P NT Issued September 1936
ST3 Revised June 1942
united States Department of Agriculture
reau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
In cooperation with
ie Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
ILFUR DIPS FOR THE CONTROL OF GOAT LICE
0. G. Babcock, Assistant Entomologist,
siQn of Insects Affecting Man and Animals
)at industry in the United States has developed to such im-
inception in 1849 that anything seriously affecting its
would receive the attention of everyone interested in this
l s in excess of ten million dollars per annum.
iomic importance that the goats he kept free from lice, as
value on account of lousy and tangled mohair runs at least
The loss in body weight of undipped animals during the
id crop is considerable. The loss of kid hair, which has a
lue than hair from the adult goats, is very heavy, Usually
Lightly to grossly infested with lice. It has been observed
nt of the kids in the average lousy flock are stunted in
ped in their struggle for life. Infested goats are con-
y the lice. In heavy infestations the skin thickens and
:e, and often scaly.
SPECIES OF LICE
States there are at least five species of goat lice, ali
collected from Angora and milk goats. Two of these are
e known a lue goat lice. 1/ The other three species have
.nd chew teir foo,. The largest of the latter is known as
r goat louse.2/ The other two species are the red goat
the arseni dip h been largely used for control of
-creosote dips andtoacco or nicotine dips have alsobeen
however, have objectionable features. The arsenical dip
)le arsenic and there is more or less danger of poisoning
)psis (Burmeister) and L. africanus Kellogg and Paine.
the animals when using it. The writer's experience with coal-tar-creosote dips
has been that there is difficulty in getting a proper mixture with hard water,
and the mohair is frequently stained and left in bad condition. In using
nicotine dips he has not found them dependable at a strength of 0.7 percent
nicotine and considers a higher nicotine content distinctly dangerous. The
hot dip containing 0.07 percent nicotine is especially dangerous.
In an attempt to develop a safe and efficient dip without the objection-
able features of the older dips, the writer has tested many chemicals at the
Texas Agricultural Experiment Substation No. 14 at Sonora during a period of
several years. The insecticides which gave the best results in these trials
have also been tested on a larger scale under ranch conditions.
During recent years so much improvement has been made in the grinding of
sulfur that it was thought advisable to carry on further investigations of its
insecticidal value. The coarsely ground sulfurs of 80 to 100 mesh screen test
did not give satisfactory results. Finely ground sulfur, i.e., 98 to 100 per-
cent passing a 325-mesh screen, gave excellent results and is recommended for
goat louse control. Likewise flotation sulfur, prepared by the liquid purifi-
cation process, when further purified of the traces of iron and arsenic
sulfide left by its manufacture, gave equally good results and is likewise
Finely ground sulfur with a wetting material added can now be obtained
on the market in powdered form known as "wettable sulfur." This product is
much more satisfactory for dipping purposes than those forms of sulfur which do
not mix readily with water. Wettable flotation sulfur is also on the market.
z The recommended dip for effective control, using either of the above
Wettable sulfur........................................... 10 pounds.
Water ................ ...................1 00 gallons.
Two dippings with an 11-day interval are recommended. It must be borne
in mind, however, that no dip can be depended upon to eradicate lice from a
flock of goats unless every goat in the flock is carefully and thoroughly
dipped. For this reason, whenever dipping is undertaken, it is absolutely
necessary that one pasture be cleared of all goats before dipping starts. The
freshly dipped goats should be turned into this pasture and all other pastures
should be searched regularly for strays until time for the second dipping.
Following the second dipping the same precautions should be taken. All un-
dipped goats found should be dipped as soon as possible. A single lousy goat
or a stray that has passed through the fence line may, in 6 to 9 mouths, re-
infest the entire flock. Reinfestation may also take place along the fence
line. This is especially likely to happen during the goat-breeding season
It can be seen that a county or statewide clean-up would be beset with
difficulties, but it is believed that such an undertaking is worth while and
is not beyond the possibility of success if sufficient diligence is exercised.
The long-type dipping vats are already installed on many ranches, where
they have been used for dipping sheep and cattle. In such cases a change is
not advised. However, the writer has found that a round vat, with an inclined
exit, a draining pen, and a vat gate, has proved very satisfactory and in many
respects superior to the long type for dipping goats or sheep. When the gate
is located at the exit the animals swim in circles and crosswise in the vat,
never piling up and drowning an animal, as may happen in a long vat. Such dif-
ficulties and losses are likely to occur when kids and nannies are dipped to-
gether in a long vat. The round vat is designed primarily for the average
flock of goats, ranging from 500 to 2,000. A round vat 5 feet deep and 5 feet
in diameter, with an inclined exit 24 inches wide and 100 inches long, will
hold a little over 1,000 gallons of dip. Several of these vats are now in
use in Texas and some are being built in New Mexico.
If a long-type vat is used, a gate should be placed near the exit so
that all animals can be held in the dip for a sufficient length of time to as-
sure having their heads as well as their bodies thoroughly soaked.
Fill the vat to the top if it is of the round type with concrete sloping
dipping pen, and within 6 to 10 inches of the top if it does not have a con-
crete sloping pen draining into the vat, Stir the dip from the bottom just
before starting the animals into the vat. Regardless of the type of vat used,
each animal should be entirely submerged at least four times either by the use
of dipping hooks or by hand. All animals should be left in the vat not less
than one-half minute after the last one has been ducked the fourth time. Us-
ually from 3 to 8 animals may be dipped at the same time. The ordinary long-
type vat will hold many more goats than this, but it is not advisable to fill
it to capacity on account of the danger incident to the crowding together of
the goats at the exit end. If dipping is discontinued even for a short time
before the entire flock is dipped, the dip should be stirred again before
- dipping is resumed.
Care should be taken that the dip does not become too low in the vat
because of the amount carried out by the animals. Fresh dip should be added
when the height of the liquid becomes materially lowered. After all the goats
are dipped the vat should be emptied and cleaned out so that fresh dip may be
used for the second dipping.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 09223 0217
Animals suffering from heavy infestations of internal parasites or
very poor condition from other causes should not be dipped. Such animals sho
be isolated, put in strong condition, and treated for worms before being dipp
if losses are to be avoided.
If injuries and losses are to be avoided the animals should be hand
as quietly and carefully as possible. They should not be dipped when ov
heated or too soon after having been driven any considerable distance. 7
should not be thrown against the sides of the vat, or ducked repeatedly with
giving them a chance to breathe. Weak animals should be helped so that t
will not be held under the dip too long.
GOAT SCAB AND SHEEP LICE
' Preliminary experiments indicate that goat scab mites can be kil
satisfactorily by following the foregoing directions. While systematic dipp
of goats for louse control will likely control scab also, the use of sul
for the control of sheep and goat scab is not recommended in lieu of lime-z
fur or nicotine-sulfur dips at the present time.
Sheep lice are controlled by following the foregoing directions.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY
WASHINGTON- D. C.
PAYMENT OF POSTAGE,
STATE PLANT HOARD JF iJ.IDA
33 GAINESVILLE FLA