Insects of the castor-bean

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Title:
Insects of the castor-bean
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Myers, Gertrude
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Insecticide Investigations ( Washington, D.C )
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LIBRARY
%TATE FLANT BOARD

E-469 March 1939

United States Department of Agriculture
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine


INSECTS OF THE CASTOR-BEAN
(Compiled from the literature and
from the records of the Insect Pest Survey)*

By Gertrude Myers, Division of Insect Pest Survey
and Information



Introduction

The castor-bean plant (Ricinus communis L.) is distributed through-
out the tropical and subtropical world. It grows wild as well as under
cultivation, reaching a height of from 30 to 40 feet. In the Tropics it is
a perennial, but in the Temperate Zones it becomes an annual, attaining a
height of only 8 or 12 feet.

British India is the chief region where the castor-bean is culti-
vated commercially; it produces 90 percent of the world's output of castor-
beans. The plant is also cultivated in the Malay Peninsula, Indo-China,
Java, Manchuria, Italy, northern and central Africa, Hawaii, some of the
West Indian Islands, Mexico, Brazil, and the United States.

In the United States the plant is cultivated in eastern Kansas,
Oklahoma, western Missouri, and southwestern Illinois. In 1918, when the
cultivation of the plant was temporarily stimulated by a demand for the oil
as a lubricant for war machines, considerable acreage was planted in Florida
and some in California.

The castor-bean is grown principally for the oil, but it is also used
in coloring of cotton goods and as a medicine. It is extensively grown as an
ornamental. The seeds contain a poisonous principle, ricinin, most of which
is retained in the pomace after the oil has been pressed out,



*This compilation of records was made from the published litera-
ture, unpublished manuscripts by J. E. Graf and Max Kisliuk on their work
in Florida in 1918, and the files of the Insect Pest Survey. The notes
from Costa Rica were made by C. H. Ballou. As so many papers were reviewed
for this article, it is not deemed practical to prepare a bibliography.
All the abstracts and references are in the files of the Insect Pest Survey
and copies of them may be obtained upon request.

UBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD





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The castor-bean plant has attracted attention as an alleged killing
agent for insects. During the present grasshopper outbreak in the Great
Plains, considerable attention has been given to the plant as a means of
control of these insects.

In 1931 the Japanese beetle was reported to have been strongly at-
tracted to the plant and killed by feeding on the leaves. This report re-
ceived so much publicity that tests were conducted by the Bureau of Ento-
mology of the United States Department of Agriculture to determine the
attractiveness and toxicity of the plant. In the cage tests the beetle fed
on the foliage to a limited extent only, and there the plant was practically
nontoxic; however, in certain field conditions the foliage of the plant ap-
peared to be somewhat toxic.

The literature contains only a few records of insects being poisoned
by feeding on the plant. In Manchuria, adults of Autoserica orientalis
(Motsch.) are reported as being killed by feeding on the leaves. Many dead
beetles of Maladera holosericea (Scop.) were found in the vicinity of the
castor-bean plants in the North Caucasus in southern Russia. In Rumania,
adults of Bothynoderes punctiventris (Germ.) died from eating foliage. In
each instance citeC it will be noted that the adults were killed.

Grasshoppers are reported as being killed by feeding on the plant in
Australia. There is also a questionable record of grasshoppers being killed
by eating seedlings in Turkestan.

In Brazil, the natives plant castor-beans in their gardens to protect
their homes from ants. It is also stated that if castor-bean seeds are
placed in the glowing fuel in the combustion chamber of ant fumigation
apparatus, the fumes form a deposit in the nest that not only kills the ants
but prevents others from reinfesting it.

Owing to the increasing interest in the plant, a list of the insect
pests has been compiled from the literature and other records. The in-
sects have been divided into two groups, those attacking the plant in the
continental United States and those attacking it outside the United States.
As the plant is more important in foreign countries, that list is given first
place. The localities are those from which the insects have been recorded
on the castor-bean. Many of the insects have much more widespread distri-
bution and other food plants. If an insect has been recorded as attacking
the plant in the United States and also in foreign countries, it is mentioned
in both lists.

Insects Attacking the Castor-bean in Foreign Countries

The insects are arranged by orders, the most injurious species being
named first. The most important are leaf-feeding caterpillars, of which
Ophiusa ianata (L.) (_ 0. melicerta (Drury)) ranks first. The larvae are
semiloopers and appear in hordes and entirely strip the foliage from the
plant, leaving only the main stalks in young plants and leaf stems and ribs





-3-


in the older ones. The insect feeds almost exclusively on this plant,
attacking other plants only after the castor-bean h.-s been destroyed. It
belongs to the family Noctuidae. It occurs throughout most of the provinces
of India, and in Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Formosa, a:'.2 Queens-
land. It has been questionably recorded from French Equatorial Africa.
0. aagira (L.) is sometimes, though rarely, found in association with
0. janata in India. It also occurs in Egypt. 0. catella (Guen.) is very
injurious in Africa, defoliating entire plantations in the Transvaal, Ital-
ian Somaliland, and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 0. arctotaenia Cuc;-.i is re-
corded from Formosa.

Prodenia littoralis (Boisd.) causes severe injury to the castor-bean
in India, although it feeds on a ni-'.err of other plants. It feeds on the
leaves, entirely defoliating the plant, and also bores into the stems. It
causes more damage as a borer since in that way it kills the e-1tire growing
shoot. It occurs throughout the southern peninsula and-the hills and plains
of India, and in Bihar and Orissa, Bu.-ma, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, Canton
in China, Philippine Islands, Formosa, Egypt, Italian Somaliland, and
Rhodesia. P. eridania (Cram.) is injurious in Cuba and attacks the plant in
Bermuda.

Heliothis obsoleta (F.) feeds on the seeds in the green capsules,
causing considerable injury i:-: the hills and plains of India. In the Baku
district of Azerbaija., in the Transcaucasus, it is stated that when castor-
bean plants grew in the neighborhood of growing cotton, the cotton was prac-
tically free from the insect and also H. peltig.ra (Schiff.) the castor-bean
apparently acting as a trap crop for these insects. H. obsoleta, H. dip-
sacea (L,), and Heliothis sp. are recorded from the North Caucasus of south-
ern Russia as sometimes causing considerable injury.

The following additional species of NoctuidasE have been recorded as
causing varying degrees of injury: Tiracola plagiata (Walk.) causes a great
deal of leaf injury in the Malay Peninsula; Scotogrammn trifolii (Rott.),
Euxoa sfgetum (Schiff.), Plusia gamma (L.), and Barathra barassicae (L.),
feed on the leaves in the North Caucasus; Eublemma brachygonia Hmps. in-
jures the fruit in the Italian Somaliland and the Khartoum district of
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan; Ozarba brunnea (Leech) causes light injury in the
Italian Somaliland; Laphygma exigua (Hbn.) causes some injury in Sicily;
and Grammodes geometrica (F.), causes considerable injury late in the
season in Sicily.

The pyralidid borer Dichocrocis punctiferalis (Guen.) is one of the
most important insect pests of the'castor-bean plant in India, ranking along
with Ophiusa janata in the amount of Ccanage. It bores into the shoots, es-
pecially at the junction of the main stems and the side shoots and leaves,
and also attacks the ripening fruit in the seed capsules. It is a pest of
regular appea,-ance throughout southern India, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula,
Java, New Guinea, and Taiwan (Formosa).

hycita diaphana (Stgr.) is very. injurious in northern Africa,
Algeria, and Morocco. The larvae feed on the leaves and the young flower






-4-


buds. P. poteriella Zell. is one of the most injurious insects in the Baju
district of Azerbaijan. The larvae feed on and destroy the fruit. The insect
occurs in Egypt and Cyrenaica and in the Seychelles Islands.

The larvae of Cryptoblabes gnidie11a (Mill.) are sometimes found in
association with those of P. poteriella in Egypt.

Loxostege sticticalis (L.) causes serious injury to leaves and stems
in the North Caucasus.

Tirathaba rufivena (Walk.) injures fruit in Java.

Ephestia kuehniella Zell. is injurious in Cyrenaica.

An unidentified pyralidid has been recorded as occasionally attacking
the foliage in the Khartoum district of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

A lymantriid, Euproctis scintillans (Walk.), is a serious pest in
India and the Malay Peninsula, where it defoliates the plant. It is also
recorded from the Canton district of China. E. fraterna (Moore) is oc-
casionally a serious pest in southern India by feeding on the leaves. It
also occurs in the Malay Peninsula. Several species of Euproctis, of which
the most injurious is E. lunata Walk., are of considerable economic import-
ance in the Punjab, where the castor-bean plant has become an important
crop. E. flava (F.) probably ranks next. The caterpillars eat the leaves
and even devour the small twigs and green cell layers of the stems. E. con-
vergens B. Bak. is sometimes found in the Italian Somaliland. E. product
Walk. is common in Uganda and Zanzibar. E. taiwana (Shiraki) is injurious in
Taiwan.

Notolophus posticus (Walk.) now and then assumes destructive propor-
tions as a leaf feeder in India, in Mysore and Ceylon, in the Malay Penin-
sula, and in Taiwan. N. georgianus (Faw.) has been recorded from Uganda.

Dasychira mendosa (Hbn.) sometimes feeds on the leaves in southern
India.

Pseudodura dasychiroides Strand has been recorded from Taiwan.

A nymphalid, Ergolis rerione (Cram.), occurs regularly in India, where
it has a wide distribution, but is not sufficiently numerous to do serious
damage. E. merione taprobana Dbldy. & Westw. occurs in Ceylon.

Vanessa cardui (L.) feeds on the leaves in North Caucasus. Eurytela
dryope (Cram.) attacks foliage in Natal and Tanganyika.

Limacodids: Parasa lepida (Cram.) occasionally injures leaves in the
southern peninsula of India and Ceylon, and in the Malay Peninsula; Parasa
sp. and P. herbifera (Walk.) are recorded from the Malay Peninsula; P. con-
socia Walk. from Formosa, and P. vivida (Walk.) from Nyasaland.






-5-


Altha nivea Walk. is widespread in the hills and plains of India,
but it rarely causes much injury. Thosea cana (Walk.) and T. sinensis
(Walk.) occur in Taiwan, Phobetron hipparchia (Cram.) in Rio Grande do Sul,
and Nemata lohor (Moore) in the Malay Peninsula. An undetermined limacodid,
probably Sibine ophelians Dyar, was collected from Costa Rica.

In the family Arctiidae, Pericallia ricini (F.) is very injurious
throughout India; Diacrisia oblique (Walk.) occasionally becomes injurious in
the hills and plains of India and in Assam; Aloa lactinea (Cram.) attacks
leaves in Bombay; Amsacta albistriva (Walk.) occurs in southern India,
Spilosoma investigatorum Karsch. in the Italian Somaliland, Lichnoptera
cavillator (Walk.) in Costa Rica, and Antarctia fusca (Walk.) in Minas
Geraes, Brazil.

The castor-bean plant is recorded as being very attractive to Trabala
vishnon Lef., a lasiocampid. The insect is a sporadic pest in India and
when abundant is very destructive. It also occurs in the Malay Peninsula
and Taiwan.

The eri silkworm, Philosamia ricini (Hutt.), is fed on the castor-
bean plant indoors, supporting a silk industry throughout Assam. This
saturniid has been introduced into all parts of India in a domesticated
form. It also occurs in Java. The plant grows extensively in Australia, and
it has been suggested that the insect be introduced there for commercial
production of silk. P. cynthia (Drury) has been successfully reared from the
castor-bean in India, Italy, and Sicily; and it is suggested that it might
be reared profitably in Egypt.

Automeris complicate (Walk.), A. zozine Druce, and Rothschildia
aurora (Cram.) have been recorded from Rio de Janeiro, and Hylesia lilex
Dognin from Lagarto, both in Brazil.

The green seed capsules and leaves are attacked by the tortricids
Olethreutes leucotreta (Meyr.) in Uganda and the Italian Somaliland and
Eccopsis wahlbergiana Zell. in the Italian Somaliland, Adoxophyes privatana
(Walk.) in Taiwan, and Cacoecia rosana (L.) in the North Caucasus.

Leaves are attacked by an unidentified geometrid in Cuba and by
Thalassodes digressa (Walk.) in the Italian Somaliland.

Gelechiid leaf miners: Gracilaria sp. causes considerable injury in
Egypt, Acrocercops conflua Meyr. in the Italian Somaliland, and A. serriform-
is Meyr. in Java.

A cossid borer, Xyleutes capensis (Walk.), tunnels the stems in
Zanzibar, and a species which is thought to be the same caused a great deal
of damage to the older trees in Tanganyika, Natal, and Nyasaland. Zeuzera
coffeae Niet. causes some injury in Taiwan.








The following mirr.scellaneous Lepidoptera are minor pests: Plutella
maculipennis (Curt.) in North Caucasus; Depressaria ricinella Strand in
India; Syntomoides imaon (Cram.) in Ceylon; Clania crameri (Westw.) in
India; C. variegata formosicola Strand and Stathmcpoda theories Meyr. in
Formosa; Emesis mandana (Cram.) in Lagarto, Brazil; Zebronia phenice (Cram.)
in Uganda; Nudaurelia wahlbergii (Boisd.) in Natal and Tanganyika; and N.
dione (F.) in Uganda.

Several insects in the order Hemiptera have been recorded as very in-
jurious to the castor-bean plant.

Nezara viridula (L.) seems to be the most injurious. It has been
recorded from Nyasaland, Egypt, and Costa Rica. An unpublished tote from
C. H. Ballou stated that he observed the insect feeding in Venezuela in 1938.
Plant quarantine inspectors intercepted the insect coming into the United
States from Mexico. N. robusta Dist. attacks the plant in Nyasaland.

Acrosternum pallidoconspersa (Stal) causes considerable injury in the
Italian Somaliland and in Madagascar. A. marginatum (Beauv.) injures the
plant in Costa Rica.

Minor pests include the pentatomids Chrysocoris stolli (Wolff.) and
C. abdominalis (Westw.) in the Malay Peninsula, Edessa cornuta Burm. in
Costa Rica, and Dalpada smaragdina (Walk.) and Erthesina full (Thunb.)
in Taiwan.

The lacebug Corythucha gosyp (F.) has been recorded as of economic
importance in several of the West Indian Islands, i. e., Puerto Rico, Cuba,
Virgin Islands, St. Vincent, Antigua, Grenada, Trinidad, and also in Mexico,
Costa Rica, and India. It was observed by C. H. Ballou in Venezuela in 1938.
Corythaica monacha (Stal) occurs in Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, and Garg-
aphia lunulata (Mayr) in Minas Geraes, Brazil.

Injurious mirids include Poecilcscytus cognatus Fieb., which causes a
great deal of damage in the North Caucasus, and Adelphocoris lineolatus
(Goeze), which is also widely distributed in the North Caucasus, although
the damage is negligible; Hel.cpeltis bergrothi Reut. and Eurystylus kivuensis
Schouteden in the Belgian Congo; and Platytylellus atripennis (Reut.), which
is numerous in Cuba, although the damage is light. An undetermined mirid was
swept from the plant in Costa Rica.

A coreid, Hypselonotus atratus Dist., has been reported from Costa
Rica. A pyrrhocorid, Eurygphthalmus !ic.gcus (H.-S.), was observed by C. H.
Ballou in Venezuela in 1938.

Several leafhoppers in the genus Empoasca are recorded as feeding on
the castor-bean plant. E. flavescens (F.) sometimes appears in swarms in
India and Egypt, and when the castor-bean plants are young, the leafhoppers
suck the juices of the plants to.such an extent that the plants fade, curl,






-7-


and eventually die. The species is distributed throughout the southern part
of the peninsula of India, in Ceylon, and in the Malay Peninsula. E. faci-
alis (Jac.) sometimes causes considerable injury in the Niger Valley of
Africa and in the Italian Somaliland and the Khartoum district of the Anglo-
Egyptian Sudan. E. notata Mel. occasionally causes injury in India, although
it is not usually destructive to the plant grown as a field crop. E. formo-
sana Paoli has been recorded from Taiwan. E. solana DeLong causes a disease
of the plant in Hawaii.

Cicadella areolata (Sign.) and Diedrocephala limbaticollis (Stal) were
swept from the foliage in Costa Rica. Undetermined leafhoppers are recorded
as abundant in the Khartoum district of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and Tangan-
yika.

The treehoppers Entylia sinuata (F.), Spongophorus ballista (Germ.),
and Micrutalis sp. were swept from the foliage in Costa Rica.

The fulgorids Dictyophora florens (Stal) and Colpoptera sinuata
(Burm.) were swept from the foliage in Costa Rica, and Ormenis quadripunctata
(F.), are recorded from Puerto Rico.

Aphids are recorded as being attracted to the plant in India. Myzus
persicae (Sulz.) is recorded from the plant by Wilson and Vickery, in Aphid-
idae of the World, 1918, without reference to locality. This species was
recorded in the North Caucasus in 1927 and 1928, although it caused no notice-
able damage. M. ornatus Laing was intercepted coming from England, on leaves
of castor.

A whitefly, Trialeurodes ricini (Misra), is common in India. It
sometimes occurs by the thousands on the under surface of the leaves,
especially on well-grown plants. It gives entire fields an ashy-white
appearance. A species of Trialeurodes occurs in Siam. An undetermined
aleyrodid, similar to Bemisia gossypiperda Misra & Lamba, which attacks
cotton in the Punjab and in the Sudan, is often present in Iraq, especially
where the cotton is overshadowed by the castor plant.

Scale insects are rarely found to be injurious. Saissetia nigr
(Niet.) is the most common in India, but it seldom causes much damage.
It has also been recorded from the Virgin Islands and the Seychelles Islands.
S. hemisphaerica (Targ.) has been recorded from the Virgin Islands and the
Canary Islands. S. oleae (Bern.) has been recorded from the Virgin Islands.

Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) has been recorded from Rio Grande do Sul,
Brazil, from Egypt, and from Palestine, and A. orientalis (Newst.) from
southern India and the Italian Somaliland.

Aspidiotus destructor Sign. has been recorded from Zanzibar, the
Italian Somaliland, and Cuba, and A. hederae (Vallot) from Syria, Palestine,
Rhodes, Portugal, Algeria, and Morocco. A. lataniae Sign. occurs in small
numbers in Egypt.

SBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD






-8-


Aulacaspis pentagona (Targ.) occurs in several of the West Indies,
includit.i Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, and in Bermuda, Canal Zone,
Parana in Brazil, Ceylon, and South Africa.

Pinnaspis minor (Mask.) is moderately injurious in Cuba, Bahia in
Brazil, the Piura Valley of Peru, and the Seychelles Islands. P. aspidistrae
gossypii (Newst.) has been recorded from the Belgian Congo.

The following miscellaneous scale insects have been recorded: Pulvin-
aria grabhami Ckll., in the Seychelles Islands; P. floccifera (Westw.), oc-
casionally observed on leaves in Egypt; Ceroplastes rusci (L.), in Morocco;
Coccus hesperidum L., in Bermuda and Morocco; Chionaspis citri Comst., in
British Guiana; Phenacaspis eugeniae (Mask.), in Australia; Lepidosaphes
ulmi (L.), in Egypt and Palestine; Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.), in Algeria;
Chrymphal:us dictygospermi (Morg.), in Cuba; Icerya purchase Mask., in
Spain, France, Italy, Morocco, Egypt, Palestine, Australia, and New Zealand;
I. a 2 'it-aca (Dougl.), in small numbers in Egypt; Lichtensia viburni
Sign., in DV"' and Cornwall in England; Pseudococcus adonidum (L.), in
Morocco; P. yirgatus (Ckll.), in India and the Philippines; P. filamentosus
(Cl'.l.), :.-.-..tines, though rarely, found in French Equatorial Africa; Phena-
coccus hirsutus frrcn, in Egypt; and Laccifer lacca (Kerr.), in Assam.

The following have been intercepted at the ports of entry in the
United States: Saissetia hemisphaerica (Targ.) from England and Germany;
S. oleae (Bern.) from Holland and Italy; Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Ckll.)
from Germany; Coccus hesperidum L. from England, France, Germany, Italy, and
Japan; Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) and Aspidiotus destructor Sign. from Co-
lombia; Aonidiella orientalis (Newst.) from China; Pseudococcus citri
(Risso) from Bermuda and England; P. maritimus (Ehrh.) from England; and P.
comstocki (Kuw.) from Japan.

The most destructive species belonging to the order of beetles is the
*- olytid Xyleborus fornicatus Eich. This insect injures the castor-bean
plant seriously by boring holes in the stems of the living plant. Because
of the economic importance of tea, that plant is considered the major food
plant, but the castor-bean is the true host plant; it is attacked in higher
altitudes than tea can be grown. Experiments were carried on in regard to
planting castor-beans in the tea plantations in India as a catch crop, but
it did not prove practical, as the insects established in early maturing
castor-beans, on emergence, fly back to the tea. The insect is widely
distributed in the southern peninsula of India, Ceylon, Bengal, and Java.

S!.-tALaio3eres seriatus Eich. has been recorded from the husks of the
seed in Bahia, Brazil. Phytorus dilatatus Jac. attacks the leaves in the
Malay P.r ... :ula and the Dutch East Indies.

The lelf beetles Nodonota irazuensis (Jac.), N. lateralis (Jac.),
and Cip^tl.L.lus trizonatus Suffr. have been recorded from Costa Rica, and
C. nigrocinctus Suffr. and Diabrotica graminea Baly from Puerto Rico. Podonta
daghestani.a Reitt. caused 2 percent injury in experimental plots in North
C I. -.- --.us, Moolepta bifasciata (Hornst.) occasionally becomes injurious in
the Philippines.






-9-


Flea beetles: Hermaophaga ruficollis (Lucas) injures the foliage of
young plants in India and Epitrix sp. causes similar injury in Cuba.

The scarabaeids Rhizotrogus aequinoctialis (Hbst.), Maladera holo-
sericea (Scop.), and Amphimallon solstitialis (L.) cause serious injury to
the castor-bean plant along with other oil-producing plants. Larvae feed on
the roots and adults feed on the leaves and seed capsules.

Larvae of Anomala egregia Gahan and A. plebeja (Oliv.) feed on the
roots of young plants in the Italian Somaliland.

Adults of Autoserica orientalis (Motsch.) attack the leaves in Man-
churia.

Adoretus sp. has been observed by J. C. Bridwell attacking the plant
in Hawaii.

Several curculionids injure the plant. Mecistocerus ricini Marshall
causes some damage in the United Provinces of India. Psallidium maxillosum
(F.) causes a great deal of injury by gnawing the seed capsules and the young
leaves in North Caucasus. Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) and Artipus sp. have
been recorded from foliage and Anchonus suillus (F.) from decayed wood of
castor-bean plants in Puerto Rico. Geraeus lentiginosus (Boh.), Lechriops
auritus (Schon.), and Hypocoeliodes sp. were swept from the foliage, and
Cleistolophus similis (Chevr.) was found feeding on the plant in Costa Rica.
Bothynoderes punctiventris (Germ.) feeds on the foliage in Rumania. Pycno-
dactylus mitis (Gerst.) occurs in the Italian Somaliland.

Wireworms including Agriotes spp., Selatosomus spp., and Melanotus
spp., damage seedlings in North Caucasus.

A blister beetle, Meloe proscarabeus L., attacks the seedlings in
North Caucasus, but causes very little injury.

The tenebrionids Opatrum sabulosum (L.), Gonocephalum pusillum (F.),
Platyscelis gages (Fisch.), Pedinus femoralis (L.), and Blaps sp. attack the
young plants in North Caucasus, causing considerable injury. P. femoralis
also ate the leaves of castor-beans in laboratory experiments carried on in
Stavropol, Russia.

The buprestids Sphenoptera arabica Gory and S. fulgens Gory were bred
from the woody stems of growing plants in the Khartoum district of the Anglo-
Egyptian Sudan, and S. ardens (Klug) causes the same type of injury in
Egypt. Vigorous plants are invaded and damaged.

A cerambycid, Dihammus rusticator (F.), has been recorded as being
distributed from the Malay Peninsula to Australia and the Philippine Islands
without a definite statement as to the locality where the castor-bean
plant is attacked, except in Java, where it causes considerable injury.






- 10 -


Mylabrids: Bruchus pruininus Horn deposits eggs in the seed capsules
in Hawaii, but the larvae can not survive in the plant; Zabrotes subfasciatus
(Boh.) lays eggs on the seeds in Germany, and the report indicates that the
larvae die upon eating the cotyledons; and Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) is not
able to survive in seeds, according to records made from examination of
samples of seed, husks, and sweepings from the floors of storehouses in
various parts of the Soviet Union.

The anthribid Misthosimella ricini Jordon destroys the ripening seed
in the Italian Somaliland.

Typhaea stercorea (L.) and Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.) occur in the
flowers in Italian Somaliland, but the insects live on waste vegetable matter
and are not partial to the castor-bean plant.

There are very few records in the literature of damage to castor-bean
plants by grasshoppers. The insects feed abundantly on the seedlings and
to some extent on older plants in Turkestan; they also attack the plant in
Australia. Chrotogonus trachypterus (Blanch.) occurs sporadically in the
plains and the lower slopes of the hills in India, causing considerable dam-
age when numerous. Cyrtacanthacris tatarica (L.) is injurious in southern
India and in the Italian Somaliland. Zonocerus elegans (Thunb.) is injurious
in Tanganyika.

Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.) causes serious injury in the Italian
Somaliland, but in Senegal, even when swarms were observed to damage a
variety of other plants, the castor-bean plants were not attacked. S. impleta
(Walk.) was swept from the plants in Costa Rica. Swarms of S. paranensis
(Burm.) sometimes attack the castor-bean plants along with other plants in
Venezuela.

The tettigonids Conocephalus cinereus Thunb. and Microcentrum sp.
were swept from the foliage and Syntechna tarasca (Sauss.) was observed
feeding in Costa Rica.

A big brown cricket, Brachytrupes portentosus (Licht.), feeds on
practically all plants in India; it fed on shoots and leaves of the castor-
bean in a laboratory there.

Thrips: Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood was originally described from
shoots of castor-beans and chilies in southern India. Anaphothrips alter-
nans (Bagn.) was collected from the leaves in Italian Somaliland. Reti-
thrips syriacus (Mayet) breeds in the foliage in Egypt. Parthenothrips
dracaenae (Heeger) was intercepted at a port of entry into the United States
on castor-bean from England.

Among the dipterous insect pests of castor-bean the following have
been recorded: Chaetodacus correctus Bezzi in India; Camptomyia ri$'Ci






- 11 -


Felt was originally described from dry castor-bean stems from India; Melana-
gromyza ricini de Meij. attacks seedlings in Java.

The larvae of an undetermined sawfly have been observed feeding in
Costa Rica.

Termites cause serious injury in India.

Ants, Formica rufibarbis F., F. cinerea Mayr, Lasius niger aliena
(Foerst. ) and Tetramorium caespitum (L.), taken together, d: ri-ged 17 percent
of the plants in experimental plots in North Caucasus.

The common red spider, Tetranychus telarius (L.), is a serious pest
of the plant in Cuba and India and has been recorded, with no statement as
to the severity of the damage, in Java, Formosa, Iraq, Palestine, the Khar-
toum district of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and Egypt. T. telarius russeolus
Koch causes considerable injury in Sicily. T. bioculatus Wood-Mason occurs
in India and An chus orientalis Zacher in Palestine. An undetermined red
spider mite causes 5ome damage in Costa Rica. Bryobia sp. has been observed
on the plant in Cairo, Egypt.

Insects Attacking the Castor-bean in the United States

The outstanding record of damage to the castor-bean by an insect in
the United States was the outbreak of the southern armyworm, Prodenia eridania
(Cram.), in Florida in 1918. The insect appeared suddenly and threatened
the new industry. Extensive plantations were defoliated. The Bureau of
Entomology and the entomological agencies of the State of Florida cooperated
with growers in combating the insect, and the losses were checked. The in-
sect was also observed in southern Georgia during the season. Prodenia
ornithogalli Guen. and P. dolichos (F.) were found in association with
P. eridania (Cram.) in Florida, and P. ornithogalli was also taken in south-
ern Georgia.

Heliothis obsoleta (F.) was fairly common in Florida. It fed on the
green fruit chiefly, although it was sometimes found feeding on the leaves.
It also occurred in southern Georgia. The insect has been previously re-
corded from the plant in the United States. Heliothis virescens (F.) was
taken in Florida.

Laphygma frugiperda (A. & S.) caused considerable injury in Florida
late in the season of 1918. Damage was reported from other places in the
South, without definite location or amount of damage. L. exigua (Hbn.) at-
tacked the leaves in the Sacrav,*nto Valley in 1918, when the castor-bean was
extensively planted in California.

An unidentified cutworm attacked the seedlings in northern California
in 1918.






12 -

Two noctuid caterprillars, Amyna octo (Guen.) and Monodes nucicolora
Guen., were observed feeding in southern Florida in 1918.

Papaipema nebris nitela (Guen.) was reported from West Virginia in
1922.

PEyroderces rileyi (Wism.) caused considerable damage in Florida in
1918. A pink caterpillar, probably this species, has been recorded from
Cuba.

Hemerocampa leucostigma (A. & S.) was recorded from the plant in the
United States without reference to locality.

Two limacodids: Megalopyge 2percularis (A. & S.) was recorded from
Florida, and Sibine stimulea (Clem.) was recorded from Florida and reported
as completely destroying an ornamental planting in Washington, D, C.

Callarctia phyllira (Drury) was taken in Florida...

The sphingiids Celerio lineata (F.) and Erinnyis ello (L.) were
collected late in the season of 1918 in Florida.

An unidentified deltoid caterpillar was found feeding in Florida.

The lacebug Corythucha gossypii (F.) caused considerable injury in
Florida.

The pentatomid Acrosternum hilare (Say) was recorded from northern Florida.

Euschistus servus (Say) was collected on the plant and believed to
be feeding on it. .

Nezara viridula (L.) caused considerable damage over a wide area in
Florida in 1918.

The leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harr.) caused some injury in Florida
in 1921,

An unidentified green aphid was observed in Florida.

Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) was recorded from Texas and Californiz
and Aonidiella citrina (Coq.) was identified from specimens from Texas.

Aonidiella orientalis (Newst.) has been recorded from Florida.

Pinnaspis minor (Mask.) was taken in Florida.

Icerya purchase Mask. was taken in Florida and California.

Pseudonoccus citri (Risso) was identified from material collected
from a greenhouse in Ohio.






- 13 -


A mealybug, Pseudococcus sp., was observed in Florida.

The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newm., has been recorded
from Pennsylvania and New Jersey.

Blapstinus sp. caused considerable injury in southern California in
1918.

An adult of Araecerus fasciculatus (Deg.) emerged from a castor-bean
seed collected in Texas. This insect has been intercepted in the United
States in seed from Brazil.

A dermestid, Trogoderma tarsale Melsh., has been found living in
castor-bean seeds in the United States.

The lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera (Beauv.), has been record-
ed in Florida, and Brachystola magna (Gir.) was reported as causing con-
siderable injury in Texas.

Schistocerca americana (Drury) caused considerable injury in the
Everglades district of Florida, and this species, together with S. alutacea
(Harr.), was common throughout the State all summer.

The following miscellaneous Orthoptera have been collected in Florida:
Chortophaga australior R. & H., Conocephalus fasciatus (Deg.), Phaneroptera
sp., Scirtetica marmorata picta (Scudd.), Orocharis saltator Uhl., and
Odontoxiphidium apterum Morse.

The thrips Gnaikothrips uzeli Zimm. was found feeding in small
numbers in Florida and Thrips nigropilosus Uzel was taken in a greenhouse in
New York.

Tetranychus quinquenychus McG. attacked the plant in Florida






- 14-


INDEX OF INSECTS OF THE CASTOR-BEAN


Page
A c a r i n a ............................................................................................. .. 1 1
A c r id i d a e ...................................................... .......... ............... ... .......... 2 ,1 0
Acrocercops conflua Meyr .............................................................. 5
Acrocercops serriformis Meyr ..................................................... 5
Acrosternum hilare (Say) ............................................................. ... 12
Acrosternum marginatum (Beauv.) .................................................... 6
Acrosternum pallidoconspersa (Stl)...................... ................. 6
Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze ................................................. 6
A d o re tu s sp .... ................................. ..... ................. ...... ..................... 9
Adoxophyes privatana (Walk .) ....................................................... 5
Agriotes spp ................... ....................... ...... ........ ........ ............, 9
A ley rod id a e ......................................................................................... 7
Aloa lactinea (Cram .) .............. ........................................... 5
A ltha n iv ea Wa lk .............................................................................. 5
Amphimallon solstitialis (L .) ......................... ............................ 9
Amsacta albistriga (Walk .) ................................ ....................... 5
Amyna octo (Guen.) ........................ ...................................... ......... 12
Anaphothrips alternans (Bagn.) ........................ .......................... 10
Anchonus su illus (F .) ..................................................................... 9
Anomala egregia Gahan...................................................................... 9
Anomala plebeja (Oliv .) ................................................................. 9
Antarctia fusca (Walk,) ........................................ ................... 5
Anychus orientalis Zacher................................................ ............. 11
Aonidiel.la aurantii (Mask .) .......................................................... 7,8,12
Aonidiella citrina (Coq .) .............................................................. 12
Aonidiella orientalis (Newst.) ............................ ........ 7,8,12
A p h id id a e ... ............... ..................... ..... ...................... .............. ..... .. 7 ,12
SAraecerus fasciculatus (Deg.) ...................................................... 13
A rtipu s sp ..... .... ... ...................................................... ................. 9
Aspidiotus destructor Sign ........................................................ .. 7,8
Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot) ......................................................... 7
Aspidiotus lataniae Sign. ..................................... ............. 7
Aulacaspis pentagon (Targ.) ................................................... 8
Automeris complicate (Walk.) ....................... ............................. 5
Automeris zozine Druce................................................................... 5
Autoserica orientalis (Motsch.) ................................................. 2,9


Ba rath ra b rassicae (L .) ................................................... ........... 3
Bemisia gossypiperda Misra & Lamba........................................ 7
B l a p s s p ....... ................................................................ .................... 9
Blapstinus sp .... ....................................... ................... ....... 13
Bothynoderes punctiventris (Germ.) ................... ..................... 2,9
Brachystola magna (Gir.) ................................................................ 13
Brachytrupes portentosus (Licht.) .............................................. 10
Bruchus pruininus Horn.................................................................... 10
B ry o b i a s p .... .... ........... ..... .. .. .. .. .. ... ............. .. ... ... .. .. ......... ......... 1 1




15 -
Page
Cacoecia rosana (L .) ........................................................................ 5
Callarctia phyllira (Drury).......................................................... 12
Camptomyia ricini Felt.................................................................... 10
Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.) .......................................................... 10
Celerio lineata (F .) ........................................................................ 12
Ceroplastes rusci (L .) ................................................................... 8
Chaetodacus correctus Bezzi.......................................................... 10
Chionaspis citri Comst .................................................................. 8
Chortophaga australior R. & H ................................................... 13
Chrotogonus trachypterus (Blanch.) ............................................ 10
Chrysocoris abdominalis (Westw.) ............................................... 6
Chrysocoris stolli (Wolff.) ........................................................ 6
Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) ........................................................... 8
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morg) ....................................... 8
Cicadella areolata (Sign.) ........................................................... 7
Cicadellidae..................................................................................... 7
Clania crameri (Westw .) .......................................................... .... 6
Clania variegata formosicola Strand......................................... 6
Cleistolophus similis (Chevr.) ................................................... 9
Coccus hesperidum L ......................................................................... 8
Colpoptera sinuata (Burm.) .......................................................... 7
Conocephalus cinereus Thunb......................................................... 10
Conocephalus fasciatus (Deg.) ...................................................... 13
Corythaica monacha (Stal) ............................................................. 6
Corythucha gossypii (F .) ................................................................ 6 ,12
Crytoblabes gnidiella (Mill.) ..................................................... 4
Cryptocephalus nigrocinctus Suffr............................................ 8
Cryptocephalus trizonatus Suffr................................................ 8
Cyrtacanthacris tatarica (L.) ...................................................... 10


Dalpada smaragdina (Walk.) .......................................................... 6
Dasychira mendosa (Hbn.) ............................................................... 4
D e l t o id a e .............................................. ........................ ......... ..... .......... 6
Depressaria ricinella Strand....................................................... 6
Diabrotica graminea Baly................................................................ 8
Diacrisia obliqua (Walk .) ............................................................. 5
Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) ........................................................... 9
Dichocrocis punctiferalis (Guen.) ............................................. 3
Dictyophora florens (Stal) ........................................................... 7
Diedrocephala limbaticollis (Stal)............................................ 7
Dihammus rusticator (F .) ............................................................... 9


Eccopsis wahlbergiana Zell ........................................................ 5
Edessa cornuta Burm ........................................................................ 6
Emesis mandana (Cram .) ................................................................... 6
Empoasca fabae (Harr.) .................................................................... 12
Empoasca facialis (Jac .) ............................................................... 7
Emipoasca flavescens (F.) ......................................................... 6




Ib Pg
Page
Empoasca formosana Paoli................................................................ 7
Empoasca notata Mel ......................................................................... 7
Empoasca solana DeLong.................................................................... 7
Entylia sinuata (F .) ....................................................................... 7
Ephestia kuehniella Zell ........................................................... 4
Epitrix sp .... ............ ... .... ................ ............... ........ ............ 9
Ergolis merione (Cram.) ................................................................ 4
Ergolis merione taprobana Dbldy. & Westw ............................... 4
E rinnyis ello (L .) .......... ..)................. ......... ................................ 12
Erthesina fullo (Thunb .) ............................................................... 6
Eublemma brachygonia Hmps ......................................................... 3
Euproctis convergens B Bak ........................................................ 4
Eup roctis flava (F .) ....................................................................... 4
Euproctis fraterna (Moore) ........................................................... 4
Euproctis lunata Walk ...................................................... ........ 4
Euproctis product Walk ................................................ ............ 4
Euproctis scintillans (Walk.) .......... ....................................... 4
E u p ro c t is sp p ......................................... ..... ...... .............. ............... 4
Euproctis taiwana (Shiraki) .............. ...................................... 4
Euryophthalmus cinctus (H.-S.) .................................. 6
Eurystylus kivuensis Schouteden................................................. 6
Eurytela dryope (Cram .) ................................................................. 4
Euschistus servus (Say ) .................................................................. 12
Euxoa segetum (Schiff.) ................................................................. 3


Formica cinerea May r........................................................................ 11
Formica rufibarbis F ....... ............................................................ 11
F o rm ic id a e .................................................................................... ........ 2


Gargaphia lunulata (Mayr) ............................................................. 6
G e om e t r id a e ......................................................................................... 5
Geraeus lentiginosus (Boh .) .......................................................... 9
Gnaikothrips uzeli Zimm ................................................................. 13
Gonocephalum pusillum (F.) ,....................................................... 9
G ra c i la r ia sp ........... .................................... ............ ......................... 5
Grammodes geometrica (F.) ... .................................................... 3


Heliothis dipsacea (L .) ................................................................ 3
Heliothis obsoleta (F .) .................................................................. 3 11
Heliothis peltigera (Schiff.) ................................................... 3
H e l io th is sp ................................................. .................................. 3
Heliothis virescens (F .) ................................................................ 11
Helopeltis bergrothi Reut ........................................................... 6
Hemerocampa leucostigma (A. & S.) ............................................. 12
Hermaophaga ruficollis (Lucas) ................................................... 9
Hylesia lilex Dognin........................................................................ 5
Hyp ocoeliodes sp ............................................................................... 9
Hypselonotus atratus Dist ..................................... ................. 6


Icerya aegyptiaca (Dougl.) ........................,......... ................... 8
Icerya purchase Mask .................................................................. 8 12
I s o p t e ra ....... ... .. .............................................................................. 1 1
J




-17-
Page
Laccifer lacca (Kerr .) ................................................................... 8
Laphygma exigua (Hbn .) ................................................................... 3
Laphygma frugiperda (A. & S.)...................................................... 11
Lasius niger aliena (Foerst.) ................................................... 11
Lechriops auritus (Schbn .) ........................................................... 9
Lepidosaphes ulmi (L.) .......... ................................ ...... 8
Lichnoptera cavillator (Walk.) ................................................... 5
Lichtensia viburni Sign ................................................................. 8
Loxostege sticticalis (L .) ........................................................... 4


Maladera holosericea (Scop.) ....................................................... 2, 9
Mecistocerus ricini Marshall....................................................... 9
Megalopyge opercularis (A. & S.) ................................................ 12
Melanagromyza ricini De Meij ....................................................... 11
M elanotu s spp ..................................... ............................................. 9
Meloe proscarabeus L .......................... ..................................... 9
M icrocentrum sp ................................................................................. 10
M icru talis sp .................................................................................... 7
M i r id a e ....................................................... ......... ...................... ........... 6
Misthosimella ricini Jordon.......................................................... 10
Monodes nucicolora Guen ................................................................. 12
Monolepta bifasciata (Hornst.) ................................................... 8
Myzus ornatus Laing.......................................................................... 7
Myzus persicae (Sulz .) ............... ...................... ......................... 7


Nemeta lohor (Moore ) ............................... ..................................... 5
Nezara robusta D ist ......................................................................... 6
Nezara viridula (L .) .............................. ................................... 6 12
N o c tu id a e ............................................................................................. 3 1 1 12
Nodonota irazuensis (Jac. ........................................................... 8
Nodonota lateralis (Jac.) ............................................................. 8
Notolophus georgianus (Faw.)............................... ..................... 4
Notolophus posticus (Walk.) .......................................................... 4
Nudaurelia dione (F.) ........................................... 6
Nudaurelia wahlbergii (Boisd.) ................................................... 6


Odontoxiphidium apterum Morse.... ............................................13
Olethreutes leucotreta (Meyr.) ................................................... 5
Opatrum sabulosum (L .) ................................................................... 9
Ophiusa algira (L .) ............. ... ......................................... 3
Ophiusa arctotaenia Guen .............................................................. 3
Ophiusa catella (Guen .) ................................................................. 3
Ophiusa janata (L .) .......................................................................... 2-3
Ophiusa melicerta (Drury)
See 0. janata.
Ormenis quadripunctata (F.) ......................................................... 7
Orocharis saltator Uhl ................................................................... 13
Ozarba brunnea (Leech) ................................ ...... ....................... 3




-18-
Page
Papaipema nebris nitela (Guen.) .................................................. 12
Parasa consocia Walk ............................. ...................................... 4
Parasa herbifera (Walk .).............................................................. 4
Parasa lep ida (Cram .). ..................................................................... 4
Parasa sp .................. ..... ................ ...................... ... ............ 4
Parasa v ivida (Walk .) ....................................................................... 4
Parthenothrips dracaenae (Heeger)............................................. 10
Pedinus femoralis (L.) ........................................................ ...... 9
Pericallia ricini (F .) ................................................................... 5
Phaneroptera sp ............... ....................................... .. .............. 13
Phenacaspis eugeniae (Mask .) ....................................................... 8
Phenacoccus hirsutus Green............................................................ 8
Philosamia cynthia (Drury) ......................... ................. ................ 5
Philosamia ricini (Hutt .) ............................................................. 5
Phobetron hipparchia (Cram.) ............................................... 5
Phycita diaphana (Stgr.) ............................................. ............ 3
Phycita poteriella Zell ................................................................ 4
Phytorus dilatatus Jac ................................................................- 8
Pinnaspis aspidistrae gossypii (Newst.) ............................... 8
Pinnaspis minor (Mask.) .............................................. .................. 8, 12
Platyscelis gages (Fisch.) ............................................................ 9
Platytylellus atripennis (Reut.) ............................................. 6
Plusia gamma (L .) .. .......... ................. ........................ ....... 3
Plutella maculipennis (Curt.) ..................................................... 6
Podonta daghestanica Reitt ....................................................... 8
Poeciloscytus oognatus Fieb ........................................................ 6
Popillia japonica Newm .................................................................. 13
Prodenia dolichos (F.) ............................................................. ......11
Prodenia eridania (Cram.) ...................................................... 3, 11
Prodenia littoralis (Boisd .) ....................................................... 3
Prodenia ornithogalli Guen ........................................................... 11
Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Okll.) ...................................... 8
Psallidium maxillosum (F.) ........................................................... 9
Pseudococcus adonidum (L .) .............................................. ......... 8
Pseudococcus citri (Risso) ......................................................... 8, 12
Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuw.) ..................................................... 8
Pseudococcus filamentosus (Ckll.) ............................................. 8
Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrh.) .................................................. 8
Pseudocoocus sp ............................. ................. .................... 13
Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.) ..................................................... 8
Pseudodura dasychiroides Strand................................................ 4
Pulvinaria floccifera (Westw.) ................................................ 8
Pulvinaria grabhami Ckll ............................................................. 8
Pycnodactylus mitis (Gerst.) .................................................... 9
P y ra l id id ...... ... .......... ........................................... .. ......... ...... 4
Pyroderces rileyi (Wism .) .............................................................. 12


Retithrips syriacus (Mayet) .......................................................... 10
Rhizotrogus aequinoctialis (Hbst.) ............................................ 9
Romalea wicroptera (Beauv.).................................................... 13
Rothschidia aurota (Cram.) ......................................................... 5


Saissetia hemisphaericp (Targ.) ........ ...................................... 7, 8
Saissetia nigra- Niet ............................ ........ ............................ 7




- 19 -


Page
Saissetia oleae (Bern.) .......................................... ..................... 7,8
Schistocerca alutacea (Harr.) ..................................................... 13
Schistocerca americana (Drury).................................................... 13
Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.) ................................ ................... 10
Schistocerca impleta (Walk.) ...................................................... 10
Schistocerca paranensis (Burm.) .................................................. 10
Scirtetica marmorata picta (Scudd.) .......................................... 13
Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood............................................................ 10
Scotogramma trifolii (Rott.) ........................................................ 3
Selatosomus spp ................................................................................ 9
Sibine ophelians Dyar ..................................................................... 5
Sibine stimulea (Clem .) .................................................................. 12
Sphenoptera arabica Gory.............................................................. 9
Sphenoptera ardens (Klug) ........................................................... 9
Sphenoptera fulgens Gory.............................................................. 9
Sphongophorus ballista (Germ.) .................................................. 7
Spilosoma investigatorum Karsch............................................... 5
Statmopoda theories Meyr ................ ............................................... 6
Stephanoderes seriatus Eich ........................................................ 8
Syntechna tarasca (Sauss.) ............................................................ 10
Syntomoides imaon (Cram.) .......................................................... 6


Tenthredinidae.................................................................................... 11
Tetramorium caespitum (L.) ........................................................... 11
Tetranychus bioculatus Wood-Mason.............................................. 11
Tetranychus quinquenychus McG ..................................................... 13
Tetranychus sp ................................................................................... 11
Tetranychus telarius (L.) ............................................................. 11
Tetranychus telarius russeolus Koch......................................... 11
Thalassodes digressa (Walk.) ...................................................... 5
Thosea cana (Walk .) ......................................................................... 5
Thosea sinensis (Walk .). ............................................................... 5
Thrips nigropilosus Uzel................................................................ 13
Tiracola plagiata (Walk .) ............................................................. 3
Tirathaba rufivena (Walk.) .......................................................... 4
Trabala vishnon Lef ........................................................................ 5
Trialeurodes ricini (Misra).......................................................... 7
T rialeu rodes sp ................................................................................. 7
Tribolium castaneum Hbst ............................................................... 10
Trogoderma tarsale Melsh ............................................................... 13
Typhaea stercorea (L.) .................................................................... 10


Vanessa cardui (L .) ..................................................................... 4


Xyleborus fornicatus Eich............................................................ 8
Xyleutes capensis (Walk.) ............................................................. 5


Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) ........................................................ 10
Zebronia phenice (Cram.) .............................................................. 6
Zeuzera coffeae Niet .............. ........................................................ 5
Zonocerus elegans (Thunb.) .................................. .. 10




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