Aids to the identification of the Mormon and Coulee crickets and their allies


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Aids to the identification of the Mormon and Coulee crickets and their allies
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Gurney, Ashley B ( Ashley Buell ), 1911-
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States Deparment of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( Washington )
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Table of Contents
    Aids to the identification of the Mormon and Coulee crickets and their allies (Orthoptera; Tettigoniidae, Gryllacrididae)
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Full Text

E-479 June 1939

United States Department of Agriculture
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


By Ashley B. Gurney,
Division of Insect Identification


In field work with the Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex Hald.) and
the coulee cricket (Peranabrus scabricollis (Thos.)), it is important to
distinguish the two species from each other and from several allied genera
and species of Orthoptera. In this paper identification keys, descriptions,
notes on known distribution, and illustrations are presented for the purpose
of aiding in the identification of these species. In some cases it is im-
possible at present to be sure whether certain specimens which have been
studied represent two distinct species or whether they are subspecies of the
same one. An attempt has been made to explain such difficulties, and to
suggest what specimens will be most helpful in adding to our knowledge of
the taxonomic position and geographical distribution of those forms. The
principal genera discussed, in addition to the most important ones, Anabrus
and Peranabrus, are Apote, Steiroxys, Pediodectes, and Eremopedes.

The present paper will be more useful to field workers if a short
time is given to studying identified material of several species, so that
the important distinctions may be learned by comparison with specimens. The
paper is the outgrowth of a study of collections made in 1938 by field work-
ers in 10 Western States, who brought together large and important series
of several species and genera.

Caudell (1907) monographed the Decticinae of North America, and,
as regards the species of immediate concern to the Mormon cricket problem,
there have been few taxonomic changes. Three varieties of Anabrus simplex
have been placed in synonymy by recent workers, and one new species, A.
spokan, has been described by Rehn and Hebard (1920).

Morphological terms.--Definitions of some structural details may be
helpful in interpreting the keys and descriptive matter. The pronotum, just
behind the head, is the large shieldlike structure which covers most of the
thorax in a hoodlike manner. This is composed of an upper or dorsal surface
and two lateral portions, one extending down each side. The latter are


called the lateral lobes. In some species the lateral lobes merge very
gradually into the dorsal surface and the junction is evenly rounded. In
others the lateral lobes are separated from the dorsal surface by distinct
ridges (lateral carinae), one on each side. If there is a lengthwise ridge
present in the middle of the dorsal surface, it is called the median carina.

On the ventral surface of the thorax between the front legs (fig. 15,
SP) there are, in some genera, paired prosternal spines. The armament of
the front tibia (fig. 2, TI) varies in different genera. The external
surface is drawn in figure 16, showing the paired slits (H) which are con-
nected with hearing organs. In this case thereare three spines along the
hind external margin and none on the front margin, while several spines
occur on each margin of the inner surface. Figure 8 shows a dorsal view
of the apex of the abdomen of simplex, with the last dorsal segment (T)
anrid the left cercus (C) indicated. The female subgenital plate occurs on
the venter of the abdomen at the base of the ovipositor. In figure 18 of
Anabrus simplex. the apex of the subgenital plate is shown uppermost and with
the apical hooks (HO) indicated. The individual cerci (figs. 20-23) were
drawn from a little to the left of a direct dorsal view in order to show-
more of the apex, which in some species is directed downward.

Allied Orthoptera ..-

Anabrus and allied genera belong to the subfamily Decticinae of the
family Tettigoniidae. Members of this subfamily of katydids or long-horned
grasshoppers are commonly called the shield-backed grasshoppers, because of*
the usually well developed pronotum. In a few genera of Decticinae' wings
capable of sustaining flight occur, but in those here discussed only short
wings are present, the wing length in Apote (fig. 2) being of about the
maximum development.

There are a few Orthoptera of striking appearance in the West which
may be encountered by field workers, and, though not Decticinae, these are
mentioned here to prevent any possible confusion. Tropidischia (fig. 1)
is a member of the camel-cricket group (Rhaphidophorinae). In this group,
of which Ceuthophilus is the dominant American genus, wings are entirely'
lacking and the general appearance will separate these forms from the Dec-
ticinae. Distributed in all the Northwestern States, and of such a striking
appearance as to be of considerable popular interest, is the genus Stenopel-
matus. These insects (fig. 3) have no wings and have heavily spined' legs.
They are usually about l1 inches long, but some may attain a length* of 2
inches. Figure 4 illustrates a male of Cyphoderris, a genus occurring from
Colorado and Oregon into southwestern Canada, usually in forested country.
Females have only vestigial wings. Specimens of Cyphoderris are about an
inch long or somewhat less. Like the Rhaphidophorinae, Stenopelmatus'and
Cyphoderris are members of the family Gryllacrididae.

There are about 25 genera of Decticinae in the United States. The
following key will aid in separating Anabrus and Peranabrus from four other
genera which, because of appearance and distribution, may be confused with


Key to Anabrus, Peranabrus, and Genera Likely to be Confused with Them

1. Median carina of pronotum developed as a sharp ridge entire length
of pronotum; dorsal surface of pronotum smooth; (external
surface of front tibia unarmed along front margin); (Northwest-
ern States, seldom south or east of Colorado)........................ Steiroxys

Median carina of pronotum seldom extending through entire length
and then the pronotum is rough and the carina is low and rounded.. 2

2. Male cercus (figs. 7-9, 20-23) with apex strongly curved and with
conspicuous, curved, inner tooth; female subgenital plate
(fig. 18) with postero-lateral angles developed into sharp,
incurved spines; (front tibia usually with 1-3 spines along
front margin of external surface; prosternal spines absent);
(British Columbia to Manitoba, south to northern New Mex-
i c o ) ............................................................................................................... A n a b ru s

Male cercus without strongly curved apex (figs. 10-14), inner tooth
absent or differently formed; female subgenital plate without
postero-lateral angles developed into sharp, incurved spines .......... 3

3. Paired prosternal spines (fig. 15, SP) present; those species from
the extreme Northwest (Apote) with a conspicuous dorsal color
pattern of abdomen as illustrated (fig. 6).............................................. 4

Paired prosternal spines absent; dorsal surface plain or color pat-
tern not as illustrated in opposite category; (some species of
Eremopedes possess weak prosternal spines, but that genus may
be distinguished by characters given in the description of
Eremopedes) .............................................................. ........... ..................... .................. 5

4. Abdomen with conspicuous dorsal color pattern (fig. 6); hind femur
not or but slightly exceeding abdomen; ovipositor (fig. 2)
distinctly down-curved; (Oregon, Washington, and British Col-
umb ia ) ........ ... .................................... ................ .............................. ......... Ap o.te

Abdomen plain or not marked as in opposite category; hind femur
greatly exceeding abdomen; ovipositor (fig. 17) not down-
curved; (Great Plains, not extending west of Colorado and
Wyoming) ........................................................................................... ... Pediodectes

5. Pronotum rough (fig. 5); posterior margin of last dorsal segment of
male abdomen at most weakly emarginate, the lobes broadly
rounded; (Oregon to British Columbia and Alberta)............... Peranabrus

Pronotum smooth; posterior margin of last dorsal segment of male
abdomen deeply cleft, the lobes long and often acute (fig. 14);
(Southwestern States, not occurring north of Colorado) ...... Eremopedes


The Genus Anabrus Haldeman

This genus includes the true Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex Halde-
man), one other distinct species (A. cerciata Caudell), and a variable
form (A. longipes Caudell) which is tentatively considered a valid species.
A. spokan Rehn and Hebard is tentatively placed under the name longipes,
where it is discussed.

There is considerable size variation in Anabrus, ranging from about
1 inch in body length and three-eighths inch in length of pronotum in small
specimens of longipes to 2 inches in body length and slightly more than
five-eighths inch in length of pronotum in large specimens of cerciata.
The most common color is brown, but green, black, and mottled gray specimens
also occur frequently.

When one is familiar with the general appearance of Anabrus from
examination of specimens, it is not difficult to be certain of the genus
by checking a few details of structure. The males have distinctive furcate
cerci (figs. 7-9, 20-23) which, except for Steiroxys, differ from those of
other genera likely to be confused with Anabrus, and the subgenital plate
of the female (fig. 18) has distinctive incurved hooklike projections at
the apex. The ovipositor varies from nearly straight to moderately up-
turned, but never points downward decidedly at the apex as in Apote (fig. 2).

The upper surface of the pronotum is smooth, not rough and pebbled
as in Peranabrus, and the carinae are seldom developed except in longipes.
Prosternal spines are lacking. The typical armament of the external surface
of the front tibia is 5 spines along the hind margin and from 1 to 3 spines
along the front, but occasional specimens lack spines along the front
margin. The hind femur is less than twice the length of the pronotum in
nearly all specimens of simplex, but is about twice the pronotal length
in cerciata and almost always more than twice as long as the pronotum in
longipes. The three species may be separated as follows:

Key to Species of Anabrus

1. Male cercus (figs. 7, 9) with inner tooth greatly developed and at
right angle to main body of cercus; (specimens large for genus,
frequently 2 inches in body length); (Washington and Oregon)
...................................................................................................... ce rc ia ta C aud e l l

Male cercus (figs. 8, 20-23) with inner tooth only moderately de-
veloped and not at a right angle to main body of cercus.................... 2

2. Hind femur less than twice as long as pronotum, occasionally about
twice as long; male cercus (figs. 8, 23) with inner tooth stout
and with tip of inner tooth half, or more than half, the length
of cercus from base of main body of cercus; lateral carinae of
pronotum feebly indicated and lateral lobes smoothly merging
with upper surface; (Washington to Manitoba, south to northern
New Mexico) ................................................................................simplex Haldeman


Hind femur a little more than twice as long as pronotum, occasional-
ly only twice as long; male cercus with inner tooth less stout
and with tip of inner tooth varying in position from very near
base of main body (fig. 20) to about midway the length of
cercus (fig. 22); lateral carinae of pronotum either feebly
indicated or well developed; (western Montana, northern Idaho,
Oregon to British Columbia) ................................................... longipes Caudell

Anabrus cerciata Caudell

The most striking feature of cerciata is the structure of the male
cerci. When the apex of the abdomen is seen in dorsal view (fig. 7), the
tip of the inner hook is directed inward at right angles to the main body
of the cercus. The apex of the main body of each cercus curves far ventrally
and a little inwardly. Figure 9 shows the right cercus in left oblique
dorsal view. Females are not readily separated by key characters from
females of longipes and simplex, but the very large size of most specimens,
and association with males, will usually permit their recognition. Anabrus
cerciata averages from 1 to 2 inches in body length and about five-eighths
inch in pronotal length, but a few specimens from Mt. Ranier, Wash., have
been studied which are slightly less than an inch in body length and three-
eighths inch in length of pronotum. This suggests that at high altitudes
specimens of cerciata are smaller than is usually the case at lower al-
titudes. This is known to be true in simplex.

The 1938 collection submitted for study included 77 females and 53
males from 4 lots collected in Yakima and Klickitat Counties, Wash. This
was many times the amount of material previously known. No variation toward
either simplex or longipes has been found thus far, indicating that cerciata
is a very distinct species, occupying a rather limited area. Anabrus
cerciata is rare in collections, and additional specimens for study are

Anabrus longipes Caudell

There is no confusion between longipes and cerciata, because of the
distinctively shaped and apparently constant male cerci of cerciata, but the
true relationship of longipes to simplex is uncertain. While longipes is
here treated as a species, it is really a complex of variable forms. It is
easy to separate specimens from British Columbia and northern Washington
from simplex, as the cerci (fig. 20) usually have a long sweeping curve at
the apex and the inner tooth is small and very near the base, but material
from farther south in Washington and from central Idaho averages as il-
lustrated in figure 22 and is not so easily separated from simplex. In-
cluded in the complex is the form described as spokan by Rehn and Hebard
(1920). The type locality of spoken is Sandpoint, Idaho, and that of lon-
gipes is Pullman, Wash. Typically, spokan is smaller and less robust than
longipes and the lateral and median carinae of the pronotum are well in-
dicated, whereas they are feebly developed in longipes. The cerci of the
most northern specimens (fig. 20) are even more extreme in the direction
away from simplex than is the case in paratypes of spokan that have been

-6 -

examined. A few southern specimens are suggestive of simplex, though sep-
arable from it, and it is possible that all the material here recorded
under longipes (fig. 26) represents nothing more than a subspecies of simplex.
Further collections may show that sufficient intergradation exists to war-
rant accepting the above suggestion as fact, but at present the evidence
does not seem conclusive. It hardly seems that spokan and longipes are
distinct from each other, but they may be subspecies of a species which is
distinct from simplex. The maps (figs. 24, 26) show that the known distribu-
tions of simplex and longipes do not overlap. If both should be found in
the same locality and with no specimens included that clearly intergrade
between the two (intergradation between forms which are usually distinct
being the most practical basis for believing that subspecies exist within a
species), longipes and simpex might be considered distinct. For the present
it seems best to treat the complex of varying forms under one name, longipes,
with the hope that more material and additional study will make definite con-
clusions possible. New collections from the area known to be inhabited by
longipes and the adjoining territory may shed light on the true relationship
of these uncertain forms of Anabrus.

The life history and habits of longipes have been described by Criddle

Anabrus simplex Haldeman

Although simplex, the true Mormon cricket, is variable as regards
size and color there is relatively little variation in the male cerci
(figs. 8, 23) over the greater part of its range; some variation toward
longipes occurs in Oregon and Idaho. In only very few specimens is the
hind femur as much as twice the length of the pronotum. In the large
series oi specimens now available the armament of the external surface of
the front tibia has been found to be variable, though almost always with
five spines along the hind margin and two or three in front.

Based upon specimens which in most cases varied in size and color,
the following names have been given in the past which current taxonomists
now consider synonyms of simplex: coloradus Thomas 1872, maculatus Caudell
1907, nigra Caudell 1907, purpurascens Uhler 1864, similis Scudder 1872.
None of the latter names appears worthy of a valid status, either as species
or subspecies.

At high altitudes there is a tendency for smaller specimens to occur.
Material from the eastern part of the range of simplex is also smaller on
the average than that from the Northwest, some specimens from North and
South Dakota being only l1 inches in body length and three-eighths inch in
pronotal length, while in others, from southwestern Idaho, the corresponding
measurements are 2 inches and slightly over one-half inch, respectively.
The most common color is brown; pale specimens with green markings are more
abundant on the Plains than farther west, while several lots from Nevada
and elsewhere are nearly black.


In addition to the distribution indicated in figure 24, the writer
has examined material from Beulah, N. Mex., in the mountains of western
San Miguel County. There are further records in literature from Manitoba
and northwestern Minnesota. Abundant collections of simplex are now avail-
able, but material from any unusual situations, and particularly from areas
near where longipes occurs, will be useful in determining the relationship
between simplex and longipes.

Cowan (1929) has discussed the life history and habits of the Mormon
The Genus Peranabrus Scudder

Only one species of this genus, Peranabrus scabricollis (Thomas),
the coulee cricket, is known, and there is comparatively little structural
variation. The most striking feature of Peranabrus is the rough, pebbly
appearance of the pronotum (fig. 5). The lateral carinae of the pronotum
are fairly well developed to the front margin and, though diverging outwardly,
from front to back, are usually straight rather than curved as in Anabrus
longipes. The median carina is indicated the entire length of the pronotum,
but is low and rounded. Most specimens are largely reddish brown in color,
although some are green. The front tibia has from 4 to 5 spines along the
hind margin of the external surface and is unarmed on the front margin.
There are no prosternal spines. Average specimens measure from 11 to l1
inches in body length and three-eighths inch in length of pronotum. The
front wings of the female do not overlap and are little more than lateral
pads, but those of the males overlap and are black with yellow margins.

The distribution of the material examined is shown by figure 27;
there are also records in literature from southern British Columbia, southern
Alberta, and Idaho. As regards the type locality, Thomas (1872, p. 441)
says, "Found in southern Montana on the dividing range of the Rocky Mountains
at an elevation of 6,000 to 8,000 feet above the level of the sea." This
locality has not been indicated in figure 27; the two Montana records shown
are at Ronan and Lakeview. Apparently scabricollis was overlooked by Hebard
(1928, 1932) in his studies on the Orthoptera of Montana, since the species
is not mentioned.

The 4 lots of Peranabrus scabricollis collected in 1938 included 139
females and 121 males. Specimens from new localities or those unusual in
any way will add to our knowledge of distribution and variation.

Snodgrass (1905) and Melander and Yothers (1917) have discussed the
biology and habits of the coulee cricket.

The Genus Apte Scudder

Members of this genus are of rather limited distribution. The ac-
companying map (fig. 28) shows the distribution of material examined.
Specimens are rare in collections, and all records in the literature are for
southern British Columbia, Washington, or Oregon except one from "Dakota,"
which is believed to have been incorrectly reported. The genus may eventu-
ally be found in Idaho.


The abdomen of these striking insects is mottled gray above, with two
narrow pale stripes running lengthwise, one each side of the middle. Between
the pale stripes are paired dark spots arranged diagonally. The front wings
extend well beyond the pronotum (fig. 2) in both sexes and the dark veins are
conspicuous. The external surface of the front tibia is unarmed on the front
margin. The prosternal spines (fig. 15, SP) are well developed.

In his revision of 1907, Caudell described a variety, robusta, of
the single previously known species, Apote notabilis Scudder. Whether
robusta is a distinct species or a subspecies of notabilis or whether it
represents an extreme condition in the normal variation of notabilis that
is not worthy of a different name is uncertain. Nineteen males and 16
females, taken in 1938, were included among the material submitted for study.
Of these, 12 males and 11 females were from a single lot; none of the other
6 lots in which the species was represented contained more than 3 specimens.
There is at least some variation in the characters separating the two forms.
Any specimens of Apote are greatly desired, and where groups of individuals
are encountered a series should be collected. The two forms, which are
tentatively treated as subspecies of notabilis, are now separated as follows:

1. Male cercus (fig. 13) with point of inner tooth about half the dis-
tance from base to apex; lateral lobe of pronotum without pale
ventral margin or with pale area poorly developed; ovipositor
of female only slightly longer than hind femur
notabilis robusta Caudell

Male cercus (fig. 12) with point of inner tooth more than half the
distance from base to apex; lateral lobe of pronotum with pale
ventral margin well developed; ovipositor of female noticeably
longer than hind femur.................................... notabilis notabilis Scudder

The ovipositor (fig. 2) curves upward, then distinctly downward near
the tip. The male cerci (fig. 12) are very similar to those of the coulee
cricket (fig. 10), but details of the last abdominal segment are different;
males of Apote and Peranabrus may be separated by the characters given in
the generic key and by the front wings. In Peranabrus the front wings of the
males are black, conspicuously marked with yellow along the lateral and
posterior margins, while in Apote they are gray with dark veins. The
slightly upturned ovipositor of Peranabrus females readily distinguishes
them from females of Apote. Also, the females of Peranabrus do not have
well developed wings.

The Genus Steiroxys Herman

This genus ranges west of the Great Plains from southern Canada to
New Mexico, and includes four described species. Only a few specimens were
contained in the 1938 collections, and the genus is not likely to be mis-
taken for Anabrus or Peranabrus. About five-sixteenths inch in pronotal
length is the maximum size for the genus. The lateral and median carinae of
the pronotum are much more conspicuous than those of any of the other genera


discussed; the lateral carinae are nearly straight in most species, but in
strepens Fulton they are broadly outcurved posteriorly. Prosternal spines
are absent. The front tibia is unarmed on the front margin of the external
surface. The hind femur is more than twice as long as the pronotum. The
ovipositor is long and slightly upturned, and the female subgenital plate
is variable but never as in Anabrus (fig. 18).

The Genus Pediodectes Rehn and Hebard

The genus Pediodectes includes three species which occur in the
northern Great Plains, though several others occur in Texas, Mexico, and
elsewhere. The three species concerned, haldemanii (Girard), stevensonii
(Thomas), and nigromarginatus (Caudell), are not known from farther west
then Wyoming and Colorado. They were formerly placed in the genus Stipator
Rehn, which is now considered a synonym of Atlanticus Scudder.

Pediodectes haldemanii is about equal in size to Anabrus simplex and
often is predominantly light green in color. The male may be distinguished
from the male of the Mormon cricket by the structure of the cerci (fig. 11).
In both sexes the hind femur is easily twice the length of the pronotum and
the ovipositor is much more elongate than in most Plains specimens of the
Mormon cricket.

Pediodectes stevensonii is smaller than any species of Anabrus,
the pronotum averaging about one-fourth inch in length. The male cerci are
much as in haldemanii, but the last dorsal segment of the male abdomen has
two conspicuous projections, somewhat similar to those of Eremopedes balli
(fig. 14). The body of stevensonii is rather uniformly brown; the lateral
lobes of the pronotum usually have pale margins.

Pediodectes nigromarginatus has a broad, pale, longitudinal stripe ex-
tending the entire length of the pronotum and abdomen. There is a narrow dark
stripe running lengthwise in the middle of the pale one. The sides of the
body are darker brown. This species is somewhat larger than stevensonii,
but is not likely to be confused with the Mormon cricket because of the
color pattern and also because of the elongate hind femur which is two to
three or more times the length of the pronotum. The male cercus is elongate,
nearly straight, and tapers to a point. There is an inner tooth at about
right angles to the main structure about the middle, but there is no close
resemblance to species of Anabrus in this organ.

The three foregoing species of Pediodectes are not rare insects, but
their distribution and variation are not fully known, and specimens from
any locality will be useful. A lot of 44 females and 29 males of haldemanii
collected at Ft. Pierre, S. Dak., in 1938 shows that occasionally that
species occurs in considerable numbers.

- 10 -

The Genus Eremopedes Cockerell

This is typically a genus of the Southwest and not likely to be
encountered within the range of Anabrus, but two species, Eremopedes balli
Caudell and Eremopedes scudderi Cookerell, extend their range northward into
Colorado and so are discussed here for the sake of completeness. In the male,
both species may be distinguished from Anabrus by the conspicuous paired
projections of the last abdominal segment (fig. 14). The cercus of scudderi
is of the same general type as that of balli but the tip is more acute, and,
also unlike ball, there is not a series of sclerotized teeth along the
inner surface; a simpler, hooklike, inner projection occurs but is unlike
anything known in Anabrus. Both species are much smaller than Anabrus, the
pronotum seldom much exceeding one-fourth inch in length. The hind femora
are twice as long as the pronotum -- sometimes much more than twice and
the front tibia is not armed on the front external margin. Usually there
are no prosternal spines or they are little developed, but in some specimens
the spines are fairly large, so that variation in this character appears to
be normal.

Identification keys and notes are given to aid in distinguishing the
Mormon and coulee crickets from several allied genera and species. A few
less closely related Orthoptera are also figured and briefly discussed.
The coulee cricket (Peranabrus scabricollis (Thos.)) is the only species of
the genus Peranabrus. In addition to Anabrus simplex Hald., the Mormon
cricket, the genus Anabrus contains one distinct species, cerciata Caud.,
and a variable form here treated as a species under the name longipes Caud.
The genus Apote contains one species, notabilis Scudd., and a poorly under-
stood form, robusta Caud., here treated as a subspecies. The genus Pedi-
odectes contains, in the northern Great Plains, three species. The genus
Steiroxys and two species of the genus Eremopedes are briefly mentioned.
Particular attention is given to the known distribution of the important
Literature Cited

Caudell, A. N. 1907. The Decticinae (a group of Orthoptera) of North
America. U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 32: 285-410, illus.

Cowan, F. T. 1929. Life history, habits, and control of the Mormon Cricket.
U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 161, 28 pp., illus.

Criddle, Norman. 1926. The life history and habits of Anabrus longipes
Caudell (Orthop.). Canad. Ent. 58: 261-265, illus.

Hebard, Morgan. 1928. The Orthoptera of Montana. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.
Proc. 80: 211-306, illus.

1932. Notes on Montana Orthoptera. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.
Proc. 84: 251-257.

- 11 -

Melander, A. L., and Yothers, M. A. 1917. The coulee cricket. Wash.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 137, 56 pp., illus.

Rehn, J. A. G., and Hebard, M. 1920. Descriptions of new genera and species
of North American Decticinae (Orthoptera; Tettigoniidae.).
Amer. Ent. Soc. Trans. 46: 225-265, illus.

Snodgrass, R. E. 1905. The coulee cricket of central Washington (Pe r-
anabrus scabricollis Thomas). Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 13:
74-82, illus.

Thomas, Cyrus. 1872. Notes on the saltatorial Orthoptera of the Rocky
Mountain regions. Prelim. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Mont.
Adj. Terr., 1871: 423-466, illus.

Explanation of figures

1. Tropidischia xanthostoma Scudd. Female.
2. Apo notabilis Scudd. Female. (Adapted from Caudell, 1907.)
3. Stenopelmatus fuscus Hald. Female.
4. Cyphoderris mrnstrosa Uhler. Male.
5. Peranabrus scabricollis (Thos.). Female.
6. Apote notabilis Scudd. Female.
7. Anabrus cerciata Caud. Dorsal view of apex of male abdomen.
8. Anabrus simplex Hald, Same,
9. Anabrus cerciata Caud. Left oblique dorsal view of right male cercus.
10. Peranabrus scabricollis (Thos.). Dorsal view of apex of male abdomen.
11. Pediodectes haldemanii (Gir.). Same.
12. Apote notabilis notabilis Scudd. Same.
13. Apote notabilis robusta Caud. Dorsal view of right male cercus.
14. Eremopedes balli Caud. Dorsal view of apex of male abdomen.
15, Apote notabilis Scudd, Ventral view of thorax, showing prosternal
spines (SP).
16. Eremopedes balli Caud. External surface of left front tibia, base
uppermost, showing arrangement of spines and slit associated with
organ of hearing (H).
17. Pediodectes haldemanii (Gir.). Ovipositor of female.
18. Anabrus simplex Hald. Subgenital plate of female, apex uppermost,
showing apical hooks (HO).
19. Peranabrus scabricollis (Thos.). Same.
20. Anabrus longipes Caud. Right male cercus, left oblique dorsal view.
21. Anabrus spokan R. and H. Same. (Drawn from a paratype.)
22. Anabrus longipes Caud. Same.
23. Anabrus simplex Hald. Same.
24. Anabrus simplex Hald. Map showing distribution of specimens examined.
25. Anabrus cerciata Caud. Same.
26. Anabrus longipes Caud. Same.
27. Peranabrus scabricollis (Thos.). Same.
28. Apote notabilis Scudd. Same.

(Figs. 4-6 drawn by Mary Foley Benson, others by the author.)




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25. Anabrus oeroiata Cauclell
S.peolmens 2-xamined. -
1938 Field Collections
A Other Available Material -


Zo. Anabrus longipes Caudell "'
Speolmens Examined
1938 Field Oolleotions
A Other Available Laterial

27. 2eranabrus soabricollis (Thomas) -
Specimens Examined
S1938 Field Collections
A Other Available Material

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28. Apote notabilis Scudder
Specimens examined
1938 Field Collections
A Other Available material

I III 1 262i 09I 23 674i8ll ll~ll llill Ii
3 1262 09236 6748