Keys for the identification of some Lepidopterous larvae frequently intercepted at quarantine

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Keys for the identification of some Lepidopterous larvae frequently intercepted at quarantine
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Capps, Hahn W
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( Washington, D.C )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030262572
oclc - 778378972
System ID:
AA00022957:00001

Full Text

LIBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARO
E-475 May 1939



United States Department of Agriculture
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine



KEYS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF SOME LEPIDOPTEROUS
LARVAE FREQUENTLY INTERCEPTED AT QUARANTINE



By Hahn W. Cappas,
Division of Insect Identification




The following keys are intended to assist quarantine inspectors
in recognizing the lepidopterous larvae most frequently intercepted at
ports of entry and are based on the differential characters noted in
the literature, and on the larval collection and host catalogue in the
United States National Museum.

In using the keys, it should be borne in mind that their
validity is dependent on three factors, viz,'(1) structure, (2) origin,
and (3) host. Moreover, the characters used for separating the families
are not completely diagnostic for the entire family but will serve to
separate the species treated here.

The drawings used to illustrate the keys are diagrammatic and
not complete in all details. Only such characters as are referred to
in the text are figured. In checking against setal maps showing
lateral views, the head of the larva should be to the observer's left;
in dorsal views the head should be toward the observer. The specimen
should be placed in a Syracuse watch glass, immersed in alcohol, and
examined under a low-power binocular microscope.







-2-.


KEY TO FAMILIES


1. Body with numerous short secondary setae (A) ..... ..........2



j /^



A
- Body without numerous short secondary iotae (A) .... e....... 3


2. Body cylindrical, not depressed, segments divided into 6 or
fewer annulets (A); crochets in a continuous mesoseries, not
interrupted by a spatulate lobe (B).



0
i i i ^ I \r .
'\ '^/ l .', *7




A B Pieridae p. 9

Body depressed, fusiform (spindle-shaped), segments not divided
into annulets; crochets in a mesoseries, interrupted at center
by a spatulate lobe (A).
-7, i \ t \' ,


Lycaenidae p. 10







-3-

53. With more than one pair of abdominal prolegs .................. 4

With abdominal prolegs absent except on 6th segment

Geometridae p. 14


4. Two setae in prespiracular group of prothorax (A) ............... 5


- Three setae in prespiracular group of prothorax (A) .............6




A
A



5. Proleg-bearing sengments with seta IV behind, and V below, the
spiracle (A); crochets in a longitudinal mesoseries (B).


1/ .


* B *
B


Noctuidae p. 11


- Proleg-bearing segments with setae IV and V close together
below the spiracle (A); crochets in a continuous ring or a
penellipse.



/
K' :

Iv /


Pyralididae p. 14







-4-


6. Setae IV and V of proleg-bearing segments close together below
the spiracle (A) ******oo&*o*o0. **6606


/
/
0


A

- Setae IV and V of proleg-bearing segments distant from each
other and below the spiracle (A) eo~..*.* .....** 14




//

A

A


7, Paired setae II of 9th abdominal segment on a sclerotized
plate (dorsal view (A)) .................*. ...... 8





111 i ii ii i lii

A

- Paired setae II of 9th abdominal segment not on a sclerotized
plate (dorsal view (A)) .......... ............... 10


11 1''~
In I II II I I~I









-5-


8. Seta I of 9th abdominal segment approximately equidistant from
setae II and III (dorsal view (A)).





*I I


Tortricidae p. 31


Seta I of 9th abdominal segment closely associated with seta III,
on a single sclerotized plate (dorsal view (A)) ............. 9





A






9. Seta VI present on 9th abdominal segment (A and B).


6-


Olethreutidae p. 30


- Seta VI absent from 9th abdominal segment (A).





vi,

-haloniidae p. 32-vii:
A Phaloniidae p. 32







-6-


10. Seta III of 8th abdominal segment directly in front of
spiracle (A); seta I of 9th abdominal segment approximate
to seta III but not on same plate (B).








A B Cosmopterygidae p. 25

Seta III of 8th abdominal segment not directly in front of
spiracle (A and B); seta I of 9th abdominal segment not
closely associated with seta III (C, D, and E) ............... 11


N


7
-7

K


- --I
-II

-7



I


11. Submentum with a large oval pit (A); seta III of 8th abdominal
segment above and slightly behind the spiracle (B).


Blastobasidae p. 29


Submentum without an oval pit; or, if pit is present, seta III
of 8th abdominal segment above and in front of spiracle (A)...







-7


12. Setae I, II, and III of 9th
plate (A).


abdominal segment on a sclerotized


^N


Hyponomeutidae (part) p. 32
(Argyresthia)


- Setae I, II, and III of 9th
sclerotized plate (A and B)


7
N.---
7..


abdominal segment not on a
................................... 13

III
^/ li'"
/


13. Seta I closely associated with seta II on 9th abdominal
segment (A).

411I
/


Oecophoridae (part) p. 29
(Endrosis and Hofmannophila)


- Seta I of 9th abdominal segment not closely associated with
seta II, approximately equidistant from setae II and III (A).

S41
I I..


Gelechiidae p. 26






m 8 --


14. Crochets of abdominal proleg in multiserial rings (A).


Tineidae (part) p. 33
(Acrolophus)


- Crochets of abdominal proleg in a complete ring, enclosing a
short longitudinal series (A), or in a pseudocirele (B).


Hyponomeutidae (part) p. 32
(Acrolepia and Plutella.)


x"eP
9i)






-9-


Family PIERIDAE

1. Larger seta-bearing tubercles of abdominal segments broadly
expanded at bases, about as wide as high (A); body with bright
yellow and fuscous or blackish stripes .........................








A

- Larger seta-bearing tubercles of abdominal segments not broadly
expanded at bases, higher than the width at base (A); body light
green, with or without pale-yellow or whitish stripes .. ..





A
A


2. Head black, except for gray front and a light-gray patch on each
side; body with 2 yellow stripes (middorsal and spiracular); anal
shield black, with a short yellowish median stripe; spiracles with
black rims and pale-yellowish centers.


Europe.
Hosts: Cabbage, cauliflower, and mustard.


Pieris brassicae (L.)


Head whitish, except for pigmentation of tubercles; body with 3
yellow stripes (middorsal, subdorsal, and spiracular); anal
shield whitish, except for pigmentation of tubercles; spiracles
with black rims and brown centers.


Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands.
Hosts: Cabbage, cauliflower, and mustard.


Ascia monuste (L.)


LIBRARY
SrATE PLANT BOARD







- 10 -


3. Body with a yellow middorsal stripe; proleg-bearing segments with
yellowish or whitish pigmented band, discontinuous shortly
posterior to the spiracle (A).



loom s


A
Europe and North America.
Hosts: Cabbage, cauliflower, and mustard.


- Body without a middorsal stripe; proleg-bearing segments with a
whitish or yellowish pigmentation enclosing tihe spiracle (A).


Europe and Norti America.
Hosts: Mustard and turnip.


Pieris napi (L.)


Family LYCAENIDAE

Head retractile, usually daawn into prothorax; body color light
green or with a slight pinkish tinge; spatulate lobes of abdominal
prolegs not solerotized along lateral margins.

Mexico.
Hosts: Beans and cotton (borer in green pods and bolls).
Strymon melinus (Hbn.)


Pieris E!Me (L.)







- 11 -


Family NOCTUIDAE

1. Prolegs present on abdominal segments 3 to 6 .................... 2


- Prolegs absent from abdominal segments 3 and 4, present on
5 and 6.


Canada, England, and Mexico.
Hosts: Cabbage and other crucifers.


Autograph spp.


2. Adfrontals extending almost to the vertex, longitudinal
ridge less than one-half the height of front (A); a yellowish
middorsal spot on metathorax and abdominal segments 1 to 4.


------- OF
AOF


Cuba, Mexico, West Indies, and South America.
Hosts: Peas, pepper, and tomato.
Peridroma margaritosa (Haw.)

- Adfrontals terminating definitely before the vertex,
longitudinal ridge at least one-half the height of front (A);
metathorax and abdominal segments 1 to 4 without yellowish
middorsal spots ..... ..... .* . .. .. ..* #... 0I... . 0 0 * 0 * 3


3. Skin with short, sharp spines .................................


- Skin smooth or with flattened granules ................






- 12 -


4. Tubercles I and II of abdominal segments with spines (A);
mandible with a broad plate on oral surface (B).

ji




A B
Mexico and West Indies.
Hosts: Cotton (bolls), beans, okra, peas, pepper, and tomato.
Heliothis viresoens (F.)

Tubercles I and II of abdominal segments without spines (A);
mandible without broad plate on oral surface, usually a tooth-
like projection on the second rib (B).




A.,
Aes .*"- *. A^-\
A B
Mexico, West Indies, and South America.
Hosts: Beans, corn, cotton, lettuce, peas, pepper, and tomato.
Heliothis obsoleta (F.)


5. Skin with flattened granules (A); sclerotized plates at bases of
body setae moderately large and flat or slightly convex (B);
[adfrontal area and that along longitudinal ridge white or pale,
appearing as an inverted Y (/A) (C).]


(71
(toi


Mexico.
Hosts: Corn, cotton, beans, grasses, kale, rape, spinach, and
sugarcane
LaphyMa frugiperda (A. and S.)







- 15 -


Skin smooth; sclerotized plates at bases of body setae minute,
much reduced (A)



\. *


0


A




6, Setae P Pl, Adfl, and F, in line (A); dark pigmentation at base
of seta lib on mesothorax (B); mandible without a toothlike
projection on oral surface (C); third segment of labial palpus
as long as, or longer than, basal segment (D).


/
/



\


lib


III
ID


D'


Mexico.
Hosts: Beets, pepper, and tomato.


Laphygma exigua (Hbn.)


- Setae Pg, P-, Adf1, and F1 not in line (A); no dark pigmentation
at base of seta lib of mesothorax (B); mandible with a single,
pointed, toothlike projection from the second ventral rib on oral
surface (C); third segment of labial palpus not more than one-half
as long as basal segment (D).


-I


/
/
I-

N


D


Canada and Mexico.
Hosts: Peas, pepper, and tomato.


Agrotis c-nigrum (L.)







- 14 -


Family GEOMETRIDAE

Skin granulose; setae spatulate (A).




Mexico and Scotland.
Hosts: Cut flowers and heather.


Ptyohopoda app.


Family PYRALIDIDAE


1. Seta lib of mesothorax with a dark solerotized ring at
base (A)......... ..**0 .......... ...*o*** ...****e...........o


\
\
..... n


- Seta lib of mesothorax without a dark solerotized ring at
base (A).......................................................

/
/
7
/
\







- 15 -


2. Prespiracular shield of prothorax extending below and behind
the spiracle, posterior part weakly pigmented (A); body color
pinkish, with whitish, discontinuous, longitudinal bands on
most of the segments (B).


ARM



A
Cuba, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.
Hosts: Corn, peas, and sugarcane.


0


B


Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zell.)


- Prespiracular shield of prothorax neither extending below nor
behind the spiracle (A); body color white, or if pinkish, the
broken longitudinal bands absent .............................. 3







A



3. Skin granulate (under low magnification) ...................... 4

Skin smooth (under low magnification) .*...*............ ***...*...... 5



4. Sclerotized plates at base of body setae broadly oval and
flat;| seta II of abdominal segments 1 to 7 below level of seta
I (A); large larvae, borerp in logs.


^J r


0

A
Costa Rica, Honduras, and Mexico.
Host: Cedar (Spanish cedrella) logs.
Hypsipyla grandella (Zell.)






-16-


- Sclerotized plates at bases of body setae very small;
seta II of abdominal segments 1 to 7 on level with or higher
than seta I (A); small larvae, in green corn.


Mexico.
Host: Corn.


Moodna bisinuella Hemp.


5. Seta III of abdominal segments 1 to 7 each with a pigmented,
crescent-shaped plate at base (A) ...,.........


A
- Seta III of abdominal segments 1 to 7 without such plates (A).. 7

'\ \1:
\ ... I"\

0

A.


6. Setae I and II of abdominal segments with strongly solerotized
and moderately large plates at bases (A).





o

A-
England, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico.
Hosts: St. John's bread and. tamarind (pods).
Myelois ceratoniae Zell.








- 17 -


- Setae I and II of abdominal segments with weakly sclerotised
and much reduced plates at bases (A).





0

A

Cuba, British West Indies, and Jamaica.
Hosts: Grapefruit, orange, and fig (in the fruits).
Myelois venipars Dyar


7. Prothoracic shield pale yellow, with pattern of blackish or
fuscous markings as illustrated (A).





A
Bahamas, Barbadres, Puerto Rico, Mexico, and West Indies.
Hosts: Beans anr peas (in the pods).
Fundella cistipennis Dyar

- Pattern of markings on prothoraoic shield not as above ......... 8



8. Setae I and II of abdominal segments with definite pigmented
plates at bases (A).


Practically como'-olitan.
Hosts: StorVc rocucts (grain, dried vegetables, and fruits).
Ephestia spp.







-18 -
0
- Setae I and II of abdominal segments without definite
pigmented plates at bases (A).


Practi ally cosmopolitan.
Hosts: Stored products (grain, dried vegetables, and fruits).
Plodia interpunctella (Hbn.)



9. Prothoracie shield with pattern of dark fuscous markings as
illustrated (A).

V^w


Practically cosmopolitan.
Hosts: Lima beans and pigeon peas.


Etiella zinckenella (Treit.)


Pattern of markings on prothoracic shield not as above ........ 10



10. Prespiracular and prothoracic shields fused, setae IV and V on
the lateral margin (A); setae la, Ib, IIa, and lib of mesothorax
on a single sclerotized plate (B) (lateral view).


Mexico.
Host: Pineapple


- Prespiracular and prothoracic shields not fused (A); setae la,
Ib, IIa, and lib of mesothorax not on a single sclerotized
plate (B) ............................. .... ....... ............ 11


1


-- b
n-::::


A B


Alpheias sp.







- 19 -


11. A single transverse plate (without setae) on posterior
dorsal area of mesothorax (dorsal view) (A) .................. 12


lb i.
A


- A pair of plates (without setae) on posterior dorsal area of
mesothorax (dorsal view) (A), or such plates absent .......... 15


12. ,V1 of meso- and metathorax bisetose (A) ...................... 13


- VI of meso- and metathorax unisetose (A); [body color whitish,
with 2 pink longitudinal stripes; a small pigmentation
surrounding bases of setae IV and V on proleg-bearing
segments (B). ]


Mexico.
Host: Sugaroane (borer in stalk).


Chilo sp.







- 20 -


13. Body with a distinct pinkish middorsal stripe (A); plates
at bases of body setae weakly solerotized and concolorous
with the body.




A
China, Japan, and Manchuria.
Host: Rice straw (borer in stems). Chilo simplex (Butler)

Body without a pinkish middorsal stripe (A); plates at bases
of body setae strongly sclerotized and heavily pigmented or
weakly sclerotized and concolorous wdith the body ............ 14





A



14. Plates at bases of body setae blackish or fuscous.

Mexico, tropical America, and Oriental regions.
Hosts: Green corn and sugarcane (borers in ears and stalks).
(Summer form) Diatraea spp#

- Plates at bases of body setae pale, concolorous with the body.

Mexico, tropical America, and Oriental regions.
Hosts: Green corn and sugarcane (borers in ears and stalks).
winterr form) Diatraea spp.



15. Meso- and metathorax each with a pair of plates (without setae)
on posterior dorsal margins (A); Igroup VII of first abdominal
segment bisetose (B).1 -




|b [ |
I : -bI CL L -4a-
A B
",ba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, r'ewai, Tahiti, and Japan.
io^.: PFeans :.nd pigeon peas (borer in pods).
Maruca testulalis (Geyer)







- 21 -


Meso- and metathorax without such plates on posterior dorsal
margins; [group VII of first abdominal segment bisetose or
trisetose] *.......... ..... .......... ....**..... ... 16


16. Head capsule with a shieldlike extension over base of antenna;
[puncture Aa in line with or somewhat behind a line connecting
setae Ai and A2 (A); puncture 0a directly posterior to ocellus
VI (B).lJ


Europe, the Orient, and Canada.
Hosts: Beans, corn, and pepper (a borer).
Perausta nubilalis (Hbn.)

Head capsule without a shieldlike extension over base of
antenna (A) ................................... .. *...... 17


I7 Ocellus II much closer to ocellus I than to ocellus III (A);
head pale yellow, without definite markings


Cuba, IYexico, and Puerto Rico.
Hosts: Cucun'Jer and squash.


DiaphanJa spp.






- 22 -


Ocellus II approximately equidistant from ocelli I and III (A);
head blackish, fuscous, or (if pale yellow) with definite
markings........................ ................ 18


18. Ocellus I distinctly larger than ocellus II; body with pinkish
longitudinal stripes (A) i...........s................... *


Ocellus I approximately equal in size to ocellus II; body
without pinkish longitudinal stripes ........................


19. Head blackish or fuscous, with a distinct whitish area along
adfrontal suture, extending to vertex; seta 03 anterior to a
line joining setae L, and 02 (A).


Barbadoes, Cuba, Guam, Jamaica, and Mexico.
Hosts: Cabbage, mustard, radish, and turnip.


Hellula mundalis (F.)







23 -
I
Head paler (mottled appearance), area along adfrontal suture
pale but not white; seta 03 posterior to a line joining setae
L1 and 02 (A).



00
0-0

A
Canal Zone, Cuba, and Mexico.
Hosts: Mustard and white chard.
Hellula phidilealis (Walk.)



20. Prothoracic shield with 'a dark fuscous reniform spot posterior
to seta Ib (A); plates at bases of body setae weakly sclerotized,
pale end concolorous with the body............................ 21


lb-

/

A

Prothoracic shield without a dark reniform spot posterior' to
seta Ib; plates at bases of body setae moderately or heavily
sclerotized, brown or black ............................*. 22



21. Prespiracular shield ovate ,(A); distance between Adfl and FI
greater than that between AdfI and Adf2 (B).



T1X
/4 T / i\- --~



A B
Canada, Bermuda, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.
Hosts- Celery, out flowers, beans, lettuce, and spinach.
Phlyctaenia rubigalis (Guen.)







- 24 -


?respiracular shield crescent-shaped, often extending below the
spiracle (A); distance between setae AdfI and F1 less than that
between Adf1 and Adf2 (B).


V /


Cuba and Mexico,
Hosts: Eggplant ani tomato


Lineodes integra (Zell.)


22. Solerotization extending from postero-lateral margin of
prothoracic shield to prespiracular shield (A); plate at base
of seta I blackish, ovate (B).


0
/



A


7,

0


B


Central America, South America, and West Indies.
Hosts: Beets, cotton and out flowers. (Larva a foliage feeder,
seldom intercepted& Loxostege similalis (Guen.)


.!o solerotization extending from postero-lateral margin of
prothoraoic shield to prespiracular shield; plate at base of
seta I brown, triangular, with a small fuscous pit near
antero-dorsal margin (A) 23 ............. .. . .. 25




0
,,
1






- 25 -


23, Prothoracic shield with blackish or fuscous shading below level
of seta lib (A); prespiracular shield enclosing the spiracle (A);
plates bearing seta a. I7, and IIa lib of mesothorax
f-je3d (B).
lba
11b 1A6



A- B
Puerto Rico.
Host: Amaranthus. Pachyzancla bipunotalis (F.)
Prothoraeic shield with blackish or fuscous shading below level
of seta IIa (A); prespiracular shield not enclosing the
spiracle (A); plates bearing setae Ia Ib and IIa lib of
mesothorax separate (not fused), a small fuscous pit near
center of dorsal margin of plate bearing setae IIa lib (B).

..---||... __ bf -




A B
Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands.
Hosts: Eggplant and tomato. Pahyzanola periusalis (Walk.)




Family COSMOPTERYGIDAE
Seta IIa of prothorax above level of seta la (A); crochets of
abdominal proleg uniordinal, in a complete ring (B).


KC~r

0-
-F _=




A B
Mexico and West Indies.
Hosts: Corn cotton (bolls and lint), and dried fruits.
Pyroderces spp.







- 26 -


Family GELECHIIDAE


1. Abdominal prolegs rudimentary; each proleg usually with not
more than 3 or 4 crochets (A).





A
Practically cosmopolitan.
Host: Stored grain. Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.)


- Abdominal prolegs normal; each proleg with many more than 3 or
4 crochets **.*********e...***********... ****e***.. ..*..** 2



2. Setae on prespiracular shield of prothorax in a linear arrange-
ment, shield enclosing the spiracle (A); crochets of anal legs
biordinal, interrupted at center (B); anal fork present (B).







A B
Costa Rica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, England, and Italy.
Hosts: Almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum, nectarine, and
tamarind (bean pod). Anarsia lineatella (Zell.)

Setae on prespiracular shield of prothorax triangularly arranged,
shield not enclosing the spiracle (A); crochets of anal legs
uniordinal or biordinal, not interrupted at center (B); anal
fork absent (B) *..............***************3**-**********-*** 3


A B








27 -

3, Setae Adf and Adf, close tog>et.-o di, v ......y -:6 "e!,'-.or to t0 e.
o ffro,: "A)s PI 1 f Klhtly -. --e %.3*al of .i -i ith P
laterad of P1 (A) .....


- Setae AdfI and Adf2 not closely associated, anterior to apex of
front; seta P2 posterior to PI (A); [puncture A betL -wen setae
AI and A2 (A); prothoracic shield light brown, with a. pale
reniform spot posterior to seta Ib (B); seta III of .?':h abdominal
segment above and in front of spiracle (C); crochets of abdomirna]
prolegs uniordinal and arranged in a penellipse (D); skin smooth,]


-9
I?1


\


D


Brazil, Egypt, India, Mexico, and West Indies.
Hosts: Cotton and okra. Peotinophora ossypiella (Saund.)


4. Pro1toracio shield pale, whitish, with dark fuscous shading along
lateral and posterior margins (A).



\0


A
Bahamas, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Hawaii, end Virgin
Islands.
Host: Tomato. Gnorimoschema lyooperi icella (Busok)







- 28 -


- Prothoracio shield entirely dark brown or blackish ...........




5. Line joining setae L1 and 02 tangent to or passing through
ocellus I (A); setae V, IV, and VI of 9th abdominal segment in
line (approximately) (B).
\~//


- 1---
V -vt


Cuba and Mexico.
Hosts: Pepper and tomato.


Gnorimoschema gudmannella (Tism.)


- Line joining setae L1 and 02 distinctly posterior to ocellus
I (A); setae V, IV, and VI of 9th abdominal segment in a
triangular arrangement (B).


----V


Practically cosmopolitan.
Hosts: Potato (Irish) and tomato.


Gnorimoschema operculella (Zell.)







- 29 -


Family OECOPHORIDAE

1. Number of ocelli reduced (only 2 present) (A); submentum with a
large oval pit (B).


Practically cosmopolitan.
Hosts: Bulbs and roots


Endrosis lacteella (Sohiff.)


- All ocelli present (I-II and Ill-IV more or less fused (A)),
submentum without an oval pit.





0 0/


Europe.
Host: Bulbs.


Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Staint.)


Family BLASTOBASIDAE

As there are few reliable characters for separating the larval
forms in this family, specific determinations are very difficult.
However, the following combination of characters will help to separate
them froT. those of closely related families: Large oval pit on the
submentum; seta III directly above, or above and slightly behind, the
spiracle on tn abdominal segment; only 3 setae in group VII of
1xbdominal proleg and frequently with a dark ring about base of seta
1il on abdxaainal segments 1 7.

Ifoxicce, Central America, and Wobit lni2ies.
o'sts; Cotton (bolls), banana (debris), pepper, and rineapple.







-30-


Family OLETHREUTIDAE


1. Anal fork present; seta VI of 9th abdominal segment on same
plate with setae V and IV (A) *.**... *****.. *****g..*...... 2


&


A

- Anal fork absent; seta VI of 9th abdominal segment not on
same plate with setae V and IV (A).




IV


Practically cosmopolitan.
Hosts: Apple, pear, and quince.


Carpocapsa pomonella (L.)


2. A blackish or fuscous band on side of head, extending from
lateral incision of hind margin to, and including base of,
seta 02 (A); protioracic seta lIc dorsocaudad of Ic (B).






~02
A B


Mexico.
Host: String beans.


EPinotia opposita Hein.








- 31 -


- A short black or fuscous band on side of head but not extend-
ing to seta 02 (A); prothoracic seta Io directly caudad of
seta Ic (B).


A B


Australia, China, Japan, and Mexico.
Hosts: Apple, peach, pear, and quince.


Grapholitha spp. (May be
any of several species
infesting these hosts.)


Family TORTRICIDAE

Several species of Tortricidae attack pepper and tomato.
However, the larvae of the genus Platynota are readily recognized
by the white chalklike appearance of the elongate plates at bases
of setae I and II (A). The characters noted below will separate the
two species frequently intercepted.


1. Head capsule and prothooac ;o shield blackish or fusoous.


Cuba and Mexico.
Hosts: Pepper and tomato.


- Head capsule and prothoracic shield pale yellowish no dark
f'asoous shading along posterior margin of shield.

Cuba and Me.ico.
Rt Pepper and tomato. Platynot, stultana (Wismo)


Platynota rostrana ( iao)






- 32 -


Family PHALONIIDAE

The only phaloniid with which we. are concerned here is an as
yet undesoribed species in pepper pods from Mexico, The family
characters given in the key in conjunction with the host should
suffice for its identification.



Family HYPONOMEUTIDAE (Including PLUTELLIDAE)

1. Plate at base of seta III enclosing abdominal spiracle (A),
1 /



/ !

A
Belgium, France, Holland, Italy, and Spain.
Host: Leeks. Acrolepia assectella (Zell.)

- Plate at base of seta III not enclosing abdominal spiracle (A).. 2


I'


A


2. Prothoracic shield pale, without fuscous markings; setae IV and V
of proleg-bearing segments close together but not on same plate
(A); 9th abdominal segment bearing 9 setae, I, II, and III on a
single plate or with seta I slightly posterior to margin of the
plate (B); prolegs normal, crochets in a complete ring (C).


0 /
0


N


Italy, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden.
Hosts: Moss roots and sorbus berries.
Argyresthia oonjugella (Zell.)








- 33 -


- Prothoracic shield pale, with reddish-fusoous markings; setae IV
and V of proleg-bearing segments distant from each other (A);
9th abdominal segment bearing 7 setae, I, II, and III not on a
single plate (B); prolegs long and slender, crochets in a pseudo-
cirole (c).


--I
RI'-


Practically cosmopolitan.
Hosts: Cabbage, carrot, celery, broccoli, mustard, and turnip.
Plutella maculipennis (Curt.)





Family TINEIDAE


Prothoracic and prespiraoular shields adjacent, partially fused
(A); ooelli I and II approximate, III, IV, and V close together,
with VI posterior to and slightly below V (B).


Central and South America.
Hosti Orchid.


Acrolophus sp.


---






- 34 -


References


Bottimer, L. J.

1926. Notes on some Lepidoptera from eastern Texas. Jour. Agr.
Research 33: 797-819, illus.

Busok, August

1917. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella. Jour. Agr.
Research 9: 353-370, illus.

1928. Phthorimaea lyoopersicella, new species (family Geleohiidae)
a leaf feeder on tomato. (Lep.). Hawaii Ent. Soc. Proc.
7 (1): 171-178, illus.

Crumb, S. Eo

1926. The nearotic budworms of the lepidopterous genus Heliothis.
U. S. Natl. Mus. Proe. 68, no. 2617, art. 16, 88 pp., ills.

1927. The army worms. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 22: 41-55, illus.

1929. Tobacco cutworms. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 88, 179 pp.,
illus.

1932. The more important climbing cutworms. Bull. Brooklyn Ent.
Soc. 27: 73-100, illus.

Davis, E. G., Horton, J. R., Gable, C. H., Blanchard, R. A., and
Heinrich, Carl.

1933. The southwestern corn borer. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull.
388,'62 pp., illuO.

Ellis, William, 0.

1925. Some lepidopterous larvae resembling the European corn
borer. Jour. Agr. Research 30: 777-792, illus.

Forbes, W. T. M.

1923. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring States. Cornell
Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. memoir 68, 729 pp., illus.







- 35 "


Fracker, S. B.

1915. The classification of lepidopterous larvae. Univ. Ill. Biol,
1-onog. 2 (1), 169 -, illus.

Garman, H., and Jewett, H. H.

1914. The life history and habits :f the corn-esr worm (Chloridea
obsoleta). Ky, Agr, Expt. Sta.s Bull 187: :3-591, illus.

Cerman, H.

1918. A comparison of several species of Lepido. ra infesting
apple in Maryland with additional notes on 'he oriental
peach moth. Md. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 223: 103-126, illus.

1920. Observation on the structure and coloration of the larval
corn-ear worm, the budworm, and a few other lepidopterous
larvae. Ky. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. (Research) 227: 55-84,
illus.

1930. The oriental peach moth in Connecticut, Conn. Agr. Expt. Sta,
Bull. 313: 401-451, illus.

Halloway, T. E.

1916. Larval characters and distribution of two species of
Diatraea. Jour. IAg, Research 6: 621-626, illus.

Halloway, To E., Haley, W. E., Loftin, U. C., and Heinrich, Carl.

1928. The sugar-cane moth borer in the United States. U. S. Dept.
Agr. Tech., Bull. 41, 77 pp., illus.

Heinrich, CIrl

1919. Note on the European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn.)
and its nearest American allies, with description of larvae,
pupae, and one new species. Jour, Agr. Research 18: 171-17c,
illus,

1921 Some Lepidoptera likely to be confused with the pink boll-
orm. Jour. Agr. Research 20: 807-836, illus.,

Jones, Thori.s H.

1923. The eggplant leaf-miner, Phthorimaea gloohj iella Zeller.
Jour. Agr. Research 26: 567-570, illus.







- 36 -


Keifer, H. H.

1935. California Microlepidoptera VII. Califq Dept. Agr. Mo.
Bull. 24: 195-218, illus.

1936. California Microlepidoptera X. Calif. Dept. Agr. Mo. Bull.
25: 349-359, illus.

1937. California Miorolepidoptera XI. Calif. Dept. Agr. Mo. Bull.
26: 177-203, illus.

1937. California Mierolepidoptera XII. Calif. Dept. Agr. Mo. Bull.
26: 235-259, illus.

Luginbill, P.

1928. The fall armyworm. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 34, 91 pp.,
illus.

Ireyriok, Edward.
1928. Revised handbook of British Lepidoptera. 914 pp., illus.
London.

Quaintance, A. L.

1899. Some important insect enemies of curcubits. Ga. Expt. Sta.
Bull. 45- 25-50, illus.

1901. The pickle worm (Margaronia nitidalis Cramer). Ga. Expt.
Sta. Bull. 54: 73-94, illus.

Quaintanoe, A. L., and Wood, W. B.

1916. Laspe resia molesta, an important new insect enemy of the
peach, Jour. Agr. Research 7: 373-377, illus.

Riohards, 0. W., and Thomson, W. S.

1932. A contribution to the study of the genera Ephestia, Gn.
(including Strymax, Dyar4, and Ploaia, Gn. (Lepidoptera,
Phycitidae), with notes on parasites of the larvae. Ent.
Soo. London, Trans. 80: 169-250, illus.







- 37 -


Scudder, S. H.

1889. The butterflies of eastern United States and Canada. v.
2, pp. 768-1774, illus.

Weigel, C. A., Broadbent, B. M., Busck, August, and Heinrich, Carl.

1924. The greenhouse leaf-tyer, Phlyctaenia rubigalis (Guenee).
Jour. Agr. Research 29: 137-158, illus.

Wolcott, Geo. N.

1933. The lima bean pod borer caterpillars of Puerto Rico. Jour.
Dept. of Agr. Puerto Rico 17: 241-255, illus.

1934. Lima bean pod-borer caterpillars of Puerto Rico on their
wild hosts. Jour. Dept. Agr., Univ. Puerto Rico 18: 429-
434.

Wood, W. B., and Selkregg, E. R.

1918. Further notes on Laspeyresia molesta. Jour. Agr. Research
13: 59-72, illus.





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

II 3 1262 09224 6783IIIIIIII HIIl II
I3 162 09224 6783