed with oil and applied
to apples by dipping. Its toxicity to the codling-moth larvae was about equal to that of nicotine tannate, and the deposit left by it
was about twice as resistant to washing with water.

NE07f00IER, N.J., ROLFS, A. R., and DEAN, F.P. (1679)

1933, A PRACTICAL TEST OF CHEMICALLY TREATED BANDS FOR THE CONTROL OF
THE CODLING MOTH. Jour. Econ, Ent. 26: 1056-1058.

In the spray schedule, nicotine sulphate (1:1,200) plus oil
emulsion was used for the last two sprays, but no results are stated.

OVERLEY, F. L., OVERHOLSER, E. L., and ST. JOHN, J. L. (1680)

1933. WASHIIG EXPERIMENTS IN 1933 WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NET SPRAYS,
Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 29th Ann. Meeting, pp. 79-85. EAbstract
in Chem. Abs. 28: 4529. 1934.]

Spray residue removal was complicated by the use of nicotine
sulphate-mineral oil combinations for second brood sprays following








heavy applications of lead. arsenate for first brood sprays. Fish
oil-nicotine combinations did not interfere with the removal of either
arsenic or lead and seemed to be advantageous when sodium silicate
washing solutions were used.

SHEMAN, F. III (1681)

1933. A SU~VLRY OF THREE YE-.St EXPERIMENTTS ON THE CONTROL OF CODLITG
MOTH IN SOUTHTTESTERNN ICHIGM. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26 (2): 383-392.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 21: 333-334. 1933.]

Tests carried out from 1930 to 1932, some of which have already
been noticed (Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 34), have shown that lead
arsenate, 2 percent summer oil, and a combination of 1 percent summer
oil and nicotine sulphate (3/4 pt. to 100 gal.) will give good control in heavily infested orchards. The use of non-arsenicals in the
summer sprays kept the arsenical residues in most cases within the
limits of tolerance.

EBSTER, R. L., MARSHALL, J., 1ILLM, C. E., and HATSBERRY, T. R. (1682)

1933. FISH OILS, SP'READRS AIND NON-AESENICALS FOR CODLING MOTH CONTROL.
Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 28 (1932): 48-64, illus. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 21: 318. 1933.]

An oil-nicotine combination in second-brood cover sprays has continued to give as good control as lead arsenate.

ORTHIY, H. (1683)

1933. SPRAYING FOR CODLING-MOTH CONTROL. Pa. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull.
285, pp. 2-16. [Abstract in Chem.Abs. 28: 3828. 1934.]

Nicotine tennate used as a substitute for lead arsenate was of
no value.

ANONYMOUS (1634)

1934. CODLING 1MO10TH AUMD OTHER ORCHAPRD PESTS. Ill. State Hort. Soc. Trans.
1933, 67, 516pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 23: 453-455.
1934.]

Farrar determined that 1 percent summer oil with nicotine
sulphate (1:800) has proved a satisfactory substitute for arsenicals
against the second and third broods of the codling moth. Flint found
that in years when this insect is excessively abundant, oil-nicotine
sprays must he applied at intervals of 7 to 10 days when second-brood
hatching is at its maximum.

CORY, E. N. _4185)

1934. NOTES ON CODLING MOTH CONTROL IN 1933. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 509-514.







394

Nicotine was used in combination with arsenicals and fungicides,
but the reviewer cannot tell what effect the nicotine had by referring
to the table given.

DRIGGERS, B. F., and PEPPER, B. B. (1686)

1934. CO:MPARATIVE TESTS OF ARSEICALS, ARS~EICALS WITH OIL AND SVERAL
NICOTINE COMPOU\TDS USED AGAINST THE CODLINTG MOTH. Jour. Econ. Ent.
26: 249-258.

The results show clearly that nicotine tannate when used with
bentonite-sulphur gave a better control of codling moth than any of the
other materials used. The data also indicate that nicotine tannate
alone is not so effective as nicotine tannate with bentonite-sulphur.
nicotine sulphate with bentonite, nicotine sulphate with bentonitesulphur, a half charge of nicotine tannate with oil and nicotine sulphate with oil all produced more clean fruit than either the standard
lead arsenate or lead arsenate with summer oil (p. 257).

------- and PEPPER, B. B. (1687)

1934. BZNTONITE COMPiOURDS AS AGITTS FOR THE RETENTION OF NICOTINE ON
APPLE FOLIAGE AIRD FRUIT IT CODLI::G iO C- CONTROL. Jour. Econ. Ent.
27(2): 432-440.

Their conclusions are: (1) Bentonite-sulphur "fixes" and (or)
"sticks" the nicotine of nicotine tannate end nicotine sulphate to the
foliage of apple more firmly then ,-hen these two nicotine compounds are used alone; (2) By retaining the nicotine in larger amounts and over a
longer period of time bentonite-sulphur when used with relatively unstible nicotine compounds prolongs the toxicity of these compounds to
coaling moth larvae, and, therefore, increases the efficiency of these
compounds avhen used as a control for codling moth (p. 440).

FLINT, W. P. (1688)

1934. CODLING MTH CONTROL BY THE USE OF INSECTICIDES II MICHIGAN,0HIO,
INDIANA AND ILLINOIS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 141-143.

In Michigan, when an equal number of applications of lead
arsenate, oil-nicotine, and nicotine tannate were made, the lead
arsenate was superior; but with an increased number of applications the nicotine-oil combinations approached the percentages of control
obtained with lead arcenate. nicotine tennate was no better than
oil-nicotine.

In Ohio, oil-nicotine was very close to lead arsenate in efficiency. In Indiana, nicotine tannate gave satisfactory control but
with moderate to severe injury- on Winesaps and Jonathan and caused
considerable discomfort to the men applying it.

In Illinois, the oil-nicotine combinations gave inferior control when used in second brood tests unless the number of applications
was increased over those of lead arsenate.







395

GOULD, E. (1689)

1934. CDDLITG MOTH COTITIiTS AND COTROL IN 7EST VIRGINIA. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 27: 229-232.

Cf the many non-lead arsenicals and non-arsenicals, among
Taich vere oils and nicotine sulphate, used singly and in various combinations in the experimental plots in 1933, none gave promise
as an immediate substitute for lead arsenate (p. 230).

HARIA T, S. u. (1690)

1934. STATUS OF THE CODLING JOTH IN THE NORTHEASTET STATES. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 27: 143-145.

Recent work in Newi York showed lead arsenate to be the most
reliable single material for combating the codling moth. The combination of nicotine and oil has given most promise as a substitute.
(p. 144).

(1691)

1934. CODLING MOTE COITTROL EXPERI.iENTS DURING 1933. Jour. Econ. Ent.
27: 22-225.

Among the materials that gave the best control with 5 summer
applications was 3 lb. lead arsenate in the first codling moth spray, followed by 3 qt. of summer oil and 1 pt. of nicotine sulphate in the next four applications. These mounts were used in 100 gal. of n-lter.
The results were as follo-s:

Treatment (5 cover sprays. Percent Percent Percent
Material in 100 gal. 7ater) stings uorms Total ijury
Lead arsenate 3 lb. 60 13 73

Nicotine tannate (3 qt. tannin extract No. 50+ 1 qt. Black Leaf 50) 7 82 89

ITicotine tannate + 1 qt. oil 25 50 75

Nicotine-oil (1st cover, lead
arsenate 3 lb. Remaining sprays, nicotine sulphate
1 pt., oil 3 qt.) 29 14 43


HODGISS, H. E., TCRTHLEY, H. ., and HALEY, D.E. (1692)

1934. CODLING MOTH IN PETNSYLVAiNIA. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 232-239.

In 1932 a complete cover spray schedule of nicotine tannat& -7ith
flotation sulphur was not promising (p. 236).







396

HOUGH, U. S. (1693)

1934. CCDLIiTG MOTH CONTROL IN VIRGINIA. Peninsula Hort. Soc. [Del.]
Trans. 1933, pp. 35-38. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 22: 298-299.
19S4.]

A spray of 1 gal. summer oil and 1 pt. nicotine sulphate to 100
-al. gave about the same degree of control as lead arsenate. It would
have to be applied every 8 to 10 days during the chief period of ovi)osition.

------- (1694)

1934. COLORADO AND VIRGINIA STRAINTS OF CODLING MOTH IN RELATION TO THEIR
ABILITY TO ENTER SPRAY AND UEISPRAYED APPLES. Jour. Agr. Res.
48: 533-553, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 22: 499.
1934.]

Nicotine was one of the spray solutions used. The Colorado
larvae were more able to enter the sprayed fruit.

------- (1695)

1934. EICOTIN E KILLS CODLING MOTHS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 1102-1103.

A spray mixture containing Black Leaf 40, when applied in a
heavily infested orchard, caused 77 codling moths to fall on a sheet under a sprayed tree. All died but 6. The moths suffered paralysis
of the wings and wore incapable of flight. Only volatile nicotine
p-,Deared to kill moths. Nicotine bentonite or nicotine sulphate vwith oil was not effective. Nicotine was liberated by the addition of lime
to the srey containing fixed nicotine. The data indicate that 85 to
90 percent of the moths may be killed in the trees at the time of


KNIGHT, H., and CLEVELAND, C. R. (1396)

1924. RCE' T DEVELOPlENTS IN OIL SPRAYS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 269-289,
illus.

The results, as reported in a table, show that an oil preparation
containing glyceryl-oleate is maperior to a corresponding treatment of a
mayonnaise type of summer oil emulsion combined with calcium arsenate or
nicotine sulphate, in controlling the codling moth (p. 282).

McLA, EH. C., and "E3ER, A. L. (1697)

1.4.< Il!FLUENCE OF SPRAY SCHEDULE AIND OTHER FACTORS ON SPRAY RESIDUE
=,L0VAL. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 168-180.

Gil-lead arsenate sorays may be applied at 27 and 37 days after
petal-fall, followed by oil-nicotine sprays, without resulting in spray ruidues in excess of the Federal tolerance on fall and winter varieties
of holes at harvest.






397
MARSHALL, J., and GROVES, K. (1698)

1934. NON-IAD SPRAYS FOR CCDLING MOTH. Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc.
29 (1933), pp. 39-60. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 22: 216-217.
1934.]

Fish oil (0.25 percent) was about as effective with nicotine
sulphate (1 to 200) as mineral oil, and this mixture may prove useful
against the second brood, in view of the difficulty experienced in the
removal of residue when nicotine sulphate and mineral oil has been
applied after lead arsenate. It is concluded that lead arsenate remains
the most satisfactory single spray material for the codling moth, and
lead arsenate and fish oil the best combination.

NETTLES, 7. C. (1699)

1934. THE CODLING MOTH IN SOUTH CAROLINA. S. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull.
295, 30 pp., illus. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 71: 672. 1934.]

Tannic acid 1 lb. to 50 gal. plus Nicotine 50 at the rate of 0.5
pt. to 50 gal. gave considerable control, but is considered unsuitable
for use under South Carolina conditions.

NE7COER, E. J. (1700)

1934. THE STATUS OF CODLING MOTH CONTROL IN THE PACIFIC TDRTH7ETST. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 27: 139-141.

Many growers used the nicotine-oil combination for the second
brood, with satisfactory results, but this interfered somewhat with
cleaning the fruit, especially if heavy applications of lead arsenate had been made earlier. A few .Trowers used this combination after the first cover spray with fair success, but such a schedule is expensive,
and in many instances it cannot be employed, owing to injury by the oil.

PARROTT, P. J. (1701)

1934. EXPERIENCES 7ITH THE CODLING MOTE IN =ZW YORK DURING 1933. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 27: 218-222.

In the experiments nicotine tannate and nicotine were used.
Among the various insecticides tried, nicotine with oil was one of three which proved superior to all others. While nicotine with oil possesses useful properties, its field of usefulness is restricted
(p. 221).

SMITH, L. B., and HIDGKISS, H. E. (1702)

1934. MODIFYING THE CODLING MOTH CONTROL PROGRAM. Jour. Econ. Ent. 271
244-249.

In the spray program nicotine sulphate (1 pt. to 100 gal. spray)
is used to control red bugs. Nicotine is also used in the second or third
cover sprays to help control the codling moth.






398

In the modified spray program a pint of nicotine sulphate was
used in the petal fall, and first and second cover sprays.

SMITH, R. H., MEYER, H. U., and PERSING, C. A. (1703)

1934. NICOTINE VAPOR IN CODLING :OTH CONTROL. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27:
1192-1195, illus.

A nicofumer and a portable fumatorium are described and illustrated. The former is a device for utilizing nicotine in the form of
vapor or finely atomized mist in the control of insect pests. The latter
is used to control the codling moth with nicotine vapor, and all the
moths in a tree 24 ft. high and 24 ft. wide may be killed with a dosage
of 10 cc. of Black Leaf 50. The rate of treatment is one tree per minute.
In preliminary tests codling moths subjected for only 2 or 3 sec. to a
blast of concentrated nicotine vapor were paralyzed and died.

STEARITS, L.' A. (1704)

1934. THE PROLE1. OF CODLING OTH COTROOL IN DELAYARE. Jour. Econ. Ent.
27: 225-229.

Recent experimental evidence suggests more effective second
brood control by using a series of 3 nicotine-oil sprays to be applied
early- in July, late in July, and early in August (p. 228).

STEARNS, L. A., UACCRH.Y, D., and HADEN, 7. R. (1705)

1934. EXPERIENCE, DURING 1933, WITH ARSENICALS ATD ARSEICAL SUBSTITUTES
APPLIED ON APPLE FOR COiTTROL OF CODLIiNG MOTH. Peninsula Hort. Soc.
[Del].] Trans. 1333, pp. 20-28. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 22:
298. 1934.]

The most effective schedule consisted of 3 cover sprays of 4
lb. lead arsenate, 10 lb. flotation sulphur, and 5 lb. hydrated lime in
100 gal. water with the addition of fish oil in the first and second
(1 pt. and 1 qt. respectively), against the first brood, and 3 of 1 pt.
nicotine sulphate, 1 gal. oil and. S lb. hydrated lime in 100 gal. bordeaux mixture against the second brood. Nicotine tannate was not
sati sfactory.

AKELAND, C., and HAEGELE, R. W7. (1706)

1934. CODLING MOTH CONTROL IN IDAHO. Ideho Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 200,
26 pp., illus. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 71: 511-512, 1934.]

The use of Black Leaf 40, 2/3 pt., and oil emulsion, 1 gaJ. to
100 gal. of dilute spray, is about equally as effective as lead arsenate,
and this combination may be substituted for lead arsenate if desired.








ZESTER, R. L. (1707)

1934. THE STATUS OF CODLING-MOTH CONTROL WITH INSECTICIDES. NT. Y. State
Hort. Soc. Proc. 79th Ann. Meeting, pp. 33-36. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 28: 3827. 1934.]

Numerous tests conducted in Washington State indicated that the
value of lead arsenate substitutes for codling-moth control is in the
decreasing order nicotine-oil combinations, fluorine compounds (especially cryolite), manganese arsenate, and calcium arsenate.

---. (1708)

1934. THE STATUS OF CODLITG M OTE CONTROL ITE INSECTICIDES. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 27: 134-139.

An attempt was made to rank insecticides, other than lead
arsenate, so far as their value for coaling moth control was concerned,
and it was generally agreed that nicotine-oil would rate first.

Owing to difficulty in removing lead-arsenate residue in 7ashington State, the writer is reluctant to advise the use of mineral oil in
late cover sprays either with nicotine or lead arsenate.

EBSTR, R. L., and MARSHALL, J. (1709)

1934. THE POSITION CF ITICOTINE IN CODLIG MOTE C0TTROL. Jour. Econ. Ent.
27: 873-878.

In a spray schedule of oil-nicotine in the last three cover
applications, oil-lead arsenate in second cover, lead arsenate 3-100
in remaining cover sprays, codling moth control was greatly improved
over lead arsenate 3-100 for six cover sprays on Delicious in 1933.
The use of mineral oil follow-ing lead arsenate made lead residue removal
more difficult than when lead arsenate 7-as used alone.

7HITE, B. (1710)

1934. THE CURRENT SEASCTIS EXPERIECE IN EFORCI1TG SPRAY RESIDUE TOLERATCES. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 125-133.

The author, who is employed by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, says the following (p. 132): hether nicotine and oil or sod.e of
the other organic insecticides will completely displace lead arsenate in the control of late broods of the codling moth is not certain." He predicts that the consumer and agencies which protect his health are not going to accept with complacence the exploitation of new insecticides until these materials are tested by absolutely disinterested scientists to establish, as conclusively as can be done, the probable or possible effect
on the human health of the quantities of these insecticides which unavoidably remain on the product at the time of consumption.






400

WORTH LEY, H. N. (1711)

1934. CODLING MOTH SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS IlT PENiNSYLVANIA IN 1933. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 27: 240-244.

Nicotine-oil left a rather dull finish in contrast to the
bright lively red color in the blocks sprayed with other materials.

Codling-moth control in heavily infested orchards in southern
Pennsylvania can be obtained best with 3 lb. lead arsenate plus 2/3
lb. skim milk powder per 100 gal., with liquid lime sulphur and with nicotine sulphate in one application at the peak of first brood oviposition. To avoid necessity of washing, nicotine-oil as a substitute
for lead arsenate should be used after the third cover spray on late
varieties and after the second cover spray on early varieties. Its
use is objectionable due to cost and incompatibility with the standard
fungicide. To avoid danger of injury, lime-sulphur should be omitted
from the spray next preceding the substitution of oil-nicotine.

3. Oriental Peach Moth, 1917-1930

GAR, P. (1712)

1917. THE ORIENTAL PEACH PEST. Md. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 209, 16 pps,
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6: 369-370. 1918.]

The complete course of treatment against the oriental peach
moth, (Laspeyresia) Grapholitha molesta Busck..,is: concentrated limesulphur 1:9 when the buds swell; self-boiled lime-sulphur 8:8:50 with calcium arsenate and nicotine after the petals fall, the same mixture
being applied 2, 8, and 12 weeks later. Applications of tobacco (nicotine sulphate or Black Leaf 40) and soap cannot be recommended for combating this pest.

WOOD, T. B., and SELKREGG, E. R. (1713)

1918. FURTHER NOTES ON LASPEYRESIA MOLESTA. Jour. Agr. Res. 13: 59-72,
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6: 373-374. 1918.]

Negative results were obtained with 40 percent nicotine sulphate (1:400) atid with a combination spray of lead arsenate and nicotine
sulphate. Other attempted remedial measures included immersing the cocoons containing hibernating larvae of the oriental peach moth in
miscible oils and nicotine sulphate.

ANlO NYJS (1714)

1919. INSECT IiTVESTIGATIONS. Md. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 32 (19181919), II-VII. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 8: 249. 1920.]

Further experiments in the control of the oriental peach moth,
(Las eresia) Grapholitha molesta Busck, indicate that orchards can be
protected by thoroughly spraying with a combination of self-boiled limesulphur, nicotine sulphate, and a satisfactory spreader, such as lime
caseinate.






401

CCRY, E. N. (1715)

1919. THE STATUS OF THE ORIZTTAL PEACH MOTH. Jour. Econ. Ent. 12: 81-84.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 7: 223-224. 1919.]

Nicotine sulphate 1:500 or 1:800 kills about 70 percent of the
eggs of (Laspeyresia) Grapholithea molesta (oriental peach moth).

PETERSON, A. (1716)

1920. SOME STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF ARSERICAL AND OTHER IHSECTICiDES ON
THE LARVAE OF THE ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH. Jour. Econ. 7nt. 13: 391-398.

Nicotine (1 to 500 soap solution), nicotine resinate (1 to 500),
and tobacco dust were tried against these larvae, (Laspeyresia) Grapholitha molesta Busckj, but they were found ineffective (pp. 395-39.

STEARTS, L. A. (1717)

1920. EXPERIMENTS ON THE CONTROL OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT O0TH (ASPE7YESIA
0LESTA BUSCK). Va. State Crop Pest Comn. Quart. Bull. 2 (1), 16 pp.,
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 8: 354-355. 1920.]

In detailed laboratory tests and as applied to single trees in
the orchard, Black Leaf 40 as an ovicide, and nicotine-arsenical combinations in applications near hatching time, have proved most effective,
a three-fourths control having been secured.

------- (1718)

1921. PARASITISvI Ai2D HICOTINZ I? THE CONTROL OF THE ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH:
A SECO1D REPORT. Jour. Econ. Ent. 14: 336-341. [Abstract in Rev. Apple.
7nt. (A) 10: 69. 1922.]

Nicotine at 1 to 1,600 produced practically no check on the hatching of the eggs, but its effectiveness, was slightly increased b-r a caseinate spreader at the rate of I 1b. to 50 gal. or sea moss at the rate of
2 lb. to 50 gal. A dilution of 1 to 800 reduced the hatching by about
two-thirds and a dilution of 1 to 500 reduced it by about three-fourths.
An arsenical and nicotine spray did not satisfactorily kill the young
larvae.

TROUVELOT, 3. (1719)

1923. IASPEYRESIA 'OLESTA BUSCX. Rev. Zool. Agr. et Appl. 22: 14-22,
illus.

Spraying with nicotine sulphate in America has destroyed as high as
75 percent of the eggs of this moth on peach trees. Using the same material, Black Leaf 40 (1:800), app-lications should be made in France on iay 17, June 2, July 27, and August 28, corresponding approximately to the time of
oviposition (p. 22).







CORY, E. n, (1720)

1924. ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH, JAPAIESE BTLE AI~D EUR0PAN MITE. Md.
Agr. Soc. Rept. 8 (1923): 164-171. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
13: 37. 1925.]

Nicotine sprays destroy the eggs of the oriental peach moth
(Grapholitha molesta Busck) 'but are not generally recommended as it is
difficult to time their application so as to obtain satisfactory results.
TTere, however, injury is very severe the addition of nicotine (1:800)
to the regular sprays may be of value.

HALEE, T. J. (1721)

1924. POINTS IN THE LIFE HISTORY AD HABITS OF THE ORIENTAL PEACH MI0TH
ACD RECCOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROL. N. J. State Hort. Soc. Proc., pp.
92-94.

Recommendations for the season of 1925 include "Spray according
to the regular schedule, adding 40-percent nicotine to each treatment,"
etc. (p. 94).

PETRS0, A. (1722)

1925. ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH IN THE SEASON OF 1923. 1. J. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Rept. 1923-24, pp. 291-294. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 14: 144.
1926.]

Spraying with 40-percent nicotine sulphate to destroy the efgs
of the second and later broods of the oriental peach moth ((Laspeyresia) Grapholitha molesta Busck) gave no material reduction in infestation of
the fruit.

STZARNS, L. A. (1723)

1925. ORCHARD CONTROL TWO~RK OF 1924 AGAINST THE ORIENTAL P-ACH 7OTH IN
SOUTHERN YEY JERSEY. Jour. Econ. Ent. 18: 191-199, illus. Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 13: 253-254. 1925.]

A combination spray of nicotine (1:800), added to fungicidal-lead
arsenate, 1 lb. to 50 gal., resulted in an increase of 13.3 percent in th
peaches free from this pest.

AiONYiMOUJS (1724)

1926. ANNUAL REPOCRT 1926. Pa. Dept. Agr. Bull. IX, No. 23, Gen. Bull.
430, 85 pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent, (A) 16: 274-275. 1928

No control measures tried against the oriental fruit moth ((Laspey
resia) Grapholitha molesta Busck) have given complete satisfaction.

Pyrethrum soap emulsion and sodium fluosilicate have proved more
effective against the larvae than nicotine.






-403 .

GARMVAN, P. (1725)

1926. THE ORIETTAL PEAkCH MOTH. IN 1925-. Conn. Agr. Expt, Sta. Bull. 2'175,
pp. 280-286, ill-us. [Abstract in Rev. Appi. Ent. (A) 14: 441-442.
1926.]

'Recommendations for control of Grapholitha molesta Busck include
spraying with nicotine sulphate. Injury resulted from using 4 lb. potash
fish-oil soap in 50 -al. nicotine spray.

Reducing the so ap to 2 lb.- obviated this. I7icotine dust ce:~.sed
no damage but cannot be used less than 3 weeks before pickin- time as
it is.apt to cling to the fruit. Nicotine soap sprays have not t'nis
disadvantage.

STEIRITS, L. A. (1726)

1926. ORIZITAL PEACH 17OTH IlIESTIGATICYS. 1,T. J. Agr. -ETU St -'. Rept.
1924-25, pp. 386-402. [Abstract.in Rev. App)l. Ent. (A) 15: 6233
1927.]

Preliminary 'Vests against the hibernacula with lime-sulphur,
-icotine sulphate, various comm.,rercial1 oils, ana. coal-tar derivative -s,
etc., -ere decded-r negative.

UARJhA77A, 0,, and.!,.ITYID0, S. (1727)

1927. THE USE OF NTICOTIYE STULPHATJ IN CO_1'1'O*,L7,,G LASPY1RSIA IIOLZSrA
3USCK. Kontyu 2 (2): 114-117. [In japanese. Abstract in Rev. Al
Ent. (A) 15: 5041. 1927.]

Spraying w-iith nicotine sulbhat e 17-as found to reduce the loss
c aseE. to poears by (Laspeyresia) Grapholitha molesta 3usck by 50 to 75
-Dercent.

STEARNIS, '.. A. (1728)

1927. A REPCRT OF TI1E IiT.VSTIG 0-ATI OF TIC" ORIETA~L PACH MO1TH (L' SP-EYPTSIA EOLESTA BUSOK) FOR 1925. 1T. j r. Expt. Sta. RepDt. 19235-20,
pp. 184-195, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appi. Ent. ()16: 1,33-13". 192a

The average increase in cl-ean fruit resulting from furigicidalarsenical-nicotinie treatment (Rev. Al ntLAi3 54 n12 a
8.65 percent as compared with 13 percent in 1924, the variations in the results being probably due to parasitism-, and the earlier autumn in 1925.

HEALE, T. J., ET A-L. (1729)

1928. REPORT OF THEE DZPAT1IT OF ZINTOMOLCGY. IT. J. Agr. Ex-pt. Sta. Rept
1928, pp. 12 *5-164, 169, 170, 172-189, illus. [Ab~stract in EBx-t- Sta.
Rec. 61: 749-752. 1929..]

In work 'with the oriental peach moth B. F. Driggers reports upon







insecticidal studies. In laborato-r work w7itha liquid sprays, VoickLoil at 1 and.l.5 percent actual oil, nicotine sulpohate, and -a -iiite oil
extract of piyrethrui proved the most effective in killing; t.he e;snc
yonglrveafe tete3rgd from the eggs. NSicotine sulphate al one
-.as much more ef-fective in killing; e.gg:,s i-n the black spot stage anld just
erer~-d. arvae than w7as nicotine si~-,h',ate 7ith resin fish-oil soap dd-d
757750).

In laboratory tests with several nicotine dusts, a much greater
kill of the egZgs and young larvae w~as obtained when the twip'S wore existed
whie wt. This is thought to have boon due to tho adhe-renco ofLl m..ore,
duist to the wet than to the dry foliage. Field tests 7ere maca :Tithi nicetCinc sulpohate (1:800), ap-lied. 5 tirnos, but there scorns to have ',),(,n
little control. Tobacco dust w7as also used in this stuud, (p. 750).

ST:2!A.17S, L. A. (17-00)

19 THE CRIIUTAL F-RUIT IMJOH (i .SPYESIA "::0TISTA BUSOK). Ohio As.
Z2qoto Sta. Bimonthily~ Bull. 13 (2): 35-43, illus. [Abstract in 71ev.
Enl.Tt. (A) 1S: 456. 1928.]

Extensive labora:.tor'r and orcha-,rd sprayrin- tests indic.-Ite
U1h't nicotine as ani ovicide 17ill mtrcon1trol th e o r i ental f rui t m oth.

DR I G-ZRS, B. F. (71

1 S219. CRI77TAL P2a-CH L1:0TH I 7"7STIG.-ATIC7iTS. IN. J. Agr. 7-qt Sta. RCep)t.
12Z27-28, T)-p- 145-154. F_ bstr-.ct in R1ev. A I-l. t. (A) 17: 69-373.


::icotine sulbhate alone w7as murch more effective in killing eg-,,-s
o-l the oriental peach moth (Gra.3holitha m-olesta Buock) in the black spot sta, e and newly hatched larva-e than( with the addition of resin -fish,:-oil
soap. Of the dusts, one contain,-inF, 1 percent nicotine was best. A count o- infested wg showed. an average of 3 and 3.4 percE2 t injured ~i~ on
trees sp)rayed. 7,ith 7olck and nicotine sa -lm)hate respetvl. ,is
thetird generation c7e-gs an-d ~r:c neither Volek, ground. tobacco dust,
nr7 nicotine sulnhatC was su-Fficiont~zr successful to warrant more oxtonsive tcsts.

P p. (1732)

l22. TH L.JTTA 110O 1H Conn. _Agr. 2-x-,-t. Sta. Bull. 303, pp.
7:21-734, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Ap1 D. Ent. (A) 17: 6170, 192 9.]1

One percent white oil emulsions combined with various c ontac t
poisons ere more effective than nicoti4ne-soap combinations.

:'L-'JSSL'=, a. J. (1 73o-)

192'9. T11-Z ORI1U1TTA]L FECH !::OTH. Peninsula Hort. Soc. [Del.] 19'. 129,
;.80-86. [Abstract in 'Rev. Enl Tt. (A) 17: 388-389. 1929.1,






-40j5

NTicotine or white oil emulsions Till kill numbers of eg- s or
newly hatched larvae of th(- oriental:-c oh(.ahsih nl~t
Busek). The nicotine may be incorporate. into the re 7ula; s-pray
schedule for peaches, but for thle later varieties one or t--ro <. ditio-na]. applications are neicessarySTEAR\TS, L. A. (1734)

1929. TME ORIENTTAL FRUIT MO1TH. Ill. Fort. Soc. Trans. 1928, 22: 1112
[A .bstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A-') 17: 388. 1929.3

NTicotine is considered- a neli gil aco n h esl b
tamed. Part of an orchard was s-oraved five times with 40-percc-nt
nicotine sulphate (1.8.00) and hydrated line (at rates varying from 60 to 100 lb.. to 200 ga-1.) and once w7ith the lim-.e alo-.1a., at intervals of
about 10 days from M11ay 1 to June 27, 1928.

STE-ARJS, IL. A. and =IM7\DER, R. 3. (17,35)

1029. HYD.ATEI) LI M ,! S22:2 SRYS FOCR T.-_-: CO017T2OL OF THE R::A
FRUIT MO4TE. Joucr. Econ. Ent. 22: 657-660, illus. [Abstract in --ov.
Appi. Ent. (A) 17: 723. 1929.]

A spray of h-drated 1ime gnC 40D-percent nicotine sul;Dhate ~a
unsatisfactory because this combination resulted in the nicotine being
.rreed. too soon. The add-ition of various insecticides to the lime -,-ray
increased its efficiency; 53 -Dercent re6:-action in twig inijury; wa9s QbU--ained with the addition o0, lb1-. tobacco -fish-oil so,-,,, and 77 percent
reduction w-ithI- Voick (2 percent) and 4O--oercent nicotine sualphate e(1to
800).

BAL.AOHOTSKY, A. (1766)

193-0. THE CRIEYTAL PEACH M'OTH 110~~cIA MST -TS( 11THSOT
OF FRAITO:]. :7COiT~o:I c Il,:CR7 IC- --1u~ a: PrTCT ONT ovt
Rend. A'cad. Agr. France 13 (25): 348-85z4. [In Frenchx. Abstract in
Rev. Apol. Ent. (A) 19: 85-305. 1331.]

-.o reduction in infestation was observed in orchards regularly
s-orayed with nicotine against a-.hic .flRIG-GEPLS, B3. F. (1737)

1930. RECETT ZXI1,1EMZ1TTS O' T CRIB!!TTAIL ?BACH MOTH71 COITTROL HIT 17.7. JISEYr.
Jour. :Econ. 2Ent. 23: 209-215. [A abstract in Rev. Appl.-Znt. (.,) 13:
406. 193-0.]

i7icotine sulmhate and white oil emulsions failed to secure comn-olete control against the first brood eg.;s of.L (Laspeyresia) 0.3rapholith1,a
molesta 13usck. Fruit counts in a. orchard sprayed with n--icotin.e Sul.,hate showed about 0.1 percent ofo the fruit injured.





406

------- (1738)

1930. ORIENTAL PEACH LIOTH. N. J. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 1928-29, pp.
150-167. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 168-169. 1931.]

In tests in which oil emulsions were impregnated with other
chemicals, the best results against both the larvae and eggs were obtained when nicotine oleate (10 g. to 100 cc. oil) was used in sprays
containing 0.5 percent and 1.0 percent actual oil, the total percentage
of both larvae and eggs killed by these t-7o sprays being 82.0 and
88.8 respectively.

GAR ~T', p. (1739)

1930. THE ORIENTAL PEACH L0TH IN CONICTICUT. Conn. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bull. 313, pp. 401-451, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
18: 542-543. 1930.]

Nicotine sprays or d.usts reduce infestation to some extent b'out
not enough to warrant their employment.

------- (1740)

1930. ORIENTAL PEACH ;O0TH CONTROL STUDIES IN 1929. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23:
203-205. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 3313. 1930.]

In field tests against (Laspeyresia) Grapholitha molesta, emulsions of white petroleum oils containing nicotine sulphate gave slight
reduction in percentage of infested fruit. Laboratory tests on the eggs showed high toxicity for white oil emulsion containing nicotine sulphate.

4. Leaf liners and Casebearers, 1911-1933

HARUKATMA, C., and KULLSHIRO, S. (1741)

1932. 0N THE PZE.R-BARK I DII1ER, ACROCERCOPS ASTAUROTA MDEYRICK. II. 3Ber.
Ohara Inst. Landw. Forsch. 5 (2); 301-310. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
,nt. (A) 20: 476-477. 1932.]

A spray consisting of nicotine sulphate (1:1,000) and 3 lb. of
soap per 100 gal. is recommended as an ovicide. In the tests this
spray destroyed all the eggs of this tineid moth.

VAN ZMALU MURG, R. H. (1742)

1917. INSECTS AFFIECTIIG COFFEE D PORTO RICO. Jour. Ecn. Ent. 10:
513-517. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 6: 103-105. 1918.]

Nicotine sulphate sprays are partially effective against the
larvae of the coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeella Staint.), but
they fail to kill the eggs of the moths.







.,7

WOYLCOTT, G. N~. (1743)

1921. THE CC FFEE L~aLF 1,:IT\R,- T2UOPT' C0=1::LA ST~.Porto 1c
Insular Thcpt. St:-73., Circ. 52, 12 pp., iluv >Sm~. A~:2
iRev. Apple. Ent. (A) 10: 535. 19212.]

In D.ba an oil emulsion has been used against the larvae and )u-.ae
of the above insect, and also a less costly nicotine spray, such as
Black Leaf 40.

BR~lTRs. c. (74

1-Z29. SURVEY CF THE IPESTS CF CC FFEE IT CUBA. C9uba Estac. Expt. A:-ronCirc. INo. 68, 38 pp. [Abstract in Rev. Appi. Ent. (A) 17: 7532. 2.

If necessary the pupae of the ti;-.ei. leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella G-uer. can be destroyed b-y a nicotine sry

CROSBY, C. R. (1745)

1911. THE{B PLrul LEAF ILM="R. 1AT. Y. (Cornell) K-r. Exp,-t. Sta. Bu-ll. 308,
p.219-227, illus;.

The er-s of th is moth (ITe ticla slin,,erlan ella 1'earfott) wTere
Fsprayed.* with Xico-fr-me -(1 oz. in 5 'a.soap soluatio-n) but thne spra-ring
die. practically no ,.ood. Tho lrvae of the elm sawfr'ly leaf miner
(Kaliosysphing uzlmi Si.ndev?.) hiein their mines can be kille ,Tith
a nicotine and soap- solution, but less than 10 percent of the larvae of the plum leaf miner were killed rith "Black Leaf. 40"1 (1 to 30',- of
zoap solution) .

11ITRA, S. X., and KHIKG"71R, P. C. (174,3)

1928. OR1G CUThTIVA1TI0: 17 ASS.A:2I. Denpt. A'gr. Assam Bull. 17o. 2,
19 pp. [Abstract in Rev. A-)il. Ent. (A) 17: 6029. 1929.]

In the case of severe infe,,;tation by the leaf miner Phyllornistis citrella Stn- spraying 7ithc mixture of crude oil emrnal'si-on
and tobacco decoction is recomiende.

0tyANE, 7.* C., and ,7ZIG~jL, C. A.(1747)

19-21. EXPEI2lT7TS 71TH CONTTACT SPRAYS FOR L2AF MIITRS. IT. Hi. A gr. Expt.
Sta. Tech. Bull. 17, 24 pmillus. [.Abstract in Rev. Api.nt (A
10: 706. 1922.]

None of the csm-rtiys used was very successful ag ainst mature
larvae of Tischleria .7alif oliel la (apple-leaff trumpet miner). Yo-ung
larvae of the second generation wore destroye. by sprayTs of 1Tico-lhme
or Black Leaf 40 at 1 to 100 or 1 to 200, the mortality ranging fro
73 to 37 percent. Sprays aprplied. for the first reeato gav -eint
residual effects on the eggs of: the second generation laid 2 or 3 weeks
later, the mortality on foliage snrayred. with nicotine diluted 1 to 100 or
1 to 200 ranging from 93 to 70 percent as compared with a normal mortal-ity
of 22 percent.





-408

AN3 lrlYI7OU S (1748)

19-24. EFT01,OLOG-Y. Iowa Agr. Expt. Stp. A nn. Rept. 192 3-1924, 0o ~-46
[A"bstrjact in Re-v. Appi. Ent. (A) 13: 505. 191253.

For the control of the apple: trumpet leaf miner (Tischeria
malifLoilella) 1 -ot. of nicotine suirhate in 100 gal. of soapy water
sileuld. be applied, in July when most of the second generation moths
are flying -_nd. ovipositi-np on the leaves. 1%,elon aphids ,Ap.his
F~oss,-rnii)cPan be controlled by. nicotine dust containing 2 percent free
nicotine.

L~~TC. L. (1749)

1933. RFl'PRT nF TKE OIEF OF THE DB?..~a-U OF ET01OMOLOGY, 1933. U. S.
Dept. Agr., 47 p?. [A:bstra-ct in Rev. Appi. Ent. (A) 22: 35,4-356. 1934

Nicotine sul-ohate at 1 to 1,000 -ave 19 percent control of the
peca- -nut casebearer (A,-_robasis ca,,-, Grote' ,711en used withi bordeaux
-mixture (3:4:50); 91, 92, a:,,,( 94 percent control with 3 diffe0n whte
oil emulsions at strengths. of 0D.75 peCrcent;an 90 percent control 'A!th
fish oil at 0.35 percent (p. 355,).

IR::T C. (1750)

11921. A1U.,L RPnOT FOR, 19,211 OF TK~i Z(OOLOGIST. Jour. Roy. 1Agr. Soc.,
_7n1rland 82: 27C0-275. "Abstract in Rev. Api)1. Ent. (A11) 10: 366-367.
1922. 1

Against ColeoIhra ni.gricella winter washes are useless, but
nicotine w.ashies at the time of attack are highly effective.

THE,0DAT.L, F. V. '(1751)

10922. ETTr'!.1OLGICL DPaT*JM.1T. So. East. Col. 77ye, Res. and Advisory
Dpt. Ann. Rept.,pp, 10-1'3. [Abstract in Rev. Appi. E~nt. ()10:
336. 12.

Comparison of pure nicotine wash ad nicotine su1-lphate has
-iw oo:n the latter to be quaito as cffcctive, to have more lastin, powers w-hcn mixed with soft :;oap, an!id to be much cheaper. JTico tine wash d.estroTyed 85 pecnt of the a'leand. pi-um casobearer (Coleophora alfricelia) and nicotine sulphate with soap destroyed 92 percent.

-------(1752)

1922. T1L: APPLE AUD LUL:; CASE DEARER (oo, 0p11iRA TIGICELLA, ST-O.LGC.)
7D ITS T.UAT1,ETT. Jour. Pomol. and Hort. Sci., reprint, 7 pp., ill-us.,
[Abstract in Rev. A4ppi. Ent. (A) 11: 77-78. 19203.]

Tests with lea,. arsenate -.nd calcium arsenate in the sprin,:- were
ineffective; but 1 oz. 06-- percent nicotine, 1/2 lb. soft soap and 10
g-aO- water killed over 80 percent of' the larvae, and 1 oz. nicotine s1:1, hate, 1/2 lb. soft soap and. 10 Cal. iw-ater, over 90 per-zent. The
latter took 48 hour., lone-r to have the same effect as the former, but






4 0z ,

the effect on some aphids was greater. It is essential to mix nicotine sulphate with soft soap.

FRYER, U F ET AL. (1753)

lc )23 REPORT ON THE OCCU2P-TTCE OF 1YSECT PESTS OF CROPS III Z Gli-JTI)
ZATES F""R THE YEARS 1920-1921. Min. Agr. an(i Fisheries Misc. Publ.
79 40 pp. [_Lbstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) li: 463-469. 19' 3.]

"'he casebearers Coleophora ni, -ricella and C. anati-,,)enell-1 -Tore
satisfactorily cont-1-olled by nicotine (or nicotine 000? r)*

HUTSON, R. (1754)

11-132. THE CONTROL OF THZ CHERRY CASE B=-EIR (COLEOPHDRA PRLJ1112TL-0 EY
DOP1,11AITT -AITD r)T"I SPR S. j-,Tar, Econ. Enu 116-120. s t r a c t
in. Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 19 ,2. ]

A satisfactoi-y Olegree o-f control 7as ,.':.cured b,,r the a!-)plication
of nicotine sulphate or derrisol, oacll, in combination i7rith lime-sulph-ar
a- plied early in 1,_'a--. TI-iis 0*,l -jr, cnicd as an omer' -ency
Q I s ay is record,
m(_.asure, if dormant s-pr, ,,rs li rTe not b,, en

VOLCK, W. H. (1755)

1917. THE APPLE LEAF-MI"YII,7G CASE-3Z.LR=,,. (CO=70PHOR., 7'LCKEI),Colif*
ta t e C oi.in H o rt M1 on th 2. 3-al I 3 ( 11- 1. 2 4 3 -3- 7, i 11., s _'Jo s rac t
in Rev. Appl. a-it. (.rl%) 6 9")-10G. 1918.]

Contact ins,'-lcticiae ; -Tcrr; tried (,,arl-,,- in the sprin w1len the
caterpillars 7ere lcavin hibernation. 17r,:os -7ere pr-.Yed ,-,P*th 3 I.b.
nicotine sulPhat(.7 to 8 lb. T-lo-ar (,7orke.d intn a paste) an(! 12 lb .
milloa sulphur, mad;,, up 7ith 200 --all. ,matcr- After a second aa-)plication, a great reduction in n-imber of t1-1; casc-bearcrs ',as roted, but a
tablc- shows that the control ol" tho coiling .loth, P,nd frait-trco 1-,a'l
roller (Cacoocia ar::yrospil ?,) is not so offoctivc b-7.7. this, mc---..ns 7 s, with
arsenicals.

MA'_RG_-0_ 1,-DhU' V (1753)

1930 II SECT PESTS OF ORAITiGES !17 'T=- ITORM:EIRY CIRC- RS. M.,!i0=ts Jour.
21 (2): 60-68, illus. F.,'1,.bstr-ct in Rev. Arpl. Ent. (A) 21: 5c "_ 1953.1

The best met.-Ind controllin- the tineid moth P!-.yllocnistis citrella,
Stu. (citrus leat' minor) is copious, and drenc',Iin;: the seedlin'Fs
U r is of 10 days
,7ith tobacco decoction (1 lb. to 5-6 gal. 7:,ter) ,it int? va
or lcss.

5. FrUit-Treo Borers -;nd Bu,Lnoths, 193-3-1932

BROOKS, F. E. (1757)

1920. PE_ R B-RER. U. S. D, pt. Bull. 887, 8 pp., ill-us z',-b s 1. r ac t
in Rev. Apl)l. Ent. (z-L) 9: 201-902. i 921





-410 0

Nicotine sulphate sprays are less effective than kerosene
emulsion which kills about 35 percent of the borers (Aegeria -pyri Harris

-7J2 ~ (1758)

192-"2. TIHEE PAC ~I-0~R ITS CONIRCIL. Calif. Dept. Agr. Itonthly
Bull. 11 (1): 58-62, illus. [Abfstract in Rev. Appi. Ent. (A) 10:
249-250. 192 2.]

Exceptionally cooa results ag'--inst Anarsia lineatella Z. were
obtained;ti nicotine sulphate anad zinc arsenite.

-------(1759)

19293. THE PEACH T77IO BORR (AITAR!SA. LIIZEATELLA ZELLER). Calif. Agr.
E.!pt. Sta. Bull. 355, pop. 419-4054, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appi.
Ent. (A) 11: 284-085- 1923.]

G-ood control w7a~ obt,,i-neO- with lime-sulphur solution, nicotine
sulp~hate, and arsenicals (lurin-; blooi-nin,,-), but oil sprays were ineffective.

FAURE, J. C., z. xid A J3OUTVHTT, L. (1760)

1924. ITOTE SUR LK1'TQRSIA LI3EATELLA ZELJ. ET SES P.ARSITES DATS 11,11
PRIIT DE LY")iT EUi 1924. Rev. Zool Agr. et Appi. 23 (13): 279-287,
illus. [A:bstract in 'Rev. Ap-?.Et A)1:16 1925.]

In Prance, copper ,sulphate sprays w-ith the addiition of 1 1/2
lb. of puare nicotine or 10 lb. coL,,.-ercial triplumbic arsenate per 100
sa.o sryhave given ,;reat success ,-hen applied from tetm h
biids open. one treatment wa founi, to be sufficient.

S L KTGLAI2J, 1,,. V. (1761)

[1813.] THE PEACH-TREE BOR=R. Y~. Y. (Cornell) IZgr. Expt. Sta. Bull.
176, pp. 157-233, illus. 1899.

Brief revie-,w of the literature on this insect (Smino idea
exitiosa Say) shows that tobacco was usec" in 1813, 1339, zw4~ 1894-1896.
The author put tobacco stems, -as usual, around the base of peach trees and obtained variafe results. Tobacco kept o1 rm23 to 5/6 of the
bores ~uinr1895 and 1896, which is decidedly a good showing- for the
method (p). 196-197).

ulAS, C. F. (1762)

1907. S 1v~ 2. 1 TSECTS IF ORCKA2RD 2\MD CT-i-R FUITS. Ark. Agr. Empt. Sta.
Bull. 9"", 17 pp., illus.

To rget at the woolly apiiis (Schizoneura lanigera) on the roots
of apple trees the earth must be removed from about the tree for a space
of 2"- ft., then G lb. of toba-?cco (lust or 12 lb. tobacco stems should be






411

put in and covered well with earth (p. 10). A similar method of
using tobacco stems as a preventive against the peach borer
(Sanninoidea exitiosa) is also described (p. 14).

CoaY, E. T. (1763)

1913. THE PEACH-TREE BRER. Md. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 176, pp. 181218, illus.

Tobacco dust put at bases of trees and the earth mounded to a
height of 6 inches gave immunity for the fruit year, but on trial the
second year failed to keep out the worms of the moth Sanninoidea
exitiosa Say (pp. 199-203).

BZCKER, G. G. (1764)

1918. THE PEACH-TREE BORER, SANINIODEA EXITIOSA SAY. Ark. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bull. 150, 32 pp. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6: 443. 1918.]

Nicotine preparations at different dilutions were ineffective.

PETERSON, A. (1765)

1918. SOKI EXPERIMENT 01 THE ADULTS AIND EGGS OF THE PEAC TREE BORER,
SA iINOIDZA EXITICSA SAY, &M OTHER NOTES. Jour. Econ. Ent. 11:
46-55, illus. [Abstract in Eev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6: 196-197. 1918.]

Nicotine resinate -,as not effective in preventing oviposition
on peach branches by Aegeria (Sanninoidea) exitiosa.

PETESON, A. (1766)

1919. PEACH TREE BORER. N. J. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 1917-1918, pp.
234-243. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 9: 524. 1921.]

Sprays of nicotine resinate, Scabecide, and other insecticides
were applied at intervals of 10 days to 2 weeks. In all cases the trees
were uninjured but the number of larvae of the peach tree borer (Aeg-eria
(Sanninoidea) exitiosa Say) was not materially reduced.

PETER SON, A. (1767)

1923. THE PEACH TREE BORER IN NEW JERSEY. N. J. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull.
391, 143 pp., illus.

Nicotine resinate, used as a stomach poison, was applied as a
spray (1:100) to the trunks of many peach trees. It disappears slowly.
Definite tests for nicotine showed it present as long as 5 weeks after
an application was made. This test indicates the ineffectiveness of
nicotine resinate as a stomach poison for newly hatched peach tree
borers (Sanninoidea exitiosa Say) (p. 33). Nicotine resinate was also
used as an ovicide, and as a larvicide for newly hatched larvae. It
was not considered promising for these purposes (pp. 31-32).





412

LATERCP, F. H., and BLACK, A. B. (1768)

1T21, STUDIES CF SAT1ITOIDE:A OPALSCYS EDW. IN 0RGC-ON. Jour. Econ.
7$. 14: 328-336.

These studies deal with the moth, called the western peach end
prune root borer. The soil was removed from the bases of fruit trees and 40-percent nicotine sulphate, nicotine oleate, nicotine resinate,
or tobacco dust were applied and the top soil was replaced. In no case
was there a satisfactory control, and these substances do not seem promising (p. 331). Nicotine sulphate was also used in tree mashes
co aining 5 or 6 different substances, and it may have had some value
(pp. 333, 335).

se-dw-..- and BLACK, A. B. (1769)

1921. THE flSTER PEACH AID PRL11 RnT 3CRER (SAIIw IDDE:A OPALESCENS
EDT.). Ore. Agr. Expt. Sta. 3rd Crop Pest and Hort. Rept. 1915-20, pp. 59-70, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 9: 163. 1921.]

Whitewash treatments have been found beneficial, a successful
formula being 8 lb. quicklime, 1/4 lb. lead arsenate powder, 2 lb. salt
1/4 lb. glue, 2 oz. 40-percent nicotine sulphate, and enough water to
make into a thick paint.

SAIDERS, G. E., and DUSTAT, A. G. (1770)

1919. THE APPLE BUD MOTHS A1D THE-IR CONTROL IN NOVA SCOTIA. Canada
Dept. Agr. Ent. Branch Bull. 16, 39 pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 7: 309-310. 1919.]

A spray consisting of 2 lb. soluble sulphur, .l.pt. nicotine sualphate, 4 lb. fish-oil soap, and 100 gal. water, applied as a drenching
spray immediately before the blossoms opened, gave almost perfect contre
of budmoths, canker-worms, fruituworms, and many other lepidopterous
larvae.

KELSALL, A. (1771)

1927. RECENT EXPERIMENTS ON BUDMOTH CONTROL. Canad. Hort. Fruit and
Truck Ed. 50 (2): 28. [Abstract in Rbv. Appl. Ent. (A) 15: 244. 1927.

Nicotine (1:400 or 1:800) was the only insecticide effective in a
apple orchard heavily infested with budmoths particularly the eye-spotte
budmoth (Eucosma ocellana Schiff.). The use of a spreader did not increase its effectiveness.

KELSALL, A., and HEMLT, F. A. (1772)

1928. THE PERSISTEnCE OF A POISONOUS RESIDUE (N FOLIAGE SPRAYED WITH
PICOTINE SULPHATE. Sci. Agr. 8 (7): 465-466. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 16: 330-331. 1928.]






413

Nicotine sulphate (1:400) applied to the lower surface of apple
leaves to control Eucosma (Spilonota) ocellana Schiff. did not prevent oviposition and hatching, but the larvae died shortly afterwTards. The
same has been found to hold good whether nicotine sulphate is used alone
or in combination with casein lime, hydrated lime, bordeaux mixture or lime-sulphur. Analyses show that the nicotine on the leaves a few days
after spraying was about 5 percent of that originally applied.

PARROTT, P. J., and HAR1AN, S. 7. (1773)

1929. THE BUD 7.0T. N. Y. Agr. Ezmt. Sta. Circ. 109, 10 pp., illus.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 17: 270. 1929.]

For the control of the budmoth, Eucosma (Spilonota) ocellana
Schiff. the standard spray program is recommended. The formula for the
delayed dormant application is 2 1/2 gal. lime sulphur, 2 1/2 3 lb.
lead arsenate, 1 pt. nicotine sulphate (40-percent) and 100 gal. water.
If supplementary treatments are required for heavy infestations nicotine
sulphate at the rate of 1 qt. to 100 gal. lime-sulphur (1:40) may be applied just before the larvae leave their winter shelters. Nicotine
sulphate at the rate of 1 pt. to 100 gal. spray may be used against the
newly hatched larvae.

HARMAN, S. W. (1774)

1931. CONTROL OF HIBRNATIiTG CATERPILLARS OF THE EYE-SPOTTE BUDL0TH INI
APPLE ORCHARDS. N. Y. (Geneva) Agr. Expt. Sta. Bu.l. 600, 18 pp.,
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 20: 219. 1932.]

A combination of an oil spray with nicotine sulphate appeared to
be promising again.:t Eucosma (Spilonota) ocellana Schiff. Nicotine sulphate in lime-sulphur caused almost as marked a reduction in the number
of larvae. In normal seasons, the delayed dormant spray of nicotine
sulphate generally applied a-ainst the rosy aphid (Anuraphis roseus Baker)
may prove valuable in reducing injury by E. ocellana.
(1775)

1932. SUZZR TRATI~iNTS FOR THE CONThrOL F THE EYE-SPOTTEID BUDiOTH.
E. Y. (Geneva) Acr. Ex)t. Sta. 9ull. 609, 16 pp., illus. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 4(37. 1932.]

Sprays of 3 lb. lead arsenate or 1 pt. nicotine sulphate in 100
gal., or a combination of both materitls, will reduce the damage caused
by Eucosma (Spilonota) ocellna Schiff. The moths also proved susceptible to 2 percent nicotine dusts, but the practical value of these methods was
not determined.

SCOTT, E. U., and PAINE, J. H. (1776)

1914. THE LESSER BUDHOTH. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 113, 16 pp., illus.

A spray of Black Leaf 40 (1:800) gave no noticeable results (p.13)
against Recurvaria nanella iHbner.







414
6. Hyponomeuta cater'pillars on Fruiit Trees, 1913-1934


~2zcKS. A. (1777)

1913. HYPCO:LJTA ULDTELLU:=S -ZELL.: ITS BICIMIo:ICS K:,D :1ETrnoDs OF FIGHTTU-G IT. Simferopol, ill-as. [In Russian. Ab.'stract in Rev. Appi. Ent.
()1: 345-349. 1913.]

This insect is found every.-rhere in Russia on apple trees. The
authorr doubts the effectiveness of tobacco extract as not7 used in the
Crim~ea (containing 3.7 percent nicotine and applied in a 2.6 percent
~owtininrte)to~sto tee caterpillars, excep-Lt in the earliest
2t?-;e. Hie describes his tests -7ith the caterpillars in the mining stage, which he sprayed 77ith a 1 -oercent solution of tobacco extract, and. with
1/ ccnt solution of kerosene emulsion. After 24 hors the cater-pill1ars c s,,rayed with tobacco and kerosene were dead.

M L C. VO::7 (1778)

1916..1 :-YP:TX1rAUAIILLTS ITU-, H. VARIA3LS HA1TST LL~ f!R
.IFL "TUTZ IF 3BO!,LT AT D~ RSE 2~.Versuchanstalt Aug.sten
c c.rg,, Flii7blatt -To. 5. DAbstract in Rev. Appi. Ent. ()8: 288. 1920.

?emedial measure s -.-,a-n st the caterpillars are s-pra,7vin2- with
so-ft-soaq solutions containing nicotine or quassia.



1922. O~ CE I.FKOJ ISECTS. Rinnovaaento Econ.-Acrar. 16 (5-6):
G5-39; 92-95. [In Itailian. ,bstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 10:
444. 1922.1

It i s su.r7ested that a ni cotine spray applied as soon as the
larvae of H- onomeuta malinellus Z. hatch will prevent any serious injur-y to aqpples.

H. (1780)

192"8. LA LWITS C01t.TRE IRS a'EITIL.Ajs EI~U~ IT CH~ILU ;TS D'tY?0W10.'U T E S. Ann. Aj7r. Suisse 29 (5): 520-533, ill-as. [Abstract in Rev.,
Ap~ 2t.(A) 17: 258-150. 1929.]

The only spray that ga-,ve complete satisfaction in tests against
yo"unig learvae of F., ononeuta malinel1us Zell. v-iile_ still under the
shelter of the eg-s was a kerosene emualsion prepared by dissolving 1/2
lb. soft soap in 1 gal. of hot 1-ater and odirg while still hot 5 pt.
k 'rnsene, agitatin.- it to an emulsion, _pouring into a solution of 2 lb.
-,)Ltic soda (93 pocrcent sodi-awn hTdroxiode) dissolved in 9 pal. soft
*:'tcr, and mixing the hole. Its eff.Licacy nay be still further incro~scd by d~ig 1-Percent nicotine (1:100).







415

ARKHIC-GEL' SKII, P. (1781)

1930. ON THE EFFECT OF TOBACCO. Plant Protect. 6(5-6): 777-778,
Leningrad. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 19: 47.
1931.]

In the laboratory all larvae of the apple moth Hyponomeuta
padellus L. (malinellus Zell.) fed on leaves sprayed with tobacco
decoction died within 9 days, unless they were about to pupate. Spraying an infested tree with a decoction of 1 lb. of tobacco dust in 3 gal.
of water did not affect the larvae while they remained in the mines in
the leaves, 'but killed 81.2 percent shortly after they came to the surface and began feeding on the sprayed foliage; after a fortnight all had a parertly been killed, as no nests were formed on the tree. From these
tests, the author concludes that nicotine acts as a stomach poison as
well.as a contact insecticide.

BATIASEVILI, I. D. (1782)

1931. COMIPAR TIVE TESTS OF INSECTICIDES ON THE CATERPILLAR OF HYPONOiUTA MALI:TELLUS ZELL. Bull. Sci. Res. Inst. U.S.S.R. Tree and Small
Fiauit Cult., Sec. Plant Prot. (:nt.), No. 3,39 pp., illus. [Kiev].
[In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 504. 1931.]

Sprays of 1 per mille nicotine sulphate and 5 per mille soft
soap killed 85.8 percent of the larvae, the mortality increasin- to 5.9 percentt 7hen double the amount of soap was used. Nicotine and
soap in the same concentrations killed 96.9 and 98.2 percent respectively
These were tests against the third instar larvae. Sprays consisting of 1 per mille nicotine sulphate and 10 per mille soap killed 89.3 percent
of the fourth-instar larvae.

FEYTAUD, j. (1783)

1928. LES CHEIILLES DU PRUTIER. LA CHEILLE FII-USE. Rev. Zool. Agr.
et Appl. 27 (4): 53-58, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 16:
623-624. 1928.]

Of various sprays, nicotine, either alone or with alcohol or in
bordeaux mixture, 7ave the best results against Hyponomeuta pdellus L.
whilee other fornmul.e had greater powers of wetting and penetrating the nests a bordeaux mand nicotine sprr'y besides possessing distinctly toxic
properties gave surer results, nhile casein or ox-gall is a good spreader

3ATIASHVILI, I. (1784)

1933. RESULTS nF TESTS O' CERTAIN CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS FOR THE CONTROL
OF G&UAWING PESTS OF nRCHARDS. Demy 8vo, 21 pp. (133-153), Tiflis
(Inst. Pflsch. S.S.R. Georg.). [In Georgian with summaries in Russian
and German. Abstract in Rvoy. Appl. Ent. (A) 22: 336-337. 1934.]

Against Nypia phaeorrhoea Don. and 'Hyponomeuta padellus malinellus Zell., the most satisfactory results were obtained with nicotine
sprays with the addition of soap, which sometimes killed all larvae of






416

the latter species. Arsenicals had practically no effect on the
former species.

D'.1:-CO:T!A, U., azi TAITIZZI, A. (178-5)

124DICLCGICAL OBSERVA2IOS OF HYPO 1AUTA P-ADELLjUS L. Riv.
Ejiol. 16 (1): 47-60, illus. [In Italiani. Abstract in Rev. Appi.
Ent. (A) 22: 330. 19341.]

1hese moths were controllea b- spra-~ing w~ith lea. arsonate and a
-nicotine insecticide.

TRO-TIELCT, B., and 7ILLAM1V, F. (1786)

-225. ONT A N\E7. PRIITCI"012 OF 1TOMMYIIG BY USE OF HEAT AS A DYNLILIC AND
AC:IVATIT7G F ORCE. (TEPID SPRAYS SUPER-Mi'T.) R'ev. Path.- Veg.- et
7nt. Acr. 1" () 455, illus. [Irn French. Abstract in -Rev.
Ap nt. (A) 13: 4R~9-490. 1925.]

Using a new princi-Lle Of heati-ng the spray up to .2120 F. as
it passed through th ozl, ononeuta sp-. were destroyeO- in their
nest2, using nicotine soap. s-raj-z, no d.arnage being done to 'the foliage.
The aphi6,s (,2 is ru: Acis.f o uonyrnus and. Ij cerasi on wild cherry)
7were destroyed by thne sam!je s -ray, thou-Igh the leaves were curled.

7. Olive Moths, 1903-1929

TTATVES, G. F. (1787)

IS,2 1. -:1E OLIVE TREE. Rev. Agr. Afr. 1Yord.., Algiers 19 (1141): 752-755'
[In French. Abstract in Rev. A Ei.nt. (A) 10: 33. 1922.]
The moth Tvargarodes uxionali-; chiefly attacks young resec
grlafts. As these are lwrstrees withoutt much leaf surfa-ce, nicotine s7pra--s are reconrended as being as efficaciouis and.a not so 0-Larngerous as
lead ars;enate.

=-UCIO, G-. DEL (1738)

1903. MTTES ,UM PRACTICAL SUGG-ESTIQIT7S. FOR THE M7071DGE 'I'D COITTROL OF
-Ai'TIMAL"S 11\7JRIOUS TO CULTILIAIE PT-L TTS -Ul2.D THEIR LIMITS. Iuv ea
R. Staz. Ent. Agr., Florence lot Ser., Y~o. 5, 208 p-p., illus. [In
I tal i an .]

.Is a control for the moth Prays oleellus Fabx'. on olive trees
in Italy, -,lain son-I solution nybe -,ioified to better advantage by
'~tn~ 2perccnt soalp and. 1 percent naphthalenc in 100 1. of water, or
a 13 pcrcont nicotine soap solution (p. 72).

Against the moth Hyponomeuta ma--inhellus Zeller on apple trees
a2 s-oray consisting of 1 to 1.5 2orcent of neuatralized tobacco extract
w7it'h 2 )crcent soft soap is -ufed (p. 76).









417

0HAPELIE, J. (1789)

1908. L CHENILLE MINEUSE COU TZIG=117 DE Bull. Hiensuf-A Soc.
Cent. Hort. et A-cclim. [Yicol .18 (4): 1OC-111.

.;,-ins..t the olive lea-f TnIner "'inea ole,,lella or 2L( ae,
Dollonne found the follovinr- rlixt-. -re satisfactory: 1 to 2 k-r.
copper siilphate, 4 to 6 1,:g. liLe, 1 1. concentrated nicotine oi-2 to
3 1. tobacco juice. Dixmont recommends the folloAng-. 1 k,: black soap,
500 g. sodium carbonate, 1 1. concentr-ated nicotine, and 100 1. 7,rater
(pp.

and RUBY, J. (11790)

1908. L T-]IGITEE OU C=1TIL= DE L'DLIVIER. Pro -. et V 1-tic.
50: 22-26

ainst the larvae of a moth (Tinea oleaella or ol ?a,- ) o--a
--prL -u.re is
olive trees in Soath France thc fcllo 7ing, -y mixt
1 1. titrated nicr tine, 500 g. sodium carbon--te, 1 bll--ck -o-- ,nd
100 1. water (p. 1 116).

and RUDY, J. (1'?91)

C OJT
1DI-2. ITJTTE ITRE L CH =-T! -71,L-- M"r=SZ, DE L I OLIV'I Dull S oc tudo
ot 7!ul ;. Zool. A ,r. 11 (2): 501-60.

againstt the olive minor cn olive trees 1"ho nicotine dcaux
combination has bocn sho7T-i to '11,o far s-a -)crior to lc2d
undcr the sar.o conditions.

RIBA FE17=' J. (1792,

1920. THE OLIVE. Conseil Prov. do Pomcnt [Barck -Lonc] pp., il2u's.
[In Spanish. Abstract in Rov. Ap-pl. Ent. 9: -,78. 1921.]

The moth pra,-y-3 oleell-as may be cornba-ted s-prayin, ith
arsenicals, lysol, tobacco extract 120 Be', or nicotine of 93-94
percent purity.

G-ABOT TO, L. (1793)

19201. INSECTS IYJURIOUS T ,) T -7 P-RI' .,T'CIPAL C-.!LT'V.,=D 71)DY PL .1511TS..
Biblioteca Agr. "Paraviall, 100 il'uz. LTn Italian

A 2 percent solution of phonicate tobacco extract is recoictnended
in Italy against the follow ring mot'lis: Simaethis nemorana on Pra,,rs
oleaellus on olive trees, 1! -s citri on citrus trees, and Hy-,)nnome-,ata
.malinellus on apple trees 60-02).










41118 -*

8. Leaf Rollers, 1912-1933

GILLETT, C. P., and MED0T, rx. p. (17941,

7Toro. 72 ::J -7 L=-RLZ I2 COLOR,1DO. Col. Stt ETt. Circ. 5,


Blac2: Leaf 40, carefull-y ,-nd. thoro-ughly applied about the same
dates as the first tiwo sprayings with arsenicais, wuill ,'ivc good rcsi.lt s against this moth (Archips, o-rLyrospila TTalk.)o

A mixed spray of Black Lco. f 40 ad. lead arsunate is little more
satisfactory than either ono n-f the insecticides used alone. T ur thicror,,,, the coot of such a spraeg would be too g-rcat fo)r practical p.rposes


GILIL, j0 3. (1795)

1913. THE F-iJIT-PSE LEA'-ROLLm (.AcHiIPS X=;.ROSIIA r.7AIK.) U. S.
Dc-7to A-'r. Bur. Ent. Bull. 116, Pt V, p 91-117, l .

ApyDli.cati-;n3 of arsenicals al ne and in c. rbination .7ith '40-percent- nieot.Lne soainha-ve .7reatly reduced the rntof injury to
a,,nies arc-oia~e but these sLorarn iia. not been so effe'-:ctive as is
csirab].e a.,a-i,-st this molth !-1- Colorado (p. 103).

GILLTEE C. P., a-nd 1TD0, G., p. (1796)

1'-13. TJ.HE F:'TJIT T=L LEAF-R,0TLE7R I!, COLOR~ADO. Colo, StaU--te Ent. 4thl Arn.
.ept. lire. 7, pp. 30-67, ill-s. [Abstract in Rev. A i.Ent. (A) 2
14-15. 1914.]

In insectary tests to co ntrol Arci:s ar:7-ro~sila 17alk., Black
Leaf 40, ITicofume, and other tobacco preparations; used alone or -7ith
soorwer ofno vlue ~'om ochaK eeriments it w7as conclded that
3-1.cli Lea-;f 40, carefully and thorouC,,hl- applied about the same dates
as thle first twio sprayirt-s with arserical-s will j,7ive good results.
mixedc spray of Black Lea~f 40 and 1ead arsenate is little more satis~~ctorv~~-i thnete neo h rsecticides used. alone; fu-rthormore the
'ost o f such spray would be too gr(eo-t for practical purposes.

MItDI2'T, G. P. (1797)

19?1,3. T-HT RIT-TRE LEAF'-ROLLR. Calif. State Conn. Hort. 11onthly
Bl.2 (9): 637-6471 illus'. [.Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 1:


Thornu-h drenching, with 3 lb. lead arsenate to 50 sa.water, or
with Black L of /10 (1: 80o) wiAll kill thc, young larvae of the uioth
Arcil p ia h-- jm,-t --4ter the loaves come out in the spring#









419

KELSALL, A., and PATTERSON, N. A. (1798)

1931. EXPERIMENTS ON THE CONTROL OF THE GRAY-BANDED LEAF ROLLER,
EULIA MARIARA FERN. Ontario Ent. Sco. 61st Ann. Rept. 1930, pp. 94-85.

In experiments 48.9 percent control was obtained with 1 ap-plication of lead arsenate (1 lb. to 40 -I .water), 73.3 percent with 2
applications of the same sprey, eanid 84.8 percent with 2 applications
of 40-percent nicotine sulphate (1:300).

CORDLEY, A. 3., and JARDIiE, J. T. (1799)

1921. DEPARTME~T OF ENTOMCLOGY. Ore. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 1918-1920,
pp. 59-63. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 9: 2223. 1921.]

The ravages of the apple leaf roller (Tortrix ar yrospila) axnd
T. rosaceso, may be reduced by from 50 to 90 percent by means of oil sprays in Anril. Calyx sprays of oil, lead arsenate, and Black Leaf
40 killed about 33 percent of the youn; larvae.

SPULER, A. (1800)

1922. THE ORCHARD LEAF-ROLLER. TnTsh. Apr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 179,
9 pp. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 11: 448. 1923.]

Nicotine dust and liquid, sprays of nicotine sulphate have ,iven
no practical control of Tortrix (Archips) arpyro.pila,.

BELOSELSKAYA, Z. G. (1801)

1925. 0 T:HE BIOLOGY OF SOME INlJURIOUS LEAF-ROLLZRS. Defense des
Plantes 2 (4-5): 217-226. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 14: 58-59. 1926.]

Fumigation with tobacco dust in the evening -ave satisfactory
results against the leaf-roller Tortrix (Cacoecia) rosana L.

HUTSON, R. (1302)

1933. THE CONTROL OF STRABERRY LEAF ROLLER ON HEARING PLANTS. Mich.
State Quart. Bull. 16 (1): 7-8. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 70:
64. 1934.]

A combination of nicotine sulphate 1 pt., summer oil emulsion
1 ,al., and activated pyrethrum dust was found to be the most promising
spray material. Most of the effect is due to killing of the a s. It
is necessary to use aboout 3streys at weekly intervals and from 85 to
90 percent control is thus obtained.









9. Cranberry Moths, 1890-1933

PRT0KI1T, H. J. (1803)

1924. C_7.IMERRY INSECT IIMIESTIGATIOKJS. Cape Cod Cranberry Growers'
SOC..~21 2ujpL. 36 (1.923-24), p~o. 4-7. [Abstract in Rev. Appi. Ent.


Th1e yelow-head firewormn (Peronea minute) and red--striped- fireworm (Galechia trialbemaculella~can both be controlled by killing; the moths early in April with a spray of 1 qt. nicotine sulphate and 4 lb.
fish-oil soap in 100 g~al. water. The moths of the cranberry gird-icr (Cr~bus hortuolli3s) can be d-estroyed by spraying with 20 1b. caustic
fioh-oil sorip in 100 gal. water at the'rate of 800 gal. per acre if the vines are thick.. Thais spray is supplemented with two or thre
a- publications of nicotine sulpha-to and soap.

SMITH, J :B. (1804)

1890. ZHE IN-SECTS INJURIOUSLY AFFCTINTG CRAN3EIRRIES. IN. J. Ag.Expt.
Sta. So,.ec. D-ll. K, 43 pp., ill-as.

Tobacco is the favorite Cape Cod remed-y, and is em.-inently successful against tho]. black-headed cranberry w7orm (Plionobota vacciniana).
It was app)Ilied as a. d-ecoction, c-.boiit 1.5 lb. to 1 gal. of wTater, and a
Fallon was raad- to cover a square rod (p. 22).

HOI)-AB, L. c. (1805)

1916. R8-P07)T OF THE Z1\TTCMrOLCGIST FOR THE YEAR EIIDE JUNE 30, 1916.
U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent., 24 pp. [A bstract in Rev. Appi. Ent.()
5: 17-7.1917.]

The so-called blackhead fire-7orm (Rhopobota vacciniana) on craniberries may be controlled by spraying with 40-percent nicotine sulphate
while the insects are in the larval stage.

FRA!XLI1T, H J.(1806)

1917. REPORT OF THE CRAM=~R SUDSTATIOK FOR 1916. Mass. Agr. Empt.
Sta. Bull. 180, pp. 183-2,74. [Abstract in Rev. Appi. Ent. (A) 63:
553- 554. 1918.]

Rhopobota vacciniana Pack. (black-head fireworm) was successfully
controlled- lii the' larval stage with Black Leaf 40, 1 part to 400 parts
watc-r, resin-fish oil soap bei added at the rate of 2 lb. to 50 al

SC_'L:.,:E7L, H. B. (1307)

1-017. .CRAIMMBRY INSECT PRMIE1,1S AXID SUGGESTIONS FCR SOLVING THEMv.
U. S. Der-t. ArFa.rmers', Bull. 860, 45 pp., illus. [Abstract in
:v.Appl. Ent. (A), 6: 561-56,1. 1918.]

(in dry bogs two s-prays should be given, using 40-percent nicotine
sulphate (1:800) at the rate of 20)0 g-als. per acre, to help control the









421

fireworms of moths (Peronea minuta Rob. and Rhopobota vacciniana Pack.).

ANONYMOUS (1808)

1919. DIVISION OF ZOOLOGY A~ID ET1OM10LOGY. 7ash. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann.
Rept. 28 (1917-1918). Bull. 153, pp. 34-38. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 9: 378-379. 1921.]

Nicotine gave better results than arsenicals against the blackhead fireworm (Rhopobota (Eudemis) vacciniana) on cranberries. A
spreader, such as soap or glue, is necessary.

FRANKLIN, H. J. (1809)

1919. SEVENTH REPORT OF THE CPBERY SUBSTATIOIT FROM 1917 to 1919.
Mass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 192, pp. 105-141. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 9: 49-51. 1921.]

The nymphs of the froghopper (Clastoptera vittata Ball) can be
controlled by spraying with one part of Black Leaf 40 to 400 parts of
water with 2 lb. resin fish oil soap to 50 gal.; or 800 parts of water when the nymphs are very small. Sprays of Black Leaf 40 (1:400) killed
gypsy moth caterpillars (Porthetria dispar L.) in their early stages
but not when they were nearly ful1-grovr. The same spray is effective against the black-headed fireworm (Rhopobota vacciniana Pack.) as well
as the spittle insect.

HEMAD, L. 0. (1810)
1919. REPORT OF TEE ENTOMOLOGIST. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. 27 pp.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 8: 93-97. 1920.]

Satisfactory results against the blackhead fireworm (Rhopobota
vacciniana) on cranberries were obtained from three applications of nicotine sulphate (40-percent) at 1 to 800 plus 2 lb. fish-oil soap
per 50 gal. of spray. For tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca) 14 oz.
nicotine sulphate plus 3 lb. soap to 50 gal. water has proved a successful spray if applied properly once a week during the emergency period.

FANKLINT, H. a. (1811)

1921. REPORT OF THE CRAERRY STATION FOR 1919 AD 1920. Mass. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Bull. 206, pp. 149-168. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
11: 28. 1923.]

Yinter-flooded bogs should be sprayed cnce, a few days before
the blossoms are out with 1 gal. Black Leaf 40 in 400 gal.. water with 16 lb. fish oil soap. This treatment largely takes the place of Jae
reflooding in reducing the numbers of Rhopobota naevana Hb. (vacciniana
Pack.) (the blackhead fireworm); Clastoptera vittata Ball.(the spittle
insect); Crambus hortuellus (the cranberry girdler); leafhoppers (Euscold
and springtails (Collembola).







422

20oLEY, D. J. (1812)

1923. C AMZRY INVESTIGATIONS IN PACIFIC COUNTY. 'ash. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Ann. Rept. 33 (1922-1923), Bull. 180, pp. 73-75. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 12: 239. 1924.]

Very good results against the cranberry fireworm (Rhopobota
naevana) were obtained with nicotine sulphate at 1 to 400. At 1 to
800 it was ineffectual.

FRANKLIN, H. J. (1813)

1928. CAPE COD CRANBERRY INSECTS. Mass.Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 239, pp.
1-67, illus. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 4 (6): 1825. Entry 19,295.
1930.]

Various methods of flooding, coupled with applications of nicotine sulphate and fish-oil soap, are recommended for control of the fir
worm (P/hopobota vacciniana Pack.). Another fireworm (Cacoecia parallel
Rob.) never important in flodded bogs, is readily controlled by nicotine-soap spray.

PIANK, H. K. (1814)

1922. TEE ELA-HEAD FIEPM OF CEiBERRY ON TE PACIFIC COAST. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Bull. 1032, 46 pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 10: 597. 1922.']

Experiments on a large scale proved the most effective spray to
be 40-percent nicotine sulphate at 1 to 800 plus 2 lb. fish oil soap
per 50 gal., using about 300 gal. to the acre. Nicotine sulphate at
1 to 1,000 gave results almost as good. Three applications of either
should be made. Nicotine oleate made by mixing 2 1/2 parts of a solution containing 40 percent free nicotine with 1 3/4 parts of commercial
oleic acid using 1 part to 400 parts cf water applied 3 times at the
rate of 300 to 400 gal. per acre was also nearly as effective. Fishoil soap was a much better spreader than glue for cranberry foliage.
On heavily infested vines a fourth application should be made during
the first two weeks of July.

FRALI, H.J. (1815)

1933. ITJURIOUS AND BENEFICIAL INSECTS AFFECTING THE CRABERRY. Mass.
4,r. Expt. Sta. Bull. 293, pp. 21-25.

It was found that a spray containing 1 1/3 qt. nicotine sulphate
4 lb. soap, and 100 gal. water killed the larvae of the gypsy moth in all stages satisfactorily when used at the rate of 400 gal. per acre.
The sprays were most effective when applied early in the morning, for then the larvae usually work in the tops of the cranberry vines here
they are easily reached.with a spray (p. 22).

A nicotine sulphate spray at the end of the cranberry blossoming








423

period controls the fruit worm to a considerable extent. Most of the eggs well hit by a spray of 1 ,t. nicotine sulphate in 100 gal. water
fail to hatch. A spray of 1 1/3 qt. nicotine sulphate in 100 gal.
water strongly repels the moths from laying eggs for at least 5 days.
This spray with soap added controlled the cranberry spittle insect
(p. 23).

10. Other Lepid.optera Harmful to Fruits, 1825-1934

BISSET, A. (1816)

1825. ON THE DESTRUCTION OF T=Z CAEPILLARS USUALLY FOUD ON GOOSEBE RY A-D CUERANT BUSES. Mem. Caledonian Hort. Soc. [Edinburgh]
3: 431-438.

It is well known that confined tobacco smoke is more or less
destructive to a great variety of insects, but more especially to those
of the fly tribe (p. 431).

A specially constructed tent was put over the gooseberrr and
currant bushes infested with caterpillars, an~ then tobacco smoke n-s forced into the tent by a special fumigating bellows. The ground beneath the bushes was covered with a cloth, upon which the stupefied
caterpillars fell. The insects were collected and then destroyed.
A five minutes' exposure was required before the tent was moved to
another bush. Two people are able to fumigate 80 large bushes in a
day, and a pound of damp tobacco is sufficient for about 140 full
grown bushes.

BARSACQ, J. (1817)

1906. TRAITEIENTS L ,TSUELS COITTHE LES E,72 IS DES APRES FRUIT IERS.
Le Jardin 20: 172.

Against caterpillars on apple trees it is recommended in France
that the following emulsion should be applied twice in June: 2 kg.
tobacco juice (at 150), 500 g. carbolic acid, 1 kg. soap, and 100 1.
water.

BEDFORD, THE DUKE OF, and PICKERING, S. U. (1818)

1908. Yoburn Expt. Fruit Farm 8th Rept. [London]. 127 pp.

A tobacco decoction killed as high as 95 percent of the caterpillars on fruit trees (p. 84), and when it was mixed with alcohol an average of 97 percent were killed (p. 85). As high as 100 percent of the aphids on apple trees were destroyed, but most of the percentages
of mortality are much lower (p. 97).

A 2 percent tobacco decoction killed 100 percent of the apple
suckers after the eggs had hatched and before the blossoms had expanded. Instead of 2 percent of tobacco, 3 to 4 percent of tobacco
powder may be used, but it is preferable to use a solution of nicotine
of known strenath (-n. 12










24

:oi~3T53(1319)

1916. L IS=TIOIT DES OENILLES. Vie .'gr. 5 4) 248.

F7,uit- trees infested -14h amc'hi-ds ran- cater-pillars were sprayed.
71ha i-xtu're cniing of 1 1. tobacco extract, 1 k,-. black soap, 7O sodium carbonate, 1 1. methyl alcohol, arnd 100 1. 7ater. :Lt
7,a very effective.

SAIf:D=S, G. E. (120

1919. PPTS SPERAYIITO. !Maine Ootn. 7r. 1ath Ann. Rept., pp. 199-2k9.
ukbstract in Rev. Appl Ent. (AJ:5950 120.

Sucking insects may 'be c-ntrolleli by the use of 3 lb. soluole
sulphu2-r and I pt 40="-percent nicotine sulphate to 120 gal.. yat er. 1T1i s
',7a. effective against cerikernTorns 7:hen applied., before the larvae 7ere
-f ro-in. it :7as also more eff-icacious thn--,n the donant spray a,,- inst
thie yo-.,ig. oyster-shIEll scEale.

SUS-MI T llT, p.(1821)

1923 IRUKr-S-jCCIMG-' :Jo0i OF1 507T ED ent. Proc. 5th 'nt. M,,eetin

LF-- a] 4.23- 7, illus. TAb,-tr-ct in Rev. AppI. Ent. (A) 12: 378.
192.

effectivee mechanical means are hand.-netting and enveloping each
fr-ait in lotus leaves, Which, o-ing possibly to their property of emittin;;c' a nicotine-like odor, repel thle mot"h-s.

STELLM A'Cr, F. (1822)

1922. ;SUCHE I-TIT LNcisi Y MTT~~ S7 ICH. An-rz.
S chidl ingskande 1 (3): 30-31.

Cankerworms on fruit trees -7cro sprayed 7ith a mixture consisting
of 1.5 to 2 percent of tobacco extract and 1 to 8 percent of lirsol.
Only the caterpillar-s 7hich nTere hit by the spray perished; the others,
more or less protected by the iweb, survived (p. 31).

EHHAD, T J, ET AL. (1823)

l3.REPORT nF THE DEPART. 2= CTF -I"TM.I0LCGY. YT. J. Agr. Exrt. Sta.
Rept. 1930, pp. 121,-172D, 175-200. '-Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 65:
847-850. 1931.]

Studies have shorn that the larvae of the leopard moth are killed
by treating the t7:igs and braches of infested appl~e trees with soluble pine oil ii ,hich has been di3-olvcd nicotine (p. 548). Studies of the
practical use of the reduced nicotne charge against various Inoects
(p- 1033-169) are dU5cusseC, (p. 8-49 of abstract).









HEADLEE, T. J., and ILG, C. (1824)

1926. SOME FACTS RELATIVE TO THE RASPBERRY CROWN B30PER (BEIBECIA
MLARGINATA). Jour. Econ. Ent. 19: 471-477, illus. [Abstract in Rev.
Apple. Ent. (A) 14: 449-450. 1926.]

Tobacco dust 1 lb. of 70-90 mesh containing 1.97 percent nicotine
sifted over the crown of a raspberry plant and the surrounding soil followed by an application of 1 gal. water killed the advanced stafe larvae
without injuring the plant. The addition of water after applying tobacco
dust greatly increases its efficiency and the use of 50 percent tobacco
dust with 49 percent hydrated lime and 1 percent sodium carbonate greatly
increases the rate of evolution of gas provided the mixture is moistened
after application.

FEYTAUD, J., and SOURSAE, L. (1825)

1924. LES VERS DES PRICES EN LOT-ET-GA0rUE. Prog. Agr. et Vitic. 82:
208-213.

A mixture of nicotine and bordeaux was applied against Carpocapsa
funebrana on prune trees in France. The spray was applied three times
during the latter half of April and first half of May. The foliage appeared better and a larger percentage of healthy fruit resulted, (p. 210).

SCHNEIDEE-ORELLI, o. (1326)

1917. THE CONTROL OF CHEILMATOBIA BRUMA:TA IN SPRING. Schweiz. Ztschr.
Obst. u. Weinbau 26 (7): 97-101. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Apple.
Ent. (A) 5: 270. 1917.]

A 2 percent tobacco extract was one of the insecticides used to
control the larvae of the above insect on trees.

FEYTAUJD, J. (1827)

1928. LES CiEE LLES DU PRU'IER. LA CHENILLE VERTE (CHE-IIMATOBIA BRUIATA
L.) Rev. Zool. Agr. 27 (1): 1-5, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 16: 499. 1928.]

Arsenicals or nicotine sprays are useful when infestation is established on the trees.

MENZEL, R. (1828)

1931. ERGEBNISSE VON VERSJCIEN ZUR. BLKilPFUNG DES FROSTSPANERS MIT
VERSChIEDTEN MITTELN. Schweiz. Ztschr. Obst. u. Weinbaua 40 (5-6):
116-117. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 6 (10): 2331. 1932. Entry 22,674.]

Spreving with lime-sulphur mixture (2.5 percent), lead arsenate
(1 percent), or calcium arsenate (0.4 percent) before and after blossoming of the trees gave good results against the winter moth (Cheimatobia
brumata) in contrast to different nicotine contact sprays.












19132. ABOUT THE INTFESTATION\S OF THE SPHIITGID, DEILEPHILA. LINEATA VAR2.
LIVPNICA ESP. Re-v-. Zool. A.37; (1): 9-15. [In French. Abstract
in Rev. AI;T3D!_. Ent. (A') 90: 558-'559. 1932-.]

Srra,;-Th: vT~ti borde:7:ax mixture or nicotine is advised as a control easure, a-,jai.ust tnis moth on v--ne:; and buckwheat.

SCu ,T.JC:_KZUJRI=R, J. (1830)

1894. 7ERTIL-UING DBRSAC ,RAP1 M~ler's Deut. Girt. Ztg;.


Gooseberries infested withi caterpillars [C-eonetra, (Zerene)
:osulariata] were ousted with tobacco dust. The caterpillars dropped.
da ad from, the plants.



19c29. '-1E CIZRL ?ITT WTOR!M (G*pU- TTA P 'CKAS.DLI ZELL.) Proc. E- t.
Soc. Drit l'ol.J bia 1929, ,To 26,p.C9-3 illus. [Vancouvori.
[A'bstract in _Rc. 2,p pl. Ent (A) 18: 3--344. 1930.]

The fo1.1owin.- formula: 1 pt. Vo-Ick oil, 3 07. nicotine sulphate,
3 oz. calcium ca-,einate and 12,' %&. ater a)plied when moth [-Cycia
(r~h2_ithio) ackardi Zell.] emor.:z-%nce was at its height gave g;ood
r(-su-it s. This spray ap:ears to hav,:- a rc.)o;1ent a-s well as an. 0vicidal effect. On the treated trees the infestation was 23.36 percent av; compa- red to 19.08 percent on the-ansprayed ones and 8.06 percent
on those to whiAch a spray of 3/4l pt.D nicotine sulpha te to 40 gal.
'.-iter and. 5 lb. fish oil soap was applied.

D7.72TE, -,7 (1832)

12231. THE CHBRRY FRUIT 70RU "'1D ITS CkQITTROL fIN BRITISH- COLlTIBIA. Canada
De~rt. Ag.Circ. 79, 3 *ml., illus. [Abstract in Rev. A pl Ent.
(:21: 194. 1933.]
Spray recommended a:-ain-t C-y;dia (Grapholitha) pacriZel
consists of 1 gal. sumrmer oil e-.iulsi-on, 1/2 pt. nicotine sulp,.hate (40
,ocrcent), 3/4 lb. casein. spreader, and 50 gal. water. The spray, should bc applied within a week after r the heig,,ht of emergence of the moths, in
orCac r to de-'troy the maximm number of og,-s.

FAB S, H. (1833)

1020. LES ATTAQ7TJBS SUIR FEUILLES DE PDM2,iIER DE LA3 CH-17TIMLE DE SIMABETHIS
P3I.TA. Ann. Agr. Saisse 27 (1): 1221-125, illus. [Abstract in Rev.
.'ppl. Ent. (Ae) 14: 307-308. 10926.]

The larvae of Hemerophila (Simnaethis) -ian re injurious to
a-epicl foliage. A. rsenicaols are most efficacious but soft soap, (2 percent
anda concentrated tobacco extract (1 percent) may be substituted.

(There is no page 427-)










428FAES, H., and. TOT\DUZ, P. (1834)

192"7. RAPPORT A1\7L7JL 1926. STATION FEDERALE DESSAIS VITICOLES A
L: S-2 NT ET Dr,)L INE DE FULLY. A. DIVISION DE PHYSIOLOGIE ET MATHDL9II VGETALE. Arn. A gr. Suisse 28 (4): 347-3551-. [Abstract in ReEn1.Tt. (A) 16: 169. 19218.]

Arsenicjas, or soa-p solutions containing nicotine or liver of
swdpl-hur were successfully used in controlling Hemerophila (Simaethis)
ioar iana L. which caausec-. russetinr, of apple foliage.

MILS2'T, G-. F. (1835)

19,28. 7T,0 LESSER IJ07T PESTS OF' FRUJIT TREES. Q-ard.. Chron. [London]
83 (2163): -116-418, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
16: 370'. 1928.]

The most successful control is spraying with lead arsenate or
nicotine and soa.p- before the larvae of the tineid moth (Hemero-phila
pariala Cl.) spin their webs.

LTUMB LAP c (1836)

1930. 1 YTO7RT T"RI1'A'CTJ L L ~ D I A U E L O H A M ~ I L
U1T~l0T-\T S A PI2ST OF CUR'dATS ;,2,D 1 EW TO SWEDEN. Meddel. Centralanst
Fhrs6ksv. Ho rdbrksomra.le t [Sweden] No. 374, Lantbruksentom. A1vd.
i'o. 59, 25 P.p. [In Swedish. Abstract in Rev. A ppi. Ent. (A") 18:
6-695. 1930.]

The cg,-s and the young mining larvae may be killed by spraying
,,with variouoi nicotine preparations.

FAI1S, H.-, S TA'E=,L I\Y, 14., and., B (1,VEY, P (1837)

19S3 4. L LUTTE CONTRE LES ET\EMIS DES AF2GRES ThUITIECRS, INTSECTES ET
CH:A2v1PIGYTOHS EYN 1932. LanO-7. Jahrb. Sch-weiz. 48 (3): 241-280, illus.
[Abstract. In -Rev. Appi. Ent. (A) 22: 432. 1934.]

The addition to bordeaux mixture of 1 percent nicotine applied
on June 10 against the first ,gcnerat ion and on July 25 against the
second. generation of C. (L, ,speyresia) funebrana Treit. proved an effective measure.

KISHIG-Y, J. (1838)

10918. 01\T THE CATZRPILL.ARS OF LY1.2dTRIA MATHURA MOORE THAT AFPEIPE IN
,0TUID~dTCE OH THE APPLE IN 1918. Insect World 22: 13-20. [Abstract i:
Rev. Appi. Ent. (A) 6: 504. 1918.]

Spraying the small caterpillars in the middle of June with any
insecticide is very effective. For the spray kerosene emulsion (1:20) i~ s good by itself or mixed with insect powder (1:30) or with tobacco
(1:20) or with fish oil (1:20), the last being the best of all.







-429

ODA, F. (1839)

1934. CN THE SERIOUS OUTBREAK OF LYONETIA CLERKELLA, LINT., AT
iITTAHARA, FUKU0KA PREFECTURE. Jour. Plant Protect. 21 (1): 46-52.
[In Japanese. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 22: 239. 1934.]

In 1933 there was a serious outbreak of this pest of peach in
Japan, but the injury was minimized by spraying with a derris preparation and nicotine sulphate, which are effective against the moths as
well as the larvae.

H1AEGELE, R. 7. (1840)

1932. SOM.E RESULTS WITH PYRETHRUM IN THE CONITTROL OF MINECLA SCITULELLA
H-ULST (LEPIDOPTERA, PYRALIDAE). Jour. Econ. Ent. 25 (5): 1073-1077.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 695. 1932.]

Promising results were obtained with sprays containing pyrethrum
to control the overwintered larvae in the buds of prune trees. The
materials tested were pyrethrum extracts used in combination with
various insecticides, including nicotine sulphate and nicotine.

LEEFMLANS, S. (1841)

1916. THE PISANTG MOTH, MACOLEIA OCTASIEA HIEYR. AND ITS CONTROL. Hedcd.
Laboratorium v. Plantenziekten, No. 23, 22 pp., illus. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 5: 278. 1917.]

Both tobacco dust and powdered unslaked lime proved ineffective
against larvae of a pyralid moth (Nacoloia octasoma ieyr.) on bananas.
Successful control was effected by dusting the banana bunches when just opening with 1 part pyrethrum powder and 3 parts finely sifted ashes or
preferably 3 parts powdered lime.

GP,-I, E., and ROSTRUP, S. (1842)

1925. REPORT ON PLI TT DISEASES AIKD PESTS IN DEMLRK IT 1924. Tidsskr.
Planteavl. 31: 353-417. [In Danish. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
13: 536-537. 1925.]

Early spraying with a very fine mist of nicotine proved effective
against the larvae of Oxygrapha (Acalla) comariana infesting strawberry
leaves. In tests of various insecticides nicotine (2 per mille and
1 percent soap ) was effective against pierid larvae (75 percent killed).

ELZDON, G. P. (1843)

1918. PEAR GROWING IN CALIFORNIA. Calif. State Comn. Hort. monthly Bull.
7 (5): 371-407, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6: 384-385.
1918.]

Nicotine or lead arsenate sprays are recommended against the
spring cankerworm (Palacacrita vernata). Pear slugs (Eriocampoides







430

limecina) of the second generation are sprayed with two applications
of nicotine or other contact spray.

IEADLEE, T. J. (1844)

1927. REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY. N. J. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Rept. 1925-26, pp. 151-237, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
16: 132-133. 1928.]

Tobacco dust is far more efficient than 40-percent nicotine sulphate in controlling the raspberry crown borer (P i -etia marginata
Harr.). Tobacco dust (100 mesh) was sifted on tne hill and covered
thinly with soil; then 1 gal. water was poured on.

11. Cabbage Insects, 1910-1934

VODDLAGIT, V. (1845)

1925. EURYDEMA ORATUM L., AND ITS CONTrROL. AstrPkhen Sta. Plant
Protect., Leaflet 175, 4 pp. [In Russian. AbstrL t in Rev. Apple.
Ent. (A) 13: 475. 1925.]

The remedial measures recommended are hand collection of
eggs on cabbages, and spraying with soap solution, tobacco extract
or kerosene emulsion.

CHITTEIDEN, E. H., and IIARSH, H. O. (1846)

1912. THE IMPORTED CABBAGE WEERCRM (FLLULA. TTL S FEB.). U. S.
Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. Bull. lU09, Part ILI, 4 '. "lls.

A mixture, consisting of 2 lb. Paris gree., 3 lb. whaleoil soap, 25 oz. nicotine sulphate, and 100 gal. "tor, was
sprayed on cabbage plants in Hawaii. It corpletel- m, c ut the plant lice and several species of lepidopterous larvae on the leaves, but it was ineffective against the well-protected
Hellula larvae.

F=RDILA1TDSEN, C., LIND, J., and ROSTRUP, S. (1847)

1919. REPORT ON INSECT PESTS AND DISEASES OF THE ORCHARD IN 1916
MTD 1917. Tidsskr. Planteavl. 26: 297-334. [In Danish. Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 7: 447-450. 1919.]

In experiments conducted by the Government Experiment
Station the measures that proved effective against the larvae
of Fieris included dusting with tobacco dust.

GORIAT v, A. (1848)

1916. EXPERIMENTS WITH SOI.E VEGETABLE AND MINERAL INSECTICIDES.
THE PROTECTING OF PLANTS FROM PESTS. Sup. to Friend of Nature
17o. 1-2 (28-29), pp. 1-28. [In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 5: 24-26. 1917.]






431

Insects in wire cages were fed food plants moistened
with dedoctinns of insecticidal plants, the food being changed
every day. Experiments showed a decoction of tobacco (Nicotiana
nrustica) to be effective as a stomach poison. Tobacco decoction prepared by boiling 1 lb. of tobacco in 3 gal. of water and diluting the strained liquid in another 6 gal. of water produced a
death rate among caterpillarsof P. brassicae as high as 62.5 percent.

FEYTAUD, j. (1849)

1918. NOTES ON THE CABBAGE BUTTR2FLY. Bull. Soc. Etude Vulg.
Zool. Agr. 17 (5): 33-38. [In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 6: 319-320. 1918.]

A solution of black soap (5 percent) and nicotine (I to
1 1/2 percent of titrated extract) is a very active insecticide
applied directly to the larvae of Pieris brassicae L. and is also
very effective as a preventive spray during the oviposition period.

JEGEN, G. (1850)

1918. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORK OF C00'ATITG THE CABBAGE BUTTERFLY.
Landw. Jahrb. Schweiz. 32 (4): 524-550. [In German. Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 7: 512-514. 1919.]

Preventive measures against Pieris brassicae include the
spraying of cabbage seedlings with a 2-percent nicotine solution to repel the ovipositing butterflies. Spraying must be repeated
from time to time as the repellent effect has been found to disappear in about 9 days.

LEES, A. H. (1851)

1918. NICOTINE-PARAFFIN EMIULSIOT. Jour. B d. Agr. [London] 24 (12):
1411-1415. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6: 238-239. 1918.]

The following spray: soft soap, 20 lb., paraffin, 2 gal.,
nicotine, 1/2 lb., water, 100 imperial gal., kills capsids if they
are thoroughly wetted. Larvae of the cabbage white butterfly
(Pieris brassicae) remained motionless on the leaves and finally died. Larvae of the gooseberry sawfly (pteronus ribesii) and the
raspberry and loganberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus) are killed
only if thoroughly wetted.

GHIRIL-IDA, C. (1852)

1922. THE CABBAGE YORM. Costa Azzurra Agr. Floreale 2 (9): 8-11,
illus. [In Italian.]

The following spray mixture has given good results against
the cabbage worm (Pieris brassicae L.) in Italy: 2 1. phenicated tobacco extract (5 percent), 2 1. denatured alcohol, 200 g. black
soap, and 96 1. water.







432OHLERS, H. (1853)

1925. DER KDHLUEISSLING. Mitt. Deut. Landw. Gesell. 40: 646. 1925.

Of the various insecticides which have been tested in Denmark
to control the larvae of butterflies (Pieris brassicae and P. rapae),
the following spray mixture has given the best results: 2 percent
nicotine (10-percent), 100 g. soap, and 10 1. water.

LINDBL0M, A. (1854)

1928. INVESTIGATIONS ON INSECTICIDES. Meddel. Centralanst. Firs6ksv.
0,
Jordbruksomradet [Sweden] No. 330, Lanidbruksent Avdel. No. 53,
35 np., illus. [In Swedish. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 16:
612-613. 1928.]

Nicotine has about equal efficiency against the eggs of
Pieris brassicae L. whether pure or as a sulphate provided it is
not influenced by other components of the mixture. Pure nicotine does not adhere well and an adhesive that does not lower its
insecticidal power must be combined with it.

WILSON, H. F., and GENTTER, L. G. (1855)

1918. THE IMPORTED CABBAGE ORM IN WISCONSIN. Jour. Econ. Ent. 11:
79-81, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 6: 201. 1918.]

Tobacco dust and lime apparently had no effect upon the
larvae of the cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae).

HARGREAVES, E. (1856)

1924. THE ACTION OF SOME ORGANIC C01POUNTDS VHEN USED AS STOMACH POISONS
FOR CATERPILLARS. Bull. Ent. Res. 15 (1): 51-56.

A 1-percent nicotinic acid in a starch suspension killed only
2 cabbage worms (Fieris rapae L.) in 11 days (p. 53). A 1-percent
nicotine (95 to 98-percent) emulsion killed only 4 cabbage worms in
7 days and only 2 caterpillars of Spilosoma lubricipeda Esp. in 9
days (p. 55).

HUCKETT, H. C. (1857)

1934. FIELD TESTS ON LONG ISLAND OF DERRIS AS AN INSECTICIDE FOR THE
CONTROL OF CABBAGE WORMS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 440-445.

The infestation was largely due to Pieris rapae, but later
in the season Plutella maculicennis and Autocrapha brassicae became
increasingly numerous. Talc, clay, and tobacco dust gave promise of being satisfactory diluents for derris dusts, which have given satisfactory results in the field for the control of cabbage worms.







-4<33
FROGGATT, W. W. (1858)

1910. THE DIAMO D1D-BACKED CABBAGE MOTH (PLUTELLA CRUCIFEPRaUM ZELLER.).
Agr. Gaz. N. S. gales 21 (10): 894-899, illus.

The market gardeners in New South W7ales dust their cabbages
with one part of tobacco dust and four parts of fresh-slaked lime,
thoroughly mixed. The dusting is done while the leaves are wet
with dew and the powder is death to all insects that feed upon the
surface of the leaves.

TAYLOR, U. H. (1859)

1922. THE GARDEN. Jour. Dept. Ajr. New Zeal. 24: 115-116.

Black Leaf 40 (1 pt. to 100 gal. water) is an effectual poison
spray against the cabbage moth (Plutella cruciferarum) in New Zealand, but particular attention must be paid to the underside of the leaves.

GURNEY, U. B. (1860)

1924. TO CONTROL CABBAGE MOTH. Agr. Gaz. T. S. Wales 35 (5): 325.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 12: 373-374. 1924.]

To protect cabbage plants from Plutella maculipennis (cabbage
moth) persistent spraying in the seod beds and later in the field
with kerosene emulsion or tobacco wash is useful.

JARVIS, H. (1861)

1926. SUNDRY NOTES ON INJURIOUS IiTSECTS OF THE STANTHORPE DISTRICT.
Queensland Agr. Jour. 26 (1): 77-78, illus. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. (A) 14: 549. 1926.]

A spray of 3 oz. paris green, 2 1/4 oz. 40-percent nicotine
sulphate, 12 oz. soap and 9 to 10 imperial gal. water is very effective in controlling an army worm (Cirphis unipuncta Haw.) and
also the cabbage moth Plutella maculipennis Curt. (Cruciferarum
Zell.) and the pumpkin beetle (Aulacophora sp.).

THEOBALD, F. V. (1862)

1926. THE DIAMOND BACK MOTH (PLUTELLA MACULIPENNIS). Jour. Kent Farmers'
Union 20 (3): reprint, 7 pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
14: 594. 1926.]

The best remedy is to brush as many as possible of the larvae
off the plants by mechanical means and follow this treatment with a
nicotine or lead arsenate spray or dust.







434

TEMPLE, w. (1863)

1928. WRK AGAINST THE CA3BAGE MbTH. Kranke Pflanze 5 (8): 121-122,
illus. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 16: 655. 1928.]

If the hearts of c-olbaes have closed, the plants may be dusted
with a mixture of 1 part tobacco dust and 4 parts lime, or a mixture
of 5 parts nicotine sul,1nate and 95 parts lime, or they may be sprayed
with nicotine or quassia to kill the larvae of the above moth (Plutella
maculipennis Curt.)

THED ALD, F. V. (1864)

1228. EiTTCV'CLDGICAL DEPTMIENT. So. East. Col. Wye, Res. and Adv. Dept
Rept. 1927-28, reprint, 19 p-.,[Kent.] [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
17: 122-123. 1929.

Two or more washes of nicotine and soft soap effected successful
control of the diamond back moth (Plutella maculipennis Curt.), but this
treatment was too costly in most cases. Against capsid bugs (Lygus
pabulinus L.) good results were obtained by spraying first the bushes
and then the soil beneath them with 10 oz. nicotine and 3 lb. soft soap
to 100 gal. water.

HULSEIBERG, H. (1865)

1929. OBSERVATIO1S CN THE OCCURRED CE OF PLUTELLA MACULIPENNIS CURT. IN
THE ERURT CAULIFLrWER DISTRICT IN 1928. Kranke Pflanze 6 (5): 88-91.
[In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 17: 487. 1929.]

Arsenical sprays were unsatisfactory against Plutella maculipenni
Curt. (cruciferarum Zell.), the best results being obtained with nicotine
so ap.

MORGAN, 7. L. (1866)

1929. PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS IN CABBAGE MOTH CONTROL. Agr. Gaz. N. S.
Wales 40 (10): 761-766. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18: 127-128. 193(

During a favorable season 80 to 90 percent of the crop is rendered
marketable by dusting with lime and tobacco. If the winter is late, however, severe damage to the crop may occur, if nicotine sulphate spray
proved ineffective. Dusting with equal parts of lime and tobacco apparently repelled the larvae from the centers of the plants. Very promising results were obtained by dusting and spraying (1 1/2 lb. lead arsenate tc 50 gal. water) alternately and this procedure is recommended for the control of the cabbage moth (Plutella maculipennis Curt.).

JARVIS, H. (1867)

li3l. CABBAGE MOTH CONTROL BY NON-ARSENICAL SPRAYS. Queensland Agr.
Jour. 36 (4): 399-403. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 99. 1932.J







As spraying cabbages with lead arsenate has not given satisfactory control of Plutella maculipennis Curt,, one plot was treated
with a derris preparation and a second with a spray composed of 1/2 pt. nicotine sulphate, 2 lb. soap, 1 lb. lead arsenate, and 40 gal.
water. Both preparations gave fairly satisfactory control, but the derris preparation was more toxic to both larvae and pupae, and the
plants treated with it were cleaner and better grown.

MORGAN, W7. L. (1863)

1931. EXPERIMENTS IN CABBAGE MOTH (PLUTELLA MACULIPENNIS) COITR-OL, 1930.
Agr. Gaz. N. S. Uales 42 (1): 57-58. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent, (A)
19: 298-299. 1931.]

The lead arsenate dust gave the best results. For seedbeds,
a 2.5 percent nicotine dust, applied every day or two, according to
the degree of infestation, is effective. Dusting with arsenicals
should cease a month before cutting, owing to the danger of poison,
but a nicotine dust may be used instead if necessary.

WALKER, H. G., and AiDERSON, L. D. (1869)

1934. NOTES ON THE USE OF DEPRIS AID PYRITHRUM DUSTS FOR THE CONTROL OF
CERTAIN INSECTS ATTACKING CRUCIFEROUS CRnPS. Jour. Econ. Ent, 27:
388-393.

In comparative tests with diluents or carriers for dusts against
the cabbage looper (Autographa brassicae Riley) and larvae of the
diamond-back moth (Plutella maculipennis Curt.) finely ground tobacco
dust gave almost as good control as talc and gypsum.

GUNIN, D. (1870)

1918. THE SMALL CABBAGE MnTH. Queensland Agr. Jour., 2nd ser., 9:
204-206,illus.

The following spray mixture was found to destroy the larvae
of this moth: lgal.tobacco extract (not less than 6 percent nicotine), 50. gal.water, and 2 lb. soap or resin.

RIVOIRE, p. (1871)

1923. TO COMBAT CABBAGE-BUTTERFLY LARVAE. Agr. Nouvelle 33 (1396):
330, illus. [In French,]

SThe following spray mixture is recommended in France: 1.5 1,
titrated nicotine (10-percent), 1.5 1. denatured alcohol (90-percent), .- 200 g. black soap, and 400 1. water.

GLEI 9BERG, w. (1872)

1929. GROSSVERSUCH ZUR KOHLSCHABEBEK4jPFU1NG 98, Obst. u, Gemisebau
75 (1): 2-6, illus. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 5 (11): 2889-2890. Entry
28781. 1931.]








-436

Larg7e quantities of tobacco, extract, 'Kerosene, and lysol soap
emlilsions were used n a compa~rative test of these substances on an rk-a of 1,771.5 acres of' ca-bbage infe sted by the cabbage moth. To'ca cco soa-p emu-ision (1 percent tobacco extract: 2-10 percent nicotine:
2 -ercent soap) gave the best results.

12. Euaropeanr Corn Borer and Corn Ear W~ormn, 1905-1934

CA:tFFREY, D.J. (83

195 STATUS CF THE EUROPEANT CORP1, BCRER IN THE 121TITED STATES IN 1:921-4.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 18: 98-10,9. [A'bstract in Rev. Appi. Ent. (A,13:
2:L44-245. 1925.

A 2 percent free nicotine dust gave encouraging results in 1924
whnen arpied at the period of *maximum egg hatching.

71 LKE, S (1874),

125 DER S TAND'TI D-77 MiIZUSzL f SRAGE. Arch. Nature e schi cht e, Abt.- A
91 (9): 31-72) illus.

Lhe Euro-sean corn borer larvae 'FPyrausta nub;Cilalis Kb.) can
only be reached just after hatching from the eggs, during which timec
it is advisable to dust the plants with an arsencia. or 2 percent
tobacco powder (p. 64).

A IT 3Y :i r1S (167,)

1'-"31. RPCRT C F EUQETCORIP BT-R SYTTMIU AC1GRICULT-UR:.L CoNIF=.iCE
1931. Ind. Agr. Expt. Sta. Stencil Bull. 5, 15 pp. [Abstract in1
Pey. A'ppl. Ent. ()19: 7-7.19)31.]

Sweet corn, which is the first to be planted, is likely to
roc'eive the first severe infest tion in Indiana. In studies with
ill;secticidos, nicotine and Penetrol have given 85 perccont control
oui' Pyoi.a ,Tabil,,lis Hb. under the favorable conditions prevailing
a-arine the 1930 season.

BATCHrELr)-,.ER, C.- H.-, and q LTST 7L, D. D). (187C-)

1931. 1TSECTICIDA,,L CQl)TR' L (*F IiE EUROPEAN CO7RN BORER: THE PROBLE.IS
I iK',LVED A1\D Sel',IE EXPR1IIMTTL RESULTS. Jour. Ec on. Ent. 24() 115 2-1167, illus. C[Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. ()20: 132-1373.
11)Z3 2.]

Insecticides involving the use of nicotine and pyrcthrur were
frn.impractical in their present physical foirm for use against tis
iiotih (Pyrausta nubilalis Kb.).








-437

S114L0TON, F. L., DICKE, F. F., an BTTGER, G. T. (1877)

1931. THE LETHAL POMER ?F CR13TAUIT INSECTICIDES T7ST2D IN !,ICH IA'
A-A:ST =i EUYRCPE->I' CM1\N 3CRSZR. Jour. Econ.- Ent 2"4: 395-404.
[A'bstlvrac.t in Rev. pl.Ent. (A), 19: 48L.-484. 1931.]

Nicotine did not prove sufficiently toxic to justify its ase. FIOHT, G. (1878)

1933. APRnGRESS REPORT rON SOiIJE I.VSCTICIDES USED AC-.IUST THE
EUR0PEdT CORN~ BCRER. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26: 747-754. [AIbstract in
Rev. A1.Ent. (A) ';l: 59C. 1933.]

iTicotine addled to oil ec.,ulsicns did not appreciably affect
the results obtained in experiment-, against the corn borer (Pyrausta
riub~als i.).

QUA I:T ATLC E A. L. andB RUWE S, C.- T. (1879)

1905. THE COTTON1\ LCLL1V7O?.Li. U. S. De)t. ;)oB r at u l 13, 1 5 p .
illus.

Bishopp and Jones put toba-,cco cn the corn silks a nd ears to
prevent this moth (Heliothis obsoleta Fabr.) from ovi:--ocijtiLn,, but tre
results were negative (p). 133).

JA CK, R. 77. (1880)

192.5. OTES FRr'l.: THE E TOMOLOI.GIC2,L L-3 RAT) RY. Rhodesia Vcr. Jo-ar.
2r' (Q): 852 -855. [Abstract in Rev. Al.Ent. 14: 11. 192?6.]

A combined spray of 1 -Jl. lime-sulphur, 9 oz. 40-percent nicoti-ne sulphate, 7 oz universal snoroadr and 1(jO gal water, aqpplied.
p r im aril1y aga i n st f p h i ds an d. th r irs app are(,ntl 1y h al so me e f fect i n
controlling the caterpillars Holiothis (Chloridea) ob.solet;7 F.
out further investigations in this connection are necessary. The
black citrus aphid (Au ,his ta-va-rosi De. Guer.) is easily killed with
nico tine sprays.

FR=, 3OPiT, S. B. and 7flYC, F. H. (1881)

1929. ATTEMPTS TO PRO,1TECT S3TEiZT ORn ROM TNFESTATI-177S CF TECr R.T EA
7VQP11, HELIOTHIS 'BS0LETA" F. BR1. Jour. Eco-n. Ent. 22: 666-671. ri'sbstract in R,.ev. Ap-pl. Ent. (A4') 17: 724. 1929.
Poor results were obtained with arsenates and various nicotine
comb inationb including a new proprietary nicotine caseinate. BTJPDETT, R. C.(l32

1934. RESULTS OF T70 YEA RS' T7RK TI TH d ATIRA:,CTIIVE SPRAY FOR CRN EA
MR,11 11,0TH (HELIOTHIS OBSOLETA F-3.) Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 213-217.









438IYicotine sulphate did not kill the moths, but it acted as a re-0ellent (ID. 213).

!3. Le-idoptera Ha-rmful to Shrubs, Shiade and Forest Trees, 1905-1934

LzS~t, p. (1883,)

1905 LA LUTTE C'1TRL LES INSECTES DU ROSIER. Rev. Hort. 77: 222-223.

Against caterpillars on roze bushes the following spray mixture is recommended: 1 1. concentrated tobacco juice, 1,500 g.black
soap, 1,000 g. sodi~;i carbonate, 1 1. methyl alcohol, and 100 1. water.

AHL~2, 2.(1884)

1 2D7. ARCYRESTHIA. CDI KJLr ZEL. A REP!'RT ONT I!CVESTIGA'TI Oi'S IN
19 21 J-1926- Meddel. Centralanst. F6rsdksv. Jordbruk-sorrdet V'Swed~en]
T~324 a ntb~~no v. .5) 12'? pp., illus. [In Sw7edis.
I.strsact in Rev. Appl. 3nt (A 16 2-230. 1928.]

spray containing- 0.1 percent nicotine killed about 88 percent oi th e e s. It hol.be applied 30 Oars after the moths first -ppear an
again 12 days later.

BUR1XC,, H. E (1885)

1932. STIZVLRY OF SHADE-TRE IKSECT ACTIVITIES I1W C ,LIF(ORITIA FOR 1931.
Calif. Dept. Agr. Monthly Bull. 21 (7-9): 358-3'F9, illus. L[A bstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 211: -16-47. 1933.]

The tineid larvae of Aryrstha cupressella 71sm. on cypress could probably be controlled .-iith the oil-nicotine spray recommended
aFgainst E1 pntia subviriftis Heinr. Sp-raying with 1.5 to 2 percent
liime-sul-)hur containing nicotine sul,)hate (1:800) gave good control of
aphids [!Teochinosis (Dila-crnus) tu~Jafilinus Del. G.] and a combined
oil-nicotine sprair was also of value in nurseries. Epinotia subviridis Heinr. caused injury to cypress from February to Hay. A combined oilnicotine spray applied to the foliage about May 1st should prove effectiv

BRITT'-)!,', T7. E., and ZAPPE, M4 P. (1386)

12-Q AT r1UTPREAK OF THE ARJ3O("-VITAE LE22 1JIN1ER ARGYRESTHIA ThUIE.Ll"
PAC~fD.Conn. gr. Thqpt. Sta. Bull. 234,pp. 157-160. [Abstract in
R1ev. A'IPpl. Ent. (A) 10: 335, 1922.]

Results of spraying tests writh nicotine sulphate and other insEcticides, were inconclusive.

HUTCHL:G(,S, C. 13. (1867)

l9~.THE BIRCH LF_ SKELET11XTIZER BUCcLTLATRIX C2 'JLDEI SISELLA CIL*-l1B.
fntario Ent. Soc. 56th Ann. Rept. 1925, pp. 69-71. LAbstract in (Pov. A,-qyl. Ent. (A) 151: 40. 1927.]









439

Ornamental birches can be protected from serious injury by
spraying with lead arsenate or nicotine sulphate about the middle of
August when the mines begin to show.

HUIE, L. I. (1888)

1917. EUD'MIS NAEVAITA I. THE HCLLY TORTRIX MOTH. Roy. Phys. Soc.,
Edinb., Proc. 20 (3): 164-178, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appiil. Ent.
(A) 6: 117-118. 1918.]

Spraying the newly hatched larvae and those in the first or
second instar with nicotine gave better control than spraying with
paris green, lead arsenate, or lead chromate.

TRI BLE, F. M1. (1889)

1924. THE AZALEA LEAF MINER (LEPID.: TIMEIDAE). Ent. News 35 (8):
275-279, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Ap)pl. Ent. (A) 12: 542. 1924.]

This moth (Gracilaria azaleella Brants) may be controlled in
greenhouses by cyanide fmigation, previous to forcing, followed in the forcing house by fumigations with nicotine sulphate on alternate
nights to kill the newly hatched larvae.

FLACHS (1890)

1926. THE AZALEA MOTH AS A 1EWT PEST :F HORTICULTURE IN 1.UN1ICH. Ent.
Ztschr. 39 (44): 177-178. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 14: 194.
1926.]

Control of Gracilaria az3.leolla Brants consists in spr ying with
a 1 percent tobacco mixture or with soapy water mixed with tobacco extract

HODGSOL, 7. E. H. (1801)

1927. THE AZALEA LEAF EIMER, GRiCILARIA AZALEELLA PRATS. Jour. Roy.
Hort. Soc. 52 (1) 54-59, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
15: 118-119. 1927.]

Repeated applications of a spray consisting of 1 oz. nicotine
and 4 oz. soap to 10 imperial gal. water proved en almost complete failure

WAHL, B., and ZIIMMER.Ai1\T, H. (1.892)

1909. VERSUCHE UBER DIE VER ENDBARYKHEIT rIASSERIGER LOSUMGT VOM LYS L
ULTD KUPFERLYSOL (KYROL) ZUM PF~A!ZEISCHUTZ. Ztschr. Landw. Versechsw.
Osterr. 12: 149-156.

Against the larvae of Gracilaria syringella F. on lilac a sjray
mixture, consisting of 1/4 percent lysol, 1.5 percent tobacco extract,
and the remainder water, was very effective (p. 156).









440

HTC'IETGS, C. B. (1893)

1925. TE LIAC LEAF-HINE\, GR .CILARR SYRINGEILA FABR. Ontario Tnt.
Scc. 55th Ann. Rept. 1924, pp. 19-3. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 13: 577-578. 1925.]

Nicotine sulphate sprays 1 1/2 to 2 tablespoonfuls per gal.
were found very effective killing both the larvae in the mines and
those in the rolled leaves.

7EISS, H.B. (1894)

1918. THE CONTROL OF IiORTID PESTS RECENTLY FOUND IN NE1 JERSEY.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 11: 122-125. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 3:
204-205. 1918.]

Spraying with lead arsenate and fumigation with tobacco extract
has afforded fair control of the azalea leaf-miner (Gracilaria zachrysa U:eyr.) As regards the laurel psyllid (Trioza alacris Flor.), funication with tobacco smoke should be carried out during the winter while
the trees are in storing sheds and the adults are hibernating.

FELT. .P. (1895)

1930. THE NORWAY i,:APLE YEPTICULA (LZPILOPTERA). Wash. Ent. Soc. Proc.
32: 146-149. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 206. 1931.]

A spray of 0.5 pt. nicotine, 3 lb. soap, and 2 qt. molasses to
40 gal. water, applied late in Mlay, killed the adult tineid moths (II.
sericopeza Zell.) and probably also prevented the emergence of others
from the cocoons.

7ALTER, 0. (1896)

1925. DIE BEX:MPFUNTG PER FORLEUIE UI7D DER NINE. 86 pp., illus.

.An experiment was undertaken in pine forests of Germany simultaneously with the airplane dusting to control the forleule and nun
moths (Panolis piniperda and Ocneria monacha) by means of forming dense clouds of nicotine smoke, which was produced in iron pots by a mixture
of nicotine dust and other material. It is assumed that anilin and
naphthalin compounds were in the mixture (p. 43). The experiment was
carried on by forming clouds beneath pine trees infested by caterpillars
of these moths and by exposing the caterpillars in little bags to the
fumes (p. 46). Both experiments were unsatisfactory (p. 66).

-- .(1897)

1926. T^RK AGAINST THE PIiE iOTHIS A ITUNT MOTH IN THE FORESTRY DISTRICTS
? BIESENTHAL AND S' RAU IN THE YEAR 1925. 86 pp., illus. Neudaem.
[In German. Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 14: 338. 1926.]









As regards fumigation against the pine moth (Panolis flammea)
and nun moth (Lymantria monacha), nicotine is the only substance of
practical value; the material used as a carrier for the nicctine should be as free as possible from chemical substances other than the nicotine;
each combustion-pot should be capable of generating a nicotine smoke
cloud for 10 minutes; and fuLisation must last 30 minutes in order to be successful and must be carried out when the wind is of the very sli:ghtest. These facts indicate that famigation is always uncertain.

FRIE1TD, R. 3. (1898)

1931. THE EUROPEAT PINE SHOOT LOTH. A PMENTIAL ENEMY OF PIIES IT
CONNECTI.CUT. Conn. Agr. Exot. Sta. Circ. 80, pp. 63-68, illus.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 19: 652. 1931.]

This moth (Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff.) has become a serious
pest of imported pines. Certain sprays seem promising, one of the
most satisfactory consisting of nicotine sulphate (1:400) and Penetrol
to make 1 percent by volume.

HA4MILTON, C. C. (1899)

1931. TESTS CN THE CONTROL OF SEVZEAL INSECTS ATTACKIJG PRTEAENTAL
P.AUTS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24: 162-169. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 19: 349. 1931.]

The European pine shoot moth (Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff.)
w7as controlled by spraying infested trees during June with Penetrol
(1:200) plus 40-percent nicotine sulphate (1:50C). Three sprays applied at intervals of 7 to 10 days killed the adults hidin- in the
trees and the eggs laid upon the terminal twigs. Tests against thrips
infesting privet showed that dust insecticides were more effective than
liquid sprays and that the best materials were dusts containing nicotine tannate or ground pyrethrm flowers.

DE GRYSE, J. J. (1900)

1934. Til EUROPEANdT PIiNE SHOOT CTH (RHYACI 7iTIA ULIN T SCHIFF.).
Canade Dept. Agr. Spec. Circ. Div. Forest Insects, No. 9, 3 pp.,
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 22: 496. 1934.]

Among the control measures mentioned (cf. 21: 567; 22: 394),
a spray of 3 lb. lead arsenate, 3/4 pt. nicotine sulphate, 3 lb.
potash fish-oil soap, and 40 gal. water has given satisfactory results
against larvae that have not yet penetrated the buds.

FELT, E. P. (1901)

1934. SHAL2 TREE INSECTS IN 1933. Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 195-200.

Spraying with a mixture, consisting of nicotine, oil, and lead
arsenate, at the time the European pine shoot moths (Rhyacionia buoliana Shiff.) are in flight and during egg laying, has given very satisfactory control. Such treatment is obviously impractical in the case of average
forest plantings (p. 198).









412

FEIED, R. B., and VEST, A. S., JR. (1902)

1934. SPRAY XPJ2ERIM TS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE EUROPEAN PIIE SHOOT iiOTE
Jour. Econ. Ent. 27: 334-336.

In comparative tests against this moth (Rhyacionia buoliana)
the following percentages of control were obtained: Fish oil-lead arsenate, 95; nicotine sulphate (0.5 percent)-Penetrol-lead arsenate, 94;
and nicotine sulphate (0.25 percent)-Penetrol-lead arsenate, 80. The
cost of the nicotine-Penetrol mixture is excessive, so the lead arsenate
fish oil seems most practicable.

SMIThI, F. F., FISHER, H. J., and GUYTON, T. L. (1903)

1930. A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE CONTROL OF THE PINE TIP HOTH,
REHYACIOMIA FRUSTR-ANA (Comstock). Jour. Econ. Ent. 23 (1): 113-118.
[Abstract in Biol. Abs. 5 (10): 2397. Entry 24,283. 1931.]

Several spray materials, including nicotine, were applied to
pine trees infested. with the above insect during its oviposition period.

BATER, s. (1904)

1930. HOLLY INSECTS. Wash. State Hort. Assoc. Proc. 26: 183-184.
[Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 20: 20-21. 1932.]

A pressure spray of 1 oz. 40-percent nicotine sulphate, 4 oz.
fish-oil soap, and 3 oz. lead arsenate to 3 gal. water is recommended
against the holly bud moth (Rhopobota naevana var. ilicifoliana Kearfott At least one species of aphid occurs on holly, distorting the growth and
gumming up the leaves, especially of the terminal shoots. A nicotine
sulphate spray should give efficient control.

KRAUSSE, A. (1905)

1919. THE DESTRUCTION CF THE PIINE PROCESSIONARY CATEPILLAR, CNETH0CAMPA PINIVORA TR. Ztschr. Forst. u. Jagdw. 51 (4): 202-205. [In
German. Abstract in Rev. App!. Ent. (A) 8: 141. 1920.]

As caterpillars of Cnethocmpa (Thaumetopoea) pinivora Tr. were
not available experiments were made with those of Vannessa io and
Dychira udibunda. Carbolineum or nicotine was entirely successful
in emulsions of 3 percent strength.

YELF, :., and KEAUSSE, A. (1906)

1922. DIE FORSTLICHEN LEPIDOPTEREN. Jena, 337 pp.

Against the moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora Tr.) on pine trees
spraying with a 3 to 4 percent solution of FJoria nicotine soap A is
recommended as being the best remedy to apnly (p. 213).







w443

14. Other Leoidoptera, 19021-1933



1932. "'N TH LIFE-HIST'RY -AD EETI:2nS FOR THE CO-:TTROL 'F ACROBP&?_-1C;PS
A1STATOROTA' 1LEYRICK. Ag.and Hort. 7 (8): 1407-1'420, illus. [in
Japanese. Abtatin Rev. Appl1. Ent. (A) 20: 605. 1932.1

A nicotine spray is effective against the eggs of this tineil,
and- pyrethrum. extract combine. with oil emulsion against the larvae on
fruit trees.

TULLGITZrN, M*. (1 o0s)
1918 TH ONDITMOTH(AcoL~xA S~TL ErLL.), ~UT INJTJFJOLJS INI S CT
ICOT HITHERTO REC0RED IlN STiLKT. '.,eddiel. Centralanst. Farsdksv.
Jord-briuk-somrdet [Sweden] No. 167, Ent. Avd., Y~o. 30, 11 pp., illus.
[In Swedish. Abstract in Rev. ,,p.Dl. Ent. ()6: 286. 1918.]

The author suggests cutting off the parts attacked. and. destroyin
them and. spraying 7ith nicotine emulsion (1:1,000) as a remedial m&acsure.

BcvIBNl., P. (1909)

1932. THE 1EEK MO.'TH, A4ICROLEPIA "'SSECTELLA ZELL., AjD ITS BIO)LC:0Y.
Tidsskr. Planteavl. 33: 334-3414, illus. FIn Danish with a summary in
Ernclish. A bstract in Rev. _'typl. Ent. ()20: 5538. 1932.1

1he best control -,easures were obtained with a 0.3*- percent solution of nicotine.

ZACHER, F. (90

1914. DIE WICHISTEPT KRANXHEITE1'T 17TD SCHADILIYGE DER TR(,PISCHEN KULTURPFTIXiEZEY UTfD IF-RE BEKAM P~jN_\G. B.-nd 1, Hamburg, 152 pp. illus.

Against the cotton worm A'letia argillacea Flban. and the hawk moth
Cy~onoes yla L th folowngspray mixture was use.: 3 k--. tobacco
extract, 3 kg. soft soap, 3 1. denatuared alcohol, 500 g. powde'ed hellebortj
and 140 1. water (p. 56 and 130).

Agaiinst the larvae of the moths Porthesia, virquncula 7alk. andCaoDua coffearia i'ietn. the following spray mixture was used: 3 k,7 tobac o -extract, 3 kg. soft soap, 1 kg. resin dlissolved. in 3 1. denatuired
alcohol, 3 1. spirit of sal1 ammoniac, 137 1. water (p-. 128 and 146).

IAALI.0TTTI, E. (1911)

1927. OBSU.1VATIOYS 01N A>TISPILjA RIVITLZI STETT. Italia Vinic. ed. ATr.,
1927, 1,o0. 2, 3 p. [In Italian. Abstract in Rev. Appi. Ent.(A
15: 203. 1927.]

The cocoons of this tineid. may be destroyed. by crushing or treating with solutions of nicotine or tarry emulsions.









F~DIT2DELC., and. IROSTRUP, S. (1912)

130.P ORT CN I17SECT PESTS AI1D FUITGUS DISEASES OF THE FI=f -AND
Lpc = IN 1919. Tidsskr. Planteavi. 2?: 399-450. [In Danish. Abstrctin Rev. A Ei nt. (A) 9: 3C62-364. 1921.]

Ag-,ainst the lepidoptoous larvae, tobacco extract was used withn
e f7e ct Sprays of tobacco extract containing 1. percent nicotine were
succecsf'a against Blennoc srnn= L2qnclata.

FRYER, J C.- F.-, S777T21=, R. T ATERSFIEID, F., and ROACH, t7- A. (1913)

1923. A QUAN2TITATIVE STUDY OF THE INSECTICIDAL PROPERTIES ('F DE2RRIS
E 7LIETICA (TOIBA ROOT) Ann. Appi. Biol. 10: 18-34. [Abstract
in Rev. Ap.Ent. (A) 11: 2419-25170. 10123.]

Thubatoxin and derride a,)pear to be of the sane order of
toxicity as nicotine to the larvac of Bombyx moni. Nicotine oleate
in low concentration was immeiately and almost completely effective
aga-:inst Anrhis rimmTnis.

YABUTA, T., and I',-14U, T. (1914)

1331. 7-E 7PXIC SUBSTAN CE JIN Mr -iCULBERRY IAVES, AAEBYTAC.

Jour.-Agr. Chem. Soc. Japan 7: 932-9?41. r[Abstract in Chem. Abs.
,6: 10j08. 1932.1

The loaves of mulberry, plantod near a tobacco field, were
often tox ,ic for the sikom(3ombyx mori). The mulberry leaves danar by tobacco were dried and then treated chemically. Thie resulting
precipitate was changed into picrrate and then recrystallized. I t was
identified. as nicotine picrate.- Abrr eo'vcs to which nicotine waCls
art-ificially added, wore also t11oxic -for silkw-oriss. In the damaged
mu:,llberry leaves nicotine combilies ,-ith organic acid as salt. The quantity of nicotine was only 1/100,000 of the fresh leaves. It i s ificult to remove nicotine from the damaged leaves.

R I TOHftIZI A. H. (1915)

15,-33. REPG' RT ODF THE ETJTU2!-LO,-XST, 193-12. Ann. Reyrt. Dept. Agr. Tany-anyika 19,32, pp. C'8-72- [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. ()21: 444-44b.
1933.]

A s the priod of seasonal activity of a moth (Cephonodes hv ,la~c
L.) coincides with that of thri's, led arsenate is aded to the bordeaux
nicotine combination spray (Rey. Appl. Enit. (A) 21: 106).

CH1ITTE-1DEII, F. H. (19160)

191.3. THE ABUTIL,,iT MO1TH (CO)S!IOPHILA- EROSA HUBN.). U. S. Dept. ;r
Dur. Ent. Bull. 126, 10 pp., illus.

The following spr-Ay rnixtur-D killed about 95 percent of the larvae
of this moth on abutilon plants in Virginia: 01.5 oz. 40--percent nicotine
s'ilhr~e,(.5 lb. Whale-oil soap, ;7nd 5 gal. lukewarm water (p. 9).







445
RL1NMR, G. A. (1917)

1914. THE SO-CALLED TOBACCO IRE 0M IN VIRGITIA. U. S. Dept. Agr.
Bull. 78, 30 pp., illus.

A spray of tobacco extract at 1 to 500 was ineffective against
this moth (Crambus caliginosellus Clem.). A spray of nicotine sulphate
at 1 to 1,000 was not of much value in preventing injury by the worms,
but seemed to repel flea beetles. Tobacco aust, scattered about tobacco plants directly after planting, may possibly have some value as
a repellent (p. 26).

MozNETTE, G. F. (1918)

1921. NOTES 01T A DESTRUCTIVE LAMT INSECT. Fla. Grower 24 (22): 13.
[Abstract in ExpTt. Sta. Rec. 46: 659. 1922; Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 10:
445. 19 2.]

Good results against Crambus haytiellus Zinck. attacking grasses
were obtained from the use of tobacco dust applied with a dust gun.
here la,.wns were thus treated the larvae were either killed or the- migrated from the dusted area.

AINSLI, G. (1919)

1916. NOiTES ON C~ABIDS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 9: 115-119. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 4: 192. 1916.]

In Ohio, larvae of Crambus trisectus were best controlled by
the use of tobacco dust.

NOBLE, . (1920)

1932. SOD 3EB7OR:,S AND THEIR C0iTROL IN LAWS AD GOLF GREEiIS. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Circ. 248, p. 104. [Abstract in Biol. Abs. 7 (8): 1944.
Entry 19,095. 1933.]
Nicotine sulphate (40-percent) solution gave little or no control
against the larvae of moths of the genus Crambus (pyralidae).

HOLI0AY, T. E., and LOFTIN, U. C. (1921)

1919. TiE SUGAR-CA-NE MOTH BORER. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 746, 74 pp.,
illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 7: 407-408. 1919.]

Cones for planting in uninfected areas should be obtained free
from borers (Diatreea sacchar Jis crembidoides Grote) if possible otherwise they should be soaked for at least an hour in nicotine sul)hate or
bordeaux mixture, which prevents the eags from hatching.






446

KIRSCHNR, R. (1922)

1931. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CONTROL OF EPHESTIA ELUTELLA BB. Mitt. Gesel
Yorratsschutz 7 (4): 42-43, illus. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
nt. (1) 19: 616. 1931.]

An extremely severe infestation of this moth, in the storerooms
of a food-products factory in which fumigation was impossible, was success fully controlled by removing the stock, spraying the rooms with a solutio of nicotine and soap, and smearing all cracks with a paste of water glass
and plaster of paris.

NAGEL, U. (1923)

1931. DIPYRIDYLS IN PEST CONTROL. Anz. Schidlingsk. 7 (12): 137-139,
illus. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 20: 234. 1932.]

Larvae of the moth Ephestia kihniella Zell. were dipped for 30
seconds in dipyridyl mixtures and. a 2 percent nicotine sulphate (40percent), the latter being the more toxic. The dipyridyl mixture might in certain circumstances replace the much more costly nicotine sulphate.

GUNIT, D. (1924)

1920. THE C.RIATION WOFM. Jour. Dept. Agr. Union So. Africa 12 (3):
225-227, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 14: 232. 1926.]

For cormbating the tortricid moth Ephichorista ionephela Meyr.
a spray of 1 gal. tobacco extract (nicotine = 6 8%) to 60 gal. of
water plus 3 lb. good yellow soap was used applied as a fine mist.
.After its use for 4 months the pest was reduced to negligible proportions

WATAN ,AE, T. (1925)

1927. A CONTROL METHOD FOR 1ELLULA UNDALIS FAB. (PYRALIDAE), A PEST OF
VEGETABLES. Agr. and Hort. 2 (9): 987-992, [Tokoyo]. [In Japanese.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 15: 641. 1927.]

Spraying the young growth with derris, nicotine sulphate, pyrethru
or lead arsenate is recommended against the larvae of the above moth.

SCH YDT, T. H. (1926)

1919. REPORT 0OT INSECT PESTS AiD FUNGUS DISEASES OF THE FIELD AND ORCHARD
IN 1918. 71 pp., illus. Christiania.. [In Norwegian. Abstract in Rev
Appl. Ent. (X) 7: 538-541. 1919.]

Nicotine tests against the larvae of a moth (Incurvaria capitella
Cl.) killed only 22 percent.

MILES, H. 7. (1927)

1000. LIFE HISTORY AND CONTROL OF THE P 2A MIOTH, LASPEYRESIA NIGRICAJA
STEPH. Bull. Chamber Hort. 3 (1): 6-9, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 14: 217-218. 1926.]







447In the case of peas grown for marketing green, the best results
s were obtained by spraying with 2 lb. calcium caseinate, 2 lb. lead
arsenate powder and 10 oz. nicotine per 100 gal. water, applied on 22nd
July. The use of this spray resulted in 30 percent of infested pods
and 11 percent of damaged peas. The use of a spray of 10 oz. nicotine per 100 gal. water with soap sufficient to lather gave almost equally good results as 20 lb. powdered derris (16 percent damage in threshed
j,)eas).

KUWlY IA, S. (1928)

1928. NOTES 0N LASPEYRESIA GLYCITIVORELLA MATSUIURA, THE SOY BA17 POD
]CRER. Jour. Coll. Agr. Hokkaido Imp. Univ. 19 (5): 261-282, illus.
[Abctr.ct in Rev. Appl. Ent. (-') 17: 52. 1929.]

Among methods of control is sprayin.- with nicotine sulphate arind
soap.

PADDOCK, F. B. (1920)

1912. THE SUGAR-BEET B-70R.i (LOXOSTEGE STICTICALIS L.) Jour. Econ.
Ent. 5: 436-443. f[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Et. (A) 1: 40-42. 1913.]

Tobacco decoction, 1 lb. stems to 1 gal. water, was effective
in killing the larvae without damage to the leaves.

DRY: ZSIKI, P. (1930)

1930. ON THE BIOLOGY OF L. STICTICLIS IN BULGARIA AND ITS C01TTR0L. Litt
Bulgarian Ent. Gesell. 5: 39-62, illus. [In Bulgarian. Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. (1) 183: 226-22. 1930.]

A 4-5 percent solution of barium chloride is the best insecticide
for the control of Loxost&ge (Phlyctaenodes) sticticalis L. but if neither
this nor paris green is available the spray recommended by Mokrzccki may
be used. This consists of 5 pounds tobacco boiled for 1 to 2 hours in
6 gal. water to which 2 1/2 ib. soamo is added after straining. This spray
should be applied when it cools down to 1670 F., at which temperature it
does not damage the plants but kills the larvae.

OMEZ CLEEviTTE, F. (1931)

1931. LUC E MOTHS. Bol. Pet. Veg. Ent. Agr. 5 (1930), no. 19-22, pp.
47-58, illus. Madrid. [In Spanish. Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)
20: 250-251. 1932.]

In Valencia, lucerne is severely injured by Loxostage sticticalis
L. and the tineid Tthris lotellus Const. The effective remedies included a spray containing 0.15 percent nicotine sulphate.

KORAB, I. I. (1932)

1931. SOME OBSERVATIiOTS ONT TrE L 1E 1OTH IN 1929. LOXOSTEGE STICTICALIS
L. The Meadow Moth in 1920-1930, pt. 1, pp. 9-42, illus. Kiev. [In
Russian. JAbstract in Rev. Xppl. Ent. (A) 19: 522. 1931.1







-448
Sprays of soft soap (1:400), or 3 percent tobacco extract
(1:10) killed all the eggs of the above moth, but are too expensive for
general use.

JEPSDiN, F. P., ET AL. (1933)

1930. REPCRTS ON INSECT PESTS IN CEYLON DURING 1929. Ceylon Dept. Agr.
Tech. Rept. 1929, 25 pp. [Colombo]. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
19: 137-138. 1931.]

Sodium silicofluoride and tobacco extract were not effective
against nettle grabs limacodids on tea plants.

SONAN, J. (1934)

1927. STUDIES ON THE INSECT PESTS OF THE TEA PLANT. PART II. Formosa
Dept. Agr. Res. Inst. Rept. No. 29, 132 pp., illus. [In Japanese.
;Lbstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 15: 482-483. 1928.]

Spraying with derris and soap, or nicotine sulphate and soap
proved very effective against the lymantriids which infest the tea plant
in Formosa.
KI~T (1935)

1226. LYONETIA CLERCKELLA L., ITS BIOLOGY A CONTROL. Meddel. Central
anst. F6rs6ksv. Jordbrukomradet [Sweden] No. 301 (Ent. Avdel. No. 4
59 pp., illus. [In Swedish. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 14: 612.
1926.]

Nicotine sprays are of value during the vegetative period. A
solution of 1 per mille nicotine kills the larvae in their mines and the
pupae in their webs and does not seem to harm the parasites.

WORTHLEY, H. N. (1936)

1923. THE CONTROL OF THE SQUASH VINE BORER IN MASSACHUSETTS. Mass. Ag!
Expt. Sta. Bull. 218, pp. 70-80, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 12: 244. 1924.]

Experiments show that nicotine sulphate at 1 to 100 kills over
97 percent of the eggs of this moth (1.elittia satyriniformis Hb.)
and at 1 to 250 kills over 90 percent.

FRI MTD, R. B. (1937)

1931. THIE SQU JSH VINE BORER, !,ELITTIA SATYRINIFORMIS HUBNER. Conn.
,r. Ex-t. Sta. Bull. 328, pp. 587-608, illus. [Abstract in Rev.
ppl. Ert.(A) 19: 493-494. 1931.]

One of the insecticides recommended for the control of the above
insect is nicotine sulphate (1:100) with 0.5 percent soap.







-449
SCHIDLER, A. (1938)

1923. DAMLGE CAUSED TO MOROCCA CROPS BY THE CATERPILLARS OF OCHOGY1,A
BAETICA, RAMB. VAR. "ERIDIN.ALIS, SEITZ. Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. maroc
3 (1-2): 21-22. [In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 11: 356357. 1923.]

Tobacco powder, which is easily obtained in Morocco, and also
arsenicals might be used. with advantage against the above caterpillars.

KAZYAXINA-VINOGRADOVA, V. N. (1939)

1932. ON TIE BIOLOGY OF TIE POCKET-IOTH (0o -NIX GUTTEA H1.). Bull.
Leningrad Inst. Controll. Fn. For. Pests, No. 3, pp. 249-258, illus.
[In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 21: 121. 1933.]

Measures suggested for control of this tineid (Parornix ornix
Tuattea Haw.) include spraying infested trees with nicotine.

MILES, E. 7. (1940)

1931. ON THE GARDEIT PEBBTE .iOTH, PIONEA FORFICALIS L. Northwestern Nat.
6 (4): 200-207, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A) 20: 193-194.
1932.]

,hen cruciferous plants newly set out are infested in Britain,
a spray of soap and nicotine or one containing derris extract could be
used provided that the centers of the plants are loose and open, the
material being forced well into them and applied to the lower surface of
the leaves. When seed beds are infested, the plants could be tied in bundles vhen drawn out for setting and dipped in a dilute insecticide
such as nicotine and soap

MORGAN, A. C. (1941)

1910. AN OBSERVATIONi UPON THE TOXIC EFFECT OF THE FOOD OF THE HOST UPON
SITS PARASITES. Wsh. Ent. Soc. Proc. 12 (2): 72-73.

During 3 years tobacco-horn worms (Phlegethontius sexta and
P. quinquemaculata Haw.), when found feeding upon plants other than
tobacco, were highly parasitized by Apanteles congregatus Say; but when
they were found feeding upon tobacco plants, they were seldom parasitized.
The author believes that the low parasitism was daue to the toxic effect
of nicotine in the tobacco.

GIBSON, A. (1942)

1919. THE GREENHOUSE LE F-TYER (PILYCTAENIA FERRUG ALIS IHBN.) Agr. Gaz.
Canada 6 (7): 626-629, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 7:
443. 1919.]







-450
The following mixture applied three times at intervals of one
-eel: has proved successful: 1 av. oz. soluble sulphur, 1 fl. oz. Black
Leaf 40 and 6 gal. of water. Care should be taken to spray the plants
well from below at the first appearance of the pest.

72IGELT, C. A., BROADBENT, B. !M., and BUSCK, A. (1943)

1924. THE GREENHOUSE LEL.F-TYER, PHLYCTAENIA RUBIGALIS (GUENNMEE). Jour.
,gr. Res. 29: 137-158 illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 13:
181-182. 1925.]

When it is not feasible to fumigate with hydrocyanic acid gas,
persistent dusting with 5 percent nicotine sulphate dust is recommended
against the moths.

7ALLACE, F. N., ET AL. (1944)

1127. REPORT OF THIE DIVISION OF ElTOLMOLOGY. Ind. Dept. Conserv. 8th
inn. Rept., 1925-26, pp. 32-62. [Abstract in Rev. Appl Ent. (A)
15: 402-404. 1927.2

Lights placed over shallow pans of oil as trap for the adults
of the greenhouse leaf tyer (Phlyctaenia rubigalis Gn.) are also of value, particularly if used in conjunction with a slight fumigation
with nicotine, the fumes of vhich irritate the moths so that they all
take flight and are more easily attracted to the lights (p. 404).

NOUG'ARET, R.L. (1945)

1919. THE ACHE ION SPHINX (PHOLUS ACHEMO.T DRURY) Calif. Dept. Agr.
Lionthly Bull. 8 (10): 560-584, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
() 8: 113-114. 1920.]

An effective remedy consists of 11 lb. lead arsenate paste with
24 lb. atomic sulphur, 1 lb. ground glue, 1 1/2 pt. Black Leaf 40 and
200 gal. water. This is most effective if applied a few days.before
the larvae are fully grown.

SPENCER, H., and STRONI, 7. 0. (1946)

1925. THE POTATO TUBER 7WOPM. HISTORY IN VIRGINIA. Va. Truck Expt.
Sta. Bull. 53, pp. 419-463, illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)
14: 471. 1926.]

Arsenical dusts and sprays and nicotine preparations gave
negative results in the field against this insect (Phthorimaea
opercullella Zell.).

BRITTOI, U. E. (1947)

192(;. IHiIETEENTH REPORT OF THE STATE ENTOMOLOGIST OF COTECTICUT FOR
1919. Conn. Agr. Exp)t. Sta. Eull. 218, pp. 112-208. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent.(.) 8: 337-341. 1920.]