The use of fluorine compounds as insecticides, a review with annotated bibliography


Material Information

The use of fluorine compounds as insecticides, a review with annotated bibliography
Physical Description:
Carter, R. H
Busbey, Ruth L ( Ruth Lawless ), 1909-1990
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Insecticide Investigations ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 30268727
oclc - 14120742
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Chemistry of fluorine
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Requirements for insecticidal use
        Page v
    Value as insecticides
        Page vi
    Present status of fluorine compounds as insecticides
        Page vii
    Tolerance as spray residue
        Page viii
    Spray-residue removal and methods of analysis
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    U. S. patents on fluorine compounds in relation to insect post control, 1925-1935
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Index of authors
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Subject index
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
j Y

E- 466 February 1939

United States Dcpartnent of Agricalture
Bureau of Entcmologr and Plant Quiarantine


By R. .I Carter and R. L. Busboy,
Division of Insecticide Investigations


Introduction .......................... II

Chemistry of fluorine

Properties ... ... . .. ... .... ................... III

Classes of compounds .... III

Occurrence and distribution ......................... IV

Sources of fluorine ,.,,. ......... ......... ..... IV

Requirements for insecticidal use .....................

Value as insecticides .......................... VI

Present status of fluorine compounds as insecticides .. VII

Tolerance as spray rsidue .............. ............ VIII

Spray-rsiduo removal .... . ........ IX

Methods of analysis ............. ... .................. IX

Bibliography ....... .. ............. ......... .. 1

U. S. patents on fluorine compoun.ds in relation to

insect post control, 1925-1935 ...................... 120

Index of authors .......................... 126

Subject index .............. .................... ..... 135


For many years there has been a marked demand for new and better
insecticides. This demand has been largely the result of two factors,
first the need for better cont'oI of insects that are becoming more and
more destructive, and second, the recognition of the health hazards of
the rescues from certain insecticidal sprays and dusts if they are left
on products intended for human or animal consumption.

Lead arsentate and other arsenicals have been, and still are, the
main reliance of those engaged in the economic control of certain insects.
To control these insects, however, it is necessary to apply large dosagos
and maintain them throughout the season. The residues must then be
removed before the fruits and vegetables are safe as food. Development
of substitutes for arsenical compounds whichawould be less toxic to humans
and animals and still be sufficientl,: toxic to insects has therefore
occupied the attention of chemists and entomologists.

The-compounds-of fluorine areone of the-principhl classes of non-
arsenical inorganic materials that have been investigated. As the reports
of these investigationsare' scattered through many chemical and cntomoloj-
ical journals, for the convenience of those interested there is presented
hero a summary of-the availabloinformation on the insecticidal properties
and applications of the compounds of fluorine. There is also included the
information available on fluorine-spray-residue removal and such methods
of analysis as are applicable to this type of work.

References to the use of fluorine compounds in wood preservation
and similar applications where insect damage may also be a factor are also
incluC-ed, as well as to information on dama ,e to plants incident to the
use of fluorine insecticides. Purely bactericidal and germicidal uses,
however, are not considered as part of this revir.w.

References are given in chronological order b,- years, and when
more than One reference is. given for any year, they are arranged in the
alphabetical order of the authors' names.

The United States patents relating to fluorine compounds in insect
pest control have been listed sebarate2l, '615-692. References to patents
relating to fluorine compounds in mothproofing have not been includ-d in
this bibliography, as they have previously been listed by Roark (287,
436, 614).

The bibliogra-ohy is intended to be complete up to December 31,

YCnMes of insects, both scientific and common, are given as
they appear in the reference cited, whether or not they are valid or
approved names. In the Subject Index the entry is made iunder the


scientific name whore both nnes appear in the citation, with a cross
reference from the corr.ion name, but whoro only one name is given the
entry is .ade under that name. For exanmp.e, reforonces to the Japanese
beetle entered under "Japanese beetle" refer to the insect by its coru-ion
nane only, and those entered under "Popillia Japonical refer to the
insect either by its scientific name alone or by both scientific and
common names.



Tluorine belongs to the class of ele.ents known as the halogens,
which includes also chlorine, bromine, and iodine. It is one of the most
reactive elements known, being found in combination with all but a very
few of the other elements. Many of the reactions occur spontaneously
with the rcleaso of much energy, and many organic compounds decompose
and take firo in the presence of fluorine gas. The fluorides rosonble
the other halides in some of their properties, but in many respects they
differ. For instance, the silver salts of chlorine, bromine, and iodine
are relatively insoluble in water whereas silver fluoride is soluble,
and the calcium salts of chlorine, bromine, Lnd iodine are very soluble
whereas calcium fluoride is insoluble. Another striking difference is
in the compounds with oxygen. Chlorine, bromine, an~d iodine all form
analogous compounds with oxjgen, but fluorine is seldom found combined
with oxygen.

Classes of Compounds

In general, the compounds of fluorine are very stable. They may
be divided into several general classes. The simplest form of combination
gives the simple salts knoi.n as fluorides. The fluorides of practically
all the metals are known, and their properties have bon investigated.
Fluorine also combines with most of the nonmetals, even fluorides of the
other halogens being knotm. This mecs possible many combinations of
double or complex salts. When the fluoride of a nornmtal associates
itself in a definite ratio with the fluoride of a metal, a double salt
is formed. As an illustration, silica and hydrofluoric acid react to
form silicon tetrafluorido, which is a gas at ordinary temperature and
prossurc. If silicon totrafluorido is passed into an aqueous solution
of sodium fluoride, an association takes place and a different salt,
sodium fluosilicate, can be recrystallized from the solution:

2NaF + SiF4--->Na2Si'6

There are many other illustr tions of this double-salt formation in which
the resulting compoun. has physical and chemical characteristics different
from the original materials. Besides fluosilicates, there are fluoborates,

fluoaluminates, fluoarsonates, fluotitanates, fluovanadates, and many
others. A practically comploto list of the inorganic complex fluorides,
together with original references is given in Gmelin' s "Hand'buch dor
anorganischen Chemic" (87)

Fluorine also combines with organic compounds in much the same way
as do the other halogens, forming substituted ring compounds, addition
compounds, and salts of organic bases.

Occurrence and Distribution

Fluorine occurs in a great many compounds widely distributed
throughout the earth. It occurs in several natural minerals, among which
are cryolite, cryolithonite, chiloite, ralstonite, tourmalines, pachnolite,
apatite, sellaite, biolite, muscovite, fluor spar, and phosphate rock.
In some of these the fluorine content is very low, while in others, such
as cryolite and fluor spar, it is high. Most phosphate rock contains
from 3 to 4 percent of fluorine.

Fluorine has been found in sea water (2) and in the water supplies
of a great many cities and towns in the United States (244). It has also
been found in a great variety of food products and mineral waters by
Gautier and Clausmann (4, 6, 7, 8, 9), but their findings are open to
question in view of the doubtful accuracy of their method. There is
little question, however, in the light of later developments, that it
occurs naturally in many food products.

Sources of Fl-arine

Two common acids containing fluorine are easily prepared from the
naturally occurring compounds.

fhen fluor spar or any other nonsiliceous fluoride is treated with
sulfuric or other nonvolatile acid and the reaction mixture is heated,
hydrogen fluoride distills off and may be dissolved in water to form
aqueous hydrofluoric acid or condensed to the anhydrous hydrofluoric
acid. Aqueous hydrofluoric acids containing about 48 to 60 percent HP
and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid are available commercially. The reaction
involved in its manufacture is expressed by the equation

CaF2+ H2S04-' 2HF + CaS04

Phosphate rock contains a double compound of calcium phosphate and
calcium fluoride and in addition silicon dioxide, or sand. Whon this
material is heated with sulfuric acid, as in the manufacture of phosphate
fertilizer, reactions take place as follows: The calcium fluoride and
sulfuric acid react to form hydrofluoric acid, which in turn reacts with
the silica to form silicon totrafluorido, which is evolved as a gas.
These reactions arc expressed by the equations
CaF2+ H2S0O4-> CaS04 + 2HF
41F + S iO2 I>SiF4 4 2H20

Whon the silicon totrafluorido is passed into water, it combines with
it to form hydrofluosilicic acid:

3SiF4 4 4H20----> 2H2SiF6 +. Si(OH)4

Aqueous hydrofluosilicic acid containing about 35 percent H2SiF6 is avail-
able commercially.

These two common acids furnish convenient sources of fluorine for
the manufacture of fluorine compounds.


In the development of now insecticides, especially for the control
of insects affecting plants, two factors arc of primary importance, the
toxicity of the compound to the insect and the effect of the compound
upon the plant. It is well 1:noim that compounds of high solubility, even
though neutral in reaction, are harmful to vegetation if applied in
appreciable quantities. This rules out a great number of the fluorine
compounds, which are extremely soluble in water. Investigation reveals
that only a few of the fluorides, a few of the fluosilicates, and some
of the fluoaluminates aro insoluble enough to be considered. (Roark
(615) obtained a patent on fluorides having a solubility less than that
of barium fluoride. Carter (189) presented a table of solubilities of the
common fluosilicates and concluded that only three, those of barium,
potassium, and sodium, were low enough in solubility to warrant a trial
as field insecticides. The same author (190) also presented data on the
solubilities of the fluoaluminates of the alkali metals.

For other uses, such as mothproofing, poison baits, etc., a higher
solubility is permitted, which allows a wider choice of compounds. Many
of the more soluble inorganic and organic fluorine compounds have been
recommended for such purposes.

In the field of fumigation gaseous compounds of fluorine have
found little or no application and have not been investigated to any
extent. It is well known that fluorine, silicon tetrafluorido, sulfuryl
fluoride, and others, even in very low concentrations, are very harmful
to vegetation.

Another factor of some importance, especially where mixtures of
insecticides or mixtures of insecticides with fungicides are to be employed,
is the compatibility of the compounds comprising the mixture.

lWhen the fluorine compounds wore first recommended for use on field
crops, hydrated lime was generally added to render the fluorine compounds
harmless to foliage. Calcium fluoride was known to be insoluble, and it
was soon found to be nontoxic to insects. The addition of lime to the
fluorides or fluosilicates converts the fluorine to the inert calcium
fluoride and thus decreases the insecticidal efficiency of these mixtures.
Lime and lime-sulfur should therefore not be used with the fluorine

The compatibility of cryolito and of the fluosilicatos with the
arsenatos was investigated by-Carter (161).- The results indicate that
load arsenato may be mixed in water with the fluosilicatcs of sodium,
potassium, barium, and calcium without the formation of excessive ar ounts
of soluble arsenic. The five other arsenates tested, namely, calcium,
manganese, magnesium, aluminum, and barium, were largely decomposed by
fluosilicates. Calcium, manganese, and barium arsenates were greatly
decomposed when mixed with barium fluosilicate in water. The presence of
cryolite seemed to inhibit the formation of soluble arsenic with all the
arsenates used.

The incompatibility of nicotine sulfate and barium fluosilicate
was reported by Chamberlain (324). This incompatibility was explained
(322) on the basis of the reactions that may be expected, in which barium
sulfate is precipitated and the soluble nicotine fluosilicato is formed.
In general, the fluorine compounds are compatible with inert
diluents, such as sulfur, talc, diatomaceous earth, etc.


One of the first references to the use of fluorine compounds as
insecticides was a British patent granted to Higbee (1) in 1896 on the
use of the soluble compounds of fluorine for destroying roaches and
other insects in buildings and on vessels. Sodium luosilicate, ferric
fluosilicate, hydrofluosilicic acid, and the borofluosilicates were
mentioned. Evidently little use was made of this information for
several years.

The first official recommendation of the use of sodium fluoride
for roaches was made in a bulletin by Marlatt in 1915 (10). In a
revision of this bulletin, issued in 1928, the use of sodium fluosilicate
was also recommended. The experimental results on which this recommend-
ation was made were published in 1918 (30).

Sodium fluoride was recognized as having definite insecticidal
value for certain purposes (3) and was recommended during the next few
years (1915-19) for the control of cockroaches, termites, ants, clothes
moths, chicken lice, horse lice, etc. (11, 13-31), By 1919 it had
become generally recognized as an effective roach powder, ant poison,
and poultry-lice exterminator.

About this time Gautier and Clausmann (9) studied the effect of
fluorine on vegetation. They incorporated fluorine in artificial soil
and determined its influence by measuring the height of the plant and,
when seed was produced, the weight of seed. Small amounts of fluorine
exerted a favorable influence on several plants. The same investi-
gators had oreviously noted the presence of fluorine as a constituent of
many plantA and in tissues examined by them (12, 32, 33). Unfortunately,


their method of analysis wa's none too reliable for ver small amounts
of fluorine, and their figures for the natural fliorine content of
fruits and vegetables might also be questioned. This matter becomes
of i2:mortance later in the consideration of the amounts of fluorine
allomz.ble as spra:- residues. Undoubtedly soil, climate, fertilizers,
ir riAi on, and. other factors influence the natural fluorine content
of fruits and vegetables, and a thorough stud;. should be made of this
que s i on.

Thring the next few years (1920-24) several investigators reported
their results with sodium fluoride and a few other fluorine compounds
against insects (35-61). A new field for fluorine insecticides was
opene_ u- in 1924 (62-66), huon they were tested against insects affoct-
inC field crops. Marcovitcl- (0,03) was one of the -nioners in this
development. He reported favorable results with a number of comnounes,
including sodium fluosilicatc, sodium fluoride, calcum fluoride, cryo-
lite (natuvr-al and synthetic), calcium. f1.osiliea. and mag nesim: flue-
silicate, against the Mvejxican bean bottle, the cotto-n boll wcevi th
Colora.o rooteto bectle, tho potato flea beetle, th. < bcan leaf beetle,
the ccumer beetle,, and t tobacco hornworm.

D~riag the next 11 :'cars (1925-35) all tie co;I'mrcially available
fluorine ccr])o-jnds were tested .xtnivl ,,ainst insects affecting]
field cro)s (67 et seq.).


The fluorides proved to be unsatisfactory insecticides when used
a prs.ys ane dusts. In general, as powders the, were too dense for
satisfactory dusting. Also the insoluble ones, such as calcium and
ma-;nesivum fluorides, were not sufficiently toxic. The more soluble
coe)o.0nes, 3.ch1! s sodium oride caused revere burning of foliage
when -'nlied as dusts or sprax-s.

At the oreso'nt tine sodium fluoride finIs considerable apnli-
cation as an ingredient of roach powders, _ant poisons, lice exterminators,
wood Dreservatives, etc., but none of the fluoridcs are recommended or
used fo the control of insects affecting field cro xc, ccnt in poi son-
b ran b a i t

Several of the fluosilicates showed satisfactor toxicity to the
boll v _, the codling mo.t,1-J the i':ixicxu bean beetle, the cucumber
beet> :-d othc r c,, -in.- in-ccts. However, solubility -provcd to be a
dctm:aiining factor in their af:ncss on foli3w;c. Barium, potassi3a, nd
sodium fluosilicatcs are t'ie least soluble and "under certain conditions
hav .)roved iarmless and effective. In gcner.l, sodium fluosilicate is
too solvble to be used, and tac potassium compoun-d is not recommended
for ccono:iic rcLasons, but th. barium cofv ound is recomnended for crt ain
uss, Sodium fluosilica-tc iL used extensively' as a moth-proofing agcnt
-ma Ls constituent of -,)oison baits.


Calcium fluosilicate has been recommended for some uses, but the
commercial "calcium fluosilicate compound" is not pure calcium fluo-
silicate but a complex calcium fluophosphate silicate (320).

The fluoaluminates, of which sodium fluoaluminate (cryolite) is
the most common, have also been investigated thoroughly. Sodium fluo-
aluminate is available commercially as a finely divided powder of high
purity. Both synthetic and natural cryolite are available. The powder
suspends well in water and can be s-orayed with the same equipment that
is used for lead arsenate. It is not so satisfactory as a dust unless
mixed with diluents. It is toxic to chewing insects, such as the cod-
ling moth, the walnut husk fly, etc., when applied as a spray, but some
sticker, such as fish oil, should be added. Cryolite has been used ex-
tensively against the codling moth in some of the apple districts of the
Pacific Horthwest. Although givnggood control of this insect, it can-
not be recommended unless means are also provided for removal of the
residue. C1ryolite has also been used in the control of the walnut husk
fly. and ao:ainst certain insects on vegetables.

Potassium fluoaluinate likewise proved to have satisfactory
toxicity to chewing insects and to be safe on foliage under the proper
conditions, but it is more expensive than the sodium compound.

Several other fluoaluminates showed toxicity to chewing insects
in laboratory tests, but they have not attained any commercial importance.

Vei-y little, if any, work has been done in testing the other
classes of double and comple-x compounds of fluorine for use on field
crops, because of economic reasons or because a knowledge of their
properties indicates they would not be suitable for such purposes.
Many of them, including organic compounds, have been patented for moth-
proofin- uses.


WThcn experimental vwork was begun, there was no evidence that
fluorine spray residues were a health hazard. However, the evidence
linmiing the fluorine in the water supplies in certain areas with the
condition of the teeth 1movmn as mottled onamcl (293, 294, 369, 513,
514) lcd to investigation of the possibility of chronic fluorine in-
torxication from spray residues. Feeding oxperimcnts demonstrated that
the ingestion of very small amounts of fluorine over long periods was
harmful to animals. The ph biological effects ranged from microscopic
defects in the enamel of the teeth due to very small amounts of fluorine
in the daily ration to such serious effects as impairment of the appc-
tite, cachexia, interference with growth and reproduction, and even
death with larLcr amounts. The information relating to chronic
fluorine intoxication has been reviewed by DeEds (389,390, 463).

3ecausc of the halth risk, the Secretary of k.riculturc nouncocd,
on June 20, 19,33, a rTaximum tolerance of 0.01 grain of added fluorine
per i-ou:C of foodstuffs ship,,ed in interstate commerce. This tolerance
is still in effect. It is the same as that for arsenic trioxide.


As several cover sprays of cr,,yolite or barium fluosilicate on
apples or -ears, especially in the semiarid irriIated sections, leave
a residue several times larLer than the tolerance allowed, an investi-
gation of the methods of clearin- fas necessary.

Ver-- efficient methods of removing lead and arsenic residues from
fruits have been developed, and these were tried for the removal of
fluorine. Contral%- to e7Dectations, cr:-olite and barium fluosilicate
residlues wure found difficult to remove by many of the more efficient
proccdCvrcs for lead.

S,vcral investigations on fluorine residue removal havc been re-
portend (385, SS5, 45w, 507, 508, 525, 544, 530, 575). The results indi-
cate that a brush or a double-,process washing machine is the most satis-
factor-,, thot hydrochloric acid, pJossibly viith the addition of boric
acid or a;lminvin sulfate, is the best washing solution, and that residues
froi two or perhaps three cover spray-s of crolite can be satisfactorily
removed b- the more efficient washing procedures used in the apole-raisin-
sections of the Pacific Horthivest.

The removal of fluorine residues from vegetables has not been
inve st, i td. Amounts in excess of the tolerance have been found on
some vegetables that had been sprayed or dusted with these compounds
durinL thc growing season.


For t-he analysis of the insecticidal materials or other materials
high in fluorine, several methods with various modifications have been
used. The may be mentioned here only briefly.

(1) The calcium fluoride method, in which the fluorine is
precipitated as the insoluble calcium fluoride and then wcdghed
quanti tatively.

(2) The load fluochloridc method, in which the fluorine
is p-rcipitated :Is the insoluble, lead fluochloride and then
ieighcd quantitatively or th,. chloride determined volumetrically
by a Volhard titration.

(3) The Berzelius method, in which the fluorine is con-
verted to the insoluble potassium fluosilicate and then determined
either gravimetrically or volumetrically.

(4) The Offerman method, in which the fluorine is evolved
as silicon tetrafluoride from boiling anhydrous sulfuric acid,
dissolved in water, and titrated with standard alkali. of these method,; has certain advantages, and nany modifi-
cations have been developed to make them applicable to different kinds
of materials. The choice depends on the other materials present.

Analyces of anples for fluorine spray residue developed the fact
thiat none of these method's verc sensitive enough for that purpose or
for the dcten-ination o fluorine occurring naturally in fruits and
vcgeotblcs or in w.ator supplies in those areas in which mottled onam iel
of teoth iwas ondenic. This was especially true of spray residues in
which the flrorino .as irtimatclr associated with a largo amount of
organic matter.

In 1933 a method for the determination of fluorine in plant
materials was suggested by Willard and Winter (448). This method con-
sisteC of dryinp and ashinL with a fin.ative such as lime, distilling
the ash with percnloric acid, and titrating the fluorine in the distil-
late with thorium nitrate, *sing the zirconium lake of alizarin as an
indicator. This rmethod has been modified considerably by subsequent
investi,&7iors, but distil _tion is still a recessaryj step in the sepa-
ratioi of fluorine from interfering elements or large amounts of organic
ma t er.

In an attempt to speed up the analysis of spray residues on
apl, the U. S. iood and Drug Administration (608) recommended the
substitution of a mushing" procedure for the drying and ashing. In
their -rocedure the anple peelings are refluxed with dilute sulfuric
acid -tn( aliquots are then distilled according to the Willard and
Winter procedure.

The determination of the fluorine in the distillate from such
procedures has also been given considerable attention. Wichman and
Dahle (447a) thoroughly investigated the method of Herwin and Steiger
and specified the conditions under which the greatest accuracy is
attaiable. This method is based on the bleaching effect of the
fluorine ion on peroxidized titanium.

Another colorimetric method that has been recommended for the
determination of small amounts of fluorine de-pends upon the bleaching
action of fluorine on the rod ferric thiocyanato. This method has
been invostir-atd. by Foster (396), but has not been applied to the
determination of spray residues.


Various modifications of all these methods have been recommended
for the determination of small mounts of fluorine, but the method most
widely> used in sray residue work is the "mushing" procedure followed
by the colorimetric metliod of Merwin and Steiger as modified by Tichman
and Dahle and the Food. and Drug Administration.

- 1

I i L I C C R A H

(1) Hipbue, C. K.

1396. An i-iprovol composition or matcral for destroying insects.
Tritish ot j t 8236; -poicl f-r April !8, accepted ,y 23
TLe comouucs of fluorirne cmooyA for destroying insects
w ere certain soluble cnes, Viz., Lo4Ir, m fla.oride, ferric fluoride,
the siiiccfluorides of the ss'iu acid, -,is,
the borofluiosi1 icoteo.

(2)Crls, .

1907. Le fluor dns los en; x Lircs, jc'r, rr. .t hi,--.. L" ]
23: 228-236.
ives on tr oc-c;rrc ,ce of" flaniirc n -in raO w-tcr':.

(3) F-ich-ey, C. H.

lq1. The demge: of fatal po.sonin- from rcm7ch ai othcr inloct C"r
containing r odiurn fl'36orid. Ic .... 1. Lothl 'Bi
6: 341-343.
Scdium fluoride is recogni .-is tic acti-o "nrdient of insect
por iers. Tvo dc.-ths and severe" cuscs Cf oieof..frci- the ituCfe
use of inS-ot pouCcS containir7 sod.axi fl, .O2id C :', ort t overal
scl-ols that did not boer noioon ltbeif7 c.. ,-nA frr:i 13 to C- 2rcont
of sodi-Lzi Iluori(e.

(4) Gautier, A.

1913. L flucr cst 'in elen et cons'ant dos z,-vat :.n C
tcrrcstre, Corqr. EZ. kcaC Sci. FParis] ]57.
"1Morine is lound to bc. a co nstituenrt of all tnc oro'L-:tF7 'o-
nzting from the of the esrth.

(5) owotny, R.

19S13. Erfahrun-en aus don Praxis Octr Kolii ix- Ztschr. Ange,.r. Chore. 26 (Auf t4):4 O-'.
1, series -f cxpecripcnts con _uc ed si:ce 1909 iS J scrb-d, in
'hich sodiLn flucrieo v'as used to iwono ,t d wd s mnet ction
against dry rot. Tablo s show the rczslts of i r,n viv with soi--
tions of zin( fl-.o-idc, zinc ch].orid co, ,Dr smlfate, odiur f]2ior ,
Ond nii:tures of zic chlicride ard coaJ_ :]ior'de.

(6) Gautier, A.

1914. Sat le r'Ole et 1l etall dlu fluor d, ns ],' cc.,n: e-" 0n~ae
Comrt. Rend. Acad. Sol. is] 158:1scE ,6
The role ana state of corbinit-on of fluorine in anim~tl ccntnony
are dis cussed.

1914. L fiioi- durs ]e8 e:vO cocces. Coinpt. Rend. Ac,.d. Scl. >ris]

Flitorine .wz fouam in 1, great nTy samples of potao* e v,, tCrs.
(8 GTI I .t! A. nd Cl, 2-.

]qi4. c fluor dans Ies eaxx i r n C es. Con-t,. ea d. Acad.. S c. ?--ris]
158: 1631-164C.
Iluorine wr.s foxid _n g'oao r.,ny niaer'l -.vters.

(9) UOnutLer, A.
i15. Influence du fluo-1 sur lavgt oi C .... pt Rad. Acad. Sc--. [Pari
l3 a__.--J5.
The inf u e of i!orime in the soil ror_ vc- t:-,tion i- discussed.

(10) '. C. L.

1915. Cockro-chs. U. S. Zest. FR.r-Lr7' 1-1. 628, 15 pp.
Sodium fluerifo !i rccorvnd, d for th-. control of roaches.

(11) Shifer, G. D.

1915. How cotntaA ins',i t.cid ,kil. "1'Uih. Lgr. E: p Str. Tech.
Bull. 21 :435- <,9 0.
Sod3iur' fluoride ry -,ct on cockrc .E'es by sticking fast in exudations
of the body and bccovinL n_.rtly dissolved rnd then Cbsorbed through the
integu;.ent3o Thc roaches rlso swal.Low soc of the ratcri.l vhile licking
2fld clcenirg themselves.

(12) C-autior, A., and ClausraIn, P.

L7. Lc fluor daas le r'bLno Vge~r]. Covrpt. Rend. wcad. Sc. -.risi
162: 105-112.
The fluorine content of : moa rxny fruits and. vegetables x:es

(13) Gibson, A.

1916. The control of antz i. d::;ellings. A ncw rercdyI. Canad. Ent.
4C: 365-766.
The coI:mo. carnrtor ant (C'u ,ponotus 1 cn..sIvruics) wrs controlled
by Ousting sodi loride powder into the openin-s between the beams and
-oof aid other openings by ,-rans of a puffer or dust gun. The same
experiment was tried ir another locality against The shd-uilder ant
(Cremastogaster lincolcta' with equal success.

(7) Grutieor, A. ,nrd !us i,

(14) H,,-.'t, J. J. H.

3916. The ccckioach, its destruction and disncrs.l. A comparison
of insecticides nnd methods. Tancet FLondon] 190:1136-1137.
Sodiiun fluoride was fond to be effective against the cock-
roach Periplsn-ta orientplis.

(15) New YIcrk State Museum.

1916. Thelydrias contract-as :,iots. Ti. Y. State Ent. Ann. Runt. 31
(W. Y. State Mus. Bull. 1,86):88.
A number of larvae were recorded from 17ew York, where the,,
Occurred in household articles and clothing, export woolen g'arlhe:ts.
The ise of sodium fluoride was recomiended for comb'ting then.

(16) Phelrs, S.

1916. Sodium fl-oride as a fly poison. U. S. Pub. Health Scrv.
Hyg. Lab. 3ull. lO, 37 pp.
Tests shoed sodium fluoride to be an effective muscicide,
but because of its poisonous nature it was discarded in favor of
formaldehyde and sodium salicylate.

(17) Snyder, T. E.

1916. Ternites, or "white ants," in the hitcd Statcs: Their
damage and rathcds of prevention. U. S. Dcpt. Agr. ?ull.
333, 32 pp.
The use of sodium fluoride against ter: itcs is recoriendod.
A 2-percent solution will give protoctioi- to wocd-1Ip products.

(18) United States Department of Agriculture, EPureau of Entomology.

1916. Poultry pests. U. S. DeTpt. Agr. Bur. Ent. Ann. Rept. l'l):l!.
Sodium fluoride was found to be effective against several
species of chicken lice.

(19) ishopp, F. C.

1917. Some problems in insect control about abattoirs and -aching
houses. Jour. Econ. Ent. 10:269,277.
Sodium fluoride is recommended as an efficient control of
cockroaches in storage rooms.

(20) Bishopp, F. C., and Wood, H. i.

1917. Mites and lice on poultry. U. S. Dept. A.r. Farmers' Bull.
801, 26 pp.
Sodium fluoride is recommended as being cheap and effective
in destroying poultry lice.


- 4-

(21) 3ishop,, F. C., and Wood, H. F.

1?17. Prelimirary oxperiments with sodium fluoride and other
insecticides aCair-st biting, and suc':ing lice.
Psycho 24: 17-189,
Sodium fluoride as a dust and dip killed -ll stages of biting
lice infesting crittle, horses, %nd other domestic animals. On dogs
heavily infested with Trichcdectes latus Nitzsch all lice were
destroyed by 1 oz. of sodiumi fluoride in 1 g'xl. of water.

(22) Canada Department of Agriculture.

1017. Insects affecting household and public health. Canada Dept. Agr.
Dominion Ent. Rpt. 1917, pp. 15-16.
Sodium fluoride is considered a very promising insecticide for
the control ofi household insects, including the ants Camponotus
p ennsylvanicus and Cremastogaster lineolata and the silverfish
TLepisma saccharina.

(23) 'Kall, I. C.

1917. Notes in regard to horse lice, richo.-ectes and Haematopinus.
Jour. Arer. Vet. i-ed. Assoc. 51:494-04.
The effectiveness of sodi'un fluoride when rul'bed into the
hides and coats of horses infested with biting lice (Trichodectes
pilosus and T. paru- LosuS) is reported.

(24) Illingworth, J. F.

1917. Economic aspects of our predaceous ant. Hawaii Ent. Soc.
Proc. 3:349-368.
The use of sodium fluoride against ants is reported.

(25) Jackson, A. C., and Lefroy, H. IIVI

1917. Some fly poisons for outdoor and hospital use. Bull. Ent.
Research 7:327-375.
The results of investigations in Mesopotamia are reported,
which show that sodium, and -mionium fluoride 'and bifluoride and
potassium fluoride may be used to advantage az fly Poisons.

(26) Ontario Department of Agriculture.

1917. Household insects. Ent. Soc. Ontario Ann. Rpt. 47:17.
The common corpentor ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus Deg.),
the shed-builder ant (Cremastogaster lineolata Say), and the
German cocleroach (Blattella geruinnica L.) were controlled in houses
by dusting with sodium fluoride.

(27) Ontario Department of Agriculture.

1917. [Silverfish] Ontarii Agr. Col. Ann. Rept. 43:19.
Sodium fluoride wots reported to be very efficient against
Silverfish (Lepisma sp.) and cockroaches.

- 5 -

(28) Fitch, C. P.

1918. pil ,ar'csites affecting euines. Jo=. A.ner. Vct M.aed.
Assoc. 5,:'_ 2230.
Scdiim fluoride was ve:y t.ff"cicnt a-tinst biting lice
(TrichodccteuspAosi and i (;qi .ru.pioss hors, lut
wa.s of no valiie a &inst sucking 1ice (*.1c..toi)-in _m-ocophalus

(29) Hall, Iv., C., and Wigdor, M.

1913. 1:otes on the ac ntacc:,phiid end artarc-od narasitcs of the
dn~g in T7orth Americ.. Jour. 1mer. Vet. ,d. Assoc.
Sodiu-i fluoride was an effectIve remedy *gaist the 2itirng
dog louse (Trichodectes latus), lut the ossibility of ingestion of
)oison by dogs through licking of the hair and skin must b ew)t
in mind.

(30) Scott, E. W., Abbott, W. S., aid T rdley, J. E., Jr.

1918. Results of exr_ riment with rii -celaneeus substances a-ainst
bedbugs, cockroaches, s.the; moths and car-et beetles.
Uo S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 707, 36 p.
The efficiency of sodium fluoride in the control cf some of
these insects is indicated.

(31) alter, E. V.

1918. Experiments on cockroach control. Jor. Eccn, Ent. 11:424-
429 .
Sod'iurn fluoride which had been used for Uid lirg reaches was
much higher priced than boric acid,

(32) Gautier, A., and Clausmann, P.

1919. Influence des fluorures sur la veetation: A. Essais
1reliminaires en vases de jardin. Compt. Rend. Acad.
Sci. [Paris] 168:976-982.
A study cf the influence of fluorides in the soil oi the
growth of vegetation,

(33) Gautier, A., and Clausmann, P.

1919. Action des fluorures siur la vegetation: B. Cultures en
chemp d'expericnces. Compt. Rena. Acad. Sci. [Paais]
169: 115-122.
A study of the influence of fluorides in the soil on vege-
tables and field crops.

(34) Cood, H. P.

1919. iThe depluming mite of chickens: its complete eradication
from a floch by cie lr-,otment. Joux. Econ. Ent.
,odium or s2Y and o-)ap piovea to be a complete
control for mit>s as well ,,s lice.

(35) Lloyd, L.

1920, The habits of t'ie rasshouvo toranto mothi H!{ena (oi,)
oleracea, and its control. Ann. Ap-l, Biol 7:02.
Traps containing sodian fluoride are recorondrzd for the
control of the tomato mcth.

(36) Lloyd, L.

1920. The gl, sshdouse tomato Lionh an. Ts control. nursery and Mkt.
Garden indus. Deve1part. Soc., Ltd., Ann. Rept. 5:i-viii.
Tr"aps containir a oe.Ot cnsist n of I part tick brown
treacle, 2 parts ale, rnd I mrconb sodium fiu-ride are recommended
for the control of the to:.iats moth..

(37) Wille, J.

1920. Biologic and Ecj1Ipfung dor &eutschen Schabe (2hyllodronia
germanica L. ) Monog. Angow. Ent. No. 5, 140 pp.
Sodium fluosilioate is often employed for indoor use against

(38) W~ber, A.

1920. %ber die Giftwirkung von Arsen-, Antimen- und Fluorverbindungen
auf einige Kulturpflanzen. Argew. Bet. 2:161-178.
*Scarlet runner and seedling peas were most easily affected,
while barley, wheat, oats, maize, and rye were less sensitive.
Sodium fluoride was harmful when present to the extent of 0.10 percent
in the soil. A 1-percent solution of sodium fluoride used as a spray
burned the young foliage.

(39) Zacher, F.

1920. Schaben als SchB.dlinge ir Gewvchshgisern. Gartenflora 69:
Against cockroaches in greenhouses a mixture of equal parts
of sodium fluoride and flour was found to give excellent results.

(40) Cobenzl, A.

1921. Kiesolfluorsalze. Chem. Ztg. 45:1116.
The presence of sodium, potassimrn, and ammonium fluosilicates
in'insect and rat poisons is reported.

- 7 -

(42) ::adocs-, Gl.

1921. L os'taray r' 1:7,1 em'_ re y .k $'"C-37
A hi st-ricalor account of roachies f cun ir A-nary and
a rcco-=Enaticn that sodium flucridc bc used for thou control.

(42) 1,c.Danicl, E.

1921. Who silver fish (LejAia sr,); th- habits and centro o"
this troublesome hnsehlc[i post. 'Iich. Agr. Col. Quart,
3"111, 4:62-64.
Sodium flucride was oii the ,:hol t'-o rost sticcssful insec-
cide in the ci. ntrcl of siiverfish (LeOiswt S-.cckoria anal L dorc ica).

(43) Sertz, H.

1921. Uebor io Wirku. r For...ssertff rid ?lunrsili:iui a-u
die lebcnd, Pflanze. 'Tan-er Forst-. Jahrb. 72:1.
rAbstr-ict in CcntibL. t otC. 5 : Z;t. 1922M]
Tha action of hy'drogen fi. oride cnn silicon totr-il'icridc as
fumigaaVts was studied. These mAterials injurel -!ants sovorcl,, and
zere unsuitable for this purlosc.
(44) Union of South ,fic ) Department of it.ricuit.r7 .

1921. Sodizi fluoride. Union So. IAfrica Dpt, A' Joir. 3:111.
Furchasers of sodium: fluoride for ,-,so ainst roaclcs were
v-trndd against an adultorated for- certain -i._z ns iuch 2s
60 reorcent of common salt.

(45) roelx, F. S., and Borden, A. D,

1921. Control of tho Argentine ant in California citrus crcha, rds.
L.S. Dept. Agr. P-ii- 42,5 7
Sodixmn fluoride was found to be rercilOnt tc Argentino nts
(Iridor yrr_,ex hnmilis !:ayr.).

(45) B0oyd, J. E, Il.

1922. The botany ond natural histor-- of the IykD 1nds near Sa, Idvich,
Kent, as far as they concern. medical ent(ornoJ g-. *o"'r. Ro;,.
Army bld. Corps. 38:41-47, 117-130,
Sodiur fluoride .as not so effective -against flics (M'uscid.e
a-d. Anthomyidae) as some oher comrounds. For use on manure heaps
anmonium fluoride was suitable aiid loss poisonous.

- 8-

(47) Clarke, VT. T.

1922. Ant control on shpboard. Jour. Foor. Ent. 15:329-333.
Experiments c-1 th, control cf snts (Moncmorium
(Parholc:myr-me.:) des 0ru2c ;r Jord. on shipboard are ieoor'ed.
A powder consisting of 6 parts (oy vclume) sodium fluoA-ide,
2 i'arts pyrethrum Iowder, and 2 Darts cornstarch was very

(46) McDanie?., E.

1922. Cockroaches, ]aptrvds of exterminating this troublesome
pest. Mich Agr. E t. Sta. Quart. Dill. 5:38-39
Sodium fluoride was recommended as being the best
method fdr d estroyin, this pest, and irention was made that it
is poisonous to man.

(49' Oregon Agricultural TxePeriment Station.

1922. The European earwig. Ore-. Agr. Expt. Sta, Bien. Rept.
1921-22: 7,.
A poison bran bait Con iLing sodium fluoride was found
very effective against the Ziurope-rn earwig.

(50) Pierce, W. r.

1922. Some milk jca problems observed in California. Calif.
State Bd. Agr. Spec. Pub. 22, 13 7.
Biting lice (Trichodectes cliimax Nitsch) xay be
controlled by dusting with dry sodium, fluoride powder.
Sodium fluoride moay ralso be used as a wet dip.

(51) 71ells, R. 7., Bishopp, F. C., and L>ake, E. 7.

1922. Derris as a promising insecticide. Jour. Econ. Ent.
A dust composed of oaual parts of sodium fluoride and
derris powder completely controlled the cattle lice Trichodectes
scalaris and Linogn~thus vituli L.

(52) 7ood, H. 1.

1922. Eradication of lice on rigeons. U. S. Dept. Agr. Dept.
Cir. 213, 4 pp.
It is rocommendod tin.t cach bird be dipped in a solution
of 1 oz. sodium fluoride and 3/4 oz. hard lauiidry soap in 1 gal.
wrter, until soaked to the skin. Disting vith sodium fluoride
gave a high degree of control but not complete eradication.
These treatments were effective against Liperus bacillus N. and
Goniocntcs compar N.

- 9-

(53) Caesar, L.

1923. The feather mite a new pest of poultry. Ent. Soc. Ontario
Ann. Rpt. 53:47-48.
A dust if 1 part sodium fluoride and 2 parts sulfur for the
control of the feather mite (Liponyssus bursa) on chickens was

(54) Fulton, B. B.

1923. Some experiments on poison baits for the European earwig.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 16:369-376.
Experiments to discover the best poison baits for the
European earwig (Forficula auricularia) showed that sodium
fluoride was equal or superior in toxicity to arsenious oxide
and acted more quickly. A bait consisting of wheat bran wet with
a mixture of equal volumes of sodium fluoride solution (1 oz. in
4 oz. of water), glycerin, and molasses was recommended. The
bait contained about 8 oz. of poison to 4 lbs. of bran.

(55) Matthes, H., and Brause, G.

1923. Uber die Verwendung von Silicofluoriden als Ungeziefermittel
und die Zusamnensetzung von Uba, Styxol, Nicoschwab und
Tanatol. Pharn. Ztg. 68:227-228.
Attention is called to the danger involved in the unrestricted
sale and indiscriminate use of soluble fluosilicates, especially
sodium fluosilicate, now extensively used in the eradication of rats,
nice, roaches, etc.

(56) Nowotny, R.

1923. t-ber praktische Erfahrungen bei der Holzkonservierung mit
Fluoriden. Ztschr. Angew. Chem. 36:439-440
The results of practical experiments on wood preservation
with sodium fluoride and zinc fluoride are summarized. These
compounds are very effective in wood preservation.

(57) Anonymous.

1924. Dr. Dittmar's Dinol Rattentod. Pharm. Ztg. 69:190
Sodium fluosilicate was reported to be present to the extent
of 92 percent in a German vermin killer.

(58) Anonymous.

1924. Fluor-Priparat der Fluax Werke Dresden 16. Pharm. Ztg.
A German rat poison was found to consist of 25 percent
sodium fluosilicate, 35 percent calcium carbonate, and the remainder
apparently pine sawdust (? Nadelholzmehl).

- 10 -

(59) DeOng, Z. R.

1924. Toxicity of sodium fluoride to man. (Sci. Note) Jour. Econ.
Ent. 17:343-344.
Several instances of accidental poisoning by sodium fluoride
are reviewed. This is important because of the increasing use of
sodium fluoride for the control of pests such as cockroaches and
ants in the home. Soluble fluorine compounds are toxic even in
doses of 1 mg per kg (0.06 g. for a 160-lb. man) and should be
absent from the food of man and animals.

(60) Hargreaves, E.

1924. The action of some organic compounds when used as stomach
poisons for caterpillars. Bull. Ent. Research 15:51-56.
The high toxicity of barium and calcium fluoride and the
possibilities of the use of fluor spar as an insecticide are pointed
out. The compounds were tested on larvae of Pieris rapae and
Spilosoma lubricipeda.

(61) Kennard, D. C.

1924. Chicken lice and mites. Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta. Monthly Bull. 9:
The use of sodium fluoride against chicken lice and mites
was recommended, either by dipping in a solution of 1 oz. of sodium
fluoride per gallon of warm water or by dusting with sodium fluoride.

(62) Marcovitch, S.

1924. Sodium fluosilicate as an insecticide. Indus. and Engin.
Chem. 16:1249.
Cryolito and sodium fluosilicate were found to be effective
against chewing insects. Sodium fluosilicate did not cause burning
when mixed with lime but did burn without the lime.

(63) Marcovitch, S.

1924. New insecticides for the Mexican bean beetle and other insects.
Tenn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 131, 19 pp.
Sodium fluosilicate, sodium fluoride, calcium fluosilicate, and
magnesium fluosilicate were tested against the Mexican bean beetle.
Very satisfactory toxicity of these compounds against chewing insects
were reported.

(64) Nursery and Market Garden Industries' Development Society, Ltd.

1924. Woodlice (Oniscoidea). Nursery and Mkt. Gard. Indus. Devlpmt.
Soc., Ltd., Expt. and Res. Sta., Ann. Rept. 9:78-81.
Sodium fluoride had no effect on cucumber-house wood lice
(Armadillidium speyeri Jackson) when used in baits.

- 11

(65) Ripley, L. B.

1924. Sodium fluoride as an insecticide; its possibilities as a
locust poison, Bull. Ent. Research 15:29-34; also Union
So. Africa Dept. Agr. Jnur. 9:458.
Sodium fluoride was found to be effective as a stomach
poison against cutworms and brown locusts.

(66) Warburton, C.

1924. Zoologists report. Livestock Jour. [London]. 100:448.
Sodium fluosilicate was reported to be very effective
against slugs and cabbage caterpillars.

(67) Baerg, W. J.

1925. Control measures for blister beetles. Ark. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bull. 201, 8 pp.
Sodium fluosilicate was tested against the striped, gray,
margined, and black blister beetles (Epicauta lemniscata F.
Macrobasis unico-cr (Kby.), E. marginata F., and E. funebris Horn.).
Mixed with an equal quantity of hydrated lime it destroyed all
beetles in 48 hours and caused no appreciable injury to soybeans
or alfalfa. it was also used safely on potatoes and tomatoes, but
clematis vines were severely scorched. Calcium fluosilicate
compound may also be used, but without dilution.

(68) Brittain, W. H.

1925. Experiments in the control of head lice (Lieurus heterrgraphus
Nitzsch) on young chicks, 1924. Acadian Ent. Snc. Froc.
Sodium fluoride dry and as a dip gave good control and was in
no way injurious to the birds.

(69) Holloway, T. E., Haley, W. E., and Ingram, J. W.

1925. The application of sodium fluosilicate by airplane in an
attempt to control sugarcane moth borer. U. S. Dept. Agr.
Cir. 45, 8 pp.
Very good control of the borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fab.)
and no injury to the sugarcane are reported.

(70) Kerr, A. P., and Smith, C. E.

1925. Toxicity of sodium silicofluoride and arsenical mixtures to
plant foliage. U. S. Dept. Agr. Off. Rec. 4(48):5.
A mixture of equal parts of calcium arsenate and sodium
fluosilicate in distilled water formed 87.8 to 93.8 percent soluble
arsenic of the total amount of arsenic present. Equal parts of lead
arsenate and sodium fluosilicate is distilled water formed 1.5
percent soluble arsenic.

- 12 -

(71) Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station.

1925. Sugar cane borer. La. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1925:24-25.
Application of sodium fluosilicate by plane gave prosising
results in the control of the sugarcane borer. No serious burning
of the cane resulted.

(72) Marcovitch, S.

1925. Promising plant insecticides. Science (N.S.) 61:22
Refers to same experimental work as succcodirg abstract.

(73) Marcovitch, S.

1925. Non-arsenicals for chewing insects. Jour. Econ. Ent. 18:122-128
Sodium and calcium fluosilicates and cryolite were very effec-
tive against the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna corrupta) and the
cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis). The potato beetle (Leptino-
tarsa decemlineata), potato flea beetle (Epitrix cucumeris), bean
leaf beetle (Ceratoma trifurcata), cucumber beetle (Diabrotica vittata)
and tobacco hornworm (Protoparce quinquemaculata) could be readily
killed with a mixture of 1 part of sodium fluosilicate and 9 parts
f lime (by volume). Undiluted sodium flumsilicate caused injury te

(74) Marshall, J.

1925. The striped cucumber beetle (Diabrotica vittata Fab.). Ent.
Soc. Ontario Ann. Rept., 56:80-83.
Experiments with over 60 dusts, sprays, fumigants, and baits
are reported. Sodium fluosilicate and lime (1:9) gave good control,
was satisfactory under damp conditions, and did not injure plants.

(75) Tattersfield, F., and Gimingham, C. T.

1925. Further experiments with sodium fluosilicate as an insecti-
cide. Indus. and Engin. Chem. 17:323.
Sprays of potassium and sodium fluosilicate were toxic to
larvae of Selenia tetralunaria Hufn.

(76) United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology.

1025. Mexican bean beetle. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Ann. Rept.
1925: 20-21.
Sodium fluosilicate showed promise against the Mexican bean

(77) United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology.

1925. Blister beetle (Epicauta lemniscata). U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur.
Ent. Ann. Rept. 1925:24.
Against blister beetles, calcium arsenate plus equal amounts
of sodium fluosilicate gave good results. Sodium fluosilicate alone
also gave good control, but both alone and in mixtures this material
caused some plant injury.

- 13 -

(78) United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology.

1925. Twelve-spotted cucumber beetle. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur.
Ent. Ann. Rept. 1925:24.
Sodium fluosilicate was effective against the twelve-spotted
cucumber beetle.

(79) Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.

1926. Blister beetles. Ark. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 37 (Full.
203): 33-34.
Sodium fluosilicate and calcium fluosilicate dusts gave very
good control of four species of blister beetle, Epicauta lemniscata,
E. marginata, E. funebris, and Macrobasis unicolor, on soybeans.

(80) Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.

1926. Striped cucumber beetle. Ark. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. oept. 37
(Bull. 03:38.
Sodium and calcium fluosilicates were the only insecticides
capable of killing large numbers of striped cucumber beetles.
Sodium fluosilicate caused foliage injury when applied alone but
not when mixed with lime.

(81) California Agricultural Exp'eriment Station.

1926. Control of cucumber beetles Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept.
Arsenicals and fluosilicate dusts were equally as effective
for the control of the striped and twelve-spotted cucumber beetles.
Gypsum was a better diluent than hydrated lime.

(82) Crumb, S. E.

1926. Tobacco cutworms and their control. U. S. De-Ot. Agr. Farmers'
Bull. 1494, 14 pp.
Sodium fluoride in bran baits (1:50) with enough water ti
moisten is recommended for the variegated cutworm (Lycophotia
margaritosa Haw. var. saucia Hbn.), the greasy cutworm (Agrotis
ypsilon Rott.), the dingy cutworm (Feltia ducens Walk.), the clay-
backed cutworm (F. gladiaria Mnrr.), and the dark-sided cutworm
(Euxoa messoria Harr.).

(83) Edwards, W. H.

1926. Tobacco: Insect pests. auritius Dept. Agr. Gen. Ser. Full.
A poison bait of chopped cactus stems soaked for 24 hours in
a 10-oercent sodium fluoride solution will attract and poison
caterpillars of Phytometra (Plusia) signata F., P. orichalcea F.,
Prodenia litura F., and Spcdoptera mauritia Bdv.

- 14 -

(84) Gasow, H.

1926. Forstentomologische Untersuchungen. I.--Erg~nzende
Feststellungen* an Tortrix Viridana L. II.--Versuche
t ber die Wirksamkeit staubfbrmiger Chemikalien gegen
die Raupe des Kiefernspanners (Bupalus piniarius L.).
Arb. biol. Reichsanst. Land- u. Forstw., 15(1):75-98
Barium fluoride, sodium fluoride, and sodium fluosilicate
proved effective as dusts against the pine moth (Bupalus piniarius L.).

(8b) Gasow, H.

1926. Ergebnisse neuerer Untersuchungen tber die Bekampfung des
Wiesenwurms. Mitt. Deut. Landw. Gesell. 41:410-412.
Sodium fluoride (1:25-40) and sodium fluosilicate (1:25-50)
in bran gave good control of larvae of Tipula spp. in pasture lands
in Westphalia.

(86) Gentner, L. G.

1926. The mint flea beetle. Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Spec. Bull. 155,
13 pp.
Calcium fluosilicate compound applied undiluted in the form
purchased (about 22 percent) gave good control of the mint flea
beetle (Longitarsus menthaphagus Gentner) and adhered well to the
foliage. A very satisfactory dust consisted of 10 to 20 lb. of
calcium arsenate mixed with equal parts of calcium fluosilicate
compound and talc to make 100 lb.

(87) Gmelin, L.

1926. Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie. Ed. 8, part 5, 86 pp.
Fluorine and its compounds are discussed at length and many
literature references are given.

(88) Guyton, F. E.

1926. Preliminary report on sodium fluoride as a control for cattle
lice. Jour. Econ. Ent. 19:602-603.
Sodium fluoride rubbed into the hair gave good control of
biting louse (Trichodectes scalaris), short-nosed ox louse
(Haematopinus eurysternus), and long-nosed ox louse (H. vituli).

(89) Herrick, G. T7.

1926. Some long standing and some more recent insect pests with
hints on methods of control. N. Y. State Hort. Soc.
Proc. 71:4-5.
Sodium fluosilicate was effective against the striped cucumber
beetle and against blister beetles.

- 15 -

(90) Imes, M.

1926. Lice, mange, and ticks of horses and methods of control and
eradication. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' 3111. 1493. 3 P7 .
Sodium floride applied as a powder or mixed with water
controlled biting lice but did not eradicate sucking lice.

(91) Indiana Depairtment of Conservation.

1926. Ants. Ind. Dept. Conserv. Ann. Rept. 7:43-4.
5.tisf.ctory results in the control of the sma]- red thief
ant (Solenopsis nelesta Say), the garden ant (Lasius niger americanus
Emery), and the crazy art (Frenclepis longicornis Latr.) were obtained
by dusting with sodium fluoride.

(92) Ingram, J. 7.

1926. Sodium fluosilicate as a control for blister beetles on soy
beans in southwestern Louisiana. Jour. Econ. Ent. 19:
Striped blister beetle (Epicauta lemniscata Fab.) on soybeans
was controlled by sodium fluosilicate without inJury to the foliage.

(93) Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station.

1926. Cutworms nnd army worms. Iowa'Agr. Ix-t. Sta. Ann. Rept.
Sodium fluoride is a good substitute for Paris green in baits
against cutworms and armyworms. Fowls were fed bran baits containing
sodium fluoride in such amounts as to demonstrate tha~t it can be used
without danger to poultry.

(94) Langford, G. S.

1926. The possibilities of sodium flucsilicate as a poison in
grasshopper baits. Jour. Econ. Ent. 19:670.
Sodium fluosilicate is effective in baits against grasshoppers
mostly (i'elano-plus femur rubrum De G.) and proved to be better than
paris green, white arsenic, sodium arsenite, or sodium fluoride.

(95) Marcovitcn, S.

1926. The control of the striped cucumber beetle. Tenr. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Cir. 1, 2 p.
One part commercial sodium flucsilicate to 2 parts hydrated
lime or gypsum, calcium fluosilicate compound, or extra light sodium
fluosilicate undiluted is recommended against these peets. Therc
was some foliage injury to cucumbers, which they eventually outgrew.

- 16 -

(96) Marcovitch, S.

1926. Supplementary investigations of the fluosilicates as in-
secticides. Tenn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 134, 13 pp.
Fluosilicates were fouad especially effective against the
striped cucumber beetle, blister beetles, and several flea beetles.
Sodium fluosilicate gives promise of becoming a valuable material
for the control of bacterial spot of peach (Bacterium pruni).

(97) Melander, A. L., and Spuler, A.

1926. Poisoned baits for strawberry root weevil. Wash. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bull. 199, 22 pp.
Against the strawberry root weevils Brachyrhinus sulcatus
and B. ovatus L. sodium fluoride may bc used in poison baits.

(98) Mills, T. E.

1926. Recommendations regarding boll weevil work. Jour. Econ. Ent.
19:601-602. [Abstract only.]
Barium fluoride, sodium fluosilicate, and cryolite seem to be
as effective as calcium arsenato, on volume-for-volume basis, as a
poison for boll weevil control.

(99) Mote, D. C., Wilcox, J., and Davis, E. G.

1926. The natural "cleaning up" habits of insects. Jour. Econ. Ent.
Cleaning up habits of western spotted cucumber beetle
(Diabrotica soror Leconte), German cockroach (Blattella iermanica L.),
European earwign (Forficula auricularia L.), Syneta leaf beetle
(Syneta albida Leconte5, and as-'arasus beetle (Crioceris asparagi L.)
were stimulated by sodium fluoride and sodium fluosilicate.

(100) New York (Geneva) Agricultural Experiment Station.

1926. Study and control of cucumber beetles. N. Y. (Geneva) Agr.
Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 45:42.
Sodium fluosilicate, pure or in dilutions of 1 to 5 parts of
hydrated lime, against striped cucumber beetle caused severe injury
to plant growth.

(101) Ontario Department of Agriculture.

1926. Grain mite. Ent. Soc. Ontario, Ann. Rept. 56:13.
Hydrated lime and sodium fluoride were reported to be in-
effective against Tyroglyphus farinae.

- 17 -

(102) Osburn, M. R.

1926. Comparative tests with sodium fluosilicate and calcium ar-
senate for the control of the cotton boll weevil (Anthono-
mus grandis). Jour. Econ. Ent. 19:643-644.
Sodium fluosilicate proved to be more effective than calcium
arsenate. Results show a slight, but not serious, scorching of

(103) Ripley, L. B.

1926. Top-drossing of maize against stalk-borer. Results of tests.
Farming in So. Afr.ica 1:153-154.
Sodium fluosilicr.te as a dust gave satisfactory control but
produced scorching.

(104) Roark, R. C.

1926. Fluorides 7s. fl 'osilicates as insecticides. Science (N.S.)
63 :43!-4Z.
Argizinnts veru p-Pentod that the fluorides, were more effec-
tive than the fluosilicates, since the latter generally were con-
verted to the fluorides.

(105) Sherwood, E. C.

1926. Control of the Mexican bean beetle. 7. Va. Dept. Agr. Cir. 64
(Ext. Div. Col. Agr. Cir. 279), 4 p.
Against Mexican bean beetle a dust of 1 part calcium fluosili-
cate to 3 parts h-drated lime is recommended.

(106) Smith, E. C. and Allen, N.

1926. Projects of investigations affectin.- truck crops in Louisiana.
La. Agr. Ect. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1926, 120-i2 .
Against the tomato fruitworm (Heliothis obsoleta F.) mod-
erate success was obtained with lead and calciumu arsenates, but
sodium fluosilicate was unsatisfactory, as effective strengths
injured the plants.

(107) Smith, L. B.

1926. The Japanese beetle. Hl. J. State Dept. Agr. Ann. Rupt. 11:
As substitutes for lcad a~rsenate in the control of Japanese
beetle barium and potassium silicoflurides and lead fluoride show

- 18 -

(108) South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station.

1926. Corn bill-bug (Spenophorus maidis Chitt.) S. C. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Ann. Rept. 3 :35.
Against the corn bill-bug cage tests using line and sodium
fluosilicate dust mixture% gave best results.

(109) Th6mpson, H. 77.

1926. Leatherjackets and their control. Welsh Jour. Agr. 2:228-233.
Sodium fluoride in baits was not satisfactory against

(110) Walker, H. W., and Mills J. E.

1926. Progress report of work mf the Chemical Warfare Service on
the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis). Jour. Econ. Ent.
19:600-601. [Abstract only.]
Sodium fluosilicrte, barium fluoride, and cryolite seem to
be equally as effective as calcium arsenate on a volume-for volume

(111) Anderson, H. W.

1927. The effect of sodium silicofluoride sprays on the peach and
on the control of bacterial spot. Science 65 (N.S.):16-18.
After being sprayed with sodium fluosilicate the fruit ripened
4 to 6 days earlier than unsprayed fruit and had insipid and some-
times bitter taste. Flu-Sul (barium fluoride) gave the same effect.
Little injury to leaves or tree resulted.

(112) Atwell, H. C.

1927. The european earwig (Forficula auricularia Linn.). Oreg.
Bd. Horto Bien. Rept. 19:86-103.
Poison baits containing sodium fluoride gave good control.

(113) Austin, G. D.

1927. Preliminary notes on the toxicity of some standard insecti-
cides under Ceylon conditions. Ceylon Dept. Agr. Yearbook
1927: 49-53.
Lead chromate, various arsenicals, and sodium flumsilicate
were tested against various insects. As results were not conclusive,
it was proposed to continue them for another year.

(114) Bremer, H., and Kaufmann, 0.

1927. Die Bekmpfung der Ribenfliege (Pegomyia hyoscyami Pz,) mit
FIuornatrium und Kieselfluornatrium. Anz. Schdlingskunde
Sodium fluoride and sodium fluosilicate are excellent stomach
poisons against P. hyoscyami and harmless to beets at strength re-
quired, viz, 0.4 percent solution containing 2.5 percent raw sugar.

- 19 -

(115) Cleveland, C. R.

1927. Stomach poisons for control of the squash vine borer
(Melittia satyriniformis HTbn.). Jour. Econ. Ent.
Reference is made to sprays containing le-d arsenate and
dusts of sodium fluosilicate and various arsenicals. Sodium
fluosilicate and lime dusts gave relatively poor results, the
degree of control depending to some extent on adhesiveness and
thoroughness of application.

(116) Compton, C. C., and Flint, W. P.

1927. A suggestion for controlling the locust borer, Cyllene
robiniae. Jour. Econ. Ent. 20:295-298.
Bands containing Tanglefoot mixed with sodium fluoride or
with sodium arsenite killed all beetles coming in contact with

(117) Downes, W.

1927. Recent developments in strawberry root weevil control.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 20:695-698.
The most recent method of control is the use of poison
baits consisting of chopped evaporated-apple waste. Poisons used
were sodium fluoride, sodium fluosilicate, and some arsenicals.
All were effective, but sodium fluosilicate was the most satis-
factory. A strength of 5 percent of the poison was found to give
the best results.

(118) Drake, C. J., and Harris, H. M.

1927. The control of armivorms and cutworms. Iowa Agr. Fxpt. Sta,
Cir. 101, 8 pp.
Against the armyworm (Cirohus unipuncta Haw.) and several
species of cutworms, the following poison bait is recommended:
1 lb. sodium fluoride, 2 qts. cheap molasses, 20 to 25 lbs. wheat
bran, 2 gal. water.

(119) Driggers, B. F.

1927. Calcium cyanide as a control for the cranberry root worm
on cultivated blue Qberries. Jour. Econ. Ent. 20:267-270.
Experiments with sodium fluosilicate against the adult
cranberry root worm (Rhabdopoterus picipes Oliv.) failed to give a
satisfactory kill.

- 20 -

(120) Eddy, C. 0., and IFcAlister, L. C. Jr.

1927. The 1Kexican bean beetle. S. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 236,
38 pp.
In low concentration in spray solutions sodium fluosilicate
was high in toxicity and compared favorably with arsenical poisons,
but in similar solution barium fluosilicate was lower than the
arsenicals while calcium fluosilicate compound was still lower.
Sodium fluosilicate and barium fluosilicate were the most toxic
when used as dusts; calcium fluosilicate compound was less toxic but
gave good results when used undiluted. Barium fluosilicate did not
scorch either bean or cotton plants even when undiluted. Sodium
fluo-ilicate scorched slightly when undiluted in dry weather or in
smral dilutions in humid weather. Calcium fluosilicate compound
has never caused any injury.

(121) Eyecr, 1J1. R.

1027. Tests of some recently developed insecticides in control of
the grape leaf hopper and oriental fruit moth. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 20:653-260.
Control of grape leafhopper nymphs (Typhlocyba comes Say)
wa-s obtained with sodium fluosilicate with lime 10 + 10 to 100 gal.
wattor, 'jut Fore inj.ury was caused to foliage. 1.1ixtures of pyrethrum
powder, sodium fluosilicate, and hydrated lime were effective against
larvae of oriental fruit moth (Laspeyresia molesta Busck), but spray
containing 10 lb. sodium fluosilicate and 20 lb. lime was most effec-
tive. Dusts were slightly less effective than. sprays. Sodium
fluosilicate was more quickly toxic than pyrethrum. In the field
pyrethrum soap emulsions with bordeaux mixture and sodium fluosili-
cate-hydrated lime dusts were superior to nicotine and lead arsenates.

(122) Flef.Ainc, 7. E.

1927. Fluosilicates as insecticides for the Jaoanese beetle. Jour.
Econ. ELt. 20:085-691.
Solubilities in 1,000 parts of water are given for acid lead
arsenate, and for the following fluosilicates: Barium, potassium,
cadmium, calcium, sodium, copper, strontium, aluminum, and zinc.
Fluosilicates were ot compatible with bordeaux mixture, soap solu-
tion, or lime-sulfur. Ap.c, peach, and bean foliage were not
injured by fluosilicates of barium, potassium, and sodium. Diluents
studied were lime, talc, charcoal, clay, flour, and starch.
Fluosilicates coated with lead oleate do not mix readily with water.
The fluosilicates of barium, potassium, and sodium were about as
toxic to the Japanese beetle as acid lead arsenate. Fluosilicates
of cadmium, aluminum, and cop i'er were not effective, whereas
fluosilicates of strontium, zinc, and calcium were moderately

- 21 -

(123) Gascw, H.

1927. Beitrag zur Bekgnipfung des Weldenschkdlings (Phyllod cta
v1gatissima L.). Arb. Reichsanst. Land- u. Forstw.
Arsenicals such as paris green and fluorine compounds
such as barium fluoride, sodiiun fluoride, and sodium fluosilicate
were excellent for control of the willow pest.

(124) Hinds, W7. E., and Spencer, H.

1927. Airplane dusting for sugarcane borer control in Louisiana.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 20:352-358.
Sodium fluosilicate gave fairly satisfactory control of the
sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis crambidoides Grote) when
used at the rate of 20 lb. per acre. The slight burning was not

(125) Hinds, 17. E., and Spencer, H.

1927. Sugarcane borer control aided through utilization of infested
and trap corn. La. Agr. "xpt. Sta. Bull. 198, 26 pp.
Sodium fluosilicate gave fairly good control of the sugarcane
moth borer (Diatrea saccharalis crambidoides Grote) in corn. Severe
scorching of foliage occurred in almost every case. Ten percent
hydrated lime decreased burning and decreased control. Percentage
of kill increased during first week after application.

(126) Isely, D.

1927. The striped cucumber beetle. Ark. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 216,
36 pp.
Sodium fluosilicate and calcium fluosilicate are the only
insecticides that kill large numbers of the beetles (Diabrotica
vittata F.)and protect the plant for several days. Occasional
injury to the plant is caused by sodium fluasilicate even when the
material is diluted with lime. Calcium fluosilicate compound
containing about 20 percent of the insecticide was used and caused
no injury.

(127) Jewett, H. I

1927. The striped cucumber beetle. Ky. Agr. Expt. Sta. Cir. 37,
34 pp.
Sodiiun fluosilicate caused considerable scorching of foliage
even when diluted at the rate of 1 lb. to 5 lbs. of lime, and gave
a poor yield of cucumbers.

- 22 -

(128) Lyle, C.

1927. Cutworm control on overflowed land. Hiss. State Plant
3d. Quart. BIJl. 7(l):1-3.
Sodium fluosilicate may be used in poison baits against
southern grass worm (Laphygma frugiperda).

(129) Lyle, C.

1927. Cutworm bait poison. ::iss. State Plant Bd. Quart. Bull.
Paris green was more toxic than sodium fluosilicate in
tests on greasy cutworm, (Agrotis ypsilon), southern grass worm
(Laph;-'ia frugiperda), and yellow-striped armyworm (Prodenia
orni tho,-'al li )

(130) Mississippi State Plant Board.

19217. Sodium fluosilicate for poultry lice. Miss. State Plant Bd.
Quart. Bull. 7(l):20.
Sodium fluosilicate is more effective than sodium fluoride
and mercurial ointment, being both cheaper and more toxic to the

(131) Mlote, D. C., and Wilcox, J.

1927. The, strawberry root weevils and their control in Oregon.
Creg. Agr. Expt. Sta. Cir. 79, 24 pp.
Sodium fluoride and sodium fluosilicate were effective
poisons in apple baits for the strawberry root weevils Brachyrhinus
ovatus L. and B. rugifrons Gyll.

(132) Muggeridge, J.

1927. The European earvig: Its habits and control. Some recent
experimental work in New Zealand. New Zeal. Jour. Agr.
Baits with sodium fluoride were not so effective as those
with white arsenic. Sodium fliosilicate used as a barrier around
the base was not effective.

(133) Runner, G. A., and Eyer, J. R.

1927. Exp-eriments in control of the rose-chafer, Macrodactylus
subspinosus Fab., in vineyards. Jour. Econ. Ent. 20:
Dusts of sodium fluosilicate and hydrated lime or talc were
only slo'.ly toxic, did not protect vines from feeding, and also
burned foliage unless large quantities of diluent were used.

- 23 -

(134) Steinkopf, W.

1927.' ber aromatische Sulfofluoride. Jour. Prakt. Chem. (n.s.)
Aromatic sulfonyl fluorides are stable in the presence of
water, acids, and ammonia.

(135) Wilson, C. C.

1927. Non-arsenicals for grasshopper control. Jour. Econ. Ent.
Sodium fluoride and sodium flucsilicate mixed with hydrated
lime or gypsum 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15 at 1090 F. killed all grass-
hoppers except those on which sodium fluoride with hydrated lime
1:10 and 1:15 was used, in which cases 98 and 96 percent, respec-
tively, were killed.

(136) Bachmann, W.

1929. A process of producing pure aluminium compounds suitable
for the *roductinn of alumiiium. British patent 307,345;
issued Maty 1, appl. Feb, 25, 1929.
Aluminum fivorides or double alkali-metal aluminum fluorides
are formed by treatment of an aluminum salt with alkali fluoride
in solution or suspension.

(137) Baerg, W. J.

1928. Three shade tree insects. Ark. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 224,
25 pp.
Fall webworm (Hyphantrig. cunea Dru.) attacks walnut, elm,
maple, c.k, and other shade and fruit trees. Yearly arsenical
sprays decrease the damage, but after larvae are half grown no
insecticL'e now in use is effective. Experiments have been
conduc. -3 1:27th sprays of lead and calcium arsenates, zinc arsenite,
sodi'u .licate, calcium fluosilicate compound, calcium cyanide,
and cocAt-e, but none of the results were good enough to warrant
further trials.

(138) Carter, R. H., and Roark, R. C.

192P. Ccm ociticn of fluorides and flutsilicates sold as insecti-
cices. Jour. Econ. Ent. 21:762-773.
Methods of analysis are given. The purity and the physical
chemical data are given for 12 commercial samples of sodium
fluoride, 11 of sodium fluosilicate, and several miscellaneous
fluorides and fluosilicates. The effect of their physical con-
dition on their insecticidal value and safeness for use on foliage
is discussed.

(139) Frere, J.

1928. Les fluosilicates- leur emploi comme insecticides. Revo
-Prod. Chim. [Paris] -51:8802884.
Gives methods of preparation, properties,, and toxicity
to insects, bacteria, plants, animals, and man, of several of
the fluosilicates. Those mentioned are the fluosilicates of
sodium, barium, aluminum, lead, magnesium, and copper.

(140) Fulton, B. B.

1928. Cockroach destruction in buildings. Iowa'Agr. Expt. Sta.
Cir. 112, 4 pp.

Remedial measures for Blattella germanica L., Blatta
orientalis L., Periplaneta americana L., P. australasiae F.,
P. fuliginosa Serv. include dusting with sodium fluoride.

(141) Garman, P.

1928. The oriental peach moth in Connecticut. Conn. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bull. 294: 263-271,
Preliminary field tests were made to find a substitute
for arsenicals that could be used cn peaches. Oil emulsions as
ovicides and sodium fluosilicate to poison the larvae showed
some premise. Foliage injury was prevented by use of glue and

(142) Gimingham, C. T., and Tattersfield, F.

1928. Laboratory experiments with non-arsenical insecticides for
biting insects. Ann. Apple. Biol. 15:649-658.
Sodium, potassium, aluminum, and calcium fluosilicates
applied as liquid sprays were toxic and Selenia tetralunaria,
Orgyia anticu%, Abraxas grossulariata, and Cheimatobia brumata.
Resistance tD the poisons varied with the species and age of
the insect, younger larvae being most susceptible. Considerable
but irregular injury to plant foliage was produced by these

(143) Hinds, W. E., and Spencer, H.

1928. Insecticidal control for the sugarcane borer. Jcur. Econ.
Ent. 21:193-197
Sodium flucsilicate gave some control of the sugarcane
borer and did not affect parasites unfavorably.


25 -

(144) I. G. Farbenindustrie, A.-G.
.L .t Ge,,a paten
1928. iviittel zum Beizen von Saagut. German patent 4P7,l,
issued Oct. 20, apple. Ma.- 20, 1927.
Seedlings are cauterized. witn a mi;t-r of alkali-
soluble organic compounds containing. mercury with salts of
thiocyaiaic acid or hydroil'zric acid. One of these mixtures
consists of mercurized cresol and sodium fluoride.

(145) Jacobson, C. A., and Pray, H. A. 7.

1928. Fluosilicates of organic bases. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc.
50: 3055-3058.
Fluosilicates of aniline, lY-methyl anilinc, and o-, m-,
and n-toluidinc consisting of 2 moles of base with 1. inole of
acid have been prepared.

(146) Lyle, C.

1928. Prisons for cutwcrm baoits. Jour. Econ. Ent. 21:748-750
Sodium fluosilicate cs poison for th. greasy cutw7orm
(Agrotis y-si"on) and tno southern ;ras Vworm (Laphrgma
frugipeIda, is loss raid -,nd less toxic irn its -action thar
*aris greem. The cor!povnd wore '&--Iinist(red in a bait
consisting of 50 lb. of wheat bran, I lb. of the poison, -2nd
enough water to moisten.

(147) Marcovitch, S.

1928. The relative toxicities of arse icals and fluorine com-
pounds to various organisms. Jour. Econ. Ent. 21:108-114.
At concentrations of 1 to 100, the flurides of calcium,
magnesium, strontium, copper, bari-xi, nd lead produced 50 per-
cent mortality o2 mosquito larvae ("'Llcx nuinouefasciatus) in 84,
54, 55, 6, 3, nd 1 1./2 hours. Sodium fluosilic.te rJonurcd
only 45 minutes, and was ctter than arseiica]s in thl -cspect.

(148) L'arcrvUtch, S.

1828. Lime and sodium fluosilicrte. Sci. 'Tote) Jour. 'co.,n. Ent.
21: 436-4,77.
Sodium fluosilicate reacts with lime in the yresoce of
moisture to give the soluble calcium fluosilicatc, which may
cause injury to plants. Dry dust that stimulates the cleaning
habit apepo'.rs to be more effective against adult bean beetles
or cucumber beetles than dust wetted by dew or moisture.

(14S) Marcovitch, S.

1928. Substitute for arsenic. Sci. Monthly 27:459-462.
Attention is called to the possibility of substituting
fluorine compounds for arsenical compounds as insecticides.

(150) Marcov'tch, S.

192 2 Studies on toy-iity of sodium fluosilicate. Jour.
Pharm-col. an- Exit. Ther. 34:179-186.
Cess&ation of iic-,ment in the larvae of CuJex Co,:J- n.
fa-ciatus 77as taken as the measure of the toxicity, WlT.2i .s in
the following order: Sodium fluosilicate, sodium arsenite,
sodium arsenate, sodiuA fluoride. The fluosilicate was eight
times as toxic as the fluoride. The fluosilicate was also the
nost toxic to L Iriou tertris, aro. eciur : udatam, and
Euglcna v-ridis. rabbits actassiu srscnite given by mouth
was much more to..:c tha-n sodium fliozilic-te, the latter more
toxic than sodium2, fluoride. Potassium ar cenite intravenously
administered to rabbits was slightl17 more zoxic than sodium

(151) Marcovitch, S.

1928. Studies on toyic'ty of florine cor-pounds. Ten. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Eull. 139, 48 p.
As a svibstitute for arsenicals, fluosilic,7tes appear best
against phitonhanous insects and have given good results against
Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna corru-ta), cucurj'or beetle
(Diabroticr. vittata), potato 'eetlc ucp--not&-(sa decemlineata),
boll weevil (Antnononus zrandis), blister beotles (Enicauta sp.),
sugarcane borer, (Diatrrea sacchralis), and culworms (Feltia
ducens), as well as various flea beetLes, biting lice, and
grasshoppers. Dry dusts of sodium fluosilicate with sulfur are
more effective than when : oisture is present. Sodium fluosili-
cate is slightly more toxic to gras-hoppers than sodium -rsenite.
Arsenical and fluorine compounds arc both more effective at
higher temperatures.

(152) Yewton, H. C. F.

1928. Experiments on the control of flea-beetles of the ger s
Phyllotreta injurious to cultivated crucifer crops.
Jour. Southeast. Agr. Col., Tye, Xent 25:116-140.
Cf the materials tried, nicotine sulfate as spray or dust
was the most effective preventive of flea beetle attack on
crucifers, It "i-as also the only spray found to have any insecti-
cidal action. In a single experiment dusting with sodium
fluosilicate gave good results.

(153) Porter, B. A., and Sazama, R. F.

1928. A new method of using fish-oil as an adhesive. (Sci.!iotc)
Jour. Econ. Ent. 21:633-034.
Pastes of barium fluosil'cate, potassium fluosilicate, and
cryolite with fish oil have been prepared, but the resulting
mixtures are somewhat flocculent and rather difficult to pump.
The addition of casein-lime spreader makes a smoother mix.

- 27 -

(154) Snapp, 0. I.

1923. A preliminary report on the toxic value of fluosilicates
and E.rscnicals as tested on the plum curculio.
Jour. Econ. Eit. 21:173-177.
Sodium fluosilicatu ris both dust and spray, without lime,
was the most toxic to Conotrachelus nenuphar of all insecticides
tested, but also turned foliage severely. The relative toxic
value of the other insecticides tested- was in the following
decreasing order: :ariun arsenate, tricalcium arsenate, zinc arsenate,
magnesium arsenate, maigaaese arsenate, aluminum arsenate, sodium
flaosilicate vith lime, calcium fluosilicate compound, and scorodite.

(155) Thompson, H. W.

1928. Further tests of noison baits in South Wales. Welsh Jour. Agr.
Sodium fluocilicate is almost as effective as paris green
against slugs.

(156) United States Tariff Commission.

1928. Sodium siliofuoride. U. S. Tariff Comm. IRept. to President,
21 pp
Differences in cost of production of sodium fluosilicate in
the United States and in Denmark: and Holland are shown,

(157) Walker, H. W.

1928. The preparation of a sTrecial light sodium fluosilicate and
its use as a boll weevil poison. Jour. Econ. Ent.
21: 156-164.
Methods have been developed for the preparation of special
light forms of sodium and barium fluosilicates for dusting purposes.
These materials caused no economic damage to cotton plants and
killed weevils more quickly than calcium arsenate. However, they
did not adhere well to cotton plants under moist conditions.

(158) Bishopp, F. C.

1929. The pigeon fly -- An important pest of pigeons in the VJnited
States. Jour. Eicon. Ent. 22:974-980.
Sodi m fluoride and sodium fluosilicate arQ of little vnlue
when used, either as a dust or as a dip, for control of the pigeon
fly (Pseudolyn-chia maura Bigot).

- '38 -

(159) ondc, P., Folsor, 1%, and Tobe3 -. R.

1922 Dovto so....yin' and d'isting experiments 1026 to 1928.
in Ar,.... t. Stu. 3ull. 352:97-1A).
II i921 vud borde!-mu. mi:'tu'es were very i eective
in the con-rGroI of late Jlight of potatoes. "ess effoetiVe
was collo idal cops er of abcut one-third the copper co-itent of
the bordeaux. Copper-lime diist and sodium fluoslic'>;o also
controlled late blight.

(160) Campbell, F. L., and. Filmcr, R. S.

1929. A o-aa.titative mcbod of tstimvti thc relat:lvc toxicity
of stomc'n-poison insccticid ,s 4-,h Intcrnati. Cong. Ent.,
(Ithaca), '92 r v. 2, pp. 523-533.
The minimum ietjol doses by routh, in mg. per gram, are given
for th rubbt -n6 fc-r,th insfr silk-worm; rabbIts, soium fluosili-
cat- 0.12; silkwvn-, 0 C9; aoid lem-v arsenate 0.10 and 0.09; basic
lead 0.16 and 0.9; od'im ar;enate 0.05 and 0.05. The
minimum ]etha! doses for ';ci1 i ad ).rsenate were carefully checked
on a large nb of Ic:.rv.e ii:.d should be useful in predicting the
probable aio'mt of lead arsenate necessary to kill other species
of insects.

(161) Carter, R. H.

1929. Com-patibilities of insecticides I. Fluosilicates and
cryolite with arsenates. Jour. Fcon. Ent. 22-814-618.
Arsenates were mixed. v'ith fluosilicates and cryolite in the
ratio of 1 lb. of each to 46 gal, of water, shaken 1/2 hour, and
allowed to stand 24 hours at 200 C. Portions wer- then analyzed
for solutions of arsenic Lnd acidity. Lead aroenate may be mixed
in water with fluosilicates of sodium, ootassilm,, barium, aid
calcium without the formation of excessive solble arsenic. The
arsenates of calcium, manganese, mragnesiunn, aluminum, and barium
were largely decomposed. 'y fluosilicates, except tile :calciu
fluosiiicate compound.' Cryolite seemed to inhibit the formation
of soluble arsenic.

(162) Ceylon Department of Agriculture

1929. Preserving wood against dry rot. Trop. Agr. [Ceylon]
72:364-36'7; Also in Chem. and Drug. 110:137-138.
Methods ond preservative agents, including magnesium fluo-
silicate, are discussed.

- 29 -

(163) CIay, L.

192,9. Further tests of cutworm bait poisons. Jour. Econ. Ent.
22: 797-798.
feeding tests on five species of cutworms with a poisoned
bait consisting of 1 lb. of pw.ris green (55.12 percent arsenic
trioxide) or 1 lb. of 98 -rcent sodium fluosilicate mixed in
50 lb. of wheat bran and moistened with water showed that tnis
bait killed. an average of 99.3 percent of the cutworms in 48
hours, whereas the sodium fiuosilicate bait killed an average of
73.2 percent. A bait prepared from dissolved sodium fluosilicate
and bran killed only 59.2 percent of the cutworms.

(164) Eddy, C. 0., and Clarke, W. H.

1929. The Me. dcan beazi beetle 1927-1928. S. C. A'r. Exot. Sta.
Bull. 2156, 42 'p.
Calcium fluosilicate as a dust or soray gave rromis n-
results for control of the Mexican bean beetle.

(165) Freeborn, S. B., and Wymore, F. H.

1929. Attempts to protect sweet corn from infestations of the
corn ear worm, Heliothis obsoleta (Farr.). Jour. Econ.
Ent. 22: 666-671.
Sodium fluosilicate extra light, 70 to 75 percent, proved
to be the best general insecticide; applied to corn at any stage
it increased the immunity to attack by the worms. Some burning cf
the husks occurred but no material damage. Sodium flucsilicate
95 percent plus equal -arts of hydrated lime was also effective,
but less so.

(166) Kinds, W. E.

1929. Preliminary studies regarding physical qualities and distri-
bution of sodium silicofluoride dusts. Jour. Econ. Ent.
Field experiments showed that great variation existed in
physical properties and dusting qualities of sodimi fluosilicate
dusts and powders containing same, which may account for varying
results in control of insects.

(167) Hoffman, T. and Lundell, G. E. F.

1929. Determination of fluorine and of silica in glasses and enamels
containing fluorine. U. S. Dept. Com., Bur. Standards Jour.
Research 3:581-595.
A modification of Berzelius method for the determination of
fluorine and silicon when occurring together is described. Fluorine
is precipitated as lead fluochloride. Preciritationof silicon with
ammonium carbonate is aided by adding a nitric acid solution of zinc
nitrate to reduce the concentration of sodium carbonate in solution
to about 1 percent. Neutralization is then hastened by boiling with
a large excess of an ammoniacal solution of zinc oxide.

- 30-

(168) Huckett, H. C.

'192, 9 A ccntribu)tion L" tl he stvdy of control measures for cucumber
betles, lbialtLica duoaecimanctata Cliv. and vibttta
Fabr. Jo-ur. Rc. Fnto -2.425-411
Sodium fluosiiicate cnd lime cists are effective when Iry.

(169) I. G. 2arbenindastrie, A.-G.

1929. Procede' pe 're'ta-t d'a.lLiner le ftrutrage des coils animaux.
French patent 6Ct,(3i; 'issued Oct. 3; apple Jan. 2, 1929.
The feltinT of anmal hair is improc6d by treating the hair
with solutions of hv-drofiuric or fluosilicic acid, or tl eir salts.

(170) 10hn, H, A.

1929. The problem of arcenica! residues: Tmi-ortance of spray
dcosits from the Ltai.d.ort of public 1.eoalth, 4th
Inernat]. Con-. Et, (Tthaca),)1928, Proc., v. 1, pp. 671-
Experiments to djterrni-ie the rIinimun lethl' ose of a number
of insecticides, irclvding arsenious oxie, calcium arsenite, calcium
arsenate, lead arsenate, bari-u fluoride, and sc'dium fluosilicate,
adminiistered by mouth to dogs _nd raUbi'Us are briefly described.
Sodi-u fluosijicate -as not so toxic to wvarm-blooded animals as
calcivm arsenate.
(171) Lip-o, J. 7.

1929. for suostitutes for arsenate of lead as a soil insecti-
cide. (Sci. Note) Jour. Econ. Ent. 22:600-601.
Of several fluosilicates and flaorides, as well as other
chemicals, ap*iied to the soil against larvae of the Japane,e beetle
(Popillia japonica Newm.), only sodium and barium fluosilicate killed
the larvae, In indoor tests 7rass grew as well on soil treated with
both these materials as on untreated soil but in the outdoor Aests
the soil treated with sodium fluosilicate hardened, sometimes pre-
venting germination of the grass.

(172) l:arcovitch, S.

1929. The control of the tobacco beetle in upholstered furniture.
(Sci. Not'e) Jour. Econ. Ent. 22:602.
Saturated solution of sodium fluosilicate poured into the
stuffing of a da%-enport gave good control of the tobacco beetle
(LasiodOrma serricorne).

(173) iJarcovitcn, S.

1929. Sodium fluosilicate as a house fly poison. (Sci. Note)
Jour. Econ. Ent. 22:602.
Saturated solution of sodium fluosilicate was allowed to
stand where flies had access to it.

- 31 -

(174) 'iarcovitch, S., and Stanley, W. "7.

1029. Cryolite and barium fluosilicate; their use as insecticides.
Tenn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 140, 19 p-o.
Barium fliosilicate and synthetic cryolite killed 50 perce-nt
of the larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in 55 to 155
:Anutes, respectively. Both materials gave excellent control of
the :.:exican bean beetle when applied at the rate of 1 lb. to 50 gals.
of water. When aDplied as a dust at the rate of 6 lbs. to the acre,
they controlled the bean beetle on beans and hornworms and flea
betles on tobacco but caused no foliage injury.

(175) ::inaeff, i:. G., and Wright, J. H.

1922. 7-othproofing. Indus. and Bn-in. Chem. 21:1187-1105.
Process of noth-rroofinZ with for~m].as based on silicofluorides
is (scribed and results arc demonstrated. Wool possesses a grcat
affinity for silicoflurides, and therefore these chemicals can be
applied in dilute solutions. ioth-proofing with silicofluride
formulas is much morc effective :nd lasting than with sodium fluoride.
i .oth-proofing with alkaloids, nitrogenous compounds, and thiourca
derivatives is described.

(176) -Lobcrtson, G. i,,..

192 Three e-ftc-r-...l Dorasit,,s of -boultry. Tasmanian Jour. Agr.
1:18-20. For lice, treatment with sodium fluoride is

(177) Saladini, B.

1929. I. flvosilicati nelI'industria e neol'agricoltura. Indus.
Chim. [oome 4:373-375.
h prenar ion and properties of industrioi fluosilicatos
[sic], svch as calciml fluoride and cryolite, arc described orie~ly
as well as the use of zinc and magnesium fluosilicates.

(178) Sie'ler, E. _. Brown, L., and Yothers, 1i A.

1929. A second report on chemically treated bands for the destruc-
tion of codling moth larvae. Jour. Econ. Ent. 22:966-072.
Sodium fluoride, sodium fluosilicate, and calcium fluosilicate
were somewhat effective but were too slow in their action for satis-
factory results.

(179) Anonymous

1330. A possibility of a new insecticide for use on citrus. Farming
in So. Africa 5:200,241.
L. B. Ripley and G. A. Hepburn state that sodium fluosilicate
has a killing power for the 17atal fruit fly 16 times that of lead
arsenate. No damage to citrus foliage resulted, but it is known that
at higher concentrations it would.

- 32 -

(180) Anonvmous.

1930. Fluorine tested for use as insecticide. Calif. Dept. Agr.
monthly Bull. 19:215.
A very brief discussion of fluorine compounds and their use
as insecticides.

(181) Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station.

1930. An important cause of frequent failures of alfalfa. Ala.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 41:37.
Alfalfa from various localities sIhowed that 10 to 80 percent
of' +he stems had been girdled by the three-cornered alfalfa hoper
(Stictocephala festina Say). Infestation was reduced to 9 percent
in ;/4 days by an application of sodium fluosilicate dust, that of
an xjacent untreated plot being 16 percent.

(182) Earr, T.

193C). Laborator: studies on toxic chemical control of wood destroy-
ing fungi. Apr. Engin. 11:161-163.
Wooe ipi donated with sodium fluoride was effectively -ro-
tected against dccay after 2 years as compared with 33 percent
daimage in untrc2 ~.e( wood.

(183) Becker, G. A.

1930. Vorfahren, un den Eisonangriff von Holzimprllgnierlhsungen
herabzusetzen. Austrian patent 116,736; issued M4arch 10;
appl. Jan. 23, 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24:2857.
1930. 1
A small quantity of thiourea is added to wood-imprernating
solutions containing sodium fluoride but not containing aromatic
nitro compounds; thus the corroding action of the solution on iron
is diminished. Instead of thiourea there may be used another
compound containing the CS group which is not of acid or saline

(184) Biron, Ili.

1930. Poudrages au fluosilicate de baryum. Rev. Vitic. 72:226-229.
Nicotine powder gave good results Lagainst grape worm, but
the price was prohibitive. Barium fluosilicate was effective
against adult worms. It may be economically mixed with sulfur
without disadvantage. When finely powdered it also protects
grapes against freezing.

(185) Borchers, W.

1930. [The impregnation cf wood. for mines.] Ch m.-tech. Thadschau
4_:445-4-46, 4E9-470. LIn German. Abstract in Chem. Ios.
24:4372. 1930.]
A discussion of the impregnation of woo1, especially that
emIoyed in mines, for -protection against deterioration, outrefac-
tfon, etc., with phenols (cresote, sodium cresote) and with salts
(zinc chloridc, mercuric chloride, ferro-uis sulFate, co, er cMLatc,
aluminum sulfate, sodium chloride, sodi-u.m fluoilicate, calciL.i
n-,,roxide, sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, calcium fluor'idc).
The best combination is that of fluorine salts 7ith nitrated phenols.

(186) hart, 3. 0., and Ditt, G. R.

I10O 'he desert locust in india iE-0. Ar. Jour. ndia
Sodium fluosilicate wav used as the insecticide in baits.
The action was delayed. it is comnarativeiy harmless to stock.

(187) Campbell, F. L

193. A comparison of four methods for estimating the rei 7tive
toxic-itv of stomach c, poison insecticides. Jour. EcoI. Snt.

The tox4 city of sodium fluosilic.te to the fourth-Untar
silkvorm is o-,, t, two times that of acid lean wseiatn. Th
fl'os_licENte af'fected1 the silc-worin more rarrIidlv vh-:I the arsenate.
Thae reltive txic efects of acid lead,. aae... end sodium fluosili-
cate on t'e si'j_:rrm v'eie studied b7 the sanjyi h thod for estab-
lishing t-h reiai lethal dcse and for tetreria t relation be-
t.oe f toic action, an o,,- the s-m le case test
in vnich t._ i lr,- x-:ere al-ied to ie fe on fc non foliage.
The s 'j'.a co:-.po-anod wore test3d on mosquito lar a. by cake mctinod of
Larcovit. :_e rst to mn thods are s itablc fcr r ur'n the
ro L, t yof stoinach ooison nsoct'cides, th f'1rst boing
t irwct~cale. Ti-e !ast t'.7o methods may be suitable for
.,sict r ativc -c-racdcal cffcctivecss of stomach poisons,
tn cage test being preferred.

(188) Carlos, A. S.

1230. hanufacture and use of inse1cticides And fungicides. III.
1.ater-ias used for insecticidos and fiungicides. Ferti-
lizer, Fcedintj Stuffs and Farm Suoplies Jour. 15:505-506.
Fluorine and sulfur compounds are discussed with particular
reference to their phy-sical and chemical characteristics.

- 34 -

(189) Carter, R. H.

19Z0. Solubilities of the fluosilicates in water. Indus. and
Engin. Chem. 22:886-887.
Available data on the solubilities of all the fluosili-
cates, with a table of references, are given. Solubility curves
and data from 0o to 1000 C. are given for the fluosilicates of
barium, potassium, and sodium.

(190) Carter, R. E.

1530. Fluoalumintes of the alkali metals. Indus. and Engin. Chem.
Literature of the alkali fluoaluminates is reviewed, and com-
mercial methods of preparation are given. The properties and
insecticidal uses of these oompounds are discussed.

(191) Cart-vrijht, 0. L.

1930. The corn weevil and associated insects. S. C. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Ann. Rcpt. 43:67-70.
In small-scale experiments rice weevil infestations in stored
corn were completely controlled by dusts, including sodium fluosili-
cato dust, at the rate of 1 oz. per bushel.

(192) Casares, J., and Casares, R.

1930. [Rapid method of detecting and determining fluorine in mineral
waters.] An. Soc. Espa'". Fis. Quim. 28:1159-1160. [In
Spanish. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25:550. 1931.1
In a series of 120-cc. tubes 100 cc. of water and increasing
amounts of sodium fluoride are placed. The samples to be tested are
in another series. To each is added 1 cc. of concentrated hydro-
chloric acid and, after shaking, a few drops of a mixture of equal
o arts of 0.17 percent sodium alizarinsulfonate solution and 0.87
percent zirconium nitrate solution. Comparison of colors shows
fluorine content.

(193) Chapman, P. J., and Gould, G. E.

1930. Some notes on dusting cucumbers. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23:197-
In preliminary tests in 1929 cucumber plants dusted when
moist with dew for control of cucumber beetles and downy mildew
were smaller than those treated while dry. The dusts include
hydrated lime and gypsum, alone and combined with calcium arsenate,
sodium fluosilicate, calcium fluosilicate, and "copper-lime".

- 35 -

(194) D'Costa, J., and Balwant, S.

1930. The toxicity of sodium fluocilicate for domestic animals.
Jour. Cent. Bur. Animal Husb. and Dair. India 4:139-145.
Yo tonic symptoms were observed in buffaloes, bulls, shee-p,
and goats grazed over a plot of land that had been treated with
sodium fluosilicate at the rate of 1 lb. per acre for the destruc-
tion of locusts. Bulls fed 5 to 25 grains of this material mixed
with bran mash and molasses did not develop toxic symptoms. A
bull drenched with 0.5 drachm of sodium fluosilicate showed depres-
sion and slight alimentary disturbance, where-as another bull
drenched with 0.5 oz. developed severe poisoning. When killed 3
months later both animals showed evidence of the toxicity of the
salt in the abomasum and the duodenum.

(195) Douglas, W. A.

1930. A velvet bean caterpillar as a pest of soy beans in southern
Louisiana and Texas. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23:684-690.
A commercial "light" sodium fluosilicate (80 to 84 percent
pure), dusted at the rate of 10 to 12 lb. per acre, was effective
against caterpillars of Anticarsia gemmatilis on soybeans and
caused no :ppreciable burning if the plants were dry.

(196) Fairchild, J. G.

1930. The volumetric determination of fluorine by the use of ferric
chloride. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 20:111-146.
A detailed. study of the conditions that must be observed in
the volumetric determination of fluorine with use of ferric chloride.
Under -oroper conditions quantities of fluorine from 0.005 to 0.060
g. can be determined.

(197) Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

1930. Life history studies and control of the velvet bean cater-
pillar. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 1928-29:53.
Calcium fluosilicate was used with satisfactory results
against the velvetbean caterpillar on peanuts.

(198) Grubenholzimprgnierung, g. m. b. H.

1930. Improvements in or relating to the preserving of wood.
British patent 314,380; issued May 22; appl. June 18, 1929.
In e fecting successive imprognations, as with solutions of
salts of z' :i mercury, or copper, and then with alkali fluorides,
arseYnates, or arsenites, the first liquid is introduced by the
empty-cell process and the second liquid by the full-cell process.

- 36 -

(199) Crubenholzimpragnierung G. m. b. H.

1930. An improved preservative for wood. British patent 352,272;
issued July 9; appl. July 21, 1230.
A preservative is used consisting of soluble fluorine
compounds such as soluble salts of hydrofluoric acid or hydro-
fluosilicic acidand soluble chromium compounds such as chromium
oxide, an alkali-metal dichromate, or a chromate of sodium,
Jotassium, or calcium.

(200) Gr-benholzimpr!tgnierung G. m. b. H.

1930, Improvements in or relating to preservatives for wood.
British patent 315,860; issued July 10; appl. June 21, 1929.
Different soluble compounds of arsenic or fluorine are used
or formed in the wood by succcssiv treatments of the wood with
zinc sulfate solution and with a hot aqueous solution containing
sodium arsenitc and sodium fluoride.

(201) ILinks, !7. E.

1970. The occurrence of Anticarsia gemmatilis as a soybean pest
in Louisiana in 1929. JoUr. 7con. Ent. 23:711-714.
Sodium flaosilicate is recommended against this pest.

(202) I. G. Farbenindustrie, A.-G.

1930. Process for the manufacture of diazonium salts of comlrnlex
metallic fluoric acids. British patent 332,227; issued
Jily 16; aonl. April 1g 1929.
Diazonium compounds of" complex metallic fluoric acids are
nade by causing complex acids, such as titanium, aluminum, and tin
hexafluoric acids and antimony tetrafluoric acid, or their salts,
to react ,with diazonium compounds such as tetrazotized dianisidine
o:' diazotized 4-aminoazobenzene or 3-nitroaniline. The products
ay be used in dyeing 'nd printing and in combating insect pests.

(203) India, United Provinces of Afra and Ondh.

1930. Locust control. 86 p-. Allahabad. [Abstract in Rev. Aml.
Ent. (A)19:60-61. 1931.]
Grasshoppers may be controlled by sodium fluosilicate in
bait in stony or forest areas or as a dust in jungle grass or
heavy undergrowth. The preparation of this bait is discussed.

(204) Ja-ce, 0.

930. Ueiterer 3eitrag zur 3ek,-pfung der Kirschblt tenmotte
(Argyresthin, ephieiella). Gartenbauwissenschaft 3:084-390.
Adult 7.oths were poisoned in laboratory tests by 2-percent
sugar solutions containing 0.4 and 0.6 percent of sodium fluoride
or sodium fluosilicate.

- 37 -

(205) Lain-, F.

1930. The cockroach. Its life history and how to deal with it.
Brit. lus. (-7at. Wrist ) Zcon. Ser. 12, Ed. 2, 23 pp.
An account of the life history and depredations of roaches
and recommendations for their control with a mixture of 3 parts
sodium fluoride and 1 part pyrethrum.

(206) 7alnge, 7., and liiikller, E.

100. thber die Salzo der Phosphor-hexafluorwasscrstoffshurc, -:PF6
Bcr. Deut. Chem. Gesell. 63(2):1058-1070.
The preparation and properties of several organic salts of
hexafluophos-ohoric acid are described.

(207) Liht, S. F., Randall, and 'Jhite, F. G.

1930. Termites and termite damage with preliminary recommenda-
tions for prevention and control. Calif. Agr. Exot. St_.
Circ. 318, 64 pp.
The method of blowing poisonous dusts into the termite
tunncls with a dust gun is described. Sodium fluosilicate ma- be
used with success.

(208) LsagLt, A. ivi.

1930. Bronze beetle research. Report for the two years ending
November 1929. New Zeal. Dept. Sci. indus. Research, 3ull.
25. 32 pp.
Against the bronze beetle (ucolaspis brunnea F. ) in lab-
oratory experiments on various kinds of foliage, sodium fluosili-
cate dust acted as a repellent, but the beetles were poisoned by7
collecting it on their tarsi and antennae. 1,o scorching of dry
leaves occurred, but nder moist conditions a carrier would be
necessary. A 0.5--oorcont solution used as a spray was as to:-ic as
the dusts, but caused slight scorching of the foliage.

(209) ..cAllister, L. C., and Van Leeuwen, E. R.

1930. Laboratory tests of miscellaneous chemicals against the
codling moth. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23:907-922.
A total of 283 materials were tested as possible substitutes
for lead arsenate in the control of codling moth. These materials
consisted of fluorides, fluosilicates, organic compounds, and
arsenicals. Compxrative results are given.

- 38 -

(210) :-a'aonov, B. A.

190. Posts of the castor oil plalt in North Caucasus. [In Rassian.]
Jour. Agr. Research N. Caucasus, No. 3(20), pp. 119-140;
also' as B~-ll. Sev. Kavkaz. IYraev. S.-Kh. Oouit. Sta.
[Bull. 1:. Caucas. Agr. Expt. Sta.], Yo. 311, 22 pp. LAbstract
in Rev. Ao-ol. 'nt. 19(A):108. 1931.]
Undiluted dusts of barium fluoride and a spray of 2 percent
sodium fluoride were tentatively recommended. A list of the important
species in North Caucasus is given.

(211) 1:an-fonov, B. A.

1930. Observations on Loxostege sticticalis and the results of tests
of the action of insecticides on cultivated oil pla-nts. [In
Russian.] Jour. Agr. Research N. Caucasus, No. 3(20),
pp. 165-230; also as Bynl!. Sev. Ka-vkaz. Kraev. S.-Xh. Opuit,
Sta. [Bull. F. Caucas. Agr. Expt. Sta.], no. 314, 66 p-9.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A):109. 1931.]
Sodium fluoride as a spray and a dust of equal parts of barium
fluoride and lime were highly toxic to the insect and caused little
if any damage to the plants.

(212) 1iarcovitch, S., and Stanley, 7. 7.

1930. Insecticidal properties of cryolite and barium fluosilicate.
Indus. and Engin. Chem. 22:121.
Both materials gave excellent control of the Mexican bean
beetle when used as a spray at the rate of 1 lb, to 50 gal. These
compounds were also effective, and safe on bean foliage, when used
as a dust at the rate of 6 lb. per acre. At the rate of 30 lb.
-por acre burning may be encountered under certain atmospheric
conditions. Five weekly dustings on tobacco (6 lb. per acre) pro-
duced no foliage injury with either material and controlled the
hornworm and flea beetles. Fish oil in the proportion of 25 per-
cent of the weight of the insecticide was added to increase ad-
hosiveness. Cryolite and barium fluosilicate are both highly
toxic to insects. Barium fluosilicate is more toxic to adult
insects than cryolite.

(213) :-arcovitch, S., and Stanley,

1930. Twor arsenical substitutes. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23:370-376.
Cryolite and barium fluosilicate offered the most promise
as substitutes for arsenic. One pound of either compound to
50 gal. of water gave excellent control of the :iexican bean beetle.
They may also be used as dusts on tobacco for tobacco hornworm
(Protoparce sexta) and tobacco flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris)
and on beans for the bean beetle.

(214) 1.ichigan Agricultural Experiment Station.

1930. The effect of fluorine feeding on the health and ooteid
tissue of dairy cattle. Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. 3icn.
Rept. 1929-30:22.
Feeding fluorine for short periods in quartities equal to
0.03 percent or more of the dry matter in the ra- r < '1 i0 mature
cows was sufficient to throw the animals off fee- fed over
a period of a year in quantities equal to those uld have
received from a 3-percent raw rock Thosphate supi.Iement, the teeth
and long bones showed abnormal development.

(215) New York (Geneva) Agricultural ExDeriment Station.

1930. The European corn borer with respect to sweet corn in Yew
York. Y. Y. (Geneva) Agr. Ex-ot. Sta. Ann. Riot. 49:68-69.
In experiments with insecticides as s-)rays against the
European corn borer calcium fluosilicate considerably reduced the
number of larvae. None of the dusts tried were effective.

(216) Nootny, R.

1930. [Impnregnation experiments on heartwood.] Korrosion und
Metallschultz 6:82-84. [In German. Abstract in Chem,
Abs. 24:4372, 1930.]
Experiments were made on the effects of preliminary incising
on increasing the depth of penetration of sodium fluoride solutions
into the hcartwoods of pine, fir, and larch. Viithout puncturing
no penetration can be obtained in the heartwoods of these s-iecies.
Preliminary incision permits a penetration slightly in excess of
the depth of the penetrating needle. The diffusion of the m0rescrva-
tive solution is greatest in the direction of the wood fibers, or
longitudinally, next latterly along the annual rings, and least

(217) Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station.

1930. Strawberry root-weevil. Oreg. Agr. Expt. Sta. 3icn. Rept.
Ninety percent control of the strawberry root weevil
(Dyslobus decorata Lec.) was obtained in 1930 with a bait of bran
and sodium fluosilicate.

(218) Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station

1930. Codling moth studies. Oreg. Agr. Expt. Sta. Eien. Rept.
1928-30: 88.
Results against the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) with
sodium and barium fluosilicates warrant further tests.

- 40 -

(219) Pertusi, C.

1930. Una nuova replzic'ne dei fluoruri. Congr. iFaz. Chim. ?1ra ed
Applicata Att-, 3rd Cong., Rome and Abruzzb, 1930:-73-575.
Reagent consist of a solution of benzidine acetate pre-
'Oared from 1.84 g of btnzidine', a little concentrated acetic acid,
and distilled water to make up to 500 cc, mixed with equal parts
of 0.05 N mercury succinimide solution. A yellow precipitate
is formed with as little as a drop of 0.05 N fl,'oride or 0.00004
g of hydrofluoric acid.

(220) Pettey, F. W., and Mossop, M. C.

1930. A report of further experiments of now methods for the con-
trol of codling moth in western districts of the cape
province. Union So. Africa Dept. Agr. Sci. Bull. 96:50 pp.
An artificial cryolite used at the rate of 2 lb. with 0.25
pint of fish oil in 40 gal. of water applied at intervals of 3
weeks throughout the season gave better results Ia codling moth
control than a similar program of normal-strength lead a-rsenate
and seemed to have considerable effect in controlling mealybugs
on kiefer pears. Some samples of cryolite caused severe foilage
burning, but others did not.

("21) Poeteren, N. van

1930. Verslag over do Werkzaumheden van den plantonziektenkundigen
Dienst in het jaar 1929. Verslag. en Meded. Planten-
ziektenkund. Dienst, Wageningen no. 62, 142 pp.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A):242. 1931.]
In experiments in combating the beet fly (Pegomyia
hyoscyami Panz.) the best results were obtained with a spray
of sodium fluosilicate and sugar.

(222) Ripley, L. B., and Hepburn, G. A.

1930. A new insecticide against maize stalk-borer'. Farming in
So. Africa 5:285-287.
Derrisol has a higher toxicity than cryolite but volati-
lizes appreciably in not weather. Preliminary experiments indi-
cate that best results can be obtained with a suspension of
cryolite in Derrisol. Natural cryolite is slightly more toxic
to the borer than the synthetic material. Both materials cause
plant burning to about the same extent. Because of its finer
state of subdivision, synthetic cryolite adheres better to

- 41 -

(223) Rooke, H. G. D.

1930. Note on locusts in Iraq and the control measures adopted.
Mesopotamia Dept. Agr. Mere. 13, 13 pp.
Outbreaks of the Moroccan locust (Dociostauras marocanus)
led to experimental work with poison baits containing sodium
fluoride, sodium arsenite, or paris green. Baits containing
sodium arsenite are recommended.

(224) Roubaud, E.

1930. Biological researches on Pyrausta nubilalis. III.
Internatl. Corn Borer Inves. Sci. Repts. 3:1-27.
Natural cryolite dusted on corn plants at the rate of 50-60
grams per square meter gave very good control of the European corn

(225) Sanders, P. D., and Langford, G. S.

1930. Observations on the Mexican bean beetle and the potato tuber
moth. Peninsula Hort. Soc. [Del.] Trans. 20:168-171.
Against the bean beetle on beans barium fluosilicate 1 lb. to
50 gal. gave good control and did not injure plants; as a dust it
caused discoloration of the foliage. Potassium fluoaluminate
showed promise against the bean beetle when rmixed well with bordeaux,
and did not injure the foliage.

(226) Smith, L. M.

1930. The snowy tree cricket and other insects injurious to rasp-
berries. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 505, 38 pp.
The snowy tree cricket (Occanthus niveus Deg.) is best
controlled by a dust of 70 percent sodium fluosilicate and 30 per-
cent diatomaceous earth applied at the rate of 50 lb. per acre.
No berries should be picked for 10 days after dusting. A mixture
of bran, molasses, water, amyl acetate, and sodium fluosilicate
proved to be a satisfactory bait. Against strawberry root worm
(Paria canellus var. quadrinotata Say) a dust of 70 percent sodium
fluosilicate and 30 percent diatomaceous earth at the rate of
100 lb. to the acre in the fall is recommended.

(227) Steinkopf, W.

1930. t ber aromatische Sulfofluoride. II. Jour. Prakt. Chem.
(n.s.) 128:63-88.
Aromatic sulfonyl fluorides are stable towards metals such
as copper and potassium. Several reactions are given.

- 42 -

(228) Ugryumov, G. D., Pnd Traut, I. I.

1930. A preliminary sumrm.ary of investigations for the year 1929
on the effectiveness of various chemical methods in
combating inset pests and diseases which attack plants.
Udobrenie i Urozhai [Fertilizers and Crops] 2:45-53.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25:1322-23, 1931.]
The authors discuss the results of experiments on the
methods of treating grain against wet smut, extermination of
rodents, and measures against insect pests. Fluorine preparations
are used in baits against rodents, but are not so good as strych-
nine. The sodium compounds of fluorine proved better than ar-
senicals in control of insect pests.

(229) Tallengren, H.

1930. On the infection of Pyrausta nubilalis Hb. by Metarrhizium
anisopliae (Metsch Sr.-II. Internal. Corn Borer.
Invest. Sci. Rept. 3:64-73. [Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent.
(A)19 ;148-149. 1931.]
A mortality of about 99 percent of the corn borers was
obtained by dusting the plants with sodium fluosilicate.

(230) Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station.

1931. Turnip webworm control. Ala. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept.
In dust form barium fluosilicate, sodium fluosilicate, and
cryolite killed all the larvae of the turnip webworm. Cryolite
and sodium fluosilicate sprays were valueless.

(231) Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station.

1931. Life history and control of the cowpea curculio. Ala. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 42:48-49.
In cage tests dusts of sodium fluosilicate and barium
fluosilicate on cowpea foliage caused a high mortality to cowpea
curculio (Chalcodermus aeneus Boh.). Cryolite appeared ineffective.

(232) Andrewartha, H. G.

1931. The apple curculio. Jour. Dept. Agr. West Aust. 8:106-114.
Baits consisting of 9 lb. of dried apple to 1 lb. of sodium
fluoride were effective in preliminary experiments against the
apple curculio (Otiorrhynchus cribricollis).

(233) Batchelder, G., and Meloche, V. W.

1931. The volumetric estimation' of fluorine by means of cerous
nitrate. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 53:2131-2136.
Fluorine in neutral solutions can be determined by adding a
measured volume of cerous nitrate solution and titrating the excess
with potassium permanganate, but it is preferable to titrate
directly with cerous nitrate, with methyl red as indicator.

- 43 -

(234) Batiashvili, i. fl.

1931. Comparative tests of insecticides on the caterpillar of
hyponcmeuta malinellus Zell. hull. Sci. Research Inst.
U. S. S. R., Tree and Small Fruit Culture, Sect. ilant
Protection. (Ent.) 3 39 p7. [In Russian. Abstract in
Rev. Arpl. Ent. 19(A):504. 1931.]
Laboratory and field experiments against fourth-instar
larvae of H-ponomeuta malinellus Zell. on apples are reported.
Spraying with "I per mille" sodium fluosilicate with add-ition of
flour as a spreader killed 49 percent of the larvae and scorched
only 2 percent of the foliage. Addition of lime to the spray
increased the injury to the leaves.

(235) 3ishopp F. C., and. Wagner, R. D.

1931. Nicotine in the control of ecto-parasites of poultry.
Jou'. Econ. Ent. 24:55-61.
Nicotine proved. more efficient than sodium fluoride in
control of lice on chickens.

(236) Bondy, F. F.

1931. Boll weevil studies. S. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 44:
Sodium fluosilicate with calcium oxide proved of no value
for boll weevil control. Calcium arsenate dust in three to five
applications gave satisfactory control tkircughout the season.

(237) Boyce, A. M.

1931. Effectiveness of certain materials in producing mortality
of the walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis complota Cress.).
Calif. State Dept. Agr. Monthly 3ull. 20:682-690.
On the basis of the timo required for 50-percent mortality,
fluorine and arsenic compounds were relatively speedy and effec-
tive. Barium and sodium fluoride, barium, sodium, and magnesium
fluosilicates, and cryolite were effective, but calcium fluoride
and calcium fluosilicate compound proved unsatisfactory. Of the
fluorines [sic] tested the calcium and barium combinations and
cryolite can be safely used on foliage.

(238) Browne, A. C.

1931. 0ecanthus niveus (DeGeer) in some California fruits. Calif.
Dept. Agr. Monthly Bull. 20:633-643.
Apple trees dusted with sodium fluosilicate at the rate of
25 pounds per acre showed no injury by snowy tree crickets at
harvest whereas much of the fruit was damaged on adjacent undusted

(230) l'urgess, -., and Foole, E. J.

1931. Observations onthe susceptibility of animal fibres to damage
by the larvae cf two spoucies of clothes moth, Tinoola
biselioIl Hu% l and Tie,, pcllionclla L. Jour. Textile
Iist. 22:T141-I157.
7.orsted cloth impregnated with Larvex or Eulans is satis-
factoril4 proofed against damage by those clothes moths.

(240) California Agricultural Excrinment Station.

1C31. [Th-. corn earwo'ri.] CPlif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 1929-1930:
further ex-periments against the corn earworm (H oliothis
obsolcta F.) showed that 70 percent sodium fluosilicate gave the
best results nmong a number of dusts tested.

(241) Corter, R. H.

1931. The incomatibility of lime with fluosilicates. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 24:233-266.
The chemical property of flaosilicatos in relation to insecti-
cidal use and injury to foliage is described. The addition of
small qiantitles of calcium hydroxide to sodium, potassium, and
barium fluosilicates materially decreased their solubility, probably
because of the introduction of P, common ion from the reactions.
Strong alkaline solutions were formed when an excess of lime was

(242) Carter, R. H.

1931. Determination of barium fluosilicate spray residue. Indus.
and Engin. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 3:146-147.
Apples are washed by immersion for 30 seconds in a boiling
3 percent sodium hydroxide solution and rinsed with slightly
acidulated water. The rinsings and washing solutions are cooled,
made strongly acid with hydrochloric acid, and filtered rapi dly.
The filtrate is then made strongly alkaline with sodium hydroxide,
and the barium is percipitated as barium sulfate with an excess
of sulfuric acid. The borium sulfate is then calculated to
barium fluosilicate. This method is fairly rapid and gives
reLrod-ucible results which are sufficiently accurate for com-
parative work.

(243) C'Ihemische Fabrik Ludwig ,Myer.

1931. Saatgutbeize. German patent 520,892
Apol. May 17, 1930.
A disinfecting and stimulating preparation contains essen-
tiolly basic mercuric fluoride. In the example the preparation
contains basic mercuric fluoride, mercuric chloride, mercuric
iodide, and potassium acid fluoride.

- 1.;4 -

- 45 -

(244) Church-il! K. 1%

1931. Occurrence of fluorides in some waters of the UnLted States.
Indus. and Engin. Chem. 23:996-T98.
notable waters from many cities ber exa,.iind for
fluorides, chiefly by th: s-octroocopic method. ,,any of these
waters contain fluorides in su:rrisi-gly high oua:Lntities. >~
casual connection has been established between the occurrence rf
fluorides in these waters and the .- ottled enainul effect. Tho
physiologicaJ. effect of fluoridcs is obscure.

(245) Delage, B.

1931. Travu.x recents sur is insccticides ct anticrt, ouiques.
Revue de -nhytoph-rmicic. An.-. Agron. (n.s.) 1:'63-335.
[Abstract in Rev. Ajp.. Eit. (!)2i !75, ,93.
A survey of recent work on insecticides ond faugicidos,
including pyrethrum, fluorides, flucsilicates, crgnAic mercury
compounds, tasenicals, and pctreleum oils.

(246) bolassus, M.

1931. Algeria: information i thc last anti-locust ceiraign.
:nturnatl. Rev. Agr. Eccn. LRome] 2:9-9i.
A 4-nerccnt solution of sodiium fluosilicate was found
to be effective as a contact insecticide cr as a stomach poison.

(247) Downes, W.

1931. The strawberry root weevil, with r otcs on nther insects
affecting strawberries. Canaida Det. Agr. ?ar mhlot
(n.s.) 5 Rv., 10 Gh.
Baits containing sodiuxn fluoride or sodiurii flnosilicate
-re recommended against Otiorriynchus ovatus L. Gcod results
vere obtained in poisoning Prlyphylla decemlineata Sa-, vith sodiuil
fluosilicate-bran bait.

(248) Dyson, G. M,

1931. The industrial compounds of flucrine:. Chei. Age. 25:
Sodium fluoride is recommended for wood prrservaticn, as
a water softener, and as an insecticide; sodium acid fluoride
as a frostin- agent fof -iass, also for removal of "iron mould";
potassium acid fluoride as a frcstin; agent; amrnonuiim acid
fluoride as a frosting agent, also in the fermen.t.tion industries
to inhibit contaminating organisms without affecting yeast;
sodium antimony fluoride (Fluoremetic) as a mordai.t in dyeing;
cerous fluoride in pencils for arc lamps to give iog-enetration
powers; chromium fluoride as a mordant in logwocd dyeing; cupric
fluoride as an oxidant in aniline-black printing; sodium

- 46 -

(248) Dyson, G. M. Continued.

fluosilicate in the preparation of fire enamels, preservative
for rubber latex, and insecticidal use; aluminum fluoride as a
substitute for lead arsenate; zinc fluosilicate for the preserva-
tion of stonework ond as a general preservative. The last-namcd
pompound has high value as an antiseptic but is unsuited to
medicinal wort. No organic fluorine derivatives are in use
medicinally, although some have been suggested for use.

(249) Ewing, K. P.

1931. Cage tests of the effectiveness of insecticidal dusts for
the control of the cotton flea hopper. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 24:821-827.
The most toxic materials to the adults named in descending
order were nicotine-calcium arsenate mixture, nicotine-line
mixture, sodium fluosilicatc, paris green-calcium arsenate
mixture. Superfine sulfur was highly toxic to the n mphs.

(250) Fairbrother, T. H.

1931. Moth-proofing compounds. Soap 7(9):97, 99, 101, 103, 111.
A review of the problems of moth-proofing agents and
methods of testing such compounds is given. The development,
methods of application, and limitations of turpentine, p-
dichlorobenzenc, inorganic and organic fluorides, Eulan,
dichloroethane, alpha-ketotetrahydronaphthalene, extracts
of lupine seeds, quillaja bark, and a number of othcr com-
pounds as moth-proofing agents arc discussed.

(251) Friend, R. B., and Turner, N.

1931. The Mexican bean beetle in Connecticut. Conn. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bull. 332:71-108.
Against the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna corrupta
Mulsant) a dust of 1 part barium fluosilicate plus 5 parts lime
is recommended.

(252) Grubenholzimprggnierung, G. m. b. H.

1931. Agents de conservation du bois. French patent 698,624,
issued Feb. 2; appl. July 7, 1930.
WTood is preserved with a mixture of equal parts of
potassium dichromate and sodium fluoride.

(253) Guillgsen, J., and Union Chimique Belge, Soci~tl Anonyme.

1931. Improvements in the relating to fungicides. British
patent 357,443; issuGd Sept. 24; appl. Dec. 18, 1930.
A material for treating seeds in the dry state is formed
preferably of basic copper carbonate and sodium fluosilicate.

- 47 -

(254) Lal-pin, J. '., and Hayes, J. B.

1931. Fight roaltry lice nd mites. "is. Agr. Coll. Lx;. Mr.
56, (6th ed.) 8 pp.
A accowimt of ice and. mites on poultry, with
recomendation for a dipl, dust, cr grease containing sodiumr

(255) Hamilton, C. C.

1931. Tests on the control of several insects attackIng ornamental
plants. Jour. Eccn. Ent. 24:162-162.
Adults of Erachyrhinus sulcatus Fabr., grvbs of whlh ca were
feeding on the roots of taxus plants, were successfiully controlled
by baits consisting of apple scraps imprognatcd with 3.5 -percent
sodium fluosilicate.

(256) hatfinld, I.

1931. Recent ex er'zerts with chemicals suggested for wood -reserva-
tion. Amer. Wood Pi:esorvcrsl Assoc. Proc. 1931:304-314.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 26:5723-5724. 1932.]
The rIative toxicitiec of 2, chemIcals to throe 7ood-destroy-
ing and four sap-staining fungi were determined with nutrient agar
in Petri dishes inonibated at 25O C. for 21 days. Four rou ,c of
chemicals were tested: (2) :ercury ethyl anc phonyl comcoads;
(2) German proprietary preservatives, including combinations of
sodium fluoride and dinitrophenols and cresols; (3' nrtnodichloro-
benzene and three phenol dirivatives; (4) miccellanecus, including
formaldehyde and amrnoniimn arsenious trioxid. in grcu (1) the
ethyl-mercury compounds wore most effective a -inst bcth wood
destroyers and blue staincrs; in group: 2 sodiui.L dinitrophenolate;
in group 3 totrachlorophenol; anO, in group 4 iilinercc 2nd butyl
phenolate were best. Higher concentrations w:ere. rcauired to kill
blue-stain fungi than wod-destroying fungi. Tests ccnsIcered
toxicity only, with no regard to effect on 7Cod, metals, solubility,
volatility, leachability, and permanence.

(257) Hinds, W. E., and Osterberger, B. A.

1931. The soybean caterpillar in Louisiana. Jour. Econ. Ent.
Insecticidal control of the soybean caterpillar (Anticarsia
gemmatilis Hbm. ) has been found practicable by dusting with sodium
or barium fluosilicate at the rate of 15-16 lb. per acre.

- 48 -

(258) Hodson, W. E. H.

1931. A new method of-rreventinC attacks of bulb flies on narcissus.
Jour. Min. Agr. FGt. Brit.]. 38:54-60.
Against narcissus bulb flies ('.erodon equestris and
Eiwimerus tubercultu.) poison baits containing a small .iiount of
sodium -fluoride were effective. Very promising results were
obtained in field tests.

(259) Huckett, H. C.

1931. The tolerance of beans to spray-s and dusts for the Mexican
bean beetle. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24:200-204.
Studies with commercial brands of arsenicals, barium
fluosilicate, and cryolite in soray and dust mixture against
Epilachna corrupta indicate that certain arsenicals cannot always
be used with -afety upcn bean plants. Potnssium arsenate, barium
fluosilicate, an6. cryolite are the safest to use on the foliage
at the comx.only irecommendod concentrations.

(260) Iigra, S.

1931. [Dusting insecticide.] Japanese patent 92,999, issued
Sept. 26, [In Jnaneso, Abstract in Chem. Abs. 26:4128.
Metallic arsenate or fluosilicate is prepared in a solution
to which are added acid clay, kieselguhr, talc, gelatin, glue,
casein, resin, and basic compounds of bivalent and tervalent metals.
The product fixes well to plants, and the added materials decrease
the solubility of the arsenate or fluosilicate.

(261) Jancke, 0.

1931. Beitrgge zur innertheraocutischen Schkdlingsbekfipfung.
Ztschr. Angew. Ent. 18:276-318.
Nutrient solutions containing nicotine, mercuric chloride,
chlorothymol, sodium fluoride, and barium chloride absorbed by
plants in tolerated amounts were also tolerated by aphids. The
possibility of controlling insects by intratherapeutic treatments
did not appear promising.

(262) Joubert, C. J.

1931. Codling moth control. Farming in So. Africa 3:229, 231-232.
In six out of seven comparative experiments cryolite
sprays (2 lb. in 40 gal. of water with 1/4 pt. fish oil) gave
3 to 25 percent better control of the codling moth on pears than
did lead arsenate sprays.

- 49 -

(260) Kramer, H.

1931. [Anti-moth materials.] Soc. Indus. Rouen Bull. 52:48-53.
LIn French, Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25:4712, 1931.]
Certain acids, e. E., stibictungstic, phosnhotungstic, and
titanohydrcfluric, have a protective action if well distributed
over the fabric but are not fast to rinsirg.

(264) Lacroix, D. S.

1931. Tobacco insect studies in 1930. Conn. Agr. ExPt. Sta. Bull.
Against the potato flea beetle (Epitrix cuc-Luneris harr.)
on tobacco good results were obtained with duasts of cryolite and
barium fluosilicate, neither of which caused foliage Inj dry.
Dusts were used at rate of 30 lb. per acre.

(265) Langenbuch, R., and Scherket, IT.

1931. Zur Lebensgeschichte des Moosknopf'&fers (Atomaria linearis
Steph.). Nachrblatt. Leut. Fflanzenschutzdiennt
Atomaria linearis Steph. on sugar beets was not susceptible
to treatments with sodium fluoride.

(266) Marcovitch, S., and Anthony, M. V.

1931. A preliminary report on the effectiveness of sodi,,mi fluo-
silicate as compared with borax in controlling the house
fly (Musca domestica Linne). Jorr. Econ. E:t. 24: 490-497.
Sodium fluosilicate is recommended instead of borax for
spraying manure piles to destroy the larvae of the house fly.

(267) Marcovitch, S. and Stanley, W. W.

1931. A preliminary report on arsenical substitutes frr peach
spraying. Tenn. Hort. Soc. Proc. 27:86-92.
Seven sprays of a commercial brand of barium fluosilicate
and sulfur reduced infestation of the oriental fruit moth larvae
(Laspeyresia molesta Busk).

(268) Marcovitch, S., Stanley, W. W., and Anthony, M. V.
1931. A preliminary report on arsenical substitutes for peach spray-
ing. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24:644-850.
The fluorine compounds were safe on foliage at concentrations
of 1 lb. to 50 gal. of water. The largest percentage of sound fruit
was recorded for the plot receiving a dust of 50 percent barium
fluosilicate and 50 percent sulfur. The plots sprayed with cryolite
and barium fluosilicate showed 77.6 percent sound fruit ns compared
with 68 percent for load arsenate and 5.8 percent in the chock plots.
The fluorine sprays and dusts were decidedly more e ,4jntthan
lead arsenate against the oriental moth.

- 50 -

(269) Miller. i. L., end Mcbride, 0. C.

1931. Experiments with copper carbonate, lea.d arsenate, and other
compounds against the Mediterranean friit fly in Florida.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 24:1119-3-131.
Cupric fliioride and potassium aluminum fluoride were
tested against the Mediterraiiean fruit fly, but they did not show
up so well as some of the other materials tested.

(270) Mioreland, R. W., and Bibby, F. F.

1931. Field tests in Texas of insecticides for control of the cotton
bollworm (Heliothis obsoleta Fab.) Jour. Econ. Ent.
The application of sodium fluosilicate dust to cotton gave
but slight, if any, control of the bollworm in 1928. In 1929 the
plat treated with this material yielded nor:- cotton than the un-
treat3d plat lut not so mich as thk plat tr -wtd itn calcium

(271) Mller, R.

1931. Die Bektmpfung der Rftbenfliege mit Fluornatrium. Landw.
Wchnschr. Sachsen 89: 448-449.
Spraying with n solution containing 3 to 4 C,. sodium fluoride
and 20 g. of sugar per liter is recormmended.

(272) Nawa, S.

1931. [Insecticide.] Japanese patent 93,072; issued Sct. 5.
[In Jaranese, Abstract in Chem. Abs. 26:4408. 1932.]
A powdered mixture of potassium fluosilicate, calcium sulfate,
and wheat or the like is specified.

(273) Now Jersey Agricultural ExTerirdent Station

1931. Controlling cockroaches in the greenhouse. N. J. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Ann. Bept. 1930-31:226-227.
ThE cockroach Periplanet americana L. in greenhouses was
killed by a poison bait of bread crumbs and 3 to 4 percent sodium
fluos'Llicate, with sufficient water to form a mash.

(274) Newcomer, E. J.

1931. A substitute for lead arsenate. Better Fruit 2519):7-8.
Attention is called to the value of fluorine compounds in
combating the codling moth, several having been proved equal to
lead arsenate. Barium fluosilicate and cryolite are available in
suitable form. No injury that could be attributed to them was
observed, and they did not affect the color, size, or quality of
the fruit.

- 51 -

(275) Newcomer, E. J.

1931. A codling moth control schedule for 1932. Wash. State
Hort. Assoc. Proc. 27:46-50.
After July, oil emulsions should be combined with other
insecticides than lead arsenate, such as cryolite or barium
fluosilicate, at the rate of 3 lb. tc 100 gal. In some cases in
1931 cryolite proved mere effective than lead arsenate.

(276) Newcomer, E. J., and Carter, R. H.

1931. Fluorine compounds as substitutes for lead arsenate in the
control of the codling moth. Idaho State Hert. Assoc.
[Proc.] 36:161-165.
Barium fluosilicate, potassium fluosilicate, and cryolite
gave results comparable with those obtained with lead arsenate
for control of the codling moth on apples in Pacific Northwest.
A spray containing 4 lb. of the fluorine compound and 1 pint of
fish-oil or mineral-oil emulsion per 100 gal. of water is

(277) Newman, L. J.

1931. The principal insect pests of tobacco. Jour. Dept. Agr.
West. Aust. 8:520-541.
The larvae of the cut worm Agrotis munda may be held in
check by a poison bait of 1 lb. sodium fluoride to 30 lb. bran,
scattered between the rows.

(278) Osima, S.

1931. Paint for ship's bottom. Japanese patent 90,889; issued
April 2. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25:5048. 1931.]
The paint consists of mercury, copper, fluosilicates, etc.
A mixture of mercuric oxide 5, cupric oxide 25, sodium fluosili-
cate 30, ferric oxide 40 percent, and copal varnish 120 is an

(279) Pannewitz, E.

1931. Die wirksamen Stoffe der Holzkenservierungsmittel. Ztschr.
Desinfektion- u. Gesundheitsw. 23:57-68.
The inorganic and organic chemicals in use or proposed
for fungicides or insecticides in wood conservation are completely
reviewed. A number of fluorine compounds are mentioned.

- 52 -

(280) Pettey, F. W.

1931. The codling moth and experiments for its control in apple
orchards of the high veld during 1930-1931. Union So.
Africa Dept. Agr. Sci. Bull. 104. 30 pp.
Artificial cryolite was not so effective as lead arsenate
in controlling codling moth in high veld orchards, but it caused
no foliage injury whereas the arsenate sprays did considerable
damage. The results indicate that cryolite is more effective in
control in arid summer coastal regions than in those where
summer rainfall occurs.

(281) Polivka, J. B.

1931. The effect of physiological change in the corn plant on
corn borer survival. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24:394-395.
Physiological differences in the corn plant produce signi-
ficant difference in the responses of the borer. For example,
for each day's delay in silking there is a coincident reduction
of about 4 percent in the borer population. These differences
are particularly important when the effects of insecticides
are under consideration. Heavy application of sodium fluosili-
cate reduced the borer population and also the yield, which was
accompanied by delay in date of silking. The survival of the
corn borer is apparently affected if the development of the corn
is retarded by mechanical or insecticidal treatments.

(282) Rabanus, A.

1931. Die toximetrische Prtfung von Holzkonservierungsmitteln.
Angew. Bot. 13:352-371.
From tests with cupric sulfate, zinc chloride, mercuric
chloride, sodium fluoride, sodium dichromate, and arsenious
acid as timber preservatives, it is evident that the action of
a preservative on a fungus in the wood itself cannot be deduced
from the reaction to the fungicide of the same organism on malt
extract agar.

(283) Rambousek, F.

1931. Letosni stave repnich skudcu (na jaie 1931). Ochr. Rost
9:153-158. [In Czech. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 20(A):
258. 1932.]
The beet fly (Pegomyia hyoscyami var. betae Curt.) was
successfully controlled with a 0.5-percent solution of sodium
fluoride applied in large drops, which the flies drink.

- 53-

(284) Regan, W. S.

1931. Results of insecticide tests for the control of the codling
moth and. observations on codling moth activity in the
Yakima Valley, Washington. Calif. Spray Chem. Co.
Research Bull., 30 pp.
Tests with straight barium fluosilicate and Dutox gave
results in the control of codling moth equal in every respect, if
not actually superior, to tests with lead arsenate. Both 2- and
3-lb. dosages of Dutox in 100 gal. gave excellent results. These
compounds must be used with some material to give proper distri-
bution and adhesion to foliage and fruit.

(285) Regnier, P.-R.

1931. Les invasions d'acridiens au Maroc de 1927 a 1931.
[Morocco] Dir. Gen. Agr., Comm. et Colonis., Defense des
Cultures, [Publ.] No. 3, 13S pp.
Against larvae of 1ioroccan locusts (Stauronotus maroccanus
Thunb.) baits prepared with sodium fluosilicate were about as
toxic as sodium arsenite, whereas sodium fluoride was less toxic.

(286) Ripley, L. B. andHepburn, G. A.

1931. Non-arsenical fruit-fly poisons. Union So. Africa Dept.
Agr. Ent. Memo. 7, pp. 17-22.
Sodium fluosilicate in Sweetened bait on citrus foilage
had a toxicity 16 times that of lead arsenate to the Natal fruit
fly (Pterandrus rosa Ksh.). Barium fluosilicate and lead
arsenate were about equally toxic. Cryolite, calcium fluosili-
cate, copper carbonate, and Pulvex (a derris product) are not
sufficiently toxic to be useful against the Natal fruit fly.

(287) Roark, R. C.

1931; An iftdex of patented mothproofing materials. U. S. Dept.
Agr. Bur. Chem. and Soils >Aimeo. Pub., 125 pp.
Some fluorine compounds are listed.

(288) Shuey, G. A.

1931. Report on the analysis of fluorine compounds used as
insecticides. Jour. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chem. 14:126-132.
A special reaction flask has been designed permitting the
introduction of sulfuric acid (98 to 98.5 percent) without
removal of the stopper, thus excluding atmosphere moisture. A
detailed description is given of a somewhat modified technique
of the method of Reynolds, Ross, and Jacobs. An average recovery
of 95.7 percent of the fluorine was obtained.

- 54 -

(289) Simanton, F. L., Dicke, F. G., and Bottger, G. T.

1931. The lethal power f certain insecticides tested in !iicqigan
against the European corn borer. Jour. Econ. Ent.
24: 395-404.
The following insecticides were tested: Lead diarsenate,
calcium arsenate, barium fluosilicate, calcium fluosilicate, sodium
fluosilicate, nicotine, pyrethrum preparations, talc, and 11
fluorides and flucaluminates. The materials were applied as
sprays with power sprayers and as dusts with hand dusters. Of
the fluosilicates, calcium fluosilicate gave best control with
least plant injury. The fluorides and fluoaluminates gave very
good results with one application. The other materials were
generally unsatisfactory. Insecticides applied as sprays were
usually more effective than as dusts, but sprays generally
caused greater plant injury. The addition of stabilizers, carriers,
diluents, adhesives, and spreaders to insecticides did not improve
their effectiveness.

(290) Sinitzkii, N., Shekera, E., and Levkovtzeva, V.

1931. Comparative tests of the effect of sodium fluoride, sodium
fluosilicate and barium chloride on the beet-root weevil
(Bothynoderes punctiventris). Nauk. Zapiski Tzukrovoi.
Prom. 13(3):831-842. [In Russian with English summary.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 20(A):203. 1932.]
Fluorine compounds are slower in action than barium chloride
but less affected by wet weather. These weevils stop feeding more
quickly with the fluorine compounds. Best concentrations are
about 0.7 percent; in concentrations above 1 percent they scorched
the beet plants. Some evidence is shown that fluoride was more
toxic than fluosilicate.

(291) Smit, B.

1931. A study of the sheep blow-flies of South Africa. Union So.
Africa Dept. Agr. Dir. Vet. Serv. and Anim. Indus. Rept.
Full-grown maggots of the various species of sheep blowfly
are remarkably resistant to poisoning by direct contact with
sodium fluoride.

(292) Smith, C. M., Hamilton, E. H., and Graham, J. J. T.

1931. A study of the Travers method for the estimation of fluorine
with reference to insecticides. Jour. Assoc. Off. Agr.
Chem. 14:253-260.
A modification of the Travers method was developed and found
satisfactory for the analysis of sodium fluoride alone, and in
mixtures with many of the ingredients ordinarily found in proprietary
insecticides. Iron, aluminum, and boron compounds interfere.

- 55 -

(293) Smith, M. C., Lantz, E. M., and Smith, H. V.

1931. The cause of mottled enamel. Science 74:244.
The cause of mottled enamel of the teeth is held to be due
to the presence of fluorine in the water supplies.

(22'4) Smith, M. C., Lantz, E. M., and Smith, H. V.

1931. The cause of mottled enamel. A defect of human teeth.
Ariz. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 32:253-282.
The presence of fluorine in the water supply was proved to
be the source of the trouble known as mottled enamel of teeth by
the production of a condition similar, if not identical, to
mottled enamel in experimental animals.

(295) Speyer, E. R.

1931. Tomato-moth caterpillar (Polia oleracea L.) Nursery and
"arket Gard. Indus. Devlpmt. Soc., Expt. and Res. Sta.
Ann. Rert. 16:69-70.
Experiments on the control of this pest proved sodium fluo-
silicate to be toxic to tomato foliage. Barium fluosilicate was
not injurious, but was not toxic to larvae. Aluminum fluosilicate
was toxic to larvae and not injurious to plants, 'but too expensive.
Most satisfactory results were obtained with synthetic cryolite,
6 lb. to 100 gal., with 2 oz. of saponin.

(296) Stone, I.

1931. Determination of fluorides using the zirconium lake of
alizarin. Jour. Chem. Ed. 8:347-349.
To prepare the lake, mix a solution of 0.5 g. of alizarin
in 200 cc. of alcohol with one of 1.5 g. of zirconium chloride
in 75 cc. of alcohol, filter, and wash with alcohol. Suspend the
moist precipitate in alcohol to make 25 cc. and as reagent use 5 cc.
of this suspension with 100 cc. of water. To 2.5 cc. of the solu-
tion to be tested add an oquial volume of concentrated hydrochloric
acid and 0.5 cc. of the reagent. If the solution contains more
than 0.3 mg. of fluorine, the red color will turn yellow almost
immediately. Any oxidizing agent that liberates chlorine from
hydrochloric acid interferes.

(297) Stracener, C. L.

1931. Economic importance of the salt-marsh caterpillar (Estigmene
acraea Drury) in Louisiana. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24:835-838.
Sodium fluosilicate has considerable advantage over arsenicals
in control of salt marsh caterpillars. Three heavy applications
within 8 days while the dew was on the plants did not cause any
burning of cotton foliage.

- 56 -

(28) Suzuki, H., and Nakamura, S.

1931. [Deodorizing insecticide.] Japanese patent 92,937; issued
Sept. 25; [In Japanese. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 26:4408.
The insecticide is a mixture of bleaching powder kieselguhr
and powdered fluor spar.

(299) United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology.

1931. European earwig. U. S. Dept. Agr.,Bue:: u Ent., Ann. Rept.
1931: 39-40.
Against the European earwig (Forficula auricularia L.)
ootassium fluosilicate was found to be the most effective of 54
poisons tested against it in a bait with bran and fish oil.

(300) 7.?iitcorb, 77. D.

1931. Control of root weevils on taxus and other nursery plants.
Yati. \urseryman 39(11):5-6.
Com ercial poisoned apple baits containing sodium fluosili-
cate are effective against the large strawberry root weevil or
black vine weevil (Brachyrhinus sulcatus) and the sm711 strawberry
root weevil (B. ovatus).

(301) 7ilkinson, H.

1931. The control of the cutworm. Xeny-i Colony Dept. Agr. Bull.
12, 5 pp.
Against the cutworms Euyoa segetis Schf., E. spinifera Hbn.,
Polia inferior Guen., ind Prodena litura F. a poison bait of sodium
fluoride and chopped prickly pear is recommended, and the method of
preparation is given.

(302) T7olman, E. H., and Pflug, H.

1931. tber Holzkonservierung iit wasserlbslichen Salzen. Ztschr.
Angew. Chem. 44:696-698.
new preservative, Thanalith U, composed of fluorine and
arsenic salts, dinitrophenol, and chromium salts, is described.
Toxicity tests show that wood treated with a 2-percent, or even
1-percent, solution of Thanalith U is immune from attack by
Coniophora cerebella and Polyporus vaporarius.

(303)) TYnore, F. H.

1931. The effect of insecticides on truck crops. Calif. Dept. Agr.
iionthly Bull. 20:185-188.
A general discussion on arsenicals, sulfur, and the fluosili-
cates is given, The use of fluosilicates is not recommended because
of bad burning of foliage.

- 57 -

(304) Abel, Z. G.

1932. t ber Holzonservierun-- mit wasserl~slichnn Salen. Zt.:chr.
Angew. Chem. 45:108-109.
Exception is taken to statement of 7olman and Pflug that
Fluralsil can be leached out cf wood to the extent of 90 percent.
Fluralsil is claimed to contain other fungicides besides zinc
fluosilicate. Tests show that 70 percent of the Fluralsil is
fixed by the wood fibers and unleachable by water.

(305) Andrewartha, H. G.

1932. The apple curculio: its control by a poison bait. Jour. Dept.
Agr. West Aust. 9:104-105.
For control of Otiorrhynchus cribricollis a bait of 9 lb. of
dried apple and 1 lb. of sodium fluoride is recommended.

(306) Attia, R.

1932. A study of sodium fluosilicate with special reference to its
toxicity to farm animals. Egypt 1 in. Agr., Tech. and Sci.
Serv. Bull. 105, 38 pp.
Wheat dusted with sodium fl,osilicate was placed in jars and
artificially infested with either Calandra esic' cryzae or Tribolium
confusum. Sodium fluosilicate gave -erfect control of Calandra
oryzae in 2 to 3 weeks even with as little as 1 -art per 3,000
parts of grain. Tribojium confusum more resi,;t-,_nt. The ,"ermi-
nation of wheat was seriously affected, es)ccill7 -,t higher
concentrations. Sodium fluoride in all rrportions up to 1 to
2,500 was more toxic than sodium fluosilica'Lc to Calandra oryzae,
giving almost complete control in 1 week. T"he repellent action and
toxicity of sodium fluosilicate was tested en rabbits and goats.

(307) 3ack, E. A.

2932. Silverfish as a pest of the household. U. S. Dept. Agr.
:armerts ull. 1665, 5 p.
An effective poison powder is made by mixing 12 parts of
sodium fluoride with 100 parts of whe t fleur. A paste consisting
of 1/2-3/4 oz. of white arsenic with 1 pint of wheat flour and
enough water to make a paste is also effective.

(308) Baerg, W. J.

1932. The strawberry weevil. Ark. Agr. Exnt. Sta. Ann. Eert. 44
(Bull. 230) :41-42.
Against the strawberry weevil calcium fluosilicate compound
was used without damage to the plants and appeared to give control
equal to that obtained with lead arsenate and hydrated lime (1:2).

- 58 -

(309) Bnllard, E. !i.stikwi, k. M. and F1 Zoiiry, M. S.

1932. The desert locust, Sc'.istocorca gregaria orsk., in Egypt.
E /pt Pirin. Agr Tec.. and Sci. Sorv, IEull. 110, 149 Do.
Good control _as obtained by dusting lants with sodium
fluosilicatc. Sodiimn fluosilicate was less uffoctive a s bait
than sodium arsenite and when iiscd at 4 percent vwas definitely

(310) Barrett, R. Z.

1932. Rclative. toxicity of some dusts to C-.'pocapsn pomonclla.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:859-853.
Of nine fluorine compounds tested on English walnut trees,
barium fluosilic-Lto and synthetic cryolito showed promise. Talc
was a bettor diluent than lime for these compounds. A mixture of
35 percent of either of those materials plus 65 percent of talc is
recommended. Walnut trees wore dr.sted with fluorine comoounds at
the rate of 2 lb. psr tree. i-arium fluoride, magnesium fluosili-
cate, sodium fluoride, and ZinC magnesiaun fl'iosilicate entirely
defoliated th.. trees and killed the current year's wood. Sod ium
fluosilicate scorched the ties and margins of the leaves but did
not cause serious defoliation. >arium fluosilicrto and synthetic
cryolite were harmless to foliage.

(311) Ulanchard, R. A., and Concor, 0. 3.

1932. iTotes on Prodcnia nraefica Grote. Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:
Baits containing 1 lb. of sodium fluoride to 25 lb. of
wheat bran plus 2 lb. of molasses ga,ve good control in experiments.

(312) Llunck, H., and Kaufmann, 0.
1932. Die R~ibenfliege und ihre Bok'Xmpfung. Deut. Zuckerindus.

57:491-492, 534-535.
Eggs aid pupae of Pegoryia hyoscyani. Panz. are not greatly
harmed by contact insecticides. The larvae may be killed by 5 to
6 percent barium chloride solution or 0.15 percent nicotine spray
(40 gal. per acre), but it is more advisable to destroy the flies
with a bait s-ra- containing 0.3 to 0.4 percent sodium fluoride
and 2 percent sugar.

(313) locdanov-Kat'kov, !,. 17.

1932. Revision ees Hymenopteres nuisibles aux plants potageres.
B.ul11. Leningrad inst. Control!. It. For. Pests 3:149.
[In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 21:120. 1933.3
On vegetable and root crops a 2-percent solution of sodium
fluoride greatly decreased the number of sawfly larvae.

- 59 -

(314) iEoyce, A. M.

1932. Mortality of Rhagoletis completa Cress. (Diptera: Try-etidae)
through ingestion of certain solid materials. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 25:1053-1059.
Ingestion studies in which lead arsenate, barium fluosilicate,
cryolite, copper carbonate, hydrated lime, talc, diatomaceous earth,
bentonite, sulfur, and ground tobacco leaves were employed demonstra-
ted that adult walnut husk flies actually take undissolved particles
into the stomach. Results of toxicity studies are graphically re-
presented. Barium fluosilicate and cryolite were superior to lead
arsenate and similar to each other in speed of toxic action.

(315) Bredcmann, G., and Radelnff, H.

1932. Zur Diagnose von Fluor-Rauchsch~den. Phytopath. Ztschr.
5:195-206. Fortschr. Landw. 8:88-89.
Positive identification of fluorine smoke injury to plants
cannot be obtained by botanical and pathological examinations
alen-r. Fluorine czn 'be detected in the leaves of smoke-damaged
plants by the microchomical method of Peigl and Krumhclz and by the
method of precipitation as sodium fluosilicate. Fluorine naturally
present in the leaves does not interfere in the precipitation
method. Culinary soils do not contain significant amounts of
dissolved fluorine compounds. Vegetation experiments in garden
soil and sand treated with various amounts cf fluorine compounds
showed that fluorine is fixed to a greater extent in soil than
in sand.

(316) California Agricultural Experiment Station.

1932. [The walnut husk fly.] Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 1930-31:
Toxicity studies showed cryolite to be equal to barium
fluosilicate for the control of the walnut husk fly.

(317) California Agricultural Experiment Station.

1932. [The garden centipede.] Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept.
1930-31: 69.
Investigations on the control of the garden centipede
(Scutigerella immaculata Newp.) showed that calcium and sodium
fluosilicates and sodium fluoride were practically ineffective.

(318) California Agricultural Experiment Station.

1932. [The pepper weevil.] Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 1930-31:
Barium fluosilicate gave indication of being the best insecti-
cide yet tried for control of the pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii
Cane), but there is some question of its burning the plants.

- 60 -

(519) California Agricultural Experimert Station.

1932. [The vegetable weevil.] Calif. .Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept.
The vegetable weevil (Listroderes obliguus Gyll.) was
successfully controlled by dusting with sodium or barium
fluo silicate.

(320) Carter, R. H.

1932. Calcium fluosilicate compound is not calcium fluosilicate.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:707-709.
The material being used by most entomologists under the name
"calcium fluosilicate" is a complex byproduct of the phosphate ferti-
lizer industry. A commercial sample of this material gave the
following analysis: Calcium 16.4, fluorine 11.6, total water-soluble
fluorine 9.8, phosphorus pentoxide 27.3, 4ron and aluminum oxides as
Fe203 18.2 percent; silicon and water present. It was strongly acid
in reaction.

(321) Carter, R. H.

1932. The chemical composition of commercially available fluorine
compounds. Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:1224-1227.
Determination of the chemical composition of samples of 14
commercial fluorine compounds (sodium, potassium, ammonium, barium,
strontium, and calcium fluorides; sodium and ammonium acid fluorides;
sodium, barium, magnesium, and zinc fluosilicates; and sodium and
potassium fluoaluninates) showed that all but throe (potassium
fluoride, barium fluesilicate, and sodium fluoalmwlinate) were 90 to
100 percent pure. Sodium fluoride, sodium and barium fluosilicates,
sodium and potassium fluoaluminates, and "calcium fluosilicate
compound" are now available, and their physical properties have
been improved to make them satisfactory for spraying and dusting.

(322) Carter, R. H.

1932. The incompatability of barium fluosilicate and nicotine
sulfate. (Sci. Yote) Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:1242-1243.
Nicotine sulfate and barium flunsilicate in solution react
to form insoluble barium sulfate and probably nicotine fluosilicate.

- 61 -

(323) Crter, R. H.

1932. Fluorine residues on apples. (Sci. Note) Jour. Econ. Ent.
25: 1243-1244.
Maxinum residue obtained from heavy spraying with barium
fluosilicate was 0.927 grain of barium fluosilicate (-0.378 grain
of fluorine) per pound. Residue from normal spraying (4 to 5
covers) was 0.15 grain of barium fluosilicate (AA:0.061 grain of
fluorine). Commercial washing processes removed 75 percent of
this residue, leaving a fluorine residue of 0.015 grain of
fluorine per pound. Other fluorine compounds used in apple-orchard
spraying contain a larger percentage of fluorine and perhaps leave
larger residues on sprayed fruit.

(324) Chamberlin, F. S.

1932. The apparent incompatibility of barium fluosilicate and
nicotine sulphate. (Sci. Note) Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:135.
A mixture of barium fluosilicate 1.5 lb., nicotine
fulfite 12 oz., ane water 50 gal. caused severe injury to tobacco.
Used separately the ingredients did not injure this plant.

(325) Cummins, J. E.

1932. The presorvative treatment of fence posts. Aust. Advisory
Council Sci. and Indus. Research, Pamphlet 24, 34 pp.
A mixture of sodium fluoride or zinc chloride and arsenic
trioxide gave satisfactory protection from decay and termites and
other insects.

(32i) Fergusson, H.

1932. Wood preservation, notes on recent development. Chem.
Trade Jour. 91:100-101.
A brief review of well-known processes for the treatment
of green and dry timber. In recent years fluorides or fluosili-
cates have been used with the addition of dinitrocresol or
salicylic acid.

(327) Feytaud, J.

1932. Un nouvel appit pour la destruction des courtilileres. Rev.
Zool. Agr. et App!. 31:105-107.
The bait of rice and barium fluosilicate recommended by
Lhalenotti against mole crickets is described and its cost in
Italy and France is discussed.

- :2 -

(328) Florida L.gricultur-il Experimnt Station.

1932. Insects of citrus. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1931-32:
In experiments against the "bird" grasshopper (Schistocerca
nmericana) in citrus groves baits of 50 lb. bran, 10 to 15 grape-
fruit, 1 gal. syrup, and 2 lb. sodiu-m fluoride or 3 lb. sodium
fluosilicate gave 100-percent mortality in the laboratory,- and the
fluosilicate btit gave 84-percent mortality in the field. A dust
containing 18 percent sodium fluosilicate gave 100-percent control
in 6 days when both plants and grasshoppers were dusted, but it
did not adhere well to the leaves. A spray of 4 lb. sodium
aluminumm fluoride in 100 gal. water was unsatisfactory.

(329) Frost, S. W.

1932. Preliminary oxpe.riments with now spray materials against
the oriental fruit moth. Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:381-385.
Lead arsenate petroleum oil emaulsions (1 percent oil)
and sodiuij aluninmi-i fluoride were tested in the laboratory and
field on Laspeyrcsia molesta. The oil emulsions killed a high
percentage of the newly hatched larvae, in some cases without
apparent foliage injury. Their us,., however, presents a residue
problem and they tend to discolor the fruit. A spray of sodium
alzuinum fluoride (3 lb. per 100 gal.) did not give effective
control of this insect and caused considerable foliage injury.

(330) Goetze, G., and Schleusener, W.

1932. Versuche zur Bek mpfung der Weidenblattk!dfer. Ztschr.
Pflanzenkrank. 42:49-58.
For controlling the willow beetle (Phyllodecta vulgatissina
L.) a spray containing 0.5 percent of sodium fluoride and 2 per-
cent of sugar is reco.uended.

(331) Golding, F. D.

1932. Sodium fluosilicate as a poison against the hoppers of
Locusta nigratoria migratorioides, R. and F., in Nigeria.
Bull. Ent. Research 23:449-461.
Sodimu fluosilicate was as effective as sodium arsenite
in baits when used at the same concentration (2.44 percent), but
slower in action. Sodium fluosilicate was less toxic than sodium
arsenite to stock, but the degree of safety was not so great as
popularly supposed. Baits containing sodium fluosilicatewasripelentto
animals, whereas sodium arsenite was attractive.

- 63 -

(332) Habegger, H.

1932. Imprhgnierverfahr-en zur Konservierung von Bauholz,
Leitungsmasten und dergleichen. Swiss patent 152,022;
issued April 1; apple. Aug. 18, 1931.
Wood is preserved by impregnation with sodium salt solutions,
including those of sodium fluoride.

(333) Hammer, 0. H.

1932. Studies on control of the apple curculio in the Champlain
Valley. Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:569-575.
Control measures recommended against Tachypterllus
quadrigibbus Say are use of cryolite and lead arsenate for late
sum.vicr feeding by the new generation.

(334) Hatfi I!d, I.

1932. Further experiments with chemicals suggested as possible
wood prcservatcives. Amer. Wood Preservers' Assoc. Proc.
1932:33-3 z39. rAbstract in Chem. Abs. 27:2553. 1933.]
Toximetric determinations were made with 60 compounds.
There wood-destroying and six wood-staining fungi were used.
Five groups of compounds were tested, one of which included
fluorine ccm-pounids.

(335) I. G. Farbenindustrie, A.-G.

1932. Vrfahren zur Drrstellung von Acidatofluorobors.uren und
ihren ScIzen. German patent 551,513; issued June 1;
aPl. Oct. 18, 1927.
Acids e'nd salts of chloroacetatofluoboric acid, lactatofluo-
boric acid, oleolactofluoboric acid, and benzoatofluoboric acid
are used as fungicides and insecticides.

(336) Indiana Agricultural Fpcrimient Station.

1932. Cucumber beetles. Ind. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 44:35.
A single dusting with barium fluosilicate (80 percent),
alone, or with an equal quantity of inert material such as
talc, at the rate of 10-15 lb. per acre gave good control of
striped and spotted cucumber beetles, always killing 75 percent
in 12 hours and in most tests 100 percent in 24 hours.

(337) Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station.

1932. European corn borer. Ind. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept. 44:36-37.
Barium fluosilicate mixed with talc was more effective
against the European corn borer than any other dust ever tested.
Applied as a spray it gave over 85 percent control and, though
producing a mottled appearance or bleaching of the leaves, did
not apparently reduce the crop yield.

- 64 -

(338) Kaltenbach, R. G.

1932. Etude sur les poudrages antidoryphoriques. 70 pp. Paris.
[Abstract in Rev. Apple. Ent. (A)21:636. 1933.]
Experiments on the control of Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Say on potato with arsenic and fluorine compounds are summarized.
It is concluded that barium fluosilicate is likely to replace
arsenic compounds on the grounds of efficiency, economy, and
freedom from legislative restrictions.

(339) K~nig, J., and Mengele, H.

1932. Zur Holzkonservierinqg mit Silicofluoriden. Ztschr. Angew.
Chem. 45:280-281.
Tests carried out with Hydrarsil, a new wood preservative
consisting of zinc fluosilicate and mercury fluosilicate, shmwed
that from 70 to 80 percent of the zinc and 90 percent of the
mercury were fixed by the wood, thus confirming the results of
Abel as to zinc flaosilicate. Tests also showed that wood
treated with mercuric chloride in aqueous solution fixed approxi-
mately 90 percent of the mercury.

(340) K~nig, J., and Mengele, H.

1932. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Pflanzenschdlingsbekmpfungs-
mittel. German patent 557,054; issued Aug. 18; appl.
June 20, 1931.
An insecticide is prepared by precipitating an insoluble
copper compound in a suspension of a freshly precipitated
fluosilicat e.

(341) List, G. M.

1932. A cherry pest in Colorado. Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 385.
106 pp.
Sodium fluosilicate was almost as effective as lead arsenate
against the cherry curculio (Tachypterellus censors cerasi, n.
subsp.), but was not so effective against the cherry slug
(Eriocampoides limacina Retz.) or against Grapholitha packardi Zell.

(342) Lovell, 0. H.

1932. The vegetable weevil, Listroderes obliquus. Calif. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Bull. 546, 19 pp.
Sodium fluosilicate dust is effective in controlling both
adults and larvae of the vegetable weevil on carrots, turnips,
spinach, and tomato, with only slight injury to the plants even
when wet, but it causes severe scorching of potato foliage.
Barium fluosilicate can be used with safety even on potato but
is more expensive and slower in action.

- 65 -

(343) U.icCulloch, P. N.

1232. Jetting for the reduction of sheep blowfly attack.
Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales 43:56L-573.
Sodium fluosilicate gave less protection than arsenicals
against blowflies on sheep.

(344) :Aci:eel, T. E.

1932. Observations on the biology of Mansonia perturbans (Walk.).
Diptera, Culicidae. N. J. Mosquito Extermin. Assoc. Proc.
19: 91-96.
In laboratory tests fairly satisfactory control of larvae
pwas obtained with sodiuni fluosilicate, but in the field this
material was entirely unsatisfactory.

(345) Liacklc D. B.

l?3>. Entomology and pest control. Calif. Dept. Agr. Monthly Bull.
21 :4174-498.
The use of 70 percent sodium fluosilicate dusted over sacks
or used as a barrier proved of value in preventing the granary weevil
from migrating to new grain in warehouses.

(346) Malenotti, E.

1932. Grillotalpe morte e uccelli vivi. Coltivatore 78:147-150.
Barium fluosilicate was as effective as zinc phosphide when
used as poison bait against Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L., and barir
fluosilicate was harmless to poultry.

(347) 11arcovitch, S.

1932. The residue problem and fluorine compounds. (Scien.Note)
Jour. 7con. E-t. 25:141-142.
Although iluorine and arsenic compounds have high acute
toxicity to mammals as to chronic toxicity, fluorine compounds are
at least 100,000 times safer than lead arsenate.

(348) iarshall, 1-. L., Jacobs, K. D., and Reynolds, D. S.

132. Occurrence of fluorine in natural phosphates. Indus. and
Engin. Chem. 24:86-89.
Analyses of 137 samples from 34 localities in countries
throughout the world indicate that fluorine is a characteristic
constituent of phosphate rock. It occurs in quantities ranging
from about 0.40 to 4.25 percent of the sample. In general, com-
uercial phosphate rock from continental deposits is characterized
by relatively high fluorine-phosphoric acid ratios, about 0.090 to
0.140, while samples from island deposits have relatively low ratios,
about 0.010 to 0.085.

- 66 -

(349) ".Iayne, R.

1932. Rapport sur des essais de destruction de la mouche de la
betterave. Azn. Gembloux 38:164-168.
In field tests against the beet' fly (Pegomyia hyosciami
var. betae Curt.) satisfactory results were obtained by application
to the foliage of a bait spray consisting of 20 lb. of sugar, 3/4
lb. of sodium fluoride, and 100 gal. of water at the rate of about
6-1/2 gal. per acre.

(350) i uanro, J. A., and Carruth, L. A.

1932. Insecticidal control of the common black field cricket
(Gryllus assimilis Fabr.). Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:896-902
Sodium fluosilicate was the most effective poison tested
in a bran bait for the control of this cricket. Sodium fluoride
was second in rank. Arsenicals and thallium sulfate were unsatis-

(351) i.ysore Department of Agriculture.

1932. Epilachna viginti octo punctata, Fb.0 on potato.
Hysore Agr. Dept. Rept. 1930-31:28.
Experiments in control of this pest on potato showed that a
dust of 1 lb. of sodium fluosilicate in 8 lb. of lime will kill 50
to 60 percent of the insects in 2 to 3 days. Road dust was not
satisfactory as a carrier.

(352) Few lMecico Agricultural Experiment Station.

1932. Codling moth investigations. N. Mex. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann.
Rept. 43:38-42.
Against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) sodium fluo-
*aluminate (cryolite) showed promise of good control and the arsenic
trioxide residue from earlier sprays of lead arsenate was reduced
from an average of 0.043 to 0.001-0.004 grain per lb. of fruit.

(353) iewcomer, E. J.

1932. Results with certain substitutes for lead arsenate for codling
moth control in the Pacific Northwest. Blue Anchor (Calif.
Fruit Exchange) 9(3):14-15, 25.
Comparative data are given on the control of the codling
moth by nicotine-oil, cryolite, barium fluosilicate, and lead
arsenate. Nearly all these compounds gave as good control as load
arsenate, or bettor, but the cost was higher.

(354) iTewcomer, E. J., Dean. F. P., and Rolfs, A. R-;

1932. A schedule for the control of the codling moth in 1932.
Better Fruit 26(8):8-9.
Cryolite and barium fluosilioate, are recommended as substi-
tutes for lead arsenate in sprays applied after July.

- 67 -

(355) :isiL awa, Y.

1932. Cntemical properties of solutions prepared from sodiulm
fluosilicate-hydrated lime mixtures with special reference
to their toxicity to plants. Mem. Col. Agr. Kyoto Inp.
Univ. 21. 15 pp. [Abstract in Rev. Anp!. Ent. (A) 20:460.
The acidity of the solutions, which at the same time repre-
sents the content of sodium fluosilicate, decreases with the addi-
tion of small amounts of hydritcd lime, but tncir to.ic action
never diminishes thereby. The strong alkaline solutions from the
mi;:tures with larger amounts of hydrated lime arc harmful to
vo cctation. Mixtures of sodium fluosilicate and hydrated lime
1'sed as dusts under wet weather conditions or as sprays will
cause severe plant injury. :iixtures containing a large amount of
line will become comparatively safe, but at the same time their
toxicity to insects may be reduced.

(356) 0'Kane. 7. C.

1932. Some problems and developments in control of insects by
chemicals. Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:232-243.
Barium fluosilicate, cryolite (both natural and synthetic),
and sodium fluoride are mentioned as offering means of control for
certain insects.

(357) Quaintance, A. L., and Siegler, E. H.

1932. Insecticides, equipment, and methods for controlling orchard
insect pests. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bull. 1666. (rev.),
93 pp.
"Several fluorine compounds, such as sodium fluosilicate,
barium fluosilicate, potassium fluosilicate, potassium aluminum
fluoride, and sodium aluminum fluoride (cryolite), are being used
in an experimental way, but as yet have not found a permanent
place in orchard spraying." (pp. 5-6)

(358) Richardson, C. H., and Glover, L. H.

19-2. Some effects of certain "inert" and toxic substances upon the
twelve-spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica tuodecimpunctata
(Fab.). Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:1176-318j.,
The effectiveness of dusts, based u oen the time required to
kill 50 percent of the beetles, was in the following order: SoCdium
fluosilicate = calcium arsenate > acid lead arsenate > commercial
calcium hydroxide = kaolin > gypsum > bentonite.

- 68 -

(359) Richardson, C. H. and Haas, L. Ei

1932. The evaluation of stomach poisons for grasshopper baits.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:1078-1088.
Adults of the red-legged grasshopper and the differential
grasshopper were fed determined quantities of bran-molasses
water baits which contained known concentrations of arsenious
oxide, monosodium arsenite, trisodium arsenite, paris green, acid
lead arsenate, sodium fluosilicate, or rotenone. The median
lethal dose is approximately the sare for the sodium arsenites,
paris green, and the sodium fluosilicates and estimated to be
about 0.16 mg. per grain of body weight. The M. L. D. for acid
lead arsenate is 3.0 and for rotenone 2.0 mg. per gram.

(360) Riesenfeld, E. H.

1932. Verfahren zum Impr gnieren von Holz mit schwerltslichen,
pilzt~tenden Salzen. German patent 551,196; issued
Hay 28; apple. Dec. 25, 1929.
A relatively dilute solution of a salt having a fungicidal
anion, e. g., 0.1N sodium arsenite or 0.2Y sodium fluoride, is
mixed with a relatively concentrated solution of an alkaline
earth or heavy metal salt, e. g., 8N calcium chloride, with or
without a protective colloid. The mixture does not form a pre-
cipitate immediately, and meanwhile the wood is given a single
impregnation with the mixture.

(361) Ripley, L. B., and Petty, B. K.

1932. Possibilities of combating wattle bag-worm with insecti-
cidal dusts. So. African Jour. Sci. 29:544-561.
As determined by laboratory and field experiments, various
dusts were effective in controlling the larvae of the wattle bag-
worm (Acanthopsyche junodi Heyl).in the following decreasing order:
Paris green, sodium ferric fluoride, sodium fluosilicate, natural
cryolite, synthetic cryolite, calcium arsenate, barium fluosili-
cate, calcium fluosilicate, Schweinfurth yellow, copper carbonate,
sodium chromic fluoride, and ferric oxide. Because of its high
toxicity' and repellency, and low solubility and foliage burning,
the sodium ferric fluoride was the most promising of the fluorine

(362) Ru:avishnikov, B. I.

1932. The work of the experimental expedition of the Institute
for Plant Protection on the control of pests of sugar
beet in 1930. Plant Protection, 8 (1931), nos. 5-6,
-pp. 489-513. [In Russian. Aostract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
20(A):346. 1932.]
Laboratory and field tests on the control of the meadow moth
(Loxostege sticticalis L.) and the beet weevil (Bothynoderes
punctiventris Germ.) on beets indicated high toxicity for sodium
fluoride and sodium fluosilicate.

(363) FL-noner, G. A.

1932. Controlling grape insects and the present situation rerard-
ing arsenical residue. Ohio State Hort. Soc. Proc. 5:
Earium, potassium, and sodium fluosilicates and potassium
and sodium fluoalzninates failed to control the grape berry moth
and in some cases caused injury to fruit and foliage.

(364) Saline Ludwigschalle.

1932. Procede de preparation des composes double de fluorure
d' aluminium-fluorure alcalin. French patent 717,714;
issued Jan. 13; apple. Sept. 12, 1930.
Double fluorides of aluminum and an alkali, such as cryolite,
are prepared from the waste produced in the manufacture of aluJTlinum
in casting aluminum and from the aluminum foundry. Such waste
containing aluminum or aluminum oxide is dissolved in hydrofluoric
acid, hydrochlol'ic acid, or sulfuric acid, and the necessary alkali
and fluorine ions are added.

(365) Scharrer, K., and Scnropp. W.

1932. Die. irkung des Fluor-Ions auf Reimung und Jut-endwachst=
einiger Kulturpflanzen. Landw. Vers. Sta. 114:20--214.
The toxicity of potassium fluoride to cereal crops was
relatively low and approximately the same for each cron. Its
action was more marked in acid than in neutral soil.

(366) Schimittutz, C.

1932. lIethod of impregnating,, wood. British patent 361,030; issued
Sept. 29; appl. Dec. 23, 1931.
Freshly cut wood is stripped of bark, coated with a water-
solution impregnating substance in pasty form, and left coated
till dry. Suitable compositions comprise sodium fluoride and
dinitrophenol with gum arabic, casein, or starch made into paste
with water.

(367) Schwalbe, C. G.

1932. Studien zur Holzkonservierung. Ii. Ztschr. Angew, Chem.
Freshly felled unbarked spruce and pine logs 5-10 meters
in length were treated with a 1-percent sodium fluoride solution
by a modified Boucherie process. Pressures of 2-4 atmospheres
were applied by means of compressed air or carbon dioxide in
portable tanks. Fluorine determinations were made on the wood
immediately after treatment and after yarding 3 years. he heelrt-
woods were not penetrated at first by the sodium fluoride solution,
but after yarding 3 years there was a marked migration of the salt

- 70 -

(367) Schwalbe, C. G. Continued.

to the very center. Spruce and pine logs when treated green
as above showed a greater resistance to \wood-destroying fungi
than seasoned Wood treated by the usual pricess. Treatment of
tho wood while green has a favorable influence on the strength
of the wood.

(368) Shull, '. E.

1932. Control of the cattle louse Bovica bovis Linn. (Mallophaga,
Trichodectidae). Jour. v6on. Ent. 25:1208-1211.
Cattle lice may be controlled with sodium fluoride, equal
parts of sodium fluoride and diatomaceous earth, diatomaceous
earth alone, and commercial insect powders.

(369) Snith, HT. V., and Smith, ,. C.

1932. M!1ottled enamel in Arizona and its correlation with the
concentration of fluorides in water supplies. Ariz. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 43:213-287.
The endemic occurrence of mottled enamel of teeth in many
sections of Arizona is disclosed, and the presence of fluorides in
drinking water is established as the chief causative factor.
Concentrations of fluorides above 2.7 parts per million were always
associated with mottled enamel.

(370) Snyth, E. F. and Smyth, 1. F. Jr.

1932. Relative toxicity of some fluorine and arsenical insecticides.
Indus. and Engin. Chem. 24:229-232.
The relative toxicity of fluorine and arsenic insecticides
was determined by feeding white rats measured amounts of cryolite,
barium fluosilicate, and lead arsenate mixed with their food, for
16 weeks. In behavior, appetite, fecundity, growth, tooth develop-
ment, and organ pathology the results agree in indicating the
arsenic compounds to be several times as toxic as the fluorine
compounds. Fluorine insecticides leave a much wider margin of
safety than do arsenic materials between the'weight of spray residue
on the fruit and the amount toxic to the consumer.

(371) Snapp, 0. I., and Thomson, J. R.

1932. A progress report on feeding tests and spraying and dusting
experiments for the control of the plum curculio. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 25:811-815.
Potassium fluosilicate (2 lb. in 50 gal.) was more effective
than acid lead arsenate (1 lb. in 50 gal.) and somewhat more effec-
tive than barium fluosilicate and sodium fluoaluminate. Wettable
sulfur increased and carbon disulfide decreased the toxicity of
potassium fluosilicate. Lead arsenate sprays were more injurious to
-peach foliage than those of potassium fluosilicate, barium fluosili-
cate, or cryolite.

- '71 -

(372.) Sore:mi, ,,.c J.

12:72. Insects in relation to alfalfa-seed production. Utah Agr.
Ex-it. Sta. Cir. S8, 28 --pp.
Control measures suggested for adults of blister beetles,
2doicauta sericea Lec., include a dust of sodium fluosilicate and
hyrdrated lime.

(373) .anganyika Territory Department of Agriculture

1 32. Food crop -)ests. Tanganyika Terr. Dept. Agr. Rept. 1931:90.
Maize wL, s protected from the armyviorm Laphygma exempt 7ik.
h-ctin[, with sodium fluosilicate. SodiuZi fluosilicate was found
to -injure beans whien ap-lied against the beetle Ootheca bennigseni

(374) Turner, i.

19,32. The Mexican bean boeetle in Connecticut. Jour. Econ. Ent.
iiagnesiium arserlnte was the most effective insecticide used
in spray form. Barimr fluosilicate and magnesium arsenate used as
dusts were equally effective.

(375) Anony._ous.

1933. Spritzsch~den an Kirschen durch Verwendung von Fluornatrium
zur Bekhmfung der Kirschfliege. lachrblatt. Deut. Pflanzen-
schijtzrienst 13:63-64.
Bait sprays containing 0.4 percent of sodium fluoride with
either 2 percent of sugar or 4 percent of molasses were used in
German% in 1931 and 1932 against the cherry fly without causing any
injury to the trees. In 1933, however, fruits and leaves on branches
heavily sprayed in June were scorched. The sprays should be applied
lightly, thro-ugh wetting being avoided.

(376) ArmstronG, W. D.

1933. Colorimetric determination of fluorine. Indus. and Engin.
Chem., Analyt. Ed. 5:300-302.
Utilization of the bleaching action of soluble fluorides on
a colored ferric compound, in this case ferric acetylacetone, is
sugCges ted.

(377) Arnstronj,, W. D.

1933. modificationn of the Uillard-Winter method for fluorine determi-
nation. [Communication to the editor.] Jour. Amer. Chem.
Soc. 55:1741-1742.
The use of sodium alizarin sulfonate as indicator in place of
zirconium lake of alizarin is recommended.

- 72 -

(373) D3orne, A. I.

19353 Investigation of materials which promise value in insect
control. 1.ass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1932 (Bull.
293) :28-30.
Against the 1iiexican bean beetle barium fluosilicate caused
zli__ht injury to beans in midsummer, but it may constitute a
??ossible alternative for arsenicals where there is a residue problem.

(379) ZoyFce, A. M.

1933. Control of the walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis complete Cress.
Jour. 3co n. 2nt. 26:819-825.
On the basis of data obtained in field lots in 1328-1952 the
following formulas are recommended: 3 lb. of synthetic cryolite
(27 percent) or barium fluosilicate and 1 qt. of mineral oil to
100 gal. of water sipraye! at the rate of 30-40 gal. to an average-
sized walnut tree, or 30 Percent by weight of synthetic cryolite or
barium fluosilicate, 65 percent of diatomaceous earth and 5 percent
of Yiineral oil dusted at the rate of 3-4 lb. per tree.

(380) 3ritton, ,. E.

1933. Studies on the potato flea beetle. Conn. State Ent. Rept. 32
(Conn. Agr. Zxopt. Sta. Bull. 349):448-449.
In field tests on the potato flea beetle (Epitrix cucumeris
Harr.) plots sprayed with barium fluosilicate produced no greater
&,ield of potatoes than unsvrayed plots.

(381) Bucalossi, E.

1933. Combating mole cricket (Curtilla gryllotalpa) with Floris
(barium fluosilicate). Bol.. Ist. Super. Agrar. Pisa
9:188-194. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 28:45,31. 1934.1
Good results -rere obtained.

(382) Caffroy, D. J., and Worthley, L. H.

1933. The European corn borer situation in the United States at
the close of 1932. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:85-102.
F. L. Simanton, testing various insecticides under one-
generation conditions, reports that thc best results on dent field
corn were obtained with 6 lb. of calcium fluosilicate compound in
100 gal. of a 2 percent mineral oil emulsion. Reduction of 85
percent of the larval population with one application was accomplished

- 73 -

(383) Coe.don DOoeprtment of Agriculture.

1 t-,3. :_'ernites affecting plants of economic inmortance. Ceylon
Dept. Akr., Dir. Agr. Admin. Rept. l932:Dl25-Dl2*.
)he termite 1.eotermes militaris was not successfully
controlled by barium fluosilicate.

(334) Chuerlin, F. S.

1933. Barium fluosilicate as a control for the tobacco flea beetle.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:233-236.
In f eld exoerimonts in 1931 a mixture of S0 percent bariun
fluosilicatc and 20 percent finely divided infusorial earth %vc
excellent control with little or no scorching of plants. The white
residue was removed by showers. Paris green scorched 30 to A10
percent of the foliage. Sodium fluosilicate gave severe injury.
In 1e22 excellent control was obtained with dosages ranging; from
4 S lb. of a mixture of barium fluosilicate, infusorial earth,
Sn. tobacco dust in the proportions of 8:2:2 with two or three

(385) Cox, A. J.

1933. Facts concerning the spray residue problem pertinent to the
fruiit and vegetable industries. Calif. Dept. Agr. Iionthly
Bull. 22:389-396.
Fluorides are more readily removed by washing fruits and
ve;etcables in .rater than are many other spray and dust residues.

(386) Daniols, L. B.

193-. Potato flea-beutle control. Colo. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 400,
34 pp.
Sodium fluoaluxninato (Kalite) dusts applied in two to three
av Olications gave very effective control. The dusts were used at
thu rate of 20 to 30 lb. per acre.

(387) Davis, -. G.

1933. The southwestern corn borer. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull.
388, 61 pp.
The value of insecticides for controlling Diatraca grandio-
sella s not been fully determined, but barium fluosilicate diluted
1:2 with hydrated lime or other carrier has shown some promise.

(388) Ducoux, L., and Roland, G.

1935. Etude do la -oeomyc de la betterave on belgique on 19532.
Inst. Bel-e pour l'Amel. Betterave (Tirlemont) Pub. 4, 142 mw.
The best results against the beet fly (Pegomyia hyoscy,'Uii var.
betae Curt.) are likel, to be obtained by spraying the cereals that
follow the beet crop with a sweetened solution of sodium fluoride.

- 74 -

(389) De1ds, '.

193Z. Chronic fluorine intoxication. A review. klodicinc
The use of fluorine compounds or rixtures containing them
as insecticides or fumignnts in conjunction with plants or foods
-hovld be limited to conditions whore fluorine residues czIn bc
satisf-ctcrily removed before the food is placed on the m-rkot.

(390) DeEds, F.

1933. Comparative toxicities with special reference to arsenical
tnd tluorine-containing insecticides. (Sc .ITote) Jour.
Econ, Ent. 2G:302-304.
Until th6 lowest possible treshold tolerance for fluorine
compounds has boon established, and until the fullest use has been
made of information to be glcancd f1"rom areas whore mottling of the
tooth is endemic, the wisdom of substituting fluorine insecticides
for lod arsenato must remain an open question.

(391) d-u Ponit, E. I., dec Nemours and Company.

1933. Insecticides, wood-preserving, disinfectant and the like
compositions. British patent 396,064; issued July 17;
appl. Oct. 16, 1931.
Insecticidal,' wood-preserving, and disinfecting compounds
comprise a fluosllicato of an aliphatic or hotorocyclic amine and
an inert liquid diluent, with or without other active ingredients.
According to exariples, horticultural insecticides consist of dilute
aqueous solutions of the fluosilicates of di-n-butylamine, Pyridine,
Aiperidine, or 6-ethoxy-2-amino-benzothiazole together with a small
quantity of fish-oil soap or sulfonated oxidized petroleum oil as
s[ reader. Wool, fur, hair, hides, etc., may be rendered mothproof
with aqueous solution of di-n-butylamine fluosilicate or quinoline
fluo silicate.

(392) EL.ore, J. C.

1333. Some tests with fluorine compounds against the pepper weevil,
Anthonoyaus eugenii Cane. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:1095-1105.
Sodium fluoaluminate, potassium fluoaluminate, and barium
fluosilicate mixed with 50 percent talc gave mortalities of 94.4,
82.7, and 71.1 percent respectively. Barivm fluosilicate scorched
the leaves. Both barium fluosilicate and sodium fluoaluminate
caused crop reduction in field tests in 1931. Potassium fluoaluminate
was least injurious to plants.

- 75 -

(393) Elvove, J.

1933. Determination of fluorides in water. U. S. Pub. Health
Scrv., P ib. Health Rept. 48:1219-1222.
A modification of the Zirconium- alizarin method of deter-
2ii-ing fluorine in water is described. The highest values are
found in districts where mottled enamel in teeth is most prevalent.

(394) Ticht, G. A.

1923. A progress report on some insecticides used against the
European corn borer. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:747-754.
Barium fluosilicate (2 lb. of 80-percent material to 100 gal.),
alone or in combination with dilute oil emulsions (2 qt. to 100 sal.),
gave marked reductions (over 70 percent), but these were accompanied
by some injury. Calcium fluosilicate, two applications of which at
a concentration of 10 lb. of 15-percent material to 100 gal. gave
73.7 percent reduction, appears to be the most satisfactory of the
insecticides tested.

(395) Flint, .7. P.

1933. Codling moth experimente during 1932-1933. Ill. State Hort.
Soc. Trans. 67:175-183.
In some comparative tests of second-brood sprays 4 lb. of
natural cryolite with 1 percent of oil proved nearly as good as
lead arsenate and oil, but the residue was almost as hard to remove.

(396) Foster, M. D.

1933. Colorimetric determination of fluoride in water using ferric
chloride. Indus. and Engin. Chem. Analyt. Ed. 5:234.
The method is based on the ostivation of the bleaching effect
of the fluoride ion on the red color produced by interaction of
ferric chloride and azi-oniur thiocyanate. The interference of
various; ions is duscussed, and methods are given for correcting the
errors caused by these ions.

(397) France, Hinistere de l'Agriculture, Station de Zoologie Agricole du
Sud-Oue st.

1933. Doryphore de la pomme de terre. Ann. Rept. Director. 1332.
Ann. Epiphyties 19:19-24.
In field experiments in spraying potatoes against Leptino
tarsa decemlineata, dusts containing lead arsenate or calcium
-rsenate gave better results than those containing barium

- 76 -

(398) Frere, J.

1933. Determination of fluorine in cryolite. Ind-us. and Engin.
Chem., Analyt. Ed. 5:17-18.
A volumetric method is described for the determination of
fluorine in cryolite with yttrium nitrate as a reagent and methrl
red as indicator. The method does not succeed with less than
0.025 gram of fluorine per 100 cc., and it is essential to use
neutral solutions.

(399) Fulton, E. B.

1933. Naphthalene for midge larvae in tobacco seed beds. (Sci._Tote)
Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:512-513.
Barium fluosilicate was not effective against the midge larvae
in tobacco seed beds.

(400) Greaves, C.

1933. Leaching tests on water-soluble wood preservatives. Canada
Dept. Int., Forest Serv. Cir. 36, 15 pp.
If the results for zinc chloride are based on chlorine determi-
nation, neither zinc chloride nor sodium fluoride, when present in
wood in the concentration generally used in practice, is very resist-
ant to the leaching action of water.

(401) Gwin, C. !i.

1933. The past and present status of fluorine containing insecti-
cides. (Sci.Note) Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:996-997.
The literature on the use of fluorine insecticides is reviewed.
Recent papers dealing with the chronic toxicity of fluorine to man
have resulted in an unwarranted curtailment of research on this

(402) Ha-mer, 0. H.

1933. Further studies on the control of the apple curculio in the
Champlain Valley. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:420-424.
Against the apple curculio (Tachypterellus quadrigibbus)
cryolite gave the most promise of a number of materials other than
lead arsenate used in preliminary tests.

(403) Hanson, A. J.

1933. The potato flea beetles, Epitrix cucumeris Harris, Epitrix
subcrinita Leconte. Wash. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 280, 27 pp.
Barium fluosilicate was the most satisfactory of the fluorine
compounds tested. Cryolite and sodium fluosilicate gave better cntr
of the beetles but severely scorched the foliage. Effectiveness of
the fluosilicate was not appreciably reduced by combination with lime

- 77 -

(404) H:asean, L., and Johnson, P. H.

1933. The use of insecticides. 1[o. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 328:2D.
Dusts of barium fluosilicate and synthetic cryolitc pro-
tected cucurbits from infestation by the striped and spotted cucirtber
beetles. Blister bcetles were driven within 3 hours from late
potatoes dusted with barium fluosilicate and calcium arscn7to, but
they reinvested the plants after the insecticide had been w7ashcd
off by rain.

(405) Himmelsbach, J.

1933. Proc id' de cyanisation profonde des bois, French patent
747,212; issued June 13.; appl. Dec. 8, 1932.
The impregnating solution (sodium fluoride) is heated and
stirred by hot air blown in at the base.

(406) Hixson, E.

[19337] Boll weevil control investigations. Okla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Rept. 1930-32. 256-235.
Sodium fluosilicate and cryolite were inferior to calcium
arsenaite in control of the cotton boll weevil.

(4Q7) Kockenyos, G. L.

1933, Thd mechanism of absorption of sodium fluoride by roa.ches.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:1162-1169.
Sodium fluoride was applied to various parts of the bodies
of Periplaneta americana and Blatta orientalis. The data indicate
that this material can be absorbed directly through the body wall
in lethal amounts,

(408) Hough, 7. S.

1933. Developments in codling moth control. Va. Fruit 21:88-92.
Excellent control of codling moth on apples was obtained
by substituting barium fluosilicate or sodium fluoaluminate for
lead arsenate in the July or later sprays. At picking time,
however, the fruit showed an excessive amount of arsenic residue
from earlier sprays.

(409) Howard, N. F., Brannon, L. W., and Mason, H. C.

1933. Insecticides for the control of the Iiexican bean beetle.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:123-129.
Potassium hexafluoaluminate and cryolite were satisfactory
for control of 1Mexican bean beetle when used in field tests at
rate of 3 lb. to 50 gal. of water. Barium fluosilicate (80 per-
cent) must be used at the rate of 5 lb. to 50 gal.; green beans
should not be sprayed after the pods have set.

- 78 -

(410) Jancke, 0., and Bbhmel. W.

1933. Beitrag zur Biologie und Bekqrmpfung der Kirschfliege.
Arb. Biol. Reichsanst. Land u. Forstw. 20:443-456.
In tests against the cherry fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L.)
the most effective bait spray was one containing 0.4 percent of
sodium fluoride, with sugar or molasses.

(411) Jarvis, H.

1933. Codling moth control experiments, 1930-1933. Queensland
Agr. Jour. 40A:05-34.
White oil, nicotine sulfate-white oil and Katakilla-
white oil sprays were slightly more efficient than lead arsenate
sprays. Barium fluosilicate was less efficient but gave 92.8
percent control of codling moth on apples.

(412) 'Learns, H. G. H., and Walton, C. L.

1933. A note on the control of the raspberry beetle (Byturus
tomentosus Fabr.) by means of a barium silicofluoride wash.
'Jour. Pomol. and Hort. Sci. 11:77-80. [Abstract in Rev.
appl. Ent. (A)21:2 ?5-26. 1933. ]
A single application of a spray of 12 lb. of barium fluosili-
cate and 10 lb. of soft soap in 100 gal. of water reduced the in-
festation on raspberries from 29.2 percent to 4.7 percent. It did
not produce any visible deposit on the berries or foliage but
scot-ched a number of leaves.

(413) Xbnig, J., and Bornemann, F.

1933. Verfahren zur Unkrautbekkmpfung. German patent 572,101;
issued March 10; appl. Arpil 17, 1932.
For destroying weeds use is made of solutions or solid
compounds containing fluosilicates of iron, copper, zinc, or Qther
heavy metal.

(414) ."orab, I. I.., and Zalkind, M.' D.

1933. The effect of insecticides upon sugar-beet leaves. Nau.
Zapiski Tzukrovoi Prom. 10(28):55-62. [In Russian. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 27:5876. 1933.]
Several insecticides were applied to-sugar-beet leaves. Sodiu
fluoride in 1.5 percent concentration did not affect the green tissue
of the leaf but in 2-percent concentration it burned; 2-percent con-
centration of sodium fluosilicate was harmless to the leaves.

- 79 -

(415) '.Brtin, A.

19332. Untersuchun;en iter die insektiside Wirkung einiger Fluorver-
bindungen. Ztschr. Pflanzenlrank. 43:502-516.
A rapid and intense toxicity to bees was shown by potassium
fluosilicate, sodium fluoride, and potassium fluoride. Sodium
fluosilicate was slower in action and less toxic. Barium fluosili-
cate showed a similar order of toxicity but less rapid killing.
Cr,7olite and calcium fluoride were less effective. The order of
rapidity of action was potassium fluosilicate, sodium fluoride,
potassium fluoride, sodium fluosilicate, barium fLuosilicate,
calcium fluoride, cryolite. Potassium fluosilicate, sodium fluoride,
potassium fluoride, barium flixosilicate, and sodium cryolito gave
nrtality of 100 percent of bees in nearly all cases.

(416) Lloyi, D. J.

190". Berichte ilber die Verwendung von Fluoridon bei der
Hutekonservierung. Collegium 763: 698-700.
Edible gelatin prepared from hides cured with 99 percent
sodium chloride plus 1 percent sodium fluoride did not contain
enough fluorine to be harmful to health oven though its effect is

(417) i[tdCreary, D.

19 3. The efficiency of certain proprietary oil emulsions. Volck
and Orthol-K, for control of the oriental fruit moth.
Del. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 184, 43 pp.
A combination of oil, Cal-Mo-Sul, and Dutox (barium fluosili-
cate) killed practically 100 percent of the eggs.

(418) 'cX"enzie, H. L.

1933. Observations on the Genista caterpillar, Tholeria reversalis
Guenee (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Calif. Dept..Agr. Monthly
Bull. 22:410-412.
The larvae may be controlled by two applications of a spray
of 4 to 6 tablespoonfuls of synthetic cryolite to 1 gal. of water
or a dust of 30 percent synthetic cryolite and 70 percent diato-
mraceous earth.

(419) LMalenotti, E.

1933. Un nuovo ed efficace mezzo di lotta centre le tipule.
Coltivatore 79:65-69.
Serious injury to wheat in northern Italy was caused by
larvae of Tipula oleracea L. Experiments have shown that a poison
bait of 100 parts rheat bran, 90 parts water, arid 5 parts barium
fluosilicate is effective when scattered at the rate of about 40 lb.
per acre. This bait is harmless to poultry and other birds.

- 80 -

(420) Malenotti, E.

1933. Fluorosilicato di bario e tipule. Coltivatore 79:266-
Successful experiments against Tipula o2eracea L. with a
bran bait poisoned with barium fluosilicate in northern Italy have
been followed by its use in spring in tobacco fields to protect
the seedlings. Excellent results were obtained without any
scorching of the tender plants. The same bait proved effective
against cutworms when strewn on the ground a few days before the
tobacco seedlings were planted.

(421) Malenotti, E.

1933. Control la "Cydia. pomonella" L. Italia Agr. 69:387-403.
Against the codling moth barium fluosilicate proved
ineffective as sT)ray, possibly owing to the rains.

(422) ivarcovitch, S.

1933. How to combat certain pests of the household. Tenn. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Bull. 147, 19 pp.
The soaking of woolens, including carpets, upholstered
furniture, etc., with a solution of 1 oz. sodium fluosilicate to
1 gal. water protects them against clothes moths (Tinea pellionella,
Tineola biselliella), and the carpet beetle (Anthrenus scrophulariae).
The tobacco beetle (Lasioderma serricorne) is controlled by pouring
sodium fluosilicate solution into the furniture stuffing. Sodium
fluosilicate scattered as a dry powder is recommended against
roaches (Periplaneta americana, Elatta orientalis, and Blatella
germanica), book lice (Atropos sp.), and silverfish (Lepisma
saccharina). Barium fluosilicate has also given good results
against cockroaches, sodium fluoride being less toxic.

(423) Mayne, R., and Bruel, W. van den.

1933. Rapport et recherches sur la mouche de la betterave (Pegomyia
hyoscyami Panz.). Bull. Inst. Agron, Sta. Recherches
Gembloux 2:273-307.
Treatment with sodium fluoride was successful in destroying
the first-generation flies when weather conditions were favorable.
Barium fluosilicate gave some good results, but its action was much
slower. Laboratory tests showed that 0.4 percent of sodium fluoride
or 0.2 to 0.3 of percent sodium fluosilicate was the best concertra-
tion of poison in the bait, with 2 percent of sugar. Artificial
cryolite acted much too slowly and gave poor results. It was found
best to spray in the middle of the day.

- 81 -

(424) Metzger, F. W.

1933. Preliminary report on controlling the winter emergence of
the Japanese beetle in rose greenhouses by application
of chemicals to the soil. Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:205-210.
Lead arsenate or barium fluosilicate used at the rate of
3,000 lb. per acre gave practically 100-percent control.

(425) Mitchener, A. V.

1933. The grasshopper campaign in Manitoba in 1932. Ontario
Ent. Soc. Rept. 63:45-48.
In poison baits sodium fluosilicate gave an average
kill of ?8 percent. In limited work sodium fluoride gave over
90-percent kill. Calcium fluosilicate had little toxic effect.

(426) Yew York (Geneva) Agricultural Experiment Station.

1933. Cherry fruit fly. N. Y. (Geneva) Agr. Expt. Sta. Rept.
52: 60.
Cryolite and related compounds and several arsenical
substitutes for lead arsenate sprays effectively protected
cherries against cherry fruit flies (Rhagoletis cingulata
and R. fausta).

(427) Newcomer, E. J., and Carter, R. H.

1933. Studies of fluorine compounds for controlling the codling
moth. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 373, 24 pp.
The results of several years experiments with fluorine
compounds as substitutes for load arsenate are given. Under the
arid conditions of the fruit-raising sections of the Pacific
Northwest good control of the codling moth was obtained with
several fluorine compounds.

(428) Newcomer, E. J., Dean, F. P., and Rolfs, A. R.

1933. Efficient control of the codling moth. Wash. State Hort.
Assoc. Proc. 28: 28-32.
Cryolite is very effective when used with an oil emulsion
and may be substituted for load arsenate in the late sprays at
the ro.te of 3 lb. per 100 gal.

(429) Poet, C. H.

1933. Report of the scientific committee--insecticides. Soap
A review of the past year's literature on synthetic
insecticides, rotonone, pyrethrum, fluorides, and arsenicals.

- 82 -

(430) Pescott, R. T. M.

1933. Codiling moth control experiments at.Harcourt. Jour.
Dept. Agr.. Victoria 31:484-489.
Dutox, a proprietary product consisting mainly of
barium fluosilicate, was not satisfactory as a followup
for calyx sprays of lead arsenate.

(431) Pflug, H., K~nig, J., Mengele, H., Moll, F., and Engels W4

1933.' Zur Holzkonservierung mit Silicofluoriden. Ztshr,
Angew. Chem, 45:697-699.
A discussion of Kbnig and Mengele's paper by the above
title (339)

(432) Plank, H. K.

1933. Damage caused by bean worms and some important problems
connected with their control. Calif. Dept. Agr. Monthly
Bull. 22:366-378.
Barium fluosilicate and possibly cryolite are the only
materials that can be used for the control of bean worms on
beans with safety to the plants and to livestock fed on the bean

(433) Pussard, R.

1933. Los parasites animaux et vegetaux de l'oeillct; leur
traitemont. Eclair. Agric. Hort. 13:494-500.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A)22:509. 1934.]
Insects attacking the roots of carnation include wireworms
(Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L?) and the larvae of Opatrum sabulosum L.
and Vesperus strepens F. Use of barium fluosilicate instead of
zinc phosphide in poison baits against Gryllotalpa is advocated
in view of the high toxicity of the zinc phosphide to man.
Against Tortriox pronubana -bn. dusts containing barium fluosili-
cate and talc, are believed to be more satisfactory than arsenical

(434) Rekach, V. N.

1933. The problem of protecting cotton from pests and diseases
in ZSFSR (transcaucasian republics) during the second
five-year plan. Trud. Zakavk. Nauch. issled. Khlopk.
Inst. (Trans. Transcaucas. Cotton Sci. Res. Inst.)
No. 43:373-428 [In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 22:486. 1934.]
Dust of sodium fluosilicate gave 90-95 percent control
of Platyedra (Gelechia) malvella Hbn.

- 83 -

(435) Richardson, C. H., and Thurber, G. A.

1933. Further staidies on the relative toxicity of nolsons for
grasshopper baits. Jn-vr. Eccn. Ent. 6:- 94-i9.
Adults of Melanoplus diferertialis Thom. -,rere fed
determined quantities of a standard bran-molasses lait contain-
ing known concentrations of arsenious oxide, sodiiui fluoride,
cuprous cyanide, zinc phosphide, sodium flunaluminate, acid lead
arsenate, or nicotine tannato. The estimated median lethal dose
of the first three compouxds is 0.i ag. per grrm of body weight;
for zinc phosphide it is 0.52 mg. Acid lead arsen-I.te is much
less toxic, the M. L. D. being approximately between 2 and 4 mg.
Sodiiym fluoalnminate is less tonic than acid lead Lrsenate,
Nicotine tannate has a low but andotermined tc:icIty. Ouprous
cyanide and zinc phosphide seem wo-iothy of further investigation.

(436) Roark, R. C.

1933. A second index of patented mothproofing mteria!s. U. S.
Dept. of Agr., 3-nr. Chmrn. and Soils Mimeo. 1ub., 109 pp.
Some fluoiine comnounds mr2 listed.

(437) Shepard, H. H., and Carter, R. H.

1933. The relative toxicity of soc fluorine compounds as stomach
insecticides. (Sci. vote) Jour. E~cn. LIt. 26:913.
Fluorine compounds were tested for toxicity to the fourth-
instar sil kworm by the leaf sandwich method. SoluLl-ty of the
compounds in water at 250 C. is also included. The compounds and
their median lethal doses in milLigrams -er ,rom ol' body weight
were as follows: Sodium Jluoride 0.11-0.15; m ancse fluoride
0.20-0.40; lead fluoride 0.25-0.40; minanesi-m fluoride 0.57;
sodium fli osilicate 0.10-0.13; potassium fluosilicate 0.07-0.10;
barium fluosilicate 0.09-0.12; sodium fluoaluminate 0.05-0.07;
potassium fluoaluminate 0.08-0.10; ammonium fluoaluminate 0,11-
0.i. The fluoaluminates of zinc, barium, magnesium, end calcium
were less toxic than those listed above, toxicity decreasing in
the order given.

(43-8) Shuey, G. A.

1933. Report on [the determination of-I fluorine compounds [on
foliage and fruits]. Jour. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chem.
Study of the application of the Willard-7'inter method to
the determination of fluorine spray residues on foliage or fruit
showed that the method is accurat e for the direct titration of pure
fluoride solutions. Fluorine is quantitatively recovered by dis-
tillation from pure fluoride solutions, but only about 90 percent of
the fluorine added before ashing is recovered from plant ash, pos-
sibly because of loss of fluorine during ignition. There is a pro-
gressive accumulation of fluorine on foliage with each successive
application of fluorine spray.

- 84 -

(439) Squire, F. A.

1933. Rice in British Guinea 1927-1932. III. Insect pests of
rice and padi. Drit. Guinea Dept. Agr., Rice 3ull.
Addition of 1/4 lb. of sodium fluosilic2.te per bag gave
good control of the rice weevil (Calandra oryzao L.) in stored rice.

(440) Stanley, W. T.

1933. Outbreak of grasshoppers in Tennessee during 1932. (Sci.Note)
Jour. Econ. Ent. 26:300-301.
Against grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana Drury and
Melanoplus femur-rubrum DeG.) baits containing sodium fluosilicate
were much more effective than those containing paris green.

(441) Suire, J.

1933. Remarques sur la courtiliere. Prog. Agr. et Vitic. 100:19-
Poison bait containing barium fluosilicate is recommended
for the control of Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L.

(442) Ternessee Agricultural Exneriment Station.

1933. Grasshoppers. Temn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Repot. 45:33
The most effective field bait consisted of lO0 lb. bran,
4 lb. sodium fluosilicate, 2 gal. molasses, and 3 oz. myl acetatte.
The bait was less toxic to higher animals than paris green baits.

(443) Thomsen, M., and Wichmand, H.

1933. Ueber die Giftrindenmethodo und andere Bek.mpfungs-massnahmen
gegen Kylobius abictis. Ztschr. Pflanzen'..rank. 43:145-167.
Of the poisons tested in the laboratory, sodium fluosilicate
W?,s too slow, and sodium fluoride acted quickly but v/as unsuitable
for dusting.

(444) Thompson, R. 7.

1933. Sodium fluoride is a control for cattle lice. Ent. Soc.
Ontario Ann. Ropt. 63.-54-56.
When applied in powdered form, sodium fluosilicate, sodium
fluoride, calcium fluosilicate, and barium fluosilicate were
equally effective in controlling cattle lice (Tric'odectes
scalaris, Haematopinus eurysternus, and H. vituli). Sodium
fluoride killed biting lice more quickly than did derris. Sprays
containing sodium fluoride were very effective.

- 85 -

(445) Thompson, T. G., and Taylor, H. J.

1933. Determination and occurrence of fluorides in sea water.
indus. and Engin. them., Aralyt. Ed. 5:87-89.
Fluorides in sea water are titrated by the zirconium
nitrate-alizarin procedure. To offset the interference of
chlorides and sulfates, comparison standards containing the same
amounts of chlorides and sulfates are used.

(446) Tziopkalo, (V.).

1933. On the question of the chemical method of control of the
pine noctuid (Panolis flammea Schiff.). Sotzial. lesn.
Khoz. Agrolesomel. [Social. For. & Agrosilvimelior.]
No. 3, pp. 64-67. In Russian. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 22:55. 1934.]
In laboratory tests sodium fluosilicate, sodium fluoride,
and barium fluosilicatc, applied as dusts, were less effective
than calcium arsenite. In tests of the effect of the dusts on
foliage, 37.1 percent of the pine needles were scorched by
sodium fluosilicate, 38.2 percent by calcium arsenite, and 62.5
percent by sodium arsenite.

(447) White, W. B.

1933. Poisonous spray residues on vegetables. Indus. and Engin.
Chem. 25: 621-623.
Determination of excessive spray residues on fruits and
vegetables is one of the important problems of the U. S. Food and
Drug Administration. Analytical methods for fluorine and lead
are reviewed.

(447a) Wich:mann, H. J., and Dahle, Dan.

1933. Determinations of small quantities of fluorine. I and II.
Jour. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chem. 16:612-624.
1,Modification of the Steiger-Mervin colorimetric method
to include optimum pH at which fluorine will bleach peroxidized
titanium. Principles governing sensitivity were definitely
linked with concentration of titanium and fluorine, so that
fluorine determinations might be made flexible enough to meet
great variation in fluorine content and available apparatus.
Interference of phosphates, aluminum, sulfates, and apple "wash"
was quantitatively expressed, suggesting formation of unknown
complexes. -The procedure is described.

- 86 -

(448) Villard, h. H., and Winter, 0. B.

1933. Volumetric method for the determination of fluorine.
indus. and Engin. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 5:7-10.
Titration of fluorine andisilicofluoride with thorium
nitrate with zirconium-alizarin indicator is described, and
this method of analysis is applied to the determination of
fluorine in minerals and plant ash.

(449) Williams, C. B.

1933. Observations on the desert locust in East Africa from
July, 1928 to April, 1929. Ann. Apple. Biol.-20:465-497.
A fow small-scalc; experiments with poisoned brn baits
showed sodium arsenate and sodiiu- fluosilicatc to be equally
effective against the locust Schistocerca gregaria Forsk. in Kenya.

(450) Wilson, L. B.

1933. Effects of chlorine, bromine, and fluorine on the tobacco
plant. Jour. Agr. Research 46:889-899.
The accumulation of excessive amounts of chlorine, bromine,
or fluorine in the soil interferes with normal carbohydrate
metabolism of the tobacco plant and causes the leaf to become
thick and brittle. Curling of the margin of the loaf also occurs
when those elements are added in the form of the ammonium salt
but not whon addod as a salt of calcium, potassium, or sodium.
Exccssive amounts of chlorine have little effect in transforming
free wter to bound water within the leaves of the plant, but
the action of sodium fluoride in this respect is so marked as
to indicate that this compound induces a state of physiological

(451) W-inter, 0. B., and Putler, L.
1933. Resume of a method for the determination of fluorine.
Jour. Assoc. Of.if. Agr. Chem. 16:105-107.
Attempts to determine fluorine content of plant materials
are discussed.

(452) Anonymous.

1934. Plantsygdomme i Danmark 1934. Tidssk. Planteavl. 40:713-772,
Ovors St. Plantepat Forsg. 51. 1935. LAbstract in Rev.
Apple. Ent. 24:55. 1936.]
Cutworms were unusually numerous and destructive on field
and garden crops, but were efficiently controlled by bran baits
poisoned with cryolite.