The history of the use of derris as an insecticide

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Title:
The history of the use of derris as an insecticide
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Roark, R. C ( Ruric Creegan )
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Insecticide Investigations
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Insecticide Investigations ( Washington, D.C )
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E-468 February 1939


United States Departmrent of Akriculture
Bureau of Eitomology and PlDant Quarantine

THE HISTOFf OF THE USE OF IERJS

AS AIT I:SECTICJTZ. PART II--TES PERIOD 1919-1928

3y R. C. Roark, Division of Insecticide Investigations


Content s
Page


Introduction -


1919 - - - - -- - - - - - -

?2 - -- - -- - - - --- - - - -

1921 - - - - - - - - - - -

1922 - - - - -- - - - - - -

1923 -- - - - - - - - - - -

1924 - --- - - - - - - - - -

1925 - - - - - - - - - - -

1926 - - -- - - - - - - -

1927 - - - - - - - - - -- - -

1923 - - - - - - - - - - -

Table 1. Classified list of insects against
which derris has been tested - - - - -

Table 2. Alphabetic,-l list of insect sl.ecies
mentioned in this paper, together with
their cor.imon names and classification - -

Table :4. Alhabetical list of the common names
of insects mentioned in this -aper, together
with their cor-es5onlin; scientific names -

Literature cited - - - -- - - - -

Junior author index - - - - - - -

Chronological index - - - - - - -


















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Introduction


In a previous paper, Tlhe Ep.rly History (1848-1918) of thc Use
of Dorris as an Insecticido (82.)n,the writer reviewed the history of the
use of dorris as ar insecticide from 1818 to 1913, inclusive, which is
the period from the time of the first account in En. isi1 of the insec-
ticidal use of derris to the time immediately preceding the p-ublication
of the -ior;: of McTndoo, Sic-vers, ani Abbott, investigators of the
United States De'nrt:ient of Agriculture. The 10-year period 1919-8
witnessed great activity in thle oploration of the insecticidal uses of
derris. Bishopp and associates world out the control of ?jLjderma larvae
in the btcks of cattle by the applic-tion of powders, washes, or ointments
containing debris. TnvestL.-tors in Englanid and Canada published the
results of tests of derris against many insects. ?r:prietary insecticides
of British manufacture that contained derris -powder or derris extract
became more widely known and received mention in entomological literature.
However, in this literature no mention is found of rotenone or the other
active principles of derris. The derris used by different investigators
varied widely in toxic content, and hence it is not surprising to find
contradictory statements regarding the value of derris for the control of
certain pests. Dcrris was not a regular article of coj.,erce in the United
States. No method of chemically evaluating it ws known. In view of
these facts it is not surprising that derris did not rc.lly come into its
own until the results of the investigations of chemists on the active
principles of dorris and their analytical determination wore published.
This was not until after 1928.

In the prczent paper the writer has endeavored to present an
account of all work with derris against speoccific insects that was published
during the 10 years 1919 to 1923, inclusive. As nearly as possible the
work of the various investigators is given in chronologic il order. A
summary of the 10 years' research is given in tables. Table 1 rives
information concerning the effectiveness of each derris preparation tested
against each insect, with a reference to the original article. The insects
in table 1 are arr-anged according to family under the appropriate order.
In table 2 all insects are listed -ilphr.botically according to 7cnuos, ard
information is given concerning the common name, the order, and the fa:.ily
of each species. In table 3 is given an alphabetical list of the common
names of the insects together with the corresponding scientific names.
It is believed that the reoAer may readi-r obtain the information he
seeks by reference to one or more of these tables.

Throughout this publication the term "gallon" is understood to
mean the standard United States gallon of 231 cubic inches. The gallon
referred to in British publications is the imperial gallon of 277.27384
cubic inches.

An imperial gallon equals about 1.2 United States f-!ilons, andi
conversely a United States gallon equals about 0.83 imperial gallon.
l - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - -
1 Not available for distribution.









-2-


1919.


UcIndoo, Sie/ers, ard. Abbott (66) in 1919 reported an extensive
study of derris as an insecticide. The following is a list of the material
used and the sources front which and through which it wrs secured: Powde-ed
roots of a species of Derris, most likely Derris elliptica Benth., from the
open market where it is sld as'an insecticide; roots of D. elliptica,
called "tuba" or "1toeba" in the D!tch East Indies, from the 's Lands
Plantentuin, Buitenzorg, Jeva; stem. of D. uligmnosa Benth., from C& S.
Knowle5, Suva, Fiji Islands; sterms of D. kooigiubeeah Baill. and of D,
oliosperL a, from the director of the Botanical C-ardens at Brisbane,
q'eensle.na, Australia; roots of D. scandens Benth.; an& stems and roots
of D. robusta Benth., from the fi'rector of the Botanical Survey of Si'bpur,
Calcutta, India.

The authors' conclusions are as follows: Derris )rwder dusted
upon insects does not pass into the trachea, but a limited amount of it
may lodge in the spiracles, though never sufficiently to interfere with
breathing. In order that the vapors ard Pxh-lation from a nicotine-
spray solution be effective, it is necessary for the insects sprayed to
carry'some of this solution on their bodies; likewise it is necessary for
the insects dusted with derris powder to carry some of this powder on
their bodies in order that its exhalation may pass into the spiracles in
as undiluted a condition as possible. After being dusted the insects
seem to swallow some of the powder, which later may act as a stomach
poison. Soap solutions containing derris extracts pass freely into the
spiracles and finally reach the various tissues, but probably the extracts
kill by first affecting the nerve tissue.

Derris acts both as a contact insecticide a.d as a stomach poison,
but is of no practical value as a fumigant. Six species of derris were
tested, but only two of them (elliptica and uliginosa) were found to be
satisfactory for insecticidal purposes.

The toxic principle in derris kills some insects easily and others
with difficulty, but it usually acts slowly and seoms to kill by motor
paralysis.

Derris powder, used as a dust under practical conditions, was found
to be efficient against dog fleas, chicken lice, house flies, three species
of sphids (Aphis rumicis L., A. pomi Degeer, and Myzus ersicae Sulz.),
potato-beetle larvae, and small fall webworms, b'ut of no practical value
against bedbugs, roaches, chicken mites, mealybugs, Orthezia insigri Dougl.,
red spiders, or the crawl.rig young of the oyster-shelli scale. Used as
powder in water with or without soap under practical cor.-i.tions, it proved
to be efficient against most of the a.gIds sprayed snd also against cabbage
worms, Autografha brassicae Riley, the larvae of aji:le dainas, Dataiia
ministry Drury, oak worms, Anisota senatoria A. and S., small tent cater-
pillars, and potato-beetle larvae.









- 3 -


Fine 1,rris powder was extracted successively with five solvents,
namely, petroleum ether, ether, chloroform, alcohol, and water, in five
different sequences. Water used as the primary solvent extracted 10.80
percent of the material. The extracts and the mares were added to honey
and fed to honey bees, Apis mellifera L. The extracts were dissolved in
alcohol (0.4 -rar, in 10 cc. of 9f-percent alcohol), and 1/4 cc. of this
solution was mixed with 5 cc. of honey. The water extract had no effect on
the bees tested and the powder eo)haustod with water killed 94 percent of
the bees within 48hours. All the other extracts, whether obtained with the
use of heat or without it, wore almost equally toxic to hone-y bees.

Similar results were obtained by using the same extracts against
aphids, fall wvcbworms, Eyphantria cureo Drury, and tussock-moth cater-
pillars, H':r-.rc pjia luortmigma A. and S. The filtered water extract
from the ...r.v.dor of derris killed only a small rercnr.tage of the aphids
sprayed, while the non-filtered stray mixtures, consisting of powder and
sr-:a solution, were efficient against aphids. The pocvders exhausted with
ether, chloroform, and alcohol hod very little effect on bees (1/8 gram
of powder mixed with 5 cc. of honey).

To determine -h thor any poisonous volatile substance can be
removed from derris by steam distillation, 50 grarn'-, of the powder were
so treated and the distillate collected. Later some of this distillate
and a portion of the distilled ncP.der, after it had been dried, were
tested on silkworms. The distillate had no effect whatever, but the powder
was as poisonous as ever.

Various zcecies of derris (roots and stems) were extracted with
hot denatured alcohol. The percentage of extract ranged from 8.5 to
22.5 percent.

Yello'.- sh-white platelike crystals, m. p. 170 C., [probably im-
pure rotenone] were obtained by extracting derris root with boiling water
accord-.,: to the procedure of Van Sillcvoldt.

A dilute alcoholic solution of those crystals, as well as the
alcoholic solution of the resin from which the crystals had been separated,
was found to lbe ver:' toxic to fish. A subcutaneous injection of 0.66 mg.
of the cry-stals was fatal to a mouse in 2 hours.

Resinous materials obtained by alcoholic extraction of the roots
were tested on chinook salmon and found to be exceedingly toxic. When
sprayc' on foliage these rosins killed from 54.4 to 92.3 percent of small
tent caterpillar":.

The roots of tuba wore ground as fine as their fibrous nature would
permit, Dncl 200 gmn. of this powder wore macerated for 2 days with a quan-
tity of cold water. After the mixture h.od been filtered, the water extract
measured 600 cc., each cc. representing 1/3 gin. of the roots. Half of this
cold-vwator e:;tract vias tested on small tcnt caterpillars; within 8 days
only 30.9 percent of them had died.







- 4-


Tests with alcoholic extracts and powders are also recorded against
MVacrosiphui. lirioe..rl. Mon. larrosiphum (Illinoia) sp., Anhis helianthi
i-lon., FL. op.1 oo]sin m.m psev.doTra -sicae Davis, A-,his gossypii Glover, and Aphis
spiraecola Patch.

Derris was applied as a -powoer against various insects with the
following re silts:

Do- fleas: LEight dogs ba.ly infested with fleas, Ctenocephali ls
canis Curt., were dusted thorou.l.v. The material was applied with a
shaker and well rubbed into the hair with the hards. At The end of 48
hours no living fleas vere observed. Several dead ones wore ,seen still
clinging to the hairs.

Chicken lice: valve hens on.dly infested with several species of
lice (lallophaga) were thnro-~ujhly treated with the powder, which was well
rubbed in through the feathers. When the hens were examined 2 or 3 days
later tJCoy wore free from lice.

Chicken mites: Th,.n this po-dor was freely dusted over the chicken
mites, Dern:-;rfssus -all"Inac DogoLr, cofi.iic-d in jars, all wore killed within
24 hours, but when v. undoe practical conditions in a b'.dly infested
chicken house all the mites wover not killed.

Bedbu-s: Dorris was tested against bedbugs, Cimox loctularius L.,
by playing 20 bugs in a jar with a quantity of excelsior Fnd then thor-
oughly dusting the conto.ents of the jar. In nine tests unrler those very
severe conditionv' 24.4 percent of the bugs were killed in 24 hours and 52.8
percent in 4 dayz. This mat. rial would be of no practical value against
bedbugs.

.oachns: Six small ci es wore thoroughly dusteO and 20 roahies,
?tcla germani'J.ca L., vwore placed in each cage. At the end of one week
ar avelrorgo of 57.5 percent of the roaches wore lead, which indicates that
this material vwov.ld be of very little value under practical conditions.

House flies: In cage tests, whore house flies, Musca donostic.
L., wore dusted in ordinary flytranp about 10 inches high, all wer' dcad
or inactive -"ithin 24 hours. In'room tests, where the pov'der .:.s fro.ly
blown into the air ;nd all parts of the room with a small hand dust gW.n,
all the flies were deod at the Urd of 16 hours. In one test several
hundred flies were libcr'ztcd in a room which had booen thoro-efhly dusted
7 dys before. Twenty-four hours later very fow active flies were to
be scon, and on the second dn,- only throo or four were living.

Plart insects: Derris vm)plicd as a Xo.st was of no value against
the moalyhbug Psoudococcus citri Pisro, the greenhouse orthezia, Orthczia
.rsign'`s Dougl., rod spiders, Tctr..n'chuL bimaculztus Harv., and the
craTliiog youz- of the oystershell scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi L. ; but it was
effective against nasturtium aphids, Aphis ruxricis L., anr the green apple
aphid, Ahi2s pomi Drgecr.






- 5-


Derris, even at the rate of 1 pound to 200 gallons of water, was
very effective against the green apple aphid under field conditions. On
apple foliage the addition of soap does not increase its effectiveness.
This cwder is also effective as a dust.

Under greenhouse conditions, in tests against the nasturtium aphid,
this material was found to be effective when used at the rate of 1 pound
of powder to 400 gallons of water, with soap at the rate of 1 pound to
100 gallons.

Oyster-shell scale: At the rate of 1 pound of powder to 20 gallons
of water, either with or v'ithout soap in the proportion of 1 pound to 100
gallons, derris was ineffective against the crawling young of the oyster-
shell scale, LeniJ3osarhos ulmi L.

The efficiency of derris as a stomach poison against various insects
was also tested.

Potato beetle larvae: Derris powder as a stomach poison was tested
on a small scale against potato beetle larvae, Leptinotarsa decemlincata Say,
at several strengths, ranging from 1 pound of powder to 16 gallons of water
up to 1 pound to 128 gallons and '.inas found to be very effective. Practically
all the larvae were killed within 48 hours and the plants were little eaten.

Since these spray mixtures mni.-ht have acted as contact poisons,
because the larvae were already on the plants when the latter were sprayed,
a socon.r series of tests was arranged to eliminate this factor. The sane
plants were used and from 20 to 40 larvae were pliaced on them 1 or 2 days
after they had been sprayed. The results obtained were practically the
same as in the first series of tests. Very few living: larvae were found
three days later and the plants were little eaten. When applied as a
dust, derris was equally efficient z:.i'nst potato beetle larvae.

Tent caterpillars: Derris was tested against young tent cater-
pillars, ULalacosoma americana F., in a series of strengths r-'nging from
1 pound of powder to 8 '-.llons of water to 1 pound to 200 gallons.
All the mixtures were found to be effective. Apple-tree branches were
thoroughly spra:,,ed, and after the foliage had dried 20 to 40 newly
hatched larvae were placed on each branch. The caterpillars began to
show signs of discomfort within 48 hours and were practically all dead
in from 5 to 10 days. In no case was any material amount to feeding
observed.

In a second series of tests the larvae were placed on the branches
and sprpved after they had begun to form their tents. Under these con-
ditions sDrays containing 1 pound of powder to 50 gallons of water and
1 poun, to 100 gallons killed all the larvae within 24 hours. ahcnn 1
pound to 200 gallons and 1 pound to 400 gallons were used, all the larvae
were not killed within 11 davs, but the few which remained alive were
very small and in-ctive. Used as ,a dust, this material killed all the
treated larvae within 1 week.









Fall webworms: These caterpillars, Hyphantria cunea Drury, about
one-third grown, were killed within a week by a spray containing 1 pound
of powder to 5 gallons of water. Mixtures ranging from 1 pound to 50
gallons to 1 pound to 200 gallons were not satisfactorily effective, since
nearly all the sprayed foliage was eaten and not all the caterpillars were
killed.
#
Oak worms: Two small oak trees, on which about 300 caterpillars of
Anisota senatoria A. and S., were feeding, were sprayed thoroughly with
derris at the rate of 1 pound of powder to 25 gallons of water; soap was
added at the rate of 1 pound to 50 gallons, and a knapsack sprayer was used.
Within 24 hours the larvae became inactive and ceased to feed, and at the
end of 6 days no living ones could be found. As a check on this test,
powdered lead arsenate was applied at the rate of 1 pound to 50 gallons
of water, and almost identical results were obtained.

A second test was made in which a small tree was sprayed, and 24
hours later about 50 larvae were placed on it. The caterpillars ate very
little and gradually disappeared, evidently leaving the tree, since no
dead ones were observed; and at the end of 5 days they were nearly all
gone.
Datana larvae: Two apple trees, on which large colonies of nearly
full grovmwn apple datanas, Datana ministry Drury, were feeding, were sprayed
with derris at the rate of 1 pound of powder to 50 gallons of water.
Twenty-four hours later one living larva was found one one tree and two
on the other. The ground under the trees was thickly sprinkled with
dead larvae and many had lodged in the trees.

Cabbage worms; In two cage tests against cabbage loopers, Auto-
grapha brassicae Riley, derris, applied at the rate of 1 pound to 25 gallons
of water, killed all the larvae within 24 hours.

Howard (97), in his 1919 annual report as Chief of the Bureau of
Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, stated that if derris can
be obtained in sufficient quantities, it will prove an important addition
to our list of substances that kill soft-bodied insects, such as plant lice.

Roark (81) in 1919 included Derris elliptica and D. uliginosa in a
list of insecticidal plants.


1920

Mathieu (62) in 1920 reported the control of Agromyza phaseoli Coq.
attacking young beans, with derris.

"A trial of tuba was made on a field of 8 beds, 66 feet long,
with 1,056 seeds of Lima Bean (Small Sieva) on the 28th of October,
1919. Ten ounces of tuba-root were well pounded in a wooden
mortar, the juice was thoroughly expressed, and the fiber exhausted
in 20 imperial gallons of water. Tuba-water was then applied to


- 6 -





-7 -


each young plant at the rate of a cigarette tin full to 4 plants,
morning and evening. This was continued for 15 days, until the plants
were sufficiently established to be past all danger, which is only
present during the first stage of their existence, when the stem
is quite tender. Only 16 seeds failed to germinate, and of the 1,040
plants that came up, not one has since died. And today the plot is
showing the most vigorous growth, a living testimony to the potency
of the tuba-root as a plant-insect killer."

Lloyd (59) in 1920 reported tests of preparations of tuba root (derris)
against larvae of the glasshouse tomato moth, Polia oleracea L., (1) as a
dry dust, alone and in dilution with powdered earth; (2) with saponin in water
suspensions, at various strengths from 0.25 percent to 10 percent by weight
of the powdered root, mixed and strained through muslin; (3) with saponin in
water suspensions of an alcoholic extract (six times the strength of the
powdered root), at various strengths from 0.08 percent to 2 percent by weight.
These derris preparations were made by Tattersfield.

Tomato plants in pots were dusted or sprayed with these and infested
with larvae collected in nurseries. The dusting was unsatisfactory, as it
made the plants dirty and encouraged the growth of molds. The water
suspensions of the powdered root killed the larvae at a 10-percent strength,
but a 5-percent strength failed to do so within a reasonable time. Those
strong mixtures also dirtied the foliage. Suspensions of the alcoholic
extract proved very satisfactory sprays on an experimental scale. A
series of 18 experiments showed that 1 part of this substance by weight
in 1,000 parts of water is a sufficiently potent spray. A plant sprayed
with this was infested with 12 half-grown larvae which wore confined to one
leaf by moans of a sleeve. TVo days later 7 of those were dead, and 8
days after they wore put on they were all dead. Ton more half-grown larvae
were then placed on another leaf, and 10 days later all these were dead.
The spray therefore remained potent for 20 days. The foliage of the
plant was not damaged, and the fruit set normally. This plant at the end
of the experiment was photographed with a control plant of the same age
which, without spraying, was infested with 10 half-grown larvae at the
time the second lot was released on the sprayed plant. They completely
ate a leaf each day and had destroyed the plant by the time those on the
protected one were all dead. Similar experiments were carried out with
strengths of 5, 2-1/2, 1-2/3, 1-1/4, and 5/8 pound of the alcoholic
extract in 100 imperial gallons of water, respectively, and each plant
was infested with 22 larvae as described above. The results varied
little from those detailed, except that with the weakest strength the
death rate was somewhat slower. Rone of the plants were damaged, and the
substance appears to be safe to use, but no large-scale experiments were
carried out.

Flippance (32) in 1920 suggested tuba-root (derris) powder for
combating various small beetles attacking palms in the Straits Settlements,
also for use against the larvae of the large coconut butterfly, Amathusia
phidippua L., and the larvae of Erionota thrax L.







The Federated Malay.Stat os.Depoartmcnt of Agriculture (28) in
1920 reported that in Pcrak" during October and November, experiments
wore conducted on the control' ofBena Kura, Podops coarctata P., a
medium-sized brown bug; stem borers, Schoenobius bipunctiferus Wolk.
and other species; and the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa sp. Spraying
with kerosene emulsion and.extract of tuba root (Dorris sp.) were tried.
The results were uncertain.

1921

Symes (88) in 1921 reported that pure derris powder applied to a
bed of mushrooms infested with the mushroom fly, Sciara pracoxc Meig.,
cleared the bed. of insects in 2 or 3 days, but had no effect upon
Hypomycos fungi. It is concluded that mushrooms will not stand treatment
with powder insecticides (such as pyrothrum, derris, and 1-percent
paradichlorobonzeno). Whon not checked in their growth by these powders,
the mushrooms are rendered absnlutoly unfit for market.

Parrott, Glasgow, and. MacLeod (76) in 1921 reported tests with a
number of materials against two species of plant bugs, namely, the
bright red bug, Lygidea mendax Router, and the dark red bug, Heterocordylus
malinus Reuter. A derris-soap compound was used, a commercial preparation
[Derrisol?] assumed to contain approximately one-half pound of powdered
derris root and 6 pounds of soap per United States gallon. This derris-
soap mixture was used at the rate of 10 pounds to 100 gallons of water.
Applied at the rate of 13-1/3 gallons per tree, the derris-soap mixture
killed 99.2 percent of the insects. This same mixture, in three differ-
ent tests, injured 6, 6.3, and 14.1 percent of the apples, the average
being 13.2 percent.

Smith and tfadsworth (86) in 1921' tested insecticides upon carrot
and onion flies. Four applications of a'powder composed of soot and
derris at the rate of 1 ounce derris plus 2 ounces soot per square yard
resulted in 95 percent clean carrots. The control plot yielded only
20 percent carrots free from infestation by the carrot fly, Psila rosae F.
This derris mixture gave the best control of any of the materials tried.
Used against the onion flies, Hylemya antiqua Meig., in the same way,
six applications of derris-soot mixture (2 parts soot and 1 part derris)
at the rate of 1 ounce per square yard gave 60 percent clean onions,
whereas soot alone gave only 16 percent clean onions.

Howard (98) in 1921 reported briefly that a study had been made
of the insecticidal constituents of plants, and 180 different prepara-
tions had been made from 46 different kinds of plants, excluding tobacco,
quassia, and derris, the properties of these being generally acknowledged.
Of the 180 preparations, only a few were worth further study.

Brittain (11) in 1921 described experiments in which a 50-50
mixture of derris with clay and derris solution at two strengths (1-1/2
and 3 pounds to 100 imperial gallons) were applied to cabbage plants for
the control of the cabbage maggot, Chortophila brassicae Bou6he. The
clay-derris mixture was applied at the rate of 960 pounds per acre.
The derris solutions were applied at the rate of 10 and 20 pounds of
derris with 650 imperial gallons of water per acre. All the derris






-9 -


treatments protected the plants. Pure dorris powder applied to cabbage
plants destroyed 4 percent of the plants in two tests. Derris (3 pounds to
100 Imperial gallons) poured about plants previously infested with 25
fully grown cabbage maggots of the first brood prevented none of the larvae
from pupating. Onion maggot larvae, Hylemya antiua Meig., immersed for 5
seconds in derris solution (3 pounds derris to 100 imperial gallons) and
then allowed to remain unmolested 1 week upon the food plant were affected
as follows:

Age of larvae Percentage dead or Age of larvae Percentage dead
missing in 1 week or missing In 1-week

1 day 100 10 days 35
4 days 100 15 days 25
7 days 100 Full grown 0

1922
Treherne (95) in 1922 suggested the separation of the essential oils or
extracts of plants in order to prepare liquid sprays or medicated powders
which would act negatively chemotropically in insect pests, as has been done
with tobacco, pyrethrum, hellebore, derris, and certain other substances.

The Federated Malay States Department of Agriculture (29) in 1922 re-
ported that for dealing with the pest Nymphula depunctalis Guen. in the padi
nurseries spraying was being carried out with a decoction of tuba root.

Bishopp, Laake, and Wells (7) in 1922 stated that a single application
of derris in soapy water applied with a brush to the backs of infested animals
had been found to kill almost 100 percent of Hypodorma larvae.

Wells, Bishopp, and Laako (109) in 1922 reported the results of tests
of powdered derris root against certain external parasites of animals. When
chickens infested with 7 species of lice (Mallophaga) were rather thoroughly
dusted with derris the lice were very quicl:ly destroyed, practically all of
them being dead the day following treatment. Subsequent examinations extend-
ing over a period of 6 weeks showed no live lice present, thus indicating
that the eggs were killed or the young lice destroyed upon hatching. All lice
were killed 3 days after dipping fowls in a bath of 1/4 ounce of powdered
derris in 1 gallon of water.

Derris proved effective against the common biting louse of cattle,
Bovicola bovis L. Derris powder, 1 ounce per animal, applied with a dust gun
killed all lice and their eggs. A mixture of derris with an equal quantity of
flour applied at the rate of 1 ounce or 1.5 ounces per animal also killed
all lice and their eggs. A mixture of equal parts of derris and sodium
fluoride dusted on calves at the rate of 1-3/16 ounces per animal killed all
lice. A mixture of equal parts of derris and tobacco dust, the latter con-
taining about 0.1 percent nicotine, killed all adult lice, but some of the
eggs escaped destruction. Mixtures of derris, 1 part, and tobacco dust,
10 parts; and of derris, 1 part, and flour, 3, 5, 10, or 20 parts, killed
most but not all of the lice.





- 10 -


Pure derris powder and a 1i to'l mixture .of derris and flour, applied
with a shaker, about 1 ounce per animal, killed all sucking lice, Linognathus
vituli L., on calves. Mixtures of derris with flour, 1 to 5, 1 to "10, -and 1
to 20, killed all but a few of the lice. A mixture of equal parts of derris
anr.sodium fluoride killed all lice, L. vituli, and their eggs.

Calves infested with Solenoptes capillatus End. were dusted with mix-
tures of derris with flour, 1 to 1, 1 to 5, 1 to 10, and 1 to 20.' The 1-to-1
mixture, 1-3/4- ounces per animal, killed.'all lice, but the weaker mixtures
were not 100 percent effective. ..

All sucking lice, Linognathus piliferus Burm., and their eggs on a
dog were killed by 2 grams of a mixture of 1 part derris and 3 parts corn
starch; also with a 1-to-1 mixture of derris and flour.

An ointment consisting of 1 part of derris to 2 parts of vaseline
applied to the holes of warbles in the backs of cattle proved as effective as
any other material used in this way. Five days after treatment all grubs
were found to have been killed and the condition of the cysts was very
satisfactory. A wash consisting of 1 pound of derris, 4 ounces of soap,
and 1 gallon of water applied office with'a brush to the backs of infested
cattle killed practically all grubs.

A series of tests with several breeds of dogs indicated that the
'minimum dosage necessary to destroy all flease completely was 0.87 gram of
a mixture of equal parts derris and corn starch per animal. When the
quantity of derris was reduced to 0.2 gram 100 percent kill was not realized.
Following these preliminary experiments, a mixture of derris and corn
starch, in the proportion of 1 to 3, was applied to all the animals in the
hospital at the time--48 dogs and 9 cats. The material was put on along
the bpck and neck of each animal with the thumb and finger. ,An Pverage
of slightly less than 2 grams per animal was applied. These animals were
treated on December 4, and subsequent examinations up to December 10 showed
no living fleas. Both dog and cat fleas--Ctenocephalides canis and C.
felis--were present.

In one test puppies rather heavily infested with the sticktight
flea, Echidnophaga gallinacea, as well as the dog and cat fleas, were
each treated with one gram of undiluted derris. In a few hours dead dog
and cat fleas began dropping off the hosts and thefollowing day all
specimens were dead, though many sticktights remained attached.

The authors concluded:

"Derris powder is satisfactory as a: destroyer of Mallophaga
on chickens and cattle, but apparently not quite as effective on
the latter as sodium fluoride.

"It is very effective against Anoplura on cattle and dogs,
one treatment accomplishing the destruction of all stages.






- 11 -


"The results rf its.'use against fleas on dogs and cats are
probably most striking, very small amounts being sufficient to
destroy all-fleas. present.

"It arpears to be effective for lice and fleas when reduced
with from one to ten parts of a carrier to one part of derris."

Brittain (12) in 1922 reported that when derris (3 pounds to 100
imperial gallons of water) was applied to cabbage plants (Copenhagen
Market variety), 39 percent of-the plants were destroyed by maggots. In
another test 2 pounds of derris to 100 imperial gallons of water permitted
about 29 percent of the plants (Early Jersey Wakefield variety) to be
destroyed. Tests in which 3 pounds of derris to 100 imperial gallons were
used permitted from 45 to 80 percent of the plants (Early Jersey Wakefield
variety) to be destroyed by maggots. On radishes, derris (3 pounds to
100 imperial gallons) allowed 71 percent of the plants to be infested with
cabbage maggots. Corrosive sublimate was the only treatment that gave
satisfactory control. Only one material, derris, proved very ineffective.
As it was from the same lot of material used the previous year with fair
results, Brittain assumed that it had deteriorated in storage. About two-
fifths pint of liquid and five-ninths ounce of dust was applied per plant.

De Bussy (14) in 1922 reported the results of tests of various
materials upon the larvae of Prodenia litura F. This lepidopterous insect
is of great importance in relation to tobacco culture in Deli. The finely
ground root of Derris elliptica (toeba) was used as a decoction in water
up to 10 grams per 100 cc. yet in no case killed more than 2 out of 5
half-grown caterpillars.

Gilmer (44) in the 1922 report of the Minnesota State Entomologist
reported tests made with derris powder furnished by the American Tobacco
."r-Products and Chemical Corporation, of Louisville, Ky.; also with a
derris extract said to contain 16 percent of active derris and 84 percent
of inert substances, apparently pyridine. Both these products were manu-
factured 1.by a British company. The tests included the following mixtures:
(1) derris pov'der 10 percent, tobacco dust 90 percent; (2) derris powder
'7-1/2 percent, tobacco dust 92-1/2 percent; (3) derris powder 100 percent,
tobacco dust 0 percent; (4) derris powder 20 percent, tobacco dust 80
percent; (5) derris pov"der 7-1/2 percent, tobacco dust 67-1/2 percent,
powdered sulphur 25 percent.

The experiments were of two general types, those performed with
the derris powder as furnished, and those with the liquid derris extract.
The tests were made on cats, dogs, white rats, and chickens; fleas, lice,
chicken lice, and cockroaches. The fleas included the rat flea, Cerato-
phyllus fasciatus Bose., and the dog and cat fleas, Ctenocephalides canis
Curt. and C. felis Bouche'. The chicken lice included both the body louse,
Menopon biseriatum Piaget, and the head louse, Lipeurus heterographus
Nitzsch. The rat louse, Polyplax spinulosus Burm., was the common louse
of these animals. The cockroaches included the American roach, Periplaneta
americana L., and the croton bug, Blatella germanica L.






- 12 -


From thp experiments it is concluded that derris furnishes a very
efficient insecticide, partiLcularly when used as a. powder, against
ectoparasites. It is effective, easily applied, not repugnant to the
animal or man, and retains its insecticidal properties unaltered in the
open air. It should be used about the same as pyrethrum powder, and in
the 20 percent derris-80 percent tobacco dust mixture has a killing power
about as effective as that of commercial pyrethrum. Its stability in
insecticidal power makes it superior to pyrethrum even at a slightly higher
price. It seems, however, to lack the instantaneous- effect of pyrethrum and is
not effective against flies when blown into the air. As a check against
roaches, ants, and insect ectoparasites, it is fully the equal of pyrethrum
as ordinarily purchased.

The 20 percent derris-80 percent tobacco dust mixture was effective
but slow in action against roaches. Roaches forced to run through the
powder and then confined in cages or small glass jars all died with 24
hours. These roaches were forced to run over a considerable depth of the
powder and were thoroughly coated with it. .The powder was also mixed with
flour and a little sugar, and roaches were allowed to feed upon it. It
proved an effective stomach poison, killing all the roaches experimented
upon.

Howard (99) in 1922 called attention to the work of Bishopp an.d
associates, who found derris to be. very effective for use in the dust
form against lice of cattle and other domestic animals as well as against
fleas,

Jack and Sands (53) in 1922 reported that spraying with tubasmix-
tures is one of the means recommended for controlling the cotton stainer.

1923

Lewin (57) in 1923'wrote that in Sumatra the diluted root sap of
Derris elliptical is used to kill caterpillars on young tobacco plants, but
too great a quantity kills the tobacco.

Hadwen (48) in 1923 referred to the method of killing Hypoderma
larvae by the application to the warble holes of ointments containing
iodoform or derris.

Jack (52) in 1923 wrote that the juice extracted from Derris
elliptica is most effective in combating the stem-boring insects attack-
ing rice, Schoenobius bipunctiferus and Diatraea auricilia, but can be
used only where the padi is grown in water which is not mixed later
with the drinking supply.

According to Gimlette (45), writing in 1923, H. E. Durham in 1902
commenced a series of experiments with tuba as a larvicide in the Federated
Malay States. Dr. Durham found that the most sensitive animals are perhaps
the daphnid crustacea. Tadpoles and water-snails are also easily killed.
Caterpillars are easily poisoned; specially sensitive is the gooseberry






- 13 -


saw-fly, Weimatus (Pteronidea) ribessi Scop., but Durham found that it had
no effect as a contact poison on the black bean aphid, A. riumicis L., and
the woolly aphid of the apple, Eriosoma lanigenmn Hausm. Trial on frogs'
hearts showed that the vagus was paralysed, so that stimulation of the
nerve failed to cause the normal vagus inhibition. In Er'.nglmnd Durhan
found that Culicid larvae, Theobaldia annulat, were killed in a l-in-40,000
suspension of the dried powdered crude root of D. elliptica. A solution
of 1 in 10,000 killed the larvae in 29 h-.vrs and the pupae in from 24 hours
to 3 or 4 dza-s. Another experiment with the larvae of Culex ppi-ns showed
that t,.; died in less than 16 hours (puoae in less than 24 hours) with
solutions of 1 in 1,000, 1 in 2,000 an6 1 in 5,000 of the whole root; with
1 in 10,000 the larvae were killed In 20 hours and th., pupae in 24 hours.
A solution of 1 in 1,000 of the extract is enough to make the watot- cloudy.

The California Agricultural Expcrimcnt S1*ation (16) in 1923 reported
the results of spraZing and dusting tests with derris made by L. T. T7hito,
undcr the direction of E, R. do Ong. A dust made from ground dorris root
mix.d_ with 80 norccnt of inert carrier was found to give'perfect control
of the bitir'g lice Mcononon biseriatum Piagct and Goniocotcs gig s Tcschen-
bor, of theio fowl; -'nd of the tucking lice Gyropus ovalis Iitzsch and
Gliricolc porcclli L. of the iguinea pig.

Frlyer, Stenton, Tattersfield, and Roach (33) in 1923 reported an
investigation in which extracts of Derris elliptical were shown to have a
high insecticidal value, particularly for cater-illars. They were not
so toxic to aphids.

The dr.- root itself may be used in a finely powdered condition
worked up with water together with soan or other emulsifying reagents.
As the pure poisons found in derris root are solids and only slightly;r
soluble in water, their toxicity appears to depend upon the degree
of dispersion.

A biological methcd of determiinirg insccticidal propcrtis
quantittively is described. It depends on dip-ping; insects, for a con-
stant period of timu (10 seconds in know.m strengths of hirily dioecrsed
susp-rsoids in dilute aquecous solutions of saponin. Results agrc2ing
with those given by the chemical method already described wore obtained.
It enabled the authors to compare extracts of dorris with nicotine. To
certain caterpillars tubatoxin and dorrid are shown to be of the same
order of toxicity as nicotine. Those'conclusions arc based on tests
with the following insects: Cater-oill-irs of the cabbage white butterfly,
Picris br:.ssicao L., the lackey moth, Kalucosma neustria L', the buff-tip,
Phalcra buccphb.la L. the gooseberry savifly, NTomatus (Ptcronldca)ribesii Sc,
and thost of another scawfly, Ph:ratoccrc. aterrima Klug. Tests wore also
m!."ic with larvae of tha tomato moth, Polia oloracca L., with silkworms,
Bomb, :: uori L. and with Aphis ruiicis L.

How-ard (100) in 1923 reported the work of Bishopp ct al. against
Hybore1:. larvae in the backs of cattle. Over 98 percent of the grubs can
bi uillcd with a general application to the backs of cattle of powvidered
derris root. A wash consisting of 1 pound of dcrris, 4 ounces of soap,
.r'L: 1 gallon wr.ter hs also given a percentage of kill above 96.





- 14-


An ointment consisting of 1 part derris and 5 parts vaseline has also given
almost 100 percent kill when, the material was pressed into each hole,

:{ollrung (50) in 1923 wrote that in Sumatra the following prepara-
tion had given good results against leaf lice on tobacco: 1-1/2 kg. fresh
tuba root is mtshed ii 20 liters of water, which is diluted with an equal
volume of water for use.- ...

1924

The preparation of dorris for use as an insecticide is described
by an anonymous writer in the booklet "Plant Diseases and Pests" of the
British Empire Exhibition (10), London, 1924.

"For small caterpillars and suckling insects, where a simple
wash is required, the derris spray can be made on the' spot. Use
-the following proportions: derris root 4-5 lbs., soap 2 lbs.,
water 50 (Imperial) gallons.

"Cut the dorris root into small pieces and pound to a pulp
in a mortar with a little wator. Inclose the pulp in a cloth and
squeeze well in a larger quantity of water. To- the extract obtained
by this process add the soap, which has bobn dissolved in a little
hot water. Thon dilute to 50 gallons."

The srma information was given by the Federated Malay States De-
partment of Agriculture (30) in 1924.

Symes (89) in 1924 reported that two proprietary derris extracts gave
-highly satisfactory results against the black citrus aphis in Rhodesia.

Brittain (13) in 1924 described insectary feeding tests made in Fiske
trays with potato beetle larvae. Arsenate of lead (paste) in the strength
of 2 pounds to 40 imperial gallons was compared with various contact poisons
namely, nicotine sulphate, fish-oil soap, and dorris powder, an attempt
being made to uso the last both as a contact insecticide and as a stomach
poison. To test the contact action of.derris (B) the insects were placed
in a wire basket and dipped in the solution and then drained and fed on
unsprayed leaves. To test the internal action of derris (A) the leaves
were dipped in the solution and fed to the insects. The experiments lasted
for a week, daily records being taken. The most notable results of the
tests were those obtained in the case of derris, which in all strengths,
ranging from 3 pounds to 100 imperial gallons to 1 ounce to 100 imperial
gallons, 4nd with both methods, destroyed 100 percent of the insects, in-
cluding half-grown grubs, fully grown grubs, and adults. It seems certain
that this material did not act as a stomn.ch poison, beciuso the beetles
were found dead in the A trays, with no sign of any feeding.

The extreme toxicity of this material to potato' beetles is shown by
the fact that 1 week after this experiment was concluded a number of last-
instar grubs were placed upon untreated leaves in a tray. The next morning
the insects wore found dead in the bottom of the tray without over: having







- 11 -


fod upon the leaves. On investigation it was found that this tray had
been used in the previous week' s test for one of the derris treatments
(1 ounce to 100 imperial gallons). Evidently sufficient solution had been
taken up by the cheesecloth bottom of the tray to cause the death of the
insects. In comparing these results with field tests it would appear that
the material is much more effective under insectary conditions.

Field tests to control aphids, Cavariella sp., on parsnips were made
with derris (2-1/2 pounds 6f derris and 4 pounds of soap powder per 100
imperial gallons) and a commercial preparation of derris, Polvo (2-1/2 pounds
per 100 imperial (-allons). Dorris root (Polvo) reduced the infestation very
little even when soap was added. The samo matcr'als wC:re used under in.ect-
ary conditions with similar relative results. Dorris w,,as of no value against
fall w obwo-:im larvae, F-ihantria cunca. Mature cabbage maggot larvae immersed
for 5 seconds in a susp.-r.sion of dorris root (3 pounds to 100 imperial gal-
lons) and then placed upon thoir food plant wore unaffected, whereas a 1 -
to 1,000 mercuric chloride solution killed 10 percent. A similar test was
made upon onion maggots, Hylenya nxtiqua. The results are as follows:


HgC12, 1-1,000 Derris, 3 pounds
Age of maggot solution in 100 imperial
percent mortality gallons of water
percent mortalit

1 day ................. ....... ...100 100
4 days .........1.................... 00 100
7 days .... .............. .. ...... 100 100
10 days .......... ............ ....... 75 35
15 days ............ .............. 50 25
Ready to puip-rte ............ ....... 20 0

The following derris tre-atments save perfect results in the control
of head lice, LiLevrus hcterogrrphus Nitzsch, on young chicks: (a) Derris
1 part, plus 3 parts vaseline, 11 drams per 100 chicks; (b) derris powder
16 drams per 100 chicks; (c) derris 1 ounce, calcium caseinate 1 gram, and
water 8 imperial cglions; the birds were rapidly immnnersed in the fluid and
the feathers raffled.

Corbett and Yusope (19) in 1924 stated that a spray of tuba root has a
marked killing effect on Scotinophar coarectata F. at various stages, but
since the quantity required would m-ke the operation of spraying too costly,
unless derris plants were grown by the cultivators, this method of combating
the insect is not recor.ri ended.

Davidson (20) in 1924 reported the results of tests with derris powder
and derris extract against the chicken mite. The composition of these mater-
ials was not known.

Four infested chicken houses inhabited by the common red mite of the
chicken, DemanyrstLis gallinae Pegeer, were dusted with the finely ground
powder of the roots of dcrris. Unr.diluted dust was efficient in one house and






- 16 -


temporarily so in another. In a third house a 75-percent dust was only
moderately efficient; in a fourth test a 50-percent dust was inefficient.
Flour was used as a diluent.

Davidson concluded that dorris powder is a remedy of vrluc, but it
would appear that two-or more applications are necessary and that it loses
its efficiency if diluted more than 25 percent. It acts on larvae and adult
mites by stupefying them, the insects dropping to the ground and dying after
2 or 3 days. The material is rather unpleasant to apply.

A commercial extract of dorris, 16 percent, diluted to 1 to 1,000
and 1 to 500, with the addition of whale-oil soap, 4 pounds per 100 United
States gallons, was inefficient.

De Ong and I'hite (26) in 1924 reported the results of tests ~ H. E.
Woodworth with species of derris from the Philippines as follows:

Dilution
Scientific nm.e Parts used of solution Remarks

Derris elliptica sten 20%o negative
young shoot 20% negative
root 20 positive
Derris philippinensis leaves 20% negative
stem 1% positive
stem (boiled) 20% negative
roots 20% positive
Derris sp. leaves 20% negative
stem 20% positive
flowers 10% negative
leaves (boiled)' 20% negative

The insect used in teose tests by Woodwbrth is not given.

Do Ong and White reported the results of their own tests with derris
as follows:

The cormnoercial extract of 16 percent concentration
diluted 1 to 500 gave a 13-percent control on Aphis nerii Fons.,
and a 50 percent control on the green peach aphid, Myzu persicae
Sulzer. Dilutions of 1 to 300 gave a maximum control of 68 per-
cent on the latter species of aphid and 25 percent on the red
spider, Tetranychus telarius L. Dilutions of the same con-
centrate at 1 to 500 added to mosquito-infested water killed
65 percent of the larvae but ha.d no effect on the pupae. "
The po't'ered derris root (undiluted) sprinLled on the surface
of the water killed 90 percent of the larvae in 2 to 4 hours.
The same powder when dusted on aphids gave a 100 percent
efficiency in 8 hours and a 98 percent control of the larvae
of Euphydryas chalcedona Dbldy. and Hew. when dusted on the
leaves upon which they were feeding. From these experiments it
is judged that derris is both a stomach and a "respiratory" or
tracheal poison. The reaction on the caterpillars must have
resulted from ingestion of the powder, since fumigating tests with
the material gave negative results.





- 19 -


Powdered derri.s root diluted to a 20-percent concentration with
calcium carbonate, as well as the commercial derrii dusts, gave
perfect control on the chicken lice Henopor biseriatum Piaget and
Goniocotes gigas Tascht and the Gyropid lice Gyropus ovalis Iitzsch
and Gliricola porcelli L. on the guinea pig.

Kopp (55) in 1924 reviewed the use of derris as an insecticide.
Derris powvider has given excellent results against plant lice,, Pucerons
du Ponmmier (500 grams to 800 liters of water containing 1 kilogram of
soap); 1lalacosoma (500 grams to from 32 to 800 liters of water); larvae
of HE:hantria cuna*- Anisota senatoria (500 grams to 100 liters con-
taining 250 grans of soap); Datana ministry (500 grams to 20) liters);
Autogra..;ha brassicae (500 grams to 100 liters containing 250 grams of
soap); Lgidea mendax; Hetterocoryvlus malinus; Leptinotarsa decemlineata
(500 -rais to from 64 to 500 liters of water).

ilacDougall (60 and 61) in 1924 reported tests with a propriet-aryj
preparation of derris. Any scab and matted hair obscuring the exit hole-
of the larva in the skin was cleared away before the dressing was applied.
One ounce of dorris to 1 imperial quart of watrr killed 86 percent, and
1 ounce to 1 pint killed 94 percent of the warbles. No injurious effects
attended any -of the cattle dressed with derris for warble infestation
and there was no discomfort to the hands of the dresscr.

Howard (51) in 1924 reported that the active principle of Chxra
foctida was toxic to mosquito larvae and had been shown by MacGregor in
Egl:.did to be similar in its action to that of dcrris.

In 1924 the Minnesatac Agricultural Expcrinmcnt Station (71)
announced that one of its projects in economic entomology ,-as the studkr
of derris for the control of external p-trasites of domesticated animals,
under the direction of Paul 1,1. Gilier and 0. C. K;cride, but no report
on this project appears to have been made.

iXcIndoo and Sievers (65) in 1?24 published the results of tests
with 2J32 pre-arations from 54 species of plants against 28 species of
insects.

Following are the summarized results, obtained by using a commercial
powder, consisting of a mixture of Derris elliptica and D. uliginosa.
The oom;der, used as a dust, was efficient against three species of
aphids (Ak:his sp. A and B and ilacrosiphoinella sanborni), and silkworms,
but killed only about half of the 1iacrosiphum sp. A tested within 24
hours; used as a decoction (No. 1lOa, not filteredT and also as a hot-water
extract (To. llOb, filtered), it -.vas efficient against Aphis sp. A and
3; and used as a f-rigant, it was efficient against ,,yzus persic'ie Sulz.,
Mac 'osi-hum sp. C, sil-kvorms, and the lad:,-beetle tested, but inefficient
again:.t rTobworms and small tent caterpillars.








The alcoholic ard ben'zene extracts of derris, when sufficiently-
strong and used with soap or kerosene emulsion, were found efficient
against many species of aphids. The alcoholic extract, used with soa.I,
was efficient against half-grown sawfly larvae, but inefficient against
small Vlebwlorms (first instar) and the larvae and adults of potato beetles.

At Tallulah, La., a commercial preparation of powdered derris vas
used on three dogs which were infested with fleas, Ctenocephalides canis
Curt. It was found efficient against the fleas.

Fulmek (34) in 1924, in discussing insecticides for use against
tobacco pests in Sumatra, listed akar tuba as a contact insecticide.
The addition of 0.3 to 0.5 percent of coan to solutions of dorris is
advi sod.

Fulnc'k (35) in 1924 recommended akar tuba for leaf lice at the
rate of 11-ilogram in 100 liters of water to which 0.5 kilogram of soe-p
is added.


1925

Gator and Yusopo (40) in 1925 stated that the usual iqucous dcrris
extract as made in British Lalaya would form an effective spray against
young caterpillars of Laelia suffosa Vlk. damariaging padi.

Gater (39) in 1925 reported dipping tests with mature larvae of
Parasa herbifera Walk., larvae of Tirathaba sp., and nymphs of Dysdercus
cingualatus F. The latter is particularly susceptible to derris. Gater
concluded that the insecticidal constituents of derris are almost if not
completely destroyed by the digestive fluids of a bostrichid.

'Jalton (106) in 1925 reported that preliminary trials of derris
ointment prepared according to the formula of Wells, Bishopp, and
Laako (109) had been made for the control of warble flies in North Wales.
The results obtained with 91 cattle were most promising.

Bourcart (9) in his book Insecticides, Fungicides, and Wecd
Killers, English translation of 1925, stated that a spray containing
1 pound of derris, 10 imperial gallons of water, and 5 ounces of soft
soap is effective against aphids infesting tobacco in Sumatra. The
derris roots, which may be dry or fresh, are cut into small pieces,
placed in a little water, and then pounded into a paste, which is
diluted with a gallon of water and left standing overnight in a wooden
vat. An iron container must not be used. The dregs are then pressed,
and all the fluid is strained through a cotton cloth.. The resultant
concentrate is a milk-white solution, which keeps for a few days only.
It is diluted with 9 parts of water for spraying. About 16 imperial
gallons of solution are needed for 1,000 tobacco plants that have been
25 to 30 days in the field. Twice this quantity is needed for full-grown
plants. If dorris roots arc to be stored, they must be kept dry.






- 19 -


Fulmek (36) in 1925 gave directions for spraying against leaf lice
with derris. The formula is 1 kilogram of akar tuba (derris), 100 liters of
water, and 300 grams of souap

Harukawa (49) in 1925 reported tests made in Japan with "tuba-fluid",
a whitish solution made from derris roots Fupplied by an insecticide dpaler.
The method of preparation was unknown to the author. The author tested
this solution on various insects and found that it was -articularly effective
against the larvae of the rush sawfly. The tuba fluid, diluted with 1,000
times its volume of water, killed 100 percent of the larvae. Parallel
exceir.enLts made with the tuba fluid diluted with soap water showed that
there is practically no different in effectiveness between the solution
diluted with water alone and that diluted with soap water.


The iliichigan Agricultural Experiment Station (69) in 1925 reported
that derris sprays had given encourain- but not conclusive results against
the black cherry aphid and various apple aphids.

Otanes (73) in 1925 wrote that in certain parts of the Visayan
Islands, as in Cebu, it is said that farmers sometimes use the roots of
Derris (species unimoowin) for combating the rice borer, by scattering
chi-..s of the roots anrl sterm. The juice mixes in solution with the
water, and when the caterpillars come in contact with the water, as
when they transfer from stalk to stalk or after hatching, they get
poisoned and soon die. Just how effective this remedy is has not been
scientifically determined. If this poisonn will really kill the rice
borer it would probably be equally effective against the rice case-worm,
Nymphula depunctalis.

K. .:. Smith (85) in 1925 reported on the control of certain
maggots attacking the roots of vegetables. T-sts were made with
various insecticides for the control of the onion fly, Hylcimy antiqua
IMcig., the carrot fly, Psila rosao., the cabbage root fly, Chortophila
brassicae Bouche, and the turnip gall weevil, Ceuthorrhynchus plpurostina
Marsh. A mixture of 1 ounce of derris with 2 ounces of soot per squa:-e
yard did not give results promising enough to justify further trials
with it.

Howard (101) in 1925 reported that further investigations had been
made in the Bureau of Entomology of insecticides derived from derris.

NcBride (63) in 1925 was assigned one of the projects in entomology
and economic zoology of the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station
entitled "A study of derris and related insecticides for the control
of external parasites of domesticated animals", but no report of wor:
under this project was published.




LIBRARY
STATE PLANT 13BOARD









An anonymous writer (1) in the Gardeners' Chronicle in 1926 stated
that insecticides derived from Derris elliptica mayI prove ultimately to
be the means of freeing us from the use of arsenical sprays. Preparations
of this kind are already on the market and appear to give excellent results.

Reutter (79) in 1926 stated that an extract of derris plus tobacco
extract is used as a powerful insecticide.

Vogt and Appel (105) in 1926, in their book "Die Chemischen
Pflanzenschutzmittel," included Derris elliptica in a list of stomach
poisons.

Bishop (5) in 1926 reported that fresh derris powder ,is exceed-
ingly effective in destroying fleas on animals. All fleas on a dog will
be destroyed by one application of 1 gram or about three-fourths of a
level teaspoonful of the powder. It is suggested that the material be
mixed at the time it is used. with 2 parts of flour or cornstarch and
dusted into the hair of the animal, especially along the back and neck,
with a shaker. The skin of cats is much more easily injured with chemi-
cals than that of dogs; hence any preparation used should be weaker when
used on cats than on dogs.

An anonymous writer (2) in Korte Berichten voor Landbouw Nijvcrhcid
en Handel in 1926 described the preparation of an insecticide sprayr *from
derris root. Only fresh root is used. A bundle weighing 1-1/2 catty
(1 catty=l-l/3 pounds) is sufficient for a 1/4-acre garden plot. It is
chopped up, extracted in 2 gallons of boiling water, and diluted 1 to 4.
It is preeminent among chemical insecticides in that it does not harm
even the most tender foliage. When used on dogs, it kills the fleas
without irritating the skin, but should not be used in the presence of
scabies. An extract of it is also used against the caterpillar and other
harmful insects.

Bishopp, Laake, Brundrett,- and Wells (6) in 1926 reported the
results of tests of insecticides against cattle grubs or ox warbles.

A proprietary derris extract, 1 part, plus 10 parts of water
(containing 4 ounces of soap per gallon), killed 100 percent of cattle
grubs (larvae of Hypoderma lineatum) when injected with an oil can
directly into the grub holes in the backs of cattle. Derris powder,
8 ounces, plus soap, 4 ounces, per gallon of water, applied t-ice as
a wash on the back also killed 100 percent of the grubs. Tests with
dry derris powder, derris powder with paraffin oil, derris powder with
petrolatuim, derris powder with soap and water, and derris powder with
water only are recorded.

The percentage mortality of Hypoderma bovis is not so high as that
of H. lineatum.


- 44 .






- 2 -


The authors concluded:

"Tests of the application of washes, powders, and ointments
to the backs of the cattle and also the injection of substances
into the cysts containing the larvae show that each of these
methods of treatment is effective if certain materials are used.
Among the most effective should be mentionedd : Derris used. as a
*-.ash, as an ointment, or as a po-'der; iodofornm used as an oint.ient;
<'rethrum applied as an ointment; benzol and carbon tetrachloride
injected into the grub cysts; fine tobacco a, *.lied in powder form
and nicotine dust applied dry."

Carlos (17) in 1926 reoortcd that dorris ,.s a contact or external
poison, wiith or without the u1s of soap as a s-rcading agent, had booen
found effective against a-hids in as low a 6ilrtion as 1 pound of root
to 4.C i.) crial gallons of water, which ronrescnts a proportion of 0.025
perccit. As a stomach or internal poison, stronger solutions arc roquilr-d,
the lo7,0cot ocing 1 pound to 12. inpcrial gallons of water, or 0.08 percent.
Cater :ll...rs, aphids, psylla, and red spiders arc some of the chief insect
pcst Wilhici can be ersil- exterminated. by the r-p'lication of insecticides
contc-.i-.i-. dorris or its products. One intrrc ting pro.crty of dcrr-is as
a killing agent is that the effect lasts for a considerable time. Leaves
when sprae-cd with a solution containing derris prc-, .irtions will remain
poisonous to insects for many days.

Castillo (18) in 1926 reported the results of studies on the
insecticidal prove ertier of three species of derris gi.-r..ing in the
Philipmines, namely, D. polyuntha Perk., D. -hilip_ inensis iHerr., and D.
elliptica (Roxb.) Benth. The roots -rere cut into thin transverse slices
and dried in an oven at 400 C. until the weight remained fairly constant.
The dried material '"as then romi-minuted in a mortar and the powadering
finally- completed in a meat grir.der. The fine po-der was separated from
the fibers by sifting through fine-mosh-d cloth.

In the comr.rative st' d'es of the effect of various concentrations,
Derris ;hililppinensis Tas us-d on accountn t of its being reltivwl.y more
abund.ant, hcnce rc.-r ,, s.ily procurable, than the others. Insects of two
types of habitat were usec, namely, an aquatic insect, the mosquito
larvae, and an aerial insect, Aphis mi Q1a1i:'i Koch. On mosquito larvae
the Host effective concc.itrations of D. phil ppincn sis in brinin, about
the hi'Jhest porccntaec of deaths in the quickest time was 3:1,000.
Solutions which were either snore dilute or more concentrated than 3:'L)00
were fo-und less effective. Concentrations of 1:1,000 killed 19 percent
of the larvae in 5 da'-s; lorier concentrations showed no effect at all.
A concentration of 3:1,000 or higher retained its toxicity 'gairLnst mosquito
larvae for 13 to 16 days. Concentrations higher than 3:1,000 presumably
becxu.e effective later, as a result of deterioration and consequent lowering
of the percentage of toxic principles present. The concentration of D.
nhilippin-i sis which brou-htabout the largest number of deaths of aphids
was nuch higher than that required for mosquito larvae, namely 4:1,000.
The lowest concentration of D. philippinensis used, 0.5:1,000, caused a
noticeable percentage of mortality among aphids, as compared with the
control,





;-.22 -

Against both mosquito larvae and aphids, Dcrris polyantha was nore
effective than either of the other two spocios. In both cases, in
aqueous solutions, it showed its superiority (1) in bringing about the
hirhost percentage of deaths, (2) .in the short time it required to kill,
and (3) in the retention of its virulence. D. polyantha retained its
virulence in water and was toxic to mosquito larvae for a period ranging
from 13 to 16 days. D. elliptica and D. philippinensis were toxic for only
1 to 2 days.

Durham (27) in 1926 gave an interesting account of his early work
with dorris, which he regarded as essentially a stomach poison.

"Starting in the Malay States in 1902, where some field
trials showed it a potent agent for the destruction of mosquito
larvae, work was continued on my return up to 1907; it was not
possible to publish the large amount of observations in those
days, and naturally the loss of time made it difficult to use old
notes. A fairly large scale trial was made in the late Dr. W. H.
Maskcll s garden at Shelford on 13th June, 1904, whore the
G-ooseberries wore alive with saw-fly larvae; the larvae were
promptly killed, and the cooked fruit gave rise to no unpleasant
symptoms in the consumers.

"In those now far off days a number of larvae of the
Small Eggar of good size wore put on a spray of leaves
which had boon dipped in a suspension of the derris root; they
were all dead next day, when a further supply of larvae was put
on, the loaves being now dry; the controls had had the loaves
wetted with water in case mere wetting might have an effect.
This renewal of application of larvae continued till the leaves
became too withered in about ten days; none of the controls
died, and all of the derris-fed larvae were killed. Open air
trials showed that the poison still remained active for at
least a fortnight. Here the effect is clearly as a stomach
poison.

"On the other hand, a very extensive series of trials
was made upon the black bean aphis and the woolly aphis; in the
latter case the trials were carried on throughout the summer,
both with spraying and with careful use of a camel-hair brush
so as to 7ot thorough wetting of the patches, which had a milky
appearance when treated. The woolly aphis is, of course, dif-
ficult to wet, but in neither case was there any appreciably
diminution. I cannot but think that the irregular results which
have booeen obtained with contact trials have been duo to the
insects sucking some droplets of the fluid when dislodged ore
they plunged in their beaks or in the case of the somewhat
crude method of bathing caterpillars some of the poison may
have been licked up. The slow death of mosquito pupae (perhaps
two or throe day' after the larvae) suggests that absorption
of the extremely insoluble agent takes place, mere contact not
sufficing. llhethcr or no in some cases there may be a contact
effect, "the main utility of the drug must be as a stomach poison.






- 23 -


"The most susceptible creature that I know is the
'water flea' (Daphnia and Moina), which dies rapidly in
the most amazing and incredibly high dilution of the poison;
tadpoles and mosquito larvae Were found to be very good
experimental subjects for recognizing the potency of different
preparations. The first large-scale trial was made on a fruit
plantation of Mr. Clough, at Burley, Hants, on the 23d May,
1904. In all those trials the roots were ground up with
successive lots of water and no other ingredient added. I
still have some of the original roots, now some twenty years
old, and though they have not been regularly tested for strength,
they still retain some active power, and a solution is ladled
on to small seedlings when cut worms' are about.

"A curious feature in dorris is the localisation of tho
poison to the roots; trials of stem extract showed very slight
activity and the loaves nil, indeed, it may be noted that they
arc attacked by some caterpillar occasionally (sp. not known
to me.)"

Kelsall, Spittall, Gorham, and Ualkcr (54) in 1926 published the
results of tests of dorris against several insects.

Tho-r arc disposed to regard derris as a contact poison only.
Tests up-on the Colorado potato beetle, Lcptinotarsa decenlincata Say,
with derris in 4-4-40 bordcaux, derris and hydrated lime, and dorris
alone lead to the following conclusions: Dorris is effective in both
spray and dust form; dorris kills more rapidly than arsenicals; dorris
is loss effective mixed with hydrated lime, and still less effective
mixed with bordeaux mixture. To get the same eventual kill, 1 pound of
derris is apparently about equivalent to from 1-1/2 to 3 pounds of
calcium arsenate.

A 5 or 6 year old sample of derris was ineffective against the
forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn., when dusted or sprayed
upon chokochcrry foliage fed upon by the caterpillars.

Against the orchard tent caterpillar, Malacosoma ,-,ericana_2. Itv~ shown
that (1) the derris applied to the caterpillars along with the foliage
gave very much higher control than where applied to the foliage alone;
(2) 1 pound of derris per 100 gallons of water gave an equal eventual
control, though much more rapidly, than 2 pounds of lead nrsenate; (3)
when applied direct to the foliage but not to the caterpillars derris was
not quite equal pound for pound to lead arsenate; (4) derris was very
much more effective than nicotine in practical strengths.

Dorris at 1/3 pound per 100 imperial gallons of water killed 100
percent of imported currant worms, ITnematus (Ptcronidoa) ribesii Scop.
A dust of 98.75 parts hydrated lime and 1.25 pn-rts dorris gave 100 per-
cent control in a heavily infested currant plantation.

Derris at the rate of 5 pounds per 100 gallons was sprayed on
house flies. The spray was shot at them both while they were resting







and while they were on the wing. Such flies became restless almost
immediately and commenced cleaning themselves vigorously. Most flies,
so treated were dead within 24 hours, and as far as could bie ascertained
all were dead within 48 hours.

Dorris was also dusted on house flies but in this case the Pction
was much slower and after one day none wore dead, and it was thought
the material was not effective. These flies wore not kept u-nder observa-
tion afterwards but later work with derris led IKoclsall and associates to
think that had they boon kept under observation longer, a subsequent
mortality might have been noted.

Dorris spray was also observed to kill several other flies of
undetermined species, and was also observed to kill certain noctuid moths.

Against the carrot rust fly, Psila rosac F. dorris, in either
dust or liquid form, gave a considerable measure of control, the material
being applied to the soil surface about the .time egg laying was in progress,
the control being apparently also accompanied by a plant stimulation.

A trunk of woolen goods swarming with adult clothes moths was given
a liberal application of a 50-50 derris-hydrated lime mixture. Four
days later all moths wore dead. The trunk was examined a month later and
no living larvae and no moths wore found.

A number of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L., wore confined in a vial
with derris dust. They were active for 2 hours, but wore all dead after
3 1/2 hours.

Dorris spray, 2 pounds to 100 imperial gallons of water, was in-
effective against budworms (mostly Spilonota ocellana D. and S.). The
fall wobworm, Hyphantrin, cunea Drury, is quite strongly resistant to
derris dust and dorris spray (10 lbs. to 100 gals.). Against the green
apple aphid, Aphis pomi DeG., derris, 5 pounds in 100 gallons without
soap, gave practically complete control, being a little superior to 1
pound of nicotine sulphate (40 percent). Wfith the addition of a little
soap to the solution, derris as low as 2-1/2 pounds to 100 gallons of
water gave 100 percent mortality, and is superior to 1 pound of nicotine
sulphate (4b percent).

A dust containing as high as 20 percent of derris plus 80 percent
of hydrated lime proved ineffective against the green apple aohid when
applied to dry foliage. Dorris dust requires moisture to mako its toxic
properties effective against this aphis.

In the insectary, tests wore made against the potato aphid,
Macrosiphum solanifolii Ashm. The presence of moisture had a marked effect
in increasing the toxicity of derris, for derris as low as 2.5 percent in
dust gave complete control. Derris in spray form required 5 pounds per
100 gallons of water to produce 100 percent mortality, while nicotine sul-
phate (40 percent), 1/2 pint to 100 gallons, gave the same control. In all
cases it was found that dorris was much slower in action than the nicotine.







- 25 -


Aphis rumicis L. in an insectary experiment was killed completely
but slo'ily by derris, 5 pounds to 100 gallons. Derris spray 2-1/2 pounds
to 100 gallons gave a mortality of over 90 percent of imported cabbage worms
Pieri.s rapae L., on cabbage. Dusts of hydrated lime and derris were not
so effective. The authors concluded that the moisture usually retained by
cabbage foliage undoubtedly assisted in bringing out the toxic properties
of derris.

Undiluted derris dust, applied with a hand duster, gave 100 percent
control of larch sawfly larvae. Derris dust had apparently no effect on
Chermos. The three-lined potato beetle was controlled by a dust application
of 50-50 derris and hydrated lime, but this mixture had apparently no ef-
fect on the squash bug. A rod aphid on goldenrod and the currant aphid
wore not controlled on being dusted by the same mixture, but reasoning
from other experiments it is possible that they might have boon if in the
presence of moisture.

Dorris, both dust and spray, gave a measure of control against the
larch case bearer.

Derris, both dust and spray, was ineffective against the chain-
dotted geometer, but arsenicals were practically ineffective against them
also.

Derris, 1-1/2 pounds per 100 gallons of water, with the addition of
soap, was used against aphids on a cut-leaf birch. Geometrid larvae, lady-
bird beetle larvae, and syrphid fly larvae were killed and dropped in a
few hours, but the aphids did not appear to be affected during the first
12 hours. Two days later the tree was found to be completely free of
apl-ids.

Derris was not effective in a bait fed to cutworms, either in the
insectary or in the field.

It was noted in some cases that where dusts containing derris had
been supplied to plants, and later rains had washed the dust into the soil,
the earthworms came to the surfact of the soil and died.

Derris, applied at approximately the rate of 1 pound per 100 gal-
lons, added to a large tank of water very heavily infested with mosquito
larvae, completely killed all the larvao in 3 or 4 days.

It was also noted that if slugs traveled over a surface on which
dorris had booeen lightly sprinkled, the slugs immediately became distressed
and died in a few hours.

Dorris, used undiluted and also at the rate of 1 part of dorris to
3 parts of dry cement powder, was found very effective against lice on
cattle and horses.

MIcBrido (64) in 1926 reported tests with insecticides against a leaf-
hopper, Euptoryx flavoscuta var. nigra. Osb., attacking the leather-leaf
fern, Polystichur capcnsc J. Sm., in Florida.







- 26 -


Tests were made with nicotine-lime dust, nicotine sulphate, calcium
cyanide, and derris. Five percent extract of derris, 1 to oCO and 1 to
600, plus soap, 2 pcunlds of 0 gallons, gave satisfactory .2o-.trol, but was
slow in its effective uork. 'The fbrnory was free from leafhoppers for
13 days after the sprar. ing with derris. The roinfestr.tion occurred from
eggs deposit:d before the application of the spray. A second application
of -.icotino sulphate gave 75 to 80 percent control, whoroe.s 5 percent ex-
tract of dorris gave 98 to 99 porccnt. A snall amount of injury was observe
on all the sprayc:d plots. It was thought to be a mechanical injury and not
considered of any cdmmorcial importance.

Miles (70) in 1925 reported good control of the noa .,oth Las-pcyrosia
nigricana Stoph. with the use of a dcrris snra:r, 20 pounds of powdered
derris to lO0 imperial gallons of .,ator. This spray produced the lowest
percentage of dar.-.ago (16 percent) in the threshed peas. The pcrccntagcs of
damnagod poas harvested from plots :cpr'/ed with derris or nicotine show little
difference from those observed when the green peas were examined; it would
seen, therefore, that these sprays have a pei'mnent effect.

ITozu and Soncyana (72) in 1926 recont-ionded spraying with dnrris
mix:tures for the control of the chrysnomlid Phaodon incorturi B,.ly.

The Deli Proefstation at Med.an (22) in 1926 reported that I:akr-toeba
c::tract gave excellent control of aphids. Some difficulty was experienced
in obtaining a uniform extract, so this was prepared with the machinery of
the Delieche Kleiindustrie. Fo:'malin was added, to a concentration of 2.5
percent, as a preservative.

Tattersfield, Gin'.'ngharm, and Morris (C2) in 1926 exported d tests of
Derris ellip-otica and -2otenone against Aphis rumicis L. Tubatoxin (rotenone)
at c. concentration of 2.5 to 0.075 gram per liter killed all -.yhids; 0.01
gr',m per liter caused 20 percent to be moribund. Tubatoxin proved to be
sE-,'.er-l times :..ore toxic than nicotine.

1927
Quaintance (77), chairman of the committee of the American Associz-
tion of Economic .Entomologists to for=mlate plans for invcstigaticns.3 of the
codling moth from biologic and control standpoints, reported at the I127
annual meeting of this association that, according to Van Lcue'n, drris in
laboratory and field tests in -Hew Jersey had shown prromise for the control
of the codlirin uoth.

An anon-mous writer ( ) in Woi;.bn.u anid Kcller',irtschrft in 1927 re-
ported the results of experiments with Dorris elliptica in Torca. A
thorough application of a comnrrcLal product probablyy ITeoton -- P. C. R.]
by reans of a spra:-er gave good results in the control of the mites re-
s-oonsible for the curly-leaf disease. 2Repetition was necessary because of
uneven budding of the vines. The rapidity of the action varies with dif-
feron' insects. A swarm of tlmcst jrown Tinea moths on an oa2: were killed
in 1/2 to 1 hour. Black lice on chestnut trees fell off in a few minutes.
Rosebush aphids wore also- quickly killed. Cabbage worms lived 1/4 to 1/2
hour. Cabbage butterflies flow away. A largo hornet in flight was stunned,






- 27 -


and later died. Against tLe above insects the product was used at the
rate of 100 -,ram. in 3r''j liters of water. Against caterpillars, 100
grams to 45 liters can be used, if 2 )pounds of any cheap soap is admixed.
Spraying in summer suppresses later generations of these ittes, which are
then rather large, as well as the irksome vine cicada.

MIention is made of derr-is in the report of the Committee on Policy
of the Americr .n Association. of 'Economic Entomologists at its 1D27 meeting.
Gibson (4., chairman, stated that various new spray mixtures containing
extracts of _,r.thrun and derris have been tested as substitutes for
nicotine and the results have been favorable in most oas. s. Under
Toxicity Investigations, it is mentioned that derris is one of the contact
insecticides 1-hich have boen investigated.

3Bn.e (4) in 1927 reported the use of the decoction of the roots
of Derris clli-tica r'.--*rst caterpillars of the diamond-back moth,
Plutella maculirenni Curtis. Because it is not entirely effective,
lead arsenate is mixcd with it. '

31iock and 3ud.t (8) in 1i27 reviel:ed the work of Bishopp Ot al.
(6) on uerris again.-;t ox warbles.

Caesar (15) in 1S27 included derrin with arsenicals and sodium
fluosilicate under the classification "Stonach Poisons." It is described
as ,Ia li;ht, bro-rn powrier made from the roots of certain shrubs gre'n
in the r'.r East, es'.;',cially in the Maln, pocninsula. It is supcoscd to
be both a contact and stomach ,P-ison and when used as a dust is i.: .ly
diluted vith air-l;.:d lime or :. drated lime or r:ysum in the prooortions
of about 1 part of bulk to 20 or even 410 parts of the diluent. As a spray
it is quite h'-arnless to foliage ev-en with water 'lone. It is a good
insecticide against a considerable number of insect i'r. t not ft'Urist all.
Unfortuaately it is even more difficultt to secure than sodium fluosilicate,
though it vill likely be p:ut on the market in the cor'iar-itively near
fur rr. .
The Deli 'Prcefstatio-n (23) in 1927 reported that derris extract
was satisfactory for the control of aphids on tobacco and caused no
burnir, of the leaves. These derris extracts (suspensions of the mil' r
sap in viater) supplied Iy the Deli Proef-.tation to tobacco growers
retain their to:-icit, for at least 1 year when ie t in well-closed
barrels. DecoLposition occurs in open ves-.i-s and in those not
hermetically closed. The sspcrnsion becomes ,ra; or nearly black,
develops the odor of hydrogen sul-.hide, and loses effectiveness.
Contact with iron is stated to be und.csirable.

Dennis (24 and 25), in UTnited States Patent 1,621,240, issued
March 15, 1927, and. i.. Reissue 18,667, issued l-!ovcmbcr 22, 19,52, stated
that an alcoholic xtroct of cube is eight times as effective as
similar dcrris extract when sprvyod on the cotton aphid.

Fulm2'i (27) in 1i27 reported the use of a 1-percent water extract
of the roots of Derris olliptica for the control of plant lico on tobacco.










G~ir (li) in 1927 reported that powdered derris root has lethal
pro e:tis o h... used against culidine mosquito larvae. Then dusted on
the sur-face of rater cont'.AininE,larvae of Aedes vexans I'gn. this material,
either alone or in combination with an inert filler, -7ic. founO to destroy
the 1%rv.l.e in a few hours even '-hen used at the rate of only 2 or 3 pounds
of rlerris to the acre.

1o10.r (102) in 1-'27 reported that tests -1ith i-zsecticides against
c t l e . . .. 0 A .' I p w e
c-tti _'bs nd._e at 3urkes Garden in Virginria indicated that .powdecd
dcrric root will ive a high percentage of kill if a-plied and brushed
in at intervals of about 20 days.

LecY'n'ns (56) in 1927 reoorted that on the Sumatra East Coast
c.xbboe rowrs are mreing.:r lead arsenate with tho usual derris solution.

".e can report that a derris suspension in water against cabbage
caterpiill ,r>; ;.vc onfavorab1c results. On the other hand, we have ob-
t inuu ecel..,nt r soults if fincl-: pulverized dcrris was extracted with
C.lcohol. p.r.ctic.l conclusion is that addition of a water suspension
of dor-is or- drri-r root- to a solution of lcad arsonate is wholly useless
since tLhe !-.vit.r, '7ith tho ad..ition of soop, i satisfactory.'"

V-n dcr liccr :Iohr (57) in lc.,'27 renortcd that Myzus persicae Sulz.
is a serious pest of tobacco in Deli, Sumatra. The seed beds are infested
front the adjacent :oresti, and the young pl-ts in the field are either
infested in the saj-e *""; or by the introduction of infested seedlings
from the beds. If the beds are very badly infested, the seedlings should
be destroyed, or dipped in derris solution, cx-oeriments having shownvm that
thlis does not an them. In the plantations a daily watch should be kept
for te first traces of nfost-ition. Spraying with a solution of derris
is advised. The application must be repeated after 4 to 5 days.

Pa-marn et al. (74) in 1927 reported results of chemotropic tests
with hc scro-w-norm fly. A commercial dorris powder repelled 95 percent
of the screw-worm flies visiting a bait of beef liver. This is about the
sam i':ur as that obtained with pyrethrum powder.

eoaro ct r. (63) in 1S27 reported that derris powder when undiluted
rcpoll. C 95 pcrccrt of thec scre'!-worm flies visiting fresh beef liver,
andi -,hcn (.ilut.d 7itn 9 -;arts of kaolin it repelled 38 ;)crcent.

Sonan (87) in 1927 reported that spraying with dcrris and soap
proved very offoctivc agLinst the following posts infesting tea plants
in Fori.osa: LyrmantriiC.s, Zui:roctis pscudoco'-Lspcr.'a Strand, E. sericea
filcnan, Perthe sia tai'. -n. Shir., P. sc.itillmans ...l.. Psoudodura
lasychiiroidcs Strand, Clonc mendosa Hon., TTotolopht.s posticus Walk.,
Sti!notia c- .'_aa .'ore, and Arctornis alba roner

In his annual report as entomologist of the Federated Malay States
Departct of Agicultue (,l) for 1927, Corbett mentioned investigation
on the i GctieiU&.l value of dorris (in collaboration with the agricultural
chonist) :s one of the main rcczarchcs of the division of ontomologr.





- 29 -


Tanaka (91) in 1927 recommended a derris soap spray for the control
of the older larvae of the Notodontid Drymonia manleyi Leech.

Twinn (96) in 1927 reported on mosquito control at Ottawa, Ontario,
Canada. The derris was dusted on the water surface at the rate of approxi-
matel- 3 rounds per acre. The larvae died within periods ranging from
three-quirters of an hour to more than 7 hours. In all cases the larvae,
before dearth, became very feeble, lying motionless and parallel with the
surface ol the water, moving with difficulty when rudely disturbed. The
pupae died more slowly than the larvae, more than 24 hours sometimes
elapsing before death occurred.

Tests were also made upon a shallow pool about 200 square feet,
with a grass-grown bottom. This pool contained large numbers of larvae
of Aedos vexans Meig. A mixture of derris and French chalk in the pro-
portion of 1 part of the former to 4 of the latter was dusted just before
sundown on the surface of the water by mcans of a small hand dust gun, at
the rate of 1-1/2 pounds of dorris to the acre. The material settled
well, forcing a very satisfactory film of dust over the entire surface.
When examirne.. 16 hours later, a c.nsiderable proportion of the larvae
were dead cnd many of the living revealed the effect of the derris in
their slu,-ish movements. The pool was not examined again until 60 hours
after treatment. On this occasion a3.1 +h larvae were dead, many floating
on the surface of the water.

Walton (107) in 1927 reported further notes on the control of
warble flies in North Wales. The killing properties of derris appear
to be excellent. The ointment (1 part of derris powder plus 2 parts of
soft paraffin ) is odorless, and the cost is low (about 2-1/2 pence per
ounce) in experimental amounts. On the other hand, the ointment was
found to be much more difficult to apply, and olive oil was utilized,
the ointment then consisting of 1 lart of powdered derris, 1 part of
soft paraffin, and 1 part of olive oil. This improved the texture and
rendered application easier.

Watanabe (108) in 1927 recommended spraying the young growth of
cruciferous vegetables with derris to combat Hellula undalis F. (Pyralididae)
in Japan.

Trappmnan (94) in 1927 gave a short account of derris. A formula
for a derris spray is 1 1:ilogram of finely powdered derris powder, one-half
kilo;gr:z. of soao, and 100 liters of water. Derris powder may be added to
a load L'.rscnate (1 percent) and somp (0.3 percent) spra.o for use on young
tobacco plants.


1928

Thompson (93) in 1928 tried derris in poison bait against leather
jackets in South "T7les and found that, although it did not give as good
results as the parts green bait, it is obviously of definite insecticidal






- 30 -


value when used in this wayA On the derris-treated plot numerous earth-
worms were found lying dead on the surface and also some slugs. Derris
powder clearly does not render the bait distasteful to the pests naned,
as appeared to be the case with sodium fluosilicate. The derris bait was
composed of 10 pounds of bran and half a pound of derris powder distributed
over half an acre of oats. Thompson concluded that derris powder gives
moderately good results.

De Long (21) in 1928 reported that a commercial derris product
diluted 1 to 250 proved unsatisfactory against the potato leafhopper,
Empoasoa fabae Harris.

Garman (38) in 1928 reported experiments made in Connecticut with
insecticides offered as substitutes for nicotine sulphate. One of the
commercial preparations of derris was tried ind1927 against the mealy
plum aphid and showed good killing power, although it failed to accomplish
a thorough clean-up on account of poor spread. It is quite evident that
soap or casein lime is needed in combination. The product investigated
does not nix well with winter-strength lime-sulphur solution.

Both derris and pyrcthrum have considerable value as aphicidos,
but their success for orchard use will depend on their ability to
combine with other insecticides and fungicides. The present cost does
not scom to be any lower per 100 gallons of spray mixture. than nicotine
sulphate, and no reliable information is available r- garding their
keeping qualities. The only advantage that can be soon from using the
above-mentioned aphicidos in an orchard will lie in increased safety
of the operator.

Tests with derris and pyrethrum against the mealy plum aphid cave
the following results:
Percent
Substances (commercial preparations) Dilution of kill

A. Derris preparation................ 1 oz. to 6 gal. ........ 8.3
B. Dorris preparation................ 2 oz. to 6 gal. ....... 97.6
C. Pyrothrum soap ................... 2 lb. to 3-3/4 gal. ..... 94.4
D. Nicotine sulphL~e1 t m 92.2
D. cotin sulphate ................. 1 oz. to 6 gl. ..-*...... 92.2
E. Check, no treatment............... 0.

Gibson (43) in 1928 reported that under laboratory conditions
powdered derris root dusted on the surface of water in shallow trays at
the rate of 15 pounds to the acre of water surface destroyed Al'vae
inaa pe:.ioec ranging;, from 3 to 22 hours, and pupae in from 2 to 5 days.
In an experiment conducted by Hr. Twinn at Hawkesbury, Ontario, it was
noted that when the powdered derris root was dusted on the surface of
polluted pools of water heavily infested with Culex pipiens larvae, at
the rate of 30 pounds to the acre of water surface, 97 percent of the
larvae were destroyed in 48 hours and 100 percent in 72 hours.




- 31 -


Ginsburg (46) in 1928 reported that a suspension of derris
(1-400) killed d 100 percent of the honey bees after 24 hours, and
suspension of cube root (1-200) killed 100 percent of the bees after
48.hours. These suspensions were mixed with honey and 'fed to the bees.

Gorhan (47) in 1928 reported .on the Eu-ropean rcse sawfly in
New Brunswick, Canada. It was found that, like other sawfly larvae,
these were very susceptible to the toxic action of derris dust and
that they dropped in a helpless condition within 2 hours after appli-
cation. No objectionable stains were left on the foliage or blooms.

Leynen (58) in 1928 reported that the "Commission Hollandaise
du Varron" recommends dorris powder for Hypodorma larvae, as recommended
by Bishopp ot al. (6) in United States Department of Agriculture Bul-
letin 1369.

Parnan et al. (75) in 1928 reported that dorris powder, 0.5 gram,
plus kaolin, 4.5 grams, when spread upon 4-ounco cubes of beef liver in
a mason jar repelled 38 percent of the screw-worm flies and 81 percent
of the Lucilia flies that approached the meat.

Quaintance (78), at the 1928 annual meeting of the American
Association of Economic Entomologists, reported that derris had been
tested for the control of the codling moth in Arl-asas, Colorado,
Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, ie- Jersey, and Washiergton. In Illinois good
results were obtained with commercial derris extract combined with white
oil, 1-1/4 -ercent. An alcoholic extract of dorris used against second-
brood worms appeared to be of little value.

T; m:,r--:1 (90) in 1928 recommended dorris and so:i. spray for the
control of Galorucclla rubi Tananu:i o- the young loaves of strawberry
plants in southern Sakh:lin.

Schwartz and Shook (84) in 1928 recommended that, for combating
fleas on rabbits, the animals be dusted with pyrethrum porrdcr, or powdered
n7.ht.halone, or powdered dorris root.

Riploy and Hopburn (80) in 1928 reported on top-dressing maize
against the stalk borer. Powdered dorris root when applied in water at
1 to 90 is much more effective th-n -rhen used as a powder at 1 to 12.
The killing power of a dry powder under the conditions of top-dressing
is far below t'-.t of the snmo powder diluted to the same extent but
applied as a suspension in water. This is perhaps explained by the fact
that whcn suddenly wetted by a liquid the borers swallow some of it
(as is easily shown by using a colored liquid and dissecting the digestive
system after dipping), whereas they do not appear to swallow a dry powder
very readily. Thus the liquid cai act as a st.romach poison more effectively
than the powCdcr.

"It w.as honod that by mixing two insecticides that were
known to act differently upon the borer, such- as dorris and a
fluorine compound, or nicotine and an ar-onical., the result might
be a killing power greater than that of either of the two in-
gredients used scparately, but at the same concentration as the
mixture. Various emxeriments on thio point were performed, but
no advantage of mi:dni was shown,. the 'killing power of the
mixture always proving to be intermediate between those of the
two ingredients."







- 32 -


Van Leouwen (104), at the 1928 codling moth conference of- the Bureau
of EritoEn61ogy, 'reported tests of various insecticides for the control of
the codling moth'in the Rivorton, N. J., district.

"Wto found that throe early applications of lead arsonato' against 'the
first brood followed by three applications of pyrothrum, nicotine, or
dorris against the -second brood gave good results. Check trees showed 83
percent of all apples free from worms, whereas the load-arsonato plat showed
97 percent, nicotine 95 percent, pyrothrum 93 percent, and dorris 95 percent
free from worms." In laboratory tests with newly hatched codling moth
larvae, dorris, pyrethrum, and nicotine gave very encouraging results.
Further laboratory tests will be made.

The Burneau of Entomology (103), in its 1928 annual report', mentioned
that extracts of dorris at 1 to 800 had been tested as contact sprays and as
ovicides against the codling moth.

Metcalf and Flint (68) in 1928 summarized current information on dorris.
Dorris is recommended for aphids, for lice and fleas on domestic animals, and
as a wash for killing ox w.iarbles in the backs of cattle. Derris sprays are
effective in killing the young nymphs of apple leafhoppers, and against
greenhouse thrips. For checking sheep lice in winter when dipping cannot be
done safely, dusting pyrethrum or derris into the wool is recommended. Dry
powdered derris or pyrethrum sifted into the fur of pets controls'fleas.





- 33 -


Ta1le l.--Classified list of insects against whioh derris has been tested


Insect and Stage


Preparation


Effectiveness


Reference


Orthoptera

Blattidae


Blattella sermarica L.
(German cockroach)


Ditto


Ditto


Periplaneta americana
L. (American cockroach)


Ditto


Powder + tobacco
dust (1+4) as a
dust

Pow.rler + tobacco
dust (1+4) +
flour and sugar
as a bait

Powder as a dust


Powder + tobacco
dust (1+I) as a
dust

Powder + tobacco
dust (1+4) +
flour + sugar as
a poison bait


Effective


Effective


57.1, kill in
1 week


Effective


Effective


Grilmer (44) in
1923


Ditto


IIclndoo,
Sievers, and
Abbott (36)
in 1919

Gilner (44) in
1923


Ditto


Gryllidae


Gryllotalpa sp.
(mole cricket)


Extract


'Uicertain


Federated Tal ay
States Dept.
Agr. (28) in
1920


Mallophaga


Mallophaca on chickens Powder as a dust


Powder as a dust


Effective




Effective


Lc indoo,
Sievers, and
Abbott (>3) in
1919

Wells, 3isnopp,
and Laake (109)
in 1922


Ditto Powder in water
(1:531)


Effective


Ditto


Ditto





- 34 -


Insect and Staga

Mallophaga (cont.)

Gyropidao

GliricoLa porcelli L.


Ditto


Gyropus ovalis Nitzsch


Ditto


Preparation


Powder +
(1+4) as


Powder +
(1+4) as


Powder +
(1+4) as


Effectiveness


inert
a dust


CaCO3
a dust


inert
a dust


Powder + CaCO3
(1+4) as a dust


Effective


Effective


Effective


Effective


Reference


Calif. Agr.
Expt. Sta.
(16) in 1923

ODe Ong and
'Thite (2x)
in 1924

Calif. Agr.
Expt. Sta.
(16) in 192a

Do Ong and
jhito (26)
in 1924


Menoponidae


Mcnopon biseriatum Piaget Powder + inert
(1+4) as a dust


Ditto Powder + tobacco
dust (1+4) as a
dust

Ditto Powder + CaCO3
(1+4) as a dust


Effective



Effective



Effective


Calif. Agr.
Expt. (16)
in 1925

Gilmer (44)
in 192Z


Do. Ong and
Mhite (26)
in 1924


Philopteridae


Goniocotes. ;igas Tasch.
(large chicken louse)


Ditto


Lipeurus heterographus
'itzscoh (chicken head
louse)


Powder + inert
(1+4) as a dust


Powder + CaCO3
(1+4) as a dust


Powder as a dust


Effective


Effective


Effective


Calif. Agr.
Expt. Sta. (16)
in 1923

D' Ong and
Whiteo (26)
in 1924

Brittain (13)
in 1924


DItto Powder + vaso-
lino (1+3)


Effective


Ditto





- 35


Insect ard Stage


Tiallophaga (cont.)

Philoptoridao count. )

Lipourus heoterographus
Nitzsch (chicken head
louse)


Ditto


Proo-.ration


Powder in watcr
(1:1280)


Powder and to-
bacco d-lst (1+4)
as a dust


Effoctivoness


Effective


Lffoctivo


Roforonce


Er.ittain (13)
in 1924


Gilmer (44)
in 1923


TrichodectidaQ_:

Bovicola bovis L.


Powder as a
dust


Effective


lrells, Bishopp
and Laake (109
in 1922


Powder + flour
(1+1) as a dust

Powd r + :aF
(1+1) as a dust

Powder + tobacco
(1+1) as a dust


Effoctive


'fectivo


Effective


Thysanoptora

Thripidae


Holiothrips hacmor-
rhoidalis 3oucho
greenhousee thiri. s)


Com'l extracts
(?)


ictcalf and
Flint (68)
in 1928


Homoptora

Aphiidao


Cornm' cxtrfct
(?)

Powder in wvator
(1:4 000)

Fresh root sap


Powder as a
dust


R cocc-unnc'iaod


Effective


Effectie1


1007 kill


Ditto


Carlos (17)
in 1926


Doli Proofsta.
(22) in 192S


Do On., aind
",ite (26)
in 1924


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Aphids


Aphids


Aphids


Aphids







- 36 -


Insect and Stage

Toinoptora (cont.)

Aphiidao

Aphids, many species


Preparation


Extract


Effoctivonosa


Effective


Reference


Malndoo
Siovors.
in 1924


and
(65)


Aphids (black lice) on
chestnut trees


Aphids on
birch


a cut-leaf


Aphids on rosebush


Aphids on tobacco


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Aphis gossypii Glovor
(cotton aphid) (melon
aphid)


Ditto


Com'l extract
in water (1:3000)

Powder in water
(1:666)

Com'l extract
in water (1:3000)

Fresh or dried
root decoction in
w-tor (1:100) +
soap (1:320)

Fresh root sap


Fresh root in
water (1:100) +
soap (1:200)

Fresh root in
water (1:100) +
soap (1:333)

Fresh root sap


Fresh root in
water (3 kg. in
80 liters) (1:27)


Alcoholic
extract


Extract in
water


Effective


Effective in
48 hrs.


Effective


Effective


Effective


Recommended



Effective



Effective


Effective


1/8 as effective
as similar cube
extract


Effective


Anon. (3)
in 1927


Kolsall et al.
(54) in 1936


An.on. (3)
in 1927


Bourcart (9)
in 1925


Doli Proefsta.
(23) in 1927

Fulmok (35)
in 1924


Fulmok (36)
in 1925


Fulmek (37)
in 1927

Hollrung (50)
in 1923


Dennis (24, 25)
in 1927


Mclndoo, Siover&
and Abbott (66)
in 1919


Powder in water


Effective


Powder as a dust Effective


Ditto

Ditto


Ditto

Ditto











Insect and Sta:e

Homoptera (cont.)

Aphiidae (cont.)

Aphis helianthi Monoll



Ditto

Ditto

Aphis modicaginis Koch
(cowpoa aphid)

Aphis norii Fonsc.



Aphis pomi Dogoer
(apple aphid)

Ditto



Ditto



Ditto


Aphis rumricis L.
(bean aphid)

Ditto



Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Preparation


Effoetivoeoss


Extract in water Effoctivo


Powder in water

Powder as a dust

Powder in water
(1:250)

Corm'l extract
(1:50o0)


Powder in water
(1:400)

Powder + hydrated
lime (1+4) as a
dust

Po-.der as a
dust


Powder in water
(1:1660)

Powder in water


Extract in water
(equiv. to 0.5
to 4% root)

Fresh root


Powvider in water
(1:200)

Powder as a dust


Effective

Effective

Effective


13 control



Effective


Ineffective



Effective



Effective


Ineffective


Slow and uncertain



Ineffective


100$ kill,
but slow

Effective


Rofeorenco





Mclndoo, Siovevrs
and Abbott (66)
in 1919

Ditto

Ditto

Castillo (18)
in 1926

Do big and
Wnite (26)
in 1924

Kolsall et al.
(54) in 1926

Ditto



McIndoo, Sievers
and Abbott (66)
in 1919

Ditto


Durham (27)
in 1926

Fryer ot al.
(33) in 1923


Gimlotto (45)
in 1923

Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926

Mclndoo, Siovers
and Abbott (66)
in 1919


- 37 -








- 38 -


Insect and Stage

Homoptera (cont.)

Aphiidae (cont.)

Aphis rumicis L.
(bean aphid)


Ditto


Effectiveness


Powder in water
(1: 332.0)


Rotenone in water
(75 p.p.m.)


Aphis sp. A.


Effective


100% kill


Powder as a dust Effective


Reference


lIc Indoo,
Sievers,and
Abbott (66)
in 1919

Tattersfield
et al. (92)
in 1926

Mclndoo and
Sievers (65)
in 192.4


Ditto


Aphis sp. B.


Ditto


Hot water extract Effective

Powder as a dust Effective

Hot water extract Effective


Aphis spiraecola Patch


Ditto


AppLe aphids, various
species;


Capitophorus ribis L.
(currant aphid)


Cavariella sp.


Extract in water
(Equiv. to 1 lb.
powder to 100
gals. water)

Powder in water
(1:830)

Com'l extract
(?)


Powder + hydrated
lime (1+1) as a
dust

Powder in water
(1:400)


Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.Powder in water
(woolly apple aphid)


Ditto


Fresh root


Macrosiphoniella sanborni Powder as a dust
Gillette (black chrysan-
themum aphid)


30% kill (check
20%


50% kill


Mc Indoo,
Sievers;, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Ditto


Encouraging



Ineffective



Ineffective


Ineffective


Ineffective


Effective


Mich. Agr.
Expt. Sta. (69)
in 192.5

Kelsall et al.
(54) in 192.6


Brittain (13)
in 1924

Durham (27)
in 1926

Gimlctte (45)
in 1923

Mclndoo and
Sievers. (65)
in 1924


Ditto

Ditto

Ditto








- 39 -


Inseoct and Stage

Homoptera (cont.)

Aphiidae (cont.)


Preparation


Effectiveness


Re foerence


Macrosiphum (lllinoia)
liriodendri Mcnell


F'xtract in water Effective


Mclndoo,
Sievers, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Ditto


Macrosiphum (lllinoia)
solanifolii Ashm.


Ditto


Macrosiphum (Illinoia)
sp.


Macrosiphum sp. A.


Macrosiphum sp.


Mealy plum aphid


Myzus cerasi F.
(black cherry aphid)


Myzus persicae Sulz.
(spinach aphid)


Ditto


Powder as a dust

Powder + Hydrat-
ed lime (2.5 +
97.5) as a dust

Powder in water
(1:200)

Powder in water


Powder as a dust



Powder burned
as a fumigant

Coim'l extract
(1:384)

Dorris sprays



Powder burned
as a fumigant


Powder as a dust


Effective

Effective


Effective


Effective


50" kill


Effective


97.6-7 kill


Encouraging



Effective


Effective


Ditto


Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Ditto


Mcl Indoo,
Sievers, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919

Mclndoo and
Sievers (65)
in 1924


Ditto


Garman (38)
in 1928

Mich. Agr.
Expt. Sta. (69)
in 1925

Tclndoo and
Siovers (65)
in 1924

Mclndoo,
Siovors, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Extract in water

Frosh root sap


Ditto


Effective

Effective


Van der Moor
Mohr (67)
in 1927


Ditto

Ditto








-40-


Insect and Stagr

Homoptera (cont.)

Aphiidae (cont.)

MIyzus porsicae Sulz.
(s p inch aphi d)


Red aphids on
goldenrod


Rhopalosiphum pseudo-
brassicae Davis
(turnip aphid)


Pr s-.r" t i -;n


Conm'l extract
(1:300)


Powder + hydrat-
ed lime (1+1) as
a dust

Extract in
water


EfToctivenoss


6&7 control



Ineffective



Effective


Reference


SDo Ong and
'1hite (23)
in 1924

Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Mclndoo,
Siovers, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Ditto


Powder as a dust


Toxoptera aurantiao Con'l extracts
Boyer (black citrus aphid)


Effective

Effective


Ditto


Symos (89)
in 1924


Cicadellidae


Empoasca maligna Talsh
(apple leafhopper),
young nymphs

Empoasca fabae Harris
(potato leafhopper)

Eupteryx flavoscuta var.
nigra Osb.


Com'l extracts
(?)


Comn'l extract
(1:z50)

Com'l extract
(1:800) + -
soap (1:200)


Recomir ended



Ineffective


Effective but
slow


Tctcalf and
Flint (68)
in 192B

Dolonb (21)
in 192B8

McBride (64)
in 1926


Coccidae


Lopidosaphes ulmi L.
(oysterahell scale),
crawling young


Powder as a
dust


Ineffective


McTndoo,
Siovers, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Powder in
water (1 lb. to
20 gals.)


Ineffective


Orthezia insignis Dougl.
(greenhouse orthozia)

Pseudococcus citri
Risso mealybugg)


Powder as a
dust

Powder as a
dust


Ineffective


Ineffective


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto









- 41 -


Insect and Staic

Homoptora (cont.)

Psyllidae

Chermes (jumping
plant lice)

Psylla (jumping
plant louse)


Preparation


Powder as a
dust

Powder in
water


Effectir-,nos s


Ineffective


Effective


Rof or onceo


Keolsall ot al.
(54) in 1926

Carlos (17)
in 1926


Hemiptera

Cimicidao


Cimex loctularius L.
(bedbug)


Ditto


Powder as a
dust


Powder as a
dust


24.4% kill in
24 hours.
52.2; kill in
4 days

100c kill in
3-1/2 hours


i'.c Indoo,
Sievers, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919

Kolsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Coroidae


Anasa tristis Degeor
(squash bug)


Powder + hy-
drato ed lime
(1+1) as a dust


Ineffective


Miridae


Heterocordylus malinus
Reuter (dark red bug)


Ditto


Lygidea mendax Reuter
(apple red bug)


Ditto


Powder in
water


Com'l extract
(10 lb. to 100
gals.) (1:83)


Powder in
water


Com'l extract
(1:83)


Effective


Effective


Effective


Effective


Kopp (55)
in 1924


Parrott, Glas-
goVw, and McLeod,
(76) in 1921


Kopp (55)
in 1924


Parrott, Glas-
gow, and :cLeod,
(76) in 1921


Pentatomidae


Scotinophara. coarctata
F.


Extract


Uncertain


Fed. Iialay
States Dept.
Agr. (28)
in 1920


Ditto










Insect and Stage

Herniptera (cont.)

Pentatomidae (cont.)

Scotinophara coarctata
F.


Preparation


Tuba root as
a spray


Effectiveness


Effective


Peferonce


Corbott and
Yusope. (19)
in 1i24


Pyrrhocoridae


Dysdercus cingulatus F.
(nymphs)

Dysdercus suturellus
H. S. (cotton stainor)


Fresh root sap
in water

Tuba mixtures
as a spray


Effective


Recomrn end ed


.Gater (39)
in 1925

Jack and Sands
(53) in 1922.


Coloopt era


Small beetles on palms


Powder


Use suggested


Flippance (32-)
in 1920


Chrysomelidae

Galorucolla rubi
Tamanuki


Leptinotarsa decem-
lineata Say (Colorado
potato beetle), adults


Ditto (larvae)


Ditto (adults)


Ditto (adults)


Ditto (larvae)


Ditto (adults.)


Com'l extract
+ soap

Powder in
water (1:1600)


Powder in
water (1:1600)

Powder as a
dust


Powder in
water


Powder in
water (1:1000)

Extract + soap


Recommended


100% kill.


100% kill


Effective


Effective


Effective


Ineffective


Tamanuki (90)
in 1928

Brittain 13)
in 1924


Ditto


Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Ditto


Kopp (55)
in 1924

Mclndoo and
Sievers (65)
in 1924


Ditto (larvae)

Ditto (larvae)


Extract + soap


Extract in
water


Ineffective

Effective-


Ditto


Mc Indoo,
Sievors,, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919






- 43 -


Insect and Stage


Coleoptora (cont.)

Chrysomelidae (cont.)

Leptinotarsa decem-
lineata Say (Colorado
potato beetle), adults


Ditto (larvae)


Ditto (adults)


Ditto (larvae)


Phaedon incortum Baly



Three-lined potato
bootle


Preparation


Extract in
water


Powder in
water

Powder in
wat or

Powder as a
dust


Dorris
mixtures,


Powder + hydrat-
ed lime (1+1) as
a dust


Effectiveness


25-29, kill


Effective


700 kill


Effective


Recomnionded



Effective


Reference


Mc Indoor,
Sievors, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Nozu and
Sonoyama (72)
in 1926


Kelsall
(54) in


et al.
1926


Coccinellidae


Lady-beetle



Ladybird beetle
larvae


Powder burned
as a fumigant


Powder in
water (1:666) +
soap


Effective



Effective


Mclndoo and
Sievers (65)
in 1924

Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Curculionidae


C outorhynchus pleuro-
stigma Marsh


Lepidoptera

Cabbage worms


Powder + soot
(1+Z) as a dust


Powder in
water


Ineffective


Ineffective


K.M.Smith (85)
in 1925


Loeofmans (56)
in 1927


Alcoholic extract Effective


Com'l1 extract
(1:3000)


Effective


VApAXOY


Ditto


Anon. (3)
in 1927


Ditto

Ditto







-.44-


Preparation


EffectivonosBs


Reference


Inscot Lnol Stago

Lepidoptera (cont.)

Aiathusiidae

Amathusia phidippus L.
(large coconut butter-
fly), larvae


Powder


Use suggested


Flipparnce (32)
in 1920


Aretiidae


Hyphantria cunoa Drury
(fall webworm), larvae


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto (1st
larvae)


instar


Ditto (larvae)


Ditto


Powder in
wator

Powder as. a.
dust

Powder in
water (1:100)


Powder in
wat or


Powder burned
as a fumigant


Extract + soap


Powder in
water (1:42)


Extract in
water


Ineffective


Ineffective


Ineffective


Effective


Ineffective


Ineffective


Effective


Effective


Brittain (13)
in 192.4

Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Ditto


Kopp (55)
in 192.4

McIlndoo and
Sievers (65)
in 1924


Ditto


Mo InU6, .Sievers,
and Abbott (66) 1
in 1919
Ditto


Bombycidae


Bombyx mori L. (silk-
worm), larvae


Alcoholic ex-
tract in water
(equiv. to 0.25'
root)


Effective


Pryer et al.
(33) in 192.3


Powder as a
dust


Powder burned
as a fumigant


Effective


MclIndoo and
Sievers (65)
in 1924


Effective


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto







- 45 -


Insect and Stage

Lepidoptora (cont.)

Ceratoccanpidae

Anisota senatoria A.
and S. (orange-striped
oak worm), larvae


Ditto


Preparation


Powder in
water (1:200)


Powder in
water (1:200)


Effectiveness


Effective


Effective


Reference


Kcopp (55)
in 1924


., Indoo,
Sievors, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Coleoophoridae


Coleophora laricella
,bon. (larch case
bearer)


Ditto


Povwd or
dust


r "a Jlor
wet er


as a


Partly effective


Partly effective


Kclsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Ditto


Geometridae


CingiLia catenaria
Drury (chain spotted
goomet or)


Powder as a
dust


Ineffective


Powder in
water


SGeometrid larvae


Powder in
water (1:666)
+ soap


Ineffective


Effective


Hesperiidae


Erionota thrax I,*,
larvae


Powder


Use sNL-csted


Flippance (32)
in 1920


Lasiocampidae


Malacoseoma americana F.
(eastern tent catur-
pillar), larvae

Ditto (young larvae)


Powder in
water (1:1000)


Powder in
water (1:1660)


Effective



Effective


Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Mclndoo,
Sievers,, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto






- 46 -


Insect and Stage


Preparation


Effectiveness


Reference


Lepidoptera (cont.)

Lasiocampidae (cont.)


T'alacosoma americana F.
(eastern tent cater-
pillar)


Ditto


Ditto (larvae)


.lalucosoma disstria Hbn.
(forest tent cater-"
pillar)


Ditto


Malacosoma neustria L.,
larvae

Malaoosoma sp., larvae


Small eggar, larvae


Powder as a
dust


Powder burned
as a fumigant


Powder in
water (1:1000)


Powder as a
dust


Powder in
water


Powder in
water (1 to 50)

Powder in
water (1:1600)

Powder in
water


Effective


Ineffective


Effective


Ineffective


Ineffective


100% kill


Effective


,Effective
. *k


Mclndoo,
Sievers, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919

Mclndoo and
Sievers (65)
.in 1924

Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Ditto


Ditto


Fryer et al.
(33) in 1923

Kopp (55)
in 1924

Durham (27)
in 1926


Limacodidae


Parasa herbifera Wlk.,
mature larvae


Fresh root
sap in water


Effective


Gater (39)
in 1925


Lymantriidao


Arctornis alba Bremer


Euproctis pseudocon-
spersa Strand

Euproctis sericea
Wileman

Homerocampa leucostigma
A. S. (white-marked
tussock moth)


Com'l extract
(?) + soap

Com'l extract
(?) + soap

Com'l extract
(?) + soap


Extract in
water


Effective


Effective


Effective


Effective


Sonan (87)
in 1927


Ditto


Ditto


Mc Indoo,
Siovors, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919






- 47 -


Insect and Stage

Lepidoptora (cont.)

Lymantriidae

Laelia suffosa 171k.,
larvae


Notolophus posticus
m k.

Olene mendosa Hbn.


Porthosia taiwana Shir.


Porthesia scintillans
Wlk.

Ps.oudodura dasychir-
oides Strang

Stilpnotia cygna Mooro


Preparation


Frosh root sap
in water


Com'l extract
(?) + soap

Com'l extract
(?) + soap

Com'l extract
(?) + soap

Com'l extract
(?) + soap

Cori'l extract
(?) + scap

Com'l extract
(?) + soap


Effectiveness


Effective



Effective


Eff active


Eff active


Eff oct ive


Effective


Effective


Reference


Gater and
Yusope (40)
in 1925

Sonan (87)
in 1927


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Toctuid.ae


Autographt, brassicae
Riley (cabbage looper),
larvae

Ditto (larvae)




Cutworms


Ditto


Polia oleracea L.
(glasshouse tomato
moth), larvae


Ditto (larvae)


Powder in water
(1:200)


Powder in water
(1:208)



Powder in water


Powder in bait


Alcoholic extract
in water (oquiv.
to 6ji root)

Powder in water
(1:10)


Effective



Effective




Effective


Ineffective


Effective


Elff ctive


Kopp (55)
in 1924


leI.ndoo,
Sievors, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919

Durham (27)
in 1926

Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Ditto


Lloyd (59)
in 1920






- 48 -


Insect and Stage

Lepidoptera (cont.)

Ioctuidao (cont.)

Polia oleracoa L.
(glasshouse tomato
moth), larvae

Prodenia litura F.,
larvae


Preparation


Alcoholic extract
in water (1:1000)


Decoction of
fresh root


Effectiveness


Effective



Ineffective


Reference


Lloyd (59)
in 1920


Do Bussy (14)
in 192.2


Notodontidao


Datana ministry. Drury
(yellow-nocked cater-
pillar), larvae


Ditto


Drymonia manleyi Leech,
older larvae

Phalora bucephala L.,
larvae


Powder in water
(1:400)


Powder in water
(1:415)


Extract + soap


Powder in water
(1:50)


Effective


Effective


Recommend od


100% kill


Kopp (55)
in 1924


Mc Indoo,
Sievers;, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919

Tanaka (91)
in 1927

Fryer et al.
(33) in 1923


Nymphalidao


Euphydryas chalcedona
Dbldy. & Hew., larvae


Powder as a
dust


98% kill


De. Og and
White (26)
in 1924


Yponomoutidao


Yponomeuta padella L.


Powder in water
(1:50)


100% kill


Fryer et al.
(33) in 1923


Plutollidae


Plutolka maculipennis
Curt. (diamondback
moth), larvae


Fresh root sap


Not entirely
offootive


Bange (4)
in 1927


Olothroutidae


Carpocapsa pomonolla
L. (codling moth)


Com'l extract


Promising


Quaintanceo
(77) in 1928







- 49 -


Insect and Stage


Preparation


Effectiveness


Reforonc e


Lepidoptera (cont.)

Olethreutidae (cent.)

Carpocapsa pomonella L.
(codling moth)


Ditto


Ditto


Laspoyresia nigricana
Stephens

Spilonota ocellana
D. and S. (oyo-spottod
budmoth), larvae


Com'l extract
+ white oil
emulsion in
writ or

Alcoholic ex-
tract in water

Cora'l extract
(?) in water

Pcwdor in watur
(1:50)

Powder in water
(1:500)


Effective


Ineffective


Effective


Effoctivo


Ineffective


Quaintance
(78) in 1929


Ditto


Van Locuwon
(104) in 1928

Miles (70)
in 1925

Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Pieridae


Cabbage butterflies


Pieris brassicae L.,
larvae

Pieris rapae L. (im-
ported cabbage worm),
larvae


Ditto


Com'l extract
(1:3000)

Powder in watur
(1:100)

Powder in water
(1:400)


Powder + '"-
drated lime as
a dust


. reoolleont


100' kill


90 kill


).non. (3)
in 1927

Fryer et al.
(35) in 1923

Kolsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Loss than spray


Ditto


Pyralididao


Diatraoa auricilia
Dudg.

Hcllula undalis F.
(cabbage webworm)

Nymphula dopunctalis
Guen.


Sap from
fresh root

Com'l extract
(?)

Decoction


Effective


Roc ommend ed


Effective


Jack (52)
in 1923


", .atanabe
in 1927


(10o8)


Federated
;..l:ly States.
(29) in 1922







- 50 -


Insect and Stage

Lopidoptora (cont.)

Pyralididao (cont.)

Nymphula dopunctalis
Gu on.

Schconobius bipuncti-
forus Tlk.


Ditto


Tirathaba sp.,
larvae


Preparation


Fresh root sap
in water


Extract


Sap from
fresh root


Fresh root sap
in water


Effectiveness.


Uso susostod


Uncocrt.in



Effective


Effective


Reference


Otanos (73)
in 1925

Fodorated
MHalay States
(28) in 1920

Jack (52)
in 1923

Gater (39)
in 1925


Tinoidao


Clothes moths, adults


Powder + hy-
dratod limao
(1:1) as a dust


Effective


Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Ditto (larvae)

Tinca sp., adults


Noctuid moths (?)


Ditto


Com'l extract
in water (1:3000)

Powder in water


Effective

1005 kill
in 1 hour,

Effective


Ditto


i'non. (3)
in 1927

Kolsall ot al.
(51) in 1926


Hymcnoptora

Apidao


Apis mollifora L.
(honey bee)


Ditto


Powder in honey
(1:400)


Extract in
lion oy


l10% kill
in 24 hours

Effective


Ginsburg (46)
in 1928

Mclndoo,
Siovers, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Powder in honey


945' kill in
48 hours


Pamohiliidac


Nourotoma fasciata
ITorton, half-grown
larvao


Extract + soap


Effective


Mc Indoo and
Siov-.rs (65)
in 1924


Ditto


Ditto







- 51 -


Insect and Stage

Hymcnoptora (cent.)

T;'ntvrrcdinidao

Eurcpan, rose sawfly


Pristiphora orichsonii
.tg. (larch sawfly),
larvae

Phymatoc era atorrima
Klug, larvae

Nomatus (Ptcrcnidoa)
ribcsii Scopoli (im-
ported currant worm),
larvae


Preparation


Powder as a
dust

Pcwder as a
dUSt


* Alcoholic ex-
tract

Powder in water


Effoctivonoss


Effective


100' kill


Effective


Effective


Roforonco


Gorham (47)
in 1923

Kolsall ot al.
(54) in 1926


Fryer ot al.
(33) in 1923

Durham (27)
in 1926


Powder in water
(1:100)

Powder in, water
(1: 331-))

Pcwdor + hy-
dratod linmo
(1.25 + 9-.75)
as a dust


Frosh root


Rush sawfly larvae


Corm'l extract
(1:1000)


100'0 kill


10C<'' ill


100V kill


Ef fectiveo


1001" kill


Fryer ot al.
(33) in 1923.

Kclsall ot al.
(54) in 1926


Ditto


Gimlotto (45)
in 1923

Harukawa (49)
in 1925


Vospidao

-ornot


Diptora


Comrn'l extract
(1:3000)


Effect ive


A non. (3) in
1927


Flies, undetermined
species


Pcwdor in water


Effective


Kolsall ot al.
(54) in 192.6


Ag rcmyzidao


irrcm-,za phasooli Coq.
(French bean fly)


Fresh rcot sap
in water (1:320)


Effective


Mathieu (62)
in 1920


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto







- 52 -


Insect and Stage

Diptora (cont.)

Anthomyiidao


Preparation


Effectiveness


Reference


Hylemya antiqua Moig.
(onion maggot), young
larvae

Ditto (full-grown
larvae)

Ditto (young larvae)


Ditto (mature larvae)


Ditto (larvae)


Ditto


Hylomya brassicae
Pouche (cabbage
maggot)


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto (larvae)


Ditto


Powder in water
(1: 33t)


Powder in water


Ditto


Ditto


Powder + scot
(1+2) as a dust

Powder + soot
(1+2) as a dust


Powder + clay
(1+1) as a dust


Powder in water
(1:333)

Powder in water
(1:333)

Powder in water
(1:333)

Powder + soot
(1+2) as a dust


100o- kill


Brittain (11)
in 1921


!-o kill


Effective


Ineffective

Ineffective


60,j clean
onion ens


Effective


Effective


Ineffective


Ineffective


Ineffective


Brittain (13)
in 1924


Ditto


K.M.Smith (85)
in 1925

Smith and
'Wadsworth (86)
in 1921

Brittain (11)
in 1921


Ditto


Brittain (12)
in 1922

Brittain (13)
in 1924

K.Li.Siith (85)
in 1925


Culicidao


Aedes voxans T.-ig.,
larvae


Ditto (larvae)


Powder dusted
on water (2 to 3
lbs. per acre)

Powder dusted
on' water (3 Ibs.
per acre)


Effective


Effective in
7 hrs.


Gibson (41)
in 1927


Twirm (96)
in 1927


Ditto







- 53 -


Insect and Stage

Diptora (cont.)

Culicidao (cont.)

Aedes voxans Moig.,
larvae


Preparation


Effectivonoss


Powder + French Effective
chalk (1+4)
dusted on water
(1-1/2 lbs. per acre)


Roferonce


Twinn (96)
in 1927


Ditto (pupae)


Aedes sp., larvae


Ditto (pupae)


Culox pipiens L.
(northern house
mosquito), larvae

Ditto (larvae)


Ditto (pupae)

Mosquito larvae


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Powder dusted on
water (3 lbs.
per acre)

Powder dusted on
water (15 lbs.
per acre)


Ditto


Powder dusted on
water (30 lbs
per acre)

Powder in water
(1:10,000)


Ditto


Powder in water
(1:333)

Powder in water


Powder in water
(1:1000)

Coim'l extract
(1:500)


Effective in
24 hours


Effective in
22 hours


Effective in
a to 5 days

100% kill in
72 hours


Effective


Effoctivo

Effective


Effective


100% kill in
3 to 4 days

65% kill


Ditto


Gibson (43)
in 1928


Ditto


Ditto


Gimletto (45)
in 1923


Ditto


Castillo (18)
in 1926

Durham (27)
in 1926

Kolsall et al.
(54) in 1926

Do Ong and
7m1ito (26)
in 1924


90 kill


Mosquito pupae


Powder in water


Ditto Com'l extract
(1:500)


Effective but
slow

Ineffective


Durham (27)
in 1926

De Ong and
White (26)
in 1924


Ditto


Powder


Ditto







- 54 -


Insect and Stage

Diptera (cont.)

Culicidae count. )

Thoobaldia annulata
Schrank, larvae

Ditto (pupao)


Muscidae

Cochliomyia sp.
(scrowwornms), adults

Ditto


Ditto


Lucilia sp. greenn
bottle fly), adults

Musca domestic L.
(housefly)

Ditto


Ditto


Preparation





Powder in water
(1:40,000)

Powder in water
(1:10,000)


Powder as a
dust

Powder + kaolin
(1+9) on bait

Powder as a
dust

Powder + kaolin
(1:9)

Powder as a
dust

Powder in water
(1:200)

Powder as a
dust


Effectiveness





Effective


Effective


A repellent


A repellent


A ropollent


A repellent


Ineffective in
24 hours

100l kill in
48 hours

li00 kill in
16 hours


Reference





Gimlotto (45)
in 192a

Ditto


Parman ot al.
(75) in 1928

Ditto


Roark ot al.
(83) in 1927

Parnan et al
(75) in 192S

Kolsall et al.
(54) in 1926

Ditto


Mc Indoo,
Sievers, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Mycotophilidae

Sciara praecox iToig.
(mushroom fly)

Oostridac

Hypoderma larvae


Ditto


Ditto


Powder as a
dust



Powdor in water


Powder


Dorris wash


Effective




Effective



Rocomrnonded


Roconnonded


Symos (88)
in 1921



Bishopp, Laako,
and o'ells
(7) in 1922

Leyncu' (58)
in 1928

Metcalf and
Flint (68)
in 1928






- 55 -


Inseoct and Sta-e

Diptoera (ccnt.)

Oostridae (crent.)

ITypodcrr.a larvae


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Preparation


Powder in water
(1:20)


Powder in water
(1:8.3) + soap
(1:33.2)

Powder + vase-
line (1+5)

Powder as a
dust


Powder + vase-
line (1+2)
applied to holes


Ditto Powder + soft
paraffin (1+2)

Ditto Powder + soft
paraffin + olive
oil (1+1+1)


Effectiveness


94% kill


Effoctivo


Effective


Effectivo



Effoctivo


Effective


Effective


Roforonceo


IacDougall
(59, 60)
in 1924

JU. S. Dept.
Agr. (100)
in 1923


Ditto


U. S. Dept.
Xgr. (102)
in 1927

Walton (106)
in 1925


;.aalton (107)
in 1927


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Hypodorma bovis
Degoor (northern
cattle grub)


Powder + vase-
line (1+2)
applied to holes

Powder + soap
in wator (1:8.3)
+ soap (1:33.2)

Col'l extract
(1:10)


Effective


Effective


Effective


Wells, Bishopp,
and Laoko (109)
in 1922


Ditto


Bishop ot al.
(6) in 1926


Powder in water
(1:16.6) + soap
(1:33.2)

Powder as a
dust

Powder +


Effective



Effective


REffXecti *p


petrolatum


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto







- 56 -


Insect and Stage

Diptora (cont.)

Oestridae (cont.)

Hypoderma bovis
Degeer (northern
cattle grub)

Hypodoermna linoatumr
DoVill. (common
cattle grub)


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Preparation


Powder +
paraffin oil


Con'l1 extract
(1:10)


Powder in water
(1:16.6) + soap
(1:33.2)

Powder as a
dust

Powder +
petrolatum

Powder +
paraffin oil


Effectiveness


Effective


Refereonce


Bishopp et al.
(6) in 1926


Effective


Ditto


Effective



Effective


Effective


Effective


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Psilidae


Psila rose F.
(carrot rust fly)


Powder as. a
dust


Considerable
control


Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Powder in water

Powder + soot
(1+2) as a dust


Ditto


Ditto


95/o clean
carrots


Ineffective


Ditto


Smith and
Wadsworth
(86) in 1921

K.M.Smith
(85) in 1925


Syrphidao


Syrphid fly larvae


Powder in water
(1:666) + soap


Effective


Kelsall et al.
(54) in 1926


Tipulidae


Leather jackets


Powder + bran
(1 lb. + 20 lbs.
per acre) as a
poison bait


Modorat ely
effective


Thompson (93)
in 1928


Ditto

Ditto


Ditto







- 57 -


Insect and Stage

Unclassified Insects.

Maize stalk borer


Preparation


Powder in water
(1:90)


Effectivenes s


Effective


Reference


Ripl oy and
Hcpburn (80)
in 1928


Powder as a
dust (1:12)


Less effective
than above


;iitos causing
curly-leaf

Rice borer, larvae


Com'l extract
in water (1:3000)

Fresh root sap
in water


Effective


Effective


Anon. (3)
in 192.7

Otanes (73)
in 1925


Aoarina

GamaDsidao


Dermanyssus gallinae
Degooeer (chicken nite)


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto (in jars)


Ditto (in
chicken house)

Tetranychidao


Powder as a
dust


Powder + flour
(1+1) Ls a dust

C-i'l extract
in w.-b,Ur (1:500)


Pow '.or a.s a
dust


Powder as a


Effective


Ineffective


Ineffective


10Jc kill
in 24 hours


Davidson (20)
in 1924


Ditto


Ditto


McIndoo,
Sievors, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Kill incomplete


Ditto


Tetranychus telarius L.
(red spiders)


Ditto


Ditto


Powder in water


Ccm'1 extract
(1:300)


Powder as a.
dust


Effective


25/ control



Ineffective


Carlom (17)
in 19Z6

Do Ong and
White (26)
in 1924

..c Indoo,
Siovors, and
Abbott (66)
in 1919


Ditto


Ditto








- 58 -


Insect and Stage

Unclassified Insects
(cont.)

Siphonapior .


Fleas on animals


Preparation


Com'l extract
(?)


Effectiveness


Recommended


Reference


Metcalf and
Flint (68)
in 1928


Ditto


Fleas on rabbit


Powder as a dust Recommended

Powder as a dust Rocommended


Ditto


Schwartz and
Shook (84)
in 1928


Dolichopsyllidae


Nosopsyllus fasciatus
Bosc. (rat flea)


Powder + tobacco Effective
dust (1+4) as a
dust


Gilner (44)
in 1925


Pulicidae


Ctenocephalidos canis
Curt. (dog flea)


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Ditto


Fresh root sap
in water

Po'.vdor + tobacco
dust (1+4) as a,
dust

Powder as a
dust


Powder as a
dsut


Powder + corn-
starch (1+3) as
a dust

Powder + flour
or cornstarch
(1+2) as a dust


Effective


Effective



Effective


Effective


Effective



Effective


Anon. (2)
in 1926


Gilmer (44)
in 1923


Mclndoo and
Sievers (65)
in 1924.

He Indoo,
Sievcrs, and
Sbbott (66)
in 1919

Wells, Bishopp,
and Laake (109)
in 1922

Bishopp (5)
in 1926







- 59 -


Insect and Sta-o

Sir'i,,-c:. torc. o n .
b.i i? i :*^ .,-
Ctonoccphalid3s folis
Eoucie (cat floa)


Ditto


Pr oparat ion



Powlor + tobacco
dust (1+4) as a
dust

Powder + corn-
starch (1+3) as
a dust


Effect ivor oss



E ff ct ivo


Effoctive.


!ef ore-nce




in2cr (44)
in 1925


?olls, Bishopp,
and Lu!o (109)
in 1922


Ditto Pcvidor + flour
or cornsta-ch
(1+2) as a dust


Sarccpsyllidao


Echidno .raa-- gallinacea
","cstw. (stickti-i.., 1"10a;


Powder as a
dust


Effective


7folls, 3ish -pp,
an! Lf.akc (109)
in 1922


Anoplura


Lice on animals



Lice on cattle and
horses


Lice on sheep


C'n'l extract
(j)


Powder + rv.-
ccmncr-t povfdeor
as a dust

Powder as a
US t


R o c o-.. in l o , d,
R7co'r ti7-L



ff foct ive



Hocc mnjn _d d


liotcalf and
Flint (6)
in 1928

Klisall ot al.
(54) in 1926


,1!to-.lf and
fin- (1 )
ir i "28


Haamatcpirn idac


Line cnathus piliforus
Burm.


Powder + ccrr-
starch (i+3)
as a dust


Eff ctivo


oells, pishopp,
ard Laal-o(109)
in 1i22


Ditto Powder + flour
(1+1) as a dust


Lincji-iathus vituli L.


Powder as a dust


Ditto Powder + flour
(1+1) as a dust


IEffcc ive


Eff oc t ive
Effective
Effect ive


iishcnp ()
in 1926


Ditto


Ditto

Ditto








- 60 -


Insect and Stage


Preparation


Effectiveness


Refereonce


Anoplura (cent.)

Haomatopinidao (cont.)

Linognathus vituli L.



Polyplax spinulosus
Burm. (rat louse)


Ditto


Solenopotos capillatus
End.


Powder + ITaF
(1+1) as a dust


Powdor + tobacco
dust (1+4) as a
dust

Powder + tobacco
dust + sulphur
(7.5.+ 67*5 *- 25)
as a dust
Powdor + flour
(1+1) as a dust


Effective



Effective


Wells, Bishopp,
and Laako (109)
in 1922

Gilmer (44)
in 1923


Effective


Effective


Ditto


rWells, Bishopp,
and Laake (109)
in 1922






- 61 -


Table 2.--Alphabetical list of insect species mentioned in
this paper, together with their common names
and classification


Common i.ame


Order


Family


Aedes vexa:-is L.eig.
Aedes sp.
Agromyza phaseoli Coq.
Amathusia phidipous L.

Anasa tristis DeGeer
Anisota senatoria A, & S.

Aphis gossyoii Glover

Aphis hoelizanthi Eionell
Aphis mcdica Aphis nerii Fonsc.
Aphis pomi DcGeer
Arhi s ru^'i cis L.
Aphis sp. A.
Aphis sp. 3
Aphis spiraccola Patch
Apis mcllifeim. L.
Arctornis alb-. Brcmer
Autogra.h-. br:-ssicac Riley
Blattcli:. {ormanica L.
Bombyx mo:7i L.
Bovicola bovis L.
Capitophorus ribi s L.
Carpocapsa 2o:_onclla L.
Cavaricll2 s1.
Ccutorhnincius pi.ur'octigva
Larsh.
Chcrmes
Cimox loct-ol.rius L.
Cingilia catc -xaria Drury

SCochliomnvia s-.
Colcoo".r l'.ricclla H:n.
Ctenocephalides canis Curt
Ctenc, h-,^i,^ felis Bouche
Culex pipiens L.

Datana' mini stra Drury

Dermanyssus gallnac DeGeer
Diatraea auricilia Dudt.
Drymonia .-.nllyri Leech
7 sd- rcus suturcllus H.S.
L,-sdercus cingulatus F.


French bean fly
large coconut butter-
fly
squash bug
orange-striped oak
worm
cotton aphid,
melon aphid

cowpea aphid

apple aphid
bean apnhid



honey bee

cabbage looper
Gcrman cockroach
silkworm

currant aphid
codling moth



jumping plant lice
bedbug
cha-in spotted goomet-
o r
Scron7.wori.ms
1-.rch c' sc bearer
dog flea
cat flea
northern house mos-
quito
yellow-necked cater-
pillar
chicken mite


cotton stainer


Diptera
Diptera
Diptera
Lepidoptera

Hemiptera
Lepidoptera

Homoptera

Homoptera
Homoptera
Homoptera"
Homoptora
Homoptera
Homoptcra
Ho-ioptcra
Homoptcra
Hymcnontera
Lepidoptcra
Lcpidoptera
Ortnoptcra
Lepidoptera
1 1-lophaga
Homoptcra
Lcpidopt era
Homoptora
Colcoptcra

Homoptera
Hcmintera
Lcpidoptora

Diptera
Lopidoptcra
Sirhonaptera
Siphonaptera
Diptera


Acarina
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Hemiptera
Hemiptora


Culicidae
Culicidae
Agronmy zi dae
Amathusiidae

Coreidae
Ceratocarroidae

Aphi i dac

Aphi i dac
Aphi i dae
Aphi i dac
Aphiidac
Aphi i dae
Aphi i dac
Aphi i dac
Aphi i dao
Apidac
,.m intriidao
No e tuidac
Blatti dac
Bombycida.c
Trichodectidac
Aphi i dac
Olocthroutidae
Aphi i dao
Curculionidac

Psylladao
Cimicidac
Geomc t ridac

MuscidaO
Col oophori dno
Pulicidae
Pulicidae
Culicidae

ITotodontidae

Gamasidae
Pyral i didae
Notodonitidae
Pyrrho co ri dae
Pyrrhocori dae


Insect








- 62 -


Common Xazie


Echidnophct, West.
Tmpoasca nmalicra 7alsh
Empoasca fabae Harris
Erionota thi-a:: L.
Eriosoma l SEuphydr, as chzlcedona
Dbldi. & Hew.
Euproctis psoudcoconspersa
Strand
Euproctis sericoa Uileman
Euptorye:: flavo scuta var.
nigra Osb.
Galorucella rubi T'.rnm.nuki
Geometrid la.rvao
Gliricola porcolli L.
Goniocotos Lij"as Tasch.
Gryllotalp,- sn.
Gyropus ovalis Titzsch
Heliothrip-s haemorrhoidali s
Bouche'
Hellula tunc.alis F.
Hemerocamp a ic ucos-
tigma A. & S.

Heterocordlylus malinus
Reuter
Hylemya &atiqua Heig.
Hylemya brassicao Bouchet
Hyphantria c nioa Drury
Hypo do nia larvae
Hypoderma lincatun Dcvill.
Hypodo rmn 'bovis DoGeer
Laelia suffos" 7-alk.
LaspcyrcsiL. nigricaaa
Stephens
Lcpidosaphos ulmni L.
Leptinotarsa docomn-
linoata Sa-
Linognathvjc pilipcrus
Burm.
Linognathus vituli L.
Lipeurus hotorogr.-phus
Nitzsch
Lucilia sp.
Lygidea mnodax Router
Macro siphoni ella
sanbomrni Gillette


sticktight flea

apple leafhopper
potato leafhopper

woolly apple aphid


large chicken louse
mole cricket

Greenhouse thri-ops

Cabbage webworm

white-marked
tussock moth
dark red bug

onion maggot
cabbage maggot
fall wobworm

common cattle grub
northern cattle grub



oystersholl scale
Colorado potato
beetle



chicken head louse

Green bottle fly
apple red bug
chry santhonun aohid


Siphonaptera

Homoptera
Homoptera
Lepidoptera
Homoptera
Lepidoptera

Lopidoptera

Lopidoptera
HomoDtera

Colooptora
Lcpidoptora
:.11 ophaga
Miallophaga
Orthoptera
iMallophaga
Thysanoptera

Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera


Hcmpitera

Diptera
Diptera
Lepidoptora
Diptcra
Diptera
Diptcra
Lepi doptora
Lopidoptcra

Homoptera
Colooptora

Anooplura

Anoplura
I.allorohaga

Diptora
Hcriptera
Homoptora


Sarcoos,-"llic.ae

Cicadellidae
Cicadellidae
Hesperiidtae
Aphiidae
i'T: 'nphcl.ic',2e

Lymantriidac

Lyman t ri i d.ac
Cicadellid.ao

Chrysorncli.-c
Goomeotri d-a.
Gyropidac
Phi loptoridae
Gryllidae
Gyro i dae
Thripidae

Pyrali didae
Lymnantriidae


Mi ridac

Anthomn-iidac
Anthon-iidae
Arctiidac
Ocstridac
Oostridae
Oestridac
Lynantrii dae
Olothroutidao

Coccidace
Chry somoli d.ac

Hacmatopini dac

Hacmitopini dna
Philopteridac

1.1uscidae
Miridao
Aphi i dao


Insect


Order


Faini ly







- 63 -


Common Name


Macrosiphum (Illinoia)
liriodendri Lion.
MacrosiphuL (Illinoia) sp.
Macrosiphum (Illinoia) solanifolii Ashm.
MIcrosiphaim sp. A.
Macrosiphmxi sp. C


Malacosoma americana F.

Malacosomina disstria Hbn.
Malacosomia neustria L.
Malacosoma sp.
Malloph.aga on chickens
Menopon biseriatum Piaget
Musca domestic L.
My zus cerasi F.
Myzus persicae Sulz.
Nematus (Pteronidea)
ribessii Scopoli
iIeurotoma fasciata Norton
Noctuid moths
Nosopsyllus fagciatus Bosc.
Notolophus post-.us Wlk.
Nymphula d.epumcta.lis Guen.
Olene me.idcaH'bn.
Orthozic. in signis Dougl.
Parasa horbifora Wlk.
Periplanota aucricana L.
Phaodon incortum Baly
Phalera bucopha.la L.
Phymatocora. aterrima Klug
Pieris brassicae L.
Pieris rapae L.
Plutella maculiponnis Curt.
Polia oleracea L.
Polyplax spinulosus Burm.
Porthesia taiwana Shir.
Porthesia scintillans Wlk.'
Pristiphora erichsonii Htg.
Prodenia litura F.
Pseudococcus citri Risso
Pseudodura dasychiroides
Strand
Psila rosae F.
Psylla
Bhop 1losiphuin pseudobras-
sicae Davis
Schoenobius bipunctiferus
Wlk.
Sciara praecox Heig.
Scotinophar. coarctata F.
Solenopotes capillatus
End.


eastern tent cater-
pillar
forest tent caterpillar




housefly
black cherry aphid
spinach aphid
imported currant worm



rat flea



greenhouse orthezia

American cockroach




imported cabbage worm
diamondback moth
glasshouse tomato moth
rat louse


larch sawfly

citrus mealybug


carrot rust fly
jumping plant louse

turnip aphid


mushroom fly


Eomoptera

Homoptera
Homoptera
Homoptera
Homoptera
Lepidoptera

Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Mallophaga
Mallophaga
Diptera
Homoptera
Homoptera
Hymenoptera

Hymenoptera
Lepidoptera
Siphonaptera
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Homoptera
Lepidoptera
Orthoptera
Colooptcra
Lepidoptera
Hymenoptera
Lopidopt era
Lepidoptera
Lepi doptera
Lepidoptera
Anoplura
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Hymenoptera
Lepidoptera
Homoptera
Lepidoptera

Diptera
Homoptera

Homoptera
Lepidoptera

Diptera
Hemiptera
Anoplura


Aphi idae

Aphi i dae
Aphi i dae
Aphi i dae
Aphi i dae
Lasiocamoi dae

Lasiocamoidae
Lasiocampidae
Las i o c c-mno i dae

M en o-oni dae
Musci d.e
Ah i dae
Aphi i dace
Tenthredinidae

Paruphiliidae

Dolichopsyllidae
Lymantriidae
Pyrali di dao
Lyma.ntriidae
Coccidac
Limaco didac
Blattidao
Chrysomnolidae
Notodontidae
Tentrodinidao
Picridao
Piecridae
Plutollidac
Noc tuidae
Haematopinidae
Lyman t r i i dae
Lymantriidae
Tenthredinidae
Noctuidae
Coccidae
Lymantriidae

Psilidae
Psyllidae

Aphi idae
Pyral i didae

Mycetophilidae
Pentatomidae
Haematopinidae


Insect


Order


Family







- 64 -


Cormmnon iTame


Spilonota ocellana D. and S.
Stilpnotia cygna Hoore
Tetranichas telarius L.
Theobaldia annulata Schrank
Tinea sp.
Tirathaba sp.
Toxoptera aurantiae Boyer
Yponomeuta padella L.


eye-spotted budmnoth

common red spider



black citrus aphid


Le -idoptera
Lepi doptera


Olethreuidae
Lymnnant iidclae


Acarina Tetran;,-cl.idae
Diptera Culicidae
Lepidoptera Tineidae
Leoi donotera Pyralididae
Homoptera Aphiidae
Lep5 doptera ioctuidae


Insect


Order


SFam 1 -







- 65 -


Table 3.--Alphabetical list of the common names of insects
mentioned in this paper, together with their cor-
responding scientific names


Scientific Name


American cockroach
Apple aphid
Apple leafhopper
Apple red bug
Bean aphid
Bedbug
Black cherry aphid
Black chr-santh,'mum aphid

Black citrus aphid
Cabbage looper
Cabbage m.nagot
Cab')ae webworm
Carr-ot fly
Carrot rust fly
Cat flea

Chain spotted geometer
Chicken head louse

Chicken mite
Chry'santhemum aphid

Citrus mealybug
Codling moth
Colorado potato beetle

Common cattle grub
Common red spider
Cotton aphid
Cotton stainer
Covc rea aphid
Currant aphid
Dark red bug

Diamondback moth
Dog flea
Eastern tent caterpillar
Eye-spottcd budmoth
Fall wobworm
Forest tent caterpillar
German cockroach
Glasshouse tomato moth


Periplaneta amnericana L.
Aphis pomi Defeer
Empoasca maliena 7alsh
Lyji dca mendax Reuter
Ahis rumnicis L.
Cimex lectularius L.
I.;Yzus cerasi F.
H Iacrosiphoniella sanborni
-i llette
Toxoptera aurantiae BoYer
Autjgr..Pha brassicao Riloy
Hylcmya brassicae Bouche'
iellula undalis F.
Psila rosac F.
Psila rosac F.
Ctenocephlilides fells
Bouche
Cingilia catenaria Drui.ry
Lineu rL'.s heterographus
ITit sch
Dermanyssus gallinv- DeGeer
ilacro siphoniella sanborni
Gillette
Pseudococcus citri Risso
C__-rpocapsa pomonella L.
Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Say
Hypoderma lineatum DeVill.
Tetranychus telarius L.
Aphip gossypii Glover
Dysdercus suturellus H. S,
Aphis iji-dicarcinis Xoch
Capitophorus ribis L.
Heterocordylus malinus
Reuter
Plutella maculiTonnis Curt.
Ctenocephalides canig Curt.
Xalacosoma americana F.
Spilonota ocellana D. and S.
Hyphantria cunea Drury"
Malacosoma disstria Kbn.
Blattella go'rmanica L.
Polia oleracea L.


Co-mmon Name










Scientific Name


Gooseberry sawfly

Green bottle fly
Greenhouse orthezia
Greenhouse thrips

Honey bee
Housefly
Imported cabbage worm
Imported currant worm

Jumping plant lice
Jumping plant louse
Large chicken louse
Large coconut butterfly
Larch case bearer
Larch sawfly
leIon aphid
LIole cricket
1ushro'om fly
iTorthern cattle grub
Northern house mosquito
Onion maggot
Orange-striped oak worm
0ystershell scale
Potato leafhopper
Rat flea
Rat louse
Screwworms
Silkwvorm
Spinach apohid
Squash bug
Sticktight flea
Turnip aphid

Thite-marked tussock moth
Woolly apple aphid
Yellow-necked caterpillar


Kematus (Ptcronidea) ribesii
Scopoli
Lucilia sp.
Orthozia insignis Dougl.
Heliothrips haemorrhoiclali s
Boucho'
Apis mellifera L.
Musca domestic L.
Pieris rapae L.
Nematus (Pteronidea) ribesii
Scopoli
Che rmes
Psylla
Goniocotes gigas Tasch.
Amathusia phidippus L.
Coleophora laricella Hbn.
Pristiphora erichsonii Htg.
Aphis gossypii Glover
Gryllotalpa sp.
Sciara praecox Meig.
Hypoderma bovis DeGeer.
Culex pipiens L.
Hylemya antiqua Meig.
Anisota senatoria A. & S.
Lepidosaphes ulmi L.
Empoasca fabae Harris
Nosopsyllus fasciatus Bosc.
Polyplax spinmlosus Burm.
Cochliomyia sp.
Bombyx mori L.
Myzus persicae Sulz.
Anasa tristis DeGeer
Echidnophaga gallinacea Westvr.
Rho lQalosiphum pseudobrassicae
Davis
Hemerocampa leucostigma A. & S.
Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.
Datana mini stra Drury


; 66 -


Common Namc







- 67 -


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39. GATHER, B. A. R.

1925. Investigations on "tuba". .tal-iyan Agr. Jour. 13: 312-32S.

40. ------------ and YUSOPE, M.

1925. A note on Laelia suffusa, WEl1. (Lymnantriidae) damaging
orpadi. Hlalyr.n Agr. Jour. 13: 72-76.







- 71 -


41. GI3SO-', A.

1927. liosqaito investigations in Canada in 1926. 7. J.
mosquito Extermin. Assoc. Proc. Ann. ':eetin,- 1-: 110-115.

42. ------

1928. Report of the conrmaittee on policyr. Jour. .con. Ent.
21: 19-22.

43.- -----
1928. Mosquito suppression in Canada in 1927. iTev JoLsey
.losqu.ito T::tcr'in. Assoc. Proc. 15: 136-140.

44. GILIJER, P. I.

1923. Derris as a ,arasiticide. inn. State "nt. Rot.
19 (1922): 41-49.

45. GIIL3TTE, J. D.
1C23. .a1.a;- poisons -nd charm cures. EdM. 2, 260 pp., illus.
Londcon.

46. C-IZSBSURG, J. K.

1928. Insecticide Investigations. IT. J. Aur. x'pt. St.. Ann.
Rcpt. 4Q, 336 pp., illus.

47. G0-aKI, .. P.

1928. Tho European roso c.ixfly in lJovi 3runsw-ick. Ent. Soc.
Ontario, Ann. Ro2t. 58: 70-72.

48. F-1OWiT S.

1923. Insects affocti--L- live stock. Canada Dopt. Agr. D3ull. 29,
32 pp'. illus. Ott t awa.

49. -U .A, C.

1925. Studios on tho rash sawfly-, Tomostothus juncivorus Rohwcr.
3or. Ohara Inst. Lkndw. Torsch. 2: 521-5-14.

50. HOLLRTu:-, 1.
1'23. Die Mittol zur Bc'r a.n.1n dor Pflanzon:ramkhoiton.
106 pp. Borlin.










51. -0,-;_RD, L. 0.

1924. Somo rocont dcovQlopmonts in mosquito work. .J. j. mosquito
2xtormin. Assoc. Proc. Ann. ieooting 11: 8-19.

52. JACK, H .

1923. Rico in Malaya. IX. Posts and Diseases. ;lal.ynn
Agr. Jour. 11: 157-161.

53. ---- and SADS, -. :.

1922. Cotton o:porimcits in ,L1I1CL-n.. al..ya.i Agr. Jour.
10: F218]-258.

54. ICLSALL, A., SPITTALL, J. P., G03U-i, R. P. ad "A2--R, G. P.

1926. Dorris as an insocticido. nit. Soc. of0 Ohtario,
A:n. Ropt. 56: 2A-40. Toronto.

55. KOPP, A.

1924. Los dorris insccticidcs. Rev. 3ot. Appi. ot Agr. Colon.
Bull. 4. (34) : 400-402.

56. LEITT'S, S.

1927. Do koolcultuur of de Ikaro-hoogvlal:te. L,-ndI'ouwn 2:
627-644.

57. LI-T, L.

1923. Derris elliotica 3enth. (Pongaria .;ont.'..-i. Bi.) Dis
Pfeilgifte. 517 ,pO., illus. Leipzig.

33. L3T-1=71;

1928. Traitement de 1'h--)odermose du boauf. Ann. 4 J. Vet.
73 (5): 202-204.

59. LLOYD, L.

1920. The habits of the glasshouse tomato moth, Hrtdona (Polia)
oler-.caa, and. its control. A,.n. Appl. 31ol. 7: 66-102

50. KacDOUGALL, R. S.

1924. Insects and other pests of 1923. Hi1:h-1.nd. and A--. Soc.
Scot. Trans. (5) 33: 100-140.


- 72 "







- 73 -


61. ----

1924. Ox warble flies. Scot. Jour. Agr. 7: 61-72.

62. NATHIEU, E.

1920. Tubca-root (Derris elliptical) as an insecticide. Gard.
Bull. Straits Settlements 2 (6): 192-197.

63; McBRIDE, 0. C.

1925. A study of derris and related insecticides for the
control of external parasites of domesticated animals.
iiinn. Agr. Bxpt. Sta. Ann. Ropt.'33: 37.

64. ------

1926. A leafhopper (Eupteryn flavoscuta, var. nigra Osb.)
attacking the leather-leaf fern (Polystichum capense
J. Sm.). Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 39: 224-227.

65. McINDOO, U. E., and. SIEVERS, A. F.-

1924. Plants tested for or reported to possess insecticidal
properties. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 1201, 61 pp.

66. ---------- SIEVERS, A. F., and ABBOTT, W. S.

1919. Derris as an insecticide. Jour. Agr. Research 17: 177-200.

67. MEER MOHR, J. C. van der

1927. Eenigen wenken voor de bestrijding van de bladluizenplaag
(:Iyzus persicae) in do doli-tabak. [Some hints on work
against M. porsicao on tobacco in Doli.] Deli Procfsta.
Modan Vlugschr. 42, 7 pp., illus. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. (A) 16: 165. 1928.].

68. METCALF, C. L., and FLIiT, W. P.

1928. Destructive and useful insects; their habits and control.
Ed. 1, 918 pp. New York.

69. MICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIOIT

1925. [Dorris.] Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1925: 222.

70. MILES, H. Ws.

1925. Life history and control of the pea moth, Laspoyrosia
nigricana Stoph. Bull. Chamber Hort. 3 (pt. 1): 6-9.
LAbstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 14: 217-218, 1926.].







- 74 -


71. A.Ii.2SOTA AGJCULTURAL :- STATION

1924. !inn. Agr. lxpt. Sta. Ann. Rept. 32: 26.

72. 1TOZU, R., and SONOYAMA, I.

1926. Results of studies on Phaedon incertun Baly (ChryjsomeliCae).
Shimane PrefectuieAgr. Expt. Sta., 1.arch, 1926,
pp. 1-162. [in Japanese. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
(A) 14: 642. 1926.]

73. OA2-ES, F. q.

1925. Insects: their relation to man and their control.
Philippine Agr. Rev. 18 (4): 373-410.

74. PA.:LMT, D. C., BISHOPP, F. C., LAAK, E. 7., C001-, C.,, and RO-c:, R.0.

1927. Chemaotro-,ic tests with the screiw-iorm fly. U. S. Dent.
A{,r. Bull. 1472, 32 pp.

75. LAAK Z. T., B3ISHOPP, F. C., and ROA0:, P. C.

1928. Tests of blo'fl:.- baits and repellents duringg 1926.
U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 80, 15 op.

76. PA2PLROTT, p. J., GLASGO7, H., and '.IIZOD, G. F.

1921. Control of apple red bugs by dusting. N. Y. A--r,. ExpO.
Sta. Bull. 490, 30 pp., illus.

77. QUAIIT.11CE, A. L.

1928. Report of committee to formulate plans for investigations
of the codling moth from biologic and control stand7icoints.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 21: 31-38.

78. ------

1'9. Re-oort of committee to formulate plans for investigations
of codling moth from bioloic ant. control standpoints.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 22: 24-29.

79. Le' ',-L.

1926. De la Derris elliptica. Schweiz. A-,)oth. Ztg.
64 (15-)168-169.









- 75 -


%80. 'jIT tB., anvc IF3lP*P, G. A.

192P. Tor-dresiniv: .i,?ize a,-air.&b stFlC-borer. Farir -
in South Afr'.ca 3: -3'- :, .4,.3

81. a ::. .. .. C.

L19. Flja~t~n~e aed inra ,ctic 'L. Aver. Jour. iharim.
PI: 2o-57, 9' -107.

82. 3

19358. T.s 2aialy hlijo y (140-1?.C) of the uye &f derrin ..,


83. - ?;-; ., D. 0., 3ISYi0PP, r. C., d .-, -. 7

19i7. PoellentF for tlo'"9 uT3S.,n2us ; I'j.

84. *SC:?L'2,, 3., Sncl S7On., 7. 3.
i 2C. ?'1ot &rc.rsite0 &nd diseases. "J.S. t.ov fr
.bio S. Dt r
i': m-T.e '!l 1l 58, ::O :o .

C5. 5.T"- .... .

192E. -urther e:Mweriruents i; tho control of certain mr,, ots
a~tc'-" ," the roots of ve;etebies. i..-. An1l. 3i 9,
12: 77-32.
:- -,, ,n' "; .f o -"
., 7 7 J .

l'?'. WAe carrot K "sion fli". Sono -)rclr'in2ry .t e rts at
tneir control. F-,,t C-,o.ar 51: 575-57',, 6'15- 18.

87. SO [u", j.

19W7. Studies on the Icnset *o&ps of tc te-i plant. Part I!.
Fom,-osa D5-t. -r. oo,',rc1_ Inst. jr t,
LIn Jztpan:cs. *Ab:;tr-ct in r-e--. Ao. t. (.) 1.
4 --:,3. 1A2 '.]

'":. ',ii. S, C. Be

1921. insect pcsts of Tus' rooms. -r' I. 'he rusLroor fl.
(Scia-a L -,acco ;
1 0-.S 27,4--6







- 76 -


192o. eotes on the black citrus i nhls. F'i C.oesia A.7r. Jour.
21: 612-626; 21: 725-77 7.

90. TJUKA2&II, 1C.

I92,2P Studies on G-alerucella rubi, T-rr.n12:, s, n. eot. A-,
and Fo:., Govt. Sa':h'.:ir., research Bull. 1: 1-19.
[In Ja ,nese. Abstract in: Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 16:


91. T21TAL-A, TO

1927. On Dri-monia maAle-ei, Leech. Insect .ord- 31: 218-2,30.
LIn Jaianose. Abstract in .ev. A!. "nt. (A) 15: ....
1927.]-

92. 2AT.12E p.SILD, F., C-I::IUG:I<, C. ?., an I:03P.S, H. H.

1926. Studies on contact insecticide,. Part IV. A quantitative
examinautior. of the toxicitT" of certain plants Xnd plant
pro6vucte to A;,his rumicis, L. (the bean aphis). An.
Ap1I. Biol. 137: 4 4-44.

93. TL01.O? SO-i, H. 7.

1228. Parther tests of ooison baits in South f'ales. 7elsli Jo'r.,


94. T:LAPPI IT.1, 7.
fun, 4: p342-347..Lepz.

1927. Schadlinusbeki'-fun.. 440 pp., illus. Leipzi-.

95. THMIE, C.

1222 Bio-chemical aspects of insect control. Sci. Agr.
3: 109-113.

96. CIr, C. R.

1927. .'Iosquito control at Ottava, Ontario. Ontario Ent. Soc. -:r.
Reot. 57: 15-16.
97. UTITED 3' ZJTS DE A1.:E-I OF AGFJCULTUHY-

1919. [Derris.] portot of the entonolofist. U. S. Dept. Ar.,
Bur. znt. -.;1,. Pe pt. 1912: 8.
98. ------------ --

1921. [Derris.] Report of the entomologist. U. S. Dept. ".
Bur. Int. Ann. Rept. 1921: 9.







- 77 -


99.

1922. Insecticide studies. Report of the entomologist. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Ann. Rept. 1922: 22-25.

100. -----

1923. [Derris.] Report of the entomologist. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Bur. Ent. Ann. Rept. 1923: 29.

101. -------
1925. [Derris.] Report of the entomologist. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Bur. Ent. Ann. Rept. 1925: 5.

102.----------

1927. [Derris.] Report of the entomologist. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Pur. Ent. Ann. Rept. 1927: 23.

103. -----

1928. Report of the entomologist. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent.
Ann. Rept. 1928, 34 pp.

104. VAN LSEV'UEN, E. R.

1928. Statement. Minutes of Informal Conference on the Codling
Moth held in Washington, D. C., Jan. 4, 1928. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. (Mimeographed), 34 pp.

105. VOGT, E., and A2PEL, 0.

1926. Die chemischen Pflanzenschutzmittel. 134 pp., illus.
Berlin and Leipzig.

106. IALTOIT, C. L.

1925. Notes on warble flies in :Jorth Wales. Welsh Jou.r. Agr.
1: 195-199.

107. -----

1927. furtherr notes on v-arble flies in l:orth Wales. oelsh
Jour. Agr. 3: 164-169.
108. :ATAABE, T.

1927. A control rmecthod for Hcllula undalis Fab. (Pyralidac), a
post of vegetables. Agr. and Hort. 2: 987-992. [In
Japanese. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. (A) 15: 641. 1927.]

109. ,TLLS, R. Wi., BISHOP, F. C., and ILAAKE, E. 1W.

1922. Dorris as a promising insecticide. Jour. Econ. Ent.
15: 90-95.









- 78 -


Junior. Author Inee:c


Abbott, T. S., see Mclndoo, N. E., 56
Appel, 0., see Vogt, E., 105
Baudet, Z. A. E. F., see Blieck, L. de, 8
Bishopp, F. C., see Parman, D. C., 74, 75
Bishopp, F. C., see Roark, R. C., 83
Bishopp, F. C., see Wells, R. UJ., 109
Brunmdrett, H. '. see Bishopp, F. C., 6
Cook, F. C., see Parn.ian, D. C., 74
Flint, 1. p., see Metcalf, C. L., 68
"-iuinham, C, T., see Tattersfield, F., 92
G-lasgow, H., see Parrott, P. J., 76
Gorlha-, RP. P., see i::elsall, A., 54
Hepburn, G. A., see Pdipley, L. B., 80
Laa-:e, E. 7. see Bishopp, F. C., 6, 7
Laake, e. 0., see Parman, D. C., 74,- 75
LaaeLe, 1. 7., see F.oark, 5. 0., 82
Laake, .., see Wells, R. .7., 109
Laa'_-e, :j see.,
I.:cLeoO, C-. F., see Parrott, P. J., 76
Lorris, E. *. see Tattersfield., F. c9'
Parnain, D. C., see Roark, R. C., 83
Roach, 7. A., sec FI er, J. C. F., '5t
Roar*, C., see Parma., D. C., 74, 75
Sands, I. T7., see Jr-k, H. 17., 53
Shook, 7,. 3., see Schwartz, B., 84
Sievers, A. F., see :cIhndoo, IT. 65, 66
Sonoaiaa, I., see llozu, P., 72
S-it;all, J. ., seo Kolsall, A., 54
Stenton, E. see Frjor, J. C. F., 3'.
Tattorsficlc, F., seoc F-I-ycr, J. C. F., 33
7adsviorth, J. ., soc S-itL, K. I., 8
47'-lk r, G. P., soo Kelsall, A., 54
-lolls, 10. 7., see Bishopr, F. C., 3, 7
7hitc,. T. '., soee Do O:-, E. R., 26
.csopc, H., soc Corbett, G. H., 19
-uso-oc, E., sec Gator, B. A. 40








- 79 -


Chronological Indax


].919........

192 0 ........
2,1v20 4 0 . .



*1St2' .!-
1923.*. . ..






1927... . ..
1S24. .. ....

1925 ..... ..

1926........

19 7........

19278... .....



1928 ........


1932. .......

icuB ";8 ...


b6, 81, 97

28, 32, 59, 62

11, 76, 8", 08, ?8

7, 12, 14, 29, 5Z, .5, 99, 109

16, 33, 4,-, 45, 48, 50, 52, 57, 100

10, 19, 2j, 30, 34, 35, 5], 55, 60, 61, 65, 71, 9

9, 13, 25, 36, 39, 40, 49, 63, 09, 70, 73, 85, 101, 106

1, 2, %, 6, 17, 18, 22. 27 54 6 1, 72, 79. 2, 105

5, 4, -, 15, 23, 4, %37, 41, 56 6?7, 74, 83, 87,

91, 94. 9, 02, 107, 108

21, 31, 3C 42, 43, 43 47, .8 63 '75, r?7 C

84, 90, 93, 103, 1Q0-

78

25

82











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