Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

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Material Information

Title:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Running title:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Research Administration
Annual reports of Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Physical Description:
v. : ; 22 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
annual

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1935-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: 1953.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note:
Title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030261108
oclc - 04300772
lccn - sn 86033745
Classification:
lcc - SB823 .A182
ddc - 632.906173
System ID:
AA00022935:00019

Related Items

Preceded by:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology

Full Text














REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE, 1940




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUITU RE, BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE, Vqhb igytow, D. ('., A vu t J1. 100.
Hon. HENRY A. WALLACE.
Secretary of A gricul ut t e.
DEAR MR. SECRETARY: I submit herewith a report of the work of the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine for the fiscal year ended
June 30. 1940.
Sincerely yours.
LEE A. STRONG, (i hef.


CONTENTS
Page Page Introduction ----------------------- I Eurolpeanl cornt borer inspection anii
Publications and editorial work ----- 2 cel tiic' tio --------------------Library --------------------------- 2 Barberry eradication ----- 61
Insect pest survey and information___ 3 Truck crop ard garden insect investiFruit ins ct investigations --------4 gations--------- ---------------- 6
Fruitfly investigations_ ------------- 12 Sweetpotato wevil control and eradiMexican fruitfly control------------ 12 nation ------------------------- 74
Japanese beetle quarantine a n d Cot on in se t investi rations ----------75
(ontrol ------------------------- 13 link bollworm control and quarantine
Control of peach mosaic and phony enfor ement--------------------- 82
peach diseases ----------------- 22 Thurberia weevil control ------------ 7
Citrus canker eradication ----------- 23 Bee culture -----------------------8
Insects affecting forest and shade Invstigations of insects affecting man
trees --------------------------- 23 and animals --------------------- 91
Gypsy and brown-tail moth control___ 28 Insect identification ---------------- t96
Gypsy and brown-tail nmoth quaran- Foreign parasite introduction -------- 97
tine enforcement- -------------- 37 Control investigations-------------- 101
Dutch elmn disease eradication ------- 39 Insecticide investigation_-------- 104
White-pine blister rust control ----- 44 Transit inspection ---------------- 111
Cereal and forage insect investiga- /Terminal inspection of mail shipments_ 112
tions --------------------------_ 50 Convictions and penalties imposed for
-White-fringed beetle control and eradi- violations of the Plant Quarantine
cation 5--------------- 37 Act ---------------------------- 112
Mormon cricket control------------- 58 Foreign plant quarantines ----------- 113
Grasshopper control --------- ------- 8 C(erlification for export -------------- 128
Chinch bug control----------------- 60 ;



INTRODUCTION

The organization of the Bureau activities remains practically unchanged. The eradication and control of plant pests have been continued under a program expanded by allocations of emergen cy relief
funds.
One of the outstanding events of the year in the work of the
Bureau o,f Entonmology and Plant Quara)tine is the c(1ompletion of a building in Hoboken, N. J., which is being used for inspecting importations of plants and plant products for propagation. This building was compnlleted in time so that the force from the old in0- 2 --40 1






2 ANN9.\I. IllI'tIT- F ) IEPI.\l1T.1ENT OF A iCCllI'LI i1E. 1940

Pect iOll lotlhe I I ail1gto*,. 1). ('., wa able to llove in alld .eomc e(t; abli j h n miul really for l miness as of thle last (of tlh fical year

T] l)p I t11 ( ltlaralt ille Wctl i out ill hW11- il VSIillto11111. D. C.. was 1 ,e ;iill,e in 19l :111 1 OVal w l'irillIlv ( Ph, ie! t, receive l ,lits

lie littlrea~i of Plant 11lut try. Effective August i 121. quaraRnti e No.:) il i(tt(, f) II'l f'b l l fot1i 1 lt1' of c ,iert:il i t pe.> Of 11 ,11)it to l itw 11p (wtt (,d ii.ler -peitI pe Illit. a1 iid 111l l l f 1 lVlli' 1t ti-t l'll 1,(oIf'[ o(f (iil l*V \el'v f frWvarde totlie W as-hill ,'toll 11iIwlect io li4)ii- ftl ex allllati oll fol' li t llt i(late lTit 11 Ju i(' 2i7. 19 (40. \ vle the f0000 1111(d eq(l 1)1en1 t vere transferred to t l1 IIiev illjPetitll ti ll 01-c
-it lichakeni.
The top. (r fourth. floor of tie lew building- ha been specially dcg Jlld alt eqlill )ed t(O >serve as a receiving >tiion in conctiei ln it I Ile ilItr'Odctiilol from foreiIll coliltlies palrasites Wvliich iny oyve of value iln the control of insect tests low ,ccurlll'rin illn the Unitedt States. No specially equipped facilities of this sort have been available e lt (tl(,f a1111 it llas )eei necessary ill the al-st to take calre if eachi '11 S )ii1elient slt byl the collctl'S ali)1',at ill tte )et man iii er p PUBLICATIONS AND EDITORIAL WORK
At t be begi1ii Of the yeal 1 9 I il9niclsripts Were i l1 1 ,il. 'i111( (lil'ill the year 481 were received. Illit it ll of 5t). ( )f tlee. S1 were w itli law wi. ) Were I)lI )isid 1)v the )elpart1ilt, aZn)l l.l"l7 Wel' ap im 1ed f )o l'ati011 illn mitside j Oiurlials. TIhere rei aine i o1 l11( ld at t ll ci 1f tile vear 220 ia scrilpt-. 172 Of w iich were iII the Ia u'eai. 27 ill the Office of Infor llatiion. a;md 21 at the (il vernillet Piui' O fl'e. ()f th1 e 172 ill the Butrea 9l5 were 11ei1 liiWe,1. or e1ditel for )1 Iblication by the 1)e lartment ali1 tle re111:1ililll 77 for piu liIat ii tt itde.
Tlhe 7;5 !publicatios of dte Bi1vti'ca is w 1)tli b the DepartnwIent illcl 1 le1 7 c1rc ii :a1 8. I fartters )nlletils. 7 l e1 4 i 1cel1I1w 1 lllical iwn1 1 pict ilre 'l et 5 service a1l( re. lal( 1 rv lll (ll l Ieli1, S echtlic-,11 bulletills. 5 altice s il i lie ,Jo1In1al o f Af rice lir0 e1:' 1. Ili c li il : 11) 1 1* ) 1

SLI BRARY
The lillia lbil ,arv r'v, ds 'fi' the yearit l w all 11'1'0a1-e of 10 per'e1t ill tlihe civ.tilat io, of biokis a:tl periomical-. Tliis ,prin~. at Ill'e r1 lue'-t of tll, lil, tria'lll of tile 1 e)P ar:I tllielt. th11e 'ir''ulla till of b,ik,l- a t j)periictl1a to t le field s ta tils alndl tlice's of tie \arint l urea as ;iaken Ver' bly tlhe Ilre lilfrarie' : a Ill1eiirall11111 (EQ .,106) alli th ree for1 ietters were i 1l C,,verlil p),,0e( tI'' for Ivl- B illall. have 11en 1111 0l t l
R 1ference Work for the Bureall8 lil:1lv diVISIOlls allli of c)( In1cr ,:se04 al reeli it l v : ti 1 liirlv is freC(ulentlv called o n 1 1io ec l' )ile
li1t 'sl,'ci l stlljvcts, e. 4.. t lc efct ,f ,f ,r ( il iliv't 11ll1rlri1ts0li lt i inse't tl ltrifs. an111 tree ba):llill. for jlset1 c t'llrd.
l lI ex VI to tie, L :it1erainure tf Anliericatn Ecto miric En toliial,~uv. 19:.9; i l s i !i t li i l li (. Will I l :1 ly I I w ll ili It Late iit 1940 ( fr early ii 1941 : 12 ither special indllexes have bleen





BIUREAU OF ENTOMOLO(vGY ANI) PLANT QUAILANTINE 3

kep)t up1) to date. and Entonmology ( current Literature ha- been i'-sed bimonthly.
The entomological exhibit in the patio of the ad(Ilniis tration building of the I)epartmlent ill April 1940 greatly stimulated p(o pular interest ill entomology, and the Bureau library lhas been consulted frequently ever sile b) high-school stu(enlts and hIl men seeking informat ioI. Visits to the library have not only furnished 1his infoim-atio bu)t have rivex'nI soute idea of tlie vast volume of literate re (1 iilees s aIt 1(I\ it co( lltents aire aeavailaIe through tlie libra ry.
Malai additions were nle to the Bureau collect ll of phtograplIs of entomologists.
INSECT PEST SURVEY AND INFORMATION
'The Insect, Pest Survey added to the l)erianent files oii the distribution and abundance of insects 21.000 notes on do iestic insects and 12.000 on foreign insects. bringing the total now available for tonlultation to 348.250. To the host-plant file there were a(lded a0 new genera and 100 new species, bringing the totals to 1.175 genera and
2.700 species.
The monthly Insect Pest Survey Bulletin was augmented by supplements on the alfalfa weevil (spread in 1939). clinch bulgs (populations in hibernation. November-December 1939). the European corn borer (status in 1939. colonization of parasites in 1939, estimates of dlanmae in 1,938 and 1939. and field status> of its parasites in the fall of 193s). grasslio pers speciess and listrib i ill the 1938 outbreak). the hessian flv (survey at harvest t tin ill 1)93). the J-lpanese beetle (colonizationii o its prasites in 193 an1 198 9) June beets ( populationn annd host preference: in southern Wistcosi in 3>) and inites (distribution and f(( fo-p)lant records of Parat.troiyh(n,9 (triI McG.. P. Ai cG.. P. pi//sw. (. anld F.. T, '.sqh.r p':;yicl Mc(G.. and T. telaritc s L.).
INt ety-oile articles oi entolnologica! and quaranitine subit j-Is w\ver, released to the press and 73 radio talks were lput oii the air. Prepration of film-strip material covered 3 new subjects. Two itew imotioi1 Ipictures. bot h of which are soun(i )pictures. Nwere compin)lete(lone on tile whlite-fringed beetle and one on termites. Tlie Burea,, participated ill 31 exhibits. oine of which was tlie above-nmtit i tled general exhibit of the u rea1i's activities held in tlhe I natio c;f th ad ministration building of the Department of A0,ricult r',. which attracted large 111111bers of iSitors all(d of t li)epartmllellt'S (11 piOyees aniI occasioned considerable press notice.
operativeie extension work in eltomology was su l erv sis(,'1 ) Iil by this Bureau alinl by the Office of C(oloperative 1'Extien sio Work.
welv e numbers of thle Biure's 11 Iotlvl News Letter. ciprl )Irill 422 pages. 1were issued.
Pul)lications to the number of 472.000 copies were dis Krib)tel. exclusive of those sent out on regular mail g lists an(l of inise('llaneous nime(ographeld material.
Orders for (lu11licat ing an(l photographic material. 2.,24 ill 1111111ber. were placed for 1.277.700 copies. Of these orlers.. 425 were for photognriplhi( work ill tile Bureall's laboratory a11 1( alled foIr






4 ANN 'A. 1 :1.; )~ l )F IL.P.\IlTI1 NT 01 A{l:1I'WI[ 'lItE, 1940

,n7 1 l if)l11111n a inl1 I 1pie 11lf t1 111 ll iii 1 I Ik il('l l til denera 1 ,'1t11 IfitIl' Ll Il0h 1. la 11 ali.lNil, aII a i srliti lt ve 1t i t. ruw'll rly-Aive 1llil 111 21_,"( li--t 'veP Il 111i1i tai l il I I i-i rIV l* orl.
To tl( fil, (of lhto ralhi prinlts ler the on st(dY (f this ldivi.()lo N were atltle 569 0 nw sutbje'-. A total ()f 1.~1 prints were (liil htll e(t,11 e ) ) *) itl (l t, tti l t)rkers, InIt: .zii le editors, W\ I 'vI' l, i ,lldll14'. ain) 10 )llo 1. 8 1 w I all

19 ijtt leret it .t 'jie ()f Pe olloiII 'll illipirt )l it 11- ('I t atn ,,ilil)Vly w itI rel ulist PI Illl- *(.i10 c .l1 11, Il ellli lls and ()thll' e l'atill iIstiliIt lllO 4 f 'r rlt 11I ili-cet -(1)4 1111'- AIthlmIzl tin' 'erie i- tIlt I, ('ticl I V III.)Olo l tIo tle geri al leh))li'. 1 4 1'1' ,lic,1 were (listri )uted to Ileet re(qllets.

FRUIT INSECT INV (;ESTITI ONS
APPLE AND PEAR INSECTS

f A I it l (f (wI k'llSt i ea l ig I' i Iignd 0 ,.~t0t(,e() e(l K( I ils. t) ) \;l 1 t. 1i i ai l at a lew abo't)() ito l, 8I)i],l 1e f Il I(.i

14 li 11 )d111 1-1t l t elit I1l01) 0 w 4lp1'- t l v th' I lover (1V -, i t'>iit,

iold. w fiu rll-in '. hlIcl Ilults thle filli :(ll< t11e i1 to of ao r ty. tIl ili-e't hals btl)ri repl(rted v ilt i 4 a n l, f llre(a iitrV -if e 19A34 Hl")ill Illlll1l'( ll ()l','l]l' d f ,)ll Sm ll ( 8'a(*i!la ft) (loi) nd11h ((1n1lectic t. Since, tlius far tlhe nse of insecticid(es agailn1t thlis imset hlas not beeln ne-f it] pecial attention is being give' l I ihia coll 1od. Ill 19 i'i ll i' l l~IIIlt \Vere 1ade t1o : 1) ilt ill flrol 1:i11 ( 'rtlill )' ilte' ki1l()\vl to tl e ill )()al' nt iin tilt iati a'il c(()oiti'l ()f ti he 1m'11 Ill ill 1 rient. Two Of t tese. I tl ()f ,t 1 t11 .th/rufulr, \Vt'V, iI c rtdI iIi hieailv iritfestedi oi'rl artls iII YrIiH i a. Wev- Viri ia,

Prv-el'i in t1,rI:t i 1 t of 1 l La EK t l State is le iil etr Ite ,l i zedl iIn S()ll If rml i Wil I it ia's al)l)aI v'elIt lv I, I a11 ) ( I i. Exl)('rill1t1 ailr :t t llder' \ wa\ witi thle ima lilbera0 tio of th e lalvbirdl beetle ( ,,,olam il /10hIt,/ ,i;'r; MI Ils.. lo'.s o)f \vlichI Ire IoVbtained frl()o ( o'alifli ia.
'Il1 (1are (ll t,1' s l) 1titl'te f (or lea(l a Pe tae for Colli )l ()f 1li1 111 i* 11 lt wa tli1 111ii el. A )))i)xi)l1~ :1 V 2# I lew on im li )(,o iids w re, -1v1 lal trarr tI"ies I '.1ti ,. lieflv at Blieltville. Xll. These iiilet svlit tl 41 1'ali :it 1:te Vi:ls as e :e I a 1 1 plait ext rails l (Most (l tie (mt)ll 01 1 tlo 'l le ittle ( l)i) toiXIt'it\ : a few. i cIlding (tX 'raets (f tl S)-alle l I l ller1(1 l' N-gi l 11 WiI, eei I 'li1 fllrfther 1ll i Wo)'k at Belt( ill l it I lated t lat 1111e h l le :)( at rv e 111 il1ue )1o, I('( it'e 1 t li(i (Iil e ai 1 We l i>lWl (11a I cial'l : e ( 1 I illi lf 11('lS 1:1 i(, 1 o )l f l), ia )bli ell. a I l )'ll, f tll 11azi) al l et'llyt 111(')0,:1-(' the0 110 ali1V ,reu 1 11 2 i' I ll 1 II 11 (. 1, ', v e, l" ))()I hI,(,l () li t',l s 1111d l t '('I :t' cl ( () lI ()II-.
.\ f(llI o f i' \: 1'1:l1i,)011 I ll 1 11.k- ix Il lit' l t()lilt( fofil al a w ,.r, 10,-14.d :It \i( II. v, li, he \it ;l:' I ,,:1' ,fv 111o lot il t I)() i Ilil t V (lit .ll 6\ 1 1 i 1dil () l," 0 1 1 0' 111111) 1 I t l 'W t I lilt : 1 rd fOl' vv-I') l \t':t!-. TI i' t:11 l -111x Hit111('i )t'llitm ille 4,010n l I d to rI pe






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLAN-T QUIARlANTINE a

a Iiilih degree of control of tile co( ll ill1 1oi Ill ccliler i:l orcllar(ds ill southerlt Iiidiana. Abr01111 setlsoiial cond1t111011. result1e1 1l a geneal )rexalellc of slraVy 1ijtyll regaral' le- of t'eali ielit. il t it appeared likely that thle 1icnti i e coniolds1 pl ved a cI n al)rati ely small part iiti prodluciio tlis ii illrvy. Ill tile Pacifi Nolrtllwest :l0111parativelv poor restilts were obtained witli all le iinct ile p.~. In COlitna t to tie Ienerally favorale resutilts i t lie slo-t of 1 93. No ade1quute explanatin for tlii, wa-e. found.
I the laboratory at Vi1ce]nnes. Ilid., a finely divided pheodithiaziie showed a hiigh!er efficienlcy ag'aii) tle codlii iOthii ~ail a mlarce material. and was more resistanit to rain weatl herig. Field expelrineltits wit!h a mo.'re fiiely divided ph-eiotiazi ue are ibein g conductted.
Thrllee large-scale orchard tests of tree wra}il i an i imcing. carried 011o bY tle Yakinia. Wah-i.. lalhoratiory. gave re-ult c*n(-Iteitlv iii line wviti t1ose of itIO eaPlie r e tile aeN'a e> II' f.Ii clea tll fruit for thile saltation blocks and 47 percent in tlV c~h ck blocks. Ili the or-:hard in which the wok ha ee rl iU o(! n o l;for ive seanoies one le- slwav arplicatioll w a ,e ii tle mWed ,i('lk tila-11 ill tihe rest of tle orchard, vet tlie frit iii the baib(4-d I .k wa> definitely cleaner ii1iii tliat i11 the u 1 Itutea d 41 of t1l1 oul ?d.
i the o elhin u Hedt forfi i ttf r 0
in West Vi.rinia the perceCtae ofwormy friit was tlhe least in 1(39 for the last 5 years. 18 spite of the fact that lie al)ple crop in this orchard was likewise very ligt. FThe )aa.-it' tion among codlil" moth larvae udeidP ba11ds was odlY 4.7 peircejit-lhardily eoiiughl to have mitch value for control. The perceive of larvae destroyed by predators under the bands. however, showed a sli-lht further increase. From 19:36 to 19:39 this has gone from 2.3 to 13.3 percent.
Studies were made at the Yakima, Wash.. laboratory of various methods of determining the periods when spring-brood codling motlhs emerge and lay eggs. The use of cages. periodic examinations of trees for fresh pupa skins, and bait-trap records all agreed reasonably well in their indications of the first and peak emergence. but moths continued to emerge in numbers from the trees after emergence in the cages was complete. Regular examinations of certain branches of an apple tree for eggs showed that many e'g were laid during some periods when few moths were entering the traps. and that most of the eggs were laid after the peak of moth cal)tures in the traps had been passed.
In the Hudson River Valley two sprays of p~henothiazine following a light arsenical program successfully reduced a heavy infestation of the apple maggot. Phenothiazine, used in li-hit dsare. and xaiithine did not reduce heavy infestations of the apple nmaogot materially. and a 15-p)ercent p enothiazine dust was not effective.
PEACH INSECTS
The IMoorest own, NN.J., alaboratory continm I ex} erilunts- iln mass I1iberatio of llirty ifru f l s//'N Rob.. ie .-t 4il'wleci e orientl 1frilit 11 Ilot ) r 1 te available. TIlere wa-l- a itt l l ilicrease in
Ia iiz t~lZ l lly 11l 0,'el'di f i i' 111 lll i lP a0 1 v + 1 t1 :ao1:1 1. :11d bI'll) leq ie t ll rlit ii)fetatioi wa- u i l(wel t111 i-. 'clr d( 4s riot receiving release-. At Ile e0 1 of t1le 19>9 1ea1-1 !' lucl releases- had b)eeIn made d1~11111' 3 yetl'. Halld t ill, )11y l la e followed by evi-






i \\N [ \. ':, 'i1- \E ii \lT lI-NV1 'IV \ I:141('I.I1 1 1E. 1 1'P

(It1 of a 1 it f I i 1 pv- f l it il fe- at ioll I It* -11l111 II I1.
S'illi it 1i i 11 I f l'i f tlli t i \;n !I\ .vC vJlla C'P i t /ll/(i il

1, i 4Iv l q w,,k ii ere \vW I I :- exci l 1 it il t l tL I ge I ii t I i


st It ,:1 11 I,'l v ;lf t 1. 1i r lla ti h is/it ( II li1 it I ll' j r--t rI111 at 1111111 l of lh, 'ai it jcI II tile 1M id w est. wltiecf i wa lat eI'las1 i itiI7, kIIt1 1 e -Is)Cic stll L to P gl'f:a li aly1 fil Ii 1 w t t here, a1 tt I ( oil er
"fiT e tlhylev i li)ch ri il Inlsion d(evelOl)ped byI tle F, ort Valley. Ga., lialiwll i.t v'\ .i.a a iilreatlv Icone tio witd Itsac ti a 1ll-w i atr ll)-t+ tlie l each cit )l'r. (ll t e 11 Int 'e llcisP 1vt 6,1(0 ) (lail'i I ll e l i lS the ( lion p e)Of. 1C i ipi is tl'O e' 1rfop1o'i lW 1 1110 o )tait6l( t1l0;'ceIlt ('4 t1- ol vit ii Ia\vl ~Of 25 1rc0('l1t for niaterials aid s() percent for la)oit' a1t ((0111patred with tie fo'lier )'ar4ild irohelzelle tieatilleiit. I nj iy to ea(ll'i trees i 1 1001t ern I l isial a was fll im d li ll st igatill t( 11iavO c11 ('ilset( Ill prtit by thie lse of an 111 1erfectlv eiuuistified 1llixiture at111 il v i't )\ a suit del 1 (lI i i lt teperattre ihat occurred late the plrecetding fall.
In atoratoyv ex)illlents at Fort Vi allev 4ihll'oroetllivI ether comlI1inedI effectin- aga in m larvae of tie plum cral in' the soil. A consiteraera redlctim int the quantllit of water ued was follnlli l'niblte N it lollut loss of effectiveness. ('Indtit ions have not yet permitted satisfactory testing of this material under practical I orchard

TIe I Io1) thie :lori1atorv unit engaged il t ie p)eah 111s:1i work t raveled over 190,000 miles eginu in 1938.
A. tart ltas )e) II 1ale iIl tests to14) dleterl ille the albilitv of Va'lolSi lisl)pe t, S tilo ile h 11y l )ily l iti-eae. 11 1)I)C)8'5 ti e a \v e v sali ftl'V1 1 i llod for 1 111liatlli oi 1iel leal i lnd tvi .ly feel r- ha111 ieel develolped, nall. at thie cl h)se ,)f 1939. 114 tests were unutle invlving Over T .) ildii *'ll11- )1) -41,1ie 4) sl)cie l 1 t1 Iatte' 49f h()llit*i I te siuiIttura l i li rti ha )l'1Clls e(1 a Ilin()'e Iillicll pniit l'4 enhl. iealhi 1 l li:1v ie fri, vli verv easil 1v i liquil n el 1a. d1 ils er' tpill ,- 0C141si4Iralh 111,l Tli l l9u li, (f lie rumt. but cilihll ,tl I C of i'OJ ye l1: C 111 f et P t'ti 414,VC(lP 1 OJ d. i )irc0't 4 ler :lila11 are +litl' It. If 1 t ilc iI t veti 'c8 'lt II l fia ,alt Iv 1(9 Ii4It. 1lW l C (C ii l:' l tI l' ol 1 '4 In eIhIll l I I 1Ii I : I'a li11 1W) 1 .

G(RAPE INSF(TS

A -11 v I lie S"'I I sk\v. ()lit, lab. I'ai)lloMMN t(I1 I 1 t4'i l se f ,lltix:t i,, 1,,' ( 'i,0IiII llt !dun I i l'ra ertv ,th 11 tl' IIII it, \M\ard iuli':1 '- 1 hat :1 i 1t pel it'll ( f II 1 ,'c 11 ,- :Ar 1f0'u 1u i) : 11)il trip lS 1iv 11 \\ iIljlici V 1111,t : l. el I I I e1 T hl is 1111) 11f :1tize the il)It:1 1re
i 1 ,r I Ie Ilo 1 -1( IIl I () I 1t o) I 'tl I i I 1 I eIsI. I I 1l Iw t 11 -t I 0 tocI f d: I. ()tl :41)1011 IS 1t[ lit ll0 11 l1 arIe






BUREAU OF ENT()()OMOLOGY ANI) PLANT Q(A IHANTINE I

preveite( from emerging by spril.ng cultivalion as or(dinlaily employed. Forty-five )ieceiit of tle m otli s were, pIevellte d ficmi emierginig by fall plowing, but the method( as used ill the exl)erimeiit has certain serious disadv\tii tagres from a h()orticultiral stan(flp()illt.
An all-season treatment that included four applications of p)henothiazine gave a high degreee of control of the grape berry moth ulndih'r conditions of moderate infestation. In a severely infeste( villeyard the results were a little less satisfactory. The fruit showed coilm1paratively little spray residue.
A tank-mix nicotiiie beiitonite program that included four al)plications during the season gave anl outstanding degree of control. even under conditions of severe infestation, but it left such a heavy dleI)osit of visible residue as to render the fruit unmarketable. except possibly for wine or juice. In a single test, copper arsenate gave coml)aratively poor control of the grape berry moth.
In tests carried on in small vineyard plots, four different dust mixtures, including as active ingredients calcium arsenate. nicotine, rotenione. and pyrethrum, respectively, gave poor control of the grape berry moth.
NUT INSECTS

Field experiments for the control of the hickory shuckworin on pecan were carried on at Albany, Ga., with six spray comllbinations. Three of them, (1) tank-mix nicotine bentonite., (2) nicotine sulfate with rosin-residue emulsion and fish oil, and (3) a dust of sulfur and lime containing 5 percent of lubricating oil. gave definite reductions in the proportions of infested nuts. These reductions were not reflected in the total yield at harvest time. since much of the attack occurred after the shells had hardened, when shuckworni infestation does not usually reduce yield to any great extent.
Further readings were made of parasites in overwintering, larvae of the hickory shuckwormn in pecan at Albany, Ga. An additional iiitroductioni was made of Macrocen tru.s ane/lir'orits. aii important parasite of the closely related oriental fruit moth. It Ihas niot yet been determined whether this parasite will adapt itself to the shuckworm.
The Monticello, Fla., laboratory obtained a high degree of control of the pecan nut casebearer by spraying late in the summer with l !ead arsenate or calcium arsenlate. combined with bordeatix mixture, wih icli lessens the dlaner of foliage injury. This treatment would be of benefit to the crop of the following season. rather tlhan to the current crop. The results at the same laboratory with dormant sl)rays of tar oil listillates for the control of the caserer)aer were in lile with tlihose ireviouly reported. The Brownwo., Tex.. laborat-orv obtaitned further favorable results in the control of th is insect by 'tv e 1use of cryolite.
In northern Florida examination of )pe(ai twigs sh iowe that i, thle peiniing buds of al early variety th e ve rwiite ving Ilar va e of 1,,th I the I),0.ai 11ut casebearer mand tle )ecan leaf caIseha lev were active aill feeding 2 week s ear tlei' 1n ti the )lis f a late vailet V iIl the sa'ie orchalrd. Apl)arentlv the opleniing of the )tls. rattler lhal tlie direct influence of weat!ler coidlitions1. causes the larvae to leave t liir Willter (q11 rt rs. 0Peca11 Im1t casebe)ireLr a rvae wereaa iill rea t1






S ANN 1 1, i1'i' I i' 0F I.IEPAW MENi (T (I .F-N,11 I'lt1 HE, 194*

10) tit(, ilt Ht 11 to ill-Pointy frolls ju'P fo lage. ))ArUxi liately ,(l l'vellit ( I the larII\ te incll 1 I i h 111 ('t 1 It c etll tlie a(luilt -tage.
T'll.e li elle )re. a la'.. h to v ial 1 a e ai


I -'-'0t(01uI \\i utl' l 'tF l'r' 1i1 Ii ll l ais (1411lt-. N ii v a d( Zell ..-1jeM s f lC 111 i' W:M )sl at, tti4 N 'rP P l l rt I'Omll ,h e iltePP wOwill (w Ifn ll

DRIEI)-FR UIT INSECTS

HpVilly l(ip 1( )]I- dO'Y :I1 I' m.. O 1 1 1 :1 ile i:~t,,t *llI


l++1;+I ll' 1 )'pw l-,'l, f1) l' ,,l: ('.l iW iw ,t i 1 :t 11112 1 h' :lifudl's I cl':111' i ul't'el l ,iill l t I r ii'11 li 11] the l ,r'zk of l"x"- at 11e '2(1i ll evel W1 1 ) it rm 10 il 1 211.1'le". PA W1 1'l 1 0d v cr m(f, m I.

O WP .ali 01 l i ll rlMcl i41( ,'les 1i c ,111 1 llie !t -lelWl '!':1Ilf e id vI tI ie l- of ti l '-it Ill tY: 1 ,i f I w ex 1c ei l if Wi h I I.111i T (m d 1 o ill the h i'n i1lowl nn' i of the following fiure : Saw-tootl d l 1irain eetle :a nit -. ,'12 F. fr le than 127 (lays. t for f le,- th i 2 +i:t : v awi 4l (1 r' 1ai ):n le lal-v' e. 3iti fo:r le 1t1 ll t 1i. > di f 'r tl 1 1n 20 ( MY-: I 1) Ij 1 1-1111ill Illmt l ill-1:10. 31 a l d1111 2,S : l- tidll )0 : : )t i ailtl ll tl la 10 it e. l f te s1 1 ilw ha 3W+ fol' 1110e tac hal 11.) dlays.
1 field 1 t11, of tlle (: e of ) 1:1 :1t lll l l)ralies in t1h iva Ile'ld shoved tihat th raisill moth is a i" 111ll11,1"' 1r. 111Te lres-T e11'e of raes d(:mlaged by otllher cases, hlw :1ever, ail 1 the build-up of raisin moth infestation.
SUBTROPICAL FRUIT INSECTS

Thie ilt(1sive lalorato'yv work with the factors influenciner the resiults of eyanidle funIi(ration against the California red scaIle was c(ntinull at tilhe Wittier. Calif.. laboratory. Wit I a rance of tenpel'lill'P o ~i D to 1 hrI'litv of the sc.:ale wa- e('111iT'd illat t l Per tllpljerattres. The in Ilue ice Of teml) 'llIlllre was lIlu 1, P1.o ltilCed in the se( iI1( I 1l 1 sta e t 1 illn I th le 111:iti e l it, e. a d111( ill t1w resist: ait sIrai thaan in the 1111resist:al.
I1 ('tllyIarative tests wilh the IWO strainlS of tl1e (:1aliftiia red s'ale 11: 11lta1ile d ill Ie 111) watOlnV for a' i1111111l of 'car. it as foun1 1 thl :t alt ,l l l i 1ese st rai s rea' ted sim il11.1 v to p l're- :an1 }, 1(il i r 1 h1l l I1 ( 1' lit a l'(1 O f lIe l a ll f at' ti. 'l l ,'(it' I tl i l'l111 O fltl rl'11tl,. \ Il lr1 e lil e i leM ilMrW litire 1 1t< IIII A lre11111 \ 11 11T;\ 1,

O Ul s M 1 1 14 I':il i le :t1o 2:1k. C ae ,1t1 llx iry t )t i

1,il for the 'ntirt 0 i tf ( :lifof ill:1 frT l so ale I'm l it- l l aw- of 4 ;1 VP :I :111d 111 li 1'sll tl : 1t e t itis fl' llt I 0 at nliti ll "I+ ,sli :11118 'l u' W l', i i l I(H ,'ill it I 1:111 lei n tliltO. Il 11''A c- l'iW i lve C(1 1ll1-






BURtEA' OF ENTO\IOA)L(OY ANID PLANT Q-At1ANI NE E9

binlatioin al)p>eared to be al soluble oil plus ille resils. 'Ile so lul oil seemed more effective than an oil emulsioll pIepa'red with glue as an emulsifier, both when the oils were used alone a1Vnd v whell they were combined with cllle resins. Tie use of soluble oils as carriers for these resins also has the advantage that the solution, of resi sl can be added to the oil just before, thle spray tank is filled.
When cube resins were added to lightt medium oils they caused a larr'er increase in effectiveness than when they were cll)inped with heavy oils. In practical field experiments, in which the sprays were aIpplied by commercial ol)erators. mortalities of 36 percent of the adult scales on heavily infested gray wood were increased to 76 percent by the addition of cube resins. The mortality on. the ftrit was increased from 82 to 96 percent.
Experiments were begun at Whittier with sprays and dusts containing tartar emetic and with dusts containing potassium antimony citrate, in comparison with sulfur dust as used iii the standard program for the control of the citrus thrips on lemons. Although inl previous years serious injury resulted from the use of sulfur on lenion trees during the summer months, comparatively little has developed in the experimental blocks for the last 2 years.
Counts of the black scale in an orchard near Redlands, Calif.. in which one section has been dusted with sulfur each year since. 1936, 'showed 0.14 scale per unit area in the dusted part of the orchard as compared with 4.25 per unit. in the undusted part. This is in line with information obtained in earlier years.
Experiments in control of the citrus rust mite were begun in September 1939 by the St. Lucie, Fla., laboratory under east coast. conditions. Wettable sulfur (4,000-mesh) containing either cottonseed oil or fish oil kept mite infestations at lower levels than any other treatments. Lime sulfur alone and lime-sulfur plus alkvlated sulfonated diphenyl were the two least effective sprays. The 2,000mesh sulfur dust (without an adhesive) gave poorer control than the 325-mesh material. Similarly, the 4,000-mesh wettable sulfur added to lime-sulfur required one more application thai the 325-mesh wettable sulfur in the same combination. These results were less favorable to the more finely divided sulfurs than those of a year ago.
The severe freezes that occurred in January 1940 offered an opportunity to obtain data on the effect of low temperatures on the Florida red scale. From counts of 500 adult female scales in 2 locations it was found that 32 percent survived a minimum temperature of 27.5' F. and 16 percent a minimum temperature of 230. O)wing to the number killed by the freeze, the dropping of old leaves that wero infested, and the picking of the fruit, the nuii)ers of scales were greatly reduced, although enotigh survived on most trees at St. Lucio to reinfest the leaves and the young fruit as it developed.
THE JAPANESE BEETLE
Invest igat ions f tIte Japanese beetle were colit killed at M\ooresto wn, N. J., and Sipencer. N. C. By the close of 1939 ihe area of general distribution of the Japanese beetle was estimated at alpplxiiately 16.300 square nii les, an increase of 1.183 over tI previo lls yea r.
An outstanldiii l fet irate f tile veai was fila 1rtler 111ncreas ill tlhe importance ,)f tlhe n1ilky disease ()f Japal)lse5 eetle t 1r1s. Tie dis-






() \NN \t 1' '1, 1IT- <()F IIE .\PA TM11ENT OF .\(Rl(' I T I iL 194)

ca t a l'iared 1j l 11 ir o addf it, ii al l ,calitle- ill tile %, tleilrn par i', t c l itife 4 ed1 ar ca. At ,lw piut 11vi irtw iea'-rt 1 M i'alvla ld ( ,qi hll.t 1,l f 111(i Ire t hall sc I( 'll.ir 1 w 11 1 fll I ti llft fall drI, pled Ito llill Ci) '" I la- I'te foot 1)) -llii-J lie 111 94(). IT v tlii1r s (of tlw-~e Wer.t': e a ette' l I t iit1 .
I r tilt e -21 111lmer 1 0d, l)l')1ltI, tal t e in
I'-at (l l i I 1 1i( v) Iev J I Wart i t of .l 0 i tltti i i :titl it
1V11ill (d Japa e Beetl ( ltt ,l t' I t r eit l I l. l '1 ,izat i,ri (,f tIle t 1ie A lll\il]Y: diI'ItI t t ite l( l llttto< le N o t e t l / c I' //.-. I ltl i Ne \\- J -vI. t I 19 9.l 1 I; I ll(' tti ils l.vtr titIMtlHt i i ( comlt IU in New Ifir-%e. l)tiilt' wintr a itd I I 139 4) th e Bl l tl \\- te il Im t fllt ()f l'l l ,f 1l; 1 ,+ ,11. f "1 1 :11 1 it I ) I i- Ill t 1 11 110t11
( i lti l luiO 11'1,, f til( ty!,P1 A itillkv < Ie I r rl i' Pr'el)alr'1t ti( s re aiter'ial ,l r fie ldl ailicat io n. a t part f ti 1',0'('K;l It \ ll li1li 1i ('lt.
The wI'ik of tile 193) 9 'eaot indicated that a t raI l)aitte i .v llow 1- ( lefililel v llji(0' to oh 1 ,ai e1 :11Y ,,tlei clor. Tr1 !,) 11 ailntiil yellow hav 11 e Citpd!) llorl ', l)0et les tita t iI se 1 )aiite (l rFe 1.lu 1 1 I Il1't atiiiiv tiii. 'IlIe addition O f yell)v to (tlvii li(Itlie t> ct)I: tetit v II ,1'h+-1,d the effectiveliess of tle I raps.
lala 'atto *v testI ing (f ia se(ticlde- :111 repel le1nts for ue :t'aift I lle (1111 )betIs wV S 1continll(ed. Ili this Work 1,404 ca-e tet- \,ere ita (le, i lit wicli 2k( 0) )eetles were used. F)t-liV-e lnewv, tatelial Wefre i tlded( in ti le tests. 1ily 011( 01 which pl'Oved: iif*ietlv rep)ellevi t al sa fe o ft liage I0 )be c0lider 1 a1 s a1 a ,)>j)ble d) t ilitt for lead alrSellate.
I)Dtriuig 193)9 and the winter (of 1939-40 a detailed investiation was Ilade ml tile fillt ligatioll 0(f balled and potte1 nur1serY -tick with itl l tI)lyb o1ide for cot ir l of tlie larvae as well a tile ez, r :mid1 a(l tilt Twent i-two otusanul erggs. 22.0(00) grul)s. an d (3.6t) adiult l)(o les vWere 11tedl. Thei a(tlt l)eet les ro)ved least 1e081 I at t() the 'ct lil, of tis fuiiiat. the grubs more resisIta llt. and ti lie _'O the 11 i(>t r ,ista it Oeta iled( ( ,sage re r lui'rellients for CO lilet 1111)nt1 litv 11W e v W, (. 01 01it for teniperat tires ran gi g frolit ti.5, to I() F. FlTe 111(hSt 1au 1 1ic:111 (levelo)i111t o) f t lie work 1 I 1t ( le I' u Ilt P11jl21 a tile 1l il )( 1talice of tlie co) llit li s under viicll tle Illaterial I- held i( lifill y tie j) 1ost 11111gaijolt period. Ie Iatilelits of 3J:ipae-l e lbeetle grubh ill Soil ball> or potted pants that apo: nred only partial f 1t' i at tite ('cO )pletion of a fui lii1 i f 2 1) 4 llWlurs ave IPi i.oY ti 1 (0 t1:1 lit v wiel t he tock w0 'a flWd ai t :Il)I-)) XlI0atelv tI lie I11 Mitetllpe 'a illi l' for 3 day h\\llereas t e 1lt' II t t1 1 l o e of t1 IlM perio \ l 1po, w e thel stck w'asl d':t lf 1 iittr futiti ,_tt ii, t) ( t*l li,)s w here it. tetfll vIcratItilrf' Were IWtit]i (ch l VeI.
'I1,. di1-tr!it ion of thet 2 t1lt val : le ic of \ asi) pll'; lttei itl J:lpa: i -\: etle w:1 c ltl iti itll*. 'I iitx th'1t1r co, lije- of t10 ;il iphtia ( T;/,h;, NIO;//; ui. a RIi.t) w(er,, tli -.trih'i it l late in the "-H li 0tdi' of I mid9 il I c1 m -i li l for il '






BUREAU OF -ENTOMOIL)(GY ANI IL\ NT .I'.iLk NTIN 1 1

Robh.) were released ill the spring of 1940. in several States aid the District of Columi a. In addition. 2.500 felale- ,f T. i ,Ii V ere furnished the UIniversitv of Marvlanldl f or IIs in a Pl',graim of mass rearing for subseqluellt liberation.
THE PEAR PSYLLA IN THE NORTHWEST

A program for the suppression of the pear psylla ill the Pacitic ortllwest was 1111u dertaken ill COo)oeratioln with State af(111( 11 ill Washinigton and Idaho. with funds allotted from tie approprlil n for the control of illcipielit an en ircnic olutbIrcakl of insert e-t and plant diseases. )During July 1'939 the pear pl-vlla. an extrew ly destructive inect which Lsb11 -e.ll1Ilt l1 the I1!!tl':Pttp'* Pg *? of thle I cited Statet for liore tha 100 years wa- ('1111 for tlie fir't tille ill the Pacific Northwest in a very limited area in Wadilii' (ol and Idaho. near Spokane. Wasi. Cooperative ~ vev- par iripated in by various State agencies failed to revell its pl eience i ill 111 ila pear-)nroduci1g areas of Wa1S-higton. (Ore1r(1 a Idalo10.
The area in which the insect was first fa)ld1 ill the Nu'thwest appeared to be limited in extent to apprxinimately 2.5 square ililes aild to involve ye 1t more ha tla 2.000( pear 'rees. n _-,tlyv il do( r1'yard or s1mll home orchards. Because of the co, liparat1v1ely 1ma ll number of trees concerned, and the presence- of nmou1tain or de-ert barriers between the infested1 district and the important pear-producine areas. the chances appeared favorable for preventing the spread of the insect and for its ultimate eradication from the Northwest.
An organization was set up at Spokane in February 1940 to (deal with the problem. Intensive scouting early in the season (f 1940 revealed that light infestations existed on additional prpq)erties in the Spokane Valley, which increased the area involved to 4.500 square miles and increased the number of trees involved to about 28,000. The infested area is still reasonably well isolated, and ultimate eradication of the insect still appears feasible.
An intensive program of spraying is under way. and the infestation has been markedly reduced. The cooperating States have promulgated quarantines to prevent the accidental movement of the insect in a number of farm products grown or packed near infested pear trees. A great many individual trees have beeen removed by the owners or under waivers signed by the owners.
Several laboratories of the Division have made contrilutiois to the program. The personnel of the Yakima. W ash.. laboratory surveyed the tipper Yakima Valley during the summer of 1939. and thi s survey is being repeated during the sunlnler of 1940. The Moorestowi. N. J.. laboratory conlduc(ted 11nu11er1,us experiment witlh fumigation with methyl bronmide aga inst the pear psylla. Thle iI sects needed for this work were furnished part lv bv the New York Agricultural Experiment Station at Geneva amd lartlv bNv tlhe Bureau labratorv at Pougi(r eepsi N.. N. Y. ()n the 1a-is o infor1I1ation ,)btained," fair i plilct- w ii O li1 11a1v be 111 l are bellig allowed to Ill(,e 'nt of thie inifestetl areas inl tlhe S k),;'i it, Valley after ftlllniig tiil.








IIRI'ITFLY INVESTIGATIONS

TlIv re-Ill 1 W ,f 'illilm ti ll ii tie-~ iti IItawaii itli Ilet1 yl I Illilde have perillitted, :It 1( ization Ii or -li~iplleIlt of pro( 10ts to the 1l ilnlilli : 11'ei(' fillii titt lli. A1 ,pravy giving goo, olrifto of ithe leli111 lly ill Ilawaii was ,level)pe( A )otelnt lire for I he ill1ollvfly wa' f(und. vlll'gl t I t itl ill t lI lItit i l wR it I rep llel Is for I l1 Mex iclan frlili ,va,- i tIl oil- lates Sit e- 11o, thle fruitily attac]ii g citrus ill Iuetl o lictJ 1 *l I l;lve r-' eI ill a l-,eI 0e111 of t hfl'h-Iitllll W li11 apply to tie itrI1I- i1(1l -try ill P tlelrto Ri{i, fIroll tlt stal)lI),Oillt of dolt leSt ic (tIa l'alltille. .

MEXICAN FRUITFLY CONTROL
INFESTATIONS

Earlv in Jainur,I it appeared that another serious fruitflv inlfestatiOn Was ill prospect for the lower Rio (rrallde Vallev. Traps indicated the Ipresence of a considerable fruitfly population which it was believed would cause a general lleavy illfestatioll before the season was over. The low temperatures late in J anuaryv. however, disrupted normal fruitflv activity. and only 27 perelt as 111ny groves were found nllll fested as were known to have been l infeted (uring the preceding season. The fly population was mI0ouiitilg when harvestilig Was Collipleted oIn April 3,0, but as n() fruit wa available for oviposition, the number of plantillngs infested was reduced accordingly.
Table 1 shows, for the years 1935-40, the 11111nu er of in festat ions in relation to the number of flies trapped and the date the harvesting season closed.
TAm 1.-Inf s.t tion-S of thc .li'c.rican fruitfly in T xeis. I .L; 1, t

Larval I rust- L rv ti tar tFiscal year 1 inf sta- ing Fisca! year tr l infes ne tions closel ns I chsed

,ut mer X? 7iber t i et r :1 r
1,35 ....... .. 7. 3 i 3 Apr. 2 l1 .l .\pr I4 )L
... ... ..... 2 5 M ar. 31 13 .......... 13. 2 15
1937........... ...4------------------- 1. 2 )o. : 1
S190 ..... ......... ,11 r JA

F1r grpieoruit.
2 For oranges.
Includilw I inf-t :110 ai- in !rtnt f l~3'.
STERILIZATION

thre are tw ) approved filiten Ii tStoll liroetei. Ihe 1 owt1111 ii I in '111-01 i't of ( W4fl COwe it lie i 1Wit I lil Wii p te mn i r o to : 8 1 F. a nd llhe it it thei'e for 15 da y. TIis i elo1 is used fo, "I 1relal i\velv >ilall a w111111lt f fruit. as c',si, all h 111Im e illlt' iS rI.j rll d d1111 ti e process Is oIil18t IatllOfI, XPeV-iv tii lilie1 11 1t'lilpen ill'tire tr111 Illent.

I(, ,, 10 :11141 1 ]* 11 -14r t o I ': 1 lf 1 'll-d e lil 1 l1 0 rt 1 1t0l- 1 ) IE ,, :11 1n. I itd I 11 m Iiall I I -.le approta Id1 .) ItP) 1-an'll / 11It Im l c :1 1* 1 (, (1 1it i ll II lJI tl d fut r u) i 1I.







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT Q1AhANTINE 1

Throughout the time the fruit is receiving tile tr(eatlent, air with 100-percent humidity is forced into and drawn frmi thle rooms. The heat and humidity are obtained by injecting steam into tile airconditioning unit.
Owing to the reduction in the number of citrus plantings found infested during the year, only about 20 percent t as much fruit was sterilized as was treated in the preceding season.
Table 2 lists the amount of fruit sterilized by the two approved methods in the fiscal years 1939 and 1940.

TABLE 2.-Citrus fruit .sterilized in Texas, fiscal year.( 1l;39 atnd 1940

By high-temperature By low-teriperature
method method
Fiscal year
Grapefruit Oranges Grapefruit Oranges

Tom.s Tons Tons Tons
1939----------- --................_- .....-_ _- -..--.-.. 44. 150.0 2. 25 2. 08 0
1940 ............----------------------------------- 8. 926.9 .7 298. 6 168. 80


FRUIT PRODUCTION AND SHIPMENTS

The citrus fruits harvested and shipped were 1.093 equivalent carlots less than the amount moved last season. The total production reached 46.455.4 equivalent carlots. and of this amount 19.217.3 equivalent carlots were processed.
Table 3 shows the fruit production and methods of distribution from the Rio Grande Valley of Texas for the fiscal years 1,933 to 1940.

TABLE 3.-Citrus fruit from the Rio Grandc Valle! of IT ,ra.s. .l ippCd (d iJlCd,
and total produtctionl, ili equirh nt c uJlots, s;l ytria. 19.33-40


By rail By truck By boat By oxir s an11d! banned d omFiscal year passn- rarcial rape- Oran rape Orange ra- gr er fruit rducfruit Oranges fruit fruit trap, m.ed tion

S('arots C'urlots Carlots Cario s s s Cr!tw ( r,,s Cirlots Cr!ots 1933 ..---------- 2, 897 223) 5806 11 127 i. 21
1934 ---------- 748 114 1, 236 8 240 4, 314
1935 ---------- 4. 617 225 1, 73 1 1 1. 1: i 0
1936... 4. 262 100 1. 454 1. S 2 2,7 1, 62 9, 447 1937 15. 61 2. 72 2. 578 2. 351 176 7 .732 6 i 702 10. 701 1938 13, 736. 3 1, 322. 7 2, 8i7. 4 1, 991.5 18. 1 4 7 "I. 1 1 278. 6 3, 927. 4 1939 -.... 16, 571. 1. 93. 5 5, 86 3 5 ;93 521. 5 1' 2 ,2i I 1 1 7, Is 1940 --... 12. 758. 5 1, 323.9 7, 239. 0 4. 734. 2 579 5 :i 0 (001 19,27. 3 46. 45. 4

I Includes 2 cars of orantes processed.
2 Includes 35 cars of oranges processed and 4,301 cars of vrapfruit for ur -j, n i:cn r FIedr.l Surplu:s Commodities ( corporation program.
3 Includes 84.6 cars of oranges p)rocesse(d.

JAPANESE BEETLE QUARANTINE AND CONTROL

TRAP SCOUTING IN NONREGULATED TERRITORY

Trap scouting for t11e Japanese beetle in 1939 was begun on Alril 11 with the setting of traps at I'residlio. Tex.. and codtinued until September 15, when all trapp))ing for the season was- cmlnplete(d. Drirng the season 79.537 tral)s were (listrit ited by it BuIreau i 491 cities and






I1 ANN('A I1I:I H( I)EI'AlI.IENT OF oI1 (I.TLILE, 1940

tNWIL- 1il 1 Itate. Wi h the eX(eptio (If A\kllti .-as, Montana. Nevaila, l()k:alom1a. and Slu It I)akota. m-ine degree of trapping was illulhfl aket l il l all tates (oltsdl 1 t In11( aill ilif(l-t(l t(erritorv.
Most Iof te tra l)i I was eI (Int'er1e( in tlhe' S;tat(es of New York. Nortll ('arolita. Sou th ('Irolita, Olio. PeImnnsyl vanIia Virginia. anId West
irini an in "he itle of Atlanta. (( a.. Chicago. Ill.: Indianapolis, 111l(.. Louisville, Kyv.. I)etroit. MichI., and St. Louis. Mo. The Stlate> ient ilnleI Were a Iray )partially inllfested or co1ll illols to tt I i1lain ilnfeste(l zone. and violated infestations had eenll found in thlt' heavily Iral ))e( cities.
Tra)))llg S(owd 'I carry-over of in festation i S cit es1 a1 i towIL Ill I tlllregilated terr it orv an( 48 first-re(')r litI ife-t ati (ul O if Wi i1 1 were i Ill(dlil 7 i Mll a lanl 3 ill icliia an 6 ill New York. 8 ill
()hio. iln lensylvaia. 3 in Virginia. anlld 11 in West Virginia. ()f il1e irst-1-rec(r' fills. 29 \erI'e inlci)lent ilf(e 1:Iati s of a few I(heel t(ach1. wheels 1) Werv of slch11 s(I)ope. or Were ili s(1I lj)OXiiilit V to( 1l ritijlI iet uilatet d area, that tlev \ "ere later atl e I(, to t iat :treta.
"it ))lly ii lich vielded il ati ye ri (sIts Nva l fer f r iit i) Al )ana. ArizonI a. (nlifornia. ('olorado. Florida. lItabo. K'a-a-. Lowuisina. M i IuII e ota Ii si- SI >i)i. Neblra ka New 1cximo. N()rl I )t ta. ()r) i t I j 1I )it l'l S),ioll. 'asilt 1111 t ctlli ll. i. aJni l c I Vvu iui I. l...)) trap) lavit!n l)(eei i-t it 1 $42 ii\\1> a t cit1- ill I tl ti :t .le '.
Ill ( ,lri a 3.600 tI )raPS Wel0 'ei il At a t1 a aii l l ii I ith r1-- 1ltIl" Cal pt (iref (of 1) beetles i Atlalita Iand( 14-2 ill a fPolit. N(o beet 's we(l'e o(u 11( l at )Jll )'r(l an( i S vlll'i1nal Wi ieP af lllidlt 1 i m e-ct '"l Vv. were foll il) l 19 13i ) Tralinl iig withI Iv. r'es ilts n-- jr or t ine iI 15 other loc)alites i n the State.
Ill i1) beetle were trapped i ('licago. 2 iln ('icerlo. 21 ill I:ast St. I~t1is. alnl 1 ill Evanllstonll. B* co lipm ri> II with l ('1)i(aoEast. St t. Louis, antl Evant ristti > oin el reple.ctive beetle Iic'reat-es (' 21). 2fi (ill 15. whereas there was a crease (' f 3 eetle. il ('icerl'( TI8 ppa ill ill I (itlie1 Ho ini ill it giat lleaile es1 ts.
Ill 11 dia a trap scout linl wails caldl cte I i21 wa it e -, i~ 1i p)-11ive results ill 10 nd llegatie II 11. TIhe ir '-.t-re(' iis illa'. as ('OI)) are(l with 1938. ilclreased frol()I 2 t) -) ill ElklaIIt. U t(o 105 in Fort Warntve. 10 to 6g ill In(lialtla(polis. S to )s inI ILfa nlwIrl. and I to is inl Whiting.
I1i olwa ()110 beet le were t rapped il 1193 at Fot ad i. ft I 1 .I fi'l-t -1-'r( r D iestt0 tionl Wal (1)1)(d l1e0 ill 19. ll i II in t w (,t her co(mi til it e's ii I l e State gave negatie tive rv'-ilts.
liK lnitui'cky ;o trails were set il Lexington, wil I egat'v rest its,
I ap:t) capl l) re of a solitary lbeetl lc wIe'Ve I1a:le lf 0t 1 In
1.6 1 P T, a I I )s. A I i s i e 1 b et W l were 'all F0 11 11 I .1 1 ) I': ).. :I lec'r(as. (f 19 Ias cot Iit)ared witlh t i 1w P i Ill' o f I l't **l

In I I :iw 1' ')!)praps were ()peraitdl i1 7 loc'alit i0'- in the ioI l i1. 11 1:Itf
4 I> u : I ()() f t W; e l' r e IISul a 1t Ih~I I '. I 11'.' I, 10 IV '1 T l I.
\\P It )ill::t!!\(, 11 6I her 1 0i lie b w:1I I w flit!t ) .
1i l 1 cfli.i:I I- it ch r:1.e o4, f tlie operatet ive .:ain" h beet le':n I h1i : .:rit i ill th at 1at' arrati ,l for the li-tril) ti,)il of






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QU ARANTINE 15

approximately 100,000 traps throughollt soCme of the il)re !heavily infested portions of the State dliring the slnlllnler of 19:9. \wit 1 a restii ing capture of over 104 tons of beetles. III the nonregullated1 territory of Maryland first-rec(rd trap) captuIres were made in 7 loalit ies. Trap captures in the 15 established infestations in this State range(l from
9 to 1,189 beetles.
In Michigan, from July 6 to August 31. 5,250 traps were e(l in Detroit, an(l during this period 115 beetles were caulght-an illcrease of :33 over the number captured with 5.313 traps ini 1938. Five beetles were trapped at Dearborn. where a solitary beetle was captured last year. Trapping resulted negatively at Highland Park and Pontiac, where first-record infestations were found the previous year. ITllree first-record trap capItures were made. These were incipielnt illfetation> of 6 beetles at Birmingham and 5 beetles each al (fros-se P(oiite farms and Melvindale. Negative trapping was carried on in 5 additional localities.
In Missouri 13.666 traps were in operation; 12.230 beiinc in St. Lou is where 26 beetles were caught. and 1 .436 distributedd in 15 other localit ies. where trapping gave negative results.
In New Hampshire. although 323 traps were set at 6 points. not a sillle beetle was caught. There has been no beetle per-i-tence in tlie nonre(ulated section of this State since 1933.
In New York first-record infestations of a few beetles eaehI were rec(or(ed at Auburn. Batavia. Dmidee. Mavville. and Pei Yaln. An infestation of 20 t)eetles was discovered this year in the vil!age of Piiited Post. Previously discovered infetati(ns recurred at C ant({aigua. Dansville. (Geneva. Newark. and Selneca Falls. Beetle colleetio s in Dansville showed a -ubstantial increas-e. A total of 2.550 trap>l were set in 43 cities and towns. with positive 'ret!t. in 11 localities.
In -North Carolina. where 9,525 traps were used. beetles in varvimg m embers were caught in 20 previously infested conmunuiities !b -tantial increases being noted in several points. Asheville. where 1.073 beetles were trapped in one section of the city. was not include( in t1he larrFe acreage treated in the State during 1939 owing to local condition(s. Trapping will be repeated inl that city and further suppressive measures will be worked out with the N(Nrth Carolina State entollologist.
InI Ohio trapping in the nonregul ated section ext ended to 111 towiis am l citie. with positive results in 17 localities. These include(l firstrecord trap captures at 8 points. 5 of which were incipient inlfestations of a few beetles each in isolated localities that are of minor imnll)mrtallce fr(oi the standpoint of spread. Sizable infe-tations were iscOveredl alt Marti s Ferry. North Salem. and Seville. Infestat i ons ct intienl iin 10 towns and cities. Scouts locate(l 230 beetles in Mewtor a- ('(lpared with 132 ca ghlt there by scouts in 193S. Trappiil u giving leautive re-ults was performed at 94 additional points.
i11 Penllsylvallia trapping was. carried on il S cities ai(ld towjis, with
-'!htin (alpture~s in 7 loclities. lThese inclulded flirs-recordl fin ids ,f 1' heel les eac(h in C'rry and ( Franklin. 1 in Gree-enville. 7 in M ealvjl awI 6 in Titisville. At Erie 437 beetles were caught in 2.14(0) tl, 's :oIae' '1 w itll 343 i eted, catr e( in 2. t ra ii 1138. Beetle capttlre- at Oil City increaed from 26 in 1938 to 238 iil 1939,






I( .\N6 NI'.. II;I'lT- OF lDEPA 1 TMEIT INT OF AJll 'TTlit'l 194ii

I +ll i 1 tc of 4t I Int )- ea,1 yeall. Tnt),-r >et in U1 iio City failed io catc I all. beetle .
III Smit l ,('a ollta 3 beet les were caught in 00 tr11aps ait Greecnville. (',llectioiIs in that localit v Inticated that beetles have p)e'r-itel in it4lioilte Illillhci>r sillce 1i93(. A Ittll h trap)) have ee(i 5t1 t Inll F )11t firmill, 19 ," 1t 1 1 i ilive. 1101 a iilgle beetle a ee tl caugl t t 10(+'. Il a pill ( 1 i i1 it a Il,( 1rave ileati rest1lt .
1 T lllw--ece tralp)pili I 'P 111e( leg ilT which res lf ile ill ((li0 lwaii'(0 T's. Tliere 1 a ll 1i1( beet i, lper-P>tevlce Ill ile SNtate
CO foull' b -0 x eve calight at B 'so1) 198.
Ill +ir il1iia : fii' -('r ( trap) cal)tilres were JI i ien lilt iiie-tatio' Of 1 )e1 tle a(c l at Ra1)11lil-llnek A (atlsilyV ai<1 Uiiallville andl 8 lectle- at lIerrvville. A total of 2.122 trap> ver di-trilbuited in 32 (11ie> al (ld tow wil Ia 1itive re11lt at 8 p1oilit- a1d liegative, res-ults ill 24: 1coi11111nit ies. At W il(illesterl' 9 beetles were caigt1 Ill i ta'S a l (011pa lei with 2 5at itl' Withl 383 trap-) it 193 .
I1 Vest Virinllia trappill was Carried on ill 40 cities aild ti wns, vitI 1es911l111ilIg Captues Ill 13 localit e-. le In ude1 1 fjir-t-l't*CIrd fitil( at Bakertoll. lhickliainoni. Elkin,. Follan>bee. Ialliwi. KearM,\ ,vi lle. Millvale. Shenandoah Junctr ion. Shepheral town. Wel -hury. tii d e (01o). R ue(-llll'i I(rl le>i t tl0llS at (_iarle "- To ili ali ('i l lh e il illeC e >(d slii lll i\ Illr 1111ii of t beetle trap ped.
I1t Florila early ;easo)i tra )i ig c1t lvii ie. dli'ilip 1940 begrali witli tle plaeement of I'raps ill Molticello, ()Ii April 1. I'apllii11f xva(()111)letedl beforee Jilly I it 19 lo(alit ie- At thie enld (, the yevar tr:T|\ 'e ill l oper ation( ill 1() citie- ;it!d townli- il 31 Stacs.
11Trap ) aptures reconied (drtillg May an1d J1t11 1941(0 incl-11t', 4 Seetles at Jacksonville., 2 at Miaini, alnd 1 at Tanmpia. Fla.: at At ant a.
4 aIt ('hmnilAce. 741 at Ea -t Poinw t. 'ndl at (;:iine~xlle (i.: 1 :l nu:i ille. Kv.: 1S at St. LitIs. Mo.: 1 at Iturillltoll. 1,) at ('lhardie. s at 1)n'Iai. 7 at Elizabet h ('itv. S at (iee'-or 11 : 1 Poit., 4 ait Le\xiIgtom. 11 at Raleilgh. 9 at Rockv Mount. 19 at Sa:li-bnllrv. 61 at Spelnci( r. I)7 at E-1 Spel 'el'. S at Sallfnfv. 2 :ti We hloI, :2 t Wibu11 o1 a1 1 a Wint-Sl. N. ('. it l'il)pre' an1d 34 at (ialilpolis. ()hlio: aind 12 at Chalte- tun. 1 at F li ', a l ( at ( reeniville. S. C. The finds iln the fo1)ll11wi (it 1ies: d111 i,' is xer'e fir it recorI.: Jaetk>(oilville. 31i. nil Taltip:t. FI:i. (' liiinhi' mi1 (Gainesville, Ga.: and Weldon, N. C.
SUPPRESSIVE1 MEASIR iES

l I a ll's:i1 was applied for olltl) 1f the 81 ) lihet lhtt' I 1 8t total of 10s.T9 acres o(f soil inl (Georgia. Illinois. Idlitia. Michioan. Ali--oubiri. New y ork, North Carolin, ()Ohio. and Virginia.
,l l4)1vi. 1 1 tie I'c(ioverv' f i a lirst-recl r il 1 es11t 1 )11i ill t Ai A 1;)i -l ii all ill :i i I f a1E t P )ilti, ( a.. 10.A :a'' W 'tr ,l\i ll :ip1 l I('1it li)is. 11T o 1 r'eatillitllt W is )e !lll ll A lliltI -A :w111l comlip'l ( i) thle clial of 8 ]ptem ber.
lii Illilloi- 117.2 acres were treated inll ('i:ica :oi Sr. Loui:. :i~1d x'8ilptf IIi (IIritng tlle perio() Jui ly 5 t ()'dtober 19.
It 11] i lt i filed trea i1 iii nt1,1x W ere P'-111114 ill lie I fal 1 1989. x it i 1'2.1 ;t'i' treated Ii F4 I W ynet 5 A. it ill ia :a 1is. 3 1 :il ,2:1'p irt. nilld 11.8 1t W hit Iin I n2llinapois 2.1 al1it ion:I a r w Iretel' ] bet ween Alpril I ial I1. 19,41 4)0.






BUREAU OF I"NTOMOLOIY ANI) PLANT QUAILANTINE 17

Il Michlligan. fromi Septellber tber8 t Nber 15. 63 'ace were treated, approximately 50 acres in Detroit alul le lrenlaiIndler iII Dearborn. Birminghan, (rosse Po(inte. alnd Melvindale.
Ini St. Louis, M(.. al)pplications were made to 27 acres t, cover the premises on which 26 beetles were trapped ii the anRinIer (4f 1939. Not one beetle was caught ini treate(l areas where previously hundreds had been taken.
At D)ansville, N. Y., the local nurseryvlien s association. actin, on the advice of State officials, initiated their own soil-treatin? tIraglraln, contribluting oe-half and underwriting thle other half of t he $4.000 required to treat an infesttion that has not yet spIrea to aiiv of the extensive i-l rsery-growing sections in that vicinity. During the first 2 weeks of November 19.3 acres in Danisville were treatedl in the area where 116 beetles were discovered during the 1939 trapping season.
In North Carolina 302.5 acres in 17 cities an towns received applications. Every known infestation in the State. exceptingi 1 at Asheville, was treated at a dosage of 1.000 pounds per acre. Treatmerit was begun September 25 anl completed December 16.
In Ohio 4 acres were treated at Belpre between June 2.9 and July 6, 1939. At Ashtabula, Belpre, Conneaut. Gallipolis. and Marietta 166.35 acres received applications during the spring of 1940. At Zanesville 12.6 acres were sprayed( between May 1() and 21.
At Berryville, Va., where three beetles were trapped in the sunimer of 1939, 4.34 acres received applications between Decemliber 11 and 13. From Marclh 11 to April '3, 194(), 29.5 acres ini Winchester were treated.
Throughout thle year the treatillng work has been lar'el, ")ono)red by either the State or the muni cipalities affected. Tle Bureau's contribution included furnishing spray equipment. drivers f () the spray trucks, and supervisors to cooperate with the meni in clage Of the wo(rk for the sponsoring agellce. La)Ior anild iuaterials were furnished by the cooperate age c ies which' also made a il local arran elements.
FEDERAL AND STATE REGULATORY MEASURES
At a public conference held ill W ashingt, on. I .. C.. on Feblui a y 27. 1940. to comisider the present status of tlhe Jalaliese Ieetle qiar1antile. there was a large attenldan ce of nursery asociat li) lr VjseIt atives. St ae )lalt-)pest officials, anl ot hers iner ,. This Mw's the first public 1neetill( to( c1sider this (i'iara11Itille iiice tI le 1cariC1g hel(i on Novetbiler 1(, 193. A j) favored retention of thle ua antile.
Tliis year there was 11 nlecessity to c)isider th e adlvi-albility Vf placllg any add(l(itioial States uider qular'antive. With lihe exCelsin of Asheville. N. C.. all important in festat(ions disc)mere i),n uIu11111iralItined States were treated wit h a dosa ge of lea(I all sentiate s~lufiient to eliminate aIll hazard of beetle spread from these cliiniiti es.
By anll amen neit to the Japanese eet,, e quarantine regulatiots. effective July 1, 1939, fotiur townships in Cuyah(ioga ou () io. were added to the regulated ;irea, brino-ginuo the enti re count v witlhi the area. With the extension of the count inuous regulated area to) include Clevela ndi, all restricted colln(lodit ies nIO\vinig flromll tlls Ip)oiit
267. 75 )-- 2






1 ANN~A I F .I'~u lT- o F 1 A1' I \l ENT OF A( tIt I.LF U1w 1 0

t I i)i 'et1 lae I t I t vrri t r'y IV1( 11 ce rt i i fict t 1i i(r l ?e il n i leit all ,

t lt. to\ ll tf l I ;llfIllvI l e t)rii itP.s re 1 v \i, is stats as a n s ) Ite it re; 14 1 I ic i I i le in vct el lI t f (,ert a II jiItia litileti arti' -es c(, Id be iIli t l i I I 11 r cIv il it'i l t ill.
leii1iat loll )I ) l R l rit 1 (11l- (11 tallt tlle-l':t a IllV e llie t of
111 i t all" \Il legeta bIe't s a IvaI e Ill fr li ()r't t u Oer 16 to S l )tt'iii il t )( 1 I lit, veal 1 i1t a '011t )Cl l 11 1R11 I il ll l 'trat iV ill-tl l tl at i ll diled I 'Sti Plellber 19. 191 .
A f tfui li :11iiie ti, tl ll it t w reirilt l.lio ~ \\t- I1 letI. et, l tiVe Aprili Ilt II. etNtt'llill, the r, i t r la aleas i1 larv ll New YIl'k. (0hi I'eI-1 1 lvaI ia. aIl: I W e-t \ir lZlia. ('orry at, Irle. Pa.. anild (, hiare toll. '. Va.. were pl edI S tlerl i lt I i at z late l I p illnts. lThe Ittllc llill fltill ther p ilded t at t lie .wlaI area i'r ii which thtlle Ii eil eli! P)f l lt it a1 tI(1 vegel alles 1)\v lil()t i lt.ki ()r rlyefri (re '; I I tI' i1 fre'~l ated be xletIetl to New "Y k ('itv aitid so~11irllili tra. iitol l o e tlowl i (l (.iall e tI illt. a t l a it a ill
i7\I:t la' tI. New Jerlsey. ar(i 1) eiii>vivaiia.
lt hI. I't ive il~l: 7. .111 0. fregi lar ll 1111 1tlit tl .1 a a ll !e-e-l eetl le q 1al'ant iie11 1 ti!' nio ellelli of frlits t11A vE e a, l \e\ e lkc I it l ie tI Ilniiit lOw -li loll 0 lto l si art ic le> lovilr 11o1n21 the area of heav'. itl :li i\ii1 v\1a relitrIerttl10 calr or ilotoIrtlt k. i er ti- :litt lelltIiil let'I ii't r f l'lll~> 't) 4 Ille 011 l e ii1 el ieil(t -i 0 (. iin :P* + 0 lIII'l''i'Ii Iijlp it lit'- of frlit> t tald vc''etaiule by tIs>.e or veliiciic pan1 + e I )s hieiul.t, aind express.
A\ Iiiil-tl'at ive iI-tru ction were i el l oI .lii e 1141. to .reI lle froli t lie 1 1eavilv il fet e(/ 1 a1ea the t idewate r Vir illi i areL Ill'ill ( i li. Nl'folk tlid Ports nul th.
I evi lel f! iltra ate ia ( l it iur tle w ere ittlby M isslli. Nev Y,,k.
()hlin. all We t Virgilnia. Alis.ouri atl Wes 1irginia exteidei t ei l' r'2'ilated areas .
HIGHWAY INSPE('TION SERVI( E

1) ,'uI Wit i the illCtea etl 0 trillickil,, ill ulrl at iltfl Herit-t llli 2 ,1i v. 7 stal i1 were athlekl to tlh s-( tI lit 1:1d l bee ilt )ler:Itt oIt :it t H' e Ii o I I en lS - st: 1 !ti, l eI'e ll 1'Vi 1i1ii: re ular antI 4 fl)ater i-ll MX ti 1i l1 l: D) I l-1 :i1t md 2 oItelr ill ()11 : anlt 1 I 'e l lla 1:' stat l ill PiI -11l-4 1 u lw i l 1? W ti 011 I .1 t i tI.,r I:1 *el1 11! NI. (l I W, l(W rti re 1i1fl)f 11 as l .
( ,I o Il th ie, 2l)II ll tt mls :111'1all (11 S1 t e'bllt 0 er 9. : 1(| by Cl!


til cd, l ,>,m N 't eliller 12 :i1l tli o l ll o: N e l'1) I1.ll 1
1V-l ,: p;,l,:il :l'a tiviltie ill the -lp'iiu olF 11 l'e:.a1 tl'i112 the t!it+ I V ,.l< ,f A li I 11ii1i ili t openl il ,t' live n0:1td to i ll e1 1 I flw e I I if I (In'lit I tilt Ignil e2'll !) (10 neg. I '1 \e 1 -' .'
l V 1, -\ \: l I \ i 2l vit wI I \ 1 : l i'' 11)ii, evet \ i'N1- 1er +' K1 b+t \\', ii \l il 2'. :110 '.' 1110.I 01 the1 tli \\ill (1i tIw o i k)s ( !'-






BUREAU OF ENTOMOL)OGY AND PLANT QUA\IIANTINE 19

Po tillng of the mtot important hifglways was concluded early in May with the addiitions of (one station in V1ir1inila and twvo in 1)lio. W, hen the seasonal restrictions on fruits and vegetables Itecamlne )ioperative (I June 15. eihilt additional stations were o)pelled ill V i'rginia. Inspection( personnel was increased during Junie alld full quotas Of men were assigned to the posts by June 17.
Durinllg June 1940. 24 road stations were in operation. Of this nuniber 14 were in Virginia. 1 in West Virginia. and 9 in ()hio. Toward the end of June 3 special floater statiOlls were opened in Virginia and 1 each in Malryland and West Virginia.
Em1pty trucks returnling to southern points after rivingg through sections il which beetles were swarming were found to contain 7,7.8 live beetles.
Eighty-four lots of infested plant material were intercepted at the po.t. from which were removed 9 adult beetles and 274 grubs.
('Ounlllt of all mi)ot or vehicles stopped at the road stations for illspeol~on during the year to taled 4.117,T60S. Uncertified iquarantined lr1'dlucttt were f,) ld ill 226,65 vehicles.
CERTIFICATION AND TREATMENT OF NURSERY STOCK
/A a re-u!lt of sc()tin du(1iring the -tmllllller of 1939 within i the rtth"re'i' area. 3.013 beetles were found On t:e premises of 204 Inrsh,'Le- :,i 'reenhtlouses. anld 4!) 4 )eetles v ithij a 500-foot radios of 79 )ther e tablishlnents. In the New En(land States 70 establishlienits were found infested in Connecticut. 7 in Massachu.-etts. I in New Hanm p'shire, and 2 in Rhode Island. Nursery infestati)n. ill tile (ther States in the regulated area were as f,,ollow I)elaware. 16 ,stablihnients ar : riand. 2 New Jer-sey. 2: New York. ,: hio, i: Pennsvlvania, 21: Vir'ginia. 7: and West Virginia. 1.
Twenty nurseries that were assigned to class III, as the result (,f one or a few beetles found on the p)reilises in previouIs years, were re scouted during the sumnier of 1939 to determine their eligibility for restoration to an uninfested status. Seven establishment, were found free of infestation and accordingly reverted to class I o( )Preferred statils. Two units wvere grailted preferred status in part. Nursery and greenhouse scout ing was completed by the middle of Septelllber.
Aiiing thie latest reports of adults observed was the collection of 1St beetles and the observationi of additional beetles at IBedford, Westchester ('olnty. N. Y., on Octo)ber 10. The beetles vere as active as :it all y i tie during the sunnuer. October 10 was als) tihe latest (late (n which adults were observed in Connecticut, several splecimnl~s having been collected on that day in New Haven. The Phila(elplhi a. Pa.. office rel(rted that the last ,Ja panese beetle was flMId in that area on Novelnber 28.
Larg: i qantitities of nursery and greenhou se stock were certified fk)r Inovnmeiet front infested establishments within tile regulated area. A laOrge n 1mber of shipments originatill on11 11miloinfested establish1me its withllin the regulated areiea were also certified. In April 87 car:icade of ur-erv sto ck were shipped from New Jersey.
A. few ad(ltional iInslpect(ors were employed in Maarch to take care of increase ed demands for thle inlspl)ecti a lnd cerfitifiation of jree nhioi.e alld l lurser'y stock. Ai extra iitil )et i was iired forll assignmet (Illrling the reai1ler of thle spring shining sea son at one of






N) ANNI'\IL 1Il'( 1T- Li 11.1'AI I (INT F i1lTVI.T IIE, 1 01

t1 1 N: It \I8 I 1 IFr. E il 1 )iA t ll H il V Il IWEein WIA1 le ( I r (t I )- al \N-:1 re I I II 1 ,( I.I' I I t ( l iel I )( lrary V, i l)k 1( *t If ,aI
til' I tIl 1- Il I 11I gr eellI I( 1 .1 e t'. : I I Ill n 11 10
1' i lelid a11:1 la (1 handle ti lle v1 1 lil Of certi field IEa i'r

Il' It'rI eXl, 'li e l it' ~ I t ItiV t( 4llP.l l6 ileT, lir t itllt" 'izied it a 11(4 111 (i **ll "e iII;i1'Y l i 11id 1111116-t) ,( s t1 at a llNv- av P II I (t XC e s OfSi I ni 11111 0 111i tfer. si t()\ O l-tha il N011 1r Inf1i g In()f 10 ,IW lli )P I0llflr 15.( 1 1 12-111( I iit ll W i le ll t 1 '1 ail rll. ( )sIy,. alld till~ 1 el :tll' il'oe )plY, eb.rlh tItl. Il111111] 11'11 0 lil I le l I l l 11 1 nn 1( 110a Oi l ove li in d ie J.1 laIlEll L 1h 10 *Cup Of tit I no h 1 1 w 1'llidte fl ili llullY pl'O**Ps 111'P to) Milel bllhed( nllr ,rv stocl.: nii,t lar rer th~an 1'2 Wc(lw'. Ili (tialli,"t"11 Iiiviiu. t ile ) ( 1111k ()f I Ilt ear th l ii etl d of ildies l i lll 111 1 ill a 11 t 1 (1' Iaig' (l ua tte 1 1 ol Iii fsi'el'Y 1111 gl'of ili 10,110 V 1111k I Iat I Ilret vIfore oI (I 10t le 1at i lfa rtoilv treated to elimi11,1 te p t
-i e gntil 1i iIf1'-tat ii. Illee is wiIle' l'ile d iTh1 1 '(, a lill \ l've in his impl n ified mletid of produci1 beet le- free stock.
TIPW (lit ion 1f 1he 11i)))0/ ( ziile. e1lrged 1 colillll tlh Gdt cIICleS 1ill toW l-> ad(d Il ( p)erlation with thle )ivision of Ilisecticide 4etile'tin s 7 6 0-i A~-alllple vere col lected allit a1ialvZe t ft'll 1 1 (,l'Y ll0t 1. I ig I.l aO 'fea :ll111(1 f'01e revi>tl t created wit lead lisela 11 te e a re-1i1 Off(11 P>P Alll Ith U ( lllP { 0 ~ e 0 1 01()1 lll 1 o Ill** i tAl(-;, analyscS. ,336.3019 s-quare feet vere P'tr tnd 1(, I i'i t11 I )oe il ,et iidlil c()ntent of the soil uI) to thle riequlired loae. In abdlitin,. 4;1.:72 square feet o)f lurse'y-v area received tl(,ir 11111nitial apili'a of' lead( a uatle.
_N tir erie+(- ( nd+ (us, fu~lfiliII,+ tit(, refir1t,, Tt I,) --.Iti SIlM it'l'lto tile jul' l itil l e re1 ( ( rlation ler -l (lle rillz T e ar I' i l 1.514 to 2' .)75(. Tlis de10l(,110a wal-S d el i l'll Yir i l
Il ial 11wt*( et 111) '(l I he 111"I lil l t i 'P:11 ulOl. V 011 0,Qt2 1 li ll- it 1xa pa -l f)r Il0 v11 1 ) hu TllualIt to r! i 1 iiP d':I1- 1 2i1'1tl l (e-plitI tile 1'a t that t1 eY rar1d Iv fled c4 tl I'!I 11 Itii .1 I:I ( li itll (w 1 111(1) il- to ir ,l ci( y111 Frlt-i ee l(ck. T Ir (I l I t. Ij I w:lcl P"i' e it, lIlIll tIleil' a t a IfIrItI -ili t o I oerf+ cl L-() fI l1i :1- thir?~i Sl i- V l11) Wias C(Mc1( '(tIl 1i1Estali-( 011rll t- lnlt : l! Iil' : l 10 t1 t h eart iritiwn u tl a til e" 1. '42-la i I (I- nlifrtet itll xiii I indt,1 'I, i',, i i 11 + eI'1at 1111e11 inlg lel'. l l11,-' i ldii I t 1tt1liv1+ I10t -1 :T11AT 111I 1nd FlpITSn (JllA1 t 1 1Yvi. A il T4 0 pi t cll A ,- 1t 1 1 0 ,' (til hi nll in 1'i )tl O t 11()c t )l ilitt 1li0 -I i i ,

it s1ii1)j lrx l dee l ill o li ( I l l .iaI (, l ) tand f ll 1 ,11 :tt i1 I 1 iII dw i p mrs (Ith atd i h 1s ttomr to takie, care f tll + It i n .


CERTIFIATION OF FRITS. NE(ETAI IFS. AND CU T FI( VFR


re are t I ii N ',iov. .3 ill Peilsylvall1a. e ao'1 i 1 ; :-c nn-,,t- at l ( ) 0IIo.
ii 1 f'l il ('l.ll1' 2 1lt ( 1 11 \ li o. 0
P1r I I 1 : .







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND'1) PLANT (U.\.2AANTINE 21

Activities 111 connection with the summll er (liarl'altie on l all l and vegetables were heavy on the Eastern Shore of MIarvlanl amid Virginia and in Delaware during the month of July, although the work was considerably under the same period of last year. Thlis wa due to a decrease in the methyl bromide fumigation of loaded refrigerator cars caused by a reduction in the potato crop a- a lreu~ lt of dry weather.
Over 300 truckload of fruits and vegetables were certified in August for movement from New Jersey to Virginia, North Carolina. South Carolina. Georgia. and Florida.
Restrictions on the movement of cut flowers reiiained in effect until October 15. although the seasonal quarantine onl fruits and vegetables was lifted on September 20. The fumigation of farm products in refrigerator cars with methyl bromide ended for the season on September 9.
During the period of the quarantine on fruits. vegetables, and cut flowers, inspectors removed 2.642 adult beetles from 3.245.495 packages of commodities certified for transportation.

ARTICLES CERTIFIED, VIOLATIONS INVESTIGATED, AND PROSECUTIONS TERMINATED

A total of 501,205 certificates of all kinds were required to cover quarantined products moving to nonregulated territory.
Table 4 shows the quarantined articles, intended for shipment from the regulated area and for use in certified greenhouses. or surface soil in nursery plots, in heeling-in areas. or in plunging areas. which were fumigated or sterilized during the 12-nolonth period.

TAB.ui 4.- Materials fim igated or .terilized under Jflpan(wse beetle quarantline rcgulations fiscal year 19.i0O

Potting Surface Surface
Treatment Plants tin surfa soil with Berries plants

OC ic ire SqFare
Y'. Ter yards fet feet Crate
Lead arsenate -...---------------------------------- 194.912 -_ 559, 636 3,453, I -.........
Carbon disulfide --------------...-------........ 2, 107 1. 713 17, 710
Paradichloroenzne -----.-------- --726---- -----Naphthalene .-------------------------------------.---------- 47 49, 0O-
Steam ---.. ------------------------------------------ 45 201 4-----------------Pottina Sweet- i E rv Treatment Plants Unions Tonmat e t shipnments

Cuiic
Y ner yards Cars Cars VC ('n .i r
--ethy bronide.----------- 771. 7S2 23 1;2 7 2
Hvdrocvanic ac id --... ----......- .----------.---------- 10 --- -- --.. --.-.-. .Treatment Beans Caibage 1 states C 8rr is Egpli n' te rs

B shl s (irs (r Bshs I sds l# B
-ie l1 tr -r-:i ... . -. .. ... -- 5- -. ---,
Hydrea i ai i--..- -..... 12 ........ -',- 4- 23






22 ANNI .l, IE ulT I'> mF I)EIPARI11IENT (IF A(;It'tI.T1IR E, 1 i4

N rlil erv an1d Irlliilielit stoc', -ItIld. -ol. c r1 101.p'"'' ollip ).t.. :*l1b Ill ITl l', w ( (Pr1-ft I d 'm )ile t tfr() t i l k'I t tI'd nI0 1 I vil I i lie ear I lI t1e fh( l,)vII I ( ilt it i1 l1ttlll1( 1. -i- iher ... t. a d. 7 1( I:14. v a I 1 ..1. .f ui 2' 18
S i llt M 1 1 111 1111 .r (- 2.. tl(JII)l .d I re fpe- a+u"t :1'

rl i tli \I2 1 t ) IIa I. I Id i t fl 110 -+ cf+ri -fti(,I (I lI,' l ri a," ty (1itlir;Inra llilt( ) 1 iee :( l+ ltl, \tere ,+ i4ll(v: ( Il'lilY :)Il 0 Oe i l l .. ... .. ) PPP(: ) F rilit. :.l. .ek t. .. .. .. .
.110 1 sJ nld 21;, 301 ('it l ie r k' ..:t e .-..

1) ( ,ill l i ', 1 l (ll t te)00 t ) )( in(1 w t, 11 e i ,it0 th l ,Iuthted arva.
SI)-e,-It i t ti.t we Ie 11t(l1e (i It ST .) t i) ) r eIt I i( )lat ol t I J ,Ilrei i)sl :111 0, 1t l 0 ] of ) bt 0 t )) e l 1 lo. 101 ( t.,~~t,, i,

I'lel. itillidIi l ld 1 ) v 1Ii(Y IW:1'v 11v-c)U l X'i1I ull'iw o:1l i i4' A limvitl loll W1\9; sP('Ii't 1 I 01 0110 (f t 1 v.-4 0iolat t .
COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES

S aIte flu1)(i for e( t Ir ive cm it l I l' ( 110ranti e t 1 v i' v, provideld by ( olIetI ecut t. D)elaware. (Georgia Illinois. li1 n, 1 e. MIa rvl antl. la '*-aclhusetts. "Michiran. M i ss uri New XII -hi. Nw
V NewV York. North ('(roiin. ()Mo. PCariovlia. Rh1.1l b- -! ltlilt. VIrgilllia, and W est Vir 11ia.
l()tal co(lit Ibiltills fr(m State. citY. and F del':l welf:'(1 :11 1,e!,it. 1f r trl)l al l 1( sol t 'ePitlnlells (I riiing lie Vea' : t1il lt t >29)1 ..
Exp)erimental work wVith thle nen Itol' T / *//o!4 1,, (,7/1 ,; iln 4'trolliig establisW(led infestatiolis o()f the Japaie(e beet le v' ii (d at tIl lv;ItoIratory It X i te Horse. N. ,.. 111 t I'P' I11-' joitllI oIeI,1l1l t 1111 (If t ]is B Iireivi, i i: (d tIe N Wv Jer-sey I ): ItrlnietI of A (glil l l 11r .

(CONTROL OF PEACH MOSAIC AN) PHONY PE CH I)ISEASES

cooperativeve activities fmr the control of p)ach Illmsaic i I p nyv p)i'acl Were c ltid)(et wVit r eii i : } a))) ) i'atit01. illevfr e t 'rl' OV-rlief all( )liie l ai18 slubstralt1 1: c It 1 diuti() llts lofrotm 1l 1 t !ae l re 11:1 (6.4 (000() rclirtr1 ti rees a 193,-):() ) properties w ere inIwcled 6 4I co1ilit s of 22 )of tile Soith1ern1 States mi'l'n the Atlait to t110 Pealjij. or' I l.a: I I, ) 1.000 dise: 0t trees were f iliil ) ..7() prophet ie>. :;ili ()t 91.(X)(0 of wli(]c vwere lest royed Trees i < fec 11te1 ltl ito -:aic re10 I lillI ii 2 c(m li 81 (l 1a'es 111i fectedtl wii j tl < lY pel ie i Ill t ies \\lere 0lese dis ee 1a ot beenl founI before. I 1 0 ilt I p 101 i(lT Il'm il ill 37 c nt il t 7 S t:1 t(1 11 i)(11 l i 'tc1 :i t 1 11. d ).('Ich] In 136; cmi))) t i(v+ I I S" al(,. Nil, I Ives Ill fe('ted N 11tt llw,-t ', TO I li 0 Ill 1 03 c( 1i 41(' (d., I St 0tes ali( If() t r'e-@ 1 v It It ph0119v p 0:11, i ll -)7 0,,i1ii (,I ill 15 s it:l1e'- leFe .tese d ':,>e- lila1 previttislYvo 10it foudtl tl c v -I t 1()Ill' clilirv S( atc:lt 'ind #3; c(' lint lc-, Il 4 0ht r Sbt me ]taxo' ( II;1liN d f('w)) lim v:) I ) tll e I p ))V pe(a:10 1 111:11r l t1i1nl stat I ,,.) ; 01111 Ii t's, I \ 1 1111:r( t





BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AN)D PLANT QUARANTINi: 23

Affected States have establislled qua altilles to regulate thle iltrastate and interstate movement of restricted materials front ie'iilaled( areas. The Bureau cooperates in the enforcement of such measures and during the spring of 1940) insl)ected 1.003 nurseries, grwilly over 24.000.000 peach trees. 144 budlwood properties, aid the ellvi Ir os wi itli Ln 1 mile of both nurseries and budw od properties. III th(e State- where phony peach is known to oc(ur, (all but 3 nurseries let t he cerl ificalt iou requirements by removing, prior to June 30. all dliseased trees fulld within 1 mile. I the area of the mosaic disease 131 1111S- ie es a it dealers failed to meet certification requilrelits alld were p ir',li)ited frm1 slipping peach or p11m11 nirsery stock. V irtee i I w()o(tl sources failed to n1ieet the certification requiremielnts beane m-~aicinfected trees were found either in the orchard or within 1 ille Of it. Nurseries planmling to use buds from these sources were in.lii ldiatcly notified of the finding s, aiid buds were obtai-ied from other forcess whlicll met certification requirelents. This actinll pivi'vented 4 urseries. growing over 274.000 trees, from securing uilds fron ii)aicinfected sources.
iMore than 6.000.000 abandoned aid escaped trees were removed, maiyv possible sources of infection beino thereb\v eliminated. All activities were conducted in close cooperation with the affecute Stat .

CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION

Inspections for citrus canker were conducted in 11 counties in Texas and 18 parishes in Louisiana, with the assistance of State inspectors. Properties on which citrus canker had been found in previous years were intensively and repeatedly inspected. as were wild Iho',t plants and abandoned orchards. The activities in Texas were chiefly in 4 counties of the Galveston area. where canker has been found since 1935. and in the lower Rio Grande Valley. Citrus-growing nurseries of the Gulf coast area of Texas were also thoroughly inspected. No infections of canker have been found in or near any of these nurseries in recent years.
Louisiana State inspectors discovered citrus canker on one )property in Jefferson Parish involving 804 trees, which were promptly destroyed. No canker has been found anywhNere in Texas since September 1938.
The employment of relief labor in Texas under allotments from emergency relief appropriations made possible the removal a.and destruction of over 335,000 escaped and abandoned citrus trees. a iarge majority of which were (t;fr-t; tifoijata. TIe effectiveness of tlis vpe of work is indicated by the fact that, in reworkimr formnerlyv infected property ies. very few seedlings of these trees were found. This is encouraging in view of the difficulties experienced dlIl'i lIevi)us years with recurring infections of canker onil small seedlil if i tis species.
INSECTS AFFECTING FOREST AND SHIADE TREES
PINE BARK BEETLES
iFhere was no 11larked chIsaflle ill tihe aiflolilit of 10s-- cal-ed 1> hark beetles in tile Western States. Te k f te trk lacl Il illi I)ee le l1 theil Cent ral locky fnMtlita iw tha ssl lest ructive l rin t'lli the period of (,1 1!J35-139.. as dccnc cribdc ill lat Ye'lr S report. llaIr ; beell~l re('111cedt






2 41


coIi 'ol w .rk i**e 1e-- ti (ter it l ,i ae I Wt -I Ir itraitig ill I I the



(Itliqrf lia al iti I ()lAlieUll, ()rI p idI. ilV 11 4 'e 1 OWl (1(ll it ) l ,j-(tl. etrena
)I Ire-t I I 1 I. ( )\ I .. I I I 1 11,(1 I I s ie1e v a jr I I I t Ie I Ietv le. va a I 0 te Ii li it ai jH I' 1 )-m I h1 ) e I Wcil 1 14 a@011 de'- ir Ale. It ikel h (I at adtli ional work wll b(,r lreeded touring c ine outbreakn( al fniland Yi 110tWiei're lo and )1veral cnt : vll )!ld were Cod1(ucted by the I-'rest Service. tle ()flice of Indian Afairs. and pl'ivate ti116er alit ow iel>, follow111g li ll I liilei iltoli
leld work oun t lie hazard-i n1 Veriltory strvev of the (oilinrcial >mnlerca' -i pilli areti ill northlelastern l Caflifornia Wa~ almost conlpleted. T'lis survey was based on the results of rese arch in Oreiin ant ('a Iiforlia oi thIe sIusceptibility of pI),iderO(sa pine to attack by insects. particularly ark )eetles. Forest stand( or areas have eei givenll hazard ratllings b)aset () i the hlist0or of their recinlt losses frmi illects and on the present cond(lit in of the individual trees. The most susCeplti l)le 1tlees o1 the higll-hlazard areas may be ma:rkedl for cutting. 't'liis vill elal)le t lie owners to coincelltrate I lel' 1gril lopertirlul Ill tl areas where therlice is most clanger of serious )l >> fll ):l Ik betlee- ill th e ear' future. The Forest Service and several large p)rivatte loperators ill California and Oregol are making inllnedliae use of tlie iiinfornition supplied by the Bureau and are nldioifyili their nIlitaigellielit plans to permit rali(1 and frequent covertae of 11111ir latilfs ill a;t effort to take out susceptible trees before these are atacke(d. lv ill11:1cts ail( rendered worthless.

I:.F'IE( T OF LOW\ TF:MPERATI'RS ON THIE BII.ACK ItIIIS I:EETLE

I:altf):tt'V St ildies to de(llillille the effects o(f li1W tell)perattlre- ll thlie Black Hilis l)eetle are lw conlpleted. These studies, carried out ,lilril tlle last. four selllasons, s)w t le range )f te111perat ure's fLatal to hliis inise('t and reveal that the species is well adapted to survive th 1l111 111ili tell)eratili'es of its l1or1mal distribution. A1 alyseS of tetllPl'a llir(t rec(r s> front Stllitdal'd weatlle 1i' sttilils ill (r :1jacdt it (-ts where epideliiics liave oculirred illdicatle tlhat killing. tetlIPteratife at ('1cc 1' all) )) Xlitatelv m 1ice ill 7 yea s ill i lle 1)1 ptlero sa pile t vpe. Leti 1 low telll)peratit le ap paretll v oc'ir less oftell ill t l1 1111 )er a111l 1ole),ple pine ty.es. 'Two iinl astllices of ,wiiter-kiiil of the BIlack li I ieetle :ire on ic rec(rd. Bo ll of li ieo ccu rred inll ()lorad(). lie ii it )'n l lerii'u rv 1 ,. w 1 :ui ll e'1i 11i1t Illmo :alt 1v of .I pterc 't l'0'-.tIt*( t'ro ili it .o .. t 3 1.. andl tie '1 ccld i Nvill01'hor lb, \ liit i 29 lpercelit miiortailit v wa ('cail-i'c V y a 1111 1111111 ot i It is I** l'li l i t 'efi t're. it I leill i ll1re. 1. c'1-ti1 ile t it' t ihet' filc ors0 cti' latll l l cmi oflr No exaiiiple t' 0 111mu1 iltY v "tItlll to :lttr o"il [ p t 0 M Iill t iei I 1110 'l:1 1.' Illi c it'l' 1 0 :l "
e xi\ t'ri iic'iiitl (i:t:l c)t1 jiart icu lar iiten'-S it c'tiiec'tii witi ll \citc I1ti i IiC Il i Ic III o' f iill' 1' lull W 1ill'tir (i t clrIe1i'1 \I r it i t?',
o:icgui n a i iuui:t II i iIiii t1v i li )- ',c'liiir. 'lie larv:ic rel ail i li-, litlx -






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLO)iY ANID PLANT QA.LANTIN E: 25

111mum 11ardilless d1rilln the ent le wiitler. III Malcie r lU>tali(e to c0hl begills to decrease and colitiilues t() so(>0 1iitil 1jlillllli tlia l'lileoccurs thle first part of May. DIring the winter. larvae lev(epilg ill lodgepole and limber pines will survive at air enipeelatl irie flflii .~ to 12 Falrenheit d(legrees lower t lalt those inll polderosa pine. bit [Lrin.* spring and fall the cold h ardiiis of larnae ill a t!liree lIt,- i sillilar. In niid-October liiortalit v of larvae Ienlve(l fIrom the brk (,f pollderosa pile begiis at 1( and is completed at 1 l I midDecember. whNen tlhe larvae reach maxilmu'n cl-~l Iia lardinie--. oi4 u'rtality beginl. at ap)'roxilmtelv -13 a dli i colilple tat -1 il11' lMay and Jle ftie larle line- 1s atiH)l t1le salt a itt Ill 111-Oct oer.
CONTROL OF BARK BEETLES THAT TRANSMIT THE DUTCH ELM DISEASE

Ili connection with thle Dutch elm disease project t1lere lial- Ie'll sO1I1 de -11 11a1, 1' a 1!11 hod tilat Wot ld 1 otef ilii e v0( fr'o, in ili by bark beetle- aid other inilects. TesIt were conduted I in"wic various- materials. were applied to the bark of eini og>. Treat eo ad untreated logs el're then place W)(diatli w Ilee d 111- i! f "te( with variouil insects were pre-1"t. Ortilod 1or 4 lzizL. 1110:10chi ,ronaphtha lene. or iaplthlalelle. mixed with fuel il o,' 1i rele.( were tie iiost effective substances uied. When app ill MaV they effectively repelled attack by the eln b i-ak l;etie>- oN,.,i/a,. im'l/t;itriata ( Marsh.) and Hyb/lboieiis raityx p ,E ic. i < 0taini cerambvcid beetles (luring the rellainl er l' of te Year. A1))ieI from Septeniber to April. inclusive. they reduced comi-ler 1ly the attack during the following season of i-nect activity.
Other experiments were conducted to to test the value of various mixtures in killing the immature stage> of .8~/1olt /li /l,;stiI,/, and
H roi r~~. The mixtures were sprayed on the bark of logs infested with the bark beetles. Twelve different conmbinations were effective when applied to logs that had become infested with beetles 31,.2 to 7 weeks previously. Variations in the moist re colntent of the bark had no apparent effect on the re ults of the treatments. The most outstanding feature of the experiments was the excellent results obtained with emulsified sprays in which water was used in place of fuel oil as a carrier for the lethal material.
An experiment was begun to determine the extent to which the pIopulation of the smaller European elm bark beetle Ic bly iic li,rfiatic) can be reduced in a certain area by meals of trap trees. Three woodland plots,- etch 2 miles square. in wlicth ellm tree> are co1inion were established. The eliiis in the areas were coulltel, their diameters at breast heiglit recorded, and their locations i ld ji ted on inips. Two percent of the trees in thie 6- to -incl dlillieter class were treated with sodium chlorate duriiug thie slner. Previou- tests had s7Ihown that this treatment killedI tie trec- atlll that they becaiie si)ecially suitable for bark beetle attack. Fron t; to 7 week- after treatillent thle tl ree w ere felled. Iharkedt anl I api rit:e no e ,- made. All in-ect- infe-ted material w then de-I tI'o1yed. Tie eXl ri"u' ients will 1 ha e to be10 l ) ('(,ti)l1 (,l ill S11 ltIell V :11' in ]elel'111hlie V letler t1 k beetle poilts lamtim ifl 1nr v I'edw by I ieial lv treating cel('rtai t ree al, tild let i liviI 1 1 1 aft,1 t1iev' lieouitdi- III fe lt .








A II ROSIA I :-.TI.I.:S


l ,,A i ji ,i ~ I Hi (.' 1I lIt i 'IL1 u(' It)l r1' -Ilt> I ltitA It o ll ij B !tl til
All ill il Vll: I 11 41aIII I t 11I 1 t il 011l i e111 1 rf



t1- i '(\te'l l 'I I 1 x t I >ta l. lik iiiie ille leI icaIls

tl l'It I 'i) t lt I are )11 l)l x IIt I ot (I tl( l ( I)I :t (cl r Is 1li I 1iIl t lie (;lf State A.A simllp)ler m ietol o)f reve(,ntin1 attack Iby
a IIi'Iia Ites is tI evl n-rack luNheIr for 12 t 15 Cas. IThIis



will rc iit1 til it loiltlre I'T1 t111 1 t. 111i inaltv ti e s l w ali 45 to butj h~t 'e i t i)( it I e> will wit att a c( I Ii( l( i o I1 stw t lie s e e I t gi a I a tfiP '. \I 1e i I.. i tlie sI I ing 1 I)f 1!)4!9. At tle s0e11 time co I)lerti, -, stllies o) tie itle tit I alnlI iof f l I a ssr cited staiii fui were i> tiw te I I )at a ( ive I'e-> n)f aIle)rosia beetles in tl he uenera Ialfor 12 to 1.!/ dao'. Thi 1 1 i' il iicate tha1 ht ( 1ile t is c11 si derail lif r ci e i o Al)its. ~l'e nt. ost i fi)()tal t species cmb) lete ts eir life c It le in f

( to, weeks in the (iGulf States. and that the peaIk (f activity is dt i(ry 11 and Aurlgist.

EUROPEAN SPRUCE SAWFLY

Ilie Etir()ilean Slnruce sawfly is generaeTllv
  • -,1'i lv affected 11 ea' ()f teS(, I w 0 tate. if) to l fe pl stMl t Ile I(' eell m w ll1 talitiv anio g li es .-'eve ly V e fliat et 1 )Y 10
    1 wIlv. h'll is largely dule to I lie fact tha:t t le la rvae of the :Itvv 1ed ili-l cxclisivcv on the ld needles. and (lii l, o@ f h( c Icurret 1veY 1 ', fol e rf em 1 a >111 1ke( t) t e Ilive. )ici ,111'i 1939 afl 1111ie11I- -t.dv \, 11 t to ne:a (_t ii' e -, i :aXwily I pl lmit ( ,i-s ca I -II \V;I 'i I ( e'0 t) de i iiI I I. I l ie l t' ililleII ciI g tl le ( p )l11i:1lu()l1-. 11 I fie' &fl'c(ft o Il nf)litill MI ilt' we'4 -. Siu p al) wer'e ('l : i -111 I i l a' a thi r( u mI1it i llt' r., i1 where e (f .rwt 4)dt nlill ,Ic1 'onui0 114))n -) ilt'er co)iisiI:erat l1v.

    ) Il ilC li Ati l \l )l :111 LY i 0:1t' I l 11 ()1 f til -,v 111411'1, \\PI r elt b 1ii- eI rv e I Oi lit ll th e t bI I 11I1 in :i r11I X11:1X i : I 1X,1- l 111,11' lsitl('IV t' l1:1 6 )It. I> a i' l1i f0 1 :ll ti-91. Fali l
    GI t 1 ( I 1lit:11 't 'I lit rl i lI (l ll\c "oi ) llI 10i i i I a v I Ui'1 ) 14 4 felv of I st O)i1 110 'lt tw l l 11 f kl o hi 1n:I






    BUEREAU OF ENTU.A11LAOY AND PLANT QUAiANTINtE 1g

    thle iiife.-tel area. ()ver l0) Illillion adults i a I'e0riatll c-' il parl-lte. Mf;cro/,h t'ro;, I..;,,,;;., ( Z t t.). se re ic a l by 11 at o(f M-iine. New Hamp i-llire. Ver on~nit. anid New Y rk in c ~l iini, with tliis I)ivi-i.on and Ireleased ttirougouht he infected 1 reei I. Ii' pzlraite Ea'- hecouse eatabli sied in miianvY localities in the Unit1ed Stat e-. and zicrdinr to ('anadianl reports it is ilwreasin rapidl in iertaiil areas in New Brunswick.
    DOUGLAS FIR TWIG WEEVIL

    A recent widesIprea(l outbreak of the I)ouglas fir twig weevil (('y/;1m/reophthin l/// .,. / /., (LeC.)) ill westerll Wasli1prtoll involvill cO1lsplcllu ells damage to ylilly Domrlal s firs. called for all ilivestiation. iand a comprehensive study of the biohlo). and life history (of this weevil was concluded during the year. It was found that there was one generation a veal'. beg1inninll with egg layin1 111 g reell r tw(rs from August 1 to September 1.5, but that the adults overwillnter and lay fertile eggs the sec('nd seasoii. Thirteen species of HVillneomptera, were found to be parasitic on the weevil. Host resistance. competition among the larvae. and parasitism were considered as being the niost important factors controlling the weevil population. It was concluded that this weevil is normally of minor inl)mp(ltalce (Ill I)Dotgla- fir but that it may be a potential enlenly of planltatiolis. especially those oni poor sites and gravelly soils.
    DETERIORATION OF FIRE-KILLED DOUGLAS FIR

    A -tudl begun on the great Tillamook burn of western Oreroil ill 1933 to determine the role of insects as deteriorating agents and their influence on commercial. salvage of the fire-killed Douglas-fir trees was brought to a close in 1939 when a second fire swept over a large part of this area and left few trees of the original burn intact. Where thi- second fire was especially hot. larre lnumlbers of woodboimrn larvae were killed. but some broods of .cml/ n survived in the heartwood and deep in the sapwood of burned snags. From now on 0nlv the largest and best trees can be salvaged in the surviving logging opera a tions. since wood borers. decay. and repeated buiirns have renderedl unmerchantable the bulk of the original 10.000.000.00(i feet of timber lon this tract of 244.000 acres. This study has been of great value to the timber operators salvaging the fire-killed tillbier of the Tillamnook burn and will be of further value to other logging operators, who may be faced with similar 1)rob)lenls ill tlie fuittlrre.
    FOREST INSECTS IN PUERTO RICO

    A Irli1linar v survey of illSect colnditions ill tlhe forests :iand frest plalntatioiS of Pulerto Rico was made inll the spring ()f 190t. InIi ets were found to be the iloSt import alt factor 1111iniit ing t le i0cce>-s of fol'et'y operations ill tile islalli s, particull riv witli 4.-eeral f ilhe 1110- il) ltallt tree c1 e For ex lli)le. I he ci. )t bw 1 rer
    .,I,, /i, ( il, le 111val C t )l S Illi. cellar ill ali 1ar to be rapli ly l rea. i l l in p a 1t a ll l) al tati l1~a llv. Inler a eitill() .eed x e)vil ( 1 ; / t M :ir-i ll l fletr : bo t I1






    28 ANN 1I. IK ()PoIT- o()V IL)E I' TI11\ENT ()F A 111I('II .TtI' E. 194

    I}PO('Ill Of tI t c p-ol ,illit('s. 1I)v Ille fe w t'(iaIti~n(.l 1 1 1 1iill, ,' w I(-t 11l 111i v1 i )2 1 ('lo I ,,. l'i, WONv I of tIii I i '- x(1r vallllab llhi f( i ii 11111 (' l' i 1 1i f Allt r hf th e 1 11:t;ai11111'4 t(- I; ii-t(I


    lli it IV.
    11'). 7 ) lr(, i ( l' 'le o(f l.( el 'in l Y:d11 ()H''Ill' ll I 11 [l( 't I' i .












    ( ')I ()f-.~ (l)('' ul '-l'ia lly a '- e rien'l )l at, te 1 2 ili' o( ,f ,' i li V :I. I mc iI'-e ol **I IF V lief : ien or ;Iok llr 1111ci d A i jtelli t o r t OfI 1 1 t1*11I11 m ilt0 ,l'< i' e. 11 )(1w( fli. 1 V 111 1110












    1 lbo 101()1 1101 w k \ w ll ii d10' iller 11( I :1' ilt!Ir for ( 4.1' l Iil W' iln li('s f t I e i l) l'a! ti ( e I 1 inrk iNe lerto dRico.

    CYP
    IQ,,' d-i, I dole i Hii Wn l- oge. I'el r ei t 11 itde',,lih I -eitii a ii 1 I l 1 l ', 0 11111 Ii a ide litl ) lCQS> PV () (ilIltl 1 a -~-,la tid l- 'i WI. an, I I


    S1 l(100 IQ (fill it I) Ient i )r l i tiele WI he p o 8 piiralr illoW(k .l am l II old V > ok wAake ) )1 wvl l )Id s.e fo r 1: iwot t m a friTo1I i ~l) t* e 11 i)e (vaila M):e lv t)l te Wri rltle : oj 1(illt. W( i 1

    : reilsd tiol of IS percent 1from 11e1 fuLin allotted for epe l) 'illye l' f. Tti 1. f, I i t.valiti le f ll ,Ile I'th11i1 11Ye 111 raiihill)l lto ii bi 7 .(H')) for wilol Whork II thC e Newv Enulri(al Statot. New York. N(,N Je,(rsey, l nd e0117'I V 111ni: .
    I' I 'lll ell'uti ill flalis, toi aetliel' witll the (volea' Il( i ll a 1a 111i-r v1 1 l ill (il 1111 n1ade it necessary. 1o llurtail salaried p),1(mi1111 a li 1 i ,)t on 1 tlle su lrvisory force Wel' ftil lollci led :1nI 1 ilc it e 1t (f s lpt111)(0r1. I'e 1 i~'C il- en11t plovi 1 Illor for ti'l ilea(,11- .e I" 0 ,,Fk '-jc( ( 11 Adil-ini ltra l ti ol v(hers ho 1 111 a served folr o 1111111 -r-011i a1f1 ete( Ilot ll y the vollini e l1ci 1i 1 (11 11it v of Ihe wo rl :

    ndetail tliat lre -li o a ll o1rk l) 'oject Limiltation of ex)ellitllue'


    l,))v ull,111,ll W l11, .atsil a redc' tion III l!te o11 ,)110 Wal(f Ill,. I le(I-tall ll ()f tll. 11)( lwlw) w here I 114 'll l I) o 111110 () i1el y I E. :1114 ,11-() \\ :1- i to trel t tw) lli:11Pil:- 1:11 la ie < llt at shm ilv lreave re (' l1V 11. :+ li m i ll a 1v104.11 ti' llraill W ( 1 11111 r.:1 to1 t1:1tlY11


    p ii n '- to :111 av ,'l e d ail 1 oi',ce ol f ap l i)'xiilleallv I V ) Iol
    l 111 :"ll e l1111 9F 0 1f 1

    ln 111 f lthe il) i-t i:1 1 -e't ions w ire 111111i lilt 1 ) 11 i 'l e:11 pr-






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AIND PLANT Q1.\I-\NTIN I 29

    ticularly severe during the last few years conditions had imlprove1d, and the supply of unemployed men competent or 1)hysically able to perform good service was drastically reduced. There were I any, V reasons for this, but an increase in industrial emniploymientt was one of the principal causes.
    The weather was mild during the fall of 1939, bllt with tlhe c(nomlillg of the new year temperatures dropped drastically, and during the first few months heavy snow covered most of the area, particularly in the northern part. While the temperature dropped as low as 25 F. or lower in the northern part of the area and continued at low levels for rather prolonged periods, the eggs deposited the previous summer were not seriously injured. In the northern part of the territory latching ranged from 50 to over 80 percent inm \ermont, in Berkshire County. Mass.. it averaged 90 percent, and in Connecticut, 96 percent. It was abnormally cool throughout April and May, and hatching in most areas was at least 2 weeks later than normal. Cool and inclement weather, accompanied in many sections by frost, caused heavy mortality among the small larvae. These condlitionls persisted for many days in June, so that in general the defoliation was not so heavy as it would have been in a normal spring. Owing to unusual rainfall an ample supply of water in small streams was available for spraying.
    USE OF ATTRACTING CAGES IN LOCATING GYPSY MOTH INFESTATIONS

    WVith the co(operaltion of the State officials co('~ncerined, attractila cages were placed in selected towns in thLe barrier zone in Vermont. in New Yor, inniediately west of the Hudson River. in northeastern New ,Je'sey, and in Pennsylvania adjoining the outside. border of the area that hat been infested previ(ttuslV. A number of these caes attracted male moths. and during the fall and winter of 1939-40 the ter.itorv suirronll (in,(' most of these attracting cages was scoute d. Scouting at some was limited because the roa(s or trails were impassable during the winter and workers within reasonable distance were unavailable.
    In Vermont 562 cages were put out in 11 towns. and 45 of these in 9 of the t(owns attracted 68 male moths. Scoiuting arounllld the attract ing cages located 32 infestations totaling 419 egg clusters in 4 of the towns where 32 cayges had attracted 52 male motlhs. No infestations were found in the other 5 towns.
    In New York 3.9S9 cages were put out in 35 towns, and 8 (Of these in 4 towns attracted 23 male moths. Scoutiirg around the attracting cages located 2 infestations. 1 at Esopus of over 4.500 eggr clusters and the other at the old Shawan,,,unk infestation. \v\-Iere, 305 egg clusters were found. At single attractil (r cagS inl ( )tlher towns no infestations were found.
    In New Jerseyv 499 cages vere )ut li ut ill; I towslii and 2 small areas. Onl 1 cage attract( a male mo11tl. sco',lltill arl't(lid tle (,age site (d 11 01t restlt i l t1le i)1di1 of ia Y iii fe tatio1.
    11 PllnsIl]vaI ia 3.072 cage s were )1t o1ut in1 21 tO(Wll )iI)>. atil of tliese (4 ill 11 townI\ il) attral(tel 12 1uial( ll)l ls. o(limtiel locatl( iiif(i-tt hlcls a141r (I d all bkit a lew ofi tl, altac iui" aII e-4 ai(d resulted ill t lie (iscO\( 'erv of (;4 ill'lftStatiq, s to)italijit 3.7s4 e e cliusters,. all (,f which wi'e )les roe()el d.






    30 A NN 1E 1 T : IT 1AEI.\l T ENT O il' ,lT :I' E 1A4'11 1 14

    1(10 >11111:10:lze S.122 ca(ig were plt11 (i Ill 7 toowIn. (iidf of






    pt pal rat 1 11 i If 1u1, 9 cI;ii.es I t, It rl a It I Ti ili t tl'u lt ,' i 1('1(11 lI i t ti tile t t l gllefi (l 190 .1t( 1 t ,, iti: e 's.

    USE OF AUTOGIRO IN GYPSY MOTH WORK

    Several te s were liade itell ttlit e.( (if 19 ad I t dcet 1)miin tle fe l sib, l itv of re ( t id i g ( I', V 1 b e btl t r it i 0 r1 fl l) til talai. Fm.' this l, itmIw o." all ,,itolit :rll W\\ lt III. >'tw -( fethi,' ll' l' W 1 1 4t 1 pi)i 1l 11 e e ale. b1u10 t fUs .11it- ()f l.ey t


    (icliavi ilt to cra'W 011. \ ithi :1 I-rea (a ee cl. rf Ic I I'8C \t'I :,V -ii l le 11)Y1 l>otiIV( 14 11+' to fl I ln and nIakill' record (if tlill trpe w! lui ip-. lwk (lole tfl 11 far h lf fa ei iecl ed it tiile af i tertorlt 1 1Iv til i8i0ial 1it I -o d of estlliati r flo10 the 1 r11 d. but It la- 1't on Ib0101'1111110> vet to ]eterillie whu0 ll a I ll i be lllalle bv 1 i .
    I uiltll ti l l i t t ir lln'~ 4 i 1 til9 defollati 'iic211' W f Illt-i -11. tf )


    tiln a rediti to tthe 1it er referable ht feeling T efe It or li- a'i tll M e. 1r(e,. 'N1 Ill w I Wll 1i e. 111d eliltt l. )~l t ,l1t,0I 10 1 1 0- t-e ii ll'Y 11 W1 Id 1 'ill( allida iii i (0 0 Cllf mile I llel 11 li 'M tllli ec to i ll RI In the elll l e ei (rl) tf iV 1 't 1 tI i 1 1l( livll a itIRiver nd the arriel Zolei defohct'o wf tl tI i ,lale 11 I o ( defol(I, t1a11 fir lits > e 1 ill1( I tl I n e te li II t'.
    iu.111 'let le 1( of e t ( )i al i s frill thi e t 1 it 10 *4I. )111 It li t li Iel Nvessi' e veit. ( vI i Ia el'l(ll W I 1( i"' I IlIf l ( I 1':t 1 he lltl e II Il 1i 1 ip l'ile l (i- 11 'i 111 N i !cal f d Ie 1 )l ..l d ieftlliat ill fllig lll lt bll -11[t tO c, lit t le, i( TCO i 2.( w -k 1 as d he in the townil l s of ( Tlali Il l'd I n Iv rY l ieIaetie Nvitli the 'Ilate eitollml l)of a. t IMvi i i ta thli' il lO lvf-t 1 ? Ill M :I 11 t111s)l l'r B rI dlellntlaledil tt qt's .1 0 ill






    of I le oi- I aill 1U'(oe I:lt.. i ll i Ill ill, Xal, but ( t 01I 1i)tle lI 11 ill lihe ,aviai le un )tile area t r atIel have ittel l at l- (':111
    1 t' ie ftiial e is dowi 1Il l f.lti 1 0 tl l

    (l' IIt In 'esu lte. i 1 it' ds0V. C' V ilf ii:Iiv -l ial. Ilillthe ,!lille 1 11 .....WO+ 1 Ill (ad C onne ltw t Imi-t )f. t .. I s 110 Z1t1e







    :0 141 A l'olil I outt I' ll Vli llIIIloit. a l it l l i tt avu ; l l l,'New York l wn1 ill thetl,'io. "1( i t1 l f Wiul ( 1e Il .tate lile.s The illdiv i 111oi 1r1 *llf .






    1-ve t 1 t *ills ) Hi''' ells) le ill i t bv )1 11l 1 4 u)f 1 t
    1\, Ie Y: 11l1 1111 1 t 1 1il'e l t 1 t i' l tl a te (;I ll li zll V t'l Cie l 1. ...f Il I, 1114 ( ex 10 't a 1{t la t i t o'i : t' )t;it rIlti it0 e.



    ,II ,-( 0rl ,( I llrlr t 'v i rs tl I ( r,- t,, tl hlIt )04-111110 H 1I: 1f zl i t t al

    ,-. ..~,, l f ..,, ie ..r..... t.1 ,l.. i.:. ti. 1. ,1......., ,,... f s.' s .,,l s., ..






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QLWARANTINE ,1

    1938 and carried into the zone oni the iiglh-velocit rot atilnr air t i'rrents prevalent at that time. Because of this unllusual and decidedly abnormal wind spread, aplproxilIat elVy one-llalf of the total z ,ie arlc should be scouted ai trelatmlent applied Wvitlli tl1e leXit yeai f* I Xt\ so as to illsireL he colitllled satisfactory mllaitenllace of lie zoe ill its present location. From intensive scouting vork this year at sites of infestations discovered in the New Eingianl barrier Z Me area. in New York. and in Pennsylvania. during the fiscal year 19;9. it was determined that 99 infestations have been extermilnate(d. ()f tills total 15 were exterminated in Vermiont. 7 in Massachuisetts. 17 in Connecticut, 30 in New York, and 30 in Pennsylvania. There has been a marked reduction in eg2g clusters at numerous other infested sites.
    Infestations found in Princetoii anid Calais in Washington (County. Maine, in 1938 and 1939, respectively, were intensively cited in the fall of 1939 by two experienced employees. As no evidence of the gypsy moth was found, these infestations are considered extermni ated. Helpful cooperation was maintained with the I)ominion of Canada Division of Produciion atid with the Proviiice of New Brtunswick and local authorities in St. Stephen across the border from Calais. Maine. where a small infestation of the gypsy moth is being treated.
    With the exception of a very limited amount of work ill territory adjacent to the zone in Rutland County, work in Vermont was confined to the barrier zone, principally north of Rutland. As nearly all the cages that attracted male moths were located in Addison Cu(ntV, it was planned to expend a large Iroportion of the available fmnd-s there this year. Scarcity of relief labor in that county. however. ma(ie it impossible to secure a sufficient force to effect satisfactory progress. Unfortunately the State-wide rate was not authorized for W. P. A. gypsy moth work i Vermont, therefore wo rkers fr)m Iboi-rinVi colntties receiving a higher rate could not be used in Addison County without specific authority from the 1. P. A. Late in the year aut!ioPitXnas secured from the State Administrator' to elplo, n ilanll force of Rutland County workers in southern Addison Cmouty. but thin- couill, not be done until the workers had been reclassified to the Addison County rate. As this rate was much lower than wa.s aid workCer eml)loyed iIn Rutland County. many of the nien soon ecale liscohiraged aid left. For this reason. anl also because of a seiouis shortage of certified relief labor in Addismon (Count v. much nrrentiv need-.0 work in dangerous terr ito- could not be done. Two Iig -l)owerei pravers were lused during June on the single-s hift 8-hour-(day hais in s- at in, infestations discovered during the year in Bristol and Mil Idur. Addison County.
    Work in Massachusetts was confined to the h1)arrier zo)ne, li rclprising all of Berkshire Couty, the town of Monroe il Frakli (' nlt v. and limited area, on high elevations adjacent to lhe zone in Fratnklil. Hamp5lire, and Hampdei Counties. As stated. lliero '- o'in egg clusters were (l discovered( ill 1 e Z% le, sO t (li t I'it)el e to 111 ( lic'1t c0iclusively that they had Iecom ,e est ablisled a.s; a revllt o)f tie wind eaol of ll cI)'al ill ct i 1 tile spily of 19 9. illi to sm1e extelt lv fralliellt of 1e cl1osters oisl ed o r l t Irees aild 'arriedl 111 o the zoliPe )v winds of lighh velocity (1.rin1 tle Illrricane of Septeimber 1938. Similar com(litOi ls were reported lhv thle New York Conservation D)epartilelit il towns adjacent to tile Massachlsetts line






    32 AN N['.UAl RIEi()T- OF IIFP.\lATM1ENT OF AR('L'l.T[ H E, 10 '1J

    II1 RI() e)I- e (r 111( lit N. Y. Tlerirtit (v l 1111i l slliil] 1. pisl ui l I )e olltv(d within tile Ilexi year o( two) s)o tial iiet tilllS exstiln there ll "1 be l()'ate nd 1111( PXe i lilt( l ul ted I)(fw il, s real t l l fr l' 1will c ll': S('vell I (eaV -( llt'V -flI' ters. l)el'ralt t ,t )t O(i)le-slift 1asis aaf CI iif<- fo' eP icl i 11 Were 11-e4d 11 'i1 1 l l sprallnplrit l 1i lost SoiL Ill( iI ll a di c e Ill ti I i elI Zo l e e (i rilli ite ve ll'.
    Lx, ct 1 s tmall 1 a11 illt ( selective i 111111111 at the ite ()f an infe-tat iln il West IIartford. IIartford (ott'i v. all sco t in iawl I l(t llilt0l \w\)k i ( l i t l () itwt was collfilled to the earlier zolen )artitcularly in Lit Itchlie l< ('on1titv. Because of tilte wil >l lrea:ul ill thie fall ()f 1):8 ald slpring o(f 19)39 previP- v1 referred to. ci( t ltio,n. at least in tile rtlt r in port )lll o)f tile ( )il(ect ic l zo(ett( re:. I are n:1bml l t1 >a, 1 e ai s ill Berkslire (' ti ii v. I ddn :lliti j to tlis ;t:l1101('111.l wil( s) 1rea(l. Illfelst llatimh s ct1 l li l Il (verat] v' t -l ag( o il1 1<)1tl 'l, I(it'lfiel(t C(ollitv to) 1s1 l" I; l' Ill' l' il(l" r bctati.( 'art11cl v o f re lief t ) 01' Y. jo. A. t 1'111 a (l lk of r'ilar

    (t) llu ',eltit v 1 e,(ed work. G l'( { pro0,I!, t-' 1i;i I ll ii he I ,,alli(cttu t l ie isla1te(1( i lt l etti on li( last Ve'ar ill Sol it 'liti New H ave ) ('o litv. A s1all i Illet1 iltuionm ill the cit () f New ive:, ii 'e1)(rte(/ y the ( 1nect lut Agritttt'al Experineit Stt i t tisti l)1lit hS 1 l1ee1 iltensivelv -'. le(d. an(l tIreattiellt. ij,'!Ildilln sp)ray111". hlt V i applied. Elill l; v -lttv aist vra -t t' tw() (if whict w(,r( pelated b)y at f( 'ce Of ( ( '. C. workers (ietai led( frCi ('atin p I'( I l i l:lu(ll. Wel'r Wsed l 1 e 1 11tiect clt barlir er z lie ili J iie 11 t real ill il, Illost se> lui( s illfe-istatll s> foi id (Illi t e:1a'. Although il iluese Ispra ers Ih)ani w(rk (o th(e (ouible-slift ha-i (f G lmillrs f(r e 'ach si ift, relil lat lls ill t le W 1'. A. for'e m d:le it l1e '- aI'rv after t e first week to A)('rwlte tllree o()f the 111:1c1111i(s o11 Ihlie Single-Tshift basis o()f 8 hours.
    Fe deral W. ). A. force. ( civilian (Coniservation ((i eamip en()I les. and( State emllo)y(ees stlpervise I bv thie New Ymork ('n iervat1()1 I De)a 'l ltel i col i esoli :ta))) 11)p ie i l essar v tr eatlilleti ill :1ra
    ( )lisi(hrld 111)9t (Ila ll ro l- ill l 1 l R e l'e I e ( u l1 I))th a111( '11111t1111 ( 1'1mitiles wit illi lie zAlle ll i i Essex. 'arrt,. Sairatoga. A I)ba1y Ulster. Rockla ld, Westchester. iand( Na :sa I (' IG lites to I li ( w '-t alndl solt of t mle Zolie. Alto ll1gh tll11 'r1t <'cateri r i11llIe'statid 1 rs111litlin) Ilil itle will( s)riad pl)revi( isll i lntilot('d \\ere t'(tid ill a i11) ()f towIls 1)aralllig tit(1 1 l 1 : 1 tts State11 ,1 line 11 RemIrsselae a1nd ((1u1ibia C( mIti es all were s-illall at111 tll:111v 1I (()il)t hav'e alleadv be en extt111liated. (U li-i-(Ihralue addIt lil1 Il wufk I, 1-(eded i llI he t \(o c( lit e t() co( ille the ara ait 11 loct'e I1 li( l l 1 1 a \ I (xistiY lg.r ill fe0st )I Pl: 1 )iW:iVi tilt, 1)t 1 (,ris it) fe'stat mi-, li w it alivallable foir 41111 \1 1 1 ( I 1 ,'1)'. 1v t11i) ())'O,,i0 0 +i.
    A ltl 1 ILll liE lo'Ie er:ll 4 -.v uii diiw ()k \\- Is a'ril ( (m ill New
    ,ll l i :11 l \t'i1 Y a '. a S:1 i f'ing Stat' eI lli l() .' -VW c oilo'tl
    l ,,' ( 'out11 \ ( 1 ,:0' ( ,, 'e I. \ i' ifa k f IItti i"'r) ( w it'' I 1nale






    BUIHREAU OF 1ENTO'01A)GY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

    gypsy moth was taken in tlhe slunler i'of 1930. These men a lso examined selected areas ili Middlesex. IMorris, Pa.saic. Smiierset. Sussex, and Warren Counities. A total of 6.70b acres of \\o)land allnd more than 33,750 fruit aind shade t rees \wele exained. No evidence of the gypsy imoth was found.
    'Work in Pennsylvania was coiiitined chiefly to sections of the ceIntrally infested area not scolutced last vezal' i1d to illtellslve sc0 dl-iigll and Ilecessary treatment at sites of Infestations previously located in lightly ifested territory and similani work at sites of assembling cages where nimoths were takenii in July and August 19'9. Il sconting the lowliinds ;along the SuquceliaIna and Lackawamina Rivers lying within the infested area. 1 ilifestat ion consisting of 58 egg clusters was located and treated in the township of Pittston. Spraying of the infested residential areas was begun May 21 and 2.3;,1 individual properties were treated. Fifteen of the 25 sprayers used in woodland spraying, which was begun on Juime 3, were operated on the double-shift basis and the relm i niig 13 machine es were operated throughout the season on the single-shift basis of 8 hours' daily employment.
    In October and November 1939, federally supervised gypsy moth projects using labor furnished by the National Youth Administration began operations in Luzerne and Lackawanna (Counties, Pa. Together these projects provided for the. monthly employiniit of 320 workers. These workers were divided into 3 groups for each county and were furnished 48 hours of employnient each month. Although considerable difficulty was experienced with these men at the beginning of the work. this was gradually overcollle an1t1 uch Good work was done, although close supervision by thoroughly experienced regular employees was necessary at all times. Begiiining in December, 9 workers employed on the basis of 3 equal shifts monthly were detailed to work in the repair shop at Wilkes-Barre.
    In October a Department of Public Assistance Inoject sponIsore(l by the Bureau of Plant Industry of the Pennsvlvaiia Departmlent of Agriculture was started in Pittstown Township, but the project was disappointing because it was found impl)ossible to obtain a sufficient iiumber of workers willing and qualified t do thile work assigned them. In May 1940, when this project was terminated, less than 43 percent of the man-hours of labor promised in tlhe project application had been furnished. Worthless brush anmd debris on the forest floor of 217 acres was cut and disposed of by these workers during their period of employmlment.
    In the enforcement of the Ienmsylvania (quairaInti ne on aectuint of the gypsy lmoth, 16.0S)9 slipl)leinlts from the li glitly infe te(I area were allowed to move on permits issued after it I ad bel eter-. uiinel t1liat there was ino danger of transl)ortili g ilifestatioll. In tlhe generally infested area 19.029 slilpments were thioroeIvly inspjected before ce tificttes XI'P e issi'tl a:11 tllo izijlI (le1) to be Illovel. SIXI vOlle \V,11 11i wel r e 1 ise0 1) 1ir 1- 1111_t *i t S of t lie (11a rt e11 1, m ter e were 3 i ii vl ldsit t iai1 ( ,-- of itle s cc ssl! (, )111) clit Ill of sh pper who failed to haed Ole vari iid to ttil. F leeve1 Novemberl 0 1 9, 1"1. Pa e xllI 1vn11 a* t1 t1 ( 111 1 1 ie 1 i e( 111) i-td l 1)l 0 le li0im1t 0 11e m 1 (rowinllltne (4ie io s othel 1 IIl 11 nav le (' llt ( )o iit l Ill i l i 1:al1i1:1 ( C1' 111 1 nill 1('Il i i

    26 TO7 -.1; .






    34 ANN UAL iEI0IT> OF I > EITI.MENT OF A( II CI LiE ]. 19 4 0

    Ilzeirni ( l 1 tV. Tis (i111ara i ti 1e re' -isill ll the eXterllination (If : i() iIfesttii)- ill t) li] rltl v i1f(1 ted i t ortwit ere the outstalnli ?1i (: icc (lll) l1t1 fi t 1of l e .Year ill tile' Ile l' vlva; ia area. a1d 1 IP( tWI ',tltr WXii i :1 l l'( !1 i vet ell'il)ll ill t ( -'V 'rilyV (f 111ifestati )l tll i ll t i he t rl'ito ( c i', v O (t ) t11 j)I',je t, very. (lefi lite v 111) 11 1(,I t 1 )(IO l( i I l)( Ei ll litdh Ill el't iIciatilly t1w kp.:v 111 th frmill that State.
    GYPSY MOTH WO()IIK Y CIVII AN CONSERVATION (C()RPS

    TI't litB liI' i I11a- ('()] ljli e( to ()()o le'IlatheWit01 tO Inited Stateefl'"ore't-i Servite a(l State ('. (. (. ofli'ial'- inr p r .f) in 1'. ('. .' 4ril. 'ceii IiaXX t i' li tOX"I1 i' ei. z a I S I IS -\'5 limlr ) 11 1'mk Ill to1 'l junt e ast ()f t te all'rier z()o e Illl 1l V 1 )t. \I ss.110 Ill- tt1. and (,ilect 101t. This b> 1 een dl( lc "Is ill le 1w a t 1o) (is e i,') ilild tri at. ill( ill' i< 1iw is )O -.I)bl witl av i aila te ( rTwv -. yI)-V i 1)tI1 1 51 fe-t at tio- t l at w ero I e I I ()st tlireatt'l l ln~11 t te )t 1 ) ier Z4nile. I 'll Is( ell 1. pfill to I he Zone and tI the t (Xii w Iere it w:I dlone. )111 there a)'e :trat(rie ilaees jsll as t of ile Zol-e WNiore vrk is needed ut no enr(olleres are available.
    'tl he (lu()ta ()f C. ('. ('. elroll('-C a Xvailal)e )for thii s work Ilre\iou to the hurriflIaWe of 13 has never been ret ined to his pject.
    Dl 1'1io the 7,ear 7.t() 6-oilr C. (' C. nm)-d lv were firuishlled for the work blut. based on the allotment available at the time of the hurricane. 51,817 additional 6-hour man-days that were taken from it andl n ed on fire-hazard-reduction work shiouldl have b)een available. At the beginning of the year aplroximately 167 enrollee- were availale from 5 camps ill MaIssaelmiittS 81 ( C'Onlecticut. Iu lit me1 fl'h)ll camp,; in Vermont. During the year there were some changes inii camp locations and personnel, and men became availabl)le at 2 (ani)ps in Vermont 4 in Massachusetts. and 4 in Connecticuit. In the spring thle gypsy inoth camp at Greenfield was discontinued and the camp previously rVem oved from Westfield fmr work nece(ssit ated by tlhe hurricalle Wils retl11'1i to tl at location. n Clllnecticll lit a crew at 1 call ) has never Ibeen returllner d to the wo rk amiI1 at another carimp a l'ew wic h was ailable for part of the yealr was reliln ed t(o )do g ,ps. 1110 1oth t1i11nini11 wvork under the direct io of the Siate forester.
    As a result of this work slightly over 129.000 acres were examined. approximately 23,000 of which were criven open-o)lntry sc(motinl and 1.700 were thinned. Egg clusters to( the number of 1.496.305 were destroyed lby creosoting and( burning. In addition. 266.458 trees were burlapped. and men patrolling t lie burlap bands dlest r oed 311.454 gyl)sy mot h caterpillars an11d pupae. Work was d( e in 41 tWIis ill Verillolt. Massa 1 ),setIs, a n G)II Cniecti'tu(.
    I le 11re;ll ii l(Illed 'l le' ))-e' l 1'l ilg ila ahi1 f10 r C. C. C. u- east f the blarrier' zole ill MassachuIsetts anlt (1ueilett. I ie State e1 to111olt ist o(f ( 'ontieic t( fullnished ti w) itncli ens fo(r this wo rk.
    The ('. ('.' Iur'l] l le ld arsenate anl(i fish Oil for 1use illn ass t'huiet and Conneetient. as well as the lahor for this work. All tih' Ilealuli e i (,'(X'lti n 1 (i l ill MaSsa l lu i8tts vere 11used 01 a ( ilde
    -hiBf lh-i .A total (f 2.S1 i a(i're ()f \XNodtllald were prayve(d.
    Th', wA(,rk las resiltde1 il a (':at (1l,,:1"se in g ypsy lil()th i if'I:lti 0 ill 11 ie arta i )(1 W eei i 11 ('ht1,'1cl i it RiXver an1d tile h:Irrier Zo)(l' lil Mui--:0Iull a))1 (olile il. I' lih ,' r':ea w hicl Were






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTIiNE 35

    given intensive treatment a year ago are in excellent condition at this time insofar as infestation is concerned. The infe-tatlion in tihe Connecticut River Valley towns in the southern half of Vermont has persisted and only a small amount. of work has been done there since the hurricane of 1938. Large areas in the towns of Putney, Westminster, Rckinohani. aid Sp)rigfel were le-erely defoliated during the summer of 1940.
    Examination of areas in Connecticut and Vermont, where severe defoliation occurred a year or two ago shows considerable mortality of oaks, white pine, and hemlock.
    Table 5 gives a numerical summary of scouting a(:dI treatinii done by the Bureau during the year.








    36 A NNt AI, IE PO)T> O) 1 ,EPIf'M ENT (V A( ;IB. I(LT IVRE, 1940




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    BUREAU OF EN'OMOLOGY AND) PLANT Q'Al ANTINE 37

    GYPSY AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH QUAIIANTINE ENFORCE .1 NT
    CERTIFICATION OF QUARANTINED PRODUt;TS
    Continued heavy infestations of the gypsy moth i sect ills of i le generally infested area gain resulted in an ilnre se in tle lun1ller of egg masses and other stages of the insect removed duringg rolltilje inspections of quarantiled )' productst. Total hslipmentiS Certified numbered 98,302. 1this represents a 16-ercellt iilcrea,:Se i n the volume of inspection work. From these slhipments there were removed and destroyed 3,403 egg clusters. 303 larvae. and 133 putpae. The ilost heavily infested shipment inspected was a carload of lumber inspected at Madison, N. H., prior to movement to Rochester, N. Y. Three hundred and thirtv-seveln egg clusterrs were. relliOve(d fromil the boards in this shipment. There was no change in the quarantine regulations as previously revised effective September 29, 1938.
    On December 7, 1939, the district field (,ffice supervising the enforcement of the gypsy and brown-tail ioth (quarantine was removed from the customhouse in Boston to 144 Moody Street, Waltham. Mass.
    A long-continued dry spell late in the sumiimner and col weather, snow, and an unusual aiiount of frost in the ground during March and April hampered nursery shipments during the fall and spring shipping seasons. This was the first season on record that spring digging was so long delayed ()ver the entire New England area. Cool rainy weather continued into May, permitting continuance of digging operations during the entire month.
    Eleven temporary inspectors were added to the inspection force during October in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Their principal assignment was the inspection of nursery stock going into winter storage. Thirty-three temporary inspectors were employed in connection with the inspection of nursery products during April. Nine of these were stationed at a forest nursery in Maine to inspect 2,000,000 young trees.
    Inspection of nursery stock at one of the nurseries in the Middletown, Conn.. area resulted in the finding of two gypsy moth egg clusters. Prior to the fall of 1939, permits had been issued to this establishment a-nd those in the immediate vicinity, on the basis of their freedom from gypsy moth or Japancese beetle infestation. When egg clusters were found on one of the establishments in this nursery center, all nursery permits in that section were suspended. Five egg clusters were removed from nu-i ser stock offered for inspection by one of these nurseries during the spriiig shipping season.
    Fromn 25,448 shipments of nursery, stock certified during the year there were removed 39 egg clusters and 1 pupa. Classes of nursery products inspected were as follows: Number
    Shrs--------------------------------- 3, (: 3)
    Spec'imen trees ..----------------------------------------------------- 21;, 4
    Y ou in g tree s ---------.. . ...... ... .. ... .. 1(;--- -IG 035
    SY ec inl eve g e lls --.--- - -- -- ---- .. 229
    Seedlings, (:iltings, i (l sn11ll p1 ants 2 18. T.... ......
    White pine trees .... .... 5s
    A comlliHlat iol of i(lrea 'ed Iis1 nll i le1ie el collditions dluriing the Christlilas tree eiittilg anld inspect i l l SalS()rI Novellber 1 to Decemtber 23, contributed to an increase ill ilie qualltity of







    S AN NI1AL RIPiI- ()1- DPAIIMENT o1 A011I( 'LT T 10

    trel'es iI)s>)ecte(t a:s cla jlfell Witli tle l)e'pi),lis ililMel. n Yea 4482 -1 1 ( Il-triit as tf( \. e( ill. lecte i i l e ligtit lv illfestted g vyJ motli ~ rea. Th is wa- a )0-prent 1i1rea-e over 18. w111en1 4.0(6 tre were\tn iilIav cert i filed. ( )Inlv 1 eggr cllter W IlS rellmlved froli a ( ll'ri'-tll1 tree ii cl ',rlle t ion viil tll years illel 'ct ioll act ivitie .
    IiivWe lll r ll' -11\I I 11 e.,a V-I \ 0 eg (i ll~ 1 r0l 1 I(1ll e were

    Spe t ul ereal ed I0 t 'laes tie e is jIllents co(lmphrisedT II I ( n I si j : ij'I mix d ),re ,s box .1 r h: s 41 -. Il 7 u .. .. .. .. .------... _do 7.1)12
    Ii-l : _. ...... L....... ,l pieces_ 5. 702
    I ......... yards of roping g_ 17, 900 D) .... -.. ....... __ - - - - klm'l
    Further tests were 1made with grinding machines us-ed in l)riodlwinl sawdust Certification was granted for sawalust prordiced 1)b mills iusig machines that dst eggs on having fed into the grillder(4. Il liitiiary tests w 'ef I' lli to deternline tlhe toxicity of meth l bromide on p )s oiitoth egg cluters. If this pr)I'ove practicab e.n a mielhod of funiigation of heavily infested 1)rodlucts will be devised.
    Large jiquantities of lumber salvaged from -treies felled by the hurricane of September 1938 were inspected and certified for move1101t to Il()nl ifeted St ates. There were cerifie(l duirig flthe year 32.847 shlipmentts of forest products. From these, 2.781 egg clusters, 219 larvae. a(d 125 l)pulae were remvd. Products in thiis clasification certified duringg the year were az follows: Barrel parts. crates. crating ------------------ses. huidles__ :81, 247
    Logs, iles, posts, poles, ship knees. and ties---------es__-- 423. ,55
    Fuel wood- ---...---------------------------------------- --cords 10, 1
    ulplI)oOd .....------------------------------------------ do__ .. 52
    MiscellanreouS wood --------------------------------------. do___ 212
    Lumber .....o------------------------- rd feet-- i;1, 480, 44
    S le reel --------------------------------------umber 45. 257
    Shavings ..-------------------------------------------. bles__ 1( I 891
    Shrub and vine (ttings es---------------------------------- 7, 737
    Snd------------------------------------------------- les_ 8, 137
    Miscellaneous pi-------------------------------------------eces_ 256, 546
    I)o c--d-- ---------------------------- arl6oas__.
    Doh__,------ uncles, b:gs, boxes: 14. 441 Do ...-------------------------------------- on 1. 155
    Do -. ....--------------------------..... tr cklalds .
    Stone and qua rry Iprodllcts coIrisill 1'7771 sl1hip1ellt0 were ex a11i11e(1. Froll1 hese tIere were rt ved eg- (ilIter (Il( s4 larvne(. T"re ipro~i( cts i icluded illn thse shil)nils were as follows: ('rushlt, rck ..-----------------------------------------------.. tns 2I1. 4t.9
    <'l iriin ....-----n. i----------------- rnig feet 3, 17

    SIl .... ........ .....-------------------------------.. os 20. 19
    ---- --11--- ---1--- --- 2f 11erP 1 9 t
    r,, iu q, t' st-- -...- -. ............ 17,:
    ( .. ... .....t.t.... ...5..-...... ...............7..... t __ 4-, 7--4
    S- -,, -.. .. .. ber_ 219 57

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    lit1 t f ..... .... ... .. ........ ...l. .. .... .. a rll 1
    hil,- i I 1 \:,1 1ele ,f .11 2 IappaIren1t v11l:t1-






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 3)9

    DUTCH ELM DISEASE ERADICATION
    GENERAL STATUS

    Activities during tihe year disclosed a 49 -percent relduct ion ill tie number of trees fotitid to be infected with i ,'/iLo.Wto / ti wlin i, the fungus causing the DI)tch ehn disease, as compared with the )preceding year. Intensive scoi tincg ini sections where heavv concentrations of the disease or dense infestatioils of the bark beetle carriers of the fungus occurred in the sniuler of 1938 showed uniform ireduct ions in contfirlations in these areas. With a few comparatvely un11ilnportant exceptions, this same condition was found tthrotugihoult tlhe main region in which the disease is discontinulluly scattered.
    There was a still further reduction this year in thle il nlber of cases discovered at outlying points. Of 16 collirmnat ions reported from States outside the major disease area, 9 were in the Indianapolis, Ind(., area. 6 in Athens County, Ohio, and 1 in Cumberland, M1d.
    Results of the eradication work in Indianapolis were encouraging, evidencing the benefits of the extensive elm-sanitation campaign performed in that section. The only extension of area there was in a section about 11,), miles to the northwest. There was no recurrence of the disease in the original Brig)htwood area. ()nly one dliseased tree was found in each of the three previously located heavily infected centers in Indianapolis. One of the diseasetd trees in the Athens area was found at a new infection center at HIockingport, at some distance from the other infections in the county. The Cumberland tree was the first confirmation in Maryland since 1936. No reappearance of the disease was observed in the other isolated cities where small numbers of infected trees had been destroyed in earlier years.
    Regulations supplemental to quarantine No. 71 contiiied in force. The regulations were amended, effective September 11, 1939, to include in the area infected by the Dutch elm disease additional townships in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York. Federal quarantine action was withheld in the case of the Pennsylvania infected zone, since the State placed an embargo on the movement of elm material therefrolm. This action continued the Federal embargo on the mifoveiient of sources of infection from heavily infected sections of New Jersey into Pennsylvania, where infection is linited.
    SYSTEMATIC SCOUTING
    Foremost am()ong the newly discovered mllailn-arlea infections this vear was the disease center found in 6 towils jtist east of Bingihamton, Broomne County, N. Y. This is approximately 70 n iles from the main disease zone and is being handled as a separate area. ()tlherwise in New York the infection zone was rounded out by the finllin of diseased trees in many of the Dutchess, Orange, and Ulster (Acout y towns interveig ll between detached illfecti l'U is dscvere i jt )leNVlls years. First-record cases were foll(l in a few t)\ ls i Litclifield and New Haven (o1nties, (011n.. east and ( rth I f l)previuslyv kno\vii infected territory in that State. As sconatin pr eg dressed in th e reinainder of Buicks ('uinty. Pa., further incuresls s of tile disease were found in l ost 111 f tie townllhllps and ill a few ad(ljoinin< tolwnship)s in Lehigh and Nortlianipton Coumnt ies. A few diseasedd trees were found in several to\wnshipl)s ill Molnroe C()uIt V. Pa.. horderit tihe






    4 ) ANN UAIl. I A I!T I- 11 I'I. xiE.1ENT (1F A ; 11 1',I'1 .IILE. 1' I0

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    -lix V!-1 io ilt-' }ui' weet w!i' iZl'i iitlil i! !"k l)ti'ulr oft 2XI itiiMii'*
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    I 'j li' 0 lil l Ii w i'*i ll1 1 -i ll 19 o
    0 HP01', ) I)If-ll al 0l' T l t'Ill if(


    c ioii il111t v () i !'0i1 1)ililtt! W ll' ii t I I r ii I t li tSH ill' 1 i tf li ei'k I li l i w1 i iiI i e ln) 1I vi' 't. le iV. I. o r ci ,a i) it lIet :l fv int e a it >c r ili, tle I 1t )av(al'e 1 ek11 t ( 11 'M11111(1 at1l1l ':1 1 41-1' of li"ll 001111 1 t11<


    six wee L 1 i' l o Illla > a i e 0 iiWokloil. ll t l ihein oflt i 110l 1 1 til ili t W -i rk p idal l 10X'l011-: lerl(i ()f 110 1iellt lI fdie
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    )el tie lic wti tall eit wil ag W oifer f w1 1t,: Iiw la W lI Ill ililt lt r 11(. liltWeell Slates 1ti1 1)1 tl 1 le ( 1i'1ek 1e iii,-l. Traiin f ii' ii ali t llm (Itald well-qualifi of 11 a' d li frei 'l e ti lla v olf w11 il ,vi b ava la t le f r scla til/ Iolext .anl Il, 1 Y -i I pl ielf a i o r11 .iir it( l ti e l er d 1lilr th e in 'k iil f Wiiire e r.
    Tlere were evral o i rell t ilW ill tile sco lin c I vitie 1 11 1c. Al. w ker 11 I1 Peii1ll0 tll. I I i a ll. e i' T1a11 017cl iv-wil'ie wa 14k Iel WeT I' t )o 1 fl-mlli 3 t 1 0 il as at tl.e r )eli lllli ;July. AT the t i rl ()f the1 Alln lst v i kI lie'iO1 9 c ul) nll at ely 4- Ii lrcen t (if lr te ta. -i t li llli i't el'iiised iltler tie law w i 'lci te'miii lted ellip 1-\l1eit a'-t1t1f ll ecllrilt-w-t e \v(r krlS N 11 h ad been cO tlltllI. adv Y i fl Wo 1. iP V i W 1ll). t Ai l l ltic 1c. a l elt r ''1ill 7t r l i 11101 d1 e.11 lef i it fi ai ti( 1 1 9 o ae 11 11. Oali ll''"O of I- t ri0 i tile it) i 11i1ii tll lih s i (1i"f i ly a lit l iiii t th i tt1i 1li fo1-re fl I IleI d l Pi, l i oll a't1 e tc1.tt It11111 V ,IlI.00, respl ective l i-t llI s C;i ieJ f 700 l ilei l'; l li ol is. hei'e w e tit 1io.


    Sv t ol i( I 1 tiliie 1'c'- Iitil'lI i the Siil1te t f W In1e tlt'e i. :ill Y(i 111%-. New ,! ,l"I.41 i'(11,01 elinsvlvilnia d|lllrill the( 1wree(lti~w veal. I It 11) 7 so ) lil Ill N 111 71 :1 1 e 'S l11i1 1 1'r \. 114
    t 21).45I (al'' nihi, i k -ceit ill i Te. si. p lotie r (1cri10 A 1)' Ilt it ( ll !). ] .ilIK Ilit''
    'elml ( ) (til te e\'' 1elles 1ti i n t io4 thei int rliln hI'e l-1 s 'i li l c f tie('l in l i- e it >1 ir af tehat -w rrilied w~ll ,t syii ttm>li. were l". l } elit 1 Illtlie cItl iill illed AN'. l ). A '111 pelr eli i c~l folve \ ali t its .eak ilti.i:iCl :ll l1es c llectl

    ,.a t ) d ()1 '. l \itlshe :Iil il I III ed IlI ced fnt'r~i the 193~S 11 (niIre. T()t i~Il co lifir wI iit~t w l ( irn1]!-, ttil1 'hill I itl Stl Z ill er Ill jilul1 (0111 ))11 ':d 10.v1 11 10: 1( )
    tIr-.. with the ~ 193' 14 1 5 11193 5. Theet w\+trte rdliicti ills (),f 1{,
    1.1 5. lill I It ':I ee. i Pecti e ill ( iln C ille i i ll, w ,1t11 :ill s lv w11)-ii the 1i 111Zile 4 r 1fec1 tin. (' mip ra1 ive u ll' :I 11S a li \iii1111-1 too :,I tr v Ill N cw Y:11 k 11 iin 1 1 07 i11,s ili tleii \'va 1ia. 1 ilC, t II dli i l t l l i ib extension of :ire:i M Ito t e,\v Y wk'l :1idl )it >,ii virlk:1 i! Inicii';ite I he iitmder-iliess i t i i






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT Q(UAANTINE 41

    Summer scouting ill 1939 was the most extensive ever uIderttaken. It included a complete first survey and a 60)-iercent second coverage of the major disease area, al))ppoxlimately the extent to which the known infected zone was covered in 1938. One complete coverage and an approximate 70-percent, completion of thle second survey was accomplished in the protective zone circumscribing the major disease area. These two areas, incluig rouglly the t erritory within a 70mile radius of New York City, comprise the work area to which systematic scouting was confined in previous years.
    Beyond the confines of the work area as defined in previous years, scouting during 1939 was expanded to include advance survey work in the sector between the 70- and 100-mile radius lines from New York City. This area was given one complete go-over, with 67-percent compn)letion of a seconldl srveyv. IThe results were negcativ e.
    Still more remote from the imain area of infection was ani extension survey in the territory lying between the 100- and 150-mile circumferences. This was of an exploratory nature to determine what could be found beyond the advance survey area by very light scouting. It resulted in the finding of the diseased trees in the Binghamton. N. Y., area.
    Autogiro scouting of approximl-ately 4.500 miles of railroad rightsof-way was repeated during the summer, again with negative results. Southern railroads from Norfolk to New Orleans ere omitted from this year's program, since repeated surveys of these lines failed to link any southern States with the Dutch elm disease. Ground crews associated with the flying units found infestations of Scolytus nmutistr~,atu (ilarsh.) in the western part of Pennsylvania, and confirmed reports of the presence of this species at Columbus, Ohio, and Rochester. N. Y.
    Scouting in the isolated infected regions was both timely and thorough. Previous years' elhn-sanitation activities in these areas facilitated the surveys in the environs surrounding Indianapolis, Ind.: Athens, Ohio; Cumberland Md. Md.: aid adjoining West Vircginia and the Potomac Valley.
    During the year 72.781 samples of elmn wood suspected of containing the elm-disease fungus were submitted to the laboratory for culturing and determination. From 9.189 of these samples ( 'ertostomella ulmi was ciltlred. Segregated as to location, 368 confirmnatiols were in Connecticut, 7,501 in New Jersey, 1,088 in New York. 216 in Pennsylvania, and 16 at the several isolated infections.
    Wilting and discoloration characteristic of Dutch elhn disease infection were first found ini the spriig of 1940 oil 3May 18. inl Comnnecticlut. General wilting of elm foliage was observed early in June.
    Since discovery of this disease in tlie United States in 1930. a grand total of 57.400 elms have been confirmed l s infected. Of this t(,tal, 1.339 -were in Connecticut, 45.152 in New Jersey, 10.470 in New YMrk, 262 in Pennsvlvan ia. and 177 in the localized ii fcet i ,n centers in States remote fromn the major ill fected regions. 'I'lTe ac(a1111111 ive total of 177 cases at the isolated infect ions conl)ri es the following: 1 13 in Indianapolis. Ind. ; 2 in Baltimore. 3 in Biruisw-ick. and 2 in Ciinhberland. MAld.: 12 in Athens, 1 in Cinci iati, and 33 in Cleveland. Ohio:
    5 in Norfolk-Portsmioutli. Va. : and C in Wiley Ford. W. Va.








    ) rlJin i Jui :illerminiatl, I1.1O) < laliil V. P A. wx rkers were
    -iLfll{Io ikIcl I I1II lAe .I1 ( i i tli ili t1e 11 lit0 lIt w'vere 11111ited to
    1 ,liiail 0li e :1 a :! ~lo t, l!( 1 0 rk llv i- I ( 1:11;tn l 1. A t 1011s. !iwl (1 iu iir. By le va of tie aolit I('r~e11 o tf tlie major (I It I I ei't iv '-v-leli tat 1C fo e o t io lii, le-foot

    ijt'l ff riHI' d :0 a ;ili(Ilt 1 1 ii,- lie rate f sv"ie iaiIC foot '-rvoiiIlg.

    EXTENSIONS OF WO RK AIREA

    .\d :o J'e- i t t,(f ili-th I" dii lt i'ie >c, f (i lit ii illfw.' ith ilie disil:1-e I '!l Ii- i 1 be i t1 t le llhP I -0le ,)le ) (lilzt 11ed-11*1 1 1 I I t1 1 l1i11 Ihe li k l low i ilite'tl :th':l, 1 to lis, tkXi'd.I1il), l)O l' I g i. cities. al1d will'is wei'P Ih1 t l t I iti fectefd Zi lle. T ie 1 .re ia fll,1s. In (' tlili .l t i llt. ilt t, wi-1 of S l ,llon ldi T iill ih I l nFaifi l ('lntV. Lii.]ifihelf: l Ii Ini W (tlll'v il Litlifiei ('iiltv, ll(1 Eat IIa.i verl 1I 1ali lll. Ii if ,l'l. o l li I e .ll. () fcl'd. ex llioll,llul. Sl lt i', v allin afford, anl AVWest liven ill New IInve ('omit V: in New ler-ev, tilhe itowi-hipsi) of ('eii-s erfiil and Manlfield ill Biurlinmlrton Conty andI tle to\\111i i) (f a ::lapla 1 ill fn llli iitt1li (',u litv : ill Ne York ite 1 \OWi lof ( olfCe'- Ie. Feitol. Kirkw l d, Saiford. and11( lAlo in ll Iro le ( 'i llt111 lA fT uii ll E (li ail.o ("' ili1tv. Anlle 'aii aill( ivingStoll ill ( 0 1T i ( 011111Y. A Ile lilI. k111 il, ]DoveI, M11il .ni, Norliheast. Re1 Il),k. Rhinllheek. :nd Vni v'ale in )Dutche-ss ('County, ('r lw ford. IMi)nit nt eirI'!*v. M OiuInt Hope, and W, Xalkil ill OranI ge Couinty, Keilt ill P111:1tna1m (mint v. and ( jardtl iner, Lloy()vd. Maribletown, Marl)erough, -New Palt z. Plattekill. R(osndale, Sihawanli-unk. and the city (of Kig'ston iln 1I -ter ('onty: inl ()i()o. the townhip of Tro Atheuis ( unt-v : i) Pennyv l V81aia. tihe t owni hip of Bedmii 'ter. )oYlertwnvll, i ha East Rockiill. IHaveck. Middletown, Milford. New Britain. Newtwni, N-orlthamiptol i. Plii ilt ea.d. iclhland, Springfiehld WaT rrilTilron. Warwik, Vest Rowkhlill, and thie b 'ouh of Y"ardlev ill Bi(Ieks ( 0111it. tile toW1s of Salis)tur alnd p'lper Sa:ico ill Lehii ( ntyM, iddle iifiteld. Siniilthfield. a:ild Stroud in Mon'oe (01tltxV. hlilovel'. LOmver Sal11on. aind W illians, and te )oroughl of liell ertoiiw ill NoI h lalnl)toli ('oilntVy. and Ward ;.5 in Plhilaidelphia (millt v.
    Ill iO (l ( c's ()f the VCIll' (',itill an1d e1Ill-Salll tita in activities 1. 19 >qllle mile"1 vWere added to the infected Z(ole, with a ColrFes1poilii1g leditetioll of 2 s(112'ae lilies ill h11e bOlr(le0'-zo11 sol in :1'i I e lij )' Ii ,-01 ill'i:1 at Ile e1i4 )f he ye i'I inc i ed 911% q:10t i Iile li ( i1t ict, 1,4 9 ill New ,lerse- 03.G 42 illn New Y 1k. a il 7;0 ill ]lv m:1,'I'la ia. a total f .i i <(ll-1' Illes. iThl i ,'ta er-zt oll -COlii illy if t')I1 )ll'ised 311 sq i1' 1iles ill C lllc(ti it, 12 in NeW 9 s 9V1. ill -New Yin'k, : iad 703l ill en risylv:llii. tot i11 i il r 21 <1 (lp l're iim l 1Tile eliire zll Z e I Of ieli O1)tpelItiolls
    1 iIl'0 1 1;10 h lli0' Ilile-. a1 1l11'1 : 0e of o ilY 7!) s 1are n ile, .
    IADIWATION AND) SANITATION ACTIVITIES

    Sp> 'i l :illt'i \:1- i elIl Ill'i g 1ti' ii 'f 19ti4l) to IiHl''i- si' il' lIft I 100 -- of iI t eliI -,illlN\ti lt yr v l I l l I* I I :1:1 1 1l : re v tlv ailt:1 kei f IL baIirk heet le- ail lv inIclud1
    10' I ft ti Ii i t f i t 1 oe )t Il l l Iree 1 1 I1






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT IQl ArANTINE 43

    for such bark beetles. This is coltrated to earlier work tllr cnphasized the reml al] of all ehllns o er 50 )pe1e(1t deal 11(1 exc lauded the pruning of branches. Mre attel)t ionI was i'verl this, yea' to the destruction of wood piles and slash. Fifteen ill ustrat ionis were prepared describing elm wolod considered easy prey for bark beetles as well as wood not likely, to be attacked by.' Ieetleh. Usilgr illese illustratiolis, supervisor gave held crew's special traniin il". in the recognition of wood in'ol\-ing, the griea tt Ihazrds. An analy sis of the results obtained showed that. with thorough elm sanitation as VIn objective. 95 pelrenit of all beetle-illfested material could be destroyed in 80 percent of the time required in the absence of this type of training. In areas where manpower was so limited that a, thorough job could not be attempted, it was possible to Iemle SO percent of all beetle-infested material and 10 percent of the material that might become infested in 30 percent of the time that would have been required to carry on the saniitation program of previous ears.
    The selective removal of suci material, wa founls to be of further advantage during the spring and early suiuner of 1940, when most of the work area was recheckedl to remove infested(l aterial before beetle emergence. This work was largely limited to removal of the five categories of beetle material collsidred the llos dangerous. These five classes largely cmprise beetle-su scel t ible nm material resulting front wilt diseases and mechanical damage. such as Ibrea kage, girdling and cutting. Trees slowly dying as a result of ulilfavorable soil conditions were found to be only slightly attacked 1,v lark beetles seeking breeding places.
    A further advantage of this revised program is that it is possible to destroy dangerous beetle-infested and sulsceptille material in certain trees by pruning and thus save the tree if it is otherwise a desirable or valuable one. Owners of trees have been much more willing to grant permission for sanitation work when this has been explained to them.
    During the year field workers eradicated and removed 9,864 elhns confirmed as infected, 206,540 elms in the sanitation program, and 56.428 elms in selective operations, a total of 272,832. The grand total of trees removed in all operations inl tlie preceding year was 773,604. A reduction i the WV. P. A. personnel during the winter accounted for the decrease. At the ein of the year a grand total of 5.576.680 eIlms had been removed as a result of thle various tvpes of operations Practiced since 1933. There remained stan(lini at the end of the year 180 diseased trees.
    Selective-cutting operations were )erforllled i ll lIe vicinity of Cumberland. Md.. to eliminate the elm p)utlitil ill territory, fIormerly scouted with considerable difficult. Isolated ,o1grl)s of ellis of low value ill rOUllg mountainous terraill were located auid la er reioved. Also in Maryland,.the removaIl of herle-iiifeted elim wod wood furnishing potential breeding places for bhark beetles. a md dead and dying elms was completed within a adi* s of 4- Iiles of the solitarv Maryland confirmation. Destruictioli of wool slsee!ptile to infestation was carried oil throiigliout tlie wiite in the West Vi ro-ilia work area. In Ohio elear-cuttinlg of ellls was ace omplished wlerever permission could be obtained for thiis type of iw k in the localities wlere SiX disease cases were foimlld (1li11i1r tle veal. Removal of








    lw thi -illf,.-tel v ,,)0 il< : t --1an ,t** ia.,leha to, ilif-t: 1 0 Wit I 't il ed )011 iil l ll t tIl ld li ,,l ~ 1'k aleta r ( u' it l te \\ illite '.
    A.l ice 1oI1il Mf i t1 ie iiailt 1if arc(l:t lli al I t ie ill,,'fill i of M ar lCh 4 Catll- d Nwhid.,( 1'e:1d I i 'i. toi e 1 i Il'8e ilet loWl of tOlie infected Zlle. I1 soile 10 t .e I< t i- )111 r0 : )))1'Oi'li+ 1 I + e ee l 1 t1iat dole 1\- th1e lliIlr iet t S i i lIller i9 .,1 t tlarly i iifl l'f tle P1 t ) .l1't* I f l (elm (1f tI1 tu*l t t 0 I lli (' 1 et l at tack 1- c ii'0 1 )lw IwIt11 bI1111:lg \ It 1 I C'tile W i e '- I lWili d4w of e t1ire I 'ee.. li We I hat c( llecte tl t eI w re.- tdl 'ii tlhe ice t tnil' l" Itow veW r, l:iik() l Itr e lwlr ll e- ai nlt el l Il t litl% ill riil I : Ht tl li to lie 1111 ved i are litr+ 011 1 10 00e'l 'C Of el111 Mark l it'-. Ice ;mltc, tIe I ee- :tl ; 'ckl thLat i ellic 1i01.) everely affected t here a. .i are v all eI lll ll WN lli ileI w ere ( lItlt 01r li I : MlV'I.I. W le e1 ilel'elit-'y -ill atit ll 1( 1nlt ilr froul t ice 1 i 0l lale it ec --ar 14 dev, iate fr t 1frll t1e egi lar ,work prograInt. It smile -ectts the storm left nmre mlatI'ait cl til ioe to ifestation lI) a xid H i i tile Wv irk locations before eli-sa litati: Worrk w1a-l beguill. It the 1o Winl ()f Ridgefield, (011.. for example. ia 1r1ev shoved tha1lt 10l) mIel Would be required( for aI vear tl ( retn ove a dis (1 )l e of daiiia1el eltl o Id. n lower wi't~e1 eter ('Oilltv, N. Y.. it was e illiated that a lpr),ximately 800.0()0) els bad llaligi Itrat les over 8 11nche l ill, imter that req ired removal.
    ;il'0I ( T eAVPll A.
    sanitation nmbered fro m 1.5-10 to 2.450. The W. P. A. personnl r11w11td taruld l2.00()0 durilli ilhe at1 qulartelr of tie yeallr.
    SCOURCES OF FUNDS

    ()Operation were carried oi (1111rin the Yealr Illder a regular depIrtll'ti al)rol)topriatiol of '500006. p111s S1tl)plelent arv allotnients I)Y tile Work Pr(jects ,hhl tini trlltist r if i 9.(49.0 fo(r tield )er'ations and $55.27 for administrative ex pelen .e. State al )lprIri1AtiOns or a llotn~ieil made available e for etradcatilo lN wrk by1 cooperiatli agencies a l ou1 ted to 111) 10.0 )0 ill c +llecti t. 1 I in Inliatlla. $50l in MaIrvland .$.+0 ill 3Asac1 vllet t..+,.., ill Nw .lerev. l9N.ew2e in New York. and 1.500 in Rhodle Island.

    WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST CONTROL
    PROGRESS O)F HIRES ERADICATION IN 1939

    TIhe ('ctrol of wlit-ilie blister rIWt in tfc 11itd State-s was car' ie ,0 1o loarreflv with relief : 1) '. (o operaa i,1 was Ilai tai111ed v ill tile F 1r'eA I'i'lvce all t>4t)il (Wi T-TrV:ut ill S.i 'I>V te of t he I )ep:rlt Iei ()f Agricltiltre. with the Nat ioal PIark Svrvie aid the
    (")Mice of Ildialn Affairs of the departmentt of i1e Interiort. a1d( with > Lt .(011 lets. t,11 ow l >li1 -. andl individ al. The calilui d Wi v '1 (if the Iureautti alli its clt)til',Irati1g t atlleies
    1(' i I i1 1 1 ;: 'll ,t 'rI \ l' ii> al' iv dt t e i l tc I titl, Iiml) 12 (,eS of..

    i it i l W,,k :l, 70((;,( 1 iof re(r)k. lT1e latter .I'i' is I1ade 1up1) Of 1) 01ti)-, ()if 1 ti ll1 r etNN't'i area-. t 11 'h e l of tihe r1i I st is






    BUREAU OF ENT)O111)tOGY ANI) PL AN' Q(AIANTINl 45

    endangered by Ribes p1lanlts that have developed subsequently from seeds or sprouts. Such areas illay require oe (I twI reworking, and these are tillle at 1periodie ilitervals so as to remove the Ribes before they are able to produce .seed. This practice prevellts serious damage to the pines. keel)s the R/N(;, d uppressed. and gradually works toward their permanent elimllinatioll front conltro(l aren. T he details of the Rib;.s eradication work are given in table 6.

    'I'ABLE ti.---ilibcis crudicaliot Itollor du11ring ther (I ul r Y! r. 1949

    Total iniInitial Reeradi- tial eradi- :fe ie 'ibes
    Regon dititon eaton tion n dh d es
    eradic at ion cat reradica- lalor destroyed tion 1
    Act.s .lcres Acres fan-daU A Number Northeastern States 340. 736 359. 405 700. 141 159, S91 13, 541, On5 Southern Appalachian States..... 359. 132 131. 974 49L, 06 34, 218 3, 230. 851 North Central States -_ 92 i 613 73. 406 ; st,. 019 83. 292 17, 823. 644 Western white pine States (Idaho, Montana.
    Washington) -- :36, 090 iS. 776 104, Yi6 155, 304 28, 376, &S2 Sugar pine States iCalifornia and Oregon ----- 12. 541 72. 530 201,071 135, 119 19, 339, 389 Rocky Mountain States (Colorado and Wyom in g) --- ---- --.
    ornin2 -------------------- -- ---------------Total----..........---------------------------.... .. 1,7. 112 70 091 1. 863. 203 570. 24 2, 311, 851
    I Includes work of c(ope)ratinlg Federal, State, and local agencies.

    Of the 570,824 man-days of employment provided, 290,637 mandays represent relief labor, 204.202 ('. C. C. labor. and 75,985 the labor of cooperating State and local agencies. The number of individuals employed during the season totaled 15.280. of whom 6.589 were obtained from relief rolls, 6.015 from the ('. C. C.. and 2.676 from the Department and its cooperating State and local agencies.
    Of the acreage reported above, 1,313,485 acres were worked by eradication crews paid from allotments of emergency-relief funds to the Bureau and to the Forest Service. The C. C. C. enrollees covered 374,820 acres, and the remaining 174,898 acres were worked by temporary emnlloyees of the Departnment and1( other cooperating agencies. Numerous States and t owilsh ips provided appropriations for cooperation in control work on pillelands within their borders, the most substantial of such app)ro(priations being those o)f New York and Idaho.
    Where thle work is inI remote forest areas it ins iees'arV to -i, bsist the men in e ps. Other were were 83 such caimps operated during the season, of which 45 contailned relief laborers and 381 cont ailledt temI)orary empilo yees of the I)epartment and cooperating agenc ies. In addition. C. ('. C. labor was assigned fro( 17 is caml The work of the ('. C. C. on the National forests was 1pevi)riedl by enro'lees from caiip ) signed to the Forest Service of this D)epartiment. The work on Ite national parks and Indian reservatilvS was Carried on by lai)or froi C. n C. (. C., calps allotted l t iic Natilial IPI ai Servic' all Office of Indian Affairs of th )eDpatlile it of l t' I teri( T. C. C. C. work o11 p)rivale all State IaltIs was perfor(et it II 111e cases )by labor assiglied froil caml u1 e ler th, direc1it 1 (111 Slate foIrv-le ls alld t(Ie Sol (, Cliervali ll evvi e.






    4I ANN '.1A I Um. PtT> ( I IEL'AuI7IE. I I % AI;II(ITIr IU, 1 94

    STATUS OF ('CONTROL WORK BIY REGIONS

    'h"(, -tat i f ,(cnitril w,'k at It oe e(nd of 1939 is shown in table 7.

    7I'il s t. t so of >i.dor l" a 1 t oti l (ir.' byo/ r'c.!Iions onf /he, .I. 1,.1.0

    ( rl ('ntrol] areL's
    rastrs Uil.- s ub at ki UstE roved xec(tive
    li aild\ pro- "t 'l labor

    ..tcres .Icre N o "'sr fIot-dpea
    No'4rth l t st*i ( t ... 110. 1 2. 3i!. 4 : 712 7 2o 0 3.4 iII 2. 4 2. 3c0
    t. .21;. 2" I 2 21. 5 2' i. *\,'
    Nort I ('tl r:l -t ..- 2, 770.32 2;7. 1 2u .J 4()43 13, 79Q W\Ve ern white ii 't* I t id:, ho. Montana,
    .4mu'ar plio Stat ('l ifori 'm,1 ()r,,,' in 0, 2.I 191.7;' 3. 1 7 7 0. 700 Ro'ki 1o1 ,':,tainStit, 4 olrP lo rl M \\Allo in 3. ;10 I 1. 3. 51.0* 13. 96
    ot .. ... ... 21. 112. 18 5., 1; 1. 012, 747 5, 11., 7

    Thlh f:'ur(es shove n are nro ti, al, t lo i ),I.81, lt f., an Io not inhl it w ork 'irn~ s that ha we re later removed from contrl-ara' st -rft ;I o 'wing to Ihllir r'vrsion to n hiim (-pr i ei' i .0 :I, a1 % r-ilt of fire. cutt ing, or other (':I i (' .
    2 'h, work in ('olura lo ab I y min ri'pr(,-'ntw evex :rinitent i1 R.k t ror lir ti n in stand of linbier.whitehark. a ad britlh'lr el( I;,iane on n'it lanl fort< to dve), lo+p ]pra*vt ';i- c rr to rPii ur f hR wkt i > Mountain rerf'i in nl ad : TP,'e th rre'' ,f th ( ru t. The :erv,:l',, i ( ) r n for I Ih '2 .Tit 1 it i '. t:O t:it )rOCO'lt on-* siderdl < t>., rt of the connareial white 'ine ar,'te s of th, Ir:iite t Itits No work 'as mi'rrisi I on in thesSt t: li ilrin 193J9.

    The aggregate acreage (if control areas initially p)'otec(ted from rust by the era(lication of Ibe ,, as shown in table 7 Ivpresents over two-thirdls of the acrage needing protection. Progress in Ribrc eradication differed il the various white pine regions owing to differences ill tl timie (f rtist invasion, in the period during which control activities have been uider way, it the abundance of IRibe and in the difficult ies of working coalitions. In recent years the availability of enmergency-relief funds has provitled a much larger amount of needled labo)(r ant has nmadle pIossible more rapid coverage of control areas in all regions.

    SPREAD OF BLISTER RUST IN 1939

    I )uring 1939 there was no large ext ensi(n o(f the limits of the known inlfecte1d area: in this country. Spread of the rust within the infected parts of the different regions varied co-itlerably, beingg very slight it)lile S~ iga p 111 eregioll a111( (j ite gelleral' ii NoI (r ( l Cetral Tegon. Sii varnat 1)11s 1 (,sullt largely froli tlie iifillllceo f pl'eva1 iin wePither' (( oll(itio)lls o(l '11 l t (lvel(plll it 11( lll S)realt and al 'e 11, i '1111ll to Iw expI)ected.
    11n lie A 1 ppli t nltl regioll sol Ii (f 1 linis vlva i1.1 list e ist I wa foullid for t l fi- time on h i I Kent (' "ouitv, I )el., ('lv(,ert and Ir)'in.!ce (,I erg.(,s ( "oillt i(., Md. : Alb)en(marle, ('"ont v. a.: anld Prlton ('m(ily v. W. Va. ()n white piine it was fou)(l j()fr tIle 1ir*st tiitie ill
    Ie ifII IR., t)fi l 1 ll 210 ly l1h'lc all( F)(rt'l ,i d 1 (' 1111t1(, W \:a. IIll 1 )i'4e e si :1i ext '-lioll of i t e "ise:'-0 It)i 1I ( )ill Iln i I l oI lI /, of l c i t Il 1 )cl11% are' :i114I W\o() c' llli 11 NlI Ia v-y I:t1i I \ it iiit) a 1 'lw of tl'(, P i )'*'If1slv kilwvil ii)ft'cit(l (' 1)11111 (i(- 11 t1!1d -, u t it i' .A :1 ,' 11 fi: ,) htIt 1 e 1 n e t' 1' l lli l l '/ :110, t,, )), n t : -.o ,,i 1* *l ,l 'i ,. 11 11 l ( 1)i)11,.






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 47

    In the North Central region there was considerable spread of the rust. It was found oil Ribes for the first tine in 13 counties ill Ohio, 9 in Iowa, 1 in Michigan, 2 in Wisconsin, and 2 in Minnesota. In 67 percent of these counties the rust was found on the cultivated black currant (Ribes nigraiL), indicating the importance of this species in the distribution of the disease. Blister rust on white pine was found in 2 new counties in Ohio, 2 il Michigan, 2 in Minnesota, and 1 in Wisconsin. In Wisconsin the rust has now been found in every county in the State on either pine or Ribes, or on both host plants. In Ohio the disease spread as far south as Champaign (ounty, where it was found on Ribes. This is an extension of about 50 miles over its previously known distribution and may be the result of long-distance spread of aeciospores from the norItl and east. In Iowa most of the spread occurred in the northeast quarter of the State, although O'Brien and Dickinson Counties, in the ilorthwestern part, were reported infected. All the findings in lowa were on R. nigrum.. It appears likely that most of the spread in Iowa canme from pine infection centers in southern Minnesota.
    In the Northeastern States the rust is generally prevalent on both host plants and in nonprotected areas it continues to spread unchecked from Ribes to pines. Observations on the spread of the disease in protected areas show that effective control has been accomplished and that new pine infections in such areas are relatively few or absent. The rust is so widely -distributed over the Northeastern States that the region is considered generally infected.
    In the western white pine region of eastern Washington, northern Idaho, and western Montana no extension of the disease was reported over that known at the end of the calendar year 1938. Additional infection on Ribes was observed this year in Glacier National Park, aind the disease continues to spread rapidly and destructively in many of the young western white pine stands of northern Idaho that have not been reached in Riibe eradication work. There are still nearly 800,000 acres of unprotected white pine on quality sites in this region.
    In the sugar pine region the extended hot and dry weather and the lack of favorable winds during the period of canker sporulation appear to have checked the spread of the rust except in the ininediate vicinity of pine-infection centers, and even here infection oin RibWs bushes was relatively light, considering their high susceptibility and the volume of aeciospores produced. This is not luusual, as years in which conditions were unfavorable for rust spread lave occurred in the past in other parts of the country.
    An examination of thlie pine-infection area along the east fork of Indian Creek on the Klamath National Fiorest ill California sh(iwed that a high proportion of scattered sugar pine seedlings and saplings were diseased. Also, trees located close to ibes s(ngauieawIe bushes scattered through thie tilb)er oi tihe hillsiles were severely infected, and hu ilnreds of cailkers Ihad produlced( spores this year in contrast to a few in any ,previuois year.
    The results of scouting ill California d~uri gr the seaso were wative with respect to tlie (iscovery of nIew lo( atli()s o)f in fecti)onf ()n Rbes, and there was not only no southward extension of the riust on Ribes beyond that previously rel)orted, but no infection was found






    48 ANNI'1, HEP)-lT OF IEPARTM1iENT 0F A1(;,IIl.TI'HE, 19-40

    ill 13 at Ili'm ) iV P l(, itioll W le1 it W a p'ee1 it oin /I / in 1988. One -ligar cl Piee wa t rt** v\v I aI (l l ir ler Creek oil tile Klamath N:itional For(est Vwith four incipien it cankers (of 19:7 origin. This il fecti llc iircl'ea(s to ill t le llfllbe' of O lacesI d w1wre pilles haIve l)eeii fo1u( illf(ct('l ill (:alif nia andl exte111~1S lie known)i rajinge ()f Piieii illfect t, 1 ill Il (, t:Itie to ) s( ile 14 1luiles so1th of thle ()reg ( border. A- tle di(,ase i-( licubles al)bo)t 3 years ()In whit( ) pine ) fo)re it prl'( '1-, :c ito 'es )a. ll in fectinls oil white p)ille t lhat Imay have taken place in the last 8 years were still in the devel()pInenta stage an(d some of th illi, Pol)yI ) w ll l)egin O p)P)( iige alli 10Ul' fr Il1e first tillme next S~prillY.
    PROTECTION OF WHITE PINE NURSERY STOCK

    The zollns for 1)isterl I's t c C toii ir l aro P ltl )93 n11t r r11- toilta iii i over 87.1000.0()0 white illss wIere exaiiiiled f(or R; (, d1ri 1939. This resulted in the d(est fiction of 85,915 /. 4(.,),9 acres, ()or ai averael(,fl f 2.1 busles per acre. This repl)re-t.s a very low R; h~ pol)1llatin ioll tte I)r()tecti\ve Zones :arllll() tlle.e Iill-se1'es and indicaites that tlie trees ar e well 'tect e frmll ruIt infect ill.
    Tle r(otectiol of wiite )plie 1iiirI>erV stock a:ssuires t ie l>r)(lulctiol of trees ftr foret-plaitnllll )t pu)r se- that are free froll lister rsI in ecio This ph1)ase of the control work is- a se rvice of value t( )oh r-otWer '11( C(onsillllPe', as it )rovides foi tile (li1trl)1tloll alld )11antin Of Iir st-free trees. As white pi)iles are 1sedl extensivel for reforestation iln this country, a source of planting stock free from blister rs1lt is of collsidera)ble ill)Portalice to forestry yv anll the Ilursery trade.
    ERADICATION OF THE CULTIVATED BLACK CURRANT

    Work on the eradication of the cultivated black currant in white pine regions was continued. Most of this work was I)ee practically t( onlI)leted. although a few l)lants may ef ll f mal Iv for several years. The cultivated black currant is an itrolhticel d pllant. highly1v slstel)ttil e to blister rust. and ant active aelent in tie local anIl ltg-(li ta i(e lpreadl of the diese. Its erli, i ()) 11t i l ill W 111 it()i l l i r ll S is 11;e0 0, 0 9 stel) ll 0l ~1i 111 ctnItrol of the MAPPING OF WHITE PINE ST ANDS FOR PIO()TF(TIO)N FlO)M 131,STEIR IlUST

    W hie plile >Iui ald 1 11;1.iil i't(6(ective ul)ff'h of ,g'vet a1i 2.1 .7145

    ''i,)'I. l)[t)\,) it h l *(.i )(; u-la V -(l y ()f L)l)lyIII)(,ut. h'e )I)w Ips are ii'M'Il ill
    ilri / \ IN ll 1 10 0 ( Ill il il ;11 l
    ', i .Ifl I l i t i, i le I ft Ia t'' A' (i I tl10 cX i\ zll() lw :1111 l r ter1

    c i f,)'\, l ;~ !,}t) ) \ i } 1, x ''~ i) ( f ) w l~ li






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT Q UARANTINEl' 49

    areas and some stands o national parks, nmost of tihe mapjpin g has been completed in the western white pine andl sugar I)nlle reiolns. Considerable work still remains to be doIte in tile easte ll wlitlepilie regions. Most of the nualppig is done during the fall and wiliter ollOltliS whe1ll -R h eralicati(l is. 111 F acticalle OWiill 10 ( elto liatl)ll of the bushes.
    DEVELOPMENTS IN METHODS OF RIBES ERADICATION
    Work was continued oil ttle developmnt an t improvement of (.rhlical, mechanical, and lianil nicetlio(ds for the eradication of li';us.
    For the first time all effective chemi cal treatment was (leviled for RIbe8 tris e. The method involved ani early- and a late-season spray and soil drench of Atlacide at the rate of 2.4 pounds per gal lon of of water with Tergitol No. 7 as a spreadler. lmprovements were ilade in the effectiveness of oil spray on small plants of i. ro zal; hv adding to the Diesel oil about 20 percent by volume of a cheap bypro l1uht, t. he sulfur dioxide extract obtained from l1ubricatill g oil.
    The scope of mechanical-power methods was extended to tile ent'dication of heavy patches of Ri;b,. rowzl; in upland sites by the utie of special attachments devised for a 25-horsepower Diesel caterpillar tractor. A niodified blister rust brush rake was fitted to the front end of the tractor. and a single drum logring winch (sometimes called a hoister drum) was mounted on the rear. The logging winch -pooled several hundred feet of steel cable and operated one (-r more special ?i;kbes hooks light enough to be readily handled by one maln. This power metliod was 25 to 50 percent or more cheaper flthan hand methods ill heavy Ribe*. patches. Horse-drawn R;bes plows or hooks were furthier tested and were shown to be specially well adapted to work on open-grown mediumin-sized bushes of R. rerm and R. ,o~zl;.
    Tests of dynamite and of regular grubbing methods o)n paired R;bes bushes showed that substantial savings could be madI(le by the use of dynamite on R. oere n bushes having 3.000 or more feet of live stem. Dniamite methods were worked out to provide data on the weight and the number of charges of 20 percent dynamite needed to uproot bushes of various sizes under different soil conditions.
    Regular hand tools were improved throuo'h the design of a true l!awhanmmer type of mattock bladle which permits the ;I -.b crown t, lbe firmly grasped and then uprooted by a ryin v teelhnique. Several thousand of these new tools we'e mnatle by relief labor and were used in reopuJlar crew work.
    A method il whxichi R;/,.,, mul.,ikes were marked in ailvan( w\\itll wlit e mecianic's waste a l the marked bushlies theO de 'traved Iv a ,'w wvaconmpl)ared witll the etabM isd crew metliond. Sttiti('-tl aiaI nal i-i- of field (a,,ta shiowed that tei-e was no ,ignificant upl tjlnle a 'at If'i m ib.r t; //7,+ iii>-e',I w1 1- 1" I I!I 1:11n 1 1

    Iw lt .)i,,ca I IdIl,+' :, a- x ,' r < I i wac( 11t,, 11 ,e Mi'P11 \v c ; elm,


    2 ;il775 ; 1.. ) .






    .)() A\NNI'A.l I:IEIPOLTlll' O )F 1).\IIAETILTtElT OF A(; I.'ULE, 1 94

    s aliati11 HiOW bei ed on a Ilarge ,ale. 11ethod. of pine Il Iil ; iellPIit I hat Will resli ii the II l tiral tih : lle)iol 1of I?;b iIll the tf1 re0 a c i illrli c r ilil timill I 1I Fi Iest r ice. a t I ir f I eal l Ef E1,ntolimb)l'y and Plall Qliarantinie mOainrates a far as facilities pefr1li it.

    REALEL AND i FOAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
    GRASSHOPPERS

    tiit 1iiiigiattioll by iglt of great s-Warilli o f t1he esr 111 Irlatory l; -lwe e l ... \\ev ( l' vedi i (let alj for tlie firit 1111te dliill'lll tie ll1111111ii1 t' 1f 19 9 il is li l fil' a 1011 Or(l illated III Illi a fll 1 f al) 1it. 1,)il)l *40 lrl'e 1111i0 iII eaSterlil M l 1taia. wl1ere the inte titloil averaged about 50 grasslh11ppers to tile sqliare varil. Practically all of 1 lieii Hew olt of tlis fare:t bW0tweei Junie 20 al ( Jliv 15, 11~1tly ill 1 li dlir',t i i of tile )nrevailli Willi towIarl tile l lortliwest. 'Tlie progrfeS Of tliee wa .l'lil il. was clarlted aiid tlieir filial teriiiii late. Many
    -W\\-rlii ,- Ctliti lu a<1e1111 ) wr i i- 1 l)order iWi j Albertla ald Saskat clewlan. Tli.e that aliglhtei in thlie (llitel State- inlfesled all area bomnded by Blaine. Ferigus. Juditlii Basi, C( ascade. Teton, i. Pnldera. ail Too le (o11111 11e f t l itli eij rat M folilm. Egg hlivinlg began inll areat t1)llilt Aligil-1 1 a:lll c(()ntiliuled l1tl1 :ilti)t t Sel)tenl)er 15.
    t lle of lilt'e icslt ll o eXleli.Ive i 1ili Xp ex pliieie t it Was f)l Ill tiihat sol i 11111 ii ll1 I ilcate as a :-ll)Stil Iut for the sodi tim ar':enite I 0iI ireli lerlivN list'l i tll le it (gave excel lent relluls ini Clllc fli at1i(1 l 3 to i00 po))lllidS of 1)':1i oi other carrier. So(liil1l fliloilicate bait killI giaplo)ers Ilfl'e ralidlY tla l do arsenical baits ald( vet is de'idedlv less danigerouis to ldomlestic animals. It would i trefoI'e Ie re l'ferable to rsellical bailts if it Colld le obtained readily Ill Slitfliellit (1trillitV, .it 1 loW I c).. Ii Fiell Iests to deterlillile the tlitii of I)titinrg unidl(er fall condlitiOlls gave (roodt reilts so far as kill Wa: cotlcicerl. T1,o be effective, however. '1,ch1 Ininiii lutist he (l 0110 )efo re(g laylll )egihis. Experinies to deter ilne the effeeiei, es of oil- ald water-Ilixed l hbs list ributedl by airplane illdieated the feasilbilit A of this llietll(I(I and that haits inixed with bran a 0d oil rather illlthan bran anilld water 111it lork best ill alir)lale dis1irilnlitifh. lr aiilplaie li ex erilielis ili icalie Iaci' al)Il l)l'i 1dili y t 11y plaie. ill qu iitlie lls is li s 5 )111 o lids per It(. 11 i 1 0h11 si 2 filelr, lighter I> 1lll iul'te lilith U) tr eonPolal ald 1iltdeE! '-m El)1 i' lit ioiIls.
    MOIRMION ClH KFT

    IC 011 1 M 1 1"':1 il 1 :ii llb\titllipt! O t i llt l1 lllls of ile11 Nt rliilt 1 ,l',Ie'i t'I feEl 11,.-!4 Im'"Id:l ily :It air telitliera ie' -, bt xe'l e ll 7C I alind S~() ki.. li ii llthey fedl at slIzliIV l \\ cr tieliperal ire thall di1 the,
    I I l 11 l- a: I q :1 eI I h N VN li t'Ie ile fii l: i t M 1 11; 4 (i l

    III l I i E' i tV UIf I I ,1:iiI i iVV I\Ii tl -t'e I Ew l H I ( N.;1 vh lll i a
    I i l h; II W 0s1 1 S el t* itd lli alt d f 1()lilli'ri It It*, % ;/- 11 ',11' t'll I"!' (" ''.,l i ll (T i \I ,1 !'!.li -110 V i0 1 2.6' 1tli t tili p ct fr )(11






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 51

    Further extensive trials of the poisoned bait made of brain, d,>liumi fluosilicate, and water on several thousand acres of infesteted land continued to give excellent results, with kills averaging over 90 percent of the crickets. These tests included the use of a bait ill which a small amount of lubricating oil was substituted for the water, the bait being applied by plane on about 3,000 acres of infested land in Nevada. with better than 90 percent kill.
    WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE

    In field cages all forms of cryolite tested aoainlst the white-f'ilglred beetle gave better than 90 percent kill of the adult beetles, but o, cotton, calcium arsenate gave better control than crv olte. Several kinds of cryolite dusted on peanut and field-pea foliage caused no injury to those plants. As a result of plot tests of dusting for contr(,l of the adults, the population of the next generation of grubs in the soil was lowered. In an experiment on peanuts the fall population of grubs in the undusted plots was 77.4 per square yard as compared with only 22.9 per square yard in the dusted i)lots.
    Iii tests of several fumigants to kill the grubs in the soil, carbon disulfide was the most efficient where complete mortality y, regardless of plant injury, was the objective. In Juine, with soil temperatures in excess of 760 F., a dosage of 11 milliliters per square foot gave 1(0) percent kill to a depth of 16 inches.
    Trials of lead arsenate as a soil insecticide gave encouraging results in pot tests, even with applications as light as 250 pounds per acre, but in field tests it was less effective and reduced the yield of peanuts 22 percent.
    As an ovicide, coal-tar creosote in a 30-percent enmulsion was 100 percent effective.
    In cultural-control experiments it was demonstrated that a fallow conducted during the period of adult activity, from May to Novelmber, was quite as effective in reducing the grub population as a full year's fallow. Results also indicated that the population rapidly d(liniiished in abandoned farm land but that a 2-year period of complete fallow failed to eradicate the insect.
    In crop-rotation studies higher larval populations were producedd in peanuts and in corn intercropped with velvetbeans than in pure cultures of corn or cotton. Such crops as winter oats. producilii : n abundance of fibrous roots, were not seriously injured in thle lpresetwce of heavy grub populations. Tobacco and sugarcaie p)lated in grulinfested soil suffered severe damage.
    INSECTS ATTACKING CORN
    Ill experilielits with contact isecticides for 11se ()11 c)lrI ill P r-li'e1ncy control of chinch bugs, rather satisfactory kill without i jury to the corn were obtained with oil emulsions containin enz er d(aerris extracts (,r nicotine silf ate. These sprays are pr 1siilfr. at least for Iuse ,on restricted plantings of Iigih -valuie pedigreed corn grown for seed.
    Flitltier inllproIlel its were made ill tI lie use o 1till11l oil for tfle eotrol of t lie corn earworm in >weet corn bv tile add it ilni of sliall per'1entages of )py lfetiileii extract (,' dicilol'oetllY tiller.






    A NN '.11, 11.0 T- I : HT N )Ei\l T1IENT )I* .F i 'IL I I L 4t0

    lExt.( -.yi\(e lest- ill e(-vera1 lIcalit ie!. of ill)lbre( a iird i tieM l :11 i \ ('Pit ('(11* "II f I-111sltllc( 0 () th 1 l \(1 I l'W 11 lll s WPd \'ild (l if 'el 1ie ill tlil' (I fgref (f Iu t llt ill. Il wItlliIe (i f l lie ( t it 1i11t,tli o1f 1rtiSfi i tl i lali, fll I ii et lllllo 111rlioficanV 1eii ll'Ws. Tli wI( k
    ( t' 0 1 1iVC O,( tijlll ll i 1 1('( e ll'tli)ll )(,f Illll r i V. I ts(' (I ) I'i ll l lillt

    It Nv t (liP- bO\VCr f1 illlat t e 1 '10 1 0 fi a t):'lle, i ll(' 111il('il)il v.'tr (if
    st( t 101t1, () 11, IwIt1 v bt( ) l l W c I110 i 1 ( Ili tth) )leRIi v Ilrtl\ l'\'ived the wilier witoll( t il 11Wilir external -viinl )t)iis. TIle bee tles iiill ) ( 'ille iii'etive t o ,i lll cm, 11 (l whli(i tll.v Sil)-e(I ltelt lv fe. e' Ileveli 1 1411'i ii ie llV.' a y e 1h1 W carrie( tie ia lteria calI 'ill the dlisea- ili(e t tIeir )()dies tl r()uglh ti i winter. )ul'illg tlhe year tli(' lav',a e 4)J iiis tlea )eetle were t')[11 i () f'eed ,)ln If alivaIrd rr:iss. fall 1 )alii'liil. yelloww bristle gra -. anti a sedtge, in al(ition to other

    The ll'op tll "11 )(oir'e( et'ea ille 111 t' it ll (lltt ill I lilil aii. W ll'v il 111ier( (11 e 'eases vti l ert'v (l il o (. lllect ll 141 Nev. Bore1 )r)i t lYp e lhaols 111 le ill l elaged less i :ll1 10 t i 100 ()Itlll plit s fi thie area surveyed. Lbut ii spite o(f lower populations in the Eastern States they averaged over 50 ()bh rers per 10 ( plaflts iln -i part- of Man hacli sets. ('mlnlecticut. al Rhle l 1Ilal. ImIw fields InI Ne \\ w Jelse v c aitaille(d c i iel lliat4i l)oll I) to 14(0 el'IS 1)el )la it. Il)I'iig 1939 the j)est Wiv'- follnd for the fifr-t ti e ill ext I'ellie 11('tl heasterl N l' 1i Carolina a(nd extill( Il)ortlieasterill I11inis.
    Il a l ivel t liatioll of the 'tllFitll:ll1 reqliirenlentls of the Eitropleai ('4I' l)rer, feedil g tests with corn-leaf and ilnterlide tissue indicated hat llli'fi vil alid weights (it ()r1l-1)(rerl iirvae ae affected by d iffer('011e> iil t li( percelita( es o(f 111 1 ilire. leO li ll t i a s a 1)11()oI i c()itll tlls Ill tliei 1. f(ood: but (hieiliical (ti fere'li(es ()f t hit i kid11 )et Weel resisaI'- li and suscel ti )1le corls a l)lea eled t)o e il -lliell1t to ;1(111iti for tile )ol'rerS behavior while feedilly on their. I)iffe renes
    ()fserve(l il average weil it> of ll'ale flurished ,ill tissue of re-sistalnt
    -tlrain Iv'4 X Ily and t e siscept ible strain A X Tri, when both were a111:1111))ilated 1to l)ro( l( hi11 oil lar Collcelntrat l0n ill theill. indicated ithat I:itoris l)p) ib)ly of a p)Iyial (' chariaeter inll the tisi, )f R4xly IiIt(erI fee iili larva! fe( Iii',g. (rI F )(i'- i)1I that (lef'ecive X itin e- IlM M *1' it1 il il lall(i W H\ts (' ii(l v )\ '-,1l1 1 :111'l l e el's, ()1 tle t0( ll l 1 1tl0,. The I)II re (lings ( the b nod of hI hiV \ini(led \it thaw of its lh)-( Spl ill S.


    1'(I g
    i l- l I 11' 1- i1 1 (itSate". 'I i 'le 'lr e. ille t iie 'T 110 Fi a lt i)):11's (to 1 1ilY ,,I)(It ill i:;1 111t:1111ii111 (411 11 1 ita11 f l i ll'a 1 1-t it iilli ill' l. (eV ll ilit i2,l i ii i- a i di I u, i Cl ra 1,111 t i 11( i h ia,, btell il etd.
    lti -110 Yl. 1)1 i() f1931. 110lll'iV\ ", Of ,Nv-'(et (c0' l I'I l-i t
    ) l 1i 1. ll, ( 1 ,i ). (; !)(. ( ill i'le. C( ltip l 111' d 1 11lillii.

    ' I, 1 i' 1:)10 III hYs )1, I<, i l l( lli 4l i -11-1111s' i"i l'iT '






    BUREAU ()OF EN"TF(1TOIOGY AND IIPLANT Qtl.ARA.NTIE N)

    for 3 years as possibly showing inherent resi tanlce. itIe lialt:uil ie.letions male thle mollst favorable showniig. Further breeding experiI8ents are neces > ary before tenltat ive conclulsioll s calt )e l ~ vi. A(ej)t able evidence of tlinhereit resistance was a vailable. loi\ever. for Balitallti strain Michigan 1828. Iowa 9. IowNa 45. Minne-ota 26-34. Minni. 13-34. Purdue 14. and Michiigian 1923. Several strains iif E ver reen al V gave satisfactory evicenice of such resistance.
    InI general the tests for 19:39 of resistance ill field co)l11 al ita ia ted the results of previous years. Such lines as RI. L317B2. Mich. 77. alld Mich. 106 coltimied to exhibit material resistance. A strain. 12)5. formerly considered resistant,. failed in 1989 to maintain tli Ii-quality. Six additional inbreds, viz. K (;30.Kan. G(26. Ia. 1. I). l. Mich.
    285, Ohio 3113-N-1-1-1-2-1. and Ia. Ldg.. exhibited resistance,. ot h
    in 1938 and in 1939.
    In sonie successful spray fournulas for corn bove ont r ol elarl market sweet corn. an important iiingredient was Chinese gallotaiiiiin, but owing to its high price and the increasing difficulty of obtaining it. efforts were made in 1939 to find a suitable substitute. This apparently has been discovered in myrobalains tannin extracted from the dried fruit of plants of the genus T,e/ rialI originating il India. It per formance indicates that with certain adjustments it prro()ises inmlP'( ement on Chinese gallotannin. Quabracho extract. another talnlil. showed high effectiveness. although its extreme solubilitv render it of doubtful utility during wet weather. Cryolite was again found effective as a borer insecticide on sweet corn. but attempts to eliminate its burning effect. on the plants were not successful.
    During 1939 a total of 81.452 adult parasites of the Europeanl corll borer were utilized in the colonization program. In handling these the shipping mortality was less than 1 percent of the whole number. In this work the four species Chelon U.X anA~t;l;ipe, Wesmi.. Jlce,vtwur.s gliftren.,wis Aslim., Lydella gri.seens R. D., and Phaeoye w.s iigidec. Wesm. were released.
    Emphasis was placed especially on the distribution of the egg-larval parasite Chelo.s aqnnwlipes in the Connecticut River Valley and tlie lower Hudson River Valley. A total of 47.724 adults of that species were liberated in Connecticut. 22.826 in 'New York State, and 4.476 in Indiana. Colonies of the polyembryonie ilia,c cCt,/l.'ru y/iq/ensix, were liberated in the heavily infested areas of 11'ster ('lo lint. N. Y.. and Atlantic aild Burlingto n Counties. N. J.
    INSECTS ATTACKING SMALL GRAINS
    In1 a (1 ltinlilat oi of the wiork of b)reeil o whitat.- Y 0-isla:t to attack by thie he-sian fly, a 3-acre field test in California of a resistant hybrid carrying the fly-resistant character ,tics of )wna \vn I vlea t : l1d (le- iLmated( as "Bii Clu1 38"' showed nolli )ete freed!ol froti fly illfc'-taiill aS colored with 70-percent iiifestatioii in the check plots of o()lr1inar Big (Club wheat. Il thle breedinlg( of fly- anil di>,:1 re-f'i-talt Soft Rd Vliniter w1eat. I)1'.ffress xwas eXW(,elet al li re 10Plls c(rr rate~l those obtained in 1938. which indicated that a uninber o(f lvri)d- lasel
    ()n two highly fly-resi.tanit varieties (,f Sl)rin whlat po,-ed di tinct resistaiice to the ly. In similar work wvitl tite IHal'd RIed Witer wheats in Kanii.a's aasmalv as 50 percent of the li lhtly in fested F, selections showed entire a)sellce of infe tati(,io ill tlie full. T'Fe i fe-ta-






    ,54 \\N.N,\L 1i:,EP I 1- o F IEIrTI.ENT o \ l l:I A.IU1U E, 194*

    t )w i i I til(e-i, I li tt,1lo wil ,_ iIr i w ii i-))il lv low aI)I indicated ti4 1:li t 1xt'ell)0 t Xvo rkil lilteril la1I i 1llt1 will (1p sessed
    ,' UI lce (, I ot ill il i:i fly ailtl is -a.-[.A



    I:!']( 'Pl -t I n't enii tll eeulit ] )v c ltu ral iietl 1 Iods. Field( observations

    l)Vth 'l : 'tl -: -It1i "O l l ( 1,P )ll)tlilV (Tl tf inli\ til-! itll' 1ilt

    St e\'ilOi (' i i ll')""11 V t11' tXV li/Pt(il l l \VOI' l elle eit 'll d 111 afe Ill t n-t 1a l llai fi' i I !t't(t >1 al) fields. I i } a ( 1tie it was I if r

    I It li I1 o l i I we r0) f ltf i) S e ( f : ClW il Wl'v 1 s11 1 a11 IV r le t o th1 re1 1r ('i0 1 lt lre t l 1)0 WIt li a V i efl a ld ti 11e fall a- 1 z'l ol111ii



    \' e1 rat Iip1' )eI ielaI il) I ie mnnter 0)f 1939, a lid scattered odif reaks of I le lat V"l '1111) 0d froin lie Gul f l Mexico to w York.

    INSECTS ATTACKING STORED GRAINS

    The institution of the ever-normal granary and the conisequent Ile1 i lI( III Ii'a 1 i the () 1ta1liti .es )f grl i 1 t()1' t Ilt () l tilt : li ave Ca led for a dletermination( of the m11 )ratial iellth(d of prtectig )l1('hl L(rraiii i'roi( Itat tack by insect tests .
    After inf alli expeiwllal fli, atios llof (ra il tC)lltailw in all tv )ps of )ils ((nzlctlolly fomo l o( I fa'm, it ws (determl'idll that a (lo-.a e of :3 oallll~I of carbol)(:I dilfide to 1,o(000 usiels of g'rail rave lat iftact o'v ('lt rl ] except:ti wl ti tle tern! )el'atre olf the ffrrain was oo lil ad a tor)r m I ii f)revailed. ~,ter these latter to roticti()i (Xcl.,l sive eva' l )0rati(ni caie(l s>(.1i a t iss o f funi i(a t t hat a d(efe'tive kill result. Sone i daniier of fire ati(l exl)hlsioni accollliean; llt ti-c of car)o li sllfil (I fal'ni l)re't'll (. I l a safe f uli 111111l ilalit t est r'eP)pects was ftnd iIII the (owille('ial Vl a vailal)le nixtue of ethIlentl (li'lori(le (75 iarts) an( cial r)on tetirachldoide (25 )arts). T'iis wai
    Pi4 l ewhiatI li( l moe )sI IV. 1l ('VPt '.il a t i (s c l-' at lla (l a e. or i6 (:i a l p'r 1.0Y)0 MI)sshls of grainl. was re(ijlire(I.
    It was deter il( ll at l ia l'ed 'lwh at. ackedv ill hI f1r l)ile ill O i~Jil 1 (V.' -il 't ( Wil 1' I i l ite su:'(',- fi f Ilil li.1 i a 1 1 1wit Ih li itlli1 IW11'( oille, I 1onl 1 to11) 1.(100() Cll)i' feet of space.
    W liat a114 )hle 1 r siall u grains are l()wVIl to) l a y(, snw ilifest-ati )l wi' I a la xv(t ied. A of111 V l eat ) 1 l i fa e 0 1 o:11 )il Kl, -). a- m i('a illw 11t 11 lt ore :1 9(0 l)el' it ( Wf 1l l i' b i 1t 0I' 14l\\l hea1te ill 1fe 1i.? Iir 10str)n K at v a f m i l tllat c: P(ll s II )k llo,),a a l 1i
    I ()Is de. t)r Ili tat, ,f hug ed what.-11tckbd inla'e \ p:i e av nly i felvt\l wlll( tle \ :1tl,, ll ei ;( r 1i.ll Illo til, s i lat bv S)'f i lll,'lc l)( W 1(0 0 I 'hyl b fr a ( e a)-.- apond toI )1 30( ) h,)() ere nt f the ke.-iv.l wt, rc i II ft' t I.
    "I l'f l H i lt-1t f(I' r ',ill f'I 1 iV liS(It t 1Atla 1ii 1 l i S 11 i- 1 a l~lYl :al l 1;ll 'i ) o f )r()t( i (l fl l. A lt l ll) : 111) it 11(
    -1I ,ld 1) 1 w:,( 0l hi ile it *ll)ved I lil a r Ig4 1 c liWhtr.
    tir 1- itf 10 11,2' 12 F 41 .11 fII)I I 11 IW I ( e






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QU At.ANT IN. )

    insects except tlhe catlelle (an ill)iHrtanit )e *!) wit ltil i ij i''Y I1 e grail.
    Ilie qluestilll of tlil extelit to wllicll (r ra ll1 1 taIlls I ci wlle- i 1t1 -Ie0 bv contact wit li infested cas is 9 c t)i l 11 1i101ottll tih)trtalit. A study of grain freight cars arrNiil vy nit .railway parts I'or c eli li I rePealed that about 57 percent of s 1 cars col killed 111.- t )lorr to the peak of tlhe shippii lss. This inlfe-tatio ro-,e 1o 091 percent after the peak shipi)ln)in season had pas~ed. Clean i nedI iII wooden box cars that Iad been treated n va'rio way- o I) li,'e insects was quickly invaded by iii>ets in lalar..e nItiilhes proving that fumigation of such cars was not effective. Lii" these caris with paper previous to itading retarded infestation ut failed o lprevent it.
    Claims have been made bv coninercial concerns that ceri:,i daitlike substances added to stored grain were effect ive in p 'tiectigi. it from attack by insects. Tests were nmjade of the iise.t icida! value of finely divided dustlike substances stuch as line. >ul f1.r, w ,l a~ e, s.-ovbean flour, and prol) yllite, when Iixed with wheat in t lie proportions of 1 and 2 pounds per bushel. These all failed to prevent insects from breeding in it at a dangerous rate and proved inleffec ive and impractical.
    A study of the conmparative action on tle erm11'in at111io of cornll of four common fumigants showed that with dosages fatal to insects, and exposures for periods of 72 hours at a temperature of 950 F., hydrocyanic acid, carbon disulfide, and ethylene dicbloiide did not adversely affect the germination of corn having a moisture content of from 10 to 16 percent. When treated with clhloropierin at a rate of 3 pounds to 1.000 lmshels, corn having a moisture content of from 12 to 16 percent showed some injury after an exposure of 12 hours.
    That insects cause serious loss to the rice crop in storage was sI1hown by studies recently conducted. In four varieties of rougli rice stored for 1 year the loss from insect attack was 12.9 percent. The loss from this source in clean rice was 691/ cents per barrel. and its moisture content influenced the degree to which it was injured. A moisture content below 10 percent was insufficient to sustain insect life. but practically all stored rice contains more moisture than this-in fact, a moisture content of about 14 percent is desired for good milling condition.
    In the search for an efficient fumiigant for clean rice, it wasto fiuid that methyl bromide proved satisfactory at atisplheriu pressure. When clean-sacked brewers' rice was fumigated with this chemical at 70' F., a dosage of 11,2 ounces per 1.000 pounds of rice cave a complete kill after 4 hours' exposure. A d sagt of one-half oince per 1,000 pounds was effective after an exposure of 12 hlou.rs. In a subsequent mass funmigation of 31 million 1)(uInds of rice contained in burlap bags stored in a tight colicrete warelhouIe of 365.000 cubic feet capacity, a dosagce of 0.85 ounce of methyl bromide per 1.000 poutinds of rice killed all insects after all expsc;tirei of 42 hours. Faus were used to distribute the gas d'irill finijat il.
    INSECTS ATTACKING FORAGE CROPS

    Complete ion of th!e studies on survival of alfalfa weevil adult- in baled hay and straw showed that they canll survive i the hae for






    .ib .ANNI'AL. I11' T I EI.1 PtTMENT OF ,1\1;(1'I'L'IVT1 Il 94o

    1im 11lli11 7 l iti :a fte 1,liu ,. I x erilli itaill filili2 ,1l0ll of lI ', :Jf I it l ill ,il I1vit Iil 1 W ilile j :a t111i Ill oo H*'leia l l ll vith
    (0)r0 )*r i StIlIt walrll- rI ti 4 11e fai t tlil i' ( lli)IoIt kill 'ihi1 I I lhe o t :1tiir1 l vi i it I tz :c e of 1 poinou l per 1.W J c b'lnl.n feet of
    Sn 1 :( 2(IItt t I12 I It Il I I t t llpetil'I' of I0 w of 1iiies.
    A\ clni eI e ear v I'-l- o -ervat lio e l I te weevil ///PI r/ /7 / en/,, I Bli. I i'-t1 (1i :4'( 4 'll'1 ]la t Y ear ill tes ill 0,11111er at Y1 11111.I A 117z.. Il 1 l lid t 1 1 it M11l V (It('10 le'Mtil l (11 t Ve'(1 Ill I tlhat 8ap)par+('ent lv it l)refehrs ('iover of1 the sIIs .,ll////.:.; to4 alfalfa as a 1fod1 philit. llite d Ill V IIIlaiiieI lild 4 1 I native tOiYol' :111it the SPlllll1l'. ( 1 41 .1 d 1* I: lillv 111. Ill:late late ill Noveil ,er 111 l ill 1)ecelil)4'i'. ait lalidi e,2,,- i :iilv ill siahl dead stains ,,f litter (,1n the >,il
    _AIl te Il I alil Vl vell St ('III of o 14 DY i C IO P d I IPi 7112 J; 11111 1* Fehr 'i r v. lld I :1 1 'I 1' I r v.1e of t I ie w I I ( (d Were 111 (S lv flll-A' owII v (I'V lv >)I'lll Htl d i prt icll 11 ('clIll; ed t t1i idit I t a ie 1 )V I tle e( 4,f A )' 1. Larva:l mortality vwas i(h. (and fever adults :lea r in the spring of 1910 than ill 1939. Most of it leel Itad gole 11l10t( l Iilil o f Ir l111' e llli h Y' 11v iI-May. Several Sl ec e'.i s ,f p)a l'sit ''e I'eat'ed I ilt ile e It 'e Cell:ti f 1,: :l t li izalT'he breedi ,jg of a ifalfi resistIlant to the pa aphid wal> ('continued inl l.n wiiii iinei alrive(l fromn tihe w(ork of 1o :i. Tie F, sedliii2 1 1st(ed Wel(,'(P 1t11e p)l')~renilv of 756 sel fe(d F ) p11its rP -ese1ti l11 10;1 phitd-reis ant fanllilies. ()f thile nmie tlin 1.(A F plants tested fr(omi these faiiilies on ily 2 showed an infestati(mon o(f aphids. These te isindi ('1ed ilc l it 8 of thie resistanllt fallliilies le'-te d retllill(l C( llpl(ete Peis't lle ne trll(1 a ei pI ) : I holIozll Vg- ii)s l l'. v s illi sta t 1t h p a aphi-I. In field te-lt- if 'reiistiltt allnd sisc'cetible plants the rveisitaL1t 1)alits renilIed l 1l'l I arkabi v free of aplii s. T leil ni1axin ) planii Ille i iltati11 1leve e 'xcee ded 2 p e lelt. Wvllerteas slisei)tile 1 l la 111 weve 100 )ei-e1 illnfested. Ill similar r)'eedinlly opel'atimls nlt a 1ittit. Iii .. liis tetiinK of alfalfa s-eedliill reveailesd individual ph11t- Ilpi which apllids declined to feed. Testing 1f Ch plilts in (11e'0 001)firi1ed tiiz 1 )bservatlol. A 1 climii1 conditions were unfir\ti)'le for o iei-fl l i till( 111. 'age est iil2 wl >1s lc('eSSlll 1 used. S belit ill "1 l were liide fr 1i I resitaillt pla:an11s f lr' fit ll er experlllients n 1940.
    A 'arge->Sa11 l(l exl ierillielit foi' 1ie ('(lil P(il4 f T ,pp. l tt ackiling thlie alfalfa see4l ('crop) ill tile field w;is cmlmil'terl in the Moha:wk V llie f AriZIlil lill e qw c ai il wi 11 ile A riZon1a8 Ext (1e1si 11 Servie. '111 i' p o edll 'ellr' 'ol-it(' ol f at', will t'r '111 11'al-i of :ll ':i a Wi11" aI fl 'a i11d ('lit illr" the i rsit ]II l 4 ) :111il si :t1 111 tile -eed crop
    tI prl' iII:I(' lv (le s ill ine 11 1 Ill :ll fel! i. 'T liu 8111 l)l niOll t re11 i :1re'l d(t'i'(,iet 111111 M /n mir/U 11 11l and u equeni low ei' if little t A li 1(11' ii )'re 'p lit- 5 o11iV ol1e i -al. 01ie is l'It',lif11 4e 1 t :1t W liee c llilll li V nct lll
    fliilv 4t ,l j1ii llatlde hiN. \'t('ii 41 ('(litl ] ill:i l)i'ale 1'llb ':1M11:i1l V

    Siili t lit' ', V'l4'V I f11 lF t' \1 l'ti'l l ri 1 ', flli :i ll4 I'r tr' il i if t iof Ilf e) t e141 0'l10l'4e illori 11t'IfIi 1. -:0 4 0 0 +l tv < t'4 of 1l1101 V1 1 Wa'l l di0b 11 ll 4111(wo ir) ili "I li ( :ll ir- W IT i it*'Pfal'st tfll tilld 1 )1u -






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY( AND) I'LANT (QlAlANTINE ;

    lished. Two paraites of the vetch brhid u wlere lp ()r(vte d :11,i, liberated in infested fields. One of these ha n bcee l Iecovere,1 froi field-collected host nuaterial. apparently indicatillg that it ha- I. e" n established.
    INSECTS ATTACKING SUGARCANE
    Accordili" to urvevs coindcllttedC ill 19). thle 10o- to the i l a t
    crop caused by the sugarcane b!'rer was the heavie-t for lie: v.uirs and was estimated at $4.231,000. A practical trial was made of control through the application of cryolite dust Awlich gave experinlenal control on a small scale in 1938. Ini this ree ,t exp)rimtent 40 acres of cane were dusted four times, and the re-sults of tlhe-e a pp lical i,011 ere shown to have saved cane 4o th et value of ,over $11. it a're'' from attacks of the borer.
    Definite proof was obtained of the pre-ene of distilnct rc-:i-eto ce to attacks of tel borer in certain varieties and strain- Of sugarcane.ll
    Replicated experiments shoAwe(d that the selection of noninfested seed cane for planting gave returns of 2 more tois of cane per acre than when heavily infested cane was used as seed. (ae having 7 joints bored was found to give 23 pounds less sU:gar per ton than sound cane.

    WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE CONTROL AND ERADICATION
    Among the important accomplishments of the white-fringed beetle program were the apl)arent eradication of the pest in several limited areas and the drastic reduction of the adult beetle population in all infested areas. Thi s reduction in beetle population materially lessened the danger of natural spread as well as of movement. of the pest on host materials. As a direct result of such effective control the regulations of the Federal quarantine were modified to remove restrictions on certain classes of articles from a major portion of the regulated area and to make restrictions less drastic on other host. materials.
    The methods employed to coitrol the white-frin'oed beetle (oilsisted of dusting calcium arse-nate and cryolite on host plants: of using an oil-base emulsion to eliminate host, vegetation along railroad rights-of-way, roadsides. abandoned fields, and waste a ea,: of ad(l ting clean-cultivation practices in crop areas: of utilizing soil fllinigants in certain isolated areas of infe tation: and of putting sailitation practices into effect on and in the proximity of places front. which materials likely to carry adult beetles were to fbe coiNi el for mollvement to points outside infested areas. Effective ap)llicatio-s fr iisecticidal dusts in nonresidential areas were accomnplilied by iice of Federal-owned airplanes. One or a corn-inat io of sch ,it rl meanres .iiwa applied on all known infested iropertics.
    As a result of intensive surveys to detellinlle the d i> ri blt i (f the pest. several new points of infestation, all in the apllproxiaklt vicinityv of previously knlown infe-it ions' were folltil. i e nll t extensive of which was in tihe vicinit v of 11tilje ihm r. 1Ii-. Thl total known infeste l areas conlpise alpprox injatelv 7 0.00 ) a0res. located ill 6 counties in Alabaia. in 3 in Flori ill in 1in----i1i and in 4 parishlie in Louisiana.
    Duriing t lIe year IV dera -State->)ollwoaed W A. !)pu l,- HerVe in Operation. The ren ioval of brush and del)nis a i tI heir tNy (- of






    .) AN NN 'A.L Ilf-.PIOlIT0 t () I 111,ART\1MENT liE .1I1I'LUII l:E, 1940

    lau 1-clea rin 1 sOpeirations fluilitaiteil liatlerially tlhe, apl)plication of i(' rlt 1 11(l l lr> 1111ll Ilc' IP'- I I ie ( je i0 ithIe, .
    F cil 1, ic t 0 )1 Lt \,l W .'- i -lfi l I\ t1, ite e I li Stiat, iI tI le p)rt ran:111. 111I I:11v (t Illl ';ll I ll ( 's \\ 1''' I cled all t lfii l'c dl.

    MO)IZION CRICKET CONTROL
    } flul l ll ,'I 'i c( 1i11,l1'W()l i (,IT e( 011 ill CO el) 'rii)lcil w ith O w1 States f ()f 'olr()(l. I(allo Mnana. Nebraska. Xvala. Oreg0(n. o, iuti I)lkta. X-hallinitn. a{lI WV(4,)iiln(. wvith fInllll- allkit(d to

    l 'Vc 1111 ireaks of i pet I'st aI al a ld phIt tie 1 as. ()ier F Fete.ra I j11t.ilcl- c*O 'Perift Iwll ll 1I ti 1e prOg l'ill 1 11c l l i wl 1(1*ll lService IIII i thl r l, il tiilw e (f O le p I),:iit lei t of the Il1iteri'td', Ilie S(il ( II-klil Vat im Se1vi '1e. t l he I j)i:a l il lli it i 10 Ileo. i t 1 1 )1 S R11011 Spy )ity. e ('lvli 1 (11 O r,",ii ll) (-01'I). m11(I 1lie Fol'e-t S Tvice. TI plII of olerati) n the ilivii> n of act ivitie, of i 'e res.pect~ (iv ledl ll( :l e atate :gel niest orkedll oit i atllvafce of tlhe Feld (01.011 were si iilar) tt l1) 1f The p'reviot Year.
    M1('liiuci id w(h'i ciilt aaii ltnd gg s irvelvs c(vll lltel il the Z11111ir1er ill()I fal o) f 1 P,1 1) it )(li!c l. t11're t haii 14.01)0.( )0 acres were illnf (.- t, a I' i 1 i of ) a it 4.0.0 0 10(4() fl)lil tl1' revIOus se*1son. Alre thal I. ))00.00()0 p( lil Is ()f ()(111i1111 arelite Iu-1st were 11use I in I)ro(et tlll CrOps from 111asi(ol b imigrat ilhr crickets.
    'T'le hatching of crickets in 1940( bega ; it ()o after thle middle of March, a(I co(trol )operations were )ni on April 7. Approxiiiatelyv 400 Iaborers were iemplovedI at the peak o)f operations s in J line. Sodiumns flllo.ilicat( bait wa lv ei i eII all i fe t ted States and ,Iave satifactorV control evIei in arecs of heavy infest nation. This icaItel'la has i eell s-Ipelr ial ) al bie in (1itr 'Icts w 1tere both (riassItlop)pes a1(d c(rlckets are present. At the end of the year- nearly 1.200.)0 1)0 pmi(is (dry weight) of ait had been spread on Imore thi) 10.(000 ) (')e'e. Illegal iha'rrier Ila( been se! uIp for about t200 milh-c. and mior)e thai 2,.00( tails of oil had( been u s-d in oiling st)',Iol)l avl I )l'ri atilll ( itl(lt I 14 (,stilliated Illat tIe1 ()perat l lls (,0(t( ,t(1 I 1 nl re, t all 1.000.0(00 a1'- e ()f (rop ) il am s. D :1)a11) e occurred 01) Wl Iv S ) t 7.00(0 ('acr of cr)ps. 9O llPe b to vejgetati(n Occurred S(.0 1,0()0 acres of l'a) e lani. Se ri'lul~- 1fe atii ()i f ()1' lrmon crickets in Montana and Wyomling have been reduc,(ed to a status 1)1f lit 1tle1'o i, 11)1 11t0 i ,. llPr)e aml 1 ,l- ,ew ler tl( inc re:sed I'0 of P ow' N (l ili)Ilii1t II Sl)''ali'llo (II"st all(] )ait : 111,1 a p( s i{, i k { lprol(','t1011 -It a rP( i100(l ,o t.

    GRIASiIOPPIFR CONTROL
    () 11 1011 -, f Ii 1' le f( l ( t4 0 lra l )1))I'.rs il 24 W eGstei'rni S ates

    'alt*Ich,ii ()I tit I)ar tl'lt)il Ili* the a teri( the F witheril C ')I lii r: i ,e ('01 P0lIt 14 l. the Civilian ( ), elrvat 01 C()orpT te So)il ( ',)i.ti ; i(,u St'rvi.e,, tIme l'et Sthviee, a)l(I the A~riculturaI
    \ t~ II A ia EP i',l. l ,) I i t 11, I ')11 oI ( liJ )i( Itp i ti t I :111, 10'

    Si ( H )4il a(li .(lP llil'-'lI 5) w: ee 1v( c1 d ri ,






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 59

    had been heavy and widespread, especially throughout It le Great Plains. However, the effectiveness of tile canlaiil was slowil ill crop savings estimated by State officials at $12S,483.,22., or $2 worth of cirols for each dollar spent oil control. Losses \wCere c (nfined principally to isolated farms and localized areas.
    The adult aed eg s es odte during tihe2 late lununler and early fall of 1939 for the purl)os-e of estimating the quantities of bait materials needed the following year indicated that the d(gree and extent of infestations of both tlie inigratory and IoIiligr:tory species would be materially reduced in the region as a whole iit 1940. Heavy flights from western North Dakota and atern Montana resulted in an extremely heavy egg deposition ill several countie in north-central Montana. From the Black Hills of Sollth Iakota and bordering areas in Wyoming and Nebraska there were flights of lighter intensity into eastern Colorado and western Kansas. Heavy infestations of the migratory hoppers also developed in northern portions of the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakot:a. Infestations of other species reached local economic importance ill parts of South Dakota. Minnesota. Wisconsin, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, and Colorado. In the Southwestern Great Plains, at the close of the 1939 crop season, it was found that populations of the long-win ged migratory grasshopper, which had occurred in outbreak proportions in the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma and adjacent areas of Colorado, New Mexico. and Kansas had been greatly reduced by the control operations.
    Control measures in the 1940 field season were effective. Populations of the long-winged migratory -ras,shopper of the Southwest have been so reduced that no concentrations of this pest are now known to exist anywhere in the United States. Ini north-central Montana, where the outbreak of the lesser migratory grasshopper seniouisly threatened the crops, baiting activity oin the pIart of nearly 100 percent of the farmers combined with Bureau-paid labor anl the activity of State and county cooperators wa responsible for holding crop losses to a minimum.
    In addition to bait-spreading by farmers ill all the affected States for the protection of crops, large quantities of bait were distributed by Bureau-paid crews on idle and range lands adjacent to croplands in parts of Montana, North Dakota. South I)akota, and the panhandle areas of Oklalhon and Texas, and adjace t areas )f Colorado and New Mexico.
    The outstanding accomplishment of the season's eanm igi was the effective control of infestations of the long-w ined migr:at ry grasshopper through the use of light airplanes for -verv Iurl, e"and of heavy planes for the sprea(ing of tait. Two of the planes had been equipped during the winter wit li 1mlifled types of hait hoppers Vlwhichli effected an evni Wnd elticient dist i bill io f t he standard irasshl ipler-bait nixt-re. The ern al e(Ili ilen7t w:-as brought into 11:ie i ls i acCesi I )ie 1)v illst () f ( ul'lll(I O (,der( ,
    -%here in ifestations w e Sl(] as to col i (() iti I ( 101-, *Ic( (to cr() are':9. The use of Iplanes ii the :applicatiOn of s )ot ilinln flu1()eili ato lait to combat igrasslpperu as well as f(rI11I1 (iirickets inl re:lt-, Iiro, oth ihese pests exist gave effective resillts. T'lhree Blirea:nt-(wNed 1l aies were equipped with Ubait hoppers. Five a(lditinal 1)aies were hir on a ont1racet l)asi for linlited periods to (olml)at leTavv inIe~1 1t111z-






    6il \NN \L PII'(il'T (T W DIE.A11 T l. NT O 1' A(I(I('ILTI'IE, 194')


    ' lVx.' :l l'i lit iall l i ll

    Ther!i Over 'la ]:lt(. lld






    Ae kI et I i1e 0e a se s : U11(1 t 1.111 iid w 1'e f I() !! \\ :) l li(l l I i l ) 1 c ,o ( 0 1lt. ll c (l l'Ve (' li llll V (l l l, d 1 I )I0 lail t ii i8. (tl 11 r )11r i ig dP)Wed ill 1t 1 ()1twek nooithier,



    ti'e la el'l illrl Iof KIiis several muttites in iri t I ic erast i ( )k lawIoin. aic localzed l ars i It a Ili s. Wit an a loti l'lln t1 il)IO)i11at 01 'r the c01l otl of imiplient ~ndl lemlermoere purchased and cosigled to 167 count ies in these 7 States for dii ribtion t o far'iers h)r kw e ill erect i ng alld a ) tai'i ill t barriers I'mr the 1)1()te(l 601i of U )rtI.
    lii r()llollt ti Ie ill leste( atl 1 O xcelt c()()erl i('ra1 on the part (if farllles 111 11"i ll0 'eosote S)I)I ied I y tlle lederal (1: 1 1nT1e11'1'1n t Wais I list 'iInental i n savillg Vl1,1)le ()l'll crops. ITi t a few calized areas lack ()f farller plart'ticilpatimon atnd adverse weather conditions, Wlli( pre\'velitd thle erecti olt aillid ll11 iiltllae of )'barriers, resulted il' cOi0110oiic los.

    EUROPEAN CORN BORER INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION

    I1lsection services for European corn )orer certification n vwere avail1i) d llrir the veari trl 11 1t, Il1i te J (1 0,lse ,0 lltd gyps IL11I Iispection cois andl by (t 1i)Pe inspectors t it uicmed in indiana 1 1 )d I )c )1 1111 1and liligall to1 ilfill ihe reqt lirenlellts )f Sl ate Euirl)eant corn hborer (II1 tlRI 'ti l iS t ill 1 A1r8 O I 'lz (( 11't i 1i(;tes i'd-lil (Ilt'1( lll the year Y l tl i ett I 3(),(61. a ti e 'a Oe f 2T ,r t lirol 1 I )e 0(e(liilo val'. A grthr ero'portitll if tile i0'li i(:ie w:a iSSItl )o cn -er )111k shinllllits rather thlai iinliviliual jlu: tt -, i'. t, lie \ u11:11iti oll ( te c i11104lities celtiled )being t1Ills Illr('i: tI 10) $2 .5.)( ) an iiielt' 0 ill) )xiliall V 2)0 l))'T.,ii Ihe






    BUREAU OF ,ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUATAN I N E 61

    principal host plants inspected and certified comiprised daldias, gladiolus, and chrysanthenumns, front Maryland, Newv York, Ohlio, l'Pelsylvania, and Virginia.
    BARBERRY ERADICATION

    Recent progress in barberry eradication has demonstrated that, (1) in approximately 75 percent of the counties comiprisingi the 17 States engaged in the regional stem rust control )program. I'arerryv Iuslles have escaped from cultivation, and an intensive siuvev of all tintbered areas and other uncultivated lands is necessary to insure colmplete eradication; (2) by carefully mapping barberry-inlfested areas when the initial survey is made, it is possible to eliminate froiml further attention large areas where bushes have not become est-ablished, or in which eradication has been accomplislled, thus reducing by approximately 50 percent the territory that will require one or more reinspections; (3) single barberry bushes, if allowed to remain scattered throughout grain-growing areas, not only are sources of seed and local rust-infection centers but may serve as sources of new physiologic races of the disease, some of which may be capable of attacking varieties of small grain that are resistant to the particular races of the disease generally prevalent at the present time.
    To protect grain crops from stem rust has been foremost in the minds of farmers in the Central and Western States for nearly 40 years. It was not until 1918, however, that a regional control pIrograim involving 13 North Central States was undertaken, with the United States Department of Agriculture assuming responsibility for general administration and coordination of the work. At that, time legislation was enacted in Colorado, Illinois, Indiana. Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota. Wisconsin, and Wyoming which prohibited further propagation or sale of rust-susceptible species of barberry, and a Federal quarantine was established to prevent shipment of other than immune species into or between protected States. During the period 1918-32 anl extend i e educational program was conducted to demonstrate to grain growers and others the extent to which local barberry bushes were responsible for destructive epidemics of stem rust. Statewide surveys were made to determine where, and to what extent, barberry bushes had become established in grain-growing areas. Funds were not available witl1 which to undertake intensive surveys of entire counties, and controlled work was conducted on an area basis in communities where rust los s ad been particularly severe. While progress toward conllplete erad ication was slow during this period, 84.518 prol>erties were cleared of 18,665.000 barberry bushes, manv of wh ici were lcte ii. r in te(diately adjacent to. tile more extensive rai-rrl-owill r area;1s of tlhe collht FY.
    CONTROL OPERATIONS EXPANDED WITH W. P. A. LABOR
    iiIHc Aiiti i ,st 9, a;in average f 2,20')) -se' t''ll \v-\va~.t ,ll l( )Vt\t,have been coiitiii ioiislv assitrh ie to tle s-telli rFst-c'htrl ml'I)I'+2I alld tll( lprotecte l area las Ibe, "steide to.l

    "lI'(leri tile (lrF ti f)I of Bilrhai l hlVeti' Vii(. aal l. lljllItt(I l i ,11htell1 siirveX of i1iI) tliati 2 !,I mfi- imtles M 17 Stit- mid I






    602 ANN'.A. ELlIBT.- OF I)IEPAIITMENT OF1 A.(RICULTURIL 194 0

    ltr- v 2:1!9.907:1170 bal mrerrv hishes ot :"'14.41 0 difflerenlt propertie i'ril iing 1 ,he tH ,t:1l f bIuilthe- (C -tro ed(t dlrrin tel enItire ro ru1 to, 2:, 0.( ), I S ). ( )f li oe. 21 I.7iG.(0) were l, rlJH /Ai' cHl4aIle.I.. a s)ecle 1:,ti e 110 1, \ ilirnjilia 1li l e -i \ir"l ita ,ilt fomill on11' in very 1li 1ted( jiitihl 0 r W I droe III th1 c otitoll alva : 9.31.4 were the native form II. t//( r;. in (',llra:,ldo and ractially all the others were the conPROGRESS DURING THE YEAR

    ",tlf e Il.ti ilc'ius, C' ll lS. 1 111tiil) lite 1. d it lli\ I rvev : t iitie. Experienced. Burllleaull }ersomiil closely S\ll)ervised tile Work ol ,' rl tf labor crews. with the reIsullt that co ntinued inmprove1n1 i vt wva- 111nade in 1bth surey an1d erdlication methods. I eld suierix\Vlw- Use I every available opportunity to (lellolN strate tili spread of stem11 I'l t roll 1)rnerrv Ilmies to grain, to explain the nature ain ecl!1oMic in)(ortance of thle disease and the distinguishing chIarcters of tile rui-s~s1cel>t ible barberry, and to recollmelnd miet hods of eradicatill. A- s'stellltic survey was made to deterillne the 1revtalel't11 aIlt se\verity of stem rust in thie different crop setionis of each Staite i11 tie clIt rol area, and in Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas. and Mexico.
    Ta ble S shows, bv States. the progress that wts made in eradicatioli l ring li the year.

    rTAIfE .--P-rors.r in hltr'rr, critIdii bt/ Si Wfl. fiscal yc'r I950

    Pro erState Counties Areas ir- Tiesr rr
    surveyed veyed celred of bushes Sat used


    .1u iher miles mher uii m r T
    ( olorado 37 111 2, 115.1t 9 7 llin is .... ...... ...... 1 3. 1 2. 179
    Indiana...... ..... 25 01 1 71. 17. 44
    Iowa ......2 7 223 9.1 .; I M iclhien t. 1. 542 21 17. 402 20 3 Mijn : -ota ..19... ......9. 2 t 3.(i Wi 5
    Mlontrllm 4 11 15 213 11 Nebraska 12 1 73 252 NSort i I)takota 4 3. ll t4 til .2
    ()hi .i. o 3. o 1.4 IH. 255 3 outh nkotal .... ." 3 51 3: Wa-strnsin 24 9th 211 31. 2 1 21 0 ti \\ mi 2 12 1 1 0
    Iotl 2~3 44. 26tl 1.4 ;o 2, 21.245 134 21 '11 tirt 1. 39w 21 3 l 1u I'*rlt n 0i 13 1. 157 ,it 1.312. 7I1 :5 4 S IrtnL: 17 .2 .'a 9 711. "'2 '21 dil

    Ir .. I 47l 3; io 11 Pi h1 71 i1 1 I + rel *. .1 +"TO tr I n l t N 0 '<0 .al? C*Th 11






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND 1I.ANT qAIANTIINE (13

    Dry salt and salt brine continlie to be tlie motst practical (and effective chemicals avible for eradca tio1 pNirp()ses. C'hlorates Were, Ilsed to .ollne exteilt ill ('()lra(h)ro for c(leallill 111) 5n111all areas all scattered bushes of Bei,7lri. fd 1ushs were lint(g only when it appeared that chleneials ngiht iljure nea rby trees, sill>' or other vegetation of value.
    D1uirin the year State '. P. A. project s were ()peratedl uinrl( thie technical supervision of Bureau pers(onel in (olorado(), Illinois, Minnesota, Pennsvlvania and Yirginia to uIl)lenent work made possible with funds(1 allotted to Federal agencies lfr(m energen(y relief SOurces.
    STATUS OF BARBERRY ERADICATION

    'The statiis of thle ha rr.x" -er ralic atio( )1rorami varies co si(derablv in different States withinii tile control area and in different areas within individual States. In Montani N north Dakota. South D)akota. W )iiiin, western Ntebraska, and eastern Colorado t ie initial survey has been c(ilI)lted, and the w(Ork remaining to be done is of a clean-up nature which will involve one or more reinspect ions of known infested properties, educational work to enlist the aid of pr'(perty owners ill reporting or destroying bushes that may sot far have escaped detection, and rust surveys to determinille localities where local epidemics of the disease ind(licate possible sources of inoculum.
    In western Colorado, eastern Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri. Mi Allesota. Wisconsiln, Illinois, Indiana. Ohio, andl Michigan, where infested areas exist in greater numlnbers and are far more extensive, many of them involving all uncultivated lands in entire townships or even counties, the status of the program is not so far advanced. The initial eradication has been completed in most of the larger infestations, but in many instances seedlings are known to be deveh)ilIg and must )e destroyed before they in turn reach the fruiting stage. In these States, as in those farther west, detailed recor(ls including maps have been made of all locations where barberry bushes were found, this simplifying future clean-up work.
    There has been no change in the policy of restricting field operations in Pennsvlvania, Virginia, and West Virginia to the more important gralin-growing valleys. These States are not subject, to the sweeping winds that frequently distribute rust spores for great distances in the Plains area, and wherever bushes are destroyed there is a marked reduction the. following year in the amount of llrust in the vicinity.
    STEM RUST DAMAGE NEGLIGIBLE IN 1939
    The development and spread of stem rust was studied in 1939 along the following three major lines: (1) Field observations were ina(le throughout the iUnited States and in Mexico to, determine where, anld tin(ler what conditi ons, stein rust ca used a pl)reciable damage: (2) nearly 2,0)00() prepared slides (s!p)(re traps) were exposed( during thle period A)ril 1 to Junlle 30 at 23 select((l stati()ns in 20 States, anld an exaniilation o(f these slides iilicatedl on whNat dates. a1id to ~1a It extent. r1st s)Ores were wi(ldel v di rii cited y v ail crrents: and (3) sepcllI)ens of rIste(1 rain1 wN'e c(lected froill re1)-






    64 ANN NI'L, 1tI'IT- F 1 1PAI,.11ENT O A011 ICULTUIE, 1941

    I'( i t i ati vi '. I lit(l W 1 1 i Pit wiil elc getir e "c l' e:1a of tie U1 iited 1tai .l 1 1 M xi ilid st udies lil:le t i lttI'illilc e th ai' tillar races ,fii i |l~l' 11t1 f j>ifewelid.
    li 'li-t oi illf d 0 1 ,_lit 1 a Ir ,lte d.illiiage to aIlly of tile
    i11, COP l li tll !. T 1 e t w 1 lilll\l '0. >i:1-it e (if th funilli Sil i iTt lll'I\ th- \\illter Ill ex 1 )11 11111 a llit 111 IIiO ll \Vl'is. I'll i il nllrtiill I xi. i'list 1 ipl'i -ted Ilf t l ii gl 1o1it te1 Wilitelr ll 0ocaSI ~ i'v--l I11 .it. 1 I 1: IIlow\xevet. i e1re00 Wal 1-- t l-t than
    -I li tl Ill(he ,1,f 10il 1 Ill I i l Il otl\i 1l1 i\ ll0i 11 1'1l yiill \aI io t S() IIIIilll : i 111 i Ill oileP V Pal'. ain(l the il)a) d llon rtlwai'ld WviI liilci l1itel" It iit iltl ( i' ,lps r00ip) > e( over widle aireal 1 t1a1 teP rii tll i u I1 i- 'i :l)aboilt ,Jilie 15. Ilit s )revelltili fill't her illc ref ase ,)f llol+(l illii it 11 e'tt it 1o I11 1i )1lll -Wie illleat area there wi aillt !ic :i s 11 :ii cl :r,01 ,of \ varieties of gl'ril1 esrlslt it t e iIOV 0 ll If p elV IiIt lict7 00 of tell I 111t., a:iil hot dry \veat t Ier Caillse(ld 1)it l iattlre 1ripeluil of crop ill liltai localitie>.
    INllnerul s local heliIfeticis of eltl I'llst were traceable to harberriLes. T'ese were particularly noticeable because of the absence of a large atioulint of infection ill grain fields some distance away front Iushes.
    Examination of slides exposed ill representative M sections of the In ited States indicated that urediospolres of stein rust were delosited later tliait i isiial and that spo),re showers were comp larat ivel I ght. No steli riist4 spores were found on slides exposed during April alid tile first half of May and only nall uiine)rs appeared during thie last half of May. The aniount of infection reaching the Staltes fro lii -elraskat northward. as indicated l>y spore coun:its, con)ared( iii quanti ty, witl that of 191 il raltier tha1 withr (Pelill yeaVtrs when ruist has !)eci1nle epj)(i deic over Wvide areasII.
    The identification of physiologic race. of steil rust in 199 indicated .a high degree of similarity in the population of races in inrii thern MelNxiCo and l t he United I t tes. M\lost of the races folind in tlt iern ll Mexico il tie spl'ilig were col elected later ill the season iIn the [ ite 1 States. Five races were llost )revalent and Widespread. conistitlit ilig ver 9 pericelt of all is dates. Tliese were, inll the order of tlieir i'ev:alenlice. races ;51. 3s, 17. 19. and 11. Race 56 ranked fi.t ill prevalence for tile sitlxhi ConlSeclit e year ; however, it ( e1 ie d fl' ,ii pei eii ll i iifla t 1 l Il o to )llt i T 't t ill 1 :. Altll1h1i ( widely V dist rililied. it occul'red il111 reatst co1ncenitratio in the WVet ('el ral States'. inluinir Iown. Neraska. Sout i 1)akota North 1)ak t a. all(nd Miinesoia. Race ;, wa is ~lated froi m all samples of ('eres wieat collected ill Nor'tll1 )akota.
    II is l l l..iifi alit t at tile t itici. l i' w v ieal. :11l'iet Y of >t ll rlist was 1iu10'e pl:rev l t i i lli. i : ll l):il'l l'V c lleci t 1: titi 11 either tile 1 ye o o:tl vai'it ie'-. I11 : ll iti i. :aeci:l iiiitel'ial 01 11 I:bfl' erries c )lItili 1 vi'lt lllilI l ,liy-in dl)i l't ('e of 1l1 iit i l id i t e gill lle'ioil-. A i l lMIiit :1Ct of l Itu W1-i \l1111 Ii ll t ) r i 1i:itl ev 'yV tit'l II t b 11erry o id ec i.l W Iile t :1 ( li t irel race v I f liii l iI V ill e-e r v fi l '-t Ct0 old lect itIll of I 'l I fr'oli '.1 Ic:t.
    Pilll I ATION TRENDS IN PARASITIC STRAINS OF TIE WH\EAT STEM I UST Fl' NG(l S
    it vit lit lii l I I-II ft l li i t :t' l il. an l t i se I o o .r,\i lls
    : .. 11 I 1 I 1 :O wl- t',' l, oiu:il I i -ll- t i ll ,1 1, li i i n ti' re'I'S
    ,01+ t': i t lti i'll- 1111 11ie i ]' ,+(i a nl.,li/ ;r10. .A ll1ilI fk v






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 65

    of the results for the decade 1930-39 indicates that, the prevalence of some races has fluctuated from year to year, that other races have decreased( in prevalence, some of them almost to the vanishing point, that others have shown a general tendency to increase slowly, and that one (race 56) increased slowly for a time alnd then suddenly increased very rapidly. Race 56 has ranked first in prevalence for 6 successive years, reaching the high of 66 percent in 1938 and dropping to 59 percent in 1939. Race 56 was isolated from 100 percent of the collections of rusted bread wheat obtained from North Dakota. If certain other races were to predomniate in future years as 56 now does, the behavior of at least some of these varieties would be entirely different from what it now is.
    These studies on population trends, when correlated with the behavior of certain varieties of grain toward rust, indicate clearly the necessity for information of this type in explaining the variable behavior of coninercial varieties and in connection with the breeding and testing of varieties for resistance to stem rust. For examIple, races 36 and 49 were rather prevalent during the first half of the decade but decreased to less than 1 percent in 1939. Similarly, races 11, 21, and 34, which were rather prevalent during some years of the decade, were rather rare in 1938 and 1939. As there is so great a difference in the relative susceptibility of wheat varieties to different races, and since the prevalence of races varies so greatly, it is becoming increasingly evident that everything possible should be done to decrease the number of races.
    Experiments during 1939 confirm preliminary evidence and observations that the wheat stem rust fungus comprises an indefinite number of biotypes, many of which differ from each other only slightly.
    Further evidence was obtained during 1939 that a great many biotypes may result from segregation and recobination on barberries. For example, a number of virulent races of rust have been obtained as a result of selfing a given race on barberry. Furthermore, isolations from crosses between varieties of stem rust indicate that the number of biotypes that can originate as a result of the sexual process on the bushes is almost incalculable. There is additional evidence that races developed on barberries may become established and be disseminated for considerable distances. Such evidence was obtained as a result of identifying uncommon races in western Nortli Dakota.
    Barberries are important. not only in connection with tle wheat stem rust but also in connection with stem rust of oats (Prchlia grami/is ae0'aeC) and rye rust (P. qiran] is secai8x). This is shown by the fact that, of all the identifications of aecial material from barberry leaves, wheat stem rust constituted 46 percent, rye steni rust 34 percent, and oat stem rust 20 percent, in 1939.
    It is now clear that rust which occurs in the soutlhern part of tle United States is not ordinarily the result of spores blow !o)rthl'v ward from southern Mexico. This c()onclusio(l is b)ase(1 on ph vsiolo ,ic-race surrveYs antd ol servatiolis. Race 56I, w1 ich occuled first ra1k ill tie TTiited Sates for tlie last 6 yearss. has not bleel foulld at :ll ill sou thern Mexico. Certaill sectiolis of 1l artliel i Mexic.) (11 11 ie ()t lie' lalld. in ust be considered with te si tllerl part (ft lle t 1it e(1 Siates ill the levelopIieiit of rust epideiilics.
    2 7T;--0 0






    66 ANNI ~AL I EI(1RT OF I'EIAI 1,TM.ENT OF AI II( CULTURE, 1940
    SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTS. NURSERY INSPECTION, AND IDENTIFICATION

    'I-tls to, cltt'fl;lifle rte iitt (r al:-C')til)j lit of tlie nRativ existing eel es' of I ifll '' 10 llt 111 P' \0 e11111( 111di1i1' I IIII IlloidllPel C olldil1) 1, at the iveir-I Firll. St. Paull i11. ftv-ix ("Mifferelt !:a(lie rfl ( -l. Hi (ii ,I : ) lIv. l ril we-, W re io 1 lat( dIl illg i e yea ar. co1 pri-ill G1 seri of laing. E:ch s'ris con iistedl o Of 4 r 5 plants of the slweci(,s under t t. pls 1 )laIit liw)\v to 1)e ) lw>-cepii le. ()f lie
    (19ie'0,, I t'- ,I f, ,,10 ('1. ill et 1(0 111 alilfl'( 1 iI VY1 ,,ll l ,eg .s ill o. ce new
    l'Ie> .\ 'eI a( l (tl to tI sUi1 (1,se)ti( li-t. It s Il(, -e r1-11iilt Ilerelv corroeri at o I tlle (ltaital ie thlie outtl(toor iardt en at B11ll. Mdl. It is ex)v led (),however, tiat 41 species will e a Ided to t susceptible list llll ; s)ecces to the 1'riet or ilil1lle list, after they are checked Iaxonol ( 1 (all V.
    I)'lritl t li Sulllliier of 1939 req(luests for ills)ection were ret'eived frolli 49 i1ir1erv liel al(1 1 seed Il oll1. As a rteult of t lee requlests, t oget Ii Witli tile (oolerat 1011 of State leader ill (cliarge of l)a1berryerall ication work ill several States, a tot al of 13.214 barlerries were iellV(,vl froill nurseries an'i private cllnle sites ol Ithe nursery gro11ui'.ds. Folrtv-fourl 1nu'rseries r'eceivedl pellmits to shlii iiulllune sl)ecies of r ,i ain d(1 .11(lao11;a into or l'etweell Siates ('colllp)l'l>illg tdle erailldIcatini areait.
    M3ore tian 125 s)ecimens taken front barl'errv atid niatonia plants Were I'elved for i(den tificatio n. and1 4 0 ad(liti( ml I)peiniells were ide t ified aidl filed. Fort-five packets of )arb!errv seed received from (1i11ia (dl liln t e veayl were stratified aIll )laiitedl. 'lese I-re all Ilnnll ered1 alld will ie i(entified as soo( as Corred:podli lh)herhtarium sp)lcinll)s are i1ad available.

    TRUCK CROP AND GARI)EN INSfECT INVESTIGATIONS

    In tlis field of eurcli the iore import :nt prIactical applikati Ons (of tile res~1lts o1t i el 1 were (. Ot, ille ed witli til cnit il of tlic tolllato friit -ornll iI ,1tltl'll (C ii fol'lnliti and Utah. of the pea w eevill n the Nort~ west. of (cl)l): 1(e Cter) illaa's as tilev affec('t ca)1 iatre rown11 ill South Ca rol lin a. a id of the tbaceo flea blee ll o11n fle-clured tobacCO il N(orti and Su')t1i CarolilIa.
    A Ilrv (YN of to0)1acco growers 1 ack ho-es for t e tl)aIcco 11nioh in

    lllet 1i all(1 slowed hat t 1 i ll ii ct hi ay levelo ) 1intj1 i iiiq l)wttti l p t ill pa)'k houses in Northl (arolina ad: I\ai'lia. Hretltfore it 11ha been known oilYv as a pe)st inll stored toh acco).
    T'Hl w frt vk ot tle sw1eet1t)() lti a (0 'vevii Vel 00 Y ltfl iti o l val ua11b le

    dlit ia-, its abilitv to dlisperse by flicight. a1nd its hsonail habits, which

    St II V H ail a le l 1 f 3ext11 Pei Ie survey of t lie wild 1 a111pi 110n wb d10 1 Ie Veevil IYN:v survived for li1ltit, l'riod',. or tlhrive, ailld se, ls 1wAvo I' of an 1fes :1t1i1n of the ult ivatued sweetpot tovs.
    Ir'wornli, ho ii t1lie mr10nhtv4 lllds of the NonietlWOt anild ill C l ifornia, ('(il l 11110 to be 1111)or) a) nt 1'111l ils. E I P (Xl)) 11ten11ts N it di I l'o I v elt 1a ir a- a s(il fiiuii ant against t heI showed conIt I I ra I) e fI li )fwe r eeit t c- t 1s. InW mNve s0e l1110 O I l( I t i






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 67

    that the margin of safety between an effective dosage and plant injury is narrow.
    Naphthalene as a soil fumigant was tested as a control for wireworms in tobacco land near Windsor, Conn., and the indications from this and other practical experiments are that the soil types and temperatures at the time it is necessary to treat the land will limit its effective use in the Eastern States.
    The establishment of a control proram to protect raspberries from infestations of the raspberry fruitworm and blackberries fnrom damage by the red berry mite in the Puyallup Valley of Washington has assured the successful production of raspberries free of the fruitworm, and the protection of blackberry plantings from injury by the red berry mite. The control of the raspberry fruitwori is effected by timely applications of a dust mixture containing 1 percent of rotenone derived either from derris or cube. Proper use of oils and of lime-sulfur sprays will protect the blackberry crop from the red berry mite.
    An outstanding feature in the ornamental-plant field was the successful application by growers of gladiolus, both commercial and home gardeners. of the tartar emetic and brown sugar spray formula. which has been in the process of development during the last. several ears. Experimental work this year showed that this spray may be cheapened without reducing its effectiveness by using only 2 pounds of tartar emetic to 100 gallons of water, instead of 4 pounds as has bee recommended heretofore.
    A spray of derris, pyrethrumi. and sulfonated castor oil continues to be the most effective material tested as a treatment for the red spider infesting greenhouse cucumbers. A tartar emetic spray consisting of 2 to 3 gallons of glycerin and 2 to 4 pounds of tartar emetic per 100 gallons of water was also very effective against the red spider. Indications are that tartar emetic sprays may be. useful also against the orchid thrips and the flower thrips. The results with methyl bromide as a greenhouse fumigant against the red spider and the Mexican mealybug were variable, and no conclusions as to its actual usefulness can be drawn at this time.
    High populations of the beet leafhopper occurred in southern Idaho and the San Joaquin Valley of California. Overwintering forms of the leafhopper were found in April in the Billings, Mont., area at, 16 of the 21 locations examined. This confirms the findings of 1936 and 1938 and definitely shows that this insect can survive certain types of winter in the Yellowstone Valley of Iontana.
    In a study of the insects affecting seed beets in south ern Arizona a direction correlation was found between the numbers of Lyg'. spp. present on the seed stalks and the percentage of nonviable seed produced. Cage studies showed that beside lihe species of Lyrs,. Save's plant bug and another plant bug, ThyaInta c .tator (F.). common to the area were capable of reducing the percentage of viable seed and also the weight of the seed per unit volume. The quantity ,of seed produced was not reduced by these insects nolr was the percentage of small seed increased. Aphids did not affect the viabilit y of the seed but apparently reduced he quantit wile the false cinch b nm1111111bcring up to 500 per plant, had little if any effect, either on tlh plant or on the seed produced.






    68 ANN i'AL, IEI'ORTFS (I 1)EPAITM.ENT OF (\iRI(,LTItF, 1940
    TOMATO FR UITW ORM

    Ext' ell-ive fiell experilli its ,ll I 1 e 1111to 11t ) fr0ilit wXV il were e nYlhtluited(I Ii ol I l 'll ( 'lili l f i'w;ii1(l mi ': i ll ef11 ort IO aen'elol) ait a pO t )le

    I )11 1( ,11 ll fieldl-plt cXl)re s wI 1 t1 ere te i ltcetd as a e111lls of

    toXi 1V 11111 a1' ei iatc ail that of cr)O 1t10 1 and 1 ier niat 1ial
    I1 Y i ii .ri Caif ia (v( it a (1 a1(111a at eell ll IldP li
    1a (e fi icl ale eX leri'li fernt 'n1n ercial : )la1t1 s Xv lee eX)eriwi tai l 1)p 1)ts wvere 1 'aIted 1 1e illMet t laiaye i'eraged 14) I'erl'et il inte 20) it realteld Il)ts. I 'is re preset e l Il an average 1()-. (4 87.6 txes e ,f to ltat (oes per acre, or it Illotll al'V i Of apprl)lx)iutel $48. li). 1a comarable series o)f 21) plh)ts t) wich was atp)lied (1 a 1 i1td illite d svntlietic cr1( t dt t lie :'hr ,e loss was 3.1 1 )e'eel it. A ''iticl a:ai vsi s ,f t Is t'es ltill sli, VS t le salnl, frIm Itreallliitls w ithl crvI(ite b, 1 )e 0tee ii) aill(1 1 p er'eit of ta t,11ato ( Fop Wll \iio1 1 t lilavera e Bi() per aeire. Oi th is Ibasis. when-l ihe C) 1t o(f c nltr lI Operal't tliols is i (led 1( ted, tile 1iet ret rllll ila iit frl'll $2 .41) to ,2-1 ) per acre for t ev e II eal: ieit I s111iilar )plots treated wit I undiluted c:alim ai'-seiiate dst the 1et ietll'll ra:11ied fron 1%1.5 to $1.5 POr acre.
    Li1 11ed ill tls rles of exp erille ll were live (,tliw1 cy' )lited st i relaill it lS allw follur crvlite-b:,it t re'illent's. All tile 1 nceCt1iCiles were T applied when thel fil'1t frulis bea11 to Set. a111d twice after this period at intervals )of 2 weeks. The du.,ts were applied with a rta : 11 ll)( 1v-ty )e dl sister at tle rate ()f 1). 20. a1(l ,) (1 llli )t' acre respect ively. for tihe three applient 11 s. T'le l)alts were t scttered by hand over tihe plants at the rates o(f 40. (). alnd St0 iounds per :1tri fior t I le i ee res )pect ive 11 Feat 1e llts Ilip),rted synt etIic. do1iestic v lit li etic. all(d 1iatIral c (ml mli ('C t ill ll i al1 ) 1xinlI:1telv 96, S3. an1t 93 elrcenllt of s)( 111111 f 11t 0 n11111111lte. reTS ectivel were ll-ed ill these exp )eriw ts, in b )oth the undiluted 1 :11 d dt1111ed formsill. The (dI l1t e(1 dusts were prepared with ttlc and c Itaile 70T percent of tle Solilli floal1nilmate. Alllhomh the cont 'O value of t1e 1111di]iteli and the (liluted dusts tended to a cmoreial ion -witht the percentage of sodium fluoride ( stained in I lie iiiixtiiire. tile duffet'ences in coiti'ol va1111s were of little si lifi11et 1. Balits c l ailli~. 1 p1( 11d iof Onatuiral cryolite to lllit l 1 o ds f co1ll' 1ea1l all 1 p 11I of natural Vl it e 1 14) Ip ids o 1 1r wete aui > ,Ir(,x1inatelv as effect ive as thet ('rvilite dust. A ait nixtre a st as a carer definitely in ferior1.
    :i 1 sei es of exl eri'nil lts w~ iere tile 'I ite 1i calcium arsenate (111A' i(ixl rels were alli) ied with Ipo'\er ldusti l a Illille'v the dif'eiie(s i iill e 111 m Od )tai I wi l wit lite six ty pes f cry liite :IIst ised 1vee less )F ml ):l() llXI a n thes11i e111 1 i 111 4 i 11N:11111 ('llelimW1 Sm'e. vever. as i le cae:tl (11111 11lilh'uies the part iciulWr bnd ( cailci llil' 1enue l 0 iellfi I r,,, ll l 10 ies wais ii ferir o t i We i m 0lit e Iu st. T v elv'e :11 n 1wo11i' toli:f 0' fruilt( il is ',o, il ared1 wit 1 all : 1Ve ie (if 411 Iercet in It' (l11,t, i with c'rYo'Ite and 17 percent il !those iltited with Ilie I r11 s i1 i: 1e.






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 69

    In Utah the tomato fruitworm in festation was of such a nature that no definite conclusions could be drawn from the results obtained.
    In Ohio, in the small-scale" collarat ive-toxicity tests, ill(licatiolns are that the particular calcium arsenate used un(liluted and a synthetic cryolite-tale mixture containing 70 percent of sodium fluoaliuininate had about the same tox icity to the tol ato fruit worm. An undiluted domestic cryolite, diluted domestic, iml)orted synthetic, anld natural crvolites containing 70 percent of sodium filuoaluminate, and a white corn-meal bait containin(r 1 part of cryolite to 10 parts of the corn meal gave fair control as comlpaied with T0 percent wormy fruit in the check plots. These plots were artificially infested.
    PEA WEEVIL
    Investigations on the seasonal habits, hibernation, aind control of the pea weevil as a pest of dried peas, peas grown for processing, and Austrian peas were conducted in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon in cooperation with these States. Encouraged by the success the green-pea growers had in control of the weevil with rotenone-bearing dust, a method developed by cooperative work of the State and Federal entomologists, the growers of seed peas attempted for the first time to control the pea weevil in their plantings. Over the Palouse area approximately 100 tons of dust materials were used to treat about 31 percent of the crop. The average infestation onil all dusted fields was 5.2 percent as opposed to 11.3 percent in undusted fields.
    In the Blue Mountain region, where the peas are grown mostly for processing, the large-scale use of dust materials containing from three-fourths to 1 percent of rotenone resulted for the third consecutive year in satisfactory weevil control. During these 3 years only a small quantity of peas has been eliminated from the cannery pack because of weevil damage. The fact that this control measure is feasible and practical is now well established. However, the nlimber of applications of the dust and their timing vary seasonally and geographically and are dependent on the weevil populations present. The date of the weevil influx to the fields from hibernation and the accompanying meteorological conditions and the actual tiiitg and number of dust applications will have to be determiiined for each area and each season by competent observers.
    Further information has been secured on the amount of damage to peas caused by the dusting machinery. The greatest daniiage (approximately 4 percent) followed the use of a, duster with a 40foot boo atta( ced to a crawler-type tractor with 8-iiiclh ti ea(s. The least damage (approximately 2 percent) was done by a horsedrawn duster-a two-wheeled affair having a 40-foot boom. It was also deterilined that a, light truck (drivenl over t1le ipea fields wlieli these were muddy did more damage than a dual-wheel truck oil a dry field.
    Records of emer gence of the weevils from hibernation quarters showed that in the W1alla Walla area the weevils emlierged over a period of 117 days, that is, from March 29 to July 23, altlloughi the greatest emergence occurred in May a Jiune, ;61 percent of tie total appearing in the fields in May. In the locat ions tlat were cooler because of higher elevations the emergence proceeded much more






    470 XANN A REPORTS OF DEP.I\I[ ENT Of1 ARCULTJUrKE 1940

    slowly na: tlie p eak celurred llter than iii tie w"riI'mer or lower level. IT iss ex)pl:tai l why the weevils aplupear in the fields later in tbe se: hi~ i l the i1 er :alrpas.
    i:lirgec -:lle field tests involving the dusting of the more heavily in fe(ted 4edL-m )of the field of Allstrian winter field peas were contitined in 19:9. 'Tie reilts as a whole were satisfactory, aiid the dll4tingr of A.\l-trian:l winter peas is now ,,,enerally practiced throughollt the :ara planted to this important seed crop. Results in general inlic:lite tli:it thle germination of these peas is governed alnl st solely by the pre-ence of the weevil grubs: and that if the weevil infestatiols (I:in l)(, held at less than 10 percent, germination tests satisfactory 1o t1we iu (lt rv can e ma aintained. This hlas been a ccomplished for thle )e(s in two W(1su1(cessive seaItSOn in the areas under ot)ierIvation; aft while sii staitti1al inproveients may be iiale in the present nI ethot)d of redluciing pea weevil infestations in Aiutrian field peas, the pre(,set methods may be considered reasonably satisfactory. Even with alpplications of dusts, however, the inpoirane of early l rvest and prompt fumigation of the peas after harvest should not be overlooked, as a delay of 5 to 10 days from the earliest possible harvest date may increase the loss manyfold.
    CABBAGE CATERPILLARS
    A control experiment against cabbage caterpillars was carried out on the scale of a commercial planting of fall-grown cabbage at Cl: rleston. S. C. Its purpose was to test the practical application of the results obtained in toxicity and control experiments, conducted during previous ears, which had for their major objective the determination of a satisfactory conrol progr'amn for caterpillars on cabbage with special reference to the avoidance of a poisonous insecticidal residue on the marketed product. The program in this field experiment consisted essentially of applying crvolite-containing dust mixture at recrular intervals before the calbaoe began to form heads. and of rotenone-containing lusts during the heading stage of plant growth. Cryolite was used because it is toxic to the corn earworm and cntworms s a well as to the cabbage loopiier, the dianiondback noth larva, and the imported cnbbageworm. whereas ratenonecontainiln d(luts are effective only against the three laIt-nlamied pests. Crvolite is not reco('n nen(ded for Ise after the cnhbbae plants have begun to lead because of the danZger that poisonous deposits may be left on them at harvesttime.
    A total of 10 applications of insecticidal du(lsts. niade with equipIment ordin:ailv se( I)v. the grower. were ivell :at al)lproxiilate intervals of 10 dat vs between A ucust 21 and November 15. This included the perio(l of plant growth from soon after the 1lantsi appl)l)ered above rrollu( in thle fielti until the weather wa's slfliciemntly cool to p)reveint fi mt ier iins ect dlvel opln ent and (Ilanl "'The first seven appllicat ions. a: Ide befol'e tl e ('aihage bega1 to folrmI liteals. (' insisted ()f a dust mixture ,of syntlbetic crvolite and talc. 1 p:art to 2 parts. respectively. \ wei- t put oin at a rate of 21 )poun(l per acre per application. Th, le;1-t thr. :applientioil s. nae urinti te hai tile headill state of plant 1 ( h. con-i-ted o(f a derris-tale d(4t mixture containing 1 percent ',f r't.' ,lllc. p i (li :,t :a ri-te (,f 2 ) nds per :cre per applicationn. )erffi- rf, p1m der \:1vs a(l ded to ie (, cry 1ite-d11st nCixlt ire for the






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 71

    first two applications in an effort to control an infestation of leafhoppers on the young cabbage. The cost of this program amounted to $19.50 per acre.
    Harvest records from this planting showed an actual yield of 11.2 tons per acre of U. S. No. 1 grade cabbage, which repress ented the vield of only 87.5 percent of the plants. Ihe loss of 12.5 i)ercelt of the plants, or the equivalent of approximately 3.200 1),pounds of cabbage, was divided as follows: 3.5 percent, or S, poIunds, from damage by the im ported cal )bageworln, the cabhbae looper, and lai vae of the diamondback moth; 2 pe-ircenlt, or 512 pounds. from damage by the corn earworm and cut wornis: and 7 percent, or 1J92 pl)ounds, fronl other kinds of damage, principally from abnormally cold -weather.
    On the basis of a market value of 1 cent per pound for I. S. No. 1 grade cabbage, this planting suffered an actual loss from inect dainage of only 51, percent, or $14.08 per acre. Careful studies conducted during several years, however, show that growers stiffer a loss of 20 percent of their cabbage crops annually from insect damage, despite control measures. An equivalent loss in this experimental commercial planting would have amounted to $51.20 per acre.
    The success of this program cannot be ascribed to greater effectiveness of the insecticides used. because studies have shown that those used by the growers are as effective as the ones substituted. Instead, evidence indicates that the superior effectiveness of the control program followed was due, primarily, to thorough application of the insecticides at regular intervals throughout the period when the cabbage was subject to insect attacks. It may be considered, therefore, that an insecticidal program has been developed which, when systematically and thoroughly applied, will give good control of cabbage caterpillars. MIoreover, the proper use of this program successfully avoids the presence of poisonous insecticidal deposits on the marketed cabbage.
    TOBACCO INSECTS
    OUTBREAK OF THE TOBACCO MOTHI IN GROWERS' PACK HOUSES

    Until the fall of 1938 depredations of the tobacco moth have been confined principally to flue-cured or imported tobacco packed in hogsheads or other containers and stored in warehouses. Discovery of the moth in growers' pack houses in the fall of 1938 and in subsequent surveys, however, shows this pest to be a menace to the producer of flue-cured tobacco in North Carolina and Virginia.
    A single infestation of the tobacco moth in a growers pack house was recorded in 1937. By late suinmmer and the early fall of 1:8 it became evident that this insect was to be found in nmanv widely separated areas and was damaging tobacco in many pack houses, particularly those near the storage centers of Duirham, Reidlsville, and Winstonl-Salem, N. C., and Danville, Va. While in general tle damnage observed in the fall of 1938 was fairly light, in the minost severely damaged pack houses there was practically a complete los( of the newly harvested and and cured crop.
    A more intensive survey for moth-infested pack houses Nwas made during the period Atugust I to Decenmber 15. 1939. and in th is survey one or more inspections were made in 371 widely separated pack






    72 ANNUAL I)EIrP'OIt oF I:)ErAlTM;NT OF A,I1t'LTIlI. 1940

    1 II'es. I'olil iII l'lliat ihll s o,1 lailled it w:v ,1iclded thlai there W*cre 110 illfw.t ati ll uf t I tol t,, i ', l Itl ill i lp'k ioiitit:es ,f 1eitl t1 l e (Gergia or oiihti (arli:a Ilt. Except for the Ie:tvilv iiife-ted
    lit1iia.a e '"arlina elt 4 Nfrll (C lI.(, iiia. i IIfe' tati 1 m(dli NtI wia iP fr 'l I. liera(' 1l' \ \111r feu notiiid ih. aIj l it (Jie]* th 1 ()I* ( )l1'ti ll x1 i'lli001 i te Il 1th eI f Ioit (x oilit, 1111_,c11 fii lo 14 evel( 4 w1:e 11 (' ifit Yll I 11w 1 W llill t J ll0110ViI imia. Se ij0 ll- 1-' \\ '4 11, 1 (111 11(11 c X elt ill lilllteW l al'le s of c Icctll;trl't il t'l ll- 0A t 10 I l ll( l II 11i1\1. lll O
    N,, 11 4i v e re Ilite illfelsted 1 artIs Iof 19. S in lra' Iil t extei t ill 19:'" bit lfl(I ill Ie-te real s Were dli41('ve(1 A stu )of tlIes e st1Jei l il l';itceli 1t ll'al the orriIl.a1 til' e of i.ff1ati I to i" te il.k ]liiI-c wvere tile lr st e wa rehl-( B 1-e-. IIie (, t ,e Iwle\er 1111 11 1i1ier Inesta tion> ill pack hopuses tipea red to lha ve reailitd 1 I.() I111 11\ 1 ( .1111111 I ectv fr imlli st)rare war 11eses. ()tel's Were tIil'eti 1i) t1e lt vellieitl oi f S I11te1d scrap) to;)accol) frlmli the ill it'llln l:rket wxvzrelo ,ise floors to Intl.ck l1imt-es. wh re it wa. st>1rel ulitil tilie llowiti l s)lity" to( le i t e1 s tle soil as fertilizer. Tit e i1i-tlo 111,:6011 o)ltllled iIldi( atel tl at it festatimis oif tile lli(lh cail t1lt llri fr nll) 0i11 yeaill t t 11e lxt i e finar lit' ack llack h)oes a i dti that the lIfrVIVI)", 111)115 Illlay jwea l to other vIeal patk 111 cs.
    (l 11 lie aiis t the Illfo l'i ll tl Ot t dlitl tl ti'it 1e SllI' tV it is le l ieved tllt t the Ill)St 1111. ) t'a t t i i ri a1inal S 1 lres (If illfest1 t 1 111 Wve'e the 1t1) (('(i stolI ~'e W a tll' 1 it 1Fii 11 vi lle. DI)iilmltan. Ri

    nialltral spr d 4 ea osf iII e't01I l a l lk l tm s ec i1 thle 111(e eavil Wi desr )Ft iif est etd areas tihe 14 ItI ap~ )ea s to be We 0ll estahl isle( o1 the ailll aid 1 CaI'I'rry (ovel' 11f')ll t' )11 to Setl all. Wh ile t11) intli( t iOnl 0 (all 11 gi e 1 1 4i to I 1tl'ot l 1 ll extelit lld(1 i lpo1 tale tlat tlii1 illset ace 8'll1 :attt ill. O -e1'V:t1Iil s liovel tilat olle ileaills \v w hich it ca'll iealilv be spreld is v tle 1 'ratlls1mortatiol of illested t toc'() 14t a i11a t 11n1 1111lirn e-ted dlea. I li l t Ill f le l' tilee i I l'l ~t' r 14 tI e ifestatio i l eollWill est ail isle ill tie S4B1 t ( r( li 1 e l t l 'alise of tlhel i l1i111 lra,twi'e 4), s(ellil,,4,, toaco) tlhcre frm, t arltas i141w klIMiOX l t4 lhe ilifested witll tle( 1 to 1 ) 1 llo)t 1. (O)thier 1l terv:aIt io s n:tl le t liriin, the sirVV ililitate 1 111 ;It al)1' lllls112 III':1is 4)f relievilin tile sitiat oil is IthImt of ca refl l pIklIote >a nit:sati oll. TIlis wxvoIl apt:per e lci:lly lit lie l whl' ieai l Iv ( 1stol 'e 1 v\lW llml 1 11 rll v e ll s IC''elled :11l1 thlurt11 ()t'f lellife'stat oll.
    Tl'1A('tt ) M\I0 .II AND I(PI :1 ri I :IE I l 1 TI \' TIRi' lTION

    I l *- 'tt f siiI I' hahitl's at Nori'lk ald New port News. Va.. ,IilitJ1 ()ct0her, Novclu ,)l'. :n1 I)eeihllber' i 10. Ilm ved l itat lf:'l ic:lIl1 :l1 11 it' i llI) 'rted t ,to x0' I IXll11 [ W a.s i infested iti 10t t tile t litto 111itIt 1 (ll [ the cl ir arc te Ieetle, t i' it III fst 1 oll i Ilost Ill> iblvI('' l 1(g l \ V. I11 alie(' 1' I 1' t 1 Ire tY I)S )f ill )O( 'ted cX e i,,l Il iti l ne11 Im Id. thus 1 1 i il l' .11 (,11- tile lp' s' I)ilitv 11-c l''i- Illflli t1ila [l'. to 1 1e1x t1111> oitl' trl lsit. l11 otler c: -('.- A llief al:Il ,:U'n 011c l l't f:.s \\t.;I ill s ips ll i 1 I frm' 1






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 73

    which heavily iiifested iniported tobacco had just )(beenii relveld. In such illstanles,. even th1oughi A1ericaii tobacco Ihias been fiuimig ated prior to export. it is subject to infestation during tranlit.
    Inspections of raill oad carls indicate that manllty 1ooths are trallsported to the storage warehouses aInd por ts along with the tobacco. Moths carried in this manner are capable of starting new in fe-tations in tobaccos that have recently been fumicrated, as well as in recently cured tobacco, en route to storage warehouses or ports.
    TOBACCO MOTH AND CIGARETTE BEETLE IN STORED T(OBACCOS

    The effectiveness of pyrethrum powder, applied at weekly intervals in open-storage tobacco warehouses. for controlling adults of the tobacco imoth was further studied. Several important linlitations to its use were noted, such as the slow reduction in populations, the undesirable coating of pyrethrum powder on the hlogshleads at the end of the season, the lre lunrge ber of e,'ggs laid by the female not Ihs after the dusting, and the fact that pyrethrumn does not kill the eges. larvae, or pupae of the moth.
    Experiments with the fumigation of tobacco -with hydrocyanic acid gas at reduced pressures showed that complete mortality of the tobacco moth and cigarette beetle was obtained under summer conditions. whereas unsatisfactory controls were obtained under winter conditions. Tests in the fumigation of open-storage warehouses temporarily sealed showed promising results when dosages of 6 and 8 ounces of the hy rocvanic acid per 1.000 cubic feet were used. with an exposure of 24 hours.
    THE TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE
    Experiments on the control of the tobacco flea beetle in l)lant beds in South Carolina showed that paradichlorobenzene was not an effective remedy against this pest. The material was applied daily by spreading it on a shelf attached to the inside of the board side walls of the bed at rates up to 2 ounces per square yard of plant bed. Additional tests with insecticides showed that a dust mixture containing 1 percent of rotenone or a cryolite dust mixture containing 80 percent of sodium fluoaluminate gave good protection of the plants from injury by the tobacco flea beetle. However, the cryolite gave the best protection over a period of 6 days.
    A study of the seasonal habits of the tobacco flea beetle on fluecured tobacco showed that heavy infestations of this pest may kill the newly transplanted tobacco or damage it to such an extent that it will be slow in becoming established and beginni1ug growth l. The infestation on newly set tobacco may also be an indication as to the subsequent intensity of beetle infestation and damage oin the t ,baco approaching iaturitv. The studies showed also that newly t ransplanted tobacco, particularly in the Piedmont area of Nort- (Carolina and Virginia, is infested by the beetle at two separate iperi(ols. first, soon after transplant ing and again in about 2 or 3 weeks. The first infestation is by overwintered beetles, while tlhe second is hy beetles from the new gieneratio11 col)igll from sources Oultside the field. Although the beetle breeds on several species of pIlanlts, the only ones found to be of any great importance are tobacco, itato, tomato, and






    74 ANN .AL II;I')1' OF II 11TAII ;Nr 1OF APRIu('lIOFlu, 1940

    black niightshade (olA'o um i.p;irumn L.). Of these, tobacco andl potato appear to be of greatest imll)0rtaice as a source f(or the early-season l)breedi ij ()f the beetle.
    I1teil)sive st lidies were condlllcted ill N(rth Carolina to determine the relative importance of tobacco plant beds and of potato fields as btreedi(ig pieces of the flea beet le. An average of 250.8 eetles per slliare foot of t()ltcc) plalt led1 and 91.5 beetles per square foot of potato r' emerged (during May and Junle from plants that had been natlrallv infested I)v beetles. In the cages containing artificially infIie(l planss thllere 'was a positive relatioInslhip between the numbers o(f lbet les elierging and tlhe numbers introduced initiall. Thllese data slh)w that bothl tobae() in plant beds and early t)otatoes are of great ilnl )rtance, as blree(diIg hosts of the beetle during the early part of the season. Considering the total areas devoted to each of these crops, Iiowvever. tobacco l li t beds are untldou1lttedlV of nu11111 i( gater 1I1pl)rt iince as breeding grounds of the Teetle than early potatoes. The )eetles energin g in plant beds soon left the beds and moved to the fields of newly set tobacco.
    III the slriig of 1940 furtler experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of several treatments designed to eliminate or reduce the inl)ortance of the tobacco plant be(l as a brei grou of tile beetle. These studies corro)torate those of 1939 as to the iniportanice of the plant l)ed as a breeding source during the early part of thte year, and they also indicated several pro n a sinh g possibilities for reolcii(r its i11)01' rance. For exaill)le. (luri JIule an av(,l'age of 432.6 beetles per square foot emerged from an open plant hed to wlilieI 110no conir'l Illeasures against iH le )eetle had been I)pl) lied. By destroying tle tobacco l)anlts renaini in the bed after all transplant ing was complete, and before emergence o)f th!e )eetles began. the nmn11111bers of )eetles to enlerrge was r(ucedl 70 p0eclt. Other valuable means of reducing the beetle )roductivity of the plant beds included the application of insectici(les at regular intervals during the plant-bed season and the iue of beds constructed and covered so as to exclude beetles during the early part of the plant-bed season.
    SWEETPOTATO WEEVIL CONTROL AND ERADICATION
    C )operating Federal-State co(Itr(l :1 d eralicatini ativ ities :Ig( illist tle, sweet l)titato weevil W Ve cOl) l1e1it 1 (iii" l lti ri ilar nl a li fS Ot c1ill ie im a )1'il i(t1 1 W 1tii wi1here1 ( p 111(1 do n10 persi st tbro l ut tlhe year" in the States )f Alal )alt a (leriae. Mis 1. ippi. llI J x1. I 1T ('1 iivitils. \ 11 ich werc > -l )i lliellit d1 1)v tfat-s l l)I-,(ml W. P. A. )r(.ject>s in A.\ laan, (Ge()rgia, and Mi\ issippi, consiA lt I of ihe t del tli(ti( ln (,f ill f'st Ced seethlla'tls ih lri'tig llt ti l c()"ltrlol :I :tl-, :111 of o lIlefI 1vei" ot llt) )imlll- (m ll 1t1 e 1 ild11 a l aja8011ent lf!l leriles. StWallge 1ates were P(iilet Iof 10411i t1at1 e I. I urig i le ia:i follr N11 10 li wereI' r 0 ed fl'lll (e 111:111ait1i1e, atll it l f t11 at s1111 I :lvil ,g ill elitilatted. ii, t 1u itles were Y( g i re ill S lel!)v ill ,t'x,ait La irence and Jeff 1) avis in Miissi ippi. The regulai1ol- of the 'I :lidartlized StaIlte il;11:1'alitiles were st lictly etiforcei :11111 t il (ll erw i (i tat lia'l llv a IsiS (t in tilt, c(t 11tC (t of cOntn :'(11 er:ldicati it il ()erM t it1s. TwVelnti Vwo ('n011111es ill the four St:it h ie nit lulled \e' Il 'lie d tI l iti th' I:,mr. Initial iurlvevs il lI)r l Irenl0 r:11 Txas :il svIui lerii A rkansais resulted in finllding 110
    1\I I Cl V 10 k Illl1-






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 75

    COTTON INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
    BOLL WEEVIL
    The damage by the boll weevil in 1939 was similar in amount and geographical distribution to that of 1938. The severe damage reported last year along the Atlantic seaboard continued in Virginia,
    -North Carolina. Georgia, and Florida, and extended into parts of Alabama and Mississippi in 1939. The average loss was est imate(d at 32 percent in Virginia, the highest ever recorded from that State, and at 23 percent in North Carolina, or slightly less than in 1938. In South Carolina the hot. dry growing season was very unfavorable for weevil development and reduced the damage for the State to 8 percent, or only one-half of that of the previous year. The damage was also below average in all the States west of the Mississippi River where deficiencies in rainfall prevailed. The average reduction from full yield caused by the boll weevil for the United States in 1939 was estimated at 8.7 percent, or 1.2 percent less than in 1938 and slightly below the 10-year average.
    The general conditions of weevil abundance and damage in representative sections are also shown by the gains secured from control measures. The increase in yields secured from treating plots in different sections with the standard calcium arsenate dust after 10 percent of the squares became infested is becoming of inore value as an index of weevil damage as the records are accumulated over a period of years. At Florence., S. C.., the average gain in 1939 was 315 pounds of seed cotton per acre; at State College. Miss.. 661 pounds; at Tallulah. La., 221 pounds as compared with a 20-year average of 305 pounds; and at TWaco, Tex., only 31 pounds per acre.
    Light defoliations by leaf worms allowed the weevils to continue developing late into the season and above normal numbers to enter hibernation in the fall of 1939. At Tallulah. La.. 189 live weevils per ton of Spanish moss were found as compared with an average of 54 during the previous 4 years. The expected heavy carry-over of weevils into 1940 was fortunately changed by the unusually low temperatures during January. At Tallulah there were freezing temperatures for 20 successive days and a minimum of 8 F. was the coldest ever recorded at that station., and practically all weevils hibernating in Spanish moss. cornstalks, and similar open shelter were destroyed. The emergence in hibernation cages with Spanish moss and cornstalk shelter was only 0.01 percent, the lowest ever recorded. No live weevils were found in the spring examination of Spanish moss collected from woods near cotton fields in several sections of the State. At Florence. S. C., with a minimum temperature of 130 F., the survival was 0.08 percent. Lower temperatures and stirvival occurred at Florence, in 1936. The survival in caes at Leesburg. Fla., was 11 percent, and at WVaco, Tex.. 0.09 percent. Previous records are not available for comparison at the latter places. However, weevils hibernating in surface trash were protected from the cold by a, heavy covering of snow over a large part of thle Cotton Belt, and examinations of woods trash from near cotton field,- showed that weevils had survived in protected places. Trash examination at Tallulah showed an average of 2.243 weevils per acre last fall and 190 in the spring of 1940. or a survival of 8.5 percent as compared






    76 \NNI'.A. I1EPI IT' 01' 1I'lAI1T.11ENT OH AGRIl'UIlTI 'R., 1940

    viilt 1N l percelit 111 1 ':. S11iilr e1'1 x:1 iii:illt 't Flwelice in tlhe lr-ili ,f I -liel, 1T; live weeV( 1 per e ill (c 1ip1 1ri1-S 11 with 2 li 1ii ;. 1 ii (t ri tie 1111i 11i-11 allv" c I l 1 i;v atlier r led( led the W,\ il cilrTVI~'"O Ill 191 le )ltc( 01ii1 iit il1 li- : ea'l'S. The I 1:1 1111 l ull f 'Itnt t I, ( 1(, I Ili(ll 1 1l )Y p- I I v I I 1110 > a f S X:iliii il l !t l Il ll ai ilrt( iii t l t l 11' (ea i 11111 of sp11etilw rt- t I .i 1i illilt I I c li i iIIOll tl iii ri latli wiif eevil< lll(I the oi l'W11eli y lr l (i1 1 ll llt A c t e I l. li lriltl : a I l Cal-(l late"I tIa1 ity' iiIge PlIieIi~.li At I 1 1 relie aila Iv c Ilectimis of weevils in 1ia) pt f (tili s ll v: tat 4)0 )percelit app eared1 after Jue 14 v t lell sqlael'v. were Ire) l't- f 0 lf oI)f Vil 'iti l. ill c lli f .jla ll Nwi th 34.6 ier'ell' (ii tllii i l tit l' prcedill 3 Veil.. At LeeW 11o weevils were fll)1111 ill a t'l) I nt lt ot c tton 111t1 11I1 a hft er >ii aris were ](l'2e 1lmi1'i for food.
    "Tl ilt wit l i l a ill il al r-luti s te f 4 ilif ltlli c e illl i al and ll) v ical pro ft ,l'es were cl itilillt l e il e ml a i l deavwr. to deter'liille thl'e llt st O e tl ive 1ciii ,11 1 ti llltei fo r ioll wee vil ci~itlr(Il. col -lidera l e v llrait ll() > as i We ll)twe (,liffereIlt l lrali(t s (f c' illllt li':l catlci in t11 ar-natc ll ll l t e e ed i s f Ili lltn fact ure the di(cove(rV ,(f lllolre (lesirale p:r 1pertelle s(1ul( lead to tl I1a11111facllre o)f a (ailiiii arl'sllIate givill better c(ltl( ~ l t r at Io increa lse iii (>t. Ex leri inents with calcil1111 arl'ellalt containing liv. Iinter11(l at e. ailld high 1 ercelitares of water-solul)le aren-llc pelltoxide im deterii1lliled ly tile New York miinethld iilar to tholle reported Ist year. were repeated in randomllized lots in South Carolina,
    orian. Misi i, and Louisiana. making" a total oIf (C replicatiolfls for each tireatllellit for tile 2 vea'r. Tle results were similar to thoMe of 193> ill that no Significait differences were found, either in holl weevil infestations or in yields, in field plots treated with C(lciii 11 iiat Plle c(l mitainin 0... 4.6 alld 10t.3 percent of water-soluble r 4ic )nltoxi(lh as d(etermiiine(l by tIhe N ew 'York miet hod. In caell 1 -ts5 t e i c lcl111111 arsellate Colitalilllill t le lill 11 t )ercolita:l e ( f watersollile arsenlic plentoxide was again iost effect ire aaist the oll wevil. The disc repancY between tie results in tlhe field and in alleges is tlhoghllt to be (idu partly to the differences il aphlid pop'ulatinis following thle luse of ncalcilll an-lenate, as hi1tller aphid in festIat ins oCcwtrred in t ihe pl)()ts treated within the hiiAher percent ages of w:iater->- 1 le aitl-seliic )entoxide.
    Il p)lot CXleilielnts at Tallulahl, La.. State ('dlege, 3i., and Flor1ie. S. C., with lillxlures (of calilul illa eiate a litl Sulfur 1i t to 1 and 1 to 2). tI le i festa tiolS lllnd yields Were tallit equal to tliose o0c0riln where ililite calcilum arl'Selilate wIs IlSed ill C lifIii tile )01 weevil. Il1se 1i1ixiures have ilhe adv:aI 1l e of r 1iici1 li i 11111111ileS of iickitig isets alldl the ailltilltit o f ari eille aidedd to the soil. In C t el1 > ili!' il1d (']cal l11111 lcarl) llate appeiill0 tio be better (lillelltS fr (' ll111111 i lfi liate tii:111 lime.
    ('rvolite co ll 1 ,111i 8l. s1. s 111d S9.3 percent o f solitll fllolii 11111iltI e w 're te ut'(l ais Sllbs tiltes for ca'lciu il arsenliate ill 1oll weevil collI '. Til cr vM ite wilith .9. ) l' i ** of 1i 11ii 11 tlil a111 iae Ci1 t I' e e lr l ltliill i ti 1i 1 liln ('I cases. t1l i t t is was :1 iv filed :11il i :a -I liit i1l':1e i 1 X i it v seceil b th l e l l l li ll of 1 percelit t)t IA tlhil 1'- r*ai *ri t1 a iiI( I'ticker, l 'le cr i as te> witlh tilt, li lielr per-






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QU ARANTINE 77

    centages of sodium fluoalumintiate gave better control tllal thlo-e with the lower percentages, but improvenellits are needed ill (li tl-g (qualities to secure the thorough coverage of the plants that is necessary for weevil control. 'Althougl calcilnl arsenate or nuxtures of ca lciluim arsenate and sulfur gave better control aInd larger gai till an all : of the four ervolites te ted, crvolite might be sufficiently toxic to co(lltrol the weevil if the dusting qua lit ies could be improved. Thle fluosili icates of barium and sodium were likewise not so effective against the boll weevil as caleiumn arsenate.
    Interest in the use of sweetened poison (1 pound of calcium arsenate, 1 gallon of molasses, and 1 gallon of water applied with a mop) for boll weevil control has continued< in some of the EanKterii St ates. Since no dusting machinery is required, applications can be nade at an Iv t1ime of the day, and the cost per acre is low. Tests have therefore been carried on over a period of years at Fiorence. S. C., in which tlhe effectiveness of applying sweetened poison, or "mopping." has been compared with that of the standard treatment of dusting with calcium arsenate after 10 percent of the squares have becoine infested, and with that of mopping followed by later dusting. Over the 12-year period of these tests (1928-39) boll weevil damage ranked all the way from severe to very light. The average gains over the untreated checks during this period were 40.6 pounds of seed cotton per acre. or 5.2 percent. for the mopping: 275.8 pounds. or 30.4 percent. for dusting with calcium arsenate; and 316 pounds, or 38.4 percent, for the combined mopping and dusting. The average cot4 per aci per season for these three methods were, respectively, approximately $1.24, $3.67, and $4.26. In South ('arolinla with about 11. million ... acres of cotton, enough molasses was reported sold in 1939 to mop 500.000 acres three times during the season. Assuming that the average e difference of 235 more pounds of seed cotton per acre from dusting than from mopping could have been obtained on this acreage. the farmers lost some 80,000 bales of cotton in 1939 by using sweetened poison instead of the more effective calcium arsenate dust.
    In the sea-island cotton areas of Georgia and Florida thle weevil infestations were light early in the seaini, but Severe boll damage was caused by the late-season migrating weevils. At Tifton,. Ga., attempts were made to develop a timed schedule of ldusting 1ased on the S(juarindate of the cotton plant and p)redeternlined intervals between applications that would not require infestation records to be made. Result based on the percentages of squares infested (nd thle damatred lo, ks of harvested cotton, were equal to those from dusting after tlhe suald 10 percent infestation. Plots sprayed with calcium arsenate gave fair control early in the season but again failed to (ive adequate control late in the season in both States. Mixtutres of clciutm are\nate and sulfur dusts were not so effective as undiluted calcutiti areiate for weevil control, and while the increases in viehls fronm tile uixiixmres were larger than from calcium arsenate at ( ;ai'nesville, Fla., part of the gains were probably due to count ol of other ilsect,. I'le alpllical 0 of sweetened poison. or "mopp)ling,'" also fai led to iv\-e ffcect i e, cot it 1r in the experimental plots or when used ty growers on a field bIa-iS ill a number of fields under observation.






    78 ANN-AL REPORTS OF DEPAlRT.MENT OF AGlICULTUIE, 1940
    SOIL INJURY FROM CALCIUM ARSENATE
    The invest igat ionls con(llduct(' i n (io(q)rat ion with the Mississippi Experiment Station on the effct of ar ellic on pro(luctivity of some of tliet nihajtr s)oil tples of tlte Cottlon Belt were dliscntimnued and the results publishled lil the oear. Tlh yields of cotton in field plots (on Ilustton clay ,loai, m. Menilis silt loani. Sarpy silt y loam, and Sar)y fille sa tlldv (: 1 were lliffected even frmtl all applicat o of 1,;()0 )(p lnllls of ca cil11111 arfllate per acre. On Rll-toil sandy loam a i elicall I effect was olbtailled from ligllt applicatiolls of 50 to 100 p l(llnds of calcilllm arselate per acre although a detr11imn1tal effect was caused by heavier applications. ThIe arsenical toxicity was reduced witth tinme, ailt 4 years after tlhe eCium arsenate was applied the plot that had been given the 4(0-pound dosage also gave an increase in yield over th e untreated check while those given. the (00- and 1,600-poud treatnients had lost much of their toxicity. The ability of tie unaffected soils to render arsenic insoluble was pro(balbly due to their high p1i aniid their high colloidal content.
    The effect of arsenic on the germination, seedlinig, and production of cotton corn11, Sofbeaifs. h]airy vetch. Atlir nal pas, andl oats was studied o11 sevell imllport ant soil types. Neithe germlllination nor seedlings were injured ()I an1y soil itil 400 pItIln S or inore of calcium arsenate per acre Nwere applied. The extent of tle seedling injury front heavier applications depllended on the soil type and crop. and was greatest in the Cahaba, Norfolkk, and Rus ton :andly loam types lhlat contained the smallest amounts of clay. iron, alumitnum calciml, a1 l 1 maesium. Cr op ields front ats. Austrial peas. and 11airy Vet cl i plt1edI immediately a fter calciu"111 alrsell:te was al 1)lied an 1 year later showed that yields were ae atfccied by the application of 40()0 or more pl)outdls per acre, but that much of the toxicity was lost il 1 years til1e. O)ats were it1ore sensitive to 'rsenic titan thle other cro),", but all Nwere injured more on the liillter soils than on the heavier 1loustoil clay loam. Memniphis silt loam. Sarpv fille sandy loam,. and Oraigeburg line sandy loam. Since thle really application of calcium arselllate for the clnt rol of co(ttoil insects is rarely (more than :0 l)ounds per acre and since much of it is lost every yer, :fCll lls of arsenic will plrol)ably never be sullicient to injure the crlops usually grown oil the soils studied.
    LEAF APHIDS

    The increase in apihid Ipoplulat ios following the use of calcium arsenate is a serious disadvantage to its use against cotton insects and is steinngly becomingg more im portant. In field )lots at allulah, La., an average additional increase of 90 p)( nl (f seed cotton per acre was obtained b)y also contI rolliu I it' ai( llids 10r1 c cim arT1senate was usel for the toll weevil. There was als-o a definite correlation hwt weeii i iphid populat ions -and the effect iveness of the insect icicles uisied :i~ainst t( b)oll1 weevil nr1 tre leaf wortil t!e (reatet' nrimtlr of aphils being found in tlhe plots treated with tie most effective inset IleP.Attention w" W r1ivvl to 1111 of overcomlnig the 1p1011d l:111112, 1v ll vel,,ill. alhi 1 -re isint l i et eS (Of (Ott i v. de greasing SlI, j It th lP 11- o' f l1i 11ii v amo1nt101 l l if rse i sed. tan y a l'l1 :l10lic 1i to lc.( 111111 :11'< d11.1tv. In the selections of c0ott0i for aphid






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 79

    resistance no fully immune plant has yet been found. Individual plants selected from the same parent stocks in 1938 for variations in aphid abundance were self-fertilized and the seed pilante to individual rows in 1939. The selections for light aphid populatiolls produced progeny in the ratio of 2 light infestations to 1 intt, erm leiate infe station, while from the selections for heavy aphid infestation the ratio was 3 lightly infested, 7 intermediate, and 2 heavily infested. The variations in alphid populations appear to be associated with tlie physical characteristics of the l)lalnt rather than due t() invisi ble factors of inununity. Studies of thie physio()ogical effects of calcium arsenate on the plant and on the aphids slowed( that (lust ig with calcium arsenate increased the pH value of the cell sap of thlie plant, anld this in turn was positively correlated w\ithl the iiicreae il ap ( I)opulations. In the experiments with diluelits, the effect on aphilds of adding sulfur to calcium arsenate has not been d(efinlitely establisle(l. Ini some localities last season this mixture seemed to reduce the the aphid population while in others the addition of sulfur had little effect on aphid abundance. Further investigations are needed to determine the causes for these variations and the effects of sulfur, since the sulfur-arsenical mixtures are being extensively used( against several cotton insects.
    In experiments with aphicides added to calcium arsenate and cryolite to prevent the increase of aphids, better results were obtained with derris containing 0.5 percent of rotenone than with nicotine bentonite or nicotine. bentonite-tannate. When enough derris was added to calcium arsenate, to mixtures of calcium arsenate and sulfur or diatomaceous earth, and to cryolites at the beginning of the season so that they contained 0.5 percent of rotenone, they remained sufficiently effective throughout the experiments to prevent a damaging aphid infestation from developing.
    ROOT APHIDS
    Experiments on control of cotton root aphids were limited to the use of poisoned baits for the attending ants that place them )on the roots of cotton. Sweetened baits made with thalliuml acetate and thallium sulfate distributed in small aluminum bait canis about 10 feet apart on every third row gave effective control of the antts. A bait composed of '1 of a pound of tartar emetic. 1 quart of cane sirup, and 1 pound of sugar to a gallon of water, absorbed by sawdust or cottonseed hulls and distributed in small handfuls under the plants, likewise gave good control and was more economical and practical. Sawdust was less satisfactory than cottonseed hulls as a carrier for the bait. Twelve pounds of hulls will absorb about 211 gallons of bait and is sufficient for treating 11 L to 2 acres of c(,ttonl. Best results were obtained by applying the bait just as the cotton began to break through the ground and on warm'1 sunny (lays following cool nights on ground that had been packed by rain.
    Root aphids feed on man y of the connmn cultivated adl wild plants and are more abnldant on cotton following crops in which weeds develop during the fall and winter tfian il cleaal-celti\vated crops. Studies were made of thle abilildalice of roo()t alphidls ol various soil-impl)rovellent crops at ()f crop rotatio(lls that will redltce their damage to cotton.






    80 ANN'A. IO'L.'L1-- OF 1I AIAlTMENT OF A( ,LITUI .. 1940
    CO()TT()N FLEA HO)PIEI

    Ti ,ere wast a lilt iltfestatii) l f il(, oltotll lea t l )Ierill 1e xaill I U ill(1 '~e)llc' i( llitl thle 1 l11 Is i)ll)l el Iot lip ill- were l(ti. Ii the 1 -a('t eld plt at 1Yeit Lava'a te l le th ,t 11 i Wa1

    ''lil of (; )l) 0()111p4ll lii W: \vlel e I :tavv flea-Iio1 )el'l ill editi()ll t xi-te1 I11 lle W t,. Tex.. exl)rille t- I 1l 11i tll eil 1 11)()IiI of S(eel o('(ttoll ler a ('rel' fr (li s l iti itg w1a 1o 2 mixture of ('al('111ll r111 -i it'll te a;ll ti( '()iized s ilfli applied ati tlt rate (of 71 1 1o 1 l, I iep0 .I)'l' l l))li 'atir ldl ll'~l i t!he ~ il l ll of t l day. Iil( tIl, ()tl co ll wai ( ry. Ili tlhat seti lll. w 1e r 1 rl2 i iis atilt 'ai r- P Iid 11(h, l e wis t, lci (.l it lis' l ifav(r I )le. Itlill'lrilzl sillf il' W it 1101' effecti lve t a 1111 llt 1 of r liar _)2.1ll i fi ll 11 lt h r Wlel 11-,t ( al11 e 01' ill I llliX ll I' w ith (':1 11111 i1' r01111te. W ei 1:1)ile' llicl')Ilize 1Si ili' ailit as a le It rliral at ti le I ate of 15 ) p ll(is 1 eri l a tc e al-,) (ave 1ro)lisill, results altilu th i~t f 'statiOl wa to) l itgh fo r ( ('ill111 C Clle 11 10115 to be drawnIi fronl l 1 11 lle ot d of a1) plicalull .
    1o'ur varieties of (()tt)ll with' (lifler'it tlla t ai tl g (1r'fx IW Iara(cIttfIl t's Wee: l' ) la 1 (Il li ll il l ti a t Port :, a1:(1 : 1 l t W a o) ftr' a >tly of resistai lce t) tlhe flea l ()l))l' ) l t aIlvelrat'l e (aill 1 1ife,-tat1ioi at o)()t1 lOcati(Oll WaS 1More th ai i witce :1is hi -lh 111 tl1 jii0t l)epldti le as i 1 t 11e )st I S i-' alt variety. v. Thlre Wa> als( a Ilnalt ketdl v r l 1 1 '1 i Il 1 Ill iify fle 1i ) Ill 11 t ill t id
    (() tolil alll s(ie i'(111 l li ati))1 1 that il e t 11l 'l \: ere 111re e(t elf agallist t1e Il l (e 11 ) 1)p(' r ) 011s( e variety es tl a nlli l 1 oi e.f .
    HEMIPTiE-O US INSECTS

    The iivel 14 a : ()l h le ('t1111 l ()f hieliil)teroul- Il leets attackIllY (Oltt)l have ('aie1 te t ,rl'oWc'- (f l Arlizo a to l4'en)ie verv iIllet(t CM( iil )coud Iti ar(i)l(.et a *reuat (dlol a ld 1for i l fori I'l1 l i( l ()I 11 l I-ZtiI ()011 a lal'2re scale atplicabl)e to their celidiInlls. Alth gmi4 l))wer-drilVe
    Poi' 1 liste '> Walrl l) )r( lal)ly be )Illml'0 ecollmllical 1 (0 l va:t1e. tle i 'nir1ati oll s elitl1les intelf rie -eI' jnOlslv ii I 1 li *11 I1 a-. oil I l' )ils )',1 11(lIlh Il e'(s .aili iot )e lsed1 f)r MIevt'Il 1 :il- a' t)* iit of 11111ntl(iv ('(C liti 1) W. 1e 1) eti ll o'atlwes its :111,1xiIII1 rIwI O T II ( lr1i'l tle latter l)arl of tih1 seasm tle 110 Il t l) )l1(lati)l i 1- 1:allv at its l)eak :I l ateria! (da11a11 ( to t l )li > i l )y tle Ill ite A.I() H- 11( llii a l is (f ill)'-s'- foi )t h er 'rt))s t0 e()t tllo) 'e ul1ire quick ilit10ae i ls (' Ills.etiti es ,)ver larf e :1('I:((geI. The 1 se 11 airlol'elli ( sl,' s (, 1 ises to i)) i ''t tllIt-e r ,(It ireIIt'l iei(s. li) 'ilIu.r 19) a larg estal' aip'llaie eXl'ri eit) \ va ('1)011)(lu te 1 l c()()11':1tiv el 1v 4 wit h !1rvt15, whelel)v I heY v ,ere to ii'liiish i lie :iul)lalie :ndtl ii'eetIet.c le ad tl1e, Bi''all t (') 4(~iilo )git'Il I l e)'rvisiol. lto ( l taill 111 oi' l it)t lO (o l1i tlli t'ui v.. pl':l'it i':,l li11 V. 1. Iallt 1111111111111 l l11a1 1- 0 l iuset't tlat

    I w clw- p'(r'i' )e-elit vere ill -a w a tlh )-s rel)( 1 ate ]s(.ea 1). We e'1 I //P../ r, I li ;/,, i ,ll.x I -eV va VeV \\ll 't'e 110l Y Si/ < I ,I,,. /, III l ,I, IIII). W as 11'111'l IIt e I llIIOPt t 1A11 l i llI i )as (rn' It IV

    :1 I11111 :I :1 t d d le rl(' i iV li li ]till ields ()f i40 (q. S

    it'4l it >',ev lll- \0:1t's. 1 ,1:1 ,f tat'l fiel W:as dit tet w i! it 71 )1 lt of j):nt rti il 111141 ..212 l) et't' l (1)f Ilflir an1 half left 111trea. '(.






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANiT QUARANTINE 81

    Seven applications of 15 pounds per acre were iade in Imost of 1he fields at an average cost of S1.17 per ace per ll palition. From tie experience gained it is believed however. that four aip)licat ifnis w\-,itd have been sufficient in most cases. Weekly recVords of the incsect pIo!l11lations and form coluntls showed that the insects iii soe fields (id nlot reach what are considered to be col lierciall dmaillagill populatios, andl ii no fields wvere thle 1opulations very heavy. However. the experiment carried tlhrougl as lplaHnied. since one o f the ai1 was to determine wlhat insect population Woild s8h ,w a prfit from coultrol operations. Increases in fields raninc from 2.5 to 40.4 percellt w-er obtained. In tlhe five fields of slort-staple cott on the rain was 123 pounds of seed cotton per acre or 6.9 percent in the fields of lojIgstaple cotton the gain was 152 poii unds.' or 20 percent. The popiulat in ,111id yield records indicate that while some increase in vields c ,ldl be secured from dustin" when infestaions were lilt. cont rol by airplane would not be justified unless at least 12 to 15 1u as of tl in jirious species (cllld be collected with 100 strokes of a sweep net.
    BOLLWORM

    ..\ost of the bollwornm damage in the experimental plots at Waco, Tex.. was caused late in the season by the secondIl generation of worms on cotton. Sl)ecial attention was given to the use of crvolites for control. Cryolites containing 97. 90. 83. and 30 percent of sodium fluoaluminate and lead arsenate dusts cave nearly equal co-ttrol. with increases in yields ranging from 316 to 387 pounds of seed cotton per acre, or 110 to 126 percent, over the checks. A cryolite-sl fur dust containing 161 percent of sodium fluoaluminate increased the yiel d only 2-9 percent. Barium fluosilicate and ealcium- arsenate nave increases of 64 and 56 percent. respectively. In laboratory tests whvIere cotton leaves, cotton squares. or sliced cottonii bolls were dusted with the same insecticides that were used in the field tests. from "4i) to 100 percent mortalities of second- and third-instar iollworms occulre(d1 within 120 bolurs. In some tests with cryolite and calcium arsenate 100 percent mortality was secured with no noticeable simns of feeding on the dusted material as conlmpared with only 5 percent mortality in the checks. ThIe hicrhest mortality in these tests alway:- occurred
    -wxhere heavy applications Nwere used. although more feeding was iote,tl with the light and intermediate applications.
    PINK BOLLWORM

    A light carry-over of pink bollworms from the 1938 crop and an early maturity of the 1939 cotton resulted in lighter infestation and damage in the Big Bend area of Texas than at aniv time in recent years. Sufficiently heavy infestations for insecticidal con tr ol did not develop until very late in the season. and the lare-scale du4stig experiment was postponede. Pink bollworms in lvnfested tlIls under hlibernation eages survived the winter of 1939-40 at Maila N. Mex. This is the first positive record, of winter si Irvival of tlie pink bollworm in New Mexico or in the sliglhtly infested adjacent areas in Texas. or in Arizona.
    In experience ts in cultural ( 26;7756 0 --40 -






    82 A N N L IREI'I I> OF I)EPAI)ATV.M NT ()F A(tii 1LTI'Il;, 1J94

    'e 11lti I I1' Nvi it 'flSe s110aci a NI lii l 1tl lin 1 1)f late-season l rri~ ali,I waIer, )illl,. less I I a it w1 ,, -tI I II as Iii1 V y wOrms duriIg the 5s&'I"l 11 titS d tile W-lilitliVi vi ety reIera ily uled i the irriIal et P't i, I 4 f t ic S )I I lI 14. ()f 1 le various winter cultural Plritetl et'-s fi i',r ti i IQ fe J v a 1\ ('11. l 1 mIlli I i tl rvae, dee low111:r II l ie Wtli el fO 1 1illl te ti)1 het,.I C( lIt d~ A (fllte-of- l iIii ll eX1)M1lln1 llt II l ii l citall \\i s 1a pl11lte0 1arch l 2, April 20. tanl 3IMay' 15 uler a I:ti r cae ioIe1 tluat at lh)Iuh L elavi plant inv IeIreaNed Ihe ip ial iife>tation cause i hllI eni e11fe ,fto're sHI 1ares w re alvailfla le :,I)V larval f< it, 1al-t iflel'Ta d tile ),lJ 1tlinIs entilll 1eri1 a i o iili 1 t1 fall Will to l:tr iltI' i itlil V of the ('l0 1).
    ()f te : nti i3i l f w eill stltrairs of cklm;t p late d tt Pr esidio, 'ex.. to (leten-11ille whet Ier taiV Were int11r1e to pinkl bo llwornl :itl;l1. 32 -1trains prmlitell l t1(s anrI alt bealiwe infe-std. Larvae w,1,re ftiiii l to attack tile flower hlt-s anid 1-lay-ol dadi. al(,1 lai'va tiat were inn11111iat r at tile ti iie 1111 s Iere W cdlectetl levlpedq e int I1011111: 1 11 Il 1s wli t Stred l(er favIl)ral e clo ll itlwo.l ft Ir illsect


    ad11(l wir tWie p ill:k l>.llwVorm lIsses thlie winter ill thie loWer Rio 0:l(110e a lley. TLarvae were found 1 rlll ell frili Ilin frli iof cottoi lintil all the cottoli was killed. atdbot tie ni(ile of Jlan-iarv 194(. a0 i g ailwl Ilell p t Is became availl de il May. '1ihere >ell little (It1l)t that bl'eeodl Il Wil 1 t1111ue th ollrh ifllt te W111er if O1{,niial ciitmlit60is 11 l'evail and fo l is available. SOm liaIrvae enSter th vl r e j1111( ct:lf "141 "t ,Julvl l t)1 tile I e ,of m til e-111er11e ie li 0 1 ot 1)t d( 1teriniiled becaullse of qi ali litile e 1 1'trih'tillS. Ret i11-St.-.e la'vae were f(ud in (lt bolls an loks of 'cotton 0 1 i plafl a l oi i ltl s()il ri I -face. o,r bui led iil tlie -)il. t if l ll ut ti l' winner aill 1111uil April 1940. No larvae were foun Il n loose co,(mi1s in thc oil as is tIle ase ill thle Bii Bend. Att -5) wpe'ies If mlI',acells pla hts ociur in the reciull blit 11me wals found infeiedl except okra a1 Turk's Cap (J/' T ',*, d'/ Nmomii) L;111re (lil tatities of seedl l)s of ;IJb;xics crli !fl/l a known

    IRelring of .11,;co,'racon ;rZ',a'ic/,' Wilkin.. whicl- was discontiruiil in 13 :8 after this Ip'rasite'. failitre to b ecme e stablislwed at l're sio. was restuinl tIhrogh breed ling sitok odbtaiel from E-y pt by te I )ivisioi of For eign Pa rasite In r ut ll t ilt. This species rea di Iv attacks 1m11 weevil larvae uniler lalhtatorv en tilii1 1. mi libieraitins will be contiinuled at IBrowIsville. Tex., where bth the pink hIllworun and the toll weevil wcur aitl c ulit i'us are 1itor fa vIrabIle for 'establishillent thlan in tIhe Bc i BienI. A total of .(1.(i,0( adults of ('/obnluts bck'uri ('mni were 1ilberated dul ring t1he year in t ie l're-idtio a l lower Rio (Grantle Valieys of Texas. A tll vv n t a fit ,v cu rel in t he t Ct it001s O(f J 'fullo alt ir/ u, 'lf/,I ( '1-h. iel I1n lit ('0H l rage over Wiliter, anld only ome col(oy 1\;ls i r:ate at 11Br vilbv le.
    PINK I)I,\WOIM (( CONTROL AND Q(I'AIRANTINE ENFORClEMENT
    I'le (,Imt talitl :i '' t'Clllr lil elll le l ill (ill1ection with pink htllwormn c'ftm rd Ii li trfil tl 1e sI:t i.ml w:I4 ill ctl11'clitlWIl Aili (ti aie d ,l aI Ill t : P!1 fT, Xin1:li0,ly 4((.0)(0 i Il i t s nt 10011 part of Texas.






    BUREAU OF ENTUIOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 83

    The most important developments in connection with the statlts of infestation were the increase in infestation in the lower Rio Graiide Valley counties of Texas and Mexico, spread of infestation from tllat region to additional southern and soitltlwesteln T'Iexas counties, aid the development of light infestations in several additional westcentral counties of Texas in the vicinity of San Angelo and Colorado. Control measures practiced in the eastern end of the Salt River Valley resulted in there being practically no infestation in that part of Arizona in 1939, but a fairly heavy infestation was found in a limited area in the Glendale section north of Phoenix, in Maricopa County. Outstanding results were obtained in connection with intensive control which was practiced in the Big Bend of Texas and Mexico in 1938 and 1939, as infestation in that area was decreased to such an extent that no commercial damage was experience, whereas in previous years from 50 to 75 percent of the crop had been destroyed by the pink bollworm.
    CONTROL PROGRAMS IN THE VARIOUS REGULATED AREAS
    LOWER IO GRANDE VALLEY AND COASTAL BEND AREAS

    A special appropriation was made by the Congress for conducting a comprehensive clean-up program in the lower Rio Grande Valley and Coastal Bend areas in southern Texas. An intensive clean-up was conducted in a limited area of approximately 12,000 acres in the vicinity of Brownsville, Tex., because the pink bollworm infestation had built up in that section until it was possible to find as many as 1,000 pink bollworms in the trash from 1 bale of cotton. The clean-up measures practiced in the remainder of the infested counties in southern Texas consisted in the immediate destruction of cotton stalks following harvesting of the crop so as to stop the propagation of the pink bollworm. The farm operators themselves destroyed the plants and were reimbursed in part by the Federal Government for the cost of this operation. In those areas in which rank-growing stalks ()ccurred a flat payment of 75 cents per acre was made and in the rest of the area, where the plants do not grow so rank, a paynint of 50 cents per acre. This early destruction of plants was followe(l by an intensive program which bad for its purpose the elimination (f volunteer cotton growing in abandoned places in an almost wild state. This volunteer cotton had to be eliminated from the areas to prevent it from serving as a winter host for the pink bollworm. The additional counties in southern Texas found infested late in the sunlner of 1939 were not included in the original control program, so a volunteer stalk-destruction program was undertaken in those count ies with a fair degree of success, although the destruction of plaints was not effected so promptly as in the old regulated areas where the farmers were part ly reimbursed for the cost of the job.
    BIG BEND AREA OF TEXAS
    An intensive control program designed to reduce the degree of infestation of the pest in the Big Bend area of Texas was inaugilrated early in 1938. This program called for early plant ing of the crop durlmg that year so that the plaits might he destroyed early in the fall following the harvest. It was thou ht that tlis ea rly dest '1(tio(n






    84 ANNUAL IREPURIT." OF Il)-'AlITM11NT 0F A l1tCLTL ItE, 1941)

    of l)lant w (hll resilt I i a lower Overwilterilly plit lat ionll and that ill ('c,)llS t iee c('e fewTr' Il I)tS W(, wo ld ild li'e fr() )l Ilili'llati() l earl il t he -,S 1 m1,i t) illfest 11e 19!319 cropl. 'lie State of Texas issue d a IrgIllatill lproliitillfg ti plaitillti of cottoll (oil t1le Texas A a rc- 11lt t I wals a period of Wlf111 weal er w iIle t 1(0i1< I 1 froill i lerlrit il lg I ;rv\a we-re elilerginll )it o () ott()l1 11l),)n Whlich tl ey ld Iai thehr q- The only clea-up in 1938. followed by the hostlfree iariod 1i I he pril of )3 1989. proved of iolii)rflls benefit as iilfesta-tioll did ot develoI to a (lailinging extent ill the 19:89 crop.
    ()w111g to cult 1raI111 11' o il 10ac ices it wa pos-ible to 11iake a rela1lively early c leall-lil anainii 1989. and( plaltilg :a( de ved ill the 1940 crop ut iil April 20. as was the case i) 193,).

    ARIZ()NA

    A1 litellsive Clea1-u) il tle (ill )ert are:t of Arizona fo llowill'r t1 l hartive ll-4t r of the 19818 ('i) hJad si- nificant r results. as indlicatel bY thel al ellce of apprleciable iiliestatllol in that recionl for tlle lb)19 crop. A similar in)tesi1ive clean-up xv s c llducted in the Glen(dale section of the Salt River Valley. following tl(,e fitdiig o()f a rather hear v infestation in a lillite(d area in that sect ion in the 198f9 crop. Tle State ojf Arizoina a gain part icipalte( ill the clean-up in the Salt River Vallev ill tile vicinit V of (;lendlale. as they had done the previous year near Gilbert. To carry forward the advailtae gained in the reductions of tie pinlk hollwormn population in the S:it River Valley, a program was inaugura ed in the spring of 1939 through the cooperation of thle Agricultual Adj listent Adii st rat on of tie iUnited States I)epartmnent o(f Agricult ure and the State of Arizona where h all stub or volunteer cotton had lo b)e destroyed by the ownviers ol the laInId priior to 'May 10. 1940. The lest uiic loll of tli stlub or v' o illiteer coltt ni l )I'eve)ted it fromll servi)( as a lost for the )il k lb(>ollwor early in tile season before the o)40 planted ('ctton lbe ,ae available foir o ipsitiin lby miotlis. All groN'( wers hlavinug aill A. A. A. a llo)tnie nt rated)erate. and it was neces; atv for the Federal a(nd State (;Oventilrelllt 1)"t ( 4lero stll) cotton o11 less t lIl:t 1,0( ) i11m)i A11 ill Wliicl th e \\-is ] A. A. allot 1n It.
    QUARANTINE ENFOR( EMENT
    TIIIFAlTMENT OF lPROI)CI S FOR Cl l ll B \TION

    A total iof 7;).3.5 1)les of ('coittoll were prducled, at the 448 gino locate in lthe pink bollwormi regullated areas (of Arizona. New 1lxi(), a11 1d Texas. an( 38.52 tons of s(eed were sterilized in con inpliane with State ald 1'ederal pink hollworm regulations. The 41 oil ills withi the areas handled 276.174 to(Ils of seed. The 12 corn,''. 111s t1ilr super'isll) Co I p)res (,cd (110(,4 1 ) le- of lint illn (oln1lia1i wvitl1 tle lpin)k l ( l 1i rvrilllat lo( s. C( ton l li te's ll n (he :i llt lhlit of I7. .5 )ales w\'er tI re 'l ed lI)y )as1 1r lI(, lint I) at ( be (veeTI S((eel r llers o a> 1 ('c'lvih :11y ilsecs w i(,tl ill i it )e present therein. ,,hree hun111dred and thirty-five h les of Mexic:!tn linter Se0e lilligia lel l r1riv11al) l n 1 111'itd :1 StaIesI t lder tle >)uper,l ion of tIle 1)ivisio of link lBollwon (' (t'mi,. It is believed that t1le -tlict SlI)I visi()j ()f tile l)ro00 slilg amil treatillel t of '()ttol)






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 85

    products originating in the pink bollworm quaraitined areas before they were allowed to be moved to noninfested areas prevented the spread of the pink bollworm by carriage in such products.
    VEHICULAR INSPECTION TO PREVENT SPREAD OI THE PINK BOLLWORM

    To determine whether the quarantine is being violated. vehicles on highways leading out of the regulated areas niust be inspected. Another object of this inspection is to prevent the movement of small lots of seed cotton by transient cotton pickers leaving the regulated areas to go into noninfested regions to pick cotton. The fact that hundreds of lots of seed cotton were removed from cottonpick sacks during such inspection is believed to show its primary importance in preventing the spread of the pink bollworm.
    INSPECTION FOR TIIE PINK BOLLWORM IN REGULATED AREAS

    Gin-trash inspection in the 1939 cotton crop in the lower Rio Grande Valley indicated that the pink bollworm infestation had built up to a considerable extent. particularly in the area near Brownsville in Cameron County. There was a noticeable increase in the number of pink bollworims found in Hidalgo County as well, but infestation in the Coastal Bend counties of Texas in the vicinity of Corpus Christi had not increased to any considerable extent over that in 1938. Gin-trash inspection in the 1939 cotton crop in the irrigated valleys of western Texas. New Mexico, and Arizona indicated that the infestation, as a rule. was much lighter in those areas than in 1938. and this appeared to be directly attributable to the tremendous decrease in infestation in the Biog Bend area of Texas and Mexico. Infestation in the southern plains of Texas was lighter in the 1939 crop than in that. of 1938. As a result of the finding of pink bollworms in the 1939 crop, the counties of Dimmit. Dural, Frio. Jim Hogg, La Salle, Maverick. Webb, Zapata. and Zazala in southern Texas were added to the regulated area and the counties of Tom Green, Concho, and Mitchell in west-central Texas were also added to the quarantined area because of spread of infestation into those areas. A summary of the amount and results of the various types of inspection in the regulated areas, including those counties added to the area in 1939, is shown in table 9.
    TABLE 9.-SnmiTary of inspectio-S for the pink bollworm in rUgulated areas, crop season of 1939

    (;in trash Field Laboratory 1 State
    uant Pink oll Pink bll- Green boll Pink ollQuantity 1an-days
    worms WormS saIlns worIS
    AronBuhc umber Nmber Nrumber Nimber Number Arizona .....3, 245 94 0 0 0 0 New Mexico --798 1. 0 0 0 0 0 Texas .... ..------ ... 4783 19.051 0 (2 92
    Total.....------------------.. 86. 1 20. 193 0 0 92 6O2
    1 Laboratory inspection covers bolls collected from the 1938 crop.






    86 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRJCUI'LT.E, 1940

    INSI'PCII ON OUTSIDE OF IL12 L.1ThoD AREAS
    G;in-tirash inspection is conclentrated each year in areas adjacent to known in fe('ted areas in order to disclose any spread of the pink holl wonll front regulated areas while still ill the ilcipient stage. s 1thll build-up alld wider dit riblltion of tlhe intfestation may be preveIt ed. As a result of such illsp)etion of the 19I crop, a liht infelstatiou) was found inll everal counties, and these were addled to the regulated areas andl listed under tllat healdiug. Inspection of gin tras- was also ca rried o(n in the authwestern part of Louisiana and in practically every county in Miisil)ppi where any appreciable a: ount of cotton is grown, and practically all trash front the northernl part of Florida and thel southern n pails of Alabama and Georia was inlspect ed. With the exception of Texas. re ults of all inspection il t llwtee States were lie..ati e :ts to pink hollwormn infestation. Tlher was also some gin-trash inspection iin Mexico in the States of Tamaunlipas. Ntwvo) Leon, Coahuila, and C(hihuahuma. A total of 7.483 slpeciItens of the plinlk bollworni were taken through the inspection of 380 bushels of trash in the IMatamnros area,. which is at a somewhat lighter rate per bushel than wan recorded in 1938. From the Renosa area, examination of 5;4 hbuchels fielded 21 pink Iollw4orms as comn)ared with 9 from 322 bus-hels of t rash during the 1938 season. In t he Don Martin district of Nuev(o Leo(n 6 pink )olllorms were taken thIrough the exam ination of 62 bushels of trash. This is the first ireco(rd of infe.tationo in the Don Martin area, which has been inspected annually for a number of years. In the Juarez Valley. in the State of Chihuahua. the same amount of trash was inspected in each of the last two seasons, and less than half as many worms were found in 1939 as in 1938.
    A sununiry of the amount and the re ults of the various kiiids of inspection is given in table 10.
    TLt'aL 10.--S'fllfUary of inflpection for the i 7upi; 1lworm outside of rttgiclted arca.v, crop) swasmo of 19.9!

    Gin trash FMiil Iahor.:tory 1 State
    nti Pink b l- ik ht1 l- P t Pink bllQuantity I AMan-djays 5:inji'hs WorlDS H ,rDiS HWrll)S


    ('iftnia *7Us O 0 0 I l, ,ri 2 0 5,4 0 (G o a. 2, t 3 f1 4: i 4' 0 1 i 127I 0 0 0 1 lI\ ilpi .... 7,677 0 0 U 0 U ( ik.I themi 1 ".2 U II 0 341 I
    O'l exa. .. ... i4'19 0I 1 0 0 2 0*


    "'l *i l. 2, 0 3, 49l 0
    ~i hh 62 21 4 (1 0
    I il, onil 1:U 7. 0 0
    N ue'1 i I, ,un t U (
    '1 t, oip 9 7et v 0 0 0
    T' hl 1 r '1 i 9,911 0 U 49 3 r(i l r rtlttl v 71r 44lls 9, l 44 75 r n 3,yt t5 r 3
    I l+ablr i t+iry iwllJ w ct iin o v'rs I, i+ls c, lh +trl frr rn 19iJ crop.






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY ANT) PLANT QUARANTINE 87
    WILD COTTON ERADICATION
    A satisfactory season has been experienced in the program for eradication of the pink bollworm from southern Florida through the destruction of its host plant. wild cotton. I)uring the seasn just brought to a close, some 22,000 less fruiting plants were found, throughout the area than during the previous season. and the percentage of infestation now present on the plants being found was also greatly reduced. Owing to available manpower the wild cotton acreage was recleaned more times this season than during the preceding year. In the Bradenton and Fort Myers subdistricis there was a considerable increase in the number of seedling plants found, and there was a slight increase in the Tell Thousand Island section. It is believed, however, that this situation was brought about br the clearing of shrubs and undergrowth from wild cotton lands during the previous season, which permitted air and sunlight to reach dormant wild cottonseed on the ground.
    During the past season all known wild cotton colonies were cleaned twice and a considerable portion of the area was cleaned 3 tii les 241.18 plants with mature fruit. 1.330.044 seedlings, and 4.427 sprout plants were destroyed from approximately 39,000 acres. In addition, 32,791 acres were scouted and more than 3.000 trails were cut. which should greatly expedite future work. Funds to carry on the eradication of wild cotton were provided through IW. P. A. allotments. together with funds allocated by this Bureau, and during the past season a company of C. C. C. enrollees was made available to assit in carrying on the work.
    COOPERATIVE PINK BOLLWORM WORK, MEXICO
    The presence of pink bollworm infestation in areas of Mexico inunediately adjacent to the cotton-growing areas in the United States has necessitated a cooperative arran gem lent with Mexican officials in connection with the control of the pink bollworm along the United States-Mexico boundary line. Inspectors of the Division of Pink Bolworm Control and those of the Department of Agtriculture of Mexico frequently confer and work out joint programs so that the control efforts of one agency will not be nullified by failure to inaugurate a similar prograin in the other country. As a result of these coolierative arranllgenlhilt i. iilar Colitrol liieasilre aie raeticed with respect to cottonseed sterilization. sanitation at the gins, and field clean-up measures in adjacent areas in the United States and Mexico. The effects of such cooperative arrangements have been (especially beneficial in the lower Rio Granlde Valley of Texas and Mexico, in the Big Bend region of Texas and Mexico. and in the Juarez-El Paso area.
    THURBERTA WEEVIL CONTROL
    The destruction of Thru.berz a plants in the Tortillita and Santa Catalina Mountains of southern Arizona was undertaken to prevent the spread of the Thurberia weevil, with which these plants were heavily infested, into adjacent done tie colton plantings. During the year eradication work consisted of a recheck of these mountain ranges. Because of inadequate funds no equipment could t)e furnished for the maintenance of a camp in the mountains, as had been






    8 A 1N N' \ I. 1 EPP T OF il.PAT.\IENT1' 0F Ai Gdu1WI.' lTE, 19 1

    (1(11. rt 1a to re* frl()lil TIuc-l) I 0 tlie Illl ilt;till- all I):lclk ea(ll day:1. volving (,l\i r tweel ( a d 70 1111 ,f ta ve;lV )hll tIpe 1.iar alp r ixiii lllt v. 7 4cl).re>l were C'O 1'I and 29lil77 T-- i/+ urb rlt/ Ialt Wife ( vet 1. It is 0e tiIliated tiat at a ') pe 1rce1nt li f tie f ti, ;/ 1) lalt- I'! rtveI ca.i1'ietl or i(ivetl d(alltt1 2e 1)' the lil1 r')erla weevil. Si1t 'e the i 1a11rilraiY 011 1 tl I11 pro( t I 1 l, a a t t al f .j. 1) a res have bieeil c(v)\ r( 1 illia 2.a ndl 1, "i r/h'l 1litI have bee!n eti ed.
    Tlii> iu.t)je, v;,-. 'ilglt, t(o a ul'- o June Ii1.7, 19140. lk I-e XVOI. ihai I el coWtl )iletel 1(l tile area t 1 () i l a led t r Il lri p Iro Il. tlil I thlllciclit fillial:- were 1 t fordlicat 1111 to iauilr ate a 1)or COlle)1'w101 lve plogl'aill. 1u11ds to cariy oll 01 11 I work liave been provide b )v W. P. A. aialotllent- SI upplellelitt'( by ftlids all)cated by tlis Bltureau.
    BEE CULTURE
    POLLEN STUDIES
    A c( rrelatil l of Ilie annual lrood-rearill cy cl (,f a col( lv (~f lioleybees with pollen income Is shown that the peak of eg, Ivinig o(ccl s luriing thlte p)eak (of pollen income. The s-prinIi peak of Uolonyv populatioi1 Was folt)id to occur weeks after the niniui pollen incorie. An a iple supply of pollen during the 5-week i)eriod pri(ir to Ilhe hon(ey flow 1. t lel0efPre es1eit1 nl to nllaxnil t ct)l COi V r011tl for 11honey

    Exelillt'lwtal colonies equill)ed within pollen traps gathered 1 pound or 1110lre Of p)o0llell per (lay 011 several occasiis (l1urinr frilit )loom1. The lar st daily vield was 1 pound and 11 ounces. estimated to be eqluivaleiit to the loads of 128.665 bees. One colony produced 42.7 poitnds of p) llen (lring the active season, an aont t11111;1a 1 t would require the labor of 1.76t7,663) bees making single trips. Since 1 1)(ee vi it from ) to :everal hundred blo:)is to oltaim a load of pollen. tle p)o l li1at ion service, of a colonly v is enormous.
    ''le po)()ilel conmtelit of fresh necta from :3 species of plants ranged froll) z(l'o in I navel orange. to 176.000 rains per c(I'lic cent ilnete' in
    lA ,, In nectar fronll decidulllls frllits the pollen et lent rang ed frolil 1,S( )0 rails per cu)ie centillieter f(or p)eaci t 11.0) rains fo' apple. Ihe nectar of other inilporta1t honey plants C11:11110ie the ,llo\iwi alll(illlitS lilatk loc()( st. 2.0() : sa es. 4. )() to (.00t): l:anleinn. 12.0:(); mustard, 21.00); )Dutch clover. 42.4(0:0; ant d inlaizanita, (9,000() ) gr1aills per l)i 'e 1iti1eter. Iie feet ll lf >i lI) colltitllin 11o pollen to colonies aavin aple 1)polln reserves did not st imulate egg la Ivi g whereas a fter tihe add hIit io n of pollen to thle sirI) exl)ansio)n ill egg lav 111 was noted witllin 2t 14 htirs. 1 w pol len st1 IS)e llte in tin( I it'l lvl 1 11 11'l('0 ii,11 oI ll 1f1e1 e( ood real rili for no ra11 t1I lirold i ai l r('(jif es ol, t hl i ll re p I) ll i )l Illent sl i e11 i ll the liquid f i)(l.
    B 's l iW r(li e1ar alle al i Iit v to 'tll 1e 5 Sl)elllet jt I 1d len c( tained in t helir ,tftev t(111ia'l1s. A er 15 1,te t'reteltimi l Ill thle lev St (ll:calr 1 :1 i11'il) coul il ili r ,4,4ll lpo l 11ains per ) 0i(" 1 c(1t imneter ,:1 rt td to ,2 .)(il g :i s a d l 1ra ticaiy a11 ails ~1i :I :)P are( d in

    .40\+l i'ur il l' I ij)fl l i i ed liv lerce t f 4 .illen ltti h al d W)Tol( ),








    CORRECTION SLIP


    Report of the Chief of the Bureau

    of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 1940, page 88, line 5 from bottom, for "38,000 pollen grains per cubic centimeter," read "388,000 pollen grains per cubic centimeter."






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 89

    bees were replaced by young bees to such an extent that approximately 31/ pounds of young bees could have been removed for packages during the last week in April.
    NECTAR-SECRETION STUDIES
    Light, atmospheric pressure, and temperature iIflufenced l:ectar secretion in greenhouse poinsettias. The sugar content of thle nectar varied inversely with the relative humitidity but directly with the amount of air movement, when the temperature remained constant. Tests indicate that the shape of blossoms, in addition to weather factors and differences in species of plants, nmay also co-ntribute to differences iInectar concentration. In a saturated atm pllere sirups containing more than 38 percent of invert sugar tended to become more dilute, while those of lower sugar concentration tended to become more concentrated.
    Laboratory studies on nectar secretion in alfalfa indicate that length of exposure to light influences the time of blosi-linig. The average raceme contains 16 blossoms, those at the distal end bloomiing about 4 days later than those at the base. The blossoms wither in about 7 days. The mature blossoms have richer nectar than the immature. The alfalfa blossoms yielded from 0.82 to 2.4 microliters of nectar, and from 15 to 45 blossoms were required to furnish 1 bee load. In contrast, orange blossoms fielded 30 to 40 microliters of nectar. and 1 to 1I3 blossoms yielded a bee load. The nectar in the unopened orange buds contained 16 percent of sugar and that in open blossoms from 16 to 50 percent.
    INVESTIGATIONS AND AMERICAN FOULBROOD
    In the cooperative studies on the resist ance of honeybees to American foulbrood, of 317 queens of res-itanit stock T8 per cent either recovered or failed to contract the disease. In Iowa 347 queens were tested by beekeepers under conditions of infection normally existing in nonisolated communities.
    Seventy-eight queens of strains having no history of resistance were tested at Hope, Ark. Since difficulty was experienced in obtaining infection in the few colonies developing disease, compariative tests with strains similar to those under test in Iowa and Wyooine have been begun to determine whether the climate or the honey flow influences the results.
    The behavior of bees toward diseased remains indicates that resistance to Americali foulbr Spores of Bac/lus larre. the causative organi ism of Americian foulbrood, subjected to sublethal heating( were found to be more exacting in their nutritive requirenient s ii ciult re tilan were untreate(d spores. unheated e(rg-yolk niedliumn cointaininZ extract of d1ry yeast, carrot extract ineopleptoie, and (lextrose gave excellent results. Spores boiled in water for 7 lours s a well as those aut





    90 SANNIAL RErP(IS OF DEPAwRMENT OF AGI- rnULTIE, 19 40

    15 poIund INVESTIGATIONS OF ABNORMAL DEATH OF BEES IN UTAH
    Fieli a :I lao l)atoryv investigation were str:irted in Mayv 1940. in col00er'atiI) with theI tahl Agricultlural Experinmtt Station, to determinle tilt' caulses of the abnormal death of adult bees in 1tah, v",aril ll v 'ill(ille asd reSIU t illr fro(ll ills(ct-C(O trl olfp Ir tti1(llS, fr nl I l1e effects of sl>ll 'ter filillies, or 1rll oit 1er causes. IThe (teritor a ffect e l iln Iast yeail s Wisl surged aii sam1l )es of dead 1 bees and other materials were analyzed f CAUSES OF SPOTTED BROOD
    Work during 19:39 on the causes of spotted brood indicates that this cont(lition is caused by irregular lavinl of eggs, char(1'1acteristic of certa in queens, and by a heavy brood mortality principally before the fiftli d(ay after egg laying. Such factors as population, availability of murse )ees to the total amount of brood, pollen reserves, and seasonal changes also influence this condition. Mortality varied grreatly in colonies headed by queens of the same strain, and it is impn)Pssible as vet to state whether a higch or low brood mortality is a clarlacteristic of a given strain.
    TESTS OF COMMERCIAL STOCK
    Tests of 13 lines of commercial stock showed pronounced differences ill Iproduction efficiency and queen losses, and indicate thlat tlie Ieredlitary background of the stock is largely responsible for its perforniailce. HIoniv vieldis for the diflferet lines ranged from 60 to 160 pounds 1)er colony above winter r equireients. Colony yields ranged from 17 to 262 poullds for colonies that did not supersede Ihleir u lens. Tihe stock giving highest p1)rodIction was from the same soullrce as tile best stock tested in 1938. Seven of the th irte en lines were also couipared in 1938 and, for the most part. the erl''' fIrlla illces were siniilar during the two Seas(os. Queen loses ialliorilled to 38 percent. the greatest loss Occurrin1l ii timse lines in which sir viving queens hieade( medium to poor l( 0 )IIiilll Clmiies. Four of the thlirtleen lies lost or siller'seded from 50) to 60 percent of 1heir quesl, whereas t wo lines had no loss.
    Iin tile srirg of 1940, 42 plerceiit of 1 1 0iuens slip e 1d in ca nges ai( lilt reduced into queiless packages required 2 to 6 days to I)egii i ,r laying, w liereias quees sli p)ed in packages began having 1. tI 18 h our's after liitrodtcionll. Tl delayed egg la ying expeiene(i(d withi (Iieelis shipped i'eparaitely probabl)ly is ulie to inlu'oper fteelin dulrig shillellt. 1)elaved "egg IayVinll in turnll is prwohabl restponisible for t he heavy loss ait i]itrodlict ion, which ailouiited to 10 percent of 2 '7 lueenis used.
    IIIOCIIEMICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF FEMALE CASTES
    Iieiii'al iives'tiration of the dlifI'ferentiiation between the fen;f ie ,. estes cf the llonieyee hials shiin lthat i 1 iiens a(1d workers liaive






    BUREAU OF ENTOMULOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 91

    approximately the same growth rate during early life and then the growth of the worker caste is retarded, as shown byhv the amount of nitrogen, total lipid, total reducing substances, and calorific value. Queens attained a maximum live weight of more than 260 milligrams during development, as compared with 144 milligrams for the workers. Water comprised 76 to 85 percent of workers and 75 to 83 percent of queens during development. The queens reached a maximum nitrogen content of 5.7 milligrams per individual, while the workers reached only 2.2 milligrams. The highest total lipid content was 12.8 milligrams for queens and 5.4 milligrams for workers. Total reducing substances reached a nmaximunim of 13.2 niiilligrams in queens amd 12.1 milligrams in workers. The average ash content of the prepulal and pupal stages of the worker was approximately six times that of the queen. The calorific value of the tissues of both castes increased during the larval period and decreased during metamorphosis.
    EFFECT OF FEEDING ON WEIGHT OF QUEENS
    In a study of the effect of various factors upon the weight of the queen larva and the production of royal jelly, it was found that the weight of the larva was not correlated with the amount of food. It appears, therefore, that the prevailing effort among queen breeders to insure that the queen larvae be copiously supplied with larval food does not necessarily increase the weight of adult queens. Increasing the number of bees in a swarm box did not insure a proportionate increase in the amount of larval food, or an increase in the weight of the larvae.
    PROGRESS IN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
    Considerable progress was made in the field of artificial insemination. It has been shown that etherization may cause queens to lay more than one egg to the cell. Comparisons of spermathecae of queens inseminated by various methods showed that the greater the amount of sperm injected at a single operation the greater the degree of insemination and that some method of closing the opening of the vagina with mucus from the mucus gland of the drone is important.
    NOTES ON MATING
    The twenty-fifth floor of a building was found unsuitable as an isolated mating station when other bees were on the ground in the vicinity.
    Observations on natural matings show that approximately half of the queens of each of three strains mated twice, usually on successive days.
    INVESTIGATIONS OF INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS SCREWWORMS AND BLOWFLIES
    Sufficient experimental data were obtained on the use of the new chemical diphenylamine in protecting wounds of aninmls from screwworm infestations so that information regarding it could be given to stock owners. This information was released in the form of press notices and as a circular which gives instructions for the use of this chemical in screwworm control. The treatment has been rather






    92 ANN AI R1'IOIV1$T-: OF .I'A 8TIET OF A;GIICUIC 'U'rE, 1940

    widely v trial ed 1by s-tk owners llst of whomii are enthusiastic about it. Expe"l'inllits wee mollhlt, l to fi tl wtl(ind protect(ors even lore effect ive tlI tli il) llll 111111e. arid tlh e tests ilivolved the treatilelit (,f s,,lle 1,700 sirewwt ill ie l .s iildler field c0 ditlills. In addition, 18: o(ll er (ellial cllipl)lildls wll' h appear prolllisllg as scewworIll larviihs x\p m een ai v Iirell irvillhtaboralt'(,i' tesYt.
    Ill'ft:1altis of a ceill01111 v treated W\ilm Wmith .efewworI e@#:-s 18ave Ilever ieill recldr .LO lill s ,- t1h wlwil t s .trwi-ly avid of, ii 1iter w\ords1-, Il111it atilwied a If valut of ).0 ()I beloW. OiI the otler iaid, Vi\ os ititon increased aHi a 1 I value of .4 ai(l comit intied to irI1ease as t lIe \vu)llI lost it- antciditv uftil 11:axinflIn Ovipositin was reaiied vi 11 I a wNNlld s showed a JAI ValI of 7.0
    III a searcl(') f llfl;d1(1aental falt't( rs llV lived d it protectill g a w undl fr oni screwwO r attack it was denri ,iist rated tlat re llency wa.s ,ie of th1 I (list illportatll. It was ()bserVld\ repleatetdly that the lcrease ill pretttionl afft(rded (a reated WO\i lll was Ill (.lire't ratol( ti t le illcrlealse i) repe llency i 1 the iiaterial used for treati1elnt. FIor ex:111ple, p-nlit ropleeneto le showed a repll lency of 91.5 percent and a woumid protectio l of 19.96 days, line-tar oil a repellenvy f 62.8 )percent and a protection of 16.935 days. and dilhenvlamIinle a repellency of 42.7 percent and a protection (f, 14.68 days. Two of i he aterials. p-n it ophenetole and diphenylamine. are larvicides. Tlie former is als an ovicide, whereas pine-tar oil has little if aiyV oviidal or larvicidal prperties.
    Ill expl'lilents on latrviides l and ovicidles for (est roplly screWwonl~is, it was foIund tl1at bellzelle nc1itallii1 0 or 10 r)(l'l1t tlioplwe. or 10 percent n11a plithalle. ald lndliluted tolvelle is simlperior to 1111i dil ute 1 )11elzei lle as a I larviide, wi le xvlvie anld p-cyllielle 11are inferior. P-initro anisole and o-nitropphenol killed 100 percent of the Vegs of thle screwWorml fly.
    ( ntea t variatiolls inl prot ectinl frm scr'ewwtOr' n rei ifest atlal in like individuals treated with the sauile wound Iprotector were obs ervcd. and were found to be due to tlthe factor of the individual animal or its inherent disposition and reaction to fly attack.
    HORN FLIES
    S t 1sfactrv resiilts were ( 11)1iied fo" th e .secoltnl seai l witl t he automatically operated cattle-fly trap. It was f)llll that cattle qllickly learned t a tra to s I tra relieve tllemselves o\f flies, and infestat ions were redu ced f rom 3.000 to 4,000 flies per head in unt rapped pastures to 200 flies per hIead in 1 trapped last uires.
    To make 11i 111 e 0t0l ('O aold a v:1 i d to 0 1 Irk 1WtIl t'. :I 1tr11lar WR< i-ll~e h~des lli m r the 1 u19 and11 cmllI'llct 1ill ()I* li l' p. A 1I( 1liti'fl ; ( : ,it llent 1in 1 1e l lit et 1 m t1 I 1:1).
    A '". I l't llt (; 6f-1' s \vit ll(, tit 1 1 ,lit : till l j n tf altIt' l, r tilt pire'vellI lIt' 29 tlei:i k i 1 I Ict' I-s 1 1'l'lul. W:1 eV il' t11e 111051 Sfeclli ,i" R ot< Aet t lt lle,, e el0 (Tell," 1. 1t ,ill, ill It a1 .I Ptlll tllt lf1

    he illplr-ac ical.
    CATTE (GRUBS
    I11 t', pIlr'iat li 1 it i raillci l'- '11 ,I8 :1 1 le' T'x:s A ,'iri l tll d E xtl I l' tl 'l of t I 'til l : ll 1 :111,t Ie i:1111111 S (n s111lye of i1 IeSe i':1li-0 w\l'l'e 100(''illl it0 1 :111 calitl' Willrk is ill ilie thir' d VeaI': it waS






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 93

    observed that the grub population had been reduced about 8t percent inl comparison with untreated herds ill the same locality.
    The possibility of usiing sulfur-cube dip in cattle grub c('otrol was investigate(. This dip is now being used for louse cont rol, all( ihe advantage of a treatment with a dual purpose is obvious. Sintgle dippings killed a low perceiitage of grubs, I)bu two weil)>illgs at 17and 19-day intervals killed 67.3 percent of them. This indicates t le desirability of further experiments in which the number ald(1 interval of the dippings are varied.
    EXTERNAL PARASITES OF SHEEP, GOATS, AND CATTLE
    Progress was made in the study of wettinl agellts for increasing the efficiency of sulfur dips for the control of goat lice. Combine nations of two or three different wetting agents were found to be superior to any single agent. Twenty such combinations can now be reconlnended as giving the maximum toxicity and better retention of sulfur on the skin and hair of the animal. Forty-nine other formulas tested were found undesirable.
    In cooperative tests with local ranchlmen approximately 7.000 head of cattle were dipped in a sulfur-cube dip) for the control of the resistant, blood-sucking, short-nosed ox louse. This was determined as a satisfactory con.trol. Tests were also initiated to determine the effect of feeding sulfur to infested animals for the control of lice. This treatment has frequently been advocated by stockmen and others. After 6 months the infested animals which received a daily ration of 5 grams of elemental sulfur for every 100 pounds of live weight continued to show louse infestation. Treated and untreated animals were placed in dark stalls for 3 months each, but no difference in louse infestation was noted, as has been sometimes claimed.
    FLY SPRAYS
    Sixteen new materials were tested against flies that are troublesome about dairies. Of these, 4 displayed toxicity to cattle but none of them exerted a sufficient effect on the flies to warlrant further investigation. A total of 88 materials were tested for their poisonous effect on houseflies and only 6 were found which caused greater than 20 percent mortality in 24 hours. A total of 64 carbon comp( pounds were tested to determine their repellency toward houseflies andl ol v-1 of them showed strong repellent properties. These tests are being continued. It has been determined that the best method of preparing home-made fly sprays is to dilute the ordinary commercial 20-to-1, or 30-to-1, pyrethrum concentrate with kerosene, and that a good quality spray can be made in this way for apl)roximately 42 cents per gallon. This method is pro bably niore economical for l(he farmer than extracting the pyrethrumn flowers himself.
    MOSQUITOES
    At the invitation of the Tennessee Valley Authority the Bureau cooperated with that organ ization and other Federal ameiiclies to deternine methods of controlling Imalaria mos(luitoes which wollld n ot adversely affect wildlife in the Tlennessee Valley. The followinlr agencies were invoved: Tennessee Valley Atuthority. Fish an d Wiildlife Service, Public IHealth Service, and llureau of Eni omool( ry and






    94 A NNIAL RI I)RE S OF I PAItML MENTF A( ;I:'i 'Ui:,l 19411

    Iaiit Quaalltille. St Ilies were ('c idluiCted of tlhe effect on wildlife and wiilllife food of the standard mietlhods of malaria mosquito control. ilnclutdil(i fluictllation of water levels and tlhe use of paris green mid oils. As a resillt i f this coOperative study a better understanding was obtained of nll y of th e p1roblemlis of nltllal interest to malaria c(nt rol workers aind those concerned with fisli an(l gaIne conservation. ('ertainl adjiusilleilts of ti1e Dn 1.sliito-C'i11t l) pIo(edI1l ee O maIde a111 (datla were secured which will be iiu>efll in siila:r situatios inl tr It parts of tile country. This cooperative study is being ontin IIe(lt .
    Invest igations of salt-mnarsh mosquitoes were intensified almi the east coast of Florida. Their purilpose is the development of liethods of contr ol of salt-nar sh mosquitoes which are more effective and less explelsive, and at the same time will inot adversely affect wildlife on t1e marsh(es. As a basis for this work, studies were begun to determi le tle little-known biologies of the species and their ecological I relat ions. The more iYmportant preliminary results indicate that nmarslhes where the grass Di. ticlis predominated produced t 1he greatest number o, f niosquitoes, about 46 million larvae per acre; and where the p)laut Junx occurs, about o rO3 million per acre. Observations showed t hat the greater the proportion of these plants in the marsh flora. the greater was the mosquito population.
    ( comprehensive studies on the development of more effective mos(iito larvicidles were begin at the Orlando, Fla.. laboratory. During the year 76 chemicals were tested for their relative toxicity to rosquIith larvae: 29 of these were toxic in concentrations of 20 parts per million or less and 6 in concentrations of from 2 to 5 part< per inillion.
    IThe 1ore important results of studies on the biologies of m11osqi(itoes in the Pacific Northwest showed that eggs of Aedes verra;n ('Mleig.) and 1. late 'ai, (Meig.) would remain viable in the soil for at least 6 years. A study of the resistance of the various instars of im q.c0 itoes to pyrethrum-oil emulsion showed that differences exist in iniortality between instars of the same species and between those of dliferent species. Larvae in the first and second states were more (lickly killed, and with less emulsion, than were those of the third and fourth stages. ('ule.r and Theobaldiar larvae showed greater resist ance than did A edcs larvae.
    CLEAR LAKE GNATS
    As a result of invest i~nations of the (Clear Lake pnat in California an electric-light I lsution trap was developed that capt ures large quantities Of .gliats 1111(er certai weather (cd11( ltinlls. Iwo s t 11011 ltlS at the laboratory. 75 yards apart, took 1.750 pounds of gnllats during the SilnlE1 of 9839. Anotler trap. operate e : t t cerne. took sOO polmnts if) a ls-I ay 1period1. The daily catches rall(ed from 0 toJ 8 poiruls. The laittlr clntch was esitimaiedl to coilnta: about SS illion crnats. 11r(n II 50 Io 90 lperceit of t1 e la Ie' catchles were of feale he:tvily V hidln with emgs.
    ( )ver 700 tests of 1:r1vic ides, in wlic Iillam (: l di ferenllt 1.1tferial were 11seI, were ~11 11~ t l Ion he gnat larvae. In the 1a ora1Triovy O b i arvN 1are killed by high lillitions o f certain inect icles. Pyret run. plot hl ti izille, ia rlmi tet rac loide. trich li rel1h yle. and ert ain mi x-






    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 95

    tures of these have shown good results. Over 90-percent kill was demonstrated at a dilution of 1 to 6,000,000 of a 15 to 1 pyrethruim extract. A pyrethruim solution containing 1.0 gram of total pyrethrins per 100 cubic centimeters in Diesel oil and carbon tetrachloride gave good kills in a dilution of 1 to 10,000,000, and more than a 60percent kill at 1 to 30,000,000.
    Because the eggs of the gnat concentrate in huge drifts, very frequently along the shore, the use of an ovicide is promising. The New Jersey pyrethrum-oil emulsions destroy the eggs effectively in the laboratory, and a few field tests indicate that the destruction of a large percentage of the eggs can be accomplished with them under certain conditions.
    INSECT SECRETIONS
    Results of the year's investigations of insect secretions have had a far-reaching influence in the field of biology and medicine. These studies revived an interest in the enzyme urease. This enzyme, which is necessary to certain life processes, has been known for the last 80 years but has been largely neglected in the field of biology. Two additional extracts, designated respectively as "maggot extract F" and "maggot extract K," were discovered. The former promises to be of greater value in healing various types of wounds than any of those already found and now widely used in medical practice, and there has been a great demand for it by various clinics and hospitals. Although maggot extract K has as its special use the treatment of the bone infection osteomyelitis, it is also suitable for other nonhealinc wounds.
    In the study of insect secretions it is necessary to determine the presence of materials in minute insect organs. To accomplish this, ingenious apparatus was developed with which determination can be made of the presence of urease in the brain, heart, stomach, Malpighian tubules, and wing muscles of individual larvae and pupae of blowflies.
    TICKS AFFECTING MAN
    Extensive tests were made to determine the efficiency of controlling adult American dog ticks by spraying vegetation with nicotine sulfate. This method was fairly successful in some cases, since a 90-percent reduction was apparent. after 48 hours.
    By marking ticks found in nature and observing their movements from month to month, it was shown that thev concentrate alone roadways and paths frequented by man and dogs. This emphasizes the need for an effective method of destroying the adults where they are thus concentrated.
    Studies on host relationships confirmed previous data to the effect that meadow mice were by far the most important hosts of the immature stages of ticks. Rabbits were shown to be minor hosts. An experiment to determine the effect of meadow-mouse control, begun 2 years ago, indicated that tick infestation on the controlled area was reduced even though some mice came into the area. Accordingly it was decided to carry out, in cooperation with the Fish and Wildlife Service, a further test on an isolated tract where Imuse control could be kept more complete. Owing to the slow (leveloplneit of this tick definite results will not be available for 2 or 3 years.






    96 ANNI'Al. 1E PI Ts OF 1) EPAITFMENT (OF AG(RIl(' I.'IT" E, 1 94

    TICKS AFFECTING ANIMALS
    1 Ivllbllttir (f '#r:rI11 4'wE*ll iati-l1 w'ore1 4-fl Il:ei 1 l(a t I l br ll Wilt er tick ( i tr j n', ,,itm lli v/ a d a k. an tll e ( mlilf ('ioat tick int at lea:1(t 1 ll'e'* 1ave leilIl >io 1n t 1 1:ve tik-- 11111-"' P Pl' tie 1'l'!t" 1 l0111$ 111: i l 1 It' I o li tei a re--I 1 11,r. for 11-:1 ll 1il' ,e1 ie f livetn k. ii:1it will Pu.taii t h tick-killl Valite )of
    I hie0 111110 l1 Itr a ib lPr':tle )le u'Pl VI 10e le llatiol tliat Il li-(f it ll) i eilII i il. 0,l 1' I t elllel o l I ll hair. i- i l tiit'1 k :i 'll lit,: i till ateril f r tilli de-t r t 1 (, f thel n- -rl \' iltlr tick i

    lIf > ait al t t I.
    HOUSEHOLD AND STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS Th1e Ire 11 1t llt l of clol 1e0 1t 11i t1lina1re to Eafilluil >tore II l))Xe-P 11)1)M0 l v t l it ilt 11i ril to exclh11de ll'- e i cll -k lt to to 10 1 to dtl i1111t the exact 'Zte of the crevice 1 11'0111111 l 1h 1e1\lv 1aalw (1('r 1 11f tvi1 ('(the colni lit wele 11 11, ct1 l e c1tall ,as. It 1'- l t1 11 tv110 th~ 1 t t lwie4 lar a 1e cai Pllitt rate a cltvc' fo11' oleIlIi l 1In1 i>s of ail inch ill id'tllW. but that tll ciiii i tlot 11 I tlil l1r11 wn( I' Irllee one-i itnl, th of kill ict, i n *1 i lth.
    nW olc')11001 li l l 0 })1 i 1 j1 O O ) l lZell t a: 1))1' were ft ii t1 to calll-, a r'etarda1tio a11)t iallv a ce :1ti), of larval f'e(edIilr of tie black carpet beetle. Even 11t 1oh the larvae st pped feelin for p1eri,0t )f 4 to) ( weeks. de1)P ii (ln t1 e c lw(el litIt lil tile fi 1i1 F:;at 1w p 1ol)1 Ol'mns of 11.1e11 l relilled alive at lthe el(d f the ) 1 ill I 1i(ed 11 illaI feed il11. I I ''sllllll t i(p l a ct viIv e(l (leat1 ccurelll'l'd. d( to t e dfl isl ti)tllon of the 1 ):ara iclllo)rO enZe111 ie .IO 1s i 1,-) 1 1 i 1a11 ci l:l-4 Illtt l 11 th 11th 4 of pilfhad c l}h irtbelZelle ill ti e c()ltlrl of carpet beetles.
    INSECT IDENTIFICATION
    A (to- l of 6 4),4S5 dentifi cat iins were Illade ali v, 1 re)Iorted to 1t(l tf s lleI's (,f tl ltelial1. Of tlese a:It)llt 17 1 '' ce t were11 fr ile Va iiu0ll- re:1r1c h1Z11c l ll. re 1 'ila 1tor1 llliOF o f t 111ill f a It ll-her Federal ,1"rgaIiza ti,,is. T'le re1ia iider were fIor avenc i ,- ()if til vari011 Stals ild n insu li' l)0l 9 51011. 11hiv tI1e11111 I 'llittll St:1tes anti t,1'eitn1 ]Iltl 111 0ll1 :i1i- i lld ivl1i : ll. Nearly > |ltl' ntll !)f tle (dete m''11li:tils rel ,te 1ve 'O 111C0M1))ete m)lP lF f t tji(10 1 ,p li I WA W1l1
    ()NNigii to I e ie 10 0 11 2 ill lit'11111v cmllerfill2 t1e 1i11111t- of )1 4'>e :111d 1t( the ac'k f w le f ) ll'te Ill 111;1I1V groils. 'l i1s i 1t1 'iates 1 '1d for 111 01'i :1 empi'pa 1 s 1 11 ue-earll in 11 s(' t t 1 I ia li i A > t i V;i 1 'll i ered 1 i 11111 ler s (tit ide
    w rWker- Il n i1 tI with probvills involylt14 ii- tct uIaXa1tiviiv. It111010'k : 100. 11100 cc InOl i l u ll. :111 101i1 tIt'I) tlolls)11 ndw i 1 la :" ti ,'Xt-N11:111res o()f illcct 1mIe ial i. ivol vin lg 1.49S

    :1d criticizel. tihe priicilpa:l oli(ject of the review bein tr e c 'ckinlf, (f :Al c-.itlli 1ic 1:a1('s of jli-,t'cts (()I11;iil(l.
    hi xt e1' v-i(e ''(f 're) c( llect i(t' l : have t'''e etl I v 1 e tni '111l, care 11(ill 111 11:1111N\ 'OU til e a1I k 'P n d0l( 11t110 11111 i flr vI'leIt'll!S Ill AF1 -"'H illll it ll :, ,:1 '< w il 1 iIlell





    BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 97

    contaiinig type material of clearly 1.300 species. wa us cluired through joint purchase by this Bureau and the Nat iolal Mueiiunm.
    In addition to the research involved in insect ident itication. definite advances were made on the large number of a-signlled problems relating to the classification of various insect groups. Thirty-two manuscripts were completed and submitted for publication, illclulding various larger revisional studies. Among these tare revisiolls of tlhe bark beetle genera Psew ldoh ylei, as and Hylh.stes, a mono graplhi treatment of the Protura of North America, a study of allt parasites of the family Eucharidae. a revision of the grasshoppers of the genus Oir'hulella. a classification of the scale insects of the genus ,Astfed.o/ecaiulm. and a revision of the wasps comprising the gelus Trypo.yloon. Near completion at the end of the year were a mniber of other large and important papers, including a revision of the economically important fruitfly genus A, treph/,. a nono(graphi study on the blowflies comprising the family Calliphoridae, a classification of the raspberry fruitwornis of the genus B~yturw.. a revision of the numerous species of buprestid beetles comprising the tribe Chrysobothrini, a revision of the moths of the g(eo(etrid genus Ello;,,. a type catalogue of the genera of bees of the world, a revision of the chalcid parasites of the genus JIo odoltifme',.x. a cla SfictiC i of the North American fleas, and a large detailed morpllological study on the male genitalia of the insect order Hymenoptera. Substantial progress was also made on numerous other studies that are somewh at narrower in scope.
    FOREIGN PARASITE INTRODUCTION
    The foreign investigations upon the natural enemies of cr) pests were continued throughout the year at the Yokohama, Japan,. field station. but that at St. Cloud, France, was discontinued in October 1939 because of war conditions. Two members of the staff of this station were then assigned to work in South America. with headquarters at Montevideo, Uruguay. The new Parasite Receiving Station at Hoboken. N. J.. was completed and occupied in June 1940 and the staff of the Moorestown, N. J., station has been assigned to it. Up-to-date facilities are now available for the quarantine of all types of shipments of foreign origin. All such shipments will be received there and any hyperparasites or living host material will be eliminated before the parasite stocks are transmiitted to the various field stations of the Bureau for rearing and colonization.
    PARASITES OF CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS
    Conteplatelated importations of parasites of the European corn borer and the hessian fly from France during the fall of 19g9 were prevented by the outbreak of the European war. A single shiipent (of Tr'iaspis I tho0aiousr (Curt.), a parasite of the vetch bruchid. was forwarded and yielded 8,849 adults, of which 53210 were forwarded to field stations for rearing and colonization. Laboratory rearing at the receiving station provided an additional 7,318 adults for colonization later in the year.
    During the last half of the year an extended survey was made of the white-fringed beetle in Chile. Localized infestations of sufficient extent to cause crop injury were found in several southern localities.
    26;7756-40 -7









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    PARASITES OF FOREST INSE TS
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    PARASITES OF TRUCK CRO()P INSECTS
    )i1rino the S111111110 i a i tall oft 9.04) pil)aria f lt (i/ A r/a ?I; /'/i(l li( ) I. \oil mr refeIC red to as ob g.) an 1. SI;t i an Volml ih llt' pr"site were imrlted frlomll uFrantce for li e a alli1 tile nl:asp):a1gcul s )e etle. I 1ro i t il ltt elai +,l ..) adult files were Ireared and liberated( in ilnfeste(1 lield in New jersey duri ng the period( fl-l 1 late June t(o) Aug st. Exce ,,ent es ta)1lil lelnt vas secured, b 1t eevwiliterin2 11(1 dii 1)s wQeVe alpp)ret itiv ad verse. as none of the files appeared in the field the following Ipring.
    A consignunent of 1.300 piparia of Ly/dino/yd( /1/' tf/J//(a Towns. a parasite ()f the larvae o()f the Mexican bean beetle and other species of wpI/ac/sIn. was forwarded fromi Brazil Ifor test a2gallst the beani beet le.
    The sillrvey of the pea 1uoth lilld its natural netniils1 in France was completed at the end of the 1939 season. Five species of parasites were found to attack it, although only two, .1.oi/.tg r (wlr,;d( tatufa Wesm. and G(lyp/t h]e.i.itor (Grav., v were of anlly lulI)ortanlce. Field p1arasitiztion ranged up t(o 4() percent, with an average of less than 20 percent.
    EFFECT OF CHEMICAL CONTROL METHODS ON POPULATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES
    Activities under this project comtill ed on the a llle bsiS as las year. TIle work Oi flunlgos diseases (tf sctlc ilrsecks i) Florila was conllpeted and the Orlando station closed. The stallf \,a 1, Ir nsferred to the VWhittier. Calif., station to expand thE work On the series of ctniru pests under inl \estigat ion there.
    Results of the biolo:ical-coitro()l experiielit on the c, ndlii nith in West Virginia, which is being conducted c()operativelv with the Division of Fruit In'ect Investigatious anld the West Virginia Agricult, Iral Experiment Stat ion. were not s(o favorl'able :1 in precedilng vyeails, (i.W1.1 1 1 n il t a vefi Igi t s etliltl i i 1 f fr it i tile b)iol()ictlt1c(Ilt,1 1(icard as 'conlprd w cth thatll't whicii reei edl tlie st~aimlard't spray t 'eat iint. The pearceluiage os ii piked frtl wre a8)lD8 ,I.7. ves ti etlivelv, foi. tile ItNW ) (e a A mre a e 11> irls l lillie i li 'e t:)ilt i ) IIIOwt ll (1 l )i10 'ae l-coittivl 01'c r ai 011d is a YPver (ffetive r'et't ItI 11)011 t hle C(O Illyg li0ol 1 gg,
    Itx)elI> eilts.- o11 the l(wed hllat tlle inifestatiOns following treatment w ithlt oil-dlerris we'e h ilher thani they Were III liliti rated ,gru\ e, il t le pl 'e(lato0' ~Oj i'l 101, :', lower. Black sc' ale popuiiati(on1:- iI)cr(eeed- Illore ,'apljidly after spr:1ving with oil thlan after flin igatio, and pasitizatio e i thle fti't gated grate.. ExtendcdLI t et were nal (on tile eff('ect (f ai' il 11. ...i (ecti c leC- lisOl lig;llsl citril p'c.s e 1 )0 l thle iI fereit sta(.(e. Of( their n-t inral elilles. Both 01 spirals allid cyaide hIlil( iitio1 W 'e V I, V eslt'illetive 0to ti plracems m11. ili te \ iliprey .\ 1( 11 Ii1e citrus red inite. Dinitro (dust was excel)tioiallv destrimtwive to il-, ilBiiatltlre stares 01f ; red Ill ite ele0 11>. 1oth 1 iC il iiilli, a)li l splrays were s lilt lv det1 e11 ta I to t ~e 111il1it ill'e sl ,,es (of p)ra>ies of ithe black scale while (yaiide killed a iigh lprtion f the uineilerg(ed adults. FInlglatil () of lle yellow >-cale para.sitizd by v ('T4rs/u / bl/8c';l/ 11,)w. e'vealed(l that a ( dlsage s>iflf'iet to kill practically all scales permitted (he survival (f large nunbers