Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

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Material Information

Title:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Running title:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Research Administration
Annual reports of Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Physical Description:
v. : ; 22 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
annual

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1935-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: 1953.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note:
Title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030261108
oclc - 04300772
lccn - sn 86033745
Classification:
lcc - SB823 .A182
ddc - 632.906173
System ID:
AA00022935:00017

Related Items

Preceded by:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology

Full Text








REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE, AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION, 1944


UNITED STATEs DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUCIE, Washiington, D. C., efptc mnbe' 15, 1/LO..
Dr. E. C. AUCHTER,
Agricultural Research A dinistrator.
DEARI DR. AUCHTER: I submit herewith a report of the work of the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine for the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1944.
Sincerely yours,
P. N. ANNAND, Chief.


R ESEARCH WHICH HAS FOR ITS OBJECTIVE more stable agricultural
production was never more needed than it is today. A great
part of the efforts of all the farmers on all available land can be frustrated by outbreaks of insect pests if they occur at critical times and places. No plans for victory in the war or for subsequent reconversion in this country and reconstruction abroad can be successful if they do not take into account the possibility of epidemics of insectborne diseases and large-scale losses in yield or quality of growing crops or stored products resulting from the attacks of destructive insects. Research in the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine seeks to learn more about injurious insects-how to recognize them, their habits, and measures to control them at reasonable cost-and
also how to make better use of beneficial insects.
Some of the information thus acquired is utilized directly in the
Bureau's programs to suppress dangerous insects and to prevent their spread. Most of the results of research are made available as rapidly as possible. Many important contributions have been made, sinme of which are being employed to protect the health and conifort of civil and military populations and some to assist in stabilizin agricultural production by reducing losses and maintaining more consistent yields.
Measures for louse control developed by the Bureau and recoinmended to the Army and Navy were used to good purpose in st ainping out a typhus epidemic in Naples, Italy, last winter, as recorded in accounts carried in periodicals of national circulation. As a re -ult of this experience a high official in the War Departmnt has stated that typhus fever has now become one of the easiest diseases of man
to control.
Striking reductions in infestations by the Japanese beetle are following the continued distribution of the milky disease of the grubs. At a the request of the War Department the distribution during the past Q3 616016--45-1






2 ANNUAL EPOTI' S OF DEPAlT1ENT OF DPATAGIICULTURE, 1944

year llei co,nc'llc- llt rtelyitI ltd I Iell l n Sll1 it j tl rs or tufrf areas i Ill i1ilil t ei l lli iic its, parti llarlv 11 infairlall lli ig fiel tl S.
l 4le lilli of a i~i Il prveI graIl (li)ler l ait lr(,a feld- nd ia :llv c llifi i l i it ll I li till iCtiil i ll' iti lhe air al (, furI i-I1 gl' ll I K (11i 4 C d('V1( i( f i plr gI' (e> i ll 1 c c(1 Y( t Ir Not -so >atI iact I, I:1 b'i i t ilt i lit) I it I I ectI to t 1i. pil k dIollworm 0n1 Y(,t l ll. 11 Ic relll t f t lis ill-(c't to Loloisiallia, WNlie a 1ioiicOttonI z ii it' I> jiti ect iii ( 1ai'awi r iti lcar l ael ut t Ii te Ii cO)vV, of i feztat ions
I I d l I1 I(lT lit i i ( cale for ol lcei tl.l

I 1ii-04 I :1r II 1 ) il 11 '0it% IIi11111'i ruIIlhr\eP t.ii Illi tlitoll.tIll (n I lieu ii-' irtcilw'e -.-h i) (i -(btlcLOl lwl iivl )-l.l.1tri(clornethm Ie, the



tal 1t it wil 1 e : al 11W1p 1 rt ait1 a rictiltl iral i iect uide, it i1 w(es :ary to l, 1 'l i ,re aboi) i tol 1ei(ct I Vel l- ;a i r-t 1lt0 1 1 is i 'i i 11f(,ct l d
f.:11 1 a 1 0 1il( 1l f 1 (,l m l lial fia t1:l >ir Ifr Adilin ial inifoniiatinn will have to be oltaiiPetl with re- p( t (o its effect on 1)la nt s a i il v I'lef ficalt ii i-e lict wii t, if a lr 1 aza r, l to liuii a Wll phll i tll( .>Ptild ilt i 111 ll- IlfpV ll W 1:1. If altOl Il ill 10 1111111111 bein~,s anld ai11i Illi may be a. ociated w 1ith i its u1e.

FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
CONTROL OF THE CODLING MOTH WITH DDT INDICATED

The new organic insecticide DI)T gave reiarkalle control of the c(odll ig 11(ot ll n prelii:nar'l v fiel( It') s carried oilI at Vilelllnn hid., begni lngl late in July 1913. Three al)licatio ni o(f 1 p)()lnd- of a l0-5 lN )IT-p 1) i 111 1111i 1 u1i per 100 gil ul> W1it- oi -ll p1( le likel 1 CI)i letly topped a leavy Woll l attack f(Ir tile elli ll lit I Of I le aM ol. "Where t le DI)T-)rr'optiyllite nlixt11lire1 W1 ued at only 1.3 i) itd per tIi() allis, the fruit averatl ied (1olv 31 wo ills per t ) al)le' a> ()Ol)a red witli abouli 10() wormll, pe' r 10) ple- fo wilg the I,[ 1a :ar a tll le )p 0g 1111. Ill >.011 lie hl dex perl l ie tle I)DT ) ern I itted large i ICreae>P in t le population of Eilrp)all re( 1it e. aIlareltly by killing o(r repellig certain ladl\Lir d beetles tihat pre o(l t(ie lnites. (d-iderable ]Meit ion 0eIIrre o trees o(f lthe (ri-n1es variety spI '(.v wit h 1))1T. blt t his Illay have b(ei 1a1il(d )v tie abuhindant Illit:s. No dli(latill ()i ccl ()Ired 1 tI es of lie Vie>alp) variety.
OTHER INSECTICIDES TESTED ON THE CODLING MOTH

At Yakilla. ,a'i.. Ilie 1et hod (of 1sillr xanthoulle for controllig the (,0 ( 11ig ll t hIll In tihe N(Wrt lli.t was i ni)roed th( e p1int wl Iere 2 p)(tlls to 100 allow gave better res11ts 1 1lli 3 )ou1111s 4of lead ars'1 ate. F( I i ll( t ii 1 r (d : i tIt i I l-(cti c d greatly re 1lticed t lt p)op11:1t tt 1 of It I I;,iit' nit e'. Ilel 1 t e ts I it i a i1it '()-o-cre ol spray to dI i Y(o V illh 1at1 (' l li(g Ittl l arvae, Ill:(de l a larger > 1cale t ia i Plrevi(tl killed 6G to 4 I 1et't(nt f tilie larvae aniti1 reduced the
ill fi i llit i -ntia ll Ill frllt 2 to 10 1)e' ellt.
Alt lioInli tphenotlhlizille lla given a highl degree o()f kill o(f tie codli llg lt i I it I t11 Nrthwest It, wi ry. lilas yet 1.wi u( eveL q ed to prevent it a I ( (- It't n( l i ie 1' f ret ap)) l Iand Wl ork wit hi it has beenI largely disoii t ill(l for the 1 )r l(,It .






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 3

At Vincennes, Ind., the repeated evening spraying of apple trees with small quantities of nicotine sulfate solution poisoned many of the moths and reduced the number of injuries by 42 percent.
PARLATORIA CHINENSIS CONTROLLABLE

Laboratory and field tests at St. Louis, Mo., indicated again that effective commercial control of the introdliced scale insect Parloatoria chinenis (Marl.) can be obtained within oil emulsions. An emulsion containing 3 percent of a paraffin-base oil with a viscositv of )0J Saybolt seconds or higher or 4 percent of a similar naphthene-base oil should be applied during the latre-(ornlant or delayed-dorinut period, and an emulsion containing 2 percent of an 80-se cond or higher paraffin-base oil during the summer at times when most of the scales present are in the immature stages.
A continuation of the survey to determine the distribution of this scale insect has revealed for the first time a number of infestations inl St. Louis County. The outermost infestation was about 5 miles from the St. Louis city limits. Several shipments of plants from infested properties to other States were followed up without brilino to light any new infestations.
ADVANCES IN CONTROL OF THE PLUM CURCULIO ON PEACH
Two applications of ground sprays consisting of (lichloroethyl ether or dichloroethyl formal at Fort Valley, Ga., proved as effective against the plum curculio as the regular schedule of lead arsenate sprays.
An improved curctlio-jarring sheet which holds the curculios in a bag in the center, developed at the Fort Valley laboratory caul0bt anl average of 2.5 beetles per tree as compared with 1.3 beet les per tree caught with the old sheets.
NEW INFORMATION ON ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH PARASITES
A big increase in the production of Mc(roceltuI. ancylior1us Roh., the most important parasite of the oriental fruit moth, has resulted( from rearing the parasites on the potato tuber worm. Use of this new host was made possible by the discovery of the tuber worm near Moorestown, N. J.. where it had not formerly been believed to be present. This parasite was found to overwinter abundantly in strawberry leaf roller larvae infesting wild blackberries and related plants which occur in large numbers in the vicinity of peach orchards in southern New Jersey. This finding opens up the possibility of effective parasite colonization late in the season, and indicates that cage breeding of parasites on the strawberry leaf roller might be more successful with some of these newly found plant hosts than with the cultivated strawberry previously used.
CULTURAL METHODS CONTROL SHUCKWORMS ON PECAN
Further experiments at the Albany, Ga., laboratory in cultural control of the hickory shckworin by lest auction of the larvae ill infested nut drops through the use (;f a disk tiller substantiated the favorable results obt ained during the three 1)revis seasolls. For the








Sri 1ev a1(1 St DIrt la Met Res t 1 l)r(clta of 111 illf: ted was reduced
111 t ol I alalf. 11!l te r ,t 1n,1eIt l )r ti :1an double d t l i yield of nuts.
CHERRY FRUIlTFLIES CONFORM TO LIFE ZONES
r'1 -e c1 err v fril i li, 'chitjief v It/ujob /ut~ trlda/ra ( Loew) and to a
Ie~ei ext I1! ;u~, ( S.~'/,v ,ee bdlodii( I hweic ai
1 11 -l l I t P a 1 ( f1 fee ( lN't Irll 11o

F' ~~~ ~ ~ ~ i;. I liti W, 11.EI1 r O r*I W 0 1-.Irlmsta l'iil

1ll ()01'C).LI n11 ivate(lis cie!e 1e roWil ill th Trai si:11 i Z ne. and ill 1 :ll- (f 1 11 tate 1 ite v a're extri -iely in fet ed. Tllis st m v was S(le I ie ()e ()il EXP,,rin lit tat :i olent ion wiLth the
lireauill the Calif ll11a I)ea tllent of Aricult ire.

GASTIGIIT TENTS GIVE IMPROVED CONTROL OF CALIFORNIA RED SCALE

In studies of the California red scale earied on at Whittier, Calif., co) lsiderable work was done in the field within tent fabrics differing in gas-ret mention proPertie1. Fabris treated with certain plaStic products were found to retain three to four times as much gas to the end of a 45-minilte exposure period as the standard flunigation tents now in use. Correlated with the gas retention is a higher mortalit V of scales, or the possibility of an equal kill with lower initial dosages. With the blowers and gastight tents it has been possiblee to duplicate concentra1ions in successive exposures on different trees, and from night to nighlit. By using scales of a known age and strain, it has also been possible to duplicate very closely the mortality obtained.
MILKY DISEASE CONTROLS JAPANESE BEETLE GRUBS
The nmilky disease of the Japanese beetle has continued to cause cllslpIli Als redluctiols in infestat lo of ti le gruls Wlereve it has heconie well e tablislied in the soil. In the Mall section of WaValhingtol. I). (C.. for instance, where populat ionlls as high as 5 grulbs per (l(l1' foot ()f 1turf1 were' recorded in 1941. 1and which I'received an ite1isive iv ilky iease t re(atiient, pIractlcally no artbs o)r beetles w'e ii v(leli(e (Ilrilig t le sp)rl lg alld s1111111 r of 1-44. The colonizatin (4 ll e l $10r1111slS cauing1 tlis isee i eill col1 ntied.
At thlie re(tinet o(f t ihe ()tlice of Chiief of Engineers. War 1)elartilent, s1I'I\evs 0)f ,! ): 11iee beetle l l in festation in n t ai 1ed gl'lss or eI t :1l t f al'eas Wel' iiide(It aken ll t n litarv in tall: ii s inll the 1First, -1. c( (, and Third Service (01I1inanlds t urinl the dormllant s('t (ll of I, ) -14. A plrogranill of 11k1 disease treat Ielit was started il March 1911 at inst al latiois where (omlitions called for t r(,atIeit.
DDT EFFECTIVE AGAINST JAPANESE BEETLES

In field tests against adult Japanese beetles during the -sununmer of 1913, 1 poind of 1)I)T per 100 gallons afforded the samIne l)rotection t() peaches as a single appq)lication of tmhe reco(mllleldd lerris-rosin resildtue eIi1slil S)plRay, )aoecting both fruit and foliage for 2 weeks.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QULARANTINE 5

A single application of a spray containing 1 pound of DI)T per 100 gallons gave complete protection to the fruit and fol iare tllr(illt liut the entire beetle feeding season of more than 6 week-. The spray ilft no visible residue oil the fruit or foliage and catlued no inIjury wllen used at a conceilration of 1 pound in P,0 gallons.
DDT has also been found effective at very low concetr'a ions against the "riubs of the Japanese beetle il thle oil. III a zilvr of soil types DDT, when freshly applied at rates (of 5 to 27 punmi(- p'er acre, was as effective as lead arsenate at the rate of et 0 1 inls ler acre. Stulnie in tle 4reelllo1se ild ica te 1:11at relative v Ivlf e ilLHtities of )IDT could be applied t o tle soil wit out deri l : lIct on certain (Vlp hut s, thlt other.l. lch as e 1ne ,icli. a 1 tllantoes, seem to be unfavorably affected with a,1 pliai ii its of 25 pounds of DDT per acre.
PEAR PSYLLA SUPPRESSION CONTINUES

Further l'roress hlas beeii nde tow:id l e supl)lC c o of tlhe pear psylla in the Pacific NorthX'wet. TIle nimoiir of infYtl 1lPerties found ha ,COntiinued to decline, 110 Wi< fLul i in i!) paired with more than 1.200 in 1911. Oidly i nuu' ex- iin)-e nof tiL infe ted area have been 1 rwuiti to liht. In the sp1 1 ( a ar summer of 1914 one !Iit il festation was found in l, Yal i-in County and several in Benton Countv. Na>h!. Tlhl,,e in iest1i oi were also found in Imatilla County, Oregv. within a few n1ilJe- of the Washington State line.
The st icky-board trap, mentioned in lat year's report. is proving a valuable aid in determining the distrution of the pe'r psylla. The board is about 6 bY 10 inches, and is covered on both .ide with a sticky tree-banding material. Yellow boards have captured more psyllas than any other color tested. The trap boards have revealed light infestations not found by the most careful visual sccutin2'. One hundred thousand are being placed this summer at various points in the Northwest and elsewhere. Thei use will give a mich more coinplete picture of the infestation than has been possible thus far.
The spray program continues to reduce the psylla infestationn. A special study of the effects of the program was made in Spokane County, where intensive spraying has been carried on since 1940. In 1943 spraying was discontinued in that county, except on properties that had been found infested in 1912 or 1943. Th1orou,.gh scouting in the entire ccunty resulted in the findinii of only 70 infested properties, as compared with 889 in 1940 and 460' in 1941. Some spraying was done in British Columbia in 1943 and 19t14 to protect the results obt ained south of the border. In some areas cooperating growers assisted greatly in the program by applying IMuchl of the spray material themselves.
The removal of abandoned pear trees bh the WV:lhington Sta te Department. of Agriculture and the grublbing and treatment of pear regrowth by both agencies have elil iiated 11a1 calttcire 1po i()perties from the spray program, and in some areas the tine re ju ired for a given coverage has been cut by at least one-lialf. Coiilderable quantities of ammonium sulfamate are being used in the treatnenll-t of sprouting stumps and regrowth.






6 ANNUAL HEPOlITS OF DEPARTMENT OF AG;ICULTUHE, 1944
PROGRESS MADE TOWARD ERADICATION OF HALL SCALE
a:rke l 1 pir'( gras is being ii( l d, toward Ile aIli(aIt i ,l of tile I:all l It'n ill ti a'a a ~I(111(; (I Ii t). ( a if. IL eI t 01 ) l )I ar bee l ade a 1 : 1 1,ali ti(,- to Xt lliv >Ill I1 t o. utll 1I l i'0I Y Stat1 I lant









FRUIT'FLY INVESTIGATIONS
lil l n1.1 fk-i at ihil
11o'i 0tW1vi o. Ii ll I Ill 111111 t e 1 kill. hits 1 dl'Ped.







It i M exl it E 1 ( -il)let hal1 (1 1iti1t it il ( f 11 1' LI t l i' I is ted by tIhe (iexi i fa I IvdrillV were h i () t iI i(ib i I eI. (evel ) hl Ii
u ctII tot S Iii I ,. a ii I (it s 1lellelp e b y t he

Srgicllti tiil exlperieileit at itiU li tre liave liU1I tllree IIvbrids that rve higlly resitalit to the mnelonl fly.

are 111er4( way to del erimne tle veid--t:ave to termites of different Cabl e-i1snl ating at- e1i ale.


INVESTIGATIONS OF INSECTS AFFECTING FOREST AND SHADE TREES
ENEIMANNF SPRUIC BEELE OUTBREAK IN COLORADO
In exlusi preliniintea rl i ft Ih u )l), mi l < l'e leetle I i 1. levellparao) Ile W"ite liver Na roii al Fret in 1942oll l (1 i lc~i -0ll tlll ()vl to I 1 1re 'e0l t (, n th Gra m Me12 a 11ut1t1,11l 7aiP p'O alivel ae 1 4 41 ilson







Nax iocial freil:lt. 10A (o iial e(l 151 )h il ()i e ( lrd ft )f1 E nli anI slI)'ilfe iatis l)eo, killed i l tHlaie Yi iti' Rive arietd tle (i illi MeIa taI 1 lll I 11It ui x peliel te1- 1 .i, 1 i t i :10 1 1i t1 o a 1: lY :1 that







of hih r1: id ne a -ie.f lonf1(ive t.ii rv rtm ol rces Aitl C(> a (l anl Zo .-taI" ion. Stu ies i)l ieltioV 21) hill i on fiar it feet, Su11der way to d(etl(liti r nI e thale8itl fvtanc le f r riliteIo l wifderent



I 1''i ot OX111 011 ol1'ilk (of 111l it1l umn tuIj l-prove 1:lI l ev lopel (in the Naite River NiXt ere a recent i 4.V val m:it, it wa hln N li l IlP 011 011 led 1ie V bilU 1 1 v 1 1. ie vtly)8 1,i t 1e (45 1111119 : 011ii









il 1 101 i l is l 0l lV it) i ak r)('O) litll btl inl for o nt v 1l at the lol~l Fnl'P-1- T 14 T'P-1 801'YW i a 111 ll!11 toil 1 :1 1< olf I, 1 ( ,.: ( 1 ll itwl }i 0.l ; 0(l i 1 l t l:(111 ) OP lv -oill f'

Ct IJll 1 112(' ('1111111 -p'llre>. 1 1 o 4 1 'l:- t IIle- o i 111:1with 0ar Ietl ,









PINE BARii BEETLE SIT ATION CON TINES FA AII LE
1 35 I a 11 1 '.t 41 (w 1 14 1l1 111:1t,', :1 flith






lB;ark 1 1 lll-s that a'lrk t1e va.r)},0s ei 00111 o f ite I i:.'.s c:10sed >('( Il r ii'l) Iy li ltle tii eii gv l ( lf la- t vearl. There )lleve a few chill)p;lfillvvtdV hlh da11111070 4 IIullyr 1, 1he paY'lf Tlv 1000F( Ier :1 1W






BUREAU O1 ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 7

localized areas where the insect appeared to be o(n the iiwrea-e and it is possible that the low point in the iiife~tat i nl cycle !h ihen pal- ed.
Assistaiice was ive Federal al i pl'ivate 1 1 a, iII te c() i r) 1 If the western pine beetle throuIgh'll applial inn of uaiit:iion <-lvan, lo,gilR. aI(nd a close c heck was n ialltaita(d of re-ilt t 11 earlier pojees in California. O 1lIer :a~elcie are :I(1e1 1 1 11 !! ol 1.,,!iE in stands of poliderost pine where 1 e bel azi:1'd '- l-,11. 1 it 1tcotl lO 102ll lyg Ip Iet> have ben bIlIl' I1 tIle W ar1 I1'iii li'iSial 11 ivatH)ll i11d 1 lie E illill i I111 1 il i ( Ill l ll. ar(i )Ii t 0 Yakima I111l 11 P>ervil loll ii d 1i(i:l1 11' Naiital l uf-1 IlI W as lliniton. Otihe- W1 w be 11(let 11 it -lipp of <. -\l} Inent and manpower permits l iglit er c t ove la r~'cr :1tt.
Two studies recently complete ed exl lain why cc rta n t-ee aiti rea; are more slscept ible t1:11l I1 01 1 0 in1e I ee8 a11t1 ack. On11 a ai17demonstrates a relationship bel ween ground c ve ad i e t a ttack, and the otlheir shows effel s (of root injury and o(il on tree health. Both point to the imIl)o'rt ance (f r t development. -il, anid colm ipetition. Federal and private aIQencies ilterested il there hI die have given valuable assistance and are already puttingg to u-e sole o f tlhe results.
SPRUCE BUDWORMI OUTBREAKS CAUSE CONCERN

An extensive outbreak of the spruce budworm in the central Rocky Mountain region has killed or weakened tremendous quantities (of Douglas fir, alpine fir, white fir, blue spruce. Engemann s pvuce. and ponderosa pine. Much of thie timber in this area is of value for wat ershed protection and recreational lmrposes. Previotlu attempts to coltrol this insect by sprayilng with lead arsenate around camp Uwlilds and other special use areas have been only partially succe- -ful. A series of spraying experiments conducted in the spring of 1944 in cooperation with the National Park Service and the Forest set ice indicate that control can be o) gained by tlhe application of DDI)T at the rate of I pound per 100 gallons of water.
A widespread outbreak of the budwornm has been in progre-- in parts of Ontario and Quebec for several vears. The extreme I iu'tiveness of this outbreak, together with the l)i'<-ent critical o:ta:e of pulpwood. has caused tiner owier- Ill the New E11iind nd' reat Lakes S:ates to become very much 11111( c cerned about tile p i iliy vof similar losses in t he united S at es. Plans have been made fl 111r an intensive study giving special attention to development of f(re1-tmanagement practices that will reduce the likelihood of an outbreak or aid in the salvage of infested timber.
IMPROVEMENTS IN AERIAL APPLICATION OF INSECTICIDES
The mo t important development in work being coIducted il peration with the Division of (Ovpsy ald Brown-Iail MAthls Coutr tl has been the spectacular control of the gypv n ot oeth bainel 1 t1ro1u1ti the aerial application of DI)T. A 20-acre tract ()f infe-ted woodland located in Jefferson. Pa., was treated on Mlay 3. 1944. with I a concentrated spray nmixt Ire at the rate of 5 u)(indls of 1)1)T p)er acre. T1ie s)pray. released through a specially constructed distrilbtor, Settled through the forest as a fine uiust. which gave good coverage of exl)oed surfaces of trees, undergrowth, and the forest floor. Foliage was just






8 ANNUAL HJEPOtlTS OF DEPAI.rTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

lini g to aljI:tr a:md no ofrs of the ypsy moth11 had hatched. After tlit sPra Ii:itl Idriel, a fine ci'rvtal linei deposit of DI)DT re1:i;l1iil 1 i all Et l etX vl t of 1 te ff~il'e Ob-ervatiivll idic ated ti:it ti e liat l Iu Iat tile niall eter)i llars were killed when thley aill l 11114(/ c1: lle ill coiltait with 1 t1le I)I)T. N( living larvale Wfr' I Iil a 1l 1te l Ow : t1 aI 'r Fi ll e1 :i e, albl ack flies

The -11000'-4 tf 1i experilliefit o1h'< p'rolil-e for extelldin the

I"IIII I]t Iia II (I rlntI I I Cow Ij If h.:Io t > I l'a iII l a I o t I V( -In r Iet of D T 1 111: 1 1 Il l 0 60111 11111 (4 a rpfl l :1 I1l T (W Ill(WI, 1? The Eu ,.V1 1 I82 h ite I. A t-111 i Vof 111:1iii Iifed d aW a :i 'l tref ted wit I)I)T lier foli ie ap:eami dill anterl)ilars were in hi > 11 a ('in e4 i 'llnli Wa1s iel( f r :)l)lyiil a io ,llenll' ate( \'I il e -li-f ll- I lol to i-l le'&t1o \ iOtlidli(l. X fie. 11110tIil d0i0 >1it1 o v ,ii WHi atli're1 ,.xveW l 1at1er t 1~i-1 leralle i f 1 lii. W:1 Oltatilled. T 1 : l Yii Vltl 0 1 tl 1 0 Ilit' lit ill it be at'Clrate ly dI Ierni ned 111ti lae 11100ie' whe a epthito i is over.
WIRA FADRIC"S PROTECTED FROM TERITITE DAMAGE
)' i 1 tle I o': li 1 tlf el !1 1 1 1 1i111 ( rea i l *fl Ill tit 1. t o pi'( al t l tw :h1, r w 11 e s it o1 o1 f b1t1a'k l ten ies anti ii ri'oi- r i -M111

10 I01 t'll] 11e Ii 1 ,n'L Pl )iet( fllhaI ll iel e 11ir l 0 ilt I- 4 :Id ilft e to 1n 1 i:t l, iv l0- ll ll Uhiye a .eiit S1ici tIesie lWel' coi i ll11te in coIIH l Vll W t 1 ii 1ile, 'W r 1)')1 1 1 1li1t :111i with several er :a1 10 if lult1: N i-et'llie. Abol t 9(40 ane of ;b1' -. c(n-,-tl (df such 1iat lial >- 1)11 ool c'lot .ll ( aiil., twill, C(ttll 11 1 O)11', 11 lai lt- :11and hea vV-WeII it (lit We t' ci e(1. A 1li II ) el of C I i I1 al o1' i l Ixtl'ures Were flt'wli )o p ('o Iect the fab)l'ic's from da(tmge by terul ies.
P! ANTATION INSECTS MAY INFLUENCE POSTWAR PLANTING PROGRAM
S l1(lies of I ll affeictiillig vo)Unif rees planted inl tie ref(,retat ion Plr(PI':li? 1 u er way ill e li1wLake Sta ave thx 11hat much can: ll be (loue to reilce lthe )probabl)ility of serious (laninae by inc ts by i t using Cei'ti 111 d 1i 11u tires of tree sp e Ies in ll forest I)1la1ttil Ilmiany ( il- 11 llo ii-elha eailled extd 11siv e (dai1e 11 p)lantitlions tllt wereO ('-1)li1Sit(l in I)ltcks (if siunle species. Where niaxet p)lantins were ijatle or Ilie trees were 1)ai td amng natural stands of hardwoods, tIi ere lias u11-1111: v !be less injury.
Oi (' olt II e 111 -t illi l'til lit )lantat ion insects in tl e Lake S tates is t t s 11le 1)l A l f) 1 'O/)Ipha a(of(e a 1' (Fit c ) heretofo re 1I known :as a Pm t 01 ( llt'. It is Wilely Ii'tr illted., and lla v l lltinds of t('l'' Of 1)1aill tioll s aid ,tlllli) natural gl'owth of jac k pine an 1i red )i lt slo(w, s,'rioll da1:1111:1i(iae and ( l C e 'aes 1 si(erale t ee Io ta v f ro() i it. Tl life is lu(' rv andlia1 it' of tl1e ine- 1 :1ave beenll st it, 'lie In Ill le splrln of 19i a:,11' 111eilts were T( l 0 eted for a
(q')Irt[ t I ve iIly wit 1 the I )1rea1 : of Plant In(11st r, S.l1 and A nri('l r l E1gi2 (eeri ng atnd Xiscon-ini State oflicin ls It) determine the plostibilitVy of an int 'relaI ioslip) with sm e disease (1ranism. The white p1ie wtevil. th e pi ne sawilies, thle pine cha 1er. and1 the pine tortoise s ,cale are also ihI)o)rt :alt Wests in the extensive pine plait ations






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 9

throughout the Lake States. The information gained from 3 years' study on permanent sample plots indicates that lnuch of the damage by these insects can be prevented by good silvicultural practices.
CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
DDT SHOWS PROMISE AGAINST VARIOUS CEREAL INSECTS
Preliminary experiments illdicate DDT to be a very promising insecticide for use against the European corn b orer, the white -fringred beetle attacking a variety of staple crops, the clinch bug as a pet of corn, the velvetbean caterpillar. grasshoppers, the vetch bruchid, and insects attacking stored grains and packaged cereal products.
PROGRESS IN DEVELOPMENT OF INSECT-RESISTANT STAPLE CROPS
Intensive experiments to utilize varietal resistance to infestation by insects attacking a number of staple crops are being continued in cooperation with Department and State experiment station agronomists, with promising results.
Big Club 43, a variety of wheat being increased for release in 1944 to California wheat growers, showed high resistance to the hessian fly in two localities. This variety is also resistant to stem rust, bunt, and root rot. Thirteen promising advanced hybrids were included in eight adaptability test nurseries in Kansas. In Indiana high resistance to the hessian fly, mosaic, bunt, loose smut, leaf rust, and stem rust is being combined in advanced lines with good quality and yield. One of these fly-resistant hybrids outranked the standard varieties Fairfield and Trumbull in yield tests. Out of 201 varieties and hvbrid selections tested in the greenhouse at the Beltsville Research Center, 16 showed high resistance to the fly.
In observations at Manhattan, Kans., 20 varieties of wheat and 9 of barley out of about 200 spring varieties of these crops tested were lightly infested by the chinch bug while other varieties were severely stunted.
Corn varieties tested in Illinois showed two types of resistance to the earworm-reduction in damage to infested ears and inability of the larvae to become established. Eleven families and three individual lines of corn were rated as highly resistant. Among hundreds of lines examined in test plots in Mississippi, several showed low infestation by the earworm and the rice weevil. Length and tightness of husk apparently were not the only factors responsible.
Several alfalfa plants showing marked resistance to the pea aphid, a serious pest of alfalfa, were selected from many thousands of seedlings tested at Manhattan, Kans., and passed on to the plant breeder for use in developing aphid-resistant strains of agronomic worth. Experiments in cooperation with the California Agricultural Experiment Station indicated that a synthetic variety having high resistance to aphids and increased vigor of growth might result from systematic crossing of two separate aphid-resistant families.
Progress has been made in methods of segregating the European corn borer and intensifying the resistance of field and sweet corn to this insect, and in utilizing this resistance on a commercial scale.
616016-45----2






10) ANNUI'AL REPORTS OF 1)EPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 191i

III thie e (Xil(aittry tests of iiill l ie- alld ()opei)-po(lliinate(d varieties, J llil o i Iit )t()ll! 0;. ) *\i'(' t H-o in i ellii W\ t'le )I'(Ilil li .r itS ioreri -1:1 lirt street Ii 111:11e1:I. t 1 at1 lit tli 11 r1 fi la' I tlt liel( li(IsC Welr fo lun aillTa ii*)1xilllatelv 9I))0 i l(l l (,i ltrie te t ,el. It was deci(ded I lhat i ti l el'ililill 1le a ilit V (f a vail'rietvy to) .-i t b(e attack
t ~ lain ftior holTl ie oitlr Type ad rate (if plant Fr"I wl i iilf ) :ac i('lIl f Hi t 1i1i1 tI' ll ol)( rI l 'il' :i f(odl fo'r tIhe Il'r\ ae (ilI ( 'lil 'tirii plart> of (1 I)la1t. a til C()olll)arf:ltive ahllldlaflce Of I ell s iki0 1, Ill g (r),U ,> d ,wt Say. i la8 lrev- ()It l 1e 0g. il ;i t'Va' of Ille ('II1 I)(Ol'r I'.
Ili ( 1i) r i ier 4J.()(i0 vari(ti'el I ) f 'i- :ll r: ii for Ire i-tal it to Iie fl ral'i)l(alie rl' 2 W ,'e f(u1(l )1B 1i 1 fi)r ii -' re- i a li l):r10P tal lti erial i)n lreet l-ir work. o'o ly- ix elH:-', :as r(1i211t il l re ols tests i al1i1 ai1i0-I c('))1 iI l var 0eli- ),il hi ced 2 (ll) lll (' le's sti ar )er acrre whe ll ,avil V i I't e'0t l t ill Wlell li htl ilfl>tIet Ielt tl it o11011e o(f ilil I'. t itr 1iti ie p' l4 1r'e(l le s sugIlar l)W acl'e Wlhei I)( i lv in fest ed.
DEV:ELOIIENTS IN CORN EARWORI CONTROL
Te;-419t of 11111 ler'll-ol 1 l. wit 4 11(1 witl()t Wl l l .ri (11ize wl tlie oal >il Showel that there is 0 o liilitv of (1 trying
t1 1 Ie v ll hy t II lill il I dl h1nl 10 11it' ll I li (hi 0l0ic 101 bilell t1 i> t1P ,l. 1'1 i i_1 ',YI t 1( ia l ei (, I r a )liati ll ttir I( ll ill cor 1l 1 II iull l 1 ae.l l V eI t> ali 111lltI of a 1a1terial 11isea e of

fIell with 1,llitll io 1ut di result il a fair degree of c(i rol. This i i lo ( () (l uia, 1a e Vp 0) 1ui li0 i, if a clh ap 1111e hll of cul ill'Y tii e i t 1 1,urn iu (ll:t ,ii can be devised.

WINTER GRAZING CONTIZOLS PEA APHID ON ALFALFA


1 (,)) ul!- e Ill -oli, i th:1t w ere 0111f .-t(,lk Iy 1111,1 r 1 111 1111itj I j)YM ini I' Il-1 11 i'ei lllt'1 l i rtn tlll of' :aif:i I 1i1 in \\ (lt'iil NeP: Hd at '!i "'f c t il ulisV ( 1il of ~)i'i- r a itd

(ItASSHOPPIEI PP()I ATIONS AT A LOW 1E11M
()1\i~, to the Oi('Ia lv w ,I '()ll f 1 ; all id 1 1 rid 1111f:cv u':l I l' it it ui f f:I1I l~hl llVi l : 1, 11i11i1 V1:t Ia1 ssi))c1:t 1 i -'11 l011-i1 at t I- I ill l( I ('t H(l I llnre lw Iill (i ( 'dtdrn ('(t luil ere (io f:x ';:lI ill A 'iz(11: an11 1 (lllit I' lrli1, 1w) v ver, VW il lI :tlte(ll i t:11


IAr-SI AUSN BAITING ()F A!) IT G(;ASSII)I 'lI:lS A PIROMISN1 IA)L(AL P1' I:VNT'I E 11' IASURE


< 8 III-0I I 1;*o ll1:1 M id Mlt ll :111,: 11 11 1 flle ( r' l 1 1 ,I thII Il 1',\_', l a i :,11 Oc) I ab ile:1 1o1h :1 ill' p c ientlli -






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 11

ing local infestations and may eliminate the need for more extensive and costly control operations in subsequent seasons.
REPLACEMENT OF BROADLEAFED WEEDS BY GRASSES ON ROADSIDES AND FIELD
.MARGINS GREATLY REDUCES GRASSHOPPER EGG LAYING
Observations during 1943 confirmed tbhoie of previous years that the numbers of (rassliloll)eils a11(l their eUrs are grelltlv reduce in roadsides and field margins. import ant grashloppel breedc pla,,('s, when broadlea fed weeds are replaced by nearly solid( stands of grass.
ADDITIONAL MORMON CRICKET OUTBREAK CENTERS LOCATED
Inl conilectioln with fdild ecological studies new centers were located where MIorinon crickets persist during 1)eri()ds of general scarcity six of them in Nevada and one in Wyoming... The location of such areas and the control of this pest therein nlav r'esllt illn prevention of general outbreaks at comparatively low-\ cost. I'le s -tudies indicated t hat hatching of crickets in such areas is delayed bv continued cold until so late in the spring that there is little likelihood the crickets will be killed by adverse weather subsequent to liatchiii as they often are in localities in which climatic conditions are less favorable.
NEMATODES PARASITIC ON 19HITE-FRINGED BEETLE
An intensive invetiatigation of certain nelinatodes known to T)e par'asitic on the white-fringed beetle. a serious < xotic pe-t of staple crops in the Gulf State-. has shown these nemrtodes to be common both inside and outside the infested areas but apparently not a dominant factor in keeping down the numbers of the beetle.
INSECTS IMPORTANT FACTORS IN ALFALFA SEED PRODUCTION
Although L!/f. / spp. and other sucking rigs that attack alfalfa seed aid hay crops in Arizona an(I Utah were 1utch le- abundant in 1943 than in the peak year 1941. their injury to the eed crop in AriZona Was estimated to bLe over 00 UU ()h-ervat ions in lhoat State indicated that suitable 1 cltura l pract ices provided consideinble lo-tection when applied oin indi vidual famiii as well as tllrotlig ut a community. As much as 90 percent of the alfalfa bloisonls (.1 pilots attacked by sticking bugs may fail t(i set seed. This failure is apparentlv due largely to tthe ca lcit of tie wild and mlestic nece--ary to effect pollination. S ie are 110ow in progreS, in cnoperatitn with the Utah Agricultural Experinmet Station on the utilization of bees to increase pollinatioln.
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN CONTROL OF INSECTS ATTACKING STORED GRAINS AND
MILLED CEREALS
Six organic compolumids Aiowed considerable pro1lI e in prelim inarV tests as stistitutes fasor 1iie tll l'1 i 1 ilitS the stlliie of whi(h are ilore or le- limited bY wal' coi dlitioll-. eveM'tal 11at11 il t including white lead a1 wh tewas1 a,d a -ol0titolt of i, ie uIlfate, were highly effect ive in )prevetit the caldelle anid th leser grain borer fir.'ol bltrrowing a.l pIer stin i i!1it tlle oo()()lwork of wo(dlen grain bins and infesting graiii newly 1t ore11, ii t11U.- i. Several organic and( inorgalic d(.l>ts, including IDT and manei t oxide






12 ANNUAL REPORlS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

Wheni (ld(l to wleat ill (Xtrliely s11ll 1 percentages, were found to l)rotcl(t it ifr(,il i lsct att;l(' r. O)lie o oI)()Jt r( stI i le 011 (t l 1 lat i ( of e0ni0)eratr11 e an(Id moisture co el nt (cof l'toill t 1 1 < (Olevel(lo e I llllt al c)ltr0l of Illsect infestation lwrcin11 shoed t t Iriaii bltlts idt) not lIev- at G5 F. or hlow a11(d 1 1 little i is('t 111t lc vit y c ll'CHIs 111t it b1e gra llII tell(ij ratilre eXceI was I )r'(-e1it, l)!t weev Is (it (I 1ot ireetv, i l rain (of l(, tlan 9-1-percent lli0i.lll' t', ()ollt I 11 a )d bre 1 (llIy to a liite( degreee in gil ai of less l i ll 11-per'(t"' c lt Ill u rll'e.
Sl'nolls ij) Ijir to germinllltion of wheat frol11 nrmil dosages of grin 111i1 11 iils l o'rred only vheln the moistire comit ( wVas 14 (ree" t or more. BIaking tests in cooperate io wit l thle Ilar\sI s Agriclnlt ural Explerinenit St at in idica ed that loss of viabilit of wheat caused by fiuigants appllren.tly did not affect the baking quality of flour iaile tf 1er'froim. but that retcli1ion of fumigant in noinaCrated wheat appeal re( to affect baking quality adversely.
Observations on st oredt soV)eans in(licnted that insect infestation was of minor importance during the first year of storage.
OCCURRENCE AND CONTROL OF THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER INCREASING IN IMPORTANCE
Thle general level of corn borer abundance in 1943 was the highest on record, the loss of field corn from this insect amount ing to over $28,(000,00 land of sweet corn over $a5.5)000.(). a1 tlhe infested area was exteen(led half way across Iowa aud Mlissouri i(and clear across central Kentucky. Early sweet corn from central Illinois to the Atlantic coast north of the Ohio River was heavily infested, and most of it was a complete loss owing to borer damage.
C('onmerctri-scale trials resulted in gross returns of $480 to $600 per acre from spraying and $54 to $196 per acre from (lust ing earlymarket sweet corn with ground derris, as compared with practically total loses where no treatment was pp)l)lied. A l)reliminarY test of insect icicle appll ication by airplane in 1913 I ve promising results and this tho(d is rec(, giving fourth er trial il 1)944. Two out of 247 nlew insect icidal c(ompllonds used( in laboratory tests gave favorable results all(I are hein given field tests.
Tlirt y-t wo 1)araite releases, involving 39.418 parasites and 3 species, W11e ,1ii: i( Il 10 St tes (tlrillg 1-)43. Il coplerat ion with several St ate exlperiiilt st:tions this work has een much explan1ded(. A total of I3~7 .(T() rii li re r la:rvae were collected illn Ihe fall of 1943, from which it is exper'teld that at least 1450.000) 1piarasites will 1e obtained for liberati in 1941. larasitiztion of Inrvan c(llect,(ed from the field in the fall of 1 12 ranged( from 16 percent in a few Connecticlt fields to 69 )e'celtlit irl a few New Jers,('ey localities.
ANNUAL LOSSES CAUSED BY SUGARCANE BORER
Sr\'eys l~a'e s i(own th"at the sigarale b((lorer tu,,s a :111 a1 l loss in cale sigar 1prod( 11(110 anioltilig to o ver $,000.00. This nllsect red(iice d thle 1)1:3 yield in Lmu isi niia a lore 1)y m.ore than 200,000,000 poiu(l(ls (Of sugar.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 13

In commercial-scale dusting of cane for control of first-generation borers, applications of cryolite by airplane and ground equipment were about equally effective. Both gave a high degree of control, which in some instances amounted to as much as 50 percent reduction in numbers of borers present at harvesttime. In general, natural cryolite gave as good results-as synthetic cryolite. Dilutions of these materials gave poorer control than the full-strength dusts.
The use of medium and heavily infested cane for seed resulted in estimated reductions in yield of 2.5 and 3.3 tons, respectively, of millable cane per acre, as compared with plantings of uninfested se(red cane.
WEST INDIAN SUGARCANE MITE SURVIVES ERADICATION EFFORT
Although the eradication of the West Indian sugarcane mite attempted in 1941 appeared last year to have been successful, the mite was found to be again well established in two locations at Canal Point, Fla.
TRUCK CROP AND GARDEN INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
The control of insects that attack vegetables or transmit diseases to these crops has assumed an increasingly important role in the wartime food-production program. In addition to increased commercial plantings of such crops as beans, peas, potatoes, and tomatoes, the expansion of the Victory Garden campaign has created a further demand for information on insect control. Since some of the insecticides, such as pyrethrumi and rotenone, are available only in limited quantities, it has been necessary to husband these supplies and to develop substitute materials or other control methods. A special effort has been made to disseminate information regarding insect control through the timely publication of bulletins and mimeographed material, as well as through the radio and the press and by personal contacts of Department workers with those interested in this information.
Special emergency surveys of insects and control requirements have been conducted, in cooperation with State workers, industry, and other agencies, in an effort to insure the distribution of insecticides to localities or districts where they are most needed.
ENCOURAGING RESULTS OBTAINED WITH NEW INSECTICIDES
In cooperation with commercial and State agencies a large number of new materials and combinations of materials have been tested for their insecticidal value. Among these materials the new synthetic organic chemical DDT was very effective, in preliminary field tests, against the following insects: Potato leafhopper, imported cabbage worm, cabbage looper, diamondback moth, cabbage webworm, pea aphid, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles on potatoes, Lygus plant bugs, and the tomato fruitworm. Encouraging but t not outstanding results were achieved with this material against the following insects: Pea weevil, onion thrips, gladiolus thrips, bean leaf beetle, stinkbugs of various species, and the beet leafhopper. Unsatisfactory or indifferent results were obtained against the Mexican bean beetle, the tobacco hornworm, the turnip aphid, and red spiders.
In tests directed against cabbage caterpillars, some insecticidal value justifying further tests was shown for yarn bean flour, various nicotine combinations, a soap-water spray, scorodite, 2-chlorofluorene.






14 ANNUAL IIElP(ITS () DEPARTMENT OF A(I('ILTULIE, 1944

S < ii u l, ()i li( 1ll(1. l lfl .'i ll illo l le, ) tri t -i i filuin -lii,. atI,. ltaid a l(\W i'te lIo e-co1 ita llt iI g luw t Ifr ill th e p)la l t ,tri ic tc lc (I'illt .) 1T wlli). l1e fl1 1'i e ( llI)oillis I ( 11 1a te idet'V to cause Ilijli y 1 o 0 1ciI ):l ge. NWA11 I lilllis I 1 r u-(e :1 'si- 01itllt- for t1e Illore

I I co, d)atiell) e )(, 1: l)l i ill Il !)tl t l st -1- o() :Itl ai 1ii lic-111-itiie s :1ale o 1 0 0e (ol i l W11 l 1( cV I 11:ie pi)x d I ("-s effect lie I l111 ( -( 1 :11(lll I 1a- the illI ,ct 1v a t1 1e Ii 11tai I he 0 1 t () 0 l I I W it 1 I1 1I i ll pp'r r'se( I at e Yave r(I Ii Slt sl)( ', r t o tl ,se )t(1 U il (.l ",wi tl i :1 1 1 arIeiiate Or r ie allhohi Dli> IIT w Was the i(st efiective inl(iciWid(le tested 11 1" 1 t 11:-tII 1I1Io 1Pi8 i 1( a1 i( > )PNvd i) die 11 :p(,.A ra1k I te M xlc:IL heal beet le and thle (,'oloran o )potato bottle go() re-ult were ob1:1i. WIl i lV I I ( 1 t('0a are ate am1 mir o iZetd 1)p1ielw ot lliii z e. Te ts WX(el Ih1l(e il ()1io o() ( 1te nlie the relIative eflilcie( i v agalist the hxiclli )eai ) beet le of two Vy)Pes of I'ol eli(lie-c(t)lit illl ll ustsgl'olll(1 (le'rris o cu)e roots Inixed( wit It ( dilenti and i11)ieg11ated (uts 0for11e1l by (e)siting rotei 1ne 1i1 the piartices of t le dlil1ent. No differencess in the results (obtained cotill be detected, but since the (11st niixturts are more easily prl'epl'red ain d le.s ex)ll>i1ve 111t]an tle6 in)1regilated Inlt'rials, they would appear to be prc ferable for genl(l'al Use.
Thle new soil insecticide (DDicolo apane-dicllo r "rlene (I)) lhas given pronisling results against wirewor1s in southei California alll( ill Wa1ii1in( oi, an(d hlas also p)rove'd of value i I preliminary tests against larvae of the green Julle beetle infesting tobacco p1la111t beds. PROGRESS MADE IN ESTABLISHING RELATION BETWEEN INSECTICIDE DOSAGE AND INSECT CONTROL
As an aid in the conservation of insectici(les, st diies hiav\e been made on tlie most effective strengtlis and rates of application on several of thie more import) anlit i lsect s affecting vegetable crops. In ieldhl exlriiiet ( lirectedl :g iinst tlie )ea ial)Iid it was founil 111 at with I 11st illixtures c'c olita 1111" g f'ro 0.25 toL ( 1. l)eIr t o 11roelOf l le t (1 :1 intit of rolellulle :i)llied per acre rath 1e' t 1a the 1t re1'gtl o th l $110 ov(1cer (ll tile 'p(citage f )otltr r]lis el ti :111 l lW 1 ev r. d id l!ot )rev1' when the (l I 114 1111111e W l lowel r'tileilollf (oliltit. Fr


Otf :1 (IlI c, t:i i i ri 0.r 7.5 l)j 'r' lit (of i'(tettle ; l]it (0O 1 ( i Sl t"i 1 0.1 25 I)tI('lJ rIot'lll )' he ill le \V1 i notf effect ive :is 20 p 1(mls of Ia llI xtui'0 (ol il l f l h .eo) IeIItw 'll ( 011011. I le 1 e'-1t teiloll ti':il tha t:1

w 1 Il:I L ti ll : 1 prccfee ld i0 l1ct lot ll cm1 rol occill'rel. M rover :1 (' ': ,1r 11le- h ('t1, (ti :t111 i'I lf1. A I'-()lileli ( t i t1I(- t i 's


1ME(IANICAL METrilOD)S AID IN THE CONTROL OF INSECTS
I ii ('n lex ill''i :111 ar i' I I cilll e'i w, trf s1 11 a1 ll (0is m f1 (eelrs h lited wit II Ivl i c ivYlate d11 d l ilworill Illuf :11 1 v a l)pfOXlllatPlV 00 er fe(''llt. WIII 'we r, i 1e sali' 11i, t1 (l s t('t e ill Ihe fl Ie-cliured ttla i t ', I ',o ig l di.trict.s of N ot I1 aI(l S (th (i Clina were less e fet ix 11.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLA-NT QUARANTINE 15

In Louisiana the use of vine-cutting machines combined with disking and plowing after harvest reio(ved tie co()p reimnailt that serve as a winter food supply for the s t -ttato weevil i1 infes td fields. The use of vine cutters prior to harve-t facilitated the harvesting of the crop and the sllbse(ullent burying o()f crop relltnlani s. COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION ASSISTED IN PROTECTION OF LEND-LEASE TOBACCO
Throughollut the ear the Burlea tts workers o011 t()'red-t obacc inll-ects aided the Commodity Credit C(orporation in pIrotecting stocks of leaf tobacco purchased by the (Governnllent for lelld-lease plurp(l)-. Surveys Were conducted to finl(i suitable wariellue... warehlou< were inspected, a system of obtaining andll recording infestation (of tobacco with the cigarette beetle and the tobacco moth in each warehous-e was developed, and recomenlati l s were male as to control mneaSures.
COTTON INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
Despite serious problems in manufacture and transportation due to the war, sufficient supplies of arsenical insecticides, sulfur. and cryolite were maintained and. although rotenone was not available for cotton and the nicotine supply was limited, essential insecticides were available for protection of the 1943 cotton crop. Through the cooperation of State and Federal agencies. growers. alnd niany others,. 25.741 examinations o(f cotton fields were made to determine current insect conditions and the local need for insecticides. This information will be of permanent value in determining the need for control and the time to apply insecticides.
Emphasis was given to research that aided the war effort by conservation of materials and manpower.
BOLL WEEVIL
The average reduction in cotton vield caused bv the boll weevil in 1943 was estimated at 6.1 percent. as compared with l 8 percent ili 1942. In plots usted with calcium arsenate at Tallulah. La., the average increase in yield over undusted plots was 27 pounds of seed cot tn per acre, or 13.8 percent. as compared with the 24-year average of 1)01) pounds, or 22.2 piercet.
Invest atios wer-e contlinued to et1ermine h) C1e11SeS inl Cottoil yields could best be attained froili thie ie (f red luce(l anllwuniL (,f critical materials. Test- on higih-yieldin Lou isala soil- cooiinireld previous findings to the effect that the recomnimended poundage per acre of calcium senate cold( not be 11aterialyv rel110ce'l wi1 1Iout sacrificing part of the potential (gains, and that the lar,,,est increase in yield per 1)otId of c(ilclilll 1 arstllate leuIlted ifrll (dlilIlE I l(e filst applicationll til 20 to, 25 percent t of the squares were ticulie. ()vr a 4-year period 5 applications beginning with square infestations of ppYrOX-inat ely 25. percent t gave as large a1ins as 7 ail)plilcat l(n s si 1tl' i lly with infestations of 8 to 15 percent. Experiments have als( been conducted during the last 5 years comparing control (f weevil in fest atils that required 6 applications for comllete Inrotection of squares and bolls beginning before weevil migration, when 2d 1 percentt of t lie sIquares were infested, with only 3 late applications beginning after weevil migration had started. 7The forinmer gave an average iIIncrease of 2S8






16 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

pounds of sced cotton per acre, or 48 pounds per application, and the latter a gain of 210 pounds per acre, or 70 pounds per application. IIowever, on the lighter soils where cotton does not fruit so late in the season, control of the early weevil damage is more important.
Each year tests are conducted with various materials in the hope of finding an insecticide bet ter than calcium arsenate for boll weevil control. Sodiuni fluosilicate, one of the most promising insecticides tested, prevented tile proper development of the fiber and resulted( in significant reduction in yield in one variety of cotton, though not in ot hers. Bariumi fluosilicate, cryolite, DDI)T, and other materials tested were all inferior to calcium arsenate.
InI tests to obtain additional information on nmopping entire fields with I mola-ses-calciIm arsenlate, 55 fields containing 276 acres were mopped at 6 localities in South Carolinla, Georgia Missisii, Louisiina, and Texas. talf of the nmopped area in 19 fields at 4 localities was also dust ed with calcium arenate when needed. The average gain for all 55 mopped fields was 83 pounds of seed cotton per acre; for the 19 most heavily infested fields, 142 pounds from mopping and 290 pIounds from mopping and dusting. The gains from mopping were lnot significant at any locality, while dusting gave significant gains at
3 localities.
CHEMICAL DEFOLIATION FOR CONTROLLING COTTON INSECTS
Tests of chemical defoliation of cotton indicated that this treatment controls insects, improves the grade of fiber, increases the efficiency of imechllaical cottoil harvesting, and reduces the labor required for hand picking. In exlperiments in M sississilpi, Texas, and Arizona dusting with 10 to 20 potlnds per acre of calcium ey1ana mide, a commercial niti rogenous fertilizer, caused complete defoliation within a few days w 1el1 1niist ire was lbtmda11 t aln tie pllts Were succulleit, but poor defoliation of water-st rested plants. Defoliat ion causes the small bolls aid squares to shedI and the mature bolls to open promptly and uniformly without a reduction in staple strength. This checks boll weevil breeding, prevents staining of lint by aphids or leafworms, permits all the crop to be picked at one time by hand or mechanical harvesters, reduces the trash, and improves the grade of lint.
COTTON APHIDS
The addition of ni cotine to calcium arsenate to prevent the build-up of aI)ids increased the fields of seed cot ton in 1943 by 137 to 435 lpollds per acre in Mississippi, by 120 to 446 pounds in L uisiana. and )1 0 to 132 poundls in Texas. TIe average gain in yield of seed(l cotton in 78 experinime'ts at TIallulalh, La., during 1)39-43 was 1i8 pounds per Iacre wheli1il (alciill1 arse1at e (l It was used against boll weOsa ils d 393 lpoil ds when caleinl arselate p1lus nicot ine was used against both boll v.eevills and l) hidls. InI other words, there was al il:rease in yield of ( 1ol1Ids whel niot in wals a(hle( 1. Inl (geral, nIictin1e 1 sulfate, free' 111i ile0, aild sse hfi x c1 Ilicotilles were abot )t e ly effLtlectif e r pou('nd of act al uinct iie. Satisfactory aphid control was obtained Ill co( itie'cial (a111till with irl)la es o gro lnd m 111achiner'y at any t ince ,f (lay or i eight wl i sllo's1eri cllnditions were favortable for Sithe dust to. settle. Noniie of the synthetic materials testedl, including






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 17

DDT, thiocyanates, phenothioxin, and dinit ro-o-cyclohexylphenol, have shown much promise.
The damage per aphid was found to be greater under dry than under moist conditions. In rainy years cotton on fertile Delta soils will tolerate a population of approximately 60 aphids per square inch of leaf surface before defoliation, whereas under the dry conditions of 1943 half this population caused premature leaf shell. In the drier areas of the West and on the soils with low water-holding capacity in the Southeast, cotton was defoliated by much lighter populations than in the Delta.
PINK BOLLWORM
During the last 2 years weather favorable for survival of hibernating bollworm larvae has aided in increasing the pink bollworm population in the lower Rio Grande Valley. Approximately twice as many worms were found in cotton squares and blooms in the spring of 1944 as in 1943. The average survival of pink bollworms in open bolls encaged on August 16, 1943, was 0.75 percent; on September 18, 7.93 percent; and on October 19, 32.05 percent. The average survival in bolls on standing stalks was 26.44 percent, in bolls on the soil surface 11.75 percent, and in bolls buried 4 to 6 inches 2.54 percent. The results of these experiments emphasize the importance of producing cotton early and plowing under the crop residue as soon as possible for control of the pink bollworm. Experiments indicate that the pink bollworm does not overwinter in free cocoons in the soil in this section.
In the Big Bend area high survivals during the winters of 1941-42 and 1942-43 and a prolonged planting period in 1943 following the removal of legal restrictions also aided in an increase of pink bollworms. However, the field clean-up, planting early maturing varieties, and early termination of irrigation have held the infestation below the levels recorded prior to 1938. As a result of late planting and late irrigation, some of the fields produced in 1943 large numbers of long-cycle larvae and the population entering hibernation was twice as large as in 1942.
The use of a special meter for indicating the percentage of moi tre without disturbing the soil permitted a more accurate siudv of the effect of moisture on the mortality and time of enleroence of pink bollworms. Apparently two or more irrigations with a drvinm-olut period in between are necessary for complete plupation a ld emeren('e of adult bollworms. In the field a few moths emerge after the pr eplanting irrigation. but others delayemergence until the first or s eoll irrigation of the cotton, when squares and bols11 are pre iet.
Dichloropropane-d ichlororl)pylene (DD) at the apprnximate roen of 50 gallons per acre killed 81 to 100 percent of larvae in buried at I(on bolls when injected into the soil at 18-inch intervals and at the same depth as the larvae, or added to irriatii vatler. Lit .v:a1 ineffective when spfraed on tle soil surface aftlir brial rf t nl i.
'11 infestation in sec,01(10(la y bto l ): i- (:1 I eltl i l \l tliri tinme of fruiting and th e iltensity of the pink bolwornmi population in cotton. It was definitely estalli-hed for tho ti i'r -t i ie tl;it Ii ,, lik bollworm overwinters in t le ee(d 1 pods of I'as wur~/ -;, lu.ls t: I i ) R. E. Fries.
616016-44--3






18 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

BOLLWORM
I)e-pite a highly survivall aid heavy e. deposit ion early inll the -eason, Ii21 ( I (e11i ie:lt1i'i> aill 111at11'al '1.illeS greatly I IP lles 1o llworm (181 i ,l a I il lst iril)('allt p r 8t(,r( t 0 w las O(i; ;,.vido.,sit S ay, tliit-1 a :1 lll ll, er (f o l011 ol(' plirel atrs we, la'tv fl I t ri-tr()ir, over 2t 1,' 'peil o(f tlie er,. at ac(. ) Tex. w)le W I 11 eg2 e ( d

lIfojlli the use krsc0 01 a1,1 w i 1 l1 I1 (:r11 to0 c u 1 raph i, ll'I*, 1 Il :p.t im: of a 1) 111 s.
(r ,vulite dilute l w ith 15 to : 0 percent of '-ulfur gave a good oilW( I11 'i colt 'l I-, t1e O f 1i1i i ll)u11i 1i oi I lut ed (r'o 11e I ) ):ba ly i ,(,,i-e lthe tiltedd cry lite has l lletlir dust ing (t ulit s '(and plant Co\l('I' ;re. (i c te1 'l (ii ul iolls were efct ive if tihe pi)l( n(age of the IllXtXillre WN( n cil11('1'1 o t at 8 p1oud0s of c 'vol ite p>er ac'e was used. (C'vYolite-corn mneal )ait (1: 9 dry lixed) applied at 40. CO. and 80 pou1li(ls pe]' acre gave satisfactory bollworm colntol. iu0Forty ) 1 more pl nd( o Id(1lced l)O.1s of insecticides iave I-ot pr.)ved satisfalitory for t!ie b(ollworm: iln fact, tlie Ireco(nnnded d(osaes are too snmll for lest cnit rol. In 2-year tests the usual dosage of 8 pounds of calcium arseinat per acre gave an averacre gai ill yiel( of 1-3 1< (ls of seed co(tto 1(per acre 1 p1oui ds of calcium ar'sellate gave 187 (111unds(. and 16 1po( ds of calciu-n arsenate 195 pounds A 1 2 andl a 1:1 mixture of b:sic copper a senate and sulfur at 16 ()ou lds per acre grave 1avera0e galin of 195 and 300 p)ounlds of seed cotton. respectively. A sp)ra of S pmund of basic copper arsenate per acre was as effective as a I: 11 (lust mnixturle of basic copper airsenate and sulfur or calcium arsenate dust at S16 )01(s1 per acre.
( alciu1 arsen'llte was found to be more toxic na:ainst the bollworIn thal: calciumu l ar-senate, )but caused so much injury to the plants it is 1 -,I sale to se. A 1:9 in ix ure of di vi tro-o-cyclolhexvlphenol and silfii1 r was less effetle tlha alcium11 sl1(ate. andt a 1: 1 Ililtlre Of Iphll(oxathi i a:i(d bei)toite gave very little c ctrol.
PLANT BUGS AND STINKBUGS
It was n ry o l)egil ct ol of p)la1t )ugs alld st i llidl'l a1(olut 2 lIe-ks earlier' I nl nt1citlit le c tl r te:s,-ires for a long r period ill t) 1 !ta 1m'ally. Lar'11g( (1ill iltities (11 :1' a ,1enical-s,1illf ,11 i!t m ixi1 ', il tl In Aluiz a yllave ( d c(( I ilr(l w len d111 i(II was stt l d early a11l >,ufliciet ap)j)liralis w C'e used. In plo)t tets .a:ins of 2) to ,)71 l l)( s ou 1 (o -t' l ( .0Ol ) e lU' acre were 0)1:laived wit 11 coolluni'reial ill Xt ,ies. A 1i 1xt11,11'v 1iti,1ig 5 erceillt () f alciu11 arse 1ite inll Il filr :u1.1-ed p llt iI1jury avli a loss of 22 (),i1d1 s per a re.
I1 1 :i a 11irplae-lIst illg eXperl(vi elit ix a)plicatins ()f a 1 : 2 mIixture of c('al til ri1'illate andrl s fll' at 1.5 pol1( 1 pls er acre pro)' 11'e(1 a ga 1in il vil d of 271 m)uitIls (f se cottl oll pI :rice. or 0 l)i(,cellt, as cmnpa le wit l I a (al f 1 I )il pllis, or 10 pere1, tlast yealr.
EFFECTIVENESS OF DDT ON COTTON INSECTS

I11 phrli111,arv X )erimllelts aaist several c(oton insects in Louisina'l. xas, 1d Arizonl 1)1)T was found to be less effective against






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 19

the boll weevil than calcium arsenate, less effective against the cotton aphid than nico ine, and less effective against tlie cotton lea fvorin t1han arsenical insecticides. Encournaein, results were oltined iiI ex(liments with the bollworimn pink hollwornm, th rip~, plant tibugs, and stinkbugs, all of which have been difficult to cont rol.
BEE CULTURE
HONEYBEES POLLINATE MANY AGRICULTURAL CROPS
The benefits from research in bee culture are not confined alone to improvement in1 the production of toney av id eswax. Whatever advancements are made in the 1llandling of bees. such ('1s i tile conlt rol of bee diseases, swarming, ad41 other In-blems facing beekee 'rs at the same time improve the pollination of important agricultu in~l crops. In evaluation i research in this field this fact should alway:is be kept in mind, inasmuch as the profitable production of about 5b cr(lops rests upon the beekeeping industry. Since beekeepers are dependent upon honey markets, the role of honey in our economic velf:'re a ssiies unusual importance. In planning research in the field of bee cult ure it is therefore inmperative that consideration be given whenever possible to the use of bees in pollination.
HONEYBEES IMPROVE SET OF ALFALFA SEED
A survey of alfalfa fields in Utah in 1943 showed that honeybees outnumbered the wild bees in the ratio of 1.000 to 1. Pollen-gatlherin honeybees tripped practically all blossoms visited, and in some areas more pollen was gathered from alfalfa than from all other plants. indicating that a substantial amount of pollination is effected by hon eybees. Nectar-gathering bees, on the other hand, tripped onl y about 2 percent of the blossoms visited, but because of their preponderant numbers they are unquestionably an import ant factor in the product ion of alfalfa seed. Methods of handling bees that stimulate them to gather maximum quantities of alfalfa pollen should improve se i1 production. The proximity to alfalfa fields of competing mustard, thistle, sweetclover, corn. and other plants has anl important bearing on the distribution of pollinating insects in the alfalfa.
The yields of allfalfa seed in I'tenh declined from 61// bushlels per acre in 1925 to 11/, bushels in 1942. This decrease in iroductiveness may be attributed largely to the d cimat ion of native pollinati na insects and to an apathetic beekeeping industry caused by years of low honey prices.
INSECTICIDES VS. BEE LOSSES
Samples of bees from 115 dead colonies in Utah analyzed for arsenic showed that 95 contained suflcient arsenic to accountt for their death. Analyses of pollen stored in the hives in 63 dead colonies showed that 54 contained lethal amounts of arsenic. As little as 3 parts per million of arsenic trioxide in pollen was found to be harmful to the bees. Dusting operations on cotton and tomniato( crops in Arizona and California were responsible for the death of more than 10,000 colonies last year.
Although arsenic Is the chief cause of bee poisoning, tests with DDT and with dinitro-o-cresol, both new spray materials the latter of






20 AN NUAL ErcrEPoTS OF DEPAIITMENT OF A(;HICULTURE:, 1941

wicl is used fr t1li11r frlit, illlic:lte 1 tht they? maiv Iecone I filellace Of I to l llidloll illl t(io I ekeeptin.o N 1il hCe of tlle-e in:1teri w: re ellelt Wto~. I ) il ( f ;. 0.()5-1)Per('ilt c i'tilt:at1 l 1 ojf I)DT fed ill 5Vyruwp to honie'ybees 1:0d :1- a stomialIch Poi'I. C(nt:wt with a 10 perc~t 1) dIst proveo fatal to ,(ees. Piles iln contact with a su'falc( spr"aved witli a 2-liercelit soltii of 1)I)T died within 6 Iolirs. W ie11c iood1 :111(1 ad lilt )Oee- were' >laved with a 0.05-11ercent S llti() o(f )I)T. tile li1-e:11d ', (d wa kilirel within a few lhoullrs bullt tie S1 al( ) btoo ( :1ll1 :1d -lts weret l 11111 ifected.
Al l100e- fl l1 a 0.1215-} e1'ilei t(0llli011 Of dinit ro-o-creSol in sugar svrlI) Were eadI withiii 21 hours. A 1.25-percent soluitil was neither repell lent to bees ior effective as 1i colitact pomsoi.
HONEY YIELDS INCREASED BY SUPERIOR STOCK

Unifo l testing 11 n1ietliods were mIpll)vel to c(ollpre1 the honeyI)r(dlln(i ca panilit is of 9 linlle (of st ock. Ill tliese tests 125 packagebee collides whili produce ed1 a total of.l14.200 pounds of holieN were used(. Tlie highest Vieling colony, in spite of a p ior to Inedlioce season, l)produlced 250 1)pound s :11(1 the lo(we st 19 p(nls. The average percolonv yield o(f tile best line was 160 potill(ld that of tile poorest 52 )01111(1s. Ti lihl-produ11inr line was cha raterize( by a narrow spred( betweenll the yields of the best aindl poorest colonies.
These tests indicate the need to develop) superior lines of stock as a means not only of increasing profits in beekeeping but of improving pollil at ion.
ADVANCES IN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OF QUEEN BEES

Ileretofore it has not been possible to use artificially illseinated queen bees in studies of practical beekeeping problems. Excessive losses of (Ilieels callsed b( longl delays in tile initiation of egg laying, as well as the abnornally short e(ry-layincg period of inseminated (1ileIs, hlas precluded their use inl field tests on honey Iproduction, resistlncee to disease,. anid other probleiiis. By resorting to multiple Iill1ii1at101is, however. queens Wit ilthe fecundity of 1a1:11 l1 iV aly ted qI10Pll'i-S !fe DO(W 1 ,sSii)le. 11ie a Yel';2 e 0111101ii 9l Of I l'-; in i d ll'ones r:11 ied flroll 5A). I to 0.o9 1iil, Iconrille tk-) their )n'e. I1l naturally 111;it:e110d (' ll' s tile lavol'at'e -li)Ol1l vI ( llit Wa\S ,.7 1lilll). s>peI'll Collint fl',lli q( '('11l :I ft ill l t ificial illse llillatI i(l r:11 t' fr'(m 2 to 3 m il11i ). A Vel'ag (i f 4 liiill 1ii s)0 1'lliiS p Qel' (q e1 Wv'a (1) aiIed Iv 11s111 several drmiits. 'Multiple ellelllil:itilloll s Il advallce t1e in 1:it1ilion (Jf (,,rr I ViIll,. 7 1ilt ili le-il > 'i iiim't1 (]11il'1 ('l 11:1led 0 r l' ett'1 edI l:11 l11r:ally 111te ]d (j1('IjS ill eLOgg liy r1)1It'F l'lluIllit'e.
NEW Ti(:C'IQI1,I1 FACIIITATI*:S WOVIU OUN RESISTANCE TO DI)ISASE

ri lt i Il 'l' t' 1 ill *' i :1i i ito Aih eia1i 11 1 1';r((:1t ia ll i Q i (,) ii l t i 1 'i \'~ 1114 9' ~4 1:lll9 1 lie 'iit i vi I1:ilili1v itl !eal (I ct'e i'1. ow -S

tinlb 11:id lv ili l" 1 1:1tio W e,\w d 111:1'1s I (it'r :eI ill e : :1 (A'11i' li il11:111':11 1 111:11f011('wl-.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUAlRANTINE 21

INVESTIGATIONS OF INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS
INSECTICIDES DEVELOPED AT ORLANDO ADOPTED BY ARMED FORCES
Three research projects undertaken at ()rlando. Fla., on fundls allocated by the Office of Scientific Researc anlld DI)evelop)lli soil ullt to develop a satisfactory lousi cide, an effective ini Sect relelleiilt ag:i llst mosquitoes and other biting insects. and larvicildes fo(r llalaria-carrying mosquitoes. By tile middle of Ma y 1943 the i ilectici(le (know i as DDT was recommended for control of lie a taeki" i llan.l anld with in a year it had proved its worth aimlonl troops aild civilians i() North Africa and Italy, especially in the control of a ty phis epidemic in the Naples area. A mixture of three insect repellellts was recommended during the year, and is in use by our military forces anid heir allies in different foreign lands. A new mosquito larvicide developed at Orlando is being used successfully by our armed forces.
NEW SPRAYS FOR CONTROL OF TICKS AFFECTING MAN
For killing ticks about the premises of camps, playgrounds, parks, kennels, and residences, a spray containing 5 percent of DDT was found to be very effective. An emulsion of this material caused no injury to the vegetation, and when applied at the rate of 1 pound of DDT per acre it gave control of the ticks for about 6 weeks.
For use about kennels and other locations where some temporary burning of foliage is not objectionable, a water spray containing 0.05 percent of nicotine and 1.5 percent of sodium fluoride applied at the rate of 75 gallons per acre killed all stages of Ixodes ricinus scapularis (Say) and Dermacentor variabilis (Say).
MOTHPROOFED FABRICS WITHSTAND LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
The effect of laundering or dry cleaning on fabrics previously treated with mothproofing agents has been studied. Fabrics treated with such agents as Mitin SS concentrate (a sodium salt of tetrachlorodiphenyl ether phenylurea monosulfonic acid), Eulan CN (pentachlorotriphenylmethane sulfonic acid), and aqueous solutions containing sodium fluosilicate were washed in soap and water, or dry-cleaned from one to ten times, and then subjected to attacks of the black carpet beetle. The results indicated that moth resistance may be given by the manufacturers of suitings, overcoat materials, blankets, and other woolen fabrics. These tests have demonstrated also the practicability of treating woolens in the home with moth-resistant sprays.
NEW TREATMENTS SUCCESSFUL AGAINST SCREWWORMS AND FLEECE WORMS
In limited field tlsts a new smear formula, known as P-55, afforded good protection in wounds of animals from in ifestations by screwworm flies, but it was slightly less etfficiet than Sllear (. wh ich is now in use. Since the new smlear colnta ins incre i(lents that are not critically needed f or war purposes, it seems pIrolii>s IIng as sulbstitute for Smear 62. Wounds of animllals in fested wit h s'rewwo(rms healed as promptly after treatment with i -55 as tho se treated with Smear 62, but further tests of this kind are needed under ranch conditions.






22 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

IEarly ill t le s)prin g sere\vworfis Illoved into nort lern rrazill areas allrg wit i1 li i piiltllis of a:1lli1ials but tile p)ronil)t use of S1mear $2 preveted 1110llst of tile I-sseS tIhat wIl(tl ord(lillail ha ve occurred allllng the in f('steJ alliNl s. Th t e peSt (eIw(IsI e ta)lliAied in many localit1s wlhert st ot lkilen were 11t fan11lilar wvi 1 it or wit i the 11use of this s111011 r, a(1l iII s1uch 1IstaI(es tl e oSes wIr avoided only because of I lite Itiliel V ,ys e l 1 lie al S11 0111 :1itii 1g eIu1t > 1have 1ll obe oblained inll prevent ini ilnfes1tlti 11 of Ilci e vol'rlls (PI o,,ti/i / /((l/.i M eteiy.) itl1 it 111 iix ure of beziZell ie 8l t a Wtti iagelt. Fut ter t sts are needed oni a larger ilIli ler of ani 11inls o() rail1nc1es.
W it l 1li 1lier f 11rt)la H 1 ()11 1 l1)oL(ra ( 11V a 1 ii l it s welln )OSsible to Il li tt10 e l e e (l 11 reF ( 1for llea lil W,l)l's in 11 1ed with 1 f cle ,(II W1. :1; 11 le :'ver;\ e e1 111111 (of r"ein-fe atl i(11 1:1s a1 been reSIrd (frlm 81)1)VUtifl lC'leV l(111' p)el' anil l to I- thial o11e. 1hen tliih Irentient al lied to the in tested wool of sleep, it Ienetrates tit ft'e :' 1 :i k :iil allflee W i larvae up1 1 c1ll:1ct.
[(WWO lIII i !e,1 thati.)s Olc ll ill Wl!M S Calli('e 1 1 ly t~ rn flies. Sprays witl DI)I) for tlhe control of horn, flies att Iackiig beef cattle 1111n(Ii iahll ('en(idit ials have greatly redleed t1 fly po)uilat11011s as we 11l a lle 111111)ber of severe illnjliries (c111aed by bites of large m111nbers of ii s on s11!1l a'reCls u11n1(r the )Ielly, about the ruill ) and at the b:i e of the hionis. A spray contailiing 1 percent of I))T killed all honIl flies that ali ghtedi on the treated animals for 1 week. Range cat tle S-praye l with I:i pint per :ninial of a 0.2-percent DDT emulsion renaid( alllost entirely free of flies for 7 (ays.
ROTENONE EXTENDERS RECOMMENDED FOR CATTLE GRUB CONTROL
11,1e Ip'ratical use of rotenlone-bearing powders when llixedl with finely ground tripoli, volcaniie ash. or py1ropIhyllite has been demonSit -;t(( under rantcl co editions in tle treatment of cattle for tlie control of ctlile ri'llbs. These dillients have been found to be much more effective t 1a1 etiler sulfur or talc bec:1use ill hey penetrall' te t hair t etter. Because of t he g()oo(l Ireults obtilled withl themll as dilueits fo(' gr 'ill(I ule (lerris, thly I1:have bee11 rec(11mmen1(ed fo0r use in (lsts foi'r al Ile (ril) cot ol and11(1 as a means for extend l mig the available roteII(IIe. Sprays (onlai:il only finely gr( nd 11 be or ( Oderis root in walr al )so give a hihko kill of cat tle grubs. When applied at a
nozze 0l)'.vlie of 40) )i )111ts or o al uls)011 lol of cl1be or derris P(w'i1,' in \viater aP\e better re-ults t han wllen tWhe1s1 e 1)NI(wles were uix(d x illi wteltahle Sul fuir ()r witli a well n avt n w:ter. W en t Ili Iray was :a 1 ie( :1 at a l )1w sress 1 t le ( il it i m o f 111:1 a s llI amol t of S li n11 la1 .'v -11 fate oi ,\wllat eii:1'iced1 its effectivelies.
1)ivt 5s (1il aieiiIi 10 pirce1it of 1)1)T were found to be almost 0il1 i rely i itfc''t live a:a :illit cattill gIlb .
N IW TIICEATMI1NTS FR( TICKS AFIFECTIN(; ANIMALS DEVELOPED
iiv(e t i lati(lls o11 cmlivl 4 t 1 illier tck Twere c(, c('(rned princi1: 1 1 Hi 1l1 w:IieI' ~ t "xuI r \ llila l 1 t:ll t :1s11 and l p)e'i t't 101)' :aai: st11 11, l' f ct ti It. (I o 1 e I 1':11 l l, 11, es :11 s a, d11 e t)llo 1 t ll e (l lo1 l )
nw It 1 1 t 1 i l 1 I t~ l f n, I 1 dl ('l i: Iltl e:pn i11 II WI IIe t i ev I 1) 1u1'tlef t 1l IP ':il'- of ':1tI, I I el :I11li gra t> li'ol li i I id IIe a-.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 23

tick for 90 to 120 days. The spraying of salt troughs and the areas under them with equal parts of kerosene and used motor oil also destroyed many of these ticks. When both these treatments were used, marked reductions of tick populations in pastures were observed.
Tickicides containing 5 percent of DDT in nondrying adhesives were prepared and used in preliminary field tests against the Gulf Coast tick. The period of protection from reinfestation given by these formulas ranged from 3 to 5 weeks, whereas the imateials niow in use by ranchmnen did not give protection for more than 8 days.
IMPROVEMENTS IN CONTROL OF LICE ON LIVESTOCK
In tests made in the interest of conserving rotenone 2.5 pounds of cube powder (5 percent rotenone) in 1.00 gallons of water ui(ed as a dip killed all the motile stages of the short-nored(l cattle louse. W ien 100 pounds of wettable sulfur was added to this lip. it was effective for a second dipping 2 weeks after the first. A dip comtailia 5 pounds of c)ube. without sulfur or with only 50 pounds of sutlfiur, did not kill all the lice when it was held for a second treatiiiet. Ot!er tests showed that wettable sulfur, without rotenone. used at tlhe rate of 150 pounds per 1,000 gallons of water did not give satisfactory control of this pest.
DDT was found to be remarkably effective for controlling this and other less resistant species of cattle lice. As little as 0.0G I ercent of DDT in a water suspension gave complete mortality of the motile stages of all species of cattle lice.
Emulsions containing 0.1 percent of DDT killed the motile stages of all species of lice on Angora goats, and the material from a single dipping remained in the hair long enough to kill the young lice that hatched from the eggs.

INSECT IDENTIFICATION
More than 700,000 species of insects are already known, and a larger number still remain to be discovered and descrihe(i. Many with significantly different habits, and conse(quently requiring diil'erent miethodis of control., are so similar that they readily pass for each other. Authoritative identifications by specialists are, therefore, prerequisite to the use of effective control measures. Moreover. specialized research in insect classification must be continued to provide an increasingly sounder basis for identification.
Identifications were reported for )5!9,5; iiseet saillples colta ill e in 33,GG0 lots. Of these 28 percent represented interceptions iln ilmpot fro1n abroad and 2!) percent collect ions made ll t Ie col fse (f Sl'it 1 surveys 25 p )erce1it were from research alid conitro )lactivititls of tiis Bureau and other Federal agencies: 9 percent from agricultural colleges and experiment stations of the various States and insular posSessions: 5 percent from in iviuials,. private g1is :ie, 1l t-control operators: and 4 percent frolll foreign overni eltal agel ies and institutions, largely in tIhe Western Heni-isphere.
Res 01earch in i1nsec(t classification anld anat olv designed to improve the bases for exact identification in certain insect groups resulted in completion of 27 manuscripts, totaling 8:1 piges, fr publliantion.
Direct assistance given the A rmy and Nav iInvolved i iet tii(ation of approximately 2,000 samples of iosluitos es, jiostly fr the war






24 A N NUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF A(lICUTLTUIIE, 1944

are:v. al 11 leI r :1 as Ilillia .ll s lles f Ii1 'vl l (110t 1ous in ects collect ed S!i I 11 ii. t ls peron l i
II -**P lii olv \t 41t i 1 le 1l 11-1111.--iu11 of l1111111a 1 di1-e:I--v. Il addtiion, thIi AI0lcicl Iatll r, lh l of the (Oilc of tIle Srgeon General


I~ 'lled fold Ire a.*. !(11< :111 alitio1;lif d b logrfil@ iv (f t Ie l11iolilre Wa li i~ it I t ie IyelloUw -fe'ver mosquito, covering Irtoi e than 1.200 pubI liItl Ip apjr-, tLas Ibvn lel l)alrd or t lIe IU. 8. Ptuilic Htealth Se'i iCe.

FOREIGN PARASITE INTRODUCTION
PARASITE IMPORTATIONS FROM SOUTH AMERICA
As ai aid ill the control of inlportant insect pests of agricultural crops, a total of 1(; tnsignn nts of parasites and predators were forWV(lrdd to tle IUnited States from Argentina, UrjIluguiay, and Brazil, an1( 4 consignmell ts wee Selnt to Puerto Rico from Brazil.
Vegetable weevil parasites imported from Argentina and Uruguay consisted of S.,U3 puparia of Epiplagiops littoralis Blanch., 4,370 ocoons of IPoizon sp., and 195 cocoons of Triapis sp. For usa against various species of armywormis, 947 puparia of Pseudoarchytopsix sp. were forwarded from Uruguay and 271 Phorocera sp. and 248 Calona arCgentnense Csiki from Argentina. Importations of corn earworm parasites from Uruguay consisted of 169 puparia of Actiop/laia sp. and 23 cocoons of Ptaniscus sp. A total of 2.195 puparia of Parathervc-ia diatraeae (Brbthes), a parasite of the sugarcane borer, were sent to Puerto Rico.
COOPERATION WITH STATE, TERRITORIAL, AND FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS
Cooperative work with the Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment St nation included the foregoing shipments of sugarcane borer parasites from Brazil, and two consignments of 2.253 adults of Hambleto;a ps udococcina Con p. received from that station for release a-all.st thle l)ineapplle inealvl)1I in Florila. Tw\o consillgnments totalilg Gc)0 adults of Allotopaw utills Mues. for test upon the Comstock 11:i b llu alld 200 con()Olls of Cr/pls wetafulatus ray., a parasite of tl le cndili Inotlh, were received througl the courtesy of the Cana( :1 l I eIvi ill I t of Ag ricul t il'e.
In I' t1 erance of t lhe cooperative work within the ('alifornia Agricult IIAl IExl"lem'i ieit station, l1l E i/pah /tops /ltto'ls Blan ch.. 1,.370 IPork;I,, sp.. a1(. 1 1i2( i'ria'/y si frmlln Solu it Am nerica were forwarded f,ir r,01 i am( d rlca1(se ill that State. For tlie tbiolhgio(,al c(nltrol (of arItrVms -1 1 ldlts (f P'ls, ?dowhytopsi; >. 183 Ph ra sp. : i1 1 9 ( (/.,' 10 / i p t ( ilI : I frolll So 1 ('siki :l f m S t erica, were fo,rwa ':tlet N to lit IFlo ri la A-griciltual Lxpel' rimient Stat inl forI field t' I:1e '. l':1a itize- 1 s1 i l id i es \\X e ile ted inll ('1on1e't icut aInd
SePi'-&V,. a11(11 .1 ~ )l 'ria ( IP 1 /;u/ :, /,~ 'pt (F.) were o)1;itii' l li Ii fi rofrilfilM l t th 10lc 1 Ioi Agnecll urfl rlt'ill'It tal i1 for lea ili :1111 Cle:1 in that State:. A total of 2( aI(hlts of the woolly aq)le alpid 1,'anite Aphe linus ma/i Ilald.,






BUREAU OF ENTOM. GY()( AND PLANI, QI'A \HZN\TIN ';)

were reared and t forwardled to the Io)wa Agricultural Expel)rimeilt Station for field release.
The cooperative proje ct foi tile biological control ()f t le citriim blackfly on tle west c()ast (,f lexico was cOnlete)ltd (llling tIl el year. Twelve consgilnents o(f para laite nlaterial fro)1nl tle Palla11i:l (a 1 Zone fielded 8.767 adults )f Er, t ioc ru, ruix ,;/r.. a s)ecies klo)wlt to be very effective inll other sections of tropical America. alnd these were released in 60 infested plantings in the States of Sinaloa. NSIaarit, a.lnd Colima. The parasite is now well establli te(1d, and its effectiveness in control should be evident in the near future. Other slhilpments of parasites to Mexico included I consignment of Lixo;h,thau diaftaea (Towns.). p::site )f it' sulrca Ine borer and (,f A1p/le7;ii ux Iall
-Tald.
CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS
TOXICITY TESTS AID IN FURTHER IMPROVEMENT OF AEROSOLS AND SPRAYS
The great demand by the armed forces fr insecticidal aerosols and the critical shortage of pyretliru made it necessary to intensify the
-earch for substitutes for part or all of pyrethru111 used( in the aerosol dispensers. One new material has proved to be very promising, and a large number of formulas cont airing it have been tested. A thorough investigation is being ni de. however, before a final formula is recommended.
A number of conulnercial aer()ol (l dispensers have been tested. iMost of these are 1-pound containers equipped with valves for releasing whatever quantity of aeros()l is needed to kill the insects in the space being treated. They were effective in controlling flies and mosquitoes except when the aerosol solution was discharged at too rapid a rate. With the present aerosol formula a dischargerae rate of 0.5 to 1.0 gra.i per second is most sat isfactory.
In tests comparing the effect vene(s of pyrethruiin in : aerosol and in a deodorized kerosene spray, the aerosol was found to be superior.
-In delayed-action tests the aerosol was found to 1)e niuch better. sine it remains suspended in the air for a much longer time. Approx imately 885 tests werdeade oi 5 aeirosl formulas to test their effec tiveness in contr,'lling thle 1o~ sefly :Ilt1 11Ialaria an(l yell)w-fever mosquitoes.
Approximately 375 tests were made with a large number of spray formulas to control disease-u(*nrrying m squitoes. Materials were tested in deodorized kero()sne and in (rnl >sinf i fr111. lThie ()il-base sprays were more effective tflia the water-bae sprays per ulit of toxicant. altlough tig te t(xijcitv yof t le Awater-base sprays varied nmarkedlv with the formula sted'.
Pyrethrum still renmais the oiit-tandinog insecticide for the destruction of adult miost uit s. wl' F inaterinals tlat actt as synergits slightly increased the effect1l1)- O f )yret run i 11-1 tlhe vel I OU feverl iiOsqlIto. buit to a inimll 1e> extent tiTall in t 4 i (II ltimlllit .
Of 123 new materials tet ed s is synerists -for pyret lirn i fiiv sprays. 13 increased its toxicity.
Of 17 samples of i;tew illat(erials. -onne ill vari)n ('()rlcentrati()s. tested against the housefly. I plant material and 4 synthel i )'r;aic' comnpounds showed high toxicity. Two ()f the latter ar'e related to
016016-44--4






26 X \\T'Ill, HVEPl()I'iS I I1)EPARVTTENT (OF AHI(CUiLTURE, 1914

I)I )T. Il :tHldi Ii). 2 liAitel'l;l 1 1 h:1 11:1(1 been dlevlopeud elsewhere a11d VVi',, bnillife! for t'-t ili WN'V 1'4ll ( ) i IIr to s' 111 toxic to 1 lS Itl 1 ) ret fi iliintI.
TESTS OIF SU BSTITUTE MATERIALS CONTINUED

'Ii s' el 1i I' lil i i l ii Il isect1ic 4 liiatllitalsI for use () food
INfva!- clilintie(I. Il plrelimiiary tests li 130 samples of new Imfor a. 1I I llti l IWedl (lxitl to 2 or (ll ore species of leaffee( rilg in lect s. ()f plie )iii li tei als ist('1. preparations conl;alig ( X11 t '(id of V'aii teall :l11(I tabadilla -'(d exlibl ted c(nsidlerable t ,xiC it \ (, l(af- feed i g ll 1 Ifr' C.
in lesi.- if 1(m I i'4,(i ( 1111111 f ii'll 'i fo'r i'elaiitive killing power :ig 111 i .tl A11 i('1:1i c)f k'r(a,0i. ail ple lj)1'WnXilitltelv 30 microns in ;iVtr!t e pirt i le ifiZ(' killed 50 () erel it. Ia 1-Ili(al1 simple 65 percent. :tiil :; .-li1ir'ol)ll llle 75 )l'(fell. ( )11e l lnew material as bee teste Iht ,l r-. w exceedS ('l'( lfil fllluoridetl'icy intx these roaches.
III C( l1'1tive11 Awolk \itll tle Easter Regi)1al Research Labora 1 i' f le 111i 11real o(f ,Agrti lr'l l illd Iilidistli'l: Chemistry on bti(, iii iliZilia)ll of itlile ill i ;- 1 c i l(li e1('i l. 044 Inew sa;illl es WPI tll'eI () 11 plit feed lig insects. Most (of tliese minples (220) were Ire l' llir: t ils ('( 111111 ilic(ltille C(oIll)o(lll(ls p s a material intended to :10 is :ii SVI)el(st. voelln of i the iaterlils tadl(ed to the nicotine <11i>1 i (1'',0a s 1(i efl,(,ht1t i(t lVles (if t11e )repalrattioll against 2 species ( If l1111 ; )pSIts.
I ict ,lil ive1 (' t l ive ,-i le, s l of follr spel'cie,s 4)f rotenone-hearing 4t)(i frl' Puierto Ri co were tested for iisecticidal action. A strik111 i diff'elice til fle oxi(iity of extractives other than rotenone was
NEW FUMIGATION SCHEDULES DEVELOPED

W 11i e l1(, ) ii)1)11in el; lTlio(illt s :iildl ('4llditi ls lprevelit the flmia io 1t1mi ilof \li.f '"Pin Io 10 C1lfol'll) or 10 Aaillese beetle quarantine i-1 1:i1i0. 111l' j( r 1) iillg for Sllpeiill. New dosage schedules for ii lil v i Il e We l'e li relvf4rve d eve l)ed ill )lil it irlllc t lint ii)(Oer firn11 -il 1'i (IM litills (if pel(,lm lig :Ill 1icll1. Cll r which I rocedllre prtie iii blle 1i e)(l Wii )uit delay.
i ll 0he P 'r il ar'll ill 14ac'111111 f1111"at i 1 otf ililrer'v stock for cliiii 81:1 1()f t Wite -fl1fringed le tl, larvae hasli lovi that the previously :1i )i' ed 4(1 )lS lvt 1'4h1o iles an b0 siibst taili lit ral reduced. Wvith cO1se1 tii iitteri:11l redlimltit l ill tlt) ( illi r f I lljlil' ( o certain types (Of : it -. A dl it i lnal t r :nent schedules ha ve ieen developed, and I e,. i NNw (o)v(r I t(e tilil)efl'llil' : i':i1ti of -0 to (- F .

SMOKE AEROSOLS SHOW PROMISE A(;AINST AGRICULTURAL PESTS

Ihel )i', ll ll 11 lt '''1 14 li ai'() l> 1I 11 vii s of hel:i t l'itll l Il 1;11 I ld l : i l iIll, studlified i() de '11il11 e theii' 11sOfllles1s : ;ii Ii- aitrl'it i' ll I'I p Ir liill'irV i(ld iess agaisliSt gypt iii,'ti Ii'\:0' -1 1,W ,( 04 !1)1 iirtaliit 1 V s (e l':1l 1lii dred feet from l the "(11 1erI.; 01'.
INSEC(TI('ID)E INVESTIGATIONS


',nilrcrl(led largely \ithi t le velopllent a-ilnd iliprovellent of insecti-






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PL\NT QUAlRANTINE 27

cides to meet war needs. Many synthetic organic co()llolild. lhave' been prepared for testing as illsect repellellts. lousicides. 111(1 lquito larvicides. Investigational work was reported ilS I) lbli ieel articles, and 30 United States patets coveri 1 new in ti'ities : n ll methods of application were granted.
DDT INTENSIVELY INVESTICAT'')

As indicated elsewhere ill this report, l)1)T has rov'" :ini;aziglY effective against a number of agricultuiral inllsects ~tld i Ibleilig IIseId bv the armed forces in ever-illcreasing aitoi(,uts for' the cmt-o'(l of body lice and as a partial replacement for 1)yrethrulilll il ae11ro1sls. The Division of Insecticide Investigations has beel iiiti matel v associated with the development of DDT for these purposes and hIataken an active part in furthering its manufacture in th is country. Specifications have been developed for a satisfactory grade of I))T. and manufacturers were assisted in imeetingo these staudlard. All extensive research program on DDT for tile armed force. is bei i1 carried on under a transfer of fuielIs fro'(i tl Office ( Scieliit ific Research and Development. Suitable preparati 0Mls of I)1)T als, arel being developed for use against agricultinral pests.
AEROSOL DEVELOPMENT CONTINUED

Witli the il(reasillg dlemland )by the Ariy alld Navy for ae(rosol bombs for the control of malaria mosquitoes alld houseflies, it has been necessary to develop substitutes for the liiiited supplies of py rethrum and Freon -12 (dichlbra'(ifluoroiet()h ane). A formula coitalning a considerably decreased amount of p1yrethlriIs and aniot her insecticie was worked out. A mixture of )In-,a ne :al1 biltate wshowni to be satisfactory and safe as a )ati:sl uA,st itute for Fr ii-2 The aerosol method has also been found effective for alllving ()thler insecticides in greenhouse and field against certainly ae'ricrltu l' :1 pOsts. as well as for applying hormones to Ilailts.
SUBSTITUTES AND EXTENDERS FOR WAR-SCARCE INSECTI(IDES SO)( (;11T

linasimiuch as imports of roteione-bearing roti a l pv'ret hu int hia ve beenl greatly curtailed alld other ilsecti'i(le rpll)lies Iest licr;I. tle, (Cevelopllelit of substitutles or iieans of extendiio tHlie suppll)I has be collie of great i1portall i llP ef e.sAn e lo Iti iOlail eulb Cj ll till ti lave been fOlli effective as sy ergists t( Im j)rethIrlull. It was s vhowit that anethole cain be subst ittiled folr geraniajol a n I al pimento- lea oil fomr eugeno(l in Japanese beetle bait without a(el\rse effect. Exi a, 4 a llie plant Erileron offin D(. l-oved ver* toXic toihoeflies nal to 11OlI otIer insects. A mixture of sa ybeanm phophat 111id unl a wI min eral oil was found to bte a satisfactory Ntsubstittle for 't.vhen ,il ias : sfreade anild adhesive for0 le( arseliate and iIotlite helitomllite :.
PURE PYRETHRINS PREPARED

A method was devised for the preparation of practically Ipure pyrethiiis from commercial pyret hiuin ext acts witlh ver v lit le loss of pyrethrins. This pure material is completely soluble ill FIreon-12 and










ANALYTICAL AND SERVICE WORK
Approximately 900 samples of miscellaneous insecticides were anaForeign Economic Administration. Analytical methods were developed for DDT, for certain dinitro compounds, and for the determination of free lime in calcium arsate and of sesamin in seame oil.
MEXICAN FRUITFLY CONTROL

The area quarantined on account of the Mexican fruitfly now covers all the citrus-producing portion of Texas, but the infestation has not extended beyond the section adjacent to the Republic of Mexico. The citrus industry in Texas has had a phenomenal growth, and the inspection, sterilization,. and certification of the approximately 50,000 cars of citrus fruit produced annually has become a problem of increasing importance. Although the possibility of permanently eradicating the Mexican fruitfly appears to be remote, the danger of its spread through the shipment of infested fruit has been drastically reduced by the requirement that all fruit from infested zones be sterilized before shipment. The amount of frui t reated during the season of 1943-44 increased almost 200 percent over the previous year. A total of 4,263 equivalent carlots of fruit were sterilized without injury to the fruit and at very little additional cost to the packer. B@*wnse of the general adoption of the fruit-sterilization process, which was developed by the Department in 1929, a lengthened harvesting season was made possible. The harvesting season, fo grapefruit produced in the regulated area was extended from April 80 to June 15, and that for Texas oranges was extended to include tle entire year. The ifestation in the regulated area developed somewhat later than in some previous seasons.
Tables 1 and 2 give data on the number of infestations and the amount of fruit sterilized in Texas since control of this insect was undertaken.
TABLE 1.-19f8feZatio8 of Meaican fritifly in Tcf##, &Cal yfGt& 194-194

IFiscal year trapped ifesta- season closed:

1nmher Ni umber
1935 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -371 30 A p ril 2.
1936- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 256 5 M arch 31.
a1937 --4,714 1,062 Do.












1938 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --712 218 A pril 1.0.
1 e39 ------ -- -- -- i------- ------- ------- ------- --, fM ay 15 (G).










13--1ea4 (June 15 (0) 1940 6,-- - - - -- - - - -- - - - - i 157 2 582 A pril 30.
1941 - - - - - - - - - -- - --979 552 M ay 31.
1942 - - - - - - - - -- - --- - - - --244 259 D o .
1943 224 291 Do. 1944 --- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- -- - -- -- - -- --- 1, 796 576. o c o i g -0
e2 Includes 4 ifestations in 1939.
+"~I" +++++ . 2; + ++++
undES~ert~nltO ~ ; :++ +++++++++++:++
~~ir~ii a + 2 + + + + + + ;;;
+ .esaan o Y ; + + m+ +++:+ +++++...... ++++ .... ++++++... ++++
++ltl~- + + ++++i++? + :+ I + + + ++







i~ ~~l ~~til ~ ~a i~ ~xt~~t~l~





BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 29

TABn 2.-Tols of citrus fruit steritizd in Texas, fl sal years 1939-1944
High-temperature Low-temperature
method method
Fiscal year
Grapefruit Oranges Grapefruit Oranges
1989. -- ----. --- ---------------.. .. 44,150 2.25 0 2. 1
1940 ..-------------------------------------------------...................... 8,927 .75 298. 6 168.8
194L .......................------------------------------------------------- 9, 937 0 53. 6 0
1942................................................. ------------------------------------------ 3,619 0 0 0
943-..---...-----..........-----...---------------------------------- 23,394 0 0 0
1944-...........-----...------....---...-------------------------------...............................---......... 62,372 26 0 0

JAPANESE BEETLE QUARANTINE AND CONTROL
TRAP SCOUTING IN NONREGULATED TERRITORY
Trapping to determine the spread of the Japanese beetle in 1943 largely paralleled that of the previous year. With the necessity for conservation of traps and labor, most of the activities were confined to localities in which combined trapping and soil-treating work had been carried on in previous years, or in which incipient or apparently negligible infestations had been discovered. This left a few traps for setting in localities not previously trapped. From the 55,354 inexpensive scout traps used in 1942 it was possible to salvage 41,993 for the current year's activities. As in 1942, trapping was performed in 17 States, but the number of localities was reduced from 242 to 161. Beetles were captured in 107 communities, in 12 of them for the first time.
An important development of the year was the discovery of a heavy infestation at Blowing Rock, N. C., in the mountains in the northwestern section of the State. Over 17,000 beetles were trapped at this point, which is remote from any other known infestation. At Hendersonville, N. C., where 1,718 beetles were trapped in 1942, only 785 beetles were collected this season. Beetles were collected in 17 other North Carolina localities where they had been trapped in previous years.
Cooperative Federal-State trapping ing Maryland showed relatively heavy infestations in Hancock, Hughesville, and Siebert, in addition to four other negligible infestations in the nonregulated area.
In New York State trap captures in Canandaigua, Dunkirk, Lyons. Medina, Newark, North Tonawanda, and Plattsburg were of a few beetles each. Infestations persisted in Avon, Jamestown, Silver Creek, and Waterloo. In Newark and Niagara Falls, where treatments had been applied in previous years, the captures were reduced to I anim 71 beetles, respectively, compared with 65 and 216 beetles in 1942. Beetles collected at Geneva and Ogdensburg indicate increased infestalion there. Trapping in Westfield disclosed 27 beetles.
In Obhio negligible first-record collections were made at Fostoria., bowlers Mill, Lima, and Willard. In Bellevue, East Conneaut, GalI ipolis, Rockbridge, and South Zanesville fewer beetles were turned up than in 1942. Increases were noted in Ashtabula and Marietta. The remaining infestations persisted at about the 1942 level. SIn Pennsylvania trapping was limited to a group of traps in Greenville, where 14 beetles were caught.






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a\ b l. :Ii I \\'illininl a1i' .

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w t I 1- r1f I I:i w I. I,',.IiH ** li II I I i c. l li t :il m I't I I H :tIc]i -\A I I en I I i l I. pi ) l I i ll \\t'l iI llI t I II f 1.11 1x11 1 .






BUREAU OF ENT(aOIu(1,1GY AND PL1,A NT j \ 1.\1NTINE 3 1

bility in the hanIrl ling o seI)il ti( 1 locr:t l j oblemis through the issuance of administrative inst rictions b)y Ile ('iief ot ,Ie Biureal. Only small additions were iia ule to the regulated area, andl tlie heavily infested area remains the same except for the inclusion of t lhe town ship of West Leesport, Berks County, Pa.
HIGHWAY INSPECTION SERVICE
The road-patrol n ork for 1943 co(it iniled oil t he sa" e bhais as int the previous year, the inspection being confined t0, exam i(tion f motor trucks. By July 6 eight roa(l stat ion s were set up). ()ne o these operated until July 24. and the renin i(ler until t lie fii st week in September. Thirty inspectors were Iassiglcd to this wtor l. 1)II'riig the season 94,748 trucks were inspected. Of thele. 703 vem re found I o be transporting uncertified produce. but 504 lots of lpr,' oice were clrtii fled at inspection centers lo,)c:tetd ne'ar the Ii hw st 1atio is. In spects or at the road stations examined and( certified 143 s hipi)i)ts ii i~~ld permits for the movement of t 5 1 lc kloatis () ito solate( regiulated Iareas. Only one violation of the regulations was recorded duringg the season. Inspectors intercepted 596 southbound empty trucks, from which CI 3.82: live Japanese beetles were remove(. An additional 46 beetles were taken from the sniall lots of farmn products exanied at the stations.
CERTIFICATION AND TREATMENT OF NURSERY STOCK
Nurseries entitled to a noninfested stat is under modified ireg lat ions numbered 669 at the end of the fiscal year. The classification system previously used was discontinued owing to the revision of t he regrilations. Authorization of new methods of chemical treat ents that may be utilized for plants with soil about the roots has removed tlhe necessity for screening greenhouses or treating potting soil or fiel(l plots.
New adiinistrat iee instricto to i)spectors o 011 iv eill1its 115(I as a basis of cert i fication under the Japan(,Ie i eetle qua11antine. isue(I on September 10. 1943. provide the frees.t possible use of t!i va irin treatments an( ti lization of new facts as they are developed.
Use of the ethyl ene dichloride dip increased in popularity ftr, month to month. A total of 708,515 plants were treated in this man ner during the year. Many small nurseries adopted this treatneint Is a means of qualifying their plants for certification. TIhse est ahlisiments had previously refused orders going outside the reg(ilated arena because of the labor and expense entailed in existing methods of certification. The dip treatment is cheap and easy, and its use permits acceptance of all outside orders. no natter how small. The temperature requirement for the dip has been brought down to 35 F. By this method a carload of 152 Tax-ns plants with 21- to 24-inchl soill halls was dip-treated by 5 men in less thian 4 hoirs. The soil halls absob 370 gallons o(f the emulsion. By placing Ilis tank of eiulsimon i a hox car another nursery man was able to dip 11 is st )ck a it was in ot a (l.
For the information of Il~lrserynuell an11( greroll1( 'elitell nll 1- oft plants treated commercially wit ethyll ne dich(lori(le (Iin October, November, and Decemnber was distr'ib ute(1 o() Dece lumber 30. 1943.
In cooperation with the Division of Fruit Iiect Inmivesti at ions. tests were made of the ethylene lichllorlde dip l're'lt ment of nursery stock with soil balls nlul to 30 inches iI dialicteter.






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()1ONY PE ( 'II .NI) PEACH( MO()SAIC DISEASE CONTROL (CONTINUED IN 16 STATES


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BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

Lake Countv, Utah, from the regulated area. Moaic was futll in Alfalfa and'Woods Counties in Oklal(hoiia. In tlte Ipinig of 1.11 tle annual inspection was made in iilfeced areas of all 'nurmer1ie ald tilieir 1-mile environs. The numlb)er of nurseries iiliilble for celrt ii a 'a i has decreased annually, and there has leeln no recri of > ald o-lf these diseases through nursery-stock shipments in the lat 6 ear '.
The apparent eradication, since 1936, of thile lphoy disease f:iii 6 entire States and a 98-percent reduction i ll ot(IerF made it IpOi1ble in 1943 to direct greater attention to the heavily infected S:ate of Alabama and Georgia, where 48.790 phony trees is )ercint let- than in 1936) were found and and destroyed.
With the cooperation of Mexican pest-control ,fficials, inspection was made in the Juarez Valley, Chihuahua. and 947 mosaic trees were found on 170 of the 192 properties inspected.
SURVEY FOR ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN NINE WESTERN STATES

The survey in the spring and summer of 1943 for the oriental fruit moth resulted in the discovery of infestations in parts of 62 counties extending from northeastern Texas through parts of Oklahonma eastern and east-central Kansas, southeastern Nebraska, and southern Iowa. Following the twig inspections, trapping operations for adult moths resulted in locating an infestation in an additional county in west-central Kansas in September. In the spring of 1944 a more intensive inspection and trapping program was instituted, and was under way, at the close of the year, in the more important fruit areas of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico. Oregon, Utah, Washington, and the El Paso Valley of Texas. The moth has not previously been found in these areas. The States have rendered assistance in both years.
NO TRACE OF CITRUS CANKER FOUND

Federal-State inspection for citrus canker was conducted from October 1943 to March 1944 in 35 Texas counties, including vicinities of 44 nurseries, without finding the disease. Formerly infected areas in Brazoria, Galveston, and Harris Counties and the town of Hamshire in Jefferson County were intensively inspected for any vestigeic of this highly infectious bacterial disease. Particular attention was civen to old hedges of trifoliate-orange at Navasota, where citrus caflnker Nwas last found in this country in 1943. As no Federal funds were made available for the work in 1945, Bureau participation in this activity was discontinued June 30, 1944.
GYPSY AND BROWN-TAIL MOTHS CONTROL

Gypsy moths are known to be present only in- a relatively sn iall part of the Northeastern States. Thef object of control is to ntwt (1ur forests by eradicating tliis destructive inllect from) thle islatcl area of infestation in northeatern dPennsylvania and iby pIeve ltiig its spread from the infested area in east ern New York and in New England. The program is sufficiently flexible to all w loun lIl)t ,11odlification whenever developments of research or control procedure in-






34 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

(dite neeI l for ela,11g11, or to provide for expj)>ansion at the termination of tle war.
NEW AND VERY EFFECTIVE METHOD OF CONTROL INDICATED
I)lril i le e:,r 1)I1)T was tet 11 1111m an experililmental c(tr)l basis ai n1t il -1 Vlps Illot 1is. A 20-acrle W(o.t illl fId tlr nt" il I ill vai1a an11l a 5-:le f w 1o ill W N w irk, il wl i'ch r Iatler h t:yl in fe nation ex1i e1. were 1reaea x 1! I) I)T iln CaI n ira let rav flm at tie rIate iof .3 pui ll5 lri. awre. Thle sJray Wa a:I 1)lipel by a 5 ecialy cln tructed >-Pil Ivi' k npl)pil'alli 8tcli d( toa -i pllie. Appliati 11 vls 111:1h ill It 1( I ilivlvalliila tra t e:11V inl ~ :v e P re leave- i1 evebq)ed and111 prir to liaIte1 o(f 2Iy-y i 1 us1. I1 N(,w YIrk treatiet was aIplied aft' l0ax1 1ad fillv ale vel Ied ai I WiI iVy Il I Were iii tle 7-,a 0 i 1 i0rval S Ta '.. ilrll a relt ael fV jew hlrs a fter tle treatlmelIlt to lie, nloe of the fi-cal year no living gPv 1 moths were found in

() ltr' -iia ll-sale demt l rati1 Wi1 DI )T as aIn emulsion, in {10 01 1~1, a1i ijl a dillte sprayy mixture Were COIdltletd. All 1 it I ~ i)1, ved to t e l)et aulal'lV v el let i e a1ain1st gy}Sy mths in a 1 ofa ~ In larval devel( h mentt. As a final cheek all treated areas ri ill 1w1 (-re)llY (1bse1ved t hr(u1h the eg-tlayin 1 seaon.
It i! hieVel th at. when available fo(r the Pl)rpose. apliltion of DI)TI v a i r'ca ft W111 a fot)rd a ch 111111 a ii lucl mre e11 effect i ye method o)f ni lt i'ol a, r:ladication of g I.x nmoths than any meth(,d previously

'i'lie (PXI)Pleillnnts with DDT in spray form(11 were carried o1ut coo'ert i vely wit ll f )i Divi-ion of I or1 t Insect Invest iit 1ns. ant those \ it U tle material ill er-os1l forll with the Division of Control III vesti g tions.
PROGRESS IN PENNSYLVANIA

The 1 ffet iell. .-S Of )vpsv moth control is ev(idenced b) te10 fact t 11 it a h lo-e o)f the vea r the size (f the iiifested area in Pennsylvania h- 1 Yn IOfle a h' 0l to 1ure mil is. lii s is illn cmla prison Wit h an 11ra of 1.(1) -qutlare mile- ill 193'. As a1 r nlt tIl e 11 aralli l11e1 Was revised to rellove from rerulaion ore than 400 square m iles were in fest ation had previously existed.
SPECIAL EMPHASIS PLACED ON SURVEYS

I) i I I te er Zm sI !'vx Wer'e k lIm-I e( o more than111:111 4 111 million aereV wi't h ill an1 )evoia. 1 li it1- o(f spread of Ihe .v psy Illo 1h, by ili" a X tI I ': t 0 11 n'lile aI li i( : l i fest I t i s were' f 1ound I y I I t 1, re:i t' l reie t fl' I1al t ion I Il 11en '-vv 11vania. Ih -vpsv iii v:111 Nl'te l i)I Il- n tel' StI 11t ill VeVel': ll tox 1 i- ps rt11IFt ai I I tea It ,f l 1b1 l 1d S 11w'eet ady ( mnties, wl ere in f1sttionl
],badIdi lCive(iP liv e 11 ype of l'e 11 the pr tIl' reVI lS xve r. T h' is :1110e -1111"'e:( 1- the exte t 1 t :(') <':1 l i, ll r rt':l l I nt, i lit.l

ii 1 il'-t 1i1d ', allt Il e tau ell x iIr tiii lt e ': li1a ion of 11 Il In 1111 tin ei o (iftait of ti we.lt W1 d XI lb-luIll of ill fest ltionQ.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 35
NEW DEVICE FOR DISTRIBUTING CONCENTRATED SPRAYS FROM AIRPLANES
In previous seasons insecticides to control gypsy motels from aircraft have been applied only in dust form. Satisfactory adhierlence of the dust to foliage could not be secured. This season lead arsenate and cryolite in concent rated spray form were (dist ributted from a specially devised spinner-disk apparatus afttaclled to a biplane. The mortality of gypsy moths approximated 100) percent in all areas treated with lead arsenate, and reasonably satisfactory control was o)t'ained in the areas treated with cryolite. The aerial method of application of insecticides for gypsy moth cont rol is now considered to lave passed the experimental stage; its effectiveness and economy of operation have been demonstrated.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
As a result of the cooperation of State agencies, Bureau research units, and the public, surveys were conducted on a larger acreage th an was covered in any )previoUs -ea r the atlleivene s. and conPejueitly the effectiveness, of the insecticides wiis increased; and other project activities were pw forced with a considernhly reduced penCoinel.
Cooperative control on an experimental basis was conuiicted with the Dominion of Canada aainst tihe spruce budworm :anl wit ih New York State against a destructive species of sawfly. to determine the effectiveness of distributing new insecticide formula with the spinner-disk type of apparatus attached to aircraft. Preliminary observations indicate that very effective control was obtained.
INCREASE IN INTENSITY OF INFESTATION
A decided increase in intensity of gypsy moth infestation has been noted in a small area in Pennsylvania and in the north-central port ion of Massachusetts. From observations made at the close of the year, it is estimated that more than 200.000 acres of forest land ,were severely damaged by heavy to complete defoliation, compared with 35.000 acres during the previous year. During the last 3 years gypsy moth populations, except in the Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, have been at the lowest ebb since 1924.
BROWN-TAIL MOTH CONTROLLED BY STATES
Brown-tail moths are present only in the four northern New England States, and all work on control during the year was conducted by the affected States. Very little defoliation or heavy feeding was noted, except in a few areas along the coast near the Maine-New Hampshire State line.
CERTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS UNDER THE GYPSY AND BROWNTAIL MONTHS QUARANTINE
Gypsy moth infestation resulted in little defoliation in the sum ner of 1943, according to reports of district inspectors stationed tlirou hout New England. This was not tlhe sit nation ili June 194 1, however. Enormous daunge to woodlands by gy!)sv It h~ larvae was rep 'ted in sections of Massaclllhusetts, Maine, anlid New IHaIl ire. prti'larly in the Cape Cod and Northampton-Belckhrtown areas of Massachn-






) A N N UAL RPIt()ITS OF DEPAITM ENT 01- AGI'CUtLTURE 1 4 1

t +it t. ( t rr l i ll I I,,' clel ili a liver G ilclics de e Ie (( ) Wr obser0ve4I in

C i L 1 111te' f -,a lo i ,,111 iii 111,~- of tl ,e yea r. there was
a lrl't d.i'lt i( il the i, juer (o f o if t ti > reI'illiovedl frm' insl '( I pr(l ,i t. II tie in4ecti on o f 0 ..)0, ship )ients. 319 egg clus. v) ald I 1 110 I I tl),ae o (f te gVp)v niota l w re 'ilIoved.
Iu1rl'it lu ills :a1( sl1 )- l it il OllS III tI e lim eriig id11 I Ftry reI R I I( I i']e 1 l ) 11:Il vii l :a ( I l l e I art of ill ,)lW ( S lpeI' vLl l lI i I/I ii l of W)(d l )( I(lIcts. MaIyv itelIs that ui (d r ( 'Ilo ial col( ifii lIs (' I l) I e re IoIi I Idei izedr t W(ast e, e \ l'v 1 1tilzedt ill the effort to Ille t I lie (,x lau< l 'l lrv de(all'r Ilb uber an( 11111o)h"le d ,(l I rOduC tS Ifr war ll(. I1 so nie ca s l, 111)er 1,1a5 tle i-l) c te(l on thle (lay t hat tli t Ir'es froi ll which it was cut were fled. Some of tlis unS 1 llt(' 1d lllat'rial iS llil)el ') 1 'oll(id ed( re so that inspection of each ,1)arli is ic1ui1ted(. Mally egg-r cllsters vre )eei (lliscoveretl during insl)ect ion of this greeii material. The last of the pond storage sites for 19,):8 huirica me 1nmb)er was empl)tie(l during the year, and the logs weIre pIrocessed. White pine of small diameter and poor quality was also felled and shipped under inspection for use in blocking and crating such war materials ajee)ps, coastal targets, light and heavy trucks guns of all sizes, and tanks.
The use of edgings, formerly a waste product of lumber mills, as crating material ad(led another item to the inspection list. Used railroad ties by the thousands were ripped up from ,abaiidoned rail lines in infested sections and shipped to distant points. Inspection of one lot of 2,708 ties destined to nonregulated territory resulted in the removal of 84 egg clusters.
An Army officer moving from Falmouth, Ma'ss.. to Chevy Chase, Md., presented a child's collapsible play pen for inspection. Fifty-six gyplsy moth eggr clusters were removed from the pen before it was cert ified.
Movement of pulpwood to paper mills in northeastern New York was facilitated by scouting of lots from which most of the wood is cut. Cert tficat ion is granted for all wood from uninfected lots. A limited permiit agreement was signed by one of the largest paper mills in New York, uIriler whichli permits are issued for thle rail movement of uninspted e1 wood to that mill for inunediate grinding into pulp.
A survey of all juik yards, a total of 101, within the infested area was DIllde frii F lebruaryv to April. GVYpSy mlo
( )I l' 11, :r tie(1, premises of 13 of ti1e. In 4 var ls',ty clgg usters were f,,1u1 (1 1 the stored ji lk. Arr:angemlvits were made for tile inspection of any of thiis iliaterial that was iiltended for shiplileIt outside the ill fe11 e zolle.
(),t tNt)() mu',i (lls i1sl)ectnrs were St:-dioned o)n certain lhi ghwav
i l'lS \ ,,'e l ), l ) lS'., i, )'(ell W~l', ile('t01 ,'S f011 ', 0 :e11 a lWo Ying
patrol on, ti,(, I)'i "ip:l exit lihways. They iiltecel)ted 2:t rucklo: ds ,I tilln ert ml'eI ilr- I ( Nl i' 1 9 1) ls 1i' iI Iil:itt I i(tehsf m c l ti r l l' to fret n 111 to the rmluliatell area for di:po aIl Ior inspection of fthe l o I :ul.
()ne' 'vli,lm11'll O(f t iree was tl' triedd :lt tle point of ilterceP iloll. Io, 10 ( I:, ( Il,illg Ju e oe Iof I Ie regular iIslect N Vs waIl as< i .I10ned t ) a I at ,il I N W(r'k ill West VIl VIe ioit. Tl il'e u Ii f!eriltieI tiruck1(:1(.1, o11m e:,4i o(f 11111ber., plilpw)od, and granite, were ilite,'cel)ted,






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 37

and not permitted to proceed until they had complied with certification requirements.
Inability to hire temporary inspectors greatly curtailed the force engaged in Christmas-tree inspection. Whereas normally 30 inst)ectors are used, this year only 3 temporary men were employed. This situation was alleviated by the shift from piece-by-piece, visual inspection to fumigation of the trees after loading in box cars. Three times as many Christmas trees were moved under certification from the regulated area during November and December as were shippe( the preceding season. In all, 419,133 Christmas trees were certifiedl. Of these, 262,818 trees were shipped in 136 box cars after funmiiat ion with methyl bromide. Last season only 34 carloads were fumigated. Further to facilitate Chiistmas-tree fumigation, tests were made in February of methyl bromide applied at low temperatures.
Among the products shipped in large quantities that were inspected and certified during the year were the following: Lumber -----------------board feet__ 190, 38, 725
Logs, piles, poles, ship knees, and ties ------------------pieces__ 318, 479
Shavings -------------------------------------------bales 98, 237
Pulpwood ------------------------------------------cords 51, 428
Cable reels__ -------------------------------------number 46, 087
Miscellaneous forest products -------------------------pieces 118, 454
Shrubs_--------------_ ----- --------------------number__ 2, 778 203
Young trees ----------------------------------------do 20, 084
-Specimen evergreens ---------------------------------do 43, 01
Young evergreens ------ -----------------------------do-- 2, 224, 42Seedlings and small plants -----------------------------do 502, 092
Boughs, balsam twigs, and mixed greens --------boxes or bales__ 26, 680 Christmas trees -----------------------------------number 419, 133
Granite------------------------------------------pieces 2, 718
Paving blocks ------------------------------------- number 25, 500
DUTCH ELM DISEASE ERADICATION

In February all federally-financed tree removal in connection with the Dutch elm disease control program was discontinued to conform with a proviso in the current Agricultural Appropriation Act leaving to States and property owners the responsibility for removing trees in which the causal agent of the disease has Ubeen found. In this revised program the emphasis has been shifted fronm eradication of known sources of the disease to the maintenance of a co lst ant watch on its spread so that quarantine measures may be enforced. Largre-scale field experiments were undertaken to (leterlinine wlat action, if any, nmy be taken by individuals, lnin(icipalit ie>, or other political units to protect valuable ells from t lis dlise se when it occurs generally in the area.
SCOUTING FOR DISEASED OR BEETLE-INFESTED ELMS
Scouting duringg ilhe s1lmmer of 1913 i idelldl1l( a btandl of trTril(,l('V approxilmat(ely !5 wIdles W e lon(g the perils elc' of thfell a u,' maijo'r'( area, thei outlying disease s t'of ddiapoli I11 (' iai 1(d. Mld., and Athens. Ohio. as well as exploratory ,co tin, in I;e AIi3i'sippi and Ohio River valleys. and near Boston,. MO .. :ind Bli il(re. Md(. A 111mall noliunt of T-ork was al-o d()i e at N(orfolk a ( IPorfTsmouth, Va., and JBrinswi'ck. MNd.. wliere the li sese wec re in Pre-






38 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

ViOlil- yea rs. S11iluii er S11 ut1 Will as ternlli1ated e:rly inll Oct)ober. allnd the 1111101 4-401ltlI2 PI ITf1111. Wl(-l1 wv:s1 to cuntill e tirllou h the Feli :illi l' ,f l t i'-0:l yeal. was )e111 i I )ce ,i iler.
ll jpl't'll ill It. -. ()litin -o. 11 foo il i liillulln Pslf rlli~l. tile !11ii, iI f1 1,~ 1. exleqll-ive tra lilly of elm ,ark b .etle. wn- au lera 1:1 v }ipli 11 '1 I l s 1 or ( f tler a t i a iv e Ill il it ei:l at s electedd i1lit ii tlie \ irl al'rca f1 i l t' 1) ill'f() e of >ll ) i- ig beetle ICi liens 1fr laiu, ,ra1:11 v cl lilill )i1 It t11-1l fird of the tr1ap lOs- ,ecaIe inllfe-t I wit It ark eI l le. A few of tie sanilel s If \ o l aI l I ark ,it frlt l tlhe i lfctedl material lislosed the >reesen*e of thle disease

I irp -'rel'rt in fetioloTs were re ported frll) 12i) I owns t v1ll)ii s a: 1 0l 11211s-I- i Ili t( 1ri111( i t,. 3 in New Jelre' 2 ill New Y rk,
i i Ma Y lanI d 3 Iln Mtass-aclhuse ts, 31 in Pennsylval ia. ad 28 in Ohio.
Spl'ead of the disease, as evidenced by 1)othl su1nr andl winter cE111ti1. Was rather eXtensrve in ll e York. with lltr( 1 moderate 11 r ertit- of territory In Penlinsvlvania : Il oii ,nnct lniit. Oillv a few s'altel'l (lew illfect ios were l 'epor ted from New Jer-cv and Mas.-a(li11- tt estW:Ir l l')rO 'ess of to ie dli eae i l t11 le 1lain infest ( area aplplears to have been greatlv retarded this year. At Ildianapl is 1 o add1(itional terr1OitOPy Wis foun(l iinvadled. There was a somewhlat u ifo m and large expansion of territory in the vicinity of At ens. Ohio.
First-recor Extenlsi:os of the disease in Pennsylvania were larelyv southwestwartl' in Delaware and Chester Counties plus infections (discovered in l f,e'veiii towls11 in fMoIltgolCr1V YCo)inty that hald revirml4v been
-llrriullded by disease areas. This filling in of sections already surrolldled b v disease areas also cnued increases in infect ion in the Wil kes-Barre isolated zone.
Ia:-twa:rl extensioils of thle disease in Connectic t were confined Iarcl' to coll filrat ions of one oir a few rees each in towns 11near knilw l di-1-eae 1eritor s-everal instances of infeti1on beiC found in i t er-\velmnlljI errit orv.
TI le b11l- filt c1('o,(l di covered inll e ,Ierse cOnl-lect wlat ii l r 1 evio l v ,"e1 ', a isolalted iInfectionll with ti e 1c, in disease ar.a' ill Ilu-' ieft on ( 1 C ulty.
'Ili, i'- --1 't r I coll fi r tii in ill ,- : I(' cl -1tt'1 were i11 l'erkir, (C( ti v l1i 1 t, l 'o til of Im) 111 at:1-lli1 tll,. 111a lid vl sv ur' lllled LY town il which lthe di-e:s, ladt been fo : inll West Stochrlie, ta tJact It the klnowil disease area:: and in Pitt-field,. ,ne town S i,1 ,' f'ln li te ne:re- t w isea ease. All (of tile 13 d1i e:1 1ri- 1 ,l 4 il l 1 l t( S le lrinly tile ear were erailicated vital ~ St te

TIn lMarvlllald Pearly v winter scoutill in the vicinllity of the former11 P ,r,1 swmi,k (lireaseo ar'a





BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 39

tional confirmations were reported, and late in May and early in June 4 more were discovered, giviiig a total of 22 in this general area. These trees, plus some associated beetle material, were eradicated by the State. The total area involved is a strip 30 miles wide running northeast through central Frederick County. Thlis is tlIe fir-vs reappearance of the disease in Maryind since 1941. and in Frederick County since 1935, when 3 diseased trees were found in Brunswick.
The exploratory scouting indicated that the Scoly/ m i trials (Marsh.) infestation near Boston is continuous tha'o h Massahusetts to the main disease area in New York, where these bark ie a-k les are the principal carriers of the fungus causing the disease. A scout crew traced an infestation of this species down both sides of the Mississippi River as far as northern Mississippi and west of the river in Arkansas. S. multistriattis was also found well established in the Indianapolis area.
In the effort to develop means whereby individuals or municipalities may protect their own trees from the Dutch eln disease, experimental plots have been established at Morristown, Princeton. and Ridgewood, N. J. At Morristown a circular area having a radius of 3 miles is being intensively scouted as in former years. In the inner 2 miles trees showing symptoms of the disease are removed as promptly as possible, the outer mile serving as a buffer zone. In this inner area confirmations from 1939 to 1912 numbered 72, 13, 7, and 22, and increased to 140 in 1943.
As a check on disease incidence within the heavily infected territory where organized control work has been abandoned, scouting was continued in plots each 5 miles in radius at Princeton and Ridgewood, N. J. Here also pronounced increases in the number of diseased trees were found this year. The Ridgewood plot in 1913 yielded 292 confirmations, as contrasted with 115, 85, and 71 in the 3 preceding years. Confirmations at Princeton increased from 75, 93, and 16 to 208 confirmations in 1943.
Scouts submitted 14,213 samples to the laboratory for culturing; 1,736 of these were infected. Connecticut had 122 confirmations. Massachusetts 13, New Jersey 845. New York 386. Pennsylvania 250, and in the isolated infected areas Maryland 22, Ohio 92, and Indiana 4. Of the New Jersey confirmations, 809 occurred in experimental check plots inside the disease area. Since area-wide, systematic eradication work was discontinued in 1911, total confirmations for this year or either of the previous 2 years are not indicative of intensification or diminution of the disease in the main area.
Cumulative totals since discovery of the disease in 1930 show 6 .374 known cases of the disease. Of these 2.026 have been found in Connecticut, 20 in Massachusetts, 50.847 in New Jersev, 12.813 in New York, 1,265 in Pennsylvania, and 373 in the isolated areas.
ERADICATION AND SANITATION ACTIVITIES
Prior to abandonment of tree-removal work in Februarv, crews had destroyed 510 confirmed trees and 1.157 elmhns or other eln material containing bark beetle infestation. During the remainder of the year, through State and municipal cooperation, an additional 43 diseased trees and 60 beetle-infested items were eradicated. In addition, 198 elms were pruned of bark beetle material.






40 ANNUAL RE~PPOtTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

There were .(t5 known lis etsed1 trees standing at the end of the fi-;al year. plils 71 t ree1s lat hal bee11 prunlled over a period of years al 1Ii t uni er l otser'Vatioll.
A I revisioI of the qularaitine embargo tliat pIrohibits the interstate Inlveinlet of einls a Il elII material from the infected zone to outside ipoi' ts was uIlnl(er c,1sitlerat ion at the en(d of the fiscal year. Some I liOvtiilt of Irl Irerv elms was authorized (dirilng the year under preca1lti oliry reI ict ionls aId on an111 experillnltal basis.
WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST CONTROL
("ntrol of the bli-ter rut r di-ea.e is esSential to the maintenance of 1 e white pine forget of the I-Unitel State. Tihe accomplislhnints of the la EFFECT OF WAR ON CONTROL PROGRAM

C0lnditions resulting from the war emergency continued to handicap the cIntrol Ip)Oailn and to increa e the dlithculties of field operations, aItliu2h slle I'eglons experienced less trol'uble than otters. There were t'( v11ii de rees of lal-or lIrtaes in differellt areas, 11and : .rsat it% <>f ianv items of S~upply ppll a leuipient. The unavoidable re trieltive orlders and regulations re>ulting from tlhee shortages. such a- prio,ritiy rtil i. wage an Il labor stabilization policies, food and ,a, it 1 at 1 011 11lr. and retrlet ed travel .greatly illQreale' d the problems a11~ i dtititt f ii'l'l(l Fr in, ont field work. In r ie reoi ns tlhe general Sai'itl V of lalr ili (-tiret area l it- en11LN)) ll enll 1 I ."11reit war p'i i' lt l I ,,1 in ll :t ter f i i t iter r'll4 crew(sILt l en lergellcy ftireii -ii ok. Al-,. i of the l ertiIielei t field lper-'nIel were




tt "ll) 0 aril 11 aie to id- tI f li ti: i -,i l .I t i. :trt~lll p jec t, ll in



l1' \ p ;1114: 1 i li1t tI 1 I IuI
SI+, :t : lr"lvt tl it(I i '' wa", : 'tiiit a liti i fi+'rttbl bwh 1i0:t h il+Pl+TI OR






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 41

reproduction and planting. The initial eradication of ribes has been completed on over 22 million acres of the net control area, and of this acreage about 7 million have been reworked.
Control work during 1943 was carried on in cooperation with Federal, State, and private agencies under the over-all leadership and technical direction of the Bureau. The eradication of ribes by all cooperating agencies resulted in the removal of 16,116,886 ribes bushes from 1,141,914 acres of control area, of which 467,270 were initial eradication and 674,644 rework. The details of this work by regions are shown in table 3.
TABLE 3.-Ribes eradication work of all cooperating I'Federal, State, and private agencies for the calendar year 19739

Initial erad Riecradi- Effective ibes Region Total juries ication cation labor

Acres Acres Acres M3an-davs i5 mber Northeastern ---------------------------- 92, 92 275, 799 3 727 28, 27 2, 74, 503
Southern Appalachian -------------------- 24,57 2 049 62, 627 10, 11 7, 615
North Central ------------------ 50, 573 5, 46 109, 219 15, 490 2, 01,192
Northwestern (Idaho, Montana, and
Washington) --------------------- ------- 8, 927 27,820 36, 747 47, 098 3,790, 528
Pacific Coast (California and Oregon) ----....--. 30, 264 1 34, 330 64, 594 .~0, 115 0, N3, 048
Total ......................------------------------- 467, 270 674,644 1,141,914 151, 181 16, 116, 886

SPREAD OF BLISTER RUST
White pine blister rust has been reported from 07 States. In California infection on ribes was found this year for the first time on the Tahoe National Forest, which extends the known (list ribution of the disease a few miles southward in the commercial sugarl pine belt. Rust on ribes also was found in Marin County along the California coast, bringing the disease close to the San Francisco Bay district. Within the sugar pine area of California and Oregon, where rust has been found, a careful search was made for centers of pine infection in all control units. In these centers the cankers on the pines and the ribes in the vicinity were removed. This action temporarily retards the
intensification and spread of rust, thus allowing more time for eradicating ribes in additional sugar pine stands in advance of the disease.
In the western white pine type of eastern Washington, northern Idaho, and western Montana the rust is well established and increasing on those portions of the control area where ribes is still prevalant. In 1943 cankers resulting from pine infection in 1941 began to appear. The amount of this infection, particularly in areas where the disease became established in 1937 and on which ribes eradication had not been performed in the meantime, is comparable to the heavy infection wave of 1937. Since 1923, when the rust first reached the western white pine region, more than the average amount of annuimal pine infection occurred in 1927, 1933, 1937 arnd 1941.
In the southern Appalachian region there was an increase ill the number of infected counties, and continued intensification of the disease in unprotected white pine areas. Blister rust was founlld for the first time on ribes in Bedford, Botetourt, and Washington Counties in Virginia, and on white pine in Giles, Nelson, and Rockbr idge Counties. The rust has now been found on ribes in 29 of the 34 counties in Virginia making up the control area and on pine in 18 counties. Also






42 AO NIAL, IHEP(rllS (F 1)EP.ATT.1\ENI OF A1(4;IlIl LUTIE, 19l

In I i ,- v ilf l I f t1e i '-t iliwe i' ll i1i 1 1I' lil ( r t''ll itri r (1 C 0ll y, i'. V I.. :1.I14I :il t i ll 1 ,l I'\. ( 1 o jhil14. ill A v'r C ,1 llll ,. ( .
\\i :i1 t' ('U ,ljit l i.l tj'm ni l (1 ~t1(f'Ilitl' l 1tl(lit t i' iile tt 10)t fa1i tle; It' I I ,l ti 1,i 1' I 011 (ol VI Ioi I i 11t 111 ih l l ert' l ( 1





url ttli t libo i,) i l(l lp-. tli .i of lth litii' 1 'e ct( pli tuc l'r I tt 1)11 i ?t f


.-(i li I i'ill i)1'()1('( ( l .. lloji 'l i i I 1 4'' t ha tl -0' 11i1sit' i tatili Iiln til
*. 1 0 11, ;1lo 11 1 0 iI I 1 ein da 1111t! I e e t






\P i GIe li' e ls bee die :ra(1 i w1 i elit ri)e Ii 11e t ali percent II


If itM t iIiti ol0 ) 1 I ll l tl I 1 1 I l



DE'ELO)PMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF CONTROL METHODS
Ill C(aI i f (ii i a dosa1ige tests wi ii l a(li(eoll s a1 ll 1111 ll11 1 l 1 1 Ilf lia ie l )'lra S 011 t / li Rlegel colific ll('d pireli ilia' (I l atIta Sll()o il" f avnrable killing :nct ion ,l thiis sl>eties, whlli hla been uiarkedly Ie- ~it11lit to w hrl e ll-i v l- 1 11 l I(-ttll. w it 1 il(l o-{'~ W 11 1 11111111111 111 11i n ll:"iit( Wel'( a p)li e to It'. lifitIr, ( 1 )r .) P1oi'. li ll I)it l e li I1 1am ,


(-.d:hejtt'll1 1 t( i l a t lijl w e d ii t ]()11 It tll tei lil (In t 1 c i
E l 11, i ii i 1(,ll 'it 1 (,1 I i all t4l t i ll (il ile s-lie'e l fr i i al )111 f W t(f f(-ll

Siit (l i t'i : 1 1(il resIll t 1 i t11 h11ve1l( leli i 1 f 1 (' 1111 1 1 lll tI I 11i Si\ t1'(I ti at1i()l l : It ll l t' i i() illt ll'(lf a 1 l i t ,(11 lel. T l is ill'P ilx 11 i\ 1(i V )a .ll <.

il l'.01 : I l d l ('iltili tlmi ()lit (t l (i' I lir )c 1 de fl lr rill f b i l-e t i0, l. W)0 ,!i l ,ic i(ts l0d t1 1 1li .,i le '1 0 1( 11. .\ t lt a ll iease


It:ievlle( t o1 vI ta1 f 1l() ft t ll l (' l l(t () ril ibe llr d w i iie i)A lii ili l 0! 1 W C I I(' t-- 0 1' ()__( l I) h 11ll ill


WillTE-rINGEl) BEETLE CONTROL

':1-1 l'll li t h '- 1111 ill i liilI li e l eitsft illsV fI' lii ll > ed ili. I t' \ .. i4) \ llr\' l: li t 11ft'1 ti lli I t 111i 1't 0 110 I \'lil t'.

Inte:sliic, :i F ,l(v,. A l a.. 'Ind -l ilenhii ll. 11 ',N aI: and ( ( I i Is, .M i -- ., W c,('1 < ,( 1 t4 1d ] I 1 h li lS tiln er (It 1 '"), 1Ilil t l,1 c lIr lil11':iII II:0 m e : s li,i011 l I() ilicil e I li'M'- :1'0t A l i c11 ieI ll i i0 :h 1e IIt ,-iati f I l W tlls :1 [l()t il1 il i all (lIt r. ('. l1v ill (", l linl f(or lO va ill ila, s inili If inife it ions welylo ital it Ilt)(t ()live and ,ii v tl rill N ( .
( 111 ro forel l l Tllis ill H ilf:1 r t' O< di1 ie le )O Il Iii ilu lS 0 110,d l:imer to vital 1, ol, feed, iilld fil er o





BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 43

abilities of spread of the pest. Many fariers in inifestedi a areas on( the Gulf coast adopted recominenled planting and cultural practices, including crop rotation, that tend to reducl(e eetle Icpoulatiolls. Th11 planting of snall-grain and winter co()ver crops wvas icresaeld -vral fold. Other Departmlent as well as State agencies participated i i bringing these practices to the attention of tlie faIiers.
Methods of handling nursery, stock were inlpr(oved. ill ((operation with State pest-control agencies. The number of funiated, barricaded areas and of protected 1)lungiing beds has beenl mclore than doubled. The percentage of certifiable nursery stock was c(rlr(.l pol(lingly increased. An incipient infestation at Avery Island. La.. 125 miles west of any other known infestation, is believed to have been eradicated by methyl bromide fumiiigation.
Improve ent was made in niacliery iiused for applyinmg llliscticides. A machine for applying concentrated spray was developed so as to eliminate belt drives, reduce the groms weight. and apply the spray more evenly and uniformly. Field tests have iidlicated that the concentrated-spray method of applying insecticides is more effective than others against white-fringed beetles.
GRASSHOPPER AND MOR3ION CRICKET CONTROL

Grasshoppers were somewhat more abundant in the spring of 1944 than in 1943, from Texas north to Montana and North Dakota. Although the infestation was spotted, destructive populations developed locally in 8 to 10 counties in south-central Texas and in western Kansas, central and western Nebraska, andci northeastern Colorado, and particularly damaging outbreaks threatened in 10 or 12 counties in central South Dakota. In Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota the outlook for the 1944 crop season is not particularly alarming, but considerable baiting may be needed in some localities to protect late crops.
Mormon cricket infestations developed in 1944 very mich Is indicated by the fall egg surveys. (ontrol operations were condTited during May and June in T1ashington. Oreon,. Idalio. Neva i. a inl Wyoming. More extensive outbreaks oc(,rred in Idahlo and Nevada. Wet, cool weather during the spring and ear11ly S unmetr r-eta'ded both gras ho paper and Mormon Ceicket development a(Ind great I) 'o1iiotet growth of crops andl natural veetatioli. Early cr(il)s tliat normally would have been susceptible to grassi iopper attack :.lI a goo! growill start, and the matural ve2'ettio 1)rll ovided 1flicielit attractive cover so that early-s>ason danmge a as' rest ri cited to lo ,alizedl areas.
The grasshoipper-control prograin in i1944 presented several iinportant asp ects Relat lively low populations generallyv off ered 1ssibilities for holding infestat ions at a low ebb within a smll ano ullt (of timely and effective control work. If a repet it oI of un favor (rable )a>st experil(nc'es inI tle more heavily populatedd areas wa\ to) e av inlded., it was necessary to supplement fariier control in such areas witIi feIerally-financed spreading of poisoned bait on roadsides and rightls-ofway.
To implement this program a new type of blower spreader was designed, and 275 of these s)Ireders were collst ructed. This sprealer, with a throw of aI)iroximatiel 3 feet to either 0' b)()t si(les. will






44 ANNUALL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

give :1 letuIlate cove'ra-e at speeds uil to 25 niles per hour. To furnish t ie :anlmunlt o(f hait needled for this purpose, a new type of batch mixer wa a I olso dcigl,() which eliminate d tile tneed fori large 1mixingT-station cr(vW5 and(1 p)rovi lod1 aIi)le qulant it les of bait at less expense. By July 'I r1't uprxiIatly v 2.400 ton-l (f hait id1 beeni spread by farmers, and 500 t t I ats I l I1 c(miiti S wit 1 edera assist 1 1ance. A I lie re.11lt c t0111 i'(l olertilollIs an(1 na1r1111al factors t1he area inftI \\ i tl t 11(1 Mr iorl cricket ln 1een r euced front' a1 I):1,pr)xinmately l!.()() .(()) Iacts ill 198 : ) to 10.000 acres in 1911. By Jully 1 about :.() tohs of Ia:it hid lbweeIl spread by plane and :300 tons by power baiting IiIits. A 11111(nc11 1 lar. tll houl liighly iimp)(rtant. portion of the area, i ,ll, la ig 1u11 c l Iit1rv 1in cce111ii)le to 111ech liical Sl'preld'le waS bailted by lial Ill tle c)l iined(1 Operat ioll 1,50,0( 0 acres were covered in 1944, 1n(l ilil)ort1 ant savings of range forlae and adjacent crops were cffected.
CONTROL OF CHINCH BUGS
A moderate infestation of chinch bugs developed( in parts of 40 counties across tile ceit ral part of Illinois. Nearly 800000 pounds of di iitro-o-cr()-ol dust and approximately 250,000 gallons of creosote were supplied to farmers in this State for construction of barriers. ole th 111 100.000 )acies of corn were saved. Only limited amounts of barrierr were conll irlucled in other States.
BARBERRY ERADICATION
I 1h1icati1n of ruaI4-snl)re(ding b)arl)erry 1)bulhes ill important (rain'll~wi" aIl'eaS i e~-~ l11 til ti0 control of stem ru t (of whe1:t, oats, 1arle. 1an1 v. A 1 Ia result of organized eff()rt on the part of grain 'oWeTr's. and with t ie ai si ta:111e of (oull)ty. St ate. and FiPlerl: a encie, Iit,:ir ly 70 1iereenit of tlie al)p'oxim natelv 1 mi million sqluare miles in the 17 Si at (t (,'(,)riill j the b)il'rrv-eradliC:lt ionl area has been Irot ected frlln lc:l .,( i cll'c of ste ll rust s n e Cont rol work wis undertaken 25 ya11 1P 20. Fle r('iia111 in 310.500 square miles mu4t be given further alt'1it1l011 to eliini1iate bu}ll, that have grown frol()llm seed t1llat were in
the ()1ro11 at tile 1 11 of tile initial uirvev. Of inmmeciate concern aIt t tim e are areal :s al)ploxillnati ly" 10.000 square mls last inspected alot va :1's lo. 1Sine tle new h)llu>ss may l)rotllce seed when to Sya rs (1t(1, t1lie )ioper timni11 of ('leanl-up work is important if it is to lie (l(11) 1 osl (,c('lilolically aniid effectively.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN 1943
I)uring 19134" diflicullties arising from war conditions combined to r(, li 1i('( :)('('(1iili il 1111l s ill 1):l)errali'atV Prli at(ll to ( )ll somewhat below Il(,se ( ,f 1ie ,irev( Vi(lls yearl. Nvertl eles. 1,715,93 bil1shes were de11 e( ),( illn 2 2 iiil)()rtill ntgr,,in-prod l lil 11 c( i1t 1es. DIll'in the season0011 sy :iati, sm'vevs were a p1p l i to 5.1 53 s(juare miles. )Of 11,117 l'rvi,,ls l ii f 1 t l )'r,,l -)erties ii 1:1t were e ill)c'- t(1dl .4.000 ill requlire 110 firt hll r Wall );lr Irl' 1)1 10>e Were ( a te 1 an (des Ve on 2. 13
plt'O ll)r 5 10 r ))'P iltl 11 n W 0 :1l lls. T i1 (Tog':lill WHS Co11ill itr it I'o ill 1 11 is W 1wro 1 Wlliedl:11O (111"ef oft 1". 't :I( I f :i 11 1H i I ll-,e 1 l' lil I ll ii pl'OXiIllitY to g iIIb

i\ liliill'Y( OIf ti e (r'ta(lii':catiin Wvrk l State> 1< s lo1wn in table 4.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 45

TABLE 4.-Results of barberry eradication work, calendar year 1943
Properties cleared Bushes destroyed
Area surveyed Berberis Native
Nulgaris species 1

Square
miles Number Number Nu mber Number Nu mbor
Colorado ..---------.-----------------.... 124 46 186 11, 360 273, 110 2-4, 470
Illinois -------.......----------------- 493 32 53 816 -.. 816
Indiana ....--... ..-----------------... 6S2 9 36 796 317 1, 113
Iowa ...-- .. .....--------------------------... 592 56 123 2, 714 125 2, 839
Michigan............ ---------------------------906 194 239 5, 623 5, 23
M innesota ..............------------------------ 198 35 97 742 ..7....... 712
M issouri .. ..----------- .........----------------- 73 8 26 197 19)7
Montana...... ......--------------------------- 83 2 5 148 118
Nebraska ..........---------------------- 297 1 8 35 35
North Dakota..................---------------------- 641 0 1 27 --..... 27
Ohio..............................-------------------------------. 177 37 178 6, 122 ------------, 122
Pennsylvania _---------------------- 27 25 121 207, 656 ...------...... 207, 656
South Dakota .........---------------------- 113 1 1 5 -------- -- 5
Virginia ................. ....---------------------------- 18 17 34 16 1, 155, 875 1, 5 91
West Virginia............-----------------------. 49 0 141 41 42,444 42, 415
Wisconsin ........................-------------------------- 203 81 339 7, 764 ........... 7, 761
Wyoming.......................... --------------------------- 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total........................ 5-----------------------, 456 544 1,588 244, 062 1, 471, 871 1,715, 933

I B.fendleri A. Gray and B. canadensis Mill.
STEM RUST DAMAGE LIMITED TO LOCAL AREAS
In general wheat west of the Mississippi River escaped serious damage from stem rust in 1943. Barberry bushes rusted later than usual, and less than the normal amount of inoculum of wheat stem rust developed in Mexico and Texas. Only slight damage resulted from the northward spread of the rust. Both in the South and in the western part of the Mississippi Valley there was more stem rust of oats than of wheat.
In the Eastern States the situation was the reverse. There was more abundant development of stem rust of wheat, especially in Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina. Kentucky, and southern Ohio, while stem rust of oats was light. In Virginia and West Virginia heavy infection also developed early on barberry bushes, and local outbreaks of the disease caused severe damage to wheat in barberryinfested areas.
Stem rust was severe in the vicinity of Palouse, Wash., where losses were estimated to total 150,000 or more bushels of wheat. Observations indicate that it originated on barberry bushes within this area and that very little, if any, was from outside sources.
The rust situation in 1943 in the Virginias and Washington provides additional evidence of the importance of barberry bushes in starting damaging epidemics of stem rust.
DISTRIBUTION OF PHYSIOLOGIC RACES OF STEM RUST
Studies of the distribution of physiologic races indicate that stem rust in the Plains States had a separate origin from the rust in the more eastern States. In the eastern area race 38 predominated on wheat, while west of the Mississippi River race 56 was most )prevalent, with race 17 in second place and race 38 rarely found. For the country as a whole only these three races of wheat stein rust were sufficiently prevalent to be of practical importance. The 982 collections of wheat






46 ANNUAL IEPII1TTS OF I)EI)AI'TMENT )I A( IICLTIE,. 194 1

>1 (I.m1 I'll- vlt' i'l d 1.455 i( lat te. ()f 1lieo., 4 I9 l)e 'CeIit were race 56, 2 I )'C Ilt r -('U 3'. an il< 23 )er.eilt rae 17. ((ill)lare( with i he preVims v ( Vi l, t1i T \' s:1 ain 1il1':te il )1P rI'cva:letri' of lrace 5( and a decl't:1-' il II':iviet'- :ll 1 lhut I( C ll ( )Il 'll( ll (11:w c' ill ti felt s.
R:a e S (if il :t s Iell I'I l V ll( sWai l t t I i elttlv y1' 1 )ill in 1943 to C:Il 0 <(olleI'll i" i'l fitllr 11 11f(1( ()Ie e1 1ii l -e pa(' l o iiii111.c of Boone :111a ( +\'( 1 Mll )1i re1it \ r111 l' lPies of oats. lll)t (if wliC iI were derite1 l fr1l1 ci V i n i i : 1i allll 1 c(r es. tl re ili l n 211 I1 1 ierent of I I I ()al i-olaites (of oal s teI ll I'll '(' w re of 'ra il S ;it 1 0 1. h)otl f which h aIlt ia 11 I le w va lri e i 4A I I 1u il I 1ore have )we I1 11 id Wit olS (111rill 1. I : lit ast 5 v(a1's that' r C(ll illlt l'c( at 111 litl. t le shlarp inc '1'a,( iii )l Ic \cc ill 1I)4 I:ii llleXP)e t I ii li'(' l Ie r I ev()Iuls hig wAV,1 al< I Iit ( ) per'celnt ill 1 40.
'hIlie il(iifilatil1 of lviy i l) gic riacs Of wlwea t s-il r1ist from 5 vi l lc colle luti,ls1 ~1t aiie(I fr)iii ):lrl)rl'ies. Z' Ilil a111r( Id ras ill
ti I a'1 of l ash111(In aiild ( 1 la lo I Ilt ill 65 i-(l dat es com-ip i-t 14 ra.T. T c-oe were all iti d it ified a: : r viPlt ly hI -cribed rare, al. lltflllI s llie of tl could have be n ( a\-e c 1,-ierd as I1ew ones o) tle I)-i of iino)r I-lll al)l)ar'le llt co itr1-i t lijfilelrle. I 1 lise (l ill erc iTitic(ate ( lll Iat a great d al of e'c Iil )lli t l l Elt \V)I W o ', race hI a:'ll plac (,1 li)e I r 1 rrv I )11 lOf l v ese 11 rac 1 he t mly
()11(' fu)d111l (',)li llcfllV l(' W'l(t are 6. 17. andti ) 8. TI te w re y fl.i ile it,-4 pirevalei t il the Mi--i--ipi lcv. It each l+lwas is-olated Il V ( ire i ellt 1iI illat 'erial frnl t he P lol e area. It a Il)p a rs. theref re. a1 1 I I 'I ( w:1 ela i vely v It tie. if ally. il lift 'll:). t f r'l 1-t bei we.'N ii il aIla aI 1 (t l ill' w ieat-r o\w lln :a ra in wl i I heo 1 )revail'it < of 1) yiv-1 i t Iic race' s is knowing.
NURSERY INSPECTION
A lqlisaI it1-n f(r )I I 'r its to ship I e;, ii .ill a h ~ i plaint under 1ip' jiI'u' -[ Federa' ll itaral llie 8,Wl' lertelvr'eci1 fr1m 4 11111s', (Il- 19 o. 111 8)7 Were ailed. It WVai l r0 aV 10 rflcf-e "")2 l) l: 10 o ) 'a l 111(t' 1 111 11 (,l'it': W e'l'0 I'lviB i -ptill il<]e :.r1 ili i1 :1110 ( Ill 'i r a i- t t(r1 V tl ll l rtl ) I'il) siv:l tt e i() if altlli lll \: dehivl l ii)lf fl+, ,'Un lit c:I ) l f M-11-(T, t1llo ph( ) 1 F I0 i i hI r1rl i ll l i 1 I t lii t :t'( Il a II()a I I I 11i o a l i t I ll t 11ii+ i\ \mll m l :()Ik. :111(d 1:11:1 v 11111's-is 1iit: l) c(O I .()l F1 '(:1 m ar ,11(.1 l l() ho]]. k to 1i1 11110 r11 Mi 1()' nIaIlt var-et cs atl(| .-l),'i*,. I )tiilltIT Ill v('ar I rIill-'rv olpt' ,ltl'- ', d lit: Viy lt-r Cd 000 I -c'ptildf., tl' L V'l l hall'-.
IN 1 (IRMATIONAL ACTIVITIES
I 1 C41111141' l l" it'-1 o !! 1 1:2 W) : !' I i d ti) ll l it tilI 'i vL '\ 81 ) l l : 11 1411i:i '1 'l ;r111. par1 't'l Iv ill t 'rri'l(r \ w loere \ ,,W k ('oiil )I !it It ; (',,lll i liI :I -l'l let l'1. li M i I t *c1 .I Co)u111el /: I I ) 4 ) i '- r:ate' 1 1 i i'( un 2 lt 1 t4 0)l:1 0L I 'puff l l t11 I le Jl 1 \ 111- II i'\ III'tt2l hlIi, Ii) ) l t ll H ic, w '\ll t'ill 1w .


P1 PRESSS IN S 11EETIFO'IT() 1EwEVIL CONT()L
wI111'4l 10,t'(' 11,1 ) Lt'r li ,i itl fii), fi(Wli 10 t:ih '0i ruti-l 11 :I v, \\e <>!:11,,f l, lt'Oiclt bel lid I\( 1 1 ,1M:l 70 I i til ill' 1els :1111 II \. 111d 11:1- th'e--t', 1 t 1 i ) l l :11t'a o f 1l1')tecillie (lh i v Il1al e






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE E 47

crop against its most destructive i visect eneiv. thle >-weetpot:tto weevil. which thrives in commercial areas of the Gulf 'oast States. Dulring 1944, 1.181 farms in Alabama. Georgia. Louisiania. Mlisalisippi. aund Texas were cleared of this pest by the cooperation of the Bureau, tie States, and the growers. Inspect ioll was then ext e Ided into ,ther coll mercial sect ions of Louisiana andi Texas, where 1. 0U aldditional faarmls were found infested. and control activities are ging forward. Tlhe clean-Iup of fields after harvest and of seeodbeds aind storage places is effective in combating the weevil.

MOLE CRICKETS CONTROLLED

Populations of mole crickets apparently were reduced in the 15 Florida counties in which a control progranL was conducted in the summer and fall of 1943. Nearly 33.600 acres of truck-crop planlts were spread with sodium fluo>ilicate bait supplied to 3.u96 farmer. By baiting in the seedbeds ald planted fields. farmers were able to control the burrowing crickets until the young veget able plaiint were well rooted. As has been done in the past. the Bureau uppllied the bait, supervision. and technical asistalmce. and the State p)lalt board transported a:n di tributed the bait to the growers.

SURVEY BEING MADE FOR GOLDEN NEMATODE OF POTATOES

The golden nematode of potatoes. H, c'o t'o(1* 1 ;,,( U, O7 ,,. Waollenweber,. wais found in a small area on Long Ilanml iin l 11. The New York State Department of Agriculture amid Markets. in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industrv. Soils. and Agricul rural Engin eering of the United States Department of Agriculture. conducted a survey to delimnit the infestation. and the foriiier an' iicv establliiced a quarantine on the area. effective March 13. 1944. Thle -ource o)f the infestation is not known. The Bureau of En uIalV and Plant Quarantilne. 111 Coojpertilmn with 1 tl-e Bureau of Planlt 1!1(1htrv. S, il. and Agricultural Eigineerinig anld with appvoprine t te aw"cen in Juile 1944 beglan1 a slvey o t ie iore iio,1ltat 10. Pt'11 i> 'o) at o districts east of the li issiill)i River to deteiminile a ia is pos-ie their status with re-pect to tin l)otato root paralsie.

PINK BOLLWORM CONTROL AND QUARANTINE ENFORCEMENT
INSPECTION
The pink bollworni tui ion apenre. Tex. In nowtlhweat erlI Texi- rutI wer, neative in all previoulv known i fe-.ted cotu it x]c cxto To m (Greci1. There was an llcen e in infe-t alioi InI I )i l 4t of Olex:as ovr' the previoUs .en-on. altliougl it was aultantiallv 1 ,er thian dullli the years of heavily infe ftat i The reglatI arcs o New \lb xi a d1 AriZo} na 11o[wef 111e)i: c1an e -. N fatiiv. ( :'111 for a number of vears liiade ittlo+il1e ... neleae frli'o tlII'alt lhe fuu'







48 ANNUAL IiEPORTS OF DEPAlRTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 1944


('(,nlI1t ils i i n11r11llw 11W ('rll e xaHs all( 011e ill eastern eNw M1XicO. The G Iillli, : l'area ill M arico l 1 (1111il v., Ariz.. alRpeare free (f infestatill. bIll f1frl l'('ii enls, the first sln e 1939, were taken in tle eastern part of tlie countit v.
Iii :111 re (latedl areas a total of G0.29 I bushels of traill were ini, 011(1 A ..(;_ jlii k lllwornis were found. (i)tside of re.f ll:ated a to" II d ol 4,,f :~1, ,.i lU ls ,f trashll were inspected in Alabama, Flrila.i (,4,rigi Lr, uli(iana. >Ii issippi, and Texas. Inspections were Ie':,li11ye \viti 1l if u(''sl) i ln o0 If,se )rpvilru-lv 1 mentine1 I1s))ect ioi1 f 8il-illiI ('Ot+ t ct lills ill nnri -'entrall FlI(id: 1 was negative. Siiiii1i10 Of tie :illlin 1114 :ilid t!"e r es1 lts of tle vi'riou. kinds of Ill )<' i01 a GLiv l I ill tale)ls 5 anld 6.


TA im.:; 5.- -l.' ull of inlpelrCionfns for pink b,ll corm in C !ulablCd arCas, crop season of f19Jd


Gin trash Field Laboratory

State Pink Pink Green Pink tityn oll- Blooms Bolls boll- n llwtiorms orms worms


Ihhels Number miiber KN ,er Number Number n'umer
Aritns. ....... ........... 31,132 ^ 1 0 11,25 0 0
New Mexico 1..... ..... .. 591 93 0 2,20 0 4.0 90 0
Texs -.-... ................. 2. 571 26., S0 41, 112.460 12. 3 6 121 5. ,92 ill
Tot l.................. 60,294 2, 9S6 1,112,460 32. S71 130 9, ,2 111

I C(',ller ed from 1942 cotton crop.
9 o1)ir1 1e1lc iin eunlt ies as rolkhws. Graham 3, Greenlee 4, Maricopa 4. Phin 2. From (unham County, although most of the bolls inspected were in Maricopa and Pinal Counties.
5, nr T a'eis.
S112 frIn nlo.-ns and 3 fr om1 bolls in Cameron County, 9 from bolls in Hidalgo County. S10( speciniens iin E1 aso County and 11 in Iludspeth County.

TiuLe G.-l IT.ul/s of inspections for pink hollr1orna outside n(lulatll areas, crop season of 19. 3

Gin Trash Fie.i ILabor .tory

State ink Pink Pink '.ny b 11- wwFar woruls worms

Il Nsh N Nir* .tn Nu n'- N. m- N* N mA Ie r l -r tr -r All sh ...1 0....... 1.:7) 0 0 0 a0 0 0
(' 0..... ..0......... .3. 7 0 0 0 7. 1ti 0 0 0
( i, i 2, 1 UN' I 0I (P .71 ( 10 0 ltit 1, 00 11 0 91. 1 2I1 I 0 M i .ji I .o 0 0 0 1. 7 I 0 0 f t 2',7~ 1.4 01 0 ?ti_ 0, 1 1 1 f. 91 0 S l .... :1 1 ;,tK 5 1i n o 1


( ha liitfi ll' 1. 0 1 ws., :iu 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 < 0 [" ( 0 0 U 0 0 'I m 1 il jl, i< T 1 -'7,, 0 4A(. 2" 0 ; O 0


m I 131. 41 1,717.'.71 1. 7t 43bI i ;-. 3 N1. Ill ;ill > ( ia 1


Sor n biti y I arttr al tIortlr '>urrey lv tr isntr l.
F 1.';t, tttnblla [ ri s mi It-l5 d VtltIn and It he r uankr from w il ottlon. 'h e T i s teini ns wre from
Vi~i~l cr~l or0






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANllTINE 49
COOPERATIVE PROGRAM IN MEXICO UNDER WAY

Control operations against the pink bollworin in the lUnited Staltes have been affected by natural spread frloni heavily inlfeted al('s ii Mexico. To offset this condition increased finls were ploviled for the cooperative control work il :exico, anmll(1 dll it Il e past r Bureau personnel have l)en working withll texi.i*a (agricIl itl iatllcials, agricultural agencies, and ildivi(duial forners to eflect iluPI"'ements in administration of count rol proced1iire, partelarly I in interior areas. Emnp)liasis cointiies to be 1)lal on lhi cici rogli:try and coiitrol practices in border arQ-. which it is bet lilevE Co l)lpare favorably with those in adjacent areas in the United St ates.
Farmers in the lower Rio (i ande Vaille of Mexico (-i r()vel tall on 125,000 acres promptly after harvest.
PROGRAMS IN THE VARIOUS REGULATED AREAS

For the second consecutive seOl rain Ineve l ()nlpltio() of field clean-up in the lower Rio Crand('e il : 1(1 la' illn I coilsidera ble ca rr v-over of pink bollworms. This re-nit e( i a b i0-i an i(i increase in infestation in 1943. Fiariers dclstroved stl:ls on 21 S.NiS acres. and Bureau funds were nwed to pile IandU !ii > s:i lks in I eivily infested fields. The Bure:u, il coope'vatio i Tex s ai it ies, grul)bed cotton sprouts fro() 4;.7- Ii : res .' i. ol (ler to e taLl1 > ,1l maintain a starvation period fo() thle 1)ik 1 boll) n Iworni ill( ti, to destruction of stalks by farmers. To reduce 1he nber of over wintcring larvae, the Ste of Texas Sas set Sepitem er 15 as tlic late oie f le completion of stalk destruction. This is 15 days earlier thln in preVious yearS.
In 1943 no effort was made in the Big Bend of Texa-s. to slho rt n the growing season through regulation of i he planting (late, but in 1944 the Texas State Department of Agriculture sou( iht to relduce the numniber of generations of thle bollworn through regulations involving delayed planting.
In Louisiaa an intensive clean-p prlog'rant was rried ou t with Bureau funds on 2,115 heaVifly infested acr s in Camllrell 1)aris1, and the area then was designated as a noncotton zone by State authorities. The State required farmers in two additional pari~-es to destroy stalks at their own expense.
A total of 876,166' bales of cotton were ginned at 555 gins in the regulated areas of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. In all, 152.9:1 tons of seed were sterilized, 327,980 tons of seed were proceed( at the 49 designated oil mills, and 48.1,07G bales of lint :and .'2352 holes of linters were compressed at 11 plants. A total of 11.022 bales of Mexican linters were fumigated. The supervision of these treatments required 2.360 inspections of processiiin plants.
In southern Texas about 2,100 small lots of qua rantined pIroducts were intercepted through examination of t ucks and 2 n pik sa,()i ks that were being carried out of the regulated area by ti'raTsi> wo(I'rks.
ERADICATION OF WILD COTTON

Eradication of wild cotton from southern Florida vas hlandicappedli,( in some sections because of labor short ages. Infestation continues to be held at a low level in the greatly reduced number of plants, thus






.)) AN NtAL HEt I)IIS OF DI)EPAl:T.IENT OF AG;HI(LTUIIE, 194

Il nl111 liZi th lI 111Ill1) o(,f It' lr l of 11( 1 1 n lI llvonrI to onmelto tic
Int1 I ilit ( 4 tll ,i 11' :tji Mll 11' ii r a i ii I w111 TIV



>t w rii .vew tl hr iii- t it


lhi ii niii 1(;. h2!.1 1 )Itt ln{, -,-,ink l.

I )O( LIES ('ONT OLLEI) AT AIM'Y AIR FOHCE BASES

I; i \i 1 ii ; lo (l () ]it ll ir)1 r. tli, 1 11,l : ltry t11 l P 111i1

Air In for thin 1 il9.. B ,x' ) A'ji ; lrl, p.-lw i, ft (l t tlh1(t)liI i (0; li : 1 v f doIl t flie' s i-tnll'al)e'lit i tI fll 't it n Ilt I llmeIor f Q 1 )f l es 1y K."tvilel TV br (,,li" h of t flis



I'llt 1 I I I tI l tates I ll i( Ita:tlih SNervtic e ol" 'I; lkql in the work.
1 I I )l'( 'yt lli Iva- l,ii l tndlllet i iii tle > ilin of 19 11.

TRAN SIT INSPECTION

Ilc O ( f itlmll stwilizatin ol I vi ,,lcl uts i1 the R10) i lrad"i e Va l,5 ,f Q (exas. (iil'u 1 i( l, ~iprif of 1911. a1ll 1ti(a,!:1 tral-it I~ll)-ciotr ) ,,v IV : -iji m dL2 alt :t l a v > h(y01n11 t l(i valley )V 1' ev l' I l loli 1 111 il, i e,11 '! i l o f A l I ))Inon (1 i ,f Sti i,(I l"t' it 1 1 t Alllt iOt llT
-I ti(l i )tr1'Iat' i()l l l (of t i( l l Il):11 'H ilt ii 11 1 e'i'li dl :li l l alt itls.
T l)'( 1'': 11t t E v ,Ir 11 lA tll 1 : C0)l0 11111 a I : l I I -"!'Its I -;lit' (,r l- l i'v 1, d i 1 wl a'- i) 1t t() ,llO il t 'llI l 'i r:11, lllt' b1 S olil allowl 11'Eld:1 1 by 10' i t',1Cr d0111 110 :1t (01r1: i 1li'. TIlvrl' veW', wi illi (i 1 "2': 1. 1 mail. o 1wl f iWlit rlilI: *2.2-i; I):116' tp ViI: l lct I )f (l tl' Fe etall ,Ii ,iii i)i (l1:1w) it', :II > Vil:a tll- (of l e I)- rict ji f ( ifItit i P 1 11 Mil )d Ill,110 4 ',1-:1 1 11 0 Wa, rllt s' t lI'lre l nt


TERM I \L, IN SECTION OF M\IL SIIIllPMl EN

Fi p 4 :111Ji m I lil It'I'!!!!I:1I t' 111 ilo 11:11 Q -il )0111 1

i l i, ( 11Ii ii) l ,tA il lil) i l *I- fit' lit l 11'( .1 ('t I l 1 1 1 111 A ri, ':lil rIf )lvil I f ull 1 1t 11 huh !ll't''- .11tllF:1 iv 1

i 11:10 1I t al l a\:1l(, 4 h ,11, 0 (if I 1' Pl'r via l of 0 "., 14, 111i1:1 11 -in*I('lln li)'is, I' l r I t ot on lf st'v,,)est le t i 1 t! (i r IIl:11) 1t ill:1r': 11ti11 S






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 51

FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES
MARITIME PORT INSPECTION

Many of the effects of war that were noted ill ,reviotis r'epl,)ts marked foreign-plant-quarantine enforclnellt in 19 fit at n rit iie ports. Success in the antishubnlarine warfare. tog(etler with slhip ('(CoIstruction, resulted in a 39-percent illcrease iin ship ari'ivals over 1943. andT consequently in cargoes silbject to ill. s i1o : blit I 1ye Ws a, Ilarked reduction in the nlee(l for enltlergen(l safee lieni(s (for (niloi(t discharged from ships lmnder (istress Coldilios. V atinlle (:(ll rols over coIlllelce, suclll as the collnoy syst 1em, continued to la(c l~ (avy:1v loads on inspection staffs in peak periods. The use of (1rvy ha llast again necessitated large expenditures of inspector-hours. ill protectioll against pest risk when the ballast contained top soil.
The record of ship inspections appears in table 7. The datl a iven in this table do not include those for ships engaged only il (ireat Lakes trade.

TABLE 7.-NAumber of ships arricig, inspeted, and beaCritng prohibited plant material, fiscal year 19' /'
Bearing
Origin Arriving Inspected lie 1aterial
Foreign ports, direct -.. ... .. .------------------------------------------ 21, 832 21,719 4,813
Foreign ports, via United States ports ..------------------------------ 3, 442 3, 210 191
Foreign ports, via Hawaii--------------------------------------------- 94 94 13
Foreign ports, via Puerto Rico ----.-------------------------------------- 33 33 12
Hawaii, direct ... ---------------------------------------------------- 1, lt6 1, 166 190
Hawaii, via United States continental ports -------------------------- 50 50 ....
Puerto Rico, direct----- ..... 40-6 4P5 38
Puerto Rico, via United States continental ports ------------------------ :10 30 1
United States ports, via Panama Canal ......1-------------------------------1 14 58
Total --...... ..... ................. ... .. ..-----------------------------------------------... 27, )7 26 9S1 5.316

CARGO INSPECTION
Importations of plants and plant )pr'odu(cts shomwed an increase for the year, notably in fruits and vegetables, with a falling oil in nursery stock. The totals were as follows Fruits and veetalles, 1029)0.7S5 containers, 30,31,596 bunches of ba naas, 17 ,3827 I)pol d. all l l 8.436 units; nmurser stock aild seeds. )6,926 conlta iners 1,)(1. lt9 !)pon(s,(t and 1,700,607 units: cotton lint, bagging, anid cottoni poducts, 166.133 bales. 1.155,762 contiiainers, and 37,580.202 pond Is fibers a: nd celrals 166,089 bushels, 123,462 containers, 6,141.238 p(1ounds, )3,592 dozeil. and 17 units. In addition 205 lots of restricted l)lalt material were admitted in accordance with governing reI'ulat iols at Cana(lian brder ports where no pIlant-quaralltine inspect ors are stationed, tlllrougll the COoperation of the customs officers alld the Calladial 1)eainlllenllt of Agriculture.
N(t included in the foregoing totals we' sev-eral itliolisal1 illllpaortations of fruits and1 vegetables over tile Mexi cal blr'lder', ill schllc sinall quantities that no entries are required bv .'lsto)l all l( 1 i lalltquarantine record of then is llade. Each of llese Siall lots was inspected before release, and a large out lay of inspector-liours was required to handle them, especially at the larger ports.






52 ANNUAL IREPOLTS (;F' DEPArT. IENT OF A(;IILCULUIEW 194 1

DIS IN FICTION
S' ll l1t 8111 tVl)e f 1illit lai:eria':l treatIed 1II ler sil)uprvI lsOll Of isl''l() M :til( (1 i ill l Mor' a l < o f Itli l11- irt llr r flct t11e wi artille
CIHIA ;(qt( -f ( l ll(A l(it r iel l:111 pl 'at 1101. T ll lliber of I:l(.- t)f MMttt: l i a :r." 1112 1 t1etd w 105.07 all Illel'wav-e (I 1 1 (, t I ll 0 f ,()J0 .()71 pliidI (I f c(1tt1"o e-l ca le a1f( i,:l ;I--,l 4 l \,I:< 1K)(,,) l .i 1e l 1M V-, 1 )111 1( W eevil infe Ied \.~l) 'l(. cl.) t(lo; lil lItl )(Pl 1iii!'- in\V :I lI V )ljt!( i) ll TE K re id e e Ir I, te
1 1ri t (u 1 1 1 (1 ii I ) i l I i t I 1 )( t lf ( VI l .ji tIr' 811(1 WIe attI eril wo\\l'I w t'("1('l: ill :1l ii) 1!.,51 i)( 'i o)f seeiN Wrlt afefV!: 1 x 1 p [t 1 Ii A. 1 A o1 1. '11 'tnIll: -' o}f I ini I it l it r ,

11 N A 1 11 q w1 f 01' o1i 1111n. w
AIRPLANE INSPE ACTION
I i i exp i I (if a i l-( l (1111l eve pl'e-lI r I t I a Ijor
11] LlV Il1 )li e p)l I ro li l ti 1r112, 191 1. Tlie Il- e i1 of airplanes Wii. ll MiX 1 Il i t 'lil :i l N o11v11- 1 a1 1 aleili 1 faew In1t Ii i tll t he Vi ll 1 ilIV tIil' i t 1 lr il o illl I it'-. 1 be t )IMe alli a ti v y (oIif i t i ni i 1'ils,. A- t1is typei of conitiAel'e W el1 tn i. -:tllnies 11 ilale to n juIi' I e 1~ p t 111 ill-(I 1l ill it a1l t1 ( I I I ii n 1i

IVI 1, (v in'l-p v (l a 7 po1nt(1 1 11 p trli 1 11 cl '1in111( 1'10 K AI1vi ilv wit out IU t-11101':1;tni fl e pl'iot.tnl that we11e temiporarily s1A lt'i i, fr the l: 1:r f t IIhe peril. Tleire vrce .4 iHore 16speer1'al w11 fol1id iP w i of I tl1,e air11pla111s ilkPleeted.
Il n ww lie n All 1 \ WV i'(p 11e@ Ill 'tIb i 1 I 1.ll 1'e' ) li lla of hil'int anI laa (lim-tA 'd'- W 'e Illade. While ui v these pw m11101Il, 111 e<( I ( Wv re >, I Vl Iv 1s 1111ot milit n111c118te u )lie 11 1at 11, pIlallnt a Q" "'t )UIllc i1111) 1rtIce Were N ll in Q1 t a(,tI era l carried in 1 i ,-u I 2 tr 111:1 nd. :11d so '-. Amlu ti& e I i el: e(t f(i1ll( w re the AP l rIi t r:iiu fiitflv, lthe Mexinan fruitly ath two otler pieces of 11l l1ie Ia lli 11 )w:t1 (0 )o ( /,trA t, A /lla s (Ge er)). ( I 0 n I l ol the 1 it (P'Ie,)ti()ill t)f 24; ld111t-(l-eae Or.a111 Ils were f1,1i1 I tIa li)11lll I l 1 t) tl'i )el 111-r 1t. T le A lVity of the hlt~t r (1 a w in; wit I NvIth air t iI1n 'T i0 (, l)1)sim Iiel l tvtl lc speed with wVlicl :1 plant l, t al )e I 'alispo'te1 lI)y I his IIW8II1S.
FO)REHIN PAR(CEL-POST INSPECTION
The inspectio of p:i1'rel 1>t friil f)'eim., 't0 1 C lite',s ('evel )pid ill 1 If' ,1 a l la, :1: i1int i1 pliti'll, of 111tate'riallv iIC(efl;-tl illip)Ort.N, li l1, lll ( 1(t i1n l i i n :after('I ItN Ietll'I llr(n o'fl f i l ful'''s floW T !( 11, ml li,)li- ,f A ll I 'le:Ill IIlt'll :I11[ W lilell ill 111 )11 ,10 11 W h o ar, : t i,11(tl 1 al 'i :1, I :i \' tli,- l :) 11 a l 9 21 pt i'll' rivi ..) t- 1 I:I 1 ) :10c t 1 I iai: Il in a tla-- a ):1art Ifr,il )a 1tin1e i l( 1 1til lal 11111 r11ai. I (' I **fi -~ v ( I 1 1f Will ( (1 5 1 11 (I 1 l l1 a p1sl'tw(,(tlifIrs iInvolvO(ed iit lI: l itIIIi it. I li fIri'I la IVe(,l p t[r:i li' cre: tes lilhicult problems i1 fil1', idi112 l l ( 1,:11':111) 11 Pr)t' t io ,g:1) mi111, s pest e1t 1y. A total of 1 .1 7 fb ifei p l1(l-l) t 1,):.l ag s were illm wCt ,an i 1l'ease of D7 )(seit ,vYer 19 1. ()f lt,( 717 were re fiwed clultry, ill whole or inll






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 53

part, because they contained prohibited material, 1.664 were diverted to another port for disposition, and 1.361 were released under permit.
MEXICAN BORDER SERVICE
In 1944 a total of 67, 55 freight cars fron Mexico were insp ct el, a decrease of 1,429, or 2 percent, from the 1943 total. It w1s nuee-ary to fumigate 12,985 as a condition of entry into the I united States. This represents an increase of 813, or 7 percent, over 19413. Coupons valid for the fumigation of a freight car were sold. at $4 each. in the amount of $52,196. During the year search continued for 1)o-sible ways to expedite railroad traffic from Mexico by eliminating fliiiications when possible to do so without increasing the risk of introducing foreign plant pests. By using certain railroad records, which were carefully compared with other sources of information and confirmed by actual inspections of the cars themselves, it was possible, during the last half of the year, to reduce materially the number of cars requiring fumigation at Nogales, Ariz., without additional risk of pest entry.
In addition, 4.620 Pullman and passenger coaches were inspected upon entry into this country. A total of 4,569,545 other vehicles and 806,809 pieces of baggage were examined in cooperation with customs officials, a decrease of 3.5 percent in the number of other vehicles examined and an increase of 44 percent in baggage examinations.
INSPECTION IN HAWAII AND PUERTO RICO
The predominant activities carried on in the enforcement of Federal plant quarantines governing the movement of plants and plant products from Hawaii to the mainland were preflight inspection of aircraft and the inspection of mail, baggage, and express. The local demand for all fresh fruits and vegetables left little for shipment to the mainland. Inspections and certifications decreased accordingly. Preflight aircraft inspections and the examination of express increased approximately 600 percent over 1943, and necessitated the assignment of additional personnel from the mainland. Mail and baggage inspections continued in volumes approximating 1943 figures; however, conditions surrounding the handling of mail from the armed forces in Hawaii were such that it could not all be made available for inspection prior to dispatch to the mainland. By the close of the year over 60.000 parcel-post packages were being inspected monthly at mainland ports, thus adding materially to the work load of maritime inspectors at Pacific coast ports. The inspectors continued to cooperate with the censors in the examination of mail and express in Hawaii.
In Puerto Rico also the demands for local conlsulnl)t ion re-ilted in very little call for the inspection and certification of fruits and vegetables for shipment to the mainland. Emphasis there is on the inspection of surface vessels and aircraft to prevent both the introduction of foreign plant pests and the spread of injurious pests of Puerto Rico to the mainland. The insular inspectors, acting as collaborators, assist in these activities, all of which have been adjusted to meet the needs of wartime commerce.
DEPARTMENTAL PLANT MATERIAL AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA INSPECTION
A total of 411 shipments of incoming domestic material (51.163 plants, cuttings, bulbs, etc., and 2,237 lots of seeds) and 1,793 shipments of outgoing domestic material (200,947 plants, cuttings, bulbs, etc., and 10,730 lots of seeds), including.material shipped by the United






54 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944

lates Oll),iart nielit of Ag'riilt li'e, Were illsectedl in the enforcement of ie regili ull goverllllthle nioveilent of plallt Imaterial into and ouit of t le District of Colunbia. Sone form of treatnllent for tihe eliminlati mi Ists in t liese shilnents was given to 175.517 plants, 1.509 lott s 4f isc: al)l 141 parcels conlta i nilg I)lalt material (not for pro,pagati ol. Ii a(l(I itioll 2.7'i8 collt ai ll1's were e xallinled at the post offices, cxl)re-- ofli(es. ail frei gllt stat iolls. ;and 19 tru(kloads eont aining 6,922 p illit Cllsi tllid to reta Illl'rll nis ill t le District of Colliunlba were (.lelkec l in naval for proper cert ificat io.
INSPECTION OF PLANT-INTRODUCTION AND PROPAGATING GARDENS
Plant material that is b)eilg pr)pagated at plalt-intro1u1ction and l1I',)aat -in gardens ltaintnined by the Bureau of Plant Industry, ,il-. :1 id A'ictllit l'll EnQi ileerni g is inspected regularly for the Pl'ell(ee of 1an111t pest. Such tllatrial list riblted from tlie gardens al(t '(ront (ove. Fla.. anld Alandan, N. )Dak., was ill-l)ected by State Officials coop)eratllng n ith his Bilirea. The ill-pect Ions at Chico,. (tii, ., were hlillled jointly by al iiisl)ector from tlis Bureau and Ini enit ollmoloist from thle California Department of Agriculture. Mlateirial dli-tr.ibuted fromll the Distr ict of Columbia, Marland, and Sa Valnnlah Ga.. stations was examined by Bureau inspectors. The t, l(mWii were eXam1i (1 prior to (distri butio) froll t le(se st 51(111s during 1941: 418.17( plants, 1.261t bud sticks and cutt ing., 43,388 1ols atild( t bers, and 131 shipments of seeds.
INTERCEPTIONS OF PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS
Thel in tercel1 tills of prohibited alnd re 'str icte(l 1plaInt an d plant 1prm(,ic in 194 4 are as follows: In baggage. 46.534: in cargo 199; in mail, 1,T I5; in ulllar ters, G617(; in stores. 33,5S; total. 57.)51. In :!i!ditlull. lil el ceitiols WVoe Illld(e 111 bl)a,i ge 1)tY ('11t01115 0cfic5rs at M3eiiall rd tl orts w)lie wre 110 llalt -(qua' 1it I lle iln)ectlors 1are' St a1 iii. ('1-tollls officers ati (alladian border ports witilout planlt(11:11':11 "11I iL i 'ltol's lialde 210 Illit ercel)t polls.
'1 hle B I "atl is fortIlnate inl having the interested., intelligent coo tl rat ili (tof II (1cistollls pel'sllil( ill t1 le eflorcecileit of fol'eign plant (ila*it li'es, piart icularly at j)Orls where traffic collditiollns do not 1lOW warrallt t1we services o f a p)lalit-(qlluaratie ill)pector. i 1 ,is is an m11)ortaillt fiaclt orIll 1i1a i aillilwr t lie sa feguliards a ,ga 1.- 4 ) ist et try.
PESTS INTERCEPTED
111i llg the in-Ipcll t ill of foreignin p)la lts and )lan t pj(i)d icts, andl of sili1 nh I lt'l. rec ie 1( m l t1 t i :ll llinla, fro ll:1 Wa ii an 111 1 I'erto Rico, iilel(iors :a1(d collaorators of t 1ll' ureau collected i1i-ets behmg111ng 0) s i'7 1reC,,gz((ul dSlqiemls amid ot hers dist rlibuted allo)lg )90 genera MIil ti l ill11 'i well a- i 1i gi tl ( t a, ( ri l llatlI aIll lll ~l e I ()el: ,1i ( I1() 2,:;S F ( W.g ei z l s il ies, aill 1arge lll11 )l's( ()1 t i ll'llt ) gll (,ns that
toi hi l i llr ed )ieIto gc ill f:1 f0 1110 orC glO go 1' 1 only. Maly o)f I lie.se iil cel( los wer' of illnl)otallt lplan1t pests: otil's were of sci(1 1 l ', llitze I, litl ,f I l :( 1111 l''e t 1' o t Oll d s ),f illsct'it Sll. l d ss es

Ii1 t l (e (r t;tl l :ts ',1 ,( \ (il l'g s I'ferl to 111111l l)r ,fi illterep(lti llS) : ld1 lli(teli;tl af 1red 'm cIr lI' f r c lispllptl iol, 2, I illnsects, 13, 54 Si.-I I : i 11 lat e ritual oti r'( ,l for e i ry f(0' ) I'ol igati 1. 1 I insects, 491 d iease> ; i1 I tll el'la1 11(t irr,,d o(cu r1 s11b a1 iu1- ran1sit ship lent





BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 55

and materials in ships' stores, quarters, etc., 2,358 insects, 1,279 diseases; total, 27,577 insects, 15,424 diseases. In addition, inspectors stationed in Puerto Rico in connection with the enforcement of the fruit and vegetable quarantine made 60 collections of insects and 8 of diseases during their field and packing-house inspections.
PEST SURVEY IN VICINITY OF PORTS OF ENTRY
During the year 42,879 man-hours were explende(l in making anll insect and plant-hisease survey of the imore important food crops growing in the environs of the ports of elltry and internal ional a i sports Ou the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts and at the Mexican ,rde lr, for possible introduced plant pests. A total of 19.698 lots of iilsect mnaterial and 4.450 plant pathological specimens collected in the cou.ie of the survey were submitted to specialists for determinai t il.
As a result of the survey samples of several insects and plant diseases known to be of economic importance ini foreign areas Nere collected in the United States for the first time. The most implotalit insects found include two bean pod borers, Mlaruca text lais (Geyer) and Fundella cistipeni s Dyar, found in Texas and Florida. respectively; a lepidopterous insect, GunorimocIr m ia gudiAV /io (1mll.) ( whose larvae attack the flowers and fruits of bell peppers, found in Florida; and the European rose maggot., Rhayoletis alt( reata (Fall.), found in rose hips in the States of Rhode Island and Washington.
Plant diseases found include Phomiop.sis tube ico Gus ow ain Foster, which causes a hard stem end rot of potatoes in British Columbia, and Elsinjo piri (Wor.) Jenkins. a fungus known to disi(ure apple and pear leaves and fruit in Europe, both found in the State of Washington; and the European fungus PIhonopsis juylU/ndiua (Fckl.) Hoehn., found on Ju~,/la:s rel;a L. in Califor nia.
Several insect pests, not wi(lelv distributed wit lin t lie United States, were found in are:ts where they had not been known previously to occur. New locality records that are of imlnortaince include the following: The Califolrnia red scale, a major pest of cit ris, was found in Arizona on lemon and grapefruit trees: t wo nii!ids. Pb/Op)p'Ioru perplextus D. ind S. and HeterotonIa nulrio/)fit?,m (Scop.) known to occur in the Northeastern States, were fo'un in WVashi gol n State. tlhe former on plum and the latter on apple and potato; the gelechiid Gnorimosch ma plaeioscnwa (Turner), an import ant pest of I)Otato es and tomatoes in New Zealand and Au-tralia. andl heretofore recorded only in this country from California, where the larvae attack niglitshade, was found infesting the same host in Louisiana.
CERTIFICATION FOR EXPORT
A total of 1,716 export certificates covering 594.306 containers were issued to meet the sanitary requirements of foreign count ries. Certificates were issued at 29 ports covering 40 commodit ies which were exported to 58 foreign countries.
INSECT PEST SURVEY AND INFORMATION
Owing to war conditions, no reviewing of literature for survey data was carried on (luring the year, except what was nearv to meet specific requests for information. Approximately 5,.000 current notes were added to the Insect Pest Survey record, inicreasing thlie number






ANNUAL EP is OF D)EPATIM11ENT OF AGI(ICULTIE 1 9t4

f -i ,,ic lIMW o(n rev ,r bv abilout '2(0. TIh Survey files oW contain Ori (li )r(, t lal ., )0 )(Uwies of i.ets ad 5,000) ho.-t plants. ) ii iI t v .:a' 1 12.5 riv( 111t w i) sj w ifw ii il 1)r :61t l ()l 01 s> rvev mat~~~~( V I I 111(p h )II I~i 1 3 E th 1. 1' > H 'l l 10 1w l l t fa l 0 1 b lif V O V I l i I' w(e Il h .' Ve f i (ll ries f1'111 he di ision of the Bureau.
ol lr limi IV lilltitil s a:10 1d al an11al summary of isect ConlditioS

Y\ ,tal o 1J.Hi, prim al1 pub l i ch i o"1mul 1:11.:0 mp1)ie of reguliturf IlI tcr1al Wer( (list 'illi ,t. T1 >erie of lci fl al 011 1 Ins(ts in Ielat0 I I to Nai i al 1)efeil-e was exhiausteI( and hldl to be reprinted.

EDITORIAL WORK ANI) PUBLICATIONS

At the Iegi in 1 of i ic vr 170 111111 'iu'il)ts Wl'ce oi, hand, and Srin ] ti hear 0U 1 were re eiv 'ed,. i'iking a total of 574. Of these, ._' Wr Wt 1ilaWlIl. 11 wre im}lie1 by te 1 )Diartiwi.nt, 36 were 11(ll( in p)rOCeU-.sed fonl bY) the Bureau, and 332 were approved for 1tt ide pl)1 bication. On land at the end of ie year were 134 mainuscril pts. 111 of which were in the Bureau, 15 in the Office of Information, and in the Government Printing Office. Of the 111 in the Bureau, 44 were being reviewed or edited for departmental publication and (67 for publication outside.
Tlhe bureau's 41 Department publications includedd, in addition to tie annual report of the Chief of the Bureau. 6 Circulars. 4 Farmers' i bullet ins. 4 Leaflets, 3 Miscellaneous Publications, 5 Service and Regulatory Announcemennts, 11 Technical Bulletins, and 7 articles for the Journ al of Agricultural Research.

ORGANIZATION OF TIlE BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE
(C'hief of Iureau --------------------------------------- P. N. Annand.
Asite (hief --------------------------- A. S. Hoyt.
A-istnt Chief ( relator ------------------S. A. Rohwer.
Aistat Cief (resrh)-------------------- F. C. Bishopp.
Assis'tant h'liief 'nt rl -------------- V. L. Popham. c
As.iant ,i ief dmin istrat im ----F. II. Spencer. lI)ivit of ii:' and sies Se ----------V------B C(onnoril.
I i vision of I r-u- -l WVilliamn F. Loffler. _- -di- -ri l (- -li.o- _.... .olla P. Currie. 0
Iivi si i f Insement PI',st Survey a: d IIIforina iin G. .T. ICaluler. 0 Ilix is o of Fruit Ini-ee-t l- -eIigt-i ..ns 1). L. Vlan Dine. : I)iris a f r'itly Ini-a-i: Im A. (. laker. I Isi inn of 7.11micnan F'rui't1 (i'a trol --- P. A. 10.i0310. o Jaii sinn ofIn .hllgsno 11 o t lE('. .~itr E. rover. *- Ilivxi-in of Fun 'st Iniet Inxu",li ani(:nn F. C. ('raichead. Isi' s'.,n of i1sy ain Itraxi~n-t:ii \Intlh ('an rol I. A. She'al,. I l i is' wf rl,, I:is li (' I I1ral .1 1... ... .. ... '1. M a rtin .
Ish\ kingt of ('erva:l anld IForcel> l 'in at nvstientionls ..... ('. .11 IPackanl. "
])ihtvil, '|_______I )vi'.i'un of Trucik ( 'ropl and14 {:ni'in Iui'ect hIvest igat oni W. 11. White, Eli i ois in of 4'Cottonl Ins'.o t Inuvwi'lie: tion. I.... ... t. W. Iliarned.
I jsh i ,n of I'ink lInlxvorin :nid 'hiurlhoria WVeevil C nlrol 1.. F. (url. Iliti, n of BIo Cuilture .. 1 II:iunhleton. liviD o of Insects AffTelting Ma:n uInl Aninuls IV. E. Dove. I 1ix inl of Insei't IdentifliCn ion C. F. ,V. Muesebeck. I)iv i nu oim f For in I'a rasite Int reduction ........ --(-C. P. ('laus 11n.
Ilivi in of 4',,1tr l lunv stintionls . ... C. P. (l:ansen. I Div iin o(f I nsi t icide IinviIstigt ons I. (. lIo:rk. ix i in of For.'ign Plant Quar: ntin e -.. E. it. Sus i ision of Grnsshopp r (1)!ntrol ......... ..---- Claude Wukeland.

0 8 GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE1 9 l4S