Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

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Title:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Running title:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Research Administration
Annual reports of Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Physical Description:
v. : 22 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Frequency:
annual

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1935-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: 1953.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Fiscal year ends June 30.
General Note:
Title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030261108
oclc - 04300772
lccn - sn 86033745
Classification:
lcc - SB823 .A182
ddc - 632.906173
System ID:
AA00022935:00001

Related Items

Preceded by:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology

Full Text

I/








REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE, 1935



A UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
*BuREAu OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE,
Washington, D. C., September 16, 1935.
lion. HENRY A. WALLACE,
Secretary of Agriculture.
DEAR MR. SECRETARY: I submit herewith a report of the work of
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1935.
Sincerely yours,
LEE A. STRONG, Chief.


INTRODUCTION

In accord with the reorganization directed by the Secretary and approved by
Congress, the investigational work on insects previously carried on in the Bureau of Entomology and the activities concerned with control and eradication of plant pests and the enforcement of plant quarantines previously carried on in the Bureau of Plant Quarantine, together with the functions concerned with the control and eradication of plant diseases directed by the Bureau of Plant Industry, were consolidated at the beginning of the fiscal year into the newly created Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
Effective September 1, the chemical work on insecticides and fungicides previously carried on in the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils was transferred, by order of the Secretary, to the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
These investigations on the chemistry of insecticides continued under the direction of R. C. Roark as leader of the Division of Insecticide Investigations.
The unfortunate and untimely death of Karl F. Kellerman, who had charge of the Division of Plant Disease Control of the Bureau of Entomology, was followed by the reassignment of certain activities previously carried on in that unit. Stanley B. Fracker, who had been in charge of the Division of Domestic Plant Quarantines of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine, was designated as leader of the Division of Plant Disease Control and the scope of the Division restricted to work concerned with the control and prevention of spread of white pine blister rust and black stem rust of small grains. B. M. Gaddis was placed in charge of the Division of Domestic Plapnt Quarantines and the scope of the Division enlarged to include activities on the control and prevention of spread of the phony peach disease and citrus canker. The field direction of the work on the eradication of the Dutch eln disease was assi.-Ded to L. H. Worthley, who continued as field leader in charge of work on control and prevention of spread of the Japanese beetle and certitieition of products to meet the requirements of Federal and State quarantliles oi this pest, the -vl)sy, brown-tail, and satin moths, and the European c,,rn borer. Investigations on the physiology and toxicology of insects, handled as a unit in the Bureau of Entomology, were consolidated with th ,we co ncerned with the commercial application of control measures in the I bureau of Plant Quarantine, under the direction of L. A. Hawkins. The service and investi(ational work on insects attacking shade trees was assigned to the Divisioni of Forest Insect
Investigations.
-A3 During the fiscal year the regular and1secial" activities concerned with the
? control and prevention of spread of the gypsy 1oth, the eradicaton of bar24118-35----1







2 0NNUrL usPOrTs OF I):P1ArmENT OF .AnwUTUren, 1935

berry as an aid in combatinig black sten rust, and the control and prevention of spJread of white pine blister rust, were financed uebr allotments of emergency funds rather than being provided for in the regular appropriations made for the work of the Bureau. Special allotments of emergency funds were also made available to aid in the eradication of the Dutch elm disease and measures to suppress an infestation of the Japanese beetle discovered at St. IAluis, 'MO.

INSECT PEST SURVEY AND INFORMATION

During the year the Survey added to the permanent files of information on the distribution and abundance of insects over 12,000 notes on American insect pests in( over 7,000 on insect pests of other countries, bringing the total number now available for consultation to over 226,000. A new feature of the mineographied Insect Pest Survey Bulletin was started by issuing supplemental numbers as an avenue for the publication of more extensive and detailed survey reports on special subjects, such as The Species and Distribution of Grasshoppers Responsible for the 1934 Outbreak, and Insect Notes from Costa Rica in 1934.
During the year, 116 articles covering various phases of the activities of the Bureau were released to the press. A complete program for radio releases was prepared for the year and 39 talks were put on the air. The use of film strips as a means of visual education has been very greatly stimulated during the year. The construction of a comprehensive exhibit on the activities of the Bureau, to be shown at the San Diego Exposition, was planned and supervised. During the year over 100,000 publications were distributed, exclusive of those sent out on regular mailing lists and miscellaneous mimeographed material prepared from time to time.

FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
APPLE INSECTS

The major portion of the funds available for the work on apple insects. including a special allotment made by the Pub ic Works Administration, was used for investigations on the codling moth in an effort to develop a satisfactory and practical means of controlling the insect that does not result in objectionable residues at harvest time.
The large-scale tests of various insecticides carried on during the calendar year 1934 at numerous points indicated that lead arsenate is still the most generally satisfactory material available, although not fully effective in the control of severe infestations. Closely approaching lead arsenate in effectivehess was the nicotine-oil treatment. which, however, involves certain difficulties in proctical use. The fixed nicotine materials, nicotine bentonite and nicotine tannate, gave indications uficiently favorable to warrant the hope that a practical insecticide nay exist somewhere in this group of materials. Mixtures of' ground derris, cube, and pyrethruin with kaolin. applied as sprays, were incffvct ive for codling moth control. Laboratory studies to develop new and less object liable insecticidal compounds, preliminary to more extensive field experiment ation with the more promising materials, were continued. During Ie 193a masonI extensive tests are being malde with plienothitzine, a material which is mi;ale by fusing sulphur with diplhenylumine. This compound was first prepared by the Insecticide Division, and in laboratory experiments in 198 it was fIun I to be very toxic to codling tIot iI larvae. Preliminary results of otil field and laboratory experiments in the season of 193 are very encouraging, aItollugh, when combined with mineral oil ald with soybeun Oil, the material has caused serious injury. Mllch further field work Is of courile eded& 441 before the exact possibilities and limitations of this material can he detlrmlilled.
Th' hIn rgscHl experillient c ilducteld ill 1931 ill souhirl Indi:111:1 ill 111i'll one-hanlf of a 4-la-ew orchard was thoroughly cleaned up and banded Iicaieted 11hat these practices reduced the injury to the fruit by the codling moth by :o to 50 pHll"ll, thsl l finishing experillielital proof of the s llin)le*N of the fPesell tcollull~it ins. Experimient with orchid situation iand b1ndini lre being cuieo on ill son! horn liianl, Wvest Vlrgilli:I, -ahingtol, ad )re"II, H i 11 nllide d(e:t lied experilliellts with balndling to deterillille th1e exct :1i' l ]i'li l Ilmlxillft t 1re ne ded for fill cife il' S lllder conilitilllns ask ~ bI g l n* 11 1 ** itil Trt*Ionflk







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUAIIANTINE 3

In cooperation with the Yakima, Wash., Fruit Growers Association, experiments have been carried on with the sterilization of orchard boxes and other. containers. By passing them through live steam in an insulated wooden tunnel, it was found entirely feasible to kill practically all codling moth larvae at a cost of $0.75 to $2 per thousand for packing boxes, and at a cost of $1 to $2.67 per thousand for cannery lug boxes.
The large-scale bait-trap experiment conducted at Orleans, Ind., in 1934 indicated that the traps and materials now available will reduce the infestation by about 25 percent. Further studies of the use of baits and bait traps, in the hope of developing sufficiently effective materials and traps for use in direct control, are under way at Vincennes, Ind., and Yakima, Wash. Fundamental studies of the reaction of moths to lights are under way at Geneva, N. Y., in cooperation with the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, and large-scale tests of light traps are being carried on at Orleans, Ind., in cooperation with the Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station.
Further experiments with the control of the codling moth by the use of parasites are under way. The mass liberations of the egg parasite Trichogramma minutum Riley, made in 1934 at Yakima, Wash., and Cornelia, Ga., did not result in any appreciable reduction in the codling moth population. The egg-larval parasite Ascogaster carpocapsae Vier. has been introduced into a number of western and southwestern localities where it did not previously occur.
At Wooster, Ohio, tests are being conducted to determine the effect of oils, and of insecticidal materials that may be added to them, on hibernating larvae of the codling moth. Certain grades of pine-tar oil used at a strength of 50 percent appear to be effective and are more toxic than are other oils tested.
PEACH INSECTS

The station at Fort Valley, Ga., has continued its efforts to develop a satisfactory substitute for lead arsenate for the control of the plum curculio on peaches. Fluorine compounds tested during the early summer of 1935 caused serious injury to the fruit. This injury, which appeared to an equal extent on trees sprayed with bariu fluosilicate, with synthetic cryolite, and with natural cryolite, was sufficiently severe to rule out these materials for use on peach trees.
Further studies of the effect of lime-sulphur, applied during the dormant period for the control of the San Jose scale, have revealed the fact that mortality counts made within a month or two after the spraying are very misleading and that, for full information on the effect of lime-sulphur, it is necessary to delay the examination for 4 or 5 months.
The rearing and liberation of imported parasites of the oriental fruit moth have been continued. Some 216 colonies, chiefly of foreign parasites, containing 45,000 parasites, have been released by the workers of the Moorestown, N. J., laboratory in various peach-producing sections in 13 Eastern and Middle Western States. Recovery collections have indicated that the general level of parasitization is increasing, although there has not yet been time for the general establishment of many of the foreign parasites that have been liberated.
The investigations of baits and bait traps for the control of the oriental fruit moth have been transferred from Cornelia, Ga., to Moorestown. N. J., where much better facilities are available for the work.

GRAPE INSECTS
Numerous possible substitutes for lead arsenate have been tested against the grape berry moth at Sandusky, Ohio. This insect appears to be more, readily controlled than the codling moth, and satisfactory control was obtained with nicotine bentonite, nicotine tannate, nicotine sulphate with mineral oil. and mixtures of ground pyrethrum with kaolin. For the most part these. mixtures cannot be used in a practical way, however, as they apI!arently affected the fruit unfavorably. The mixtures which included kaolin and bentonite left very unsightly deposits on the grapes, which, although nonpoisonous, made the fruit practically unsalable. There is a possibility, however, that the use of certain of these clays may prove unobjectionable, or even advantageous, on grapes produced for juice. Mixtures containing oil r(m ved the bloom from the berries, giving them a very unattractive appearane.







01' OF

w ith btll'Jilll'_1 I*-r t1w r(m ll"Ill 4 111', gl.alw 11(11T V lll(,tll (Illrill,4 till, w ilil''r Il ill NN-1111 tilt, 1bu l.c.111 ff A gi-icu ltliral
J1'lI- 1111- lJs- _,, 11:1vt. (I 1-.11i1c l. 1.10"irly I I I I I till, 1-1 a c tli't, i 1;( 't tt'a .- ib le
r: I I I PV 4 I J( Ill,[ F;_11 I]:-, lit, VIt 1-1 l%\ t vf-r, I J I I P '' 111, il L: I i I I i I is -I* n ; I I I I I.,., I ft )I f t Ile g ra p e
i f I I r ?'Q )1 14 11 Say all ( I rel, I t e I I ie.,,

NUT INSECTS

1'urther e'.\pei-iIliellt.s ill the eotitrol of the lwcan nut ca-e lwirer (A(-rrba.*i--?
Grote) in the Brownwood, Tex., ,trea have c(lidirineil earlier work, in(licatiril,; a ctnitrol of 95 per(-eiit or better from two ,I pplica t it'll S of lead ;irs4,iiite at a strength of 3 pumls pi r 100 gallows, iii-lde ill the lattli-r part of May or early in June, during t1w 1wriod of activity of fit-4-Ill-im(I larvae. A single application gave a control of 75 perc-ent or more. The adolition ()f ziitc
sulphate or fish oil to the lead arsenzite appeared to have (_-onipariiively little influence, on its effectiveness. Two applications of tllree-fourtli- 4 1 percent
summer oil with nic()tine sulphate (1 to 1,(M) gave a c4mtrld (4 ijwrt, than !)5 percent under Texas conditions, e()iifirming similar results which have been obt,iiiwil ill the vicinity of Albany, Ga. A single applicitti(on ,._,ave results
nearly as good. A number of commercial g,,rowers in centnil Texas have been impresse(I by the results (6taiiied in nut ease bearer control mol are installing the n(Tessary spray equip.iwtit.
The liberations of Trit-hogli-aninia mimitum duriiig, 1M5 for tlie control of the pecan nut ease bearer near AlIlMy, Ga., have resulted ill soine reduction in inl*esTation in corutin orchar(ls: in others the results h(tvii, beeii iticonclusive, largely because of the lightness (of tho infestation. Small-scale experiments in 1 934 with the use of this parasite for the control of the leaf case bearer (21(--roba.0s palliolella. Rag.) g-ve ill apparent reduction of about one-t1iird ,ol' flie infestation.
E.xperimerits in the control of the obscure scale conducted near Shroveport. Di., have indie:tted further the su:;;ceplibility of pecan trevs, to injur y from the
us(, ff oil sprays. It appears that flic oils should be ussod with gn at o:. on trees low ill vigc)r.
DRIED-FRUIT INSECTS

At the Fresno, Calif., laboratory studies have been ni:illo of (Ievice.,- f(or n (lu(I-in- infest, ltion in dried raisiu z by the niisin moth C'r(1,r.). It has been found pt- 4.sible to remove a substantizil portiqln ()f the ii (-(,ts from raisiw, oil ranclw.s hy passing the fruit over a special y builr an(l zpreeuinz device. AVith certain varieties- a reductioll of illore than 90 pircejit has heiii With others the r(-sults luiv(, been
lteszs favor.ible and ind1(.,,lt(, Ille lwt d (lf further adaptati(m.
In preliminary vxpeririwios. t mixture cmi zi -zthig of glucosee mil
-_ elathi, applied to Adri;iIii(- hv (if a paint
fi( .11im i, I)\. jilt, driod-frilil hcetItli
-iN -n vx( .1(1
"vIlich illfests grmvill _, fruit, conlributintz to ill(, bY vnriou4
ill k-nt-orga llisins. With Cilhii yrii:i fl- "4 thiq pr:wtico iplwar!- it) 1w of less
-;illre it is 1(0 d(I.1y ille se:11ill" 11111H tll(, 11:1\-k, hfell p(llhY Plq.- fopbtlfm.
'I'llo ww-hor, If 111(t Fre ,It() t;iiiwi li:i\-k, with r(,pr(-ow :oiVt1S
41, 1 1141 1'111-c:111 fll' P 1:111f ITI(III-1-4 1-V ill loll df'\fdl !) 1110,111S ()I' 10-Olh W iTl41ll11(, -;(,psIs-fi-,,(, Platopb(, ga ill ortiler 111:11 tlws( 11(dillmlill", ilv,(wt ; 111:1v bo jilt rodliced jilt') Jill tlw y lrt l1(,c(Ict!. w ith'alt at the Hillo
:111d othol. tlz
S I'll, TtZ OPICA 1, FHUIT INSECTS

l'i:l_ stnllw l )1:1, volltillued it's \\ith vnlit-)Ils adI'(11. 11"o Illphlir 4,,T*,, N-, :in(i (w t- f(lr ow ,lw roi )r ti)e c-Al"lls
I I I I t r i :I I I I I I I -; fn 1'. prel im I 11;l rY I'('] 1W .1 -, illd k.:1 to t I I e
111- 1 111'11116 -4 I'm :III-Tilile n :11111 :1 111111ill lilt)
I I'll(. st-w il,11 :11<4) (.11111111cled ill c'- pernti(Ill w ith
III,- Blirt'111- ()f 1,1:111t Tildilstry '171(l 4114,711i try :111,1 Sltlil s Ill di'lerillille lilt,
I.irt;ir Qw-1W -it citrll-- trf.i- NOwn :lplllil .l ill -111:1!l 4111militie< ill :1
111-elichill". -pr:ly coll-






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

taining 8 pounds of tartar emtic and 5 gallons of molasses in 100 gallo, of spray have caused sever njury. Mist sprays of the same mixtures, o, the other hand, have not c, used appreciable injury. No effect on fruit (Imposition has been observed thus far. Similar experiments have been conducted in the Rio Grande Valley with the cooperation of the Division as Mexican Fruit Fly Control, with similar results.
Further extensive work is being carried on by the Whittier. Calif., station with the control of the citrus thrips (Scirtoth rips citri Moulton). A number of materials other than sulphur are being tested this season, including dusts containing rotenone, zinc sulphate, pyrethrum, and zinc oxide. Tests are also under way with bentonite and blood albumen as stickers for sulphur dusts.
The Whittier station has continued to obtain data on the biology of the California red scale as a basis for a study of the resistance of this insect te umigation with hydrocyanic acid gas.
FRUIT FLIES

Investigations on various fruit flies that are potential pests to fruit culture in the continental United States have been continued at laboratories in Honolulu, Hawaii; Mexico City, Mexico; Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; and Balb(a. Canal Zone.
In Honolulu studies to determine the effects of high and low temperatures on the immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly in various host fruits have received special attention. Hundreds of thousands of larvae and thousands of infested fruits have been used in these tests. These have centered around the time interval required at 310 to 32o and 108' to 112' F. Laboratory and field studies have also been made to determine the effect a wide variety of poisons may have on adults when used in sweetened sprays. Among the materials tested were various nicotine compounds, copper arsenite, copper tartrate, copper sucrate, and certain salts of cadmium. Some of these are more effective than lead arsenate but none were as toX as tartar emetic. Experiments to develop and determine the usefulness f diff tT~e f traps and
baits in controlling and detecting the presence of adults have been continu 4. special attention being directed to those containing or releasing ammona.
At Mexico City, attention has been directed principally to baits and poisons, for the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and related forms Anastrepha. The studies on baits indicate that a product of the metabflisnm of yeast or other organisms presents one of the attractive principles. Coppei compounds, particularly copper sucrate, have shown a high degree of toxicity. and a special study has been made of them. Attention has also been given to determine the host preference of various fruit flies occurring in Mexico and to experiments to determine the effect of climatic factors, especially low temperatures, on survival. Adults of both A. lude-ns and A. Serpentina Wied. survived in outdoor air temperatures as low as 220 F., but both are killed when exposed to temperatures reaching a minimum of 140 for a period of -Th hours. A. ludens appears to be more resistant to low temperatures than (()es, A. serpentina.
At Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, the studies have been concerned with Anastrcpha acidusa Walker and A. suspense Loew and have consisted principally o(f te under Puerto Rico conditions.
STwenty-two species of fruit flies are known to occur in the Canal Zone, ai n work at the Balboa laboratory has been concerned principally with tIh d(etermination of facts on the habits and host preferences of the various pjeaio

PHONY PEACH DISEASE CONTROL

The phony peach disease, a virus disease intercommunicable among pea(!. plum, apricot, almond, and several other species, is known to have xexiste I in peach philntings in Georgia for more than 50 years. It was not, however, until about 1920 that serious economic damage occurred. The disease is nIow recognized as a potential menace to the commercial growing of p)eamihes in tlhiz country. The limited amount of scouting from 1920 to 1934 showed(l that the disease had spread to other States, and it is now known to be widle-spreati throughout Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, eastern Texas, and northern Florida, and scattered in South ('arolina. Tenne.sse(e, and ArkawnsI. A few cases have been found in Northl ('arolina, Missouri, ;md Illinois, ild ii






d1b
VA 7ANNUAL PE.11011TS OF DEPAI, I MEN-l 01'

oil(, phialy jj,(q, NN.,Is foUnd Ili outh(-rn OkLilimm-i. V)2 t this BjlI-p;jjl
1111dert,1111-er) tile prt.%-4 11tioll of t1le spre"I'l of tll(' 1111olly pe.lch dise,.ise throwli lilt, Illm-elliellt of 11111- 4el- v Stock from iiifected wirseries. The clo, vly coordinated
oradic'Ition I)rojeft Ilint liad licen carri(41 on by Iliv Buro.tll of Plant Industry
V)29 tr;lll-ferrell 1() 1111, Mlr(, I (of Eritoiiiolwzy in December iliTA
tooth Nvere Coll ,ol idatfd the ye lr into :I unified project Nvilli
I i el (I 1w;idilu.irters at I Ite I'llepartitic I i t "4 114"Ich Di eil. Durin- the period from V9229 to the 11kcal year 192.5, Inclusive, 5S9,290 trees in (-oimneveial tand home orchards ill 13 States \vere found ilifecte(I (.ili(l
in :A(lition to eradie-itions un(ler the Civil Worh ; Adiiiinktrtti(in till(] wi;,-(,ry-Di,4I)ection work. All the evidew-e obtaffied during. this 1)(Irio(l in(licnt(- ,
:;I.It oconoiiiic control is practic-ahle, under the method ('111ployt-11.
The eradication work ill orchards during the fiscal year P):),.-) is givell ill table 1.

1.-Coomlcrcial 01*0mrds aiid honir pi-(jjwrtic., ivj)(,rfcd b!i Fcdrral (ind
-1 t(itc inlicotors in cooperatio)l, to (Icterviine the j)i*c.,rncC or absence of
pliwiil pc(wh, (H.,wasc. flsc(il year 1935

Coniniercial orchards Home orchards and escaped trees

Properties Trees Properties Trees Tt)t-d
State 111lony
treeS'
In- in- Inspected Pht)n Inspected Phony spected Phony spected Phony

.Yu m I rr Nu ni b e r Alu ni b e r n e r A -um b c r Nu m b c r _V?1711hCr N11 M er Nu m ,)er
--------- 15 615 5,017,209 w, !,r4 1, 627 5: 11 ) 46, 491 2,014 9S. 061
kj -------- 3 2 1,300 2 299 24 937 ; -,,o
-------- 17 371,405 27 ii 2 77
L)A ------- .51 0 154,305 0 250 1, 5 ir 0
1 76 51 3. 6,52 2,193 5,210 2S5 4 7, 2o 5 1, 162 3, 3 15
1) ------ 31M 540 25 -1, ,i 25 9 2 s, 2to3 I '1 49 414
Nlmh 22 1 5 1, 212 19 1 24 29
C-irolina S 0,. .12 -5 2 13: 0 3 2
Tflllwssee 32 4, -, f,
I 113, r 21 1 9 7 2 10 1 , -, I -, -) 26
): i, ,, 5 7 4-52 tj
14 7 2 20 2 3 :!6
---------Total----. 1,264 701 5,892,50 99,589 10, '.'7 .1 S99 135, WO 3,34S 102,937


T I I e d ft ta i i i table 1 show that in coninierchal orchavis 1.69 Percent of lilt,
treos hispeeted were found to be witli. the i)lioliy pezich, dise t -e Z1114
th a in the horrie orclitards 2.47 perc,, zit Nvere s( Difecod.
X llew plall of action was put illto effevct -,it the bc,_ Iuning of the 19:15 fivId season for the purpose of obtainill'-, (letillite ilifornintioll as to till' ('Vellt "f itispection an(] the scopo of the nil probleitt. For this purl)oso, four -11tIritic
lines of activity were determined upon : ( 1 ) In the Giff mv:t where ilifok t ioll Is prevalent to the extroine Nve stcrll limit.itioll of prodilk-tilill, 11111'skll"Venvirow, insliection is first (-oll ,iderati('Tl .1 prev('11tive llit';1sure
against I oil g-d i 4 a rice sp re i (1 2 ) it I s jwe I I (! I i a it (I (I I-, I i I i i I i o I I o f (I i So Ia Set I 1114 It 11.1 in orchar(I-t fil this 111-va iII; Oso undel-1,111-A,11, the ('0111111(11'Ci'll nro;ls receiving prillcipill :11tvillil)II ; (3) in tile li'Oltly infected St.lit's (4 North C.irolilm, South Carlirw. T(,wio .see, Arkansas, Oklithowa, INlissouri. :md Ill:niiis. it is the aiiii It" (1F;ItIi(-:It4I 111 ImoNvIl illfect(A tree".4, thus prev'.11till."." if the
, Ilre:ld ()f th(I into ii(,w nrc:is; (4) ,1 -cnoral surVOY of
)( ];i\v;ire, Noxv Jersey, Mit ryl i it,], Vir.L iiii,(, Kew it -k.\
41111111, 'Ill'i iljdl 111:1 1,. illvler Nv.IY to 1,111! :i1ld (1c:-11'0Y "MY that m i"Ilt ))(I pres( Ilt Ill tlli,4 Ill't klw w ll I() Ile ilifected, 'I'll i
lhww of (Ill, 111--litly llifected 11 -[ 11(1\\ kIlliw il
Nvith jlh( Il i \ lwn''ll di I W rilig I Ill I ye'l r n -Si -t I nco N\ a.- .' i \ k I 1 1 11 t.ff()I't-; to
i.lut-lif i( 1w:w l" fluvmrie .111d to
till, -tatw (,f tho (1*-c;i,(, :111d :1(1
j1I-:I(.tic:Ih1(I Ilw tjlw k ,I' culliw, ;ill(l b(irkIr-injured trees.
:01 ".Ilco of tilt, NvO llill .1 1-111ilo I-ndills ()I, 11111'scries, or clillin..- at
divv: 11'", tilliv, k n cerf Ific:I I, loll rl-4111i rellicill pInced 1) v 111:111\ stlltt s ill \Nllil.ll the jw;w h jl)jIjl" tI.y i -: 4,1, (.4 -oilt m llc VI'del-:11 ill 1his w ork i,;






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 7

strictly limited to the development of practicable methods and the dissemination of such information. Diseased trees found in the course of inspection are removed by State inspectors and owners. Orchardists also willingly furnished labor for the destruction of infected trees. In the summer of 1934, after the beginning of the fiscal year, 137 nurseries in 10 infected States were inspected, and more than 300 phony trees in the 1-mile zone were found and removed. In the summer of 1935, 30 nurseries had been inspected up to July 1 and 124 infected trees found in the environs and destroyed.
Many peach growers in Georgia recently expressed confidence that the eradication of escaped peach trees conducted by the Civil Works Administration in the winter of 1983-34, in clearing out wild and abandoned peach trees, had done much toward solving the problem of phony peach disease control. Other growers have commented on the noticeable decrease in the number of curculios infesting trees in orchards so protected, as compared with those not protected. A similar project has been approved for the fiscal year 1906, to be carried on emergency relief funds, for the purpose of destroying wild host plants, chiefly escaped peaches and abandoned orchards, thus removing these reservoirs of regional infection that hamper the regular orchard eradication activities.

CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION

The citrus canker eradication campaign is unique in character in that it is the first instance of the use of Federal funds appropriated specifically for the eradication of a plant disease. Despite the skepticism of many specialists who, at the time the work was inaugurated 20 years ago, regarded the effort as foredoomed to failure, the citrus industry has been protected froin the ravages of this destructive disease. The effectiveness of this campaign is definitely proved by the fact that although canker was found on 515 properties in Florida, scattered through 26 counties, and approximately 3,000,000 citrus trees were destroyed because of the disease, no citrus canker has been reported since 1927 in this extremely important citrus-producing State.
During the years from 1915 to June 30, 1933, citrus canker eradication activities were maintained cooperatively with the States of Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, and Federal supervision was delegated to the Bureau of Plant Industry until December 1, 1933, when it was transferred to the Bureau of Entomology. During 1934 cooperative inspection work was limited to Louisiana and Texas in areas where incipient infections were known to persist.
In the fiscal year 1935 the project was reorganized and a Bureau representative assignedl to direct activities in the field in cooperation with the State officers. Such field contact gave impetus to the work from the start. A methodical drive was centered in the Galveston area of Texas to search for infection in wild or abandoned trees in wooded bayous, along roadsides, or in nurseries or home plantings. Due to infections developing in relatively young plantings in this area from time to time it was obvious that somewhere in the vicinity lingered undiscovered infected trees and the task was to find and destroy them. From the beginning of the drive in January 1935 to the close of the fiscal year from 2 to 4 inspectors working this area found citrus canker on 31 properties. All infected trees, totaling COO. and exposed trees, totaling 5,728, were destroyed under State authority. All citrus trees located in the day's work were plotted on a map for use in the event of the approval of more extensive eradication under an emergency relief project. Limited scouting during the year failed to disclose any infection in the commercial area of the lhwer Rio Grande Valley or the citrus-growing areas of Mississippi and Alalima. In Louisiana citrus canker was found in three parishes during the summer of 1934. The 14 infected trees and 32 other exposed trees were destroyed and, although grove and fruit inspection has been continued in the iintervoiiing months, no further infection has been discovered in that State. There were 218.904 trees inspected in Louisiana from July to Dceniber 19'4. In Texas the inspection of S29.775 trees in 106 counties during the first half of the fiscal year disclosed 20 infected trees( on 2 proIperties in the Galveston area. These were destroyed.
An extremely important and enouraging factor in the campaign is the recent approval of an emergency relief project to destroy abandoned and escaped citrus trees throughout the citrus-produing areas o' Louisia na and Texas.
There is every reason to believe that c' mt inued system natic scouting in the itrus-producing areas, (f Texas and other States vill ultimately result in coniplete erad talion of citrus ("8iker frt ni the l1n0ted States.






C1
41 I'JIT0.1''I S 01' 14'PAHIM I-'_NT OF 9 j

It w ill bc I'm ed that tho, ill 1;11)1( 2 c.)v4ir -Ill.v 11w 6-111w ilh
h -_ n li i1q: I I I I I ; I ry 'N ill 1*1 Ct4l( I Jill J' ,( 'I'D I I I I (I i 11 1 N\ 1'11
(.1lifill v of 11N III(Im led \\Ilich N\en :111,1 11 W
rw ill(] ic"I I if Pill- tlitt ill I'lio (.(I -t ck luid he( n -Iiijijjvd fr, m <,wll 11ill

TmuE 2.-Citrus c ollnkcr bvq)c0i(,ms, Jawiar!l 1 0) Julle 30, P1.35

Trc+ in-I)ecti-i

k !i( ill G r() % I,
I Infected 2T] I


A'u mb(r ,Vnmbcr Ni li. r N r N
A l 2 1 0 1.;, 0,1 I ,
--------- 3 0 if
0 if 1)
.\T --------- 6 47"
---------------- 4, 1 (;,-1 31
Total --------- 20 5, W) 1 1; 1 'N' 31ll 0,4 C4- I, 1-'', 'A


MEXICAN FRUIT FLY CONTROL

ENLARGEMENT OF REGULATED AREA

On account of findiiig infested graiwi'ruit nelir Falfurria- ill )IIrch lit:;5, Brooks County, Tex., was added to the re-ulated area. The isr(ller pimin- this county umier the regulations of Quar-mitine -N4-. (1 1 prilimil _,,itcd March lit.
One sour oran,_(rt, was I (mild at Prellwilt, Jim Well- ('(11111T v.
about 8 miles north of Falfurrias. In view of tile filct th'it t1lere ino fruit in this locality, Jim Wells County Avas not included ill th, re''111:111 (I area.
INFESTATIONS IN TEXAS

ADULTS

By the use of t.r.aps in groves and brusli, adult Altia.,ztr(plia ludcn," Lilfew Nven,
trapped during 7 months of the fiseil yll,,ir 193,71. The fin t fly Nv;l- 1:01.eii iwar San Benito on Noveniber 26. In Deeeild 101- 11 111, ) T' 0 were I L I*-, e i i i i I v t, r S.
an(I in January 149 were submitted for idei!tifi(-,itioTi from n1l. di- tricli, i)t'
the re-ulated area except Mercedes tand Itavilwildvillh'. Durill', Fehru lry,
April, and Alay the number of adults trapped Nv.),s stenlilly re(h!,(,(l witil June. In tbat month Jim(, Nvas takeiii. Tile total for the yelr Nv:ls 371 adults taken on 1-19 premises. The total includes 23 -adull-z tniplitft in Starr, Webb, and Brooks C.ounties from 7 premises. Tbe nuinher w' ndult A. ludcvs 0ken in the valley proper r(j)rcseiiIs ,in incrc:i w ol' (,!) sj)4 chiwn over Ifie previews year. "I'liere was, Imw( ver. a decrease (11* 10 irif(-ted for VY14-35. Adults wcre tr-ipped at some tittit- during, the yc:tr in all districts except Raymolldville.
Trapping olitside the I(twer Rio Crnmle Valle v rtvttiled t1lisi :- everil -jwcie of fl-11it, flies were present Ili Stiirr. Z:lIlItI. 'llifil Wchh Cmlllti(' Ill
tli(,,<(, co-ounties, 23 A. lit(Icits: 1 A. scrpcifiti ia Wi(,(I. : (; t. sp. Y: 4 .1. frfitr)( iihis of v;irious authors, all(] 22.1 il. 1)01(-11. Cii)(1. were in tnip<. .%I1jj(lfIjL'jl
only llrool -, ("minty li;i.,4 beell "Id(It'd to t1le .11-0;l, ()pelntilm,
W IT" (1:11,1.it d (ill ill Hit, (Itlier cmilltili-4 11"Illied ill (Irder I() deter ille \%lit-ther furtlwr (,n1:ir,_,vment 41t, the regillatvil are.l he flecess'll-Y.
w 1,:111 () 1, 1 9: :" I "( vvrll, ('I'u] f ,t ()rm -;t ruck I his in T-4,:i. 'P d, 4 stm-m st i-lpped
(111:1111 it ill- (ifl, 1,1"llit fl*(Illl f h e I rel's tild ill 111:11 \ e:11. 1 Ile h iL-11 1-tw ill-11 for .1. lu(lrw, I r ijljwd vlm w In 111:11.( 11. 'I'll is p:r-A \ (,:I r I 1w grille ill Jim m-iry :m d 1,wl -( d (mi- (iff e(Iw iliii- till, Iii-11 (if the previ,111-- M :lrcli.
ill 1 oil 3:iiiii:iry 21 :till] till, w her 4)T, Vel wl,:i rv
#)6. Dolibiles< ilw-,, t1h1101*111:11 wc:111wr ll"llmlitifill-; nffel.14,41 thc VehrI12V V C IIAI c(olillsider.0.1 v, ,I., fit(- lotall dr(llillw il I'l-m il 1-12 floir if) 1,2
0 1] :1 k l is liff cm -11 t1%lp ill'- pvclim l; 111,1414'. thert,
judnm fl-npiwd f'riim J.-Itin:11-y Julle ill 19:1.-1 01:111 ill Ilie c()I*l,41SPf Old Ill L,
peri, "I (if I jl( 111-4 \ i(.)Ils V(,:l 1'.
The 114:11 milldwr 4)f 1(hilts or limstreplia Ndcllis tr.,lillped withinn 11iis 1wriod
811(m.11 In t.ihh, :".






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 9

TABLE 3.--A-Nastrcpia luides trapped in Texas, fiscal year 1935


District Adults Prem- District AdultsPreniises ise's

Mission ... .......------------------------- 55 33 Harlingen ------------------------12 9
McAllen .........------------------------ 32 19 San Benito.....................-----------------------.. 13 10
Edinburg ......------------------------ 16 11 Brownsville..................----------------------. 10 9
Pharr-San Juan-Alamo..... ----------- 97 29 Falfurrias ..................------------------------.. 12 1
Donna ..... .......-------------------------- 54 12 Starr and Webb Counties......--------. 11 6
Weslaco ... ....------------------------- 31 21
Mercedes ------------------------ 6 5 Total.....................--------------------- 371 179
La Feria ...------------------------- 22 14


LARVAE

Infested fruit was found in six districts from Weslaco westward to Mission. The first larvae were discovered in February and the last were found during tile clean-up in April. There were 30 premises involved in larval findings. This number includes 1 premise at Premont, Jim Wells County, and 2 premises near Falfurrias, Brooks County. The detailed larval findings are listed in table 4.

TABLE 4.-Infestations of Ainastrepha luden& in Texas, fiscal year 1935


District Larvae Premises District Larvae Premises
taken taken

NAumber Number Number Number
Mission --------------------- 269 10 Weslaco --------------------- 41 4
McAllen. --------------------- 71 2 Falfurrias and Premont..... 42 1 3
Edinburg............... -------------------- 7 2
Pharr-San Juan-Alamo..... 300 6 Total.... ------------------- 760 30
Donna.. .............---------------------- 30 3

SInfested fruit found in packing house at Falfurrias traced to 1 premise. This included in 3 infestations in Falfurrias and Preinont district.
OTHER FRUIT FLIES

By the use of traps the occurrence of nine other trypetids aside from Anastrepha ludens has been disclosed. Of these A. pallens occurs in largest number and is known to confine its attack to fruits of certain noneconomic native shrubs. A few specimens of the papaya fruit fly Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerst. have been captured, but the species has no economic significance under valley conditions. The other 7 species have not been found infesting fruit and comparatively little is known of their habits; 4 of them represent undescribed species. Of the better known species, A. serpentina was taken 96 times in traps rather generally over the entire area; 179 specimens of A. fralctrculus were taken, also generally distributed; and 4 adults of A. striata were taken from Edinburg, Mission, and McAllen districts.

COLLECTIONS OF SPECIMENS

During the year 30,790 specimens were submitted to the Ilarlingeni, Tex., laboratory for identification. This total includes all the specimens sent in by inspectors, both in Texas and Mexico, but does not include many larvae collected in Matmoros and turned over to t.e Mexican inspector for roaring purposes and transmittal to MIexico) City.

GENERAL INSPECTIONS

Part of the general dlut ics of the inspection force is gre insl)pec(tion for infested fruit and unsaniitary conditions in thle groves; tree-to-tree inspection on final clean-up); trap operations, and remiioval of alternate host-fruit trees and fruit. This work is carried onil t1r(mulout the year. 1)uring the past year 37,907 grove inspections were made. Traps were examined 331,635 times on 3.474 premises, and 104 alternate host-fruit tre,,- were (lestr)royed on 35 properties with the consent of the owners.







10 ANNUAL BP(OR'TS OF DEPART'ME-NT OF AGRICULTURE,193

INSPECTIONS IN MEXICO
inethle incejptiion of this project, it lias hee n deemed avs leto keetp an
insp1ctIOr ait MAhtainori is f'or t he pu riiose 44 tr-allpIilug paig nlcletn
lifcsted fruit. 'Thlere has- rectiitly bwen added olie part.tilne ifpeio tItIos. I t is believed( t Iha;it much(1 (if t he (Liiizor OfrinW C f Iromi It-% co
Is reduced b)y collecting ifested fruit before it Is Sold '11nd he~ore th~e larvae aire widely scatteredl along- tlie birdler.
These inispectors trapped in thes e two bh irder cities aiid ailjace(nt wild growth, f 8 A ?wsfrcjdh ludcn8,1s 1 A1. frate rculus. 7 A. !sp. Y, 2 .A. .siriata 'Scinj. 14 pti11f its, 1 A.srin' aand 1 A namtrcpli -p_ prohably niew. They also) ci-41
lected from marke-ot fruit 21 ,G37 A1. lude,11N lrvae, 135 A1. stiaa 57 .A. xfwrpentinwl 73 A. fratcnruulus, 1.628 Anastrcplia sIp. probably A4. ac-idiia Walk., and 179) IHlafqolctis sp. The total of all specimens sublmitted w\--s 21,1(19.
It is granted that aill infes4ted fruit on thle market ts is- nota found buit, by initens4ive trapping- and spraying- where adults are found, no larivail inifestations have been lcated (luring the past year in locally grown fruit.
Table 5 gives in retaill the results of inspe-c ion in 'Matainoros, ItLeynosa, anld adjacent wild growth.

TABLE 5.-In fe.stations of Ana8trepha spp, and other Tr 'ypctidac ini Mexican
border cit ies and adjacent wild growth, fiscal I/ear 1.935

Adults trapped Larrae and pupae found in market fruit



MN.onth 4~ Z;- -. U


-- 'C4 IJuly 1------------------ S -- -- -- ---- ---- is I11310 ------ .2 10
Aiivist---------------9 ---- --- ---- ---- ---- ---- 9 3-------- --12 1 113
sorteiihber------------ 4------ ---- ---- 1-- 5 417 --2- 1) i 1 2S
October ------------- ---- ---- ---- ---- --- --------- 0 ----- 21) 1 '-65
P-: Iv e d r 1------------ 6------ 1 --- --7 1,09 ------- i 1,211
Demr-------------6----- --------------------6 ---------14 11 2
Jini :r% -------------- 11 1 --I---- ---- ---- 13 3071- ---------S6-----------rur ------------ ---- ---- ---- ---- --- 3 3 3,017 --- 1 - --'3. (kI,
Mac----------- ---- -----4----- -----9 13 3,50-Al------ I----- ---- --- ---- 3.50
Api--------------3 2------------ ---6 "2 3------ ---- ----My-------------- -- 1 --_-- 9 1, 0 7 77 ------- ----- 1.114
June- ----------------------- ---------------1 #i 3: 48 1, 2 6
'rT:11 ---------- 68 1 7 2 1 114 1 94 2 .C) 1o-, 135 -7 731 179 2iI0

SPRAYING OPERATIONS IN TE-XAS
Wheon ain adult A. ludensio Nxas trapped o1r larvae were found], thie gro in question wvas sprayed with a nicotine sulphate-molaisses spray. During :he lUs-t yeoar, fromi December through April, the trees oil 2312 premises were given at least one complete coverage with this spray and in szone instances4 certain g,-roves were'( sprayedC~ twviee. There weren 92,613 trees prayedd.
Table 6 vnihodiws thtis coiplete record for the year, with comparative figures for 193:')-34.

TA\BLE 6.-surmmrji of spraluin.q opera tlwi in Texas, fiscal year 19,-5

Material used
Month Trees Premi~ss_______sprayed spNcotne olase

.N'umibe r N-umrbe r Gal tons Gallons
DI* ) e br --------------------------------------------- 2071 65 11 1224)
January -------------------------------------------------- 14, 274 31 66.75 1.33
February-------------------------------------------------- S.25 5 23 27.5W0 1 50
'March..----------------------------------------------------3,27 0 9S8 I1X 00. ZO5
April---------------- ------------------------------------- 24, 743 75IF 107-.S4 27. 5
Total ------------------------------------------------8S2, 613 22 3 1:. 49 6.,263
Total for 1933-34 ---------------------------------------- 95r. 65 7 243 41 & 8,5I






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 1 f

SHIPMENT OF FRUIT

The shipping season of 1934-35 opened on Sep ember 2G and the harvestliig season closed April 2. The last fruit to leave the valley was permitted out ii May. This was from cold-storage plants. Railroad reports for the se;ason!
show 4,572 solid carloads of fruit and 38 carloads of mixed fruit and vgvt;oble leaving the valley. These rail shipments show on our records as 4,671, eqluivalent car lots. The base used in computin- equivalent car lots was 372 boxes, 575 bushels, or 30,600 pounds in sacks. The increase in equivalent car lots over actual carloads was due in large part to the fact that fruit shplnents in sacks averaged considerably higher than 30,600 pounds to the carload. A total of
17,699 permits for shipment of fruit by truck were issued during thle season, or 2,801 equivalent car lots. Shipments by express are estimated at 100 (Uuivalent car lots. This makes a grand total for the season of 7,571 equivalent car lots.
During the shipping season of 1934-35 the new 100-pound box was introduced to the trade, 5 carloads of fruit being packed in such containers. A, new bushel box was also used to a small extent. The 10-pound sack was popular during the holiday period, 15,644 of such containers being used. The use of sacks for containers increased greatly during the season, 15 percent of the crop being moved in such containers, as compared to 0.5 percent the previous season. Of the total fruit shipped, oranges constituted 17 percent.
ROAD TRAFFIC INSPECTION

In order to enforce quarantine regulations, it is essential that motor vehicles be inspected when leaving the area. A road station is located on the main highway at the Brooks County line and this station passed 11,631 trucks from November to March, inclusive. These trucks carried 2,283.6 equivalent car lots of fruit. The average trucker is well aware of the regulations and, as. a result, only 9 trucks were turned back on account of not having correct. permits. Details of road-traffic inspection will be found in table 7; however, as the road station was open only from November through March, not all details of fruit movement by motor vehicles for the entire season are showi in this table.
TABLE 7.T-Road-traffic inspection, fiscal year 1935

Trucks inspected Fruit passed, packed in boxes and baskets
Month
Passed Not Grapefruit Oranges Total
passed G

Number Number Boxes Bushels Boxes Bushels Boxes Bushels
November ------------ 1, 534 1 19, 731 63, 111 7, 678 62, 153 27, 409 125, 264
December ----------- 2, 569 6 20, 781 93, 484 7, 711 130, 616 28, 492 224, 10
January --------------2, 676 0 21,550 116,955 5, 736 122, 348 27, 286 239, 3(
February -------------2, 851 1 18, 204 140, 218 8, 868 122, 613 27, 072 262, 831
March ---------------- 1, 991 1 26, 481 130, 149 1,627 35, 509 28, 108 165, 658
Total -----------11,621 9 106,747 543,917 31,620 473, 239 138, 367 1, 017, 15

Fruit passed in sacks
Fruit
Month confisGrape- Oranges Total cated
fruit

Number Number Sacks Pou nds Packages
November ---------------------------------------' 1,360 11,361 2,721 137,875 42
December -----------------------------------------1 4,667 '5,000 9,667 655, 340 42
January ------------------------------------------- 11,471 3,479 14,950 1, 192,.1 is
February ------------------------------------------ 23, 252 4,937 28, 189 2, 255, 120 or
March --------------------------------------------- 14,858 424 15, 22 122, 670 G
Total ---------------------------------------- 55, 608 15,201 70, 809 4, 33, 365 102

The total amount of fruit in sacks passed is correct. The kind of fruit in sacks was estimated for November and December.







ANNUAl. OF 14"PATT-MENT OF AGRkICULTURE*, 1935

'M I -S CE 1, 1. A NE 0 U S

MN N I N G I S

:11 'vell ci t rlis-c' III I I i I I )I:, ii I Nvero i r, k t i ( ii i riii part of the shippin'D:14_", ). Thv ,(- 1-:;mts u-(,d 1(;,2!)'' Ti)jis (,)f gi-apefruit, most of it
jui(vd. This tomiib,_,(- n)u _,Iily cars.

ENPERI.MENTAL -PRAYFNG

Tlji- project cirrjed on sl)r:, vin,_, experiments this szeask)n ill c(m)IArati(ln with
!i 1,uiv;iu (4 Ch,,nii try ahll 'S('ils and Ihe 1"lln.;111 ('f Plant 1111111stry. Th(,
ol (Al)(11-illiellTs t j (letel-111ilie Nvilat effect, if all v, t;ll-tar ('11letic
-it citru< tl'04's '111d I'vilit. It is T)I;illllefl to 1-w itilille tho,,_(2 ('Xp -rilllo llts Iii-ir-Al tht, c(,mii)- s4-isoi!.
WILD-110ST STUDIE-S

As severall '- peci(-' (4 fruit flic ;11.(, freqllf lltly t.11,:ell ill ill Ow
it is th''ll'--lit that Irc 1'revdilig'. ill A
(1le 11(lll I)f tile vall( y i-, t11oi'efir(,, beiiig- ni(tdo (m(l ,f fnii* ; and
plants tare selit ill to tll(:-, 1.11 lol'a I ()i- v d,,i i I y. Exaiiiin.iti( n ill Ilw fwl(l i- al-u,
bf-ing made. With tile ex( ,cptit)n of one coll('( )li (Of Aiiastrcplia ;p. larv;ie. r(-'IWI(A zis from the fruits of tlicst Ilidit'.' li;lve '111


WEST INDIAN FRUIT FLY AT KEY WEST, FLA.

h&- 1well continuN] Nvith the 'State Plant fir Fl(,rida Ili its
tO ('r'j(1ic;tte two forms of tile NN'cst PAian fruit 11v fro-in the islali(i ()f
West. A, ,in aid in carrying oil this Nvoork, ,in all,,tiiient (,f 36.000 Nv:i-, iiiade available bN the Public Works Administration, and th(, tnippin _,.
iii-,-;pectiou, and fruit-removal Nvork Nvas materially incr( SCII. iiiiie 2.10)
ww'e lised to dete(-t the 1)o. Z Mild no iiiii-nature (,f either ,Imsfrcjdla (7( W.Ilk-cr or -1.
P!Cps(l L(K-w \\ tq-e foulld (till ill the 10 lll()Iltlls ellde(l Jllll(, :,41, indic-'t ill--, Thar
prtgn-s has been umde ill reducill" tll(, 11111111lers of These

DATE SCALE ERADICATION
in- jj(,(,tjon w:ts continue(I ovor o zui:tller nrea durin.tr the year, a cwi,. IderzlhilIi.tvin,-, I)cen dr( I)iwd -i z fr(,( fr()jn scale durill- Hle t1scal V("Il- 19'"04.
rt,
Furt1ii-t- r(. diwtimi in acrea,_ Nva 4 made in the er.1dicati(Iii ir(,,,t (1111-ing tile
i)r(-eiit li- cai year. (I'lean-up work was completed iii Ariziirt. Nfl, Pailiji'l-111
was, foutid during tile year.

COACTIELLA VALLEY
I])(- ('av' 63.164 p'llin in.,jwct ions Nvere in:idt, fnini -rimuil :ill,!
25,71-M ni:illlr, from tho, ,,r(-)uii(i (.)iilv: find G'964 Wel'(1 ct-riifieil for
111W 11111(lilt. Lc tf NNerv l-('1l1()\c(! fl-( 111 29 pre\ 1;
prvVi()lv;1\ (Q14's (111(-, 'm :tild
.]till 2,k-13 p;ilni-, '11 or 110;11' previmi zl v infested pi.iiiiiii-, wert, 1)i-unod to f:lciliiiiq)- cti, ii. No) 11(irlaforia lins fllind itl 11w

IN1111]RIAL VALLEY
Ill tilt, 11111 eri:ll N"illf, L p:11111 ilp j'( ( I'llip-4 :11)d 1:1(lders n ild
11w I-Ill.\ ;il '] :".56) \\,( if,
I 4 1 ; I I I NN' I I I I : i I I I V I I I I P 1'c \' 0 1 y I i
I P ;1 Ili '- NV t 1, 1 11 11 11 1. 1 T
NN fflillid 11111-ili _r ilw 11
11 ( 1"'i-A N-":,l W 11
!A it! till Ill-Ill 1.1 ::1 41 7 off) .1 p :' 'l

PIMENIX DISTRICT
t I I I I z i r V i I I* A i I i A r 1 2 1






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT O'.\iANTINE 1,

sections were scouted for unlisted palms and 307 properties cheekvd f( volunteers. This conclud(les the eradication work in the Phoeinix istrict.
except for the final inspection of a few plantings of offshoots from previous, infested properties in the Coachella Valley and the Imperial Valley.
YUMA DISTRICT
In the Yuma district 530 palms were inspected from ground and ladders and 16,173 from the ground only, and 139 offshoots were certified for movement. Leaf bases were removed from 97 previously infested plnms. 643 palns in th(e infested area were d(lug out and destroyed, 239 palms were pruned and offshoots destroyed, and 14 were pruned. No scale was found. This concludes the eradication work in the Yuma district, except for ladder inspection on 3 properties.
A summary of date scale activities is given in table 8.

TABLE 8.-SummaLry of dat--scale activitie., fiscal year 1935

Arizona California

Item Yuma Phoenix Coachella Imperial Total
district district Valley Valley
district district district district

Palms inspected from ground and ladders -------------........... 530 12 6,167 4,478 11, 187
Palms inspected from ground only ------------------16, 173 2,617 25, 750 14, 545 59, 05
Offshoots inspected for movement ------------------139 0 6, 967 356 7, 462
Palms pruned to facilitate inspection.......... ----------------- 14 0 2, 343 77 2, 434
Palms pruned and offshoots destroyed................ ---------------239 0 0 0 239
Palms leaf-base inspected.------------------------- 97 0 29 24 150
Palms dug out and destroyed......................... 643 0 10 2 655
Sections scouted for unlisted palms ................... 0 4 0 4
Properties checked for volunteers ---------------------..................... 0 37 0 0 3C7
Palms checked to determine clean-up necessary..... ------- 4, 934 0 0 0 4, 934


JAPANESE AND ASIATIC BEETLE INVESTIGATIONS

JAPANESE BEETLE
The area continuously infested by the Japanese beetle in 1934 was estimate, at 9,700 square miles, in the States of New Jersey. New York, Pennsylvania. Delaware, and Maryland. This is an increase of 900 square miles over 193:L No appreciable increase in the beetle population was found in the oldei infested area of New Jersey. The infestation has definitely increased in tlhe more recently infested counties in southern New Jersey and in nearly all of the infested sections of Pennsylvania. Delaware, and Maryland. A source o01 public complaint has been the number of beetles, dead and alive, washed ui on the shores of bathing beaches. A combination of favorablle winds and high temperatures at the time of maximum beetle flights resulted in e(i1ormi(ous
swarms of beetles being carried over the Delaware River and the Atlantic Ocean. This situation has been particularly annoying along the New Jers-ey
and Long Island coast beaches.
It has been found that larval populations develop faster in sod fiehls lun in cultivated fields. The average density of the larval populatioi in the heavily infested districts ranged from 13.7 in pastures to 2.3 per square loot in pumpkin fields. It is evident that the population is higher in fields pl iled! to crops, such as corn and asparagus, on which beetles feed readily, th: ii fields of tomatoes, potatoes, and pumpkins, which are only (occasi)in;lly attacked.
During the past two winters unusually lo,\v temjPeratures and heavy snailo occurred in the area of general infestation. ()\vin, to the p)resence of a heavy covering of Snow, the soil temperature was only slightly iiiluenced Ioy the cold. and there is no evidence that there was any imairke general reduction of the larval population.
Bacterial diseases, particularly the miilky disease which appears to develop at a temperature above 600 F., caused a noticeable reduction in the larval population during the spring of 1935; in limited areas in sonie localities al(ut one-fifth of the larvae were affected. The occurrenice of disease is, however. localized and subject to considerable fluctuation due i, variadle soil c(onlilions.







I ANNL'AL 1:IEPOTS OF DEPAlT.M1ENT OF AGRICULTURE, 193.5

(C'nimirative t eI Nwere conducted under coitrollt The adult beetle causes considerable damage to roses in commercial greenhouses by emerging during the winter mouths and feeding on blooms. Tests during the season indicate that this damage an he prevented without injury to the plants by treating the beds with lead arsenate. Preliminary data indicate that ortiho-cliloro-phenol, cresol. limpid oil, and carbasota may be of considerable value as repellents for the Japanese beetle and thus afford protection to flowering shrubs in home gardens against injury by the hbetle.
In further study of the geraniol bait as an attractant for the Japanese beetle, it was found that none of the constituents of geraniol is more than 60 percent as attractive as the recommended combination of geraniol and eugenol. Phenyl ethyl alcohol added to the standard bait increased the attraction, but the Inerease in the cost of the bait for a comparatively small gain in the number of beetles caught does not appear to be warranted under general conditions. These studies have made it possible to prepare and recommend specifications for a cheaperr grade of geraniol for use in attracting the Japanese beetle. It has been definitely established that traps painted green and white are superior to traps painted with other colors. Public-service patents covering two types of Japanese beetle traps have been granted to F. W. Metzger.
I erris is a weak stomach poison but has a definite repellency for the adult Juilpanesc beetle, the repellent action appearing to be due to the rotenone and deguelin content. Exposure to light decreased the effectiveness of derris and the material was readily washed from foliage by rain. Several materials have been tested as stickers and as means to prevent the decomposition of derris in the field. Oils, while very effective stickers, have been found to accelerate the decomposition of derris when spread in a thin layer on the surface of the leaf. The emulsified residue from rosin stills has been found to be the cheapest and most effective sticker that does not accelerate the decomposition. The addition of magnesium silicate to the spray increased the period that the material is effective as a repellent. Derris without a sticker appeared to be of little value in the protection of early ripening apples from attack by the beetle. Derris with the sticker has given promising results. The derris spray has a disadvantage in that it is necessary to repeat the application every week to maintain goo(d control.
It has been known for several years that the application of hydrated lime afforded considerable protection to foliage from injury by the beetle, but the material was limited in Its usefulness on account of its poor adhesiveness. The addition of aluminum sulphate to the lime spray produced a residue on the foliage which Iasted through the summer. The use of this cheap, nontoxic repel lent spray offers considerable promise in commerci tal orchards and on 'rnaiimen tal trees and shrubs.
Invest int ion It I" Ielop Iethods for treating n-ricul t ural commodities to prevent artificial di personn if the insect by human agencies suggests that furnintion wit l ridraInit- ncid -aon disulphide. or ethylene oxide, now used for the treal ient of small fruits and banneuas, might be extended to in'-1101e poit t4, ni (o s, o-i I hhag,, peaches, apples, and certain other faurin products The lead u rsn te t re:Il''t of nursery stok in the field has been very satis(f orfa oIl:i mald it possibe to eliminate grubs in the soil about the roots of large entitiess (f stock. The major wveakness of the treatment is in the lack of a muiformu distribution in the conmerial nurseries. In tests, uniform list rihut inn nhws obtainieal by applying lead arsenate over the whole .1T'r1 14 _-rwtl w, whi cl plants were starting and working it into the soil. uwse aplij':It 1ti nf th hall asentate only to the area between rows of plants 4!1 11not, hox err r ul t in :i uniform dlistribution. Encourneing results lhave 1no~ obta iil with parnulichilorobellZee for the treailiwnt of certain varieties Saznlea: 1 111 pot ted pla mnts to debtroy lnrvae ill t ots.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARiANTINE 15

Considerable progress his been made in the coloilization of imported parasites of the Japanese beetle at a number of I)ints in the generally infested area. Tiphia vernali& Rohl. is now well established and increasing rapidly. In the spring of 1935, 141 colonies were placed in heavily infested areas in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, an(l Delaware, making a total of 493 colonies of this species in the field. T. popilliavora Roh. was defitely established in 1926 and has been extensively colonized; 185 colonies were placed in the field during this summer, bringing the total number of colonies to 379. This species shows more fluctuation in population from year to year than T. ernalis. Two colonies of the Korean strain of T. popitlavora, which appears in the field later than the Japanese type and is more nearly synchronized with the appearance of the third-instar larvae, were placed in the field, and sufficient material is available to place approximately 20 colonies of this parasite in the field during the coming year.
THE ASIATIC BEETLES

The Asiatic garden beetle (Autoserica castanea Arrow) has continued to spread westward on Long Island and in Westchester County, N. Y., in suburban areas immediately adjacent to Philadelphia, Pa., and throughout New Jersey. The injury caused by the grubs to vegetable seedlings was marked late in the spring and early in the summer. A large number of complaints were received from restaurants, drug stores, and baseball parks and other places of amusement which operate at night and use large flood lights, because the beetles were attracted to the lights in such enormous numbers that they became a nuisance and curtailed business activities.
It has been found that rose geranium oil, eugenol, and tansy oil are defnitely attractive to this beetle, indicating the possibilities of using these materials to increase the capture of the beetles in the light traps. Two types of traps and lights were tested, and on favorable nights as many as 2,000 beetles per trap were captured in a single hour. Tests during the summer indicate that this beetle can be controlled in vegetable gardens by the use of ai poisoned bait containing bran, lead arsenate, molasses, and water.
Tiphia asericae A. and J., a Chosenese parasite of the Asiatic garden beetle, which was liberated in previous years in the vicinity of Philadelphia, in northern New Jersey, and on Long Island, has been recovered in these localities.
The status of the oriental beetle (Anomala orientalis Waterh.) is about the same as in 1934, the spread of this species being relatively slight. Some injury has been observed in lawns and gardens but much less than is caused by the Asiatic garden beetle.

JAPANESE BEETLE QUARANTINE AND CONTROL

EXTENT OF INFESTATION

For the first year since the original quarantine on account of the Japanese beetle was issued in 1919 it was not considered necessary to extend the territory under regulation. Only three first-record finds of major importance-at St. Louis, Mo., Chicago, Ill., and Indianapolis, Ind.-were recorded during the 1934 trapping season. The most outstanding find at a point remote from the central infested area was that disclosed at St. Louis, where beetles were collected in such numbers as to indicate an established infestation. At Indianapolis 17 beetles were caught in a residential section at some distance from a railroad line. This infestation probably resulted from illegal transportation of infested plant material. The locations at which were trapped 6 beetles in Chicago and 1 beetle in East St. Louis, Ill., point to the probability that these adults had been transported by rail from the heavily infested sections of New Jersey or Pennsylvania.
With limited funds available for determining the spread of the insect, trapping was confined to those States immediately adjacent to known infested territory. Supplementing trap surveys in nonregulated territory in Maine, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, and Maryland, traps were operated to check previously determined infestations in Det roit, Mich., St. Louis, Mo., and Greenville, S. C., and to determine presence of the insect in Chicago and East St. Louis, Ill., and a few selected cities in Indiana. The season's trapping program began in Virginia on June 18. Trap distribution progressed northward following the dates of probable beetle emergence. The latest traps set were those placed in Maine. Except in cities where continued







16 AN., VAL OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUI..,TURE, 1935

"I I clw s N\ I rl- I w i I I I (I -I (-I* t I I(' I r, I p< \\ ere 4 .,1 ;If I( r a peri--d
of (ifiel';lG ill. V ill:11 tr.lIrs III M Iilie %v;",;
11 \ 21. P riipr It) Ihii-c traps I'(41"11(litio'llil, (I alld
N\ I t I I :111111jill I I I I 'T 1: 1111 t A 4 111 i S ) I.( I t f '( I i -, e ( .4 ; I I I l NV ( : I t I It I- ( I I I I 1 11 11
t I I ,1 1 111 ( I Ire \ it I I (-1 )1111 ill, i. I ill ill ( ) f : 1.4 11 (J Nv I I i to a 11) (. I t e
t i I i e r t S I I c r t I rc 4 l\\ lle4
..Ilfi "kill I lit-li 111"i h till fro ill) hil-11 I )w llm re; I ( I i I d ist ril m t o(l lo
I ('I I I t I ) I'N' I I I pi 1. 111- t : I i I I I I I I I I I I I S I \v c o f It_- n i I if I I I ) f OIll N. ,I I ) (if I I le 1 1.( lk cts l 11 1p 1N- I if 5( ;,( 11 it) I Izl )<.
.1, 1, !,()]1 1 o t ]I(- hill lortaitt fir t -ret-(ird fiiid < lio,(,i les N\-(-rll- caught
ill 5 clilf-s hi M;ifiw; .-S A1:iryIIll(I b()tII ilj -ido IlA outside tile
z-iw ill Dttr,,it, Mic-11., Nvlwro (I few hav'' Iw, 11 trappell oaell
Ncar Il co, ill 11) N(,w York citi(-: ill 6 01iio ill Erie. Pa.. wliere
;,ill Iii-I Nv;ls (lisel(,-ed ill If):',l ; in 6 cities in V;r4,iii';t and at 7 p6il's ill <(,t ill Greeliville, S. C., ill ;ill eff',I-t t" up additioll;ll lwt th. ;it tile. site Nvlwue ov(i betilesz iv( re h\ a I fl I
(.;I I cil 1'111 111('r speciniell.,4. PracticAly 111 (4 tile f( Nv illf(-TItiill(-()lI!-zist(-1 of zi few bcotles ewh. \i)jie ()f tlie-.m
1)(1iiited it) aii (,st-tbli hed iiife station.
T11(: -(mijigr (if traps in St. Louis for tile 1035 -4 zls(ili 1)0 1(111 oll 'May 10 fr'.111 ,t siipply of 10,463 new standard traps :,- hippel directly to St. L(olls frliii tit(, manufacturer in Philadelphia. By the viid of ttie fi.- cal Year. 5.M5 of tlo-e
NV(T(, in operatioli, and a total of 38 be( H(- 11,111 cau (_')It. owilv- possilll.v to
Jjt( I- eljIergelIe(_ tIjiS a consi(lolrilt)lo re(luclioi over lli 1!):,4 fi,,urt- till till,
s"Ilill, li!ate. At tll;it tiw( only 820 tr ip,< lizid bt eii ill pl we for I 11cri(id (if 11
0 1y or loss, and 513 ho,. ctles had been calittired. I'll(, f-ill applik:atiwi oil' le;i(l
a I]; 11, c to the, iufe ztcd sections, although less effectiN-e tlian it would have been
had Ilie ground Uelen poisoned before the egg,- lmlclwd. may have -iio le(t ill preventing any great increase in the larval populatiiiii.
,Southern trapping was under way at the end of the fisc ll \-(, lr in N(,rIII Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, the oifly Soutli(,rii Stit(-s ill Nvlilcli traps were used in 1935. Traps were used in 33 loealitio.- Ili -NorTli 23 in Carolina. and 33 in Virginia. Trap leii(lers ill tbese States were
stipjill( (I fr(mi relief rtills under projects apprl-v(,(I it t1w rt qtif-t ()f t1w si;ite CIll of the res1wetive States. A few oil,,li 11;111 Ilkit'll ;lt
('11,11,11itte, Durlmni, Elizabeth City, Goldsboro, Greoiisboro, Lumberton, Raleizli. Rocky M,)unt, Salisbury, Sanfortil. and Statesville, -N. C., alifl A-Iilmli. (',,itPPPT. E'mp)ria. Hopewell, Petor-hurg, Sitidton, Wesilmmpt,,ii, Dmirealli. Ilid
llill ,4, Va. Trap capturt-4 in lzirger numbIr- li.if! nmdk Ili Sp I)O.''r 111(1 Nviliston-Silorim. N. C.. and Greenville, S. C., wbere pitches liad been
ilt previml-z M():-4t of tile traps uscd in the-e 'S1,111were dr.twii from -I !- upply of 20.000 collapsible tiii-p1;ite Ir;tp,4 die Stamped ;illd ass(-mhled :it t1le Niw Cumberland, Pa., warebou
Pe tk emergence of tlie- adult beetle during 1934 Nv:is fr()m It) dtys to 2 Nvof-ks ill n(lvanc(, (if t1w ii-oml (late for in-iximum elm r B y Jill v 4. ill dtji-cl v
Pjfe:,iod -cctio,)iis of stiniliorn New J( r-cy, beetles lli(l kili(,d (,1) 01111*1 V 'TI,
wt(] 111.(mililig of foli--(' on Nidly dcvwlred trecs cvidcnt Ir''In I
di -I;III(v. By July 10 tile foli,.1(,(, of 111,111y trees Nv:l colliplotely skeletorlizod
ill Ow slilloolli section. ;Icllvit v rciclied its jwak Iy illo Illid(1h, If
lWii-iii.- \\ere in gi-cater members titan ever in WilTidn-Ilm. Pol. Cii!
fl)r i11- jw (.1i(1II ,It IIW Ill
(If beetle Frc(pww1\ cmi-i-t4llmonl- (if s1iii-e-i fri);
v ]):Ili] v ("Itell IIN- Hie illseet.
Althir'll-,11 till, B111('Nu mmio lit, ntlempt to -Ilrvcy l1w il;1711:1120 CAll'it'd hy till,
dm-ln Ilw ,iimmir 1"., 19:1-1, a rather V Ill'
\\.'I< 11w ve-11. ill 0 11111it-l-Im ll! ("illiltY N J.. m idtr
f 1114 R od I ( i dlll i I I i 1, Ill 4 1 ill T :I t e Ill vest i -,:I
1*;\111 I'll t! 0 V 4m il h i(1i\*ith jA i 1;1r:iw i, :liill :Il- t
w l-t V 4 M 114 I !I) I I I .-- :illd V t V I -l,:1 I I illcd III r4lir- -ill
I'l '( \\ FI I'l ( 'I v r, 111
r i .1 It I v I (11
lot, :(fill 761 individw il, Hw ir in qil'
II(T I 7 1.-) li'' illjIltY T ,il:ll (It, $ 1611;f;ll; lilt
(,I*("- V, :1 1.(~ v I ill I ]1,- 7 (I'A illit k, ],(,1 11 I'll TIN-lil %-I I ;m I Ill'A 1,14,

i1ji, 25.1,97
716 111(h 6 1111'll< i- 111- V
Ti, i-(:il. th(







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 17

of $268,663 on 77,611 acres, or an average per acre damage of $3.46. There are in Cumberland County 330,080 acres, 51,087 of which are in iiiarshli land. As the county is priniarily agricultural, there are in it approximately 278,993 tillable acres. Figured at the average damage per acre, county-wide damage f $965,316 is estimated. Irrespective of possible factors that might reduce this estimate, it is apparent that Japanese beetle damage is an important factor in the cost of producing farm commodities in this southern New Jersey county. From an analysis of the collected data, it is the conclusion of the Cumberlaind County planning engineer that concentration of the infestation in the vicinity of Shiloh is due chiefly to the inability of the beetles to cross Delaware Bay, thus resulting in a piling up of the insect in that section. A similar survey was made as an Emergency Relief Administration project in the adjoining county of Gloucester, but data collected were not made available to the Bureau.
In heavily infested agricultural sections in southern New Jersey, sections that for years have been subject to intensive beetle damage are still holding their maximum populations. For 3 consecutive years early maturing apples in certain orchards have been rendered unsalable by beetle feeding. In the Philadelphia water-front district the heavy flight of the adult expected in 1933 did not occur. In the summer of 1934 the insect resumed its heavy flight in the wharf and market districts, contradicting previous indications that the population might have decreased permanently. The adult flight in Philadelphia lasted for nearly 5 weeks, from July 11 to August 13.
Beetle feeding in one block of 1,200 Yellow Transparent apples located in southern New Jersey was responsible for almost complete destruction of the crop. In 1933, 3,600 bushels were harvested from the orchard. Only 36 bushels could be picked in 1934. Other severe commercial damage was evident throughout the densely infested sections.
Flotations of adult beetles in Delaware Bay, Raritan Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean were again observed, but not to the same extent as in 1933. The flotation from New Jersey to the Delaware shore on Delaware Bay was most pronounced in mid-July. Beetles were washed up on the beaches of Long Island on August 10.
Although Waterville, Maine, was included within the regulated zone as an extension of territory resulting from the spread determined in 1933, trapping was repeated there again in 1934 to learn whether the record-breaking subzero weather between the two seasons had killed off the overwintering grub population. Instead of 204 traps being operated for 30 days, as in 1933. this year 300 traps were set for 40 d(lays; and, whereas last year 139 beetles were trapped, this year's capture increased to 299. Apparently the soil temperature at a depth of 6 inches or more did not decline sufficiently to affect larval survival.
SUPPRESSIVE MEASURES

Another progressive reduction in the number of beetles captured in Erie, Pa., was recorded as a result of trapping in that city. A total of 1,427 traps wvas il operation from July 6 to September 8. This was the largest concentration of traps ever set in the city. Successive years' captures in Erie have been: 1931, 171; 1932, 282; 1933, 167; and 1934, 114. Of the 1934 total, 43 specimens were survivors of infestations discovered in 1930 and first treated in the fall of t year. Most of the remainder represents spread not previously determined. The significant feature of the control work in Erie is that intensive trapping in the older infested section of over 44 acres, where the soil has been poisoned for a period of 2 or more years, disclosed only 3 beetles Approximately 2,600 traps were set from June 19 to August 25, 1934, in the sections of St. Louis, 1Mo., believed most likely to be infected. witl the resultingi capture of 1,351 beetles. Funds were made available by Exectitive order t i.ot enabled the Bureau to apply lead arsenate to all sections of tlhe city where bee iles had been caught. WOrk was hOunIll oi1 Selptembier 20 and(l co cludud oit Novenil *r 3. In all, 220) tons of lead senate were applied to, 410 acres coliprising tlt. soil area in 117 infested cit.1 bocis. This is the lIr est control pror'ali evir
24118-3r5-----2







18 (a- FNT f)F 1935

ll1I(1(.l-t:Ik f-TI n t III ilife"t'itio ll. 111(t p (lislIll
NV(11*41 supp lio'd 1).N. the llw :ll 1-,1*4-1' 111 11IIi1li,-:t 1-a t i(,Il. 'F11(t (.it.v fi l-1, df.p;tl.tI1leT1t
l(1;t110d )1()se lill(- -ta h t ,till I I I v the it I 1 1-4 ed o X f -el I o 1 (.114 qw l.;Il i,)Il ill 1:1,J litatijI'_, I lit, Nv(ll.k. (4 -c(1lltllI1_r of nll 'ITA nmve
ntclit (If ho-t 111:111 1-in l fi-1,111 i< (,nf,,rcf-d.
,-XS !ZZO(111 111 Iplicat i( )11 4 (If lead an.;e1late "vele cm llpll lcd ill St. Lm li.-Z. the spi- IN e(Illipliwilt 'Is 11"llp-44ti-l-ed to 111dianal)olis, III(]., w hey-e \v( iv ti,4-ate(l tit Hit, r;ite tf 1,0()() poiiiiiI.,; of the oil iw-:ectit,-i(Ic 1)('r Icl.e. 'Flw (t (qwl-aliolls (.Xtviidf d fnini Novenilwi- 7 to 17.
Five of ]ead nrsellate were applied between De(-enilioi- ind 7 t(i the
pretnisc-- in ("harlottesville, Va., on which 60 J:ipajivse heetb s Nvei-p trapped durin the sunnier of 1934. Tlw treated sections c()niI)i-ise 10 aci-cs in a residential section near t1w tl'lws:ipr jk, & 0hio fi-(,i,-,Iit vnnl, and The
11tillinan, 0caiiing yards. ;krran-(-inents werc- imide hv the city wai ,i-er ()f
('har] ottesv il I e for reliet' labor an(I the use of iocossai-N- (,Jt e(Itlipilleill to
_rnient two Federally owned spray outfits.
Tripping 1) the park depttrtm nt of the city of 'Sprin rfiold. Ma, ,.Z.. resulte(l in the clipture of 45XWO beetles. Ili 1933, 36,000 lwellt-4 W(11'41 ill
same -area. One encouraging feature of the control work is that vei- N. few
beetles were cau,-_ht in traps placed in the sections which sev( ral +ai-s a,_( received lead arsentate treatments. In West Springfield, where
beetles were trapped in 1933, the traps collected only tappn)xiiiintel 2.440 beetles. As was the case in Springfield. practically no beetles were caught in traps operated in blocks previously poisoned.
HIGHWAY INSPECTION SERVICE

Vehicular-inspection stations at the border of the regul.ite(l territory wel*e already in operation on July 1 at 20 locations. Seven posts were bwatell oil the southern border of the Virginia regulated section. My on Ilw _Mni-yland1\'(,,,t Virginia State line, one in West Virginia, seven on the Vir,Zinia and Pennsylvania-0hio State lines, and three ill I"vmisNIvn1Ii;1 t4l (%I\er the Iii,_,hways leading fron) the regulated area of that Slate. Ili idditioll, tlll-(,e inspectors furnished with cars alternated between seven le.- s iniportint hi,_,Iistations ill the latter State. Vie highway in the border of or within Pennsylvania were discontinued by Novoiiihei- 2. 'rlip singflo station maintained near Keyser, W. Va., was closed on Oct(Ihei- 1-7). Fi v t, of the nine stations inspecting southbound, tr iflle were closed just priot- to ()I* shortly after Armistice Day. Continued southern, inovernent of liolidiv pl:int
material justified operation until November 10 of the stations on UnIted 'S I t e s flil,-,Iovvays Nos. I and 17 soutli of Fr( (Iericksburg, Va. Posts on Viiiied S t; it I "
Routes Nos. :10 and 211, west of Fairfax, Va., continued to :- outhlwtind
ti-,qflie until December 22 and 23, rc.spectively. The final interception of infested (-ontrahand during 1934 was made on .()veniber 1.
Late in 'Mareb 19*15 the four Virginili st:itiojis that Nvoi-e Inst t4) el(lse ill 1934 wvro reopened. Resumption of ictivitit-, tit 1-1 wher estahlislied posts in
Virgillia and on Ole, stato line.,: noi-iliward (illicl-IN' fl)llmved, with the n,)i-tIlertinit)tA Pennsylvania-01lio, .4atv lifie p'st opettill- ()1) 19. 'I'llese 111(.111(led
Ilvw vil-gild"i Imst, wl 'State nolte no. 4'. the I-o.lds leldillintr;i I.ite from the l'(qms.ylvimi.i regiflale(l tei-i-iioi-Y het_aii (In kl)t-il 2. Petills inspect-ors Nvere as 4iguvd by 'M:iy I0 to Oil, last (11' 11 s,_Itimls
to III- ()Iwi,.ited (]tiring the .4\11 Idditional pl)"t wns iliv(1ved ill the
19:' 5 Pfnns Nlv:ild:i intrastate "et-up. ill thl" \\-()I.k tit t1w end ()f the
lk(-:11 vt ;Il- 2 ) Federal mid 4 Ilemi, vIvmi;t inspect0i's.
Intcr(,cpiioii., wero nvide at till- ro:id jlw ts ()f !N lt)ts 4)f Id"llit Illatel-i'll ()I. ,01w i- pi-,,ibicts ri)nt;iiriin,r beellt, Fl.,)III c'm il-:111:111d
lw,)(hicls 11wre wei-II, i-iwoved 1SI lai-\;w ind 70 nihill,,. 'I'his is -.I cmisidvllble
()vel- 111(t lwecclliji -_, Ncii% w hen 112 (it' ill(, insect (,I flecn'll. 11w 111111111cl, lit' ITIlelcepti(Ills (it' ifift, -te(I \\",Is 111:1de :It l1w
Just -4mth (4 N'n_ lm Vnitc(I St:i ts
U -1111t No. 1. it w hil-11 I'll-, 4 illfl slk'd pi-ildlIcts W (TA,
\%(.re 141c:114-d I)II I'llitell '41:1tes Nwlh-4 N()S. '50 wid '211, Nvitst III'
V -I I I I (In I I I i 14 I I I I I I I i I I I v N I( l, \\ I .-A I' W I _k I \ : I I I I I I.
I I I IT)II'll-t ;I lit i I I I o I I I \\- t I I I : I I \ I I I I I 1_, I 1 .1 I I I I I. ( I to I I e F % I I I"V I1 It 11 ( I % 4 11 1 fl,( )III I to 4 t(t (I I I ; I I I It -; ('11 n ) I I. I ; I . t ( ) I ( ) \\- v r






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 19

Salem, Ohio. Examination of soil accompanying a single flowering plant being moved from Ihliladelphia, Pa., to Inkster, Mich., resulted in collection of 12 larvae. From numerous larvae taken from soil about the roots of 2 zinnias, 9 pansy plants, and 1 ivy plant being transported from Westtown, Pa., to Chautauqua. N. Y., there were identified 9 Japanese beetle grubs. Nine larvae were taken from SQil about the roots of two evergreens found ill the possession of a motorist traveling from Woodstown, N. J., o Carmel, ind. One of the summer interceptions consisted of nine adults taken from the cab of a truck en route from Lime Rock, Pa., to Woodstock, Va. All suspected larvae intercepted by road patrolmen are forwarded to field headquarters for identification.
Among nursery stock surrendered at the road stations were 130 lots of five-leafed pines seized while being transported in violation of Quarantine No. 63.
Inspection of small lots of plants and farn products by road inspectors was continued. The practice of removing uncertified soil and replacing it with fumigated soil on hand at the posts has met with very favorable public response and has materially reduced the frequent complaints that formerly were received from drivers who were obliged to surrender their products or return to a designated center for inspection and certification.
Motor vehicles stopped for inspection at the road stations during the year numbered 2,455,072. Of the cars and trucks examined, 16,695 were found to be transporting uninspected quarantined products.

CERTIFICATION AND TREATMENT OF NURSERY STOCK

Nursery and greenhouse scouting in the summer of 1934 resulted in the ending of adult beetles on a larger number of theretofore uninfested premises than were determined as infested in 1933. Infestations were found for the first time on 64 classified establishments, as compared with first-record finds on 33 such premises the preceding summer. Beetles have been found on the premises of 80 percent of the 363 classified establishments in New Jersey. This condition is largely a result of natural spread of the insect. Amon2,241 nurseries and gTeenhouses fulfilling the quarantine requirements for classification, 555 are infested and the owners are obliged to grow their stock in screened greenhouses, free it from soil, or chemically treat it before shipping to noninfested territory. This is a net decrease of 135 in the number of establishments on the classified list. There was a large reduction in infested classified establishments, many of which relinquished their classified status rather than conform to the conditions necessary for keeping their stock free from beetle infestation.
Spring demands for inspection and certification of nursery stock were consistently heavy in all States under regulation. A numb er of shippers that had been inactive for the past 3 years suddenly began shipping, with a consequent need for detailed examination of plant material from an unexpected source. This required that additional inspectors be hired to supplement the regular inspection force.
Soil samples collected from nursery plots treated with lead arsenfite were submitted to the Japanese beetle research laboratory for analyses. For the purpose of determining the present toxicity of poisoned nursery plots. 873 samples were collected during April and the early part of May. Results of the analyses were available in time to permit nurseries to restore their treated sections to the required dosage of 1,504) pounds of the soil insecticide per acre by the dates prescribed in the treating instructions. A total of 76.7 acres, containing 362,048 items of growing nursery stock, is involved in the poisoned areas treated during the year. This acreage includes plots newly treated, those re-treated and brought back to their orig-inal dosage, and plots found upon analyses to have carried over a sufficient concentration of the lead arsenate. Seventeen tons of powdered lead arsenate were distributed on nursery plots by the owners in completing initial treatments and re-treatments. Some 1,200 pounds of this amount was applied to 94,4("3 square feet of heeling-in areas and coldframes.
Cooperative experiments with the Japanese beetle research laboratory resuilted in the adoption of a treatment whereby certain species of azalea may be rid of Japanese beetle infestation by means of paradichlorobenzene fumi-ation. Interested nurseries furnished plants used in the tests, and were very anxious to have such a method approve. This new method permits certification of types of plants that are not tolerant to the commonly employed chemical







A 90 _NN[ Al, 1,t"PORTS OF D E' P- ICI M E- NT (IF GEICUIM ,-JIEl 1!1";5

treat!twll"., Gr(,Nvcr have 1well (0fliged 1() rai e 1114-111 f"I. (-ortificalit'll III Ill. ill s lillillificalill!l W 1Iz1lh;l

lil'oll. v.iIII h11111wri-y' 11''lly.
Flankh)ilfl. '111d
supplt-lywiltal di-11-11,11ii(111 4 Nvtre lllad( of ill(;Ili(h'' lio liew edili('11 (it, t le "llide Nv l- ll("Iv --;i
S11 i I I I-V, Is the
v IIII(IfIl, Fc _'W lti4lll 1111cl I'll 1go(l.
A. I III-NN. 11(1),11JIll.t. ill the :- (.rvlce I-elidel-i'll 1()
N\*,(,.: distrilluted 1() all "11111 de'llers a list 11w
ciloillplying Nvith tile clu- Ificatioii requirements. MmItIlly lll;lih d to
tho dellhrs keep this h4orniation curreiit. As o-ki--iti( d dotler- premises
are tre required to 1-cpirt till theit- (,f (jutartantiniA iiialt-rial
It) ()tll,.I, cl;l Itied vs1liblklillwill.s withill th, re_111 11(,d ar(_"as, thi- li-I Nv;1 4 slipplied to iv,) Al any notlo,-f)m plia lice with thk I-eq Ili "vilwilt due to lack- ()l* infirination ,is to those maintaining" a classiti(A

CERTIFICATION OF FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND CUT FLOWERS

flights of tile be tlv (lurin- tho suninier of a' :i pur
ti-tacli., in Now jer:.wy at which largt, qu:infities (if l(I,,idcd in refrigit-n-titor cars made it to ilit( nsify the llwllllldl, ti
prev(,Ilt '41](11 cars froill becolllill,, As soon tl- 'ille ("11,< -Imtted
for icing cand 1,1;1(lill ,*. "I in ill nottin-. Tile truck load of certified products wills then h1i cl.I (,I I inlo tilt, ca.,_,v
4111(l a elinvas curtain 1(,)were(I over the open end If the c,11141PY. Any Jieetles
present in the calge wer(.,, killed With a contact applit'(1 fl-mil 'I lialid
sprayer. The doors of the (-ar vvere then opened aiid tlw miloadiu, r pnwoeded. When (tile truck had unloaded, the doors of the c4ar weiv (-lose(] 11111il tilt, next ]();III k1clied in. whon tll(' provedure -was repeat ed unti I I I I (, c.i r NN-.t (.,,I I! p It, I ely ](m ded. Pendill"". ct)wtruct ioll of t III, ("I tit ipy Nv; I < it ece.,4s, 1 I*Y I (I I I I 1 111 V 10
1 11sjwvj(l fl.(1111 July 12 to 1(; the -hipllwllt via fl-oill the Cedarville -idill 'r,
As adult jwollt- during their fli-lit ill Phillidellilli;1 wel'k, 11fliciently
abundant to iwpecttl(l coninwditi,-. Ihe visual 2-1-Iimr dail v in-iwoli'm
service in that (-it\, Nva,, (Ii zcolltilllwd froill July 11 to All"'ust 1:-', 111,*14. "llid the 11(lurs (if inspecti(ill X%'VD' -lllirtvncd to fl-oill .1 a. Ill. to 10 a. ni.
As in lo'n-ven bean- Nvere ag-aill Shipped ill qli tntitivs I() droll-ZlIt,4ricken midwe,,tern niarket,; from the hean-rowiw district!- in :(Illllwrll New jer"e v, ill Morrisville and B11"Illetoll, 11-1., lirrolln(l im-, 11-11011wro. Md.. :Ilid ()It the E.isli-rn Shorv ()f Maryland ,in(] Vir Iinia. All 1w;ii< shippe(I imder cortification fl.(Wlll these alva ; woi'e run tfirough cylindric.11 to rid
them fif Mw'f Ili' tl)( lw('111 s 1-vill(ived from products ill, Iwcted
(1111-il)g ilw (.;1111(" from the -)12.S37 hampers ()f Iw.iw-; rim tlirmi ,h tit(Illachillf-4.
(if tile -Idult hoctle frm ii :i,,i lt-ulftinil se, pr-ldiw iii _, tim ;Ii-:111tilled 11-Ilit- lind 1( d to t1w liftillL 41T(.0 ive ,it :11!,l
ill'' llIoN ('11w ilt of the-(,
;IiIN :ill, 4-d 1, 1 tit(, 4 It-ttlh i.i. I.-) (I-Ite h Y illo vo.,_ 111:11io lls
1)14' 11-1 111111:11i(In fit, lh i.< Ii'll-til-Illa r \ :1 iN I ( 'm lllw e vs (,()Ittillil''d ti) 1w Ilk(.1y ()f Ille adull ,o I'l fill I 1,0111-11I fi ll. illslirclilm
and cel-tilicati(,I; -d' lllit ('4111111!14)(lity c,1111ilow d Illitil 11w I:lt(,I. date.
1.11 J f3 l 1l1l-4,I-v;I1iw 1-. N\h ilh Ilw 11:1z;lrd, (.r I,
ti, till, ill''vi-1114.10 0' ft-Ilil- 'il.11 44 :111 k illik Ill\(11 V i, f' 1:1111111 11) 10 111illfl,-led lqrvil iv v Illf're
19:".5, n 111ii-t(,c)IIII rc v i-I(lil (0, lilt, r. 1.11if ill,-; 40 1 1,1141- 1, 111t, III,\%. (.1,11 1fi t-:11im l i- 1-1,4111ii-ed
fruil- :m d :ill 1%itli N\ h.-ji i i triwk Ili- refri-I rat ,r c;ir
fr''Ill till. I)i ,Irict (11, p;lrl Iff N ew
;11111 Vir -Illi.l humvit to) he c(ml 11111, ill -lY :111(l. nt p'll,







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 21

emergence of the insect, densely infested with the beetle. As a condition of certification of fruits and vegetables, other than onions and potatoes moving via refrigerator car from the zone of flight, there are required inspection and loading in a manner to prevent infestation, in a refrigerator car with closed or adequately screened doors and hatches, which car prior to loading has been dktermined by an inspector as thoroughly swept and cleaned by the common carrier in a manner to rid it of infestation. During the interval between cleaning and loading the car must be kept tightly closed and sealed. Fumigation, when deemed necessary by the conditions of beetle flight, is required in the case of onions and potatoes moving via refrigerator car from the same sections. No change in regulated area was involved in this revision of the regulations.
Tests were necessary to devise a method of fumigating refrigerator (ars containing potatoes and onions shipped from heavily infested sections while the insect is in active flight. As finally devised, the equipment to be used consists of a pressure cylinder of liquid hydrocyanic acid with an applicator. By testing tips with various-sized holes, it was finally determined that one with a hole 0.002 inch in diameter would deliver 6 ounces of hydrocyanic acid in 1 minute under a pressure of 30 pounds. In practice the loaded refrigerator cars will be tightly closed, except for a narrow opening in one door through which a nozzle 3 feet long may be inserted. After discharge of the gas for 1 minute, the door is closed and the car sealed for a 2-hour fumigation period. Since adult beetles did not emerge during June in numbers sufficient to constitute a flight, this fumigation procedure was not employed during the present fiscal year.
Activities incident to the seasonal quarantine on fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers were fully organized on July 1, 1934. Inspectors were stationed at 37 inspection centers located at important shipping points throughout the regulated area. South-bound and west-bound trucks transporting fruits and vegetables from the heavily infested sections were required to report for inspection at platforms in Fredericksburg, Va., and Pittsburgh, Pa., respectively. This designation of inspection centers was occasioned by the fact that motor vehicles transporting certified products become infested with the flying beetles as the trucks proceed through the flight zone. With the scene of inspection transferred to a nonflight section, there were no such opportunities for reinfestation.
CERTIFICATES ISSUED, VIOLATIONS INVESTIGATED, AND PROSECUTIONS TERMINATED
In the course of the fiscal year a total of 484,427 certificates of all kinds were issued to cover products affected exclusively by the Japanese beetle quarantine.
Table 9 shows the quarantined articles intended for shipment from the regulated area and for use in certified greenhouses, or surface soil in nursery plots, heeling-in, or plunging areas, which were fumigated or sterilized during the 12-month period.

TABLE 9.-Material8 fumigated or sterilized under Japanese beetle quarantine regulations, fiscal year 1935


Treatment Plants Potting Mush- Leaf Surface Surface
soil room soil mold Sand soil soil with Berries Bananas plants

Number Cu. yds. Cu. yds. Cu. yds. Cu. yds. Sq. ft. Sq. ft. Crates Bunhes
Arsenate of lead ------------ 74 ----------- 76,768 1,600,254 --------Carbon disulphide
gas or emulsion-- 10,046 2,390 8C 6 3,252 27, 415 ---------1,9,7------Naphthalene ------ --------- 56 ------------------ -------- 27,851 --------- ..................
S team --- --- -- -- -- -- -- -- 699 ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... .........
Hydrocyanic acid ---------------- --------- --------- --------- --------- ------ 87, 001
Hlot water --------- 3,192 -------------- --------- --------- --------- -------------i--------Paradichlorobenzene ------------ 6,865 --------- ...........---------------- ---------.------------------------Nursery indl ornamental stock, sand, soil, earth, peat, compost, and manure were certified for shipment from tihe regulated (reas ,lrillg the fiscal year in the following quantities:
Plants ---------------------------------------------number_ 2.5,455, 327
Sand, earth, and clay -------------------------------------carloads 5,
Peat --------------------------------. ------- 5
Manure and compost ----------------------------------------- do-- 1-4







22 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935

Fruits, vegetablles, moss, and cut flowers certifiedd during the seasonal quarantine (on these articles were as follows:
Fruits and \e-etables -. -------.. - - ---------pacges 4,021)0.
Cut flowerss_ p-------------------------------------------------jiackages-- 23, 102
InvestiIatins were iade of 1,301 apparent violations of the .Ja1ans1 e beetle QUlldrItile regulatials. These included interceptions by transit inspectors of the bureau stationed at Ipostal and comnimon-carrier terminals an;d by highway inspectors extidnitig roa( vehicles. In tie course of the year prosecutions were successfully terminated in the United Stales district courts against 2 individual and 3 corporate violators.
TRANSFER OF HEADQUARTERS
Following transfer on September 10, 1934, of supervision of Dutch elm disease eradication work to L. H. Worthley, field headquarters of the Bureau directing Japanese beetle quarantine enforcement was removed in November from Harrisburg, Pa., to White Plains, N. Y. The new field headquarters is strategically situated in the areas jointly affected by the Japanese beetle, Dutch elm disease, and European corn borer, and is conveniently located near the gypsy moth infested zone.
COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES
Four Canadian officials attended a tour of the heavily infested southern New Jersey territory on July 16, 1934, and the Syracuse, N. Y., district supervisor made field observations on the Niagara peninsular district with the Canadian officials preliminary to their 1934 trapping program. Cooperation was again accorded the Canadian Department of Agriculture in purchasing 500 Japanese beetle traps from a Philadelphia manufacturer.
Limited numbers of traps were operated for control purposes under State or municipal auspices in Delaware, Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts.
State appropriations were available for Japanese beetle quarantine or control operations in Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. Trapping operations in Maine, Indiana, Michigan, and Missouri were financed from funds allotted by the respective States or cities in which the work was performed.

INSECTS AFFECTING FOREST TREES
COOPERATIVE SERVICE
As in the past, one of the most important activities of the Division of Forest Insect Investigations has continued to be the cooperative service rendered to tle several Federal agencies administering timberlands, such as the Forest Service, National Park Service, and Bureau of Indian Affairs. as well as to such emergency agencies as the Civilian Conservation Corps, the conservation program of the National Recovery Administration, and the shlelterbelt program. IPrivate owners have also been aided, but to a lesser degree. This cooperative service, for the most part, consists in surveys of bark beetle infestation, estimates of loss, recommendations as to methods of control, estimates of the cost of such operations, and technical direction of control projects. It might he added that such dutiess have more than doubled within the last few years, owing to the increased activity in forest-insect control in connection with emergency activities.
CONTROL PROGRAMS
MOUNTAIN PINE IIETL~
In California the epidemic of the mountain pine beetle which started in the Yosemite National Park and Uladjacent forests in 1931 and took a heavy toll of the fine sugar pine has been brought under control. (Other projects against the same beetle in lodgepole pine stands in Crater Lake and Mount Rainier National Parks have been entirely successful. In the Itcky Mountain region the mountain pine beetle still continues its alarming destruction in some areas, while in others it is on the wne. n the 'ocur dAlene and Kootenni National Forests the control efforts begun in 1930 have resulted in the preservation of the valuable cnImlnercial white pine stands.







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 23

WESTERN PINE BEETLE

Encouraged by the results secured in recent years from well-planned extensive control operations the Forest Service, Park Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and private timber owners have been especially active during the last year in the control of the western pine beetle. In Oregon and Washington over 250,00YJ acres of pine timberland were covered with control work. A similar enthusiasm among bothi public and private protective agencies is also evident in California. In northern California the McCloud River Lumber Co. has committed itself to, the policy of cutting and milling infested trees and destroying the infested bark. Although the timber thus salvaged contains considerable blue stain, there is a market for it, and from the standpoint of cost this method is much more advantageous than the wasteful one of burning the infested bark and leaving tie logs to rot in the forests.
OTHER BARK BEETLES

Control operations against the Black Hills beetle in several forests in Colorado, against the Douglas fir beetle in Wyoming, and minor operations against threatening infestations of several species of Ip8 in a number of localities have also been carried through.
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

Research work directed toward the development of more efficient and economical control methods against bark beetles has been continued, and in some cases slight modifications of previously used methods have led to excellent results. One such modification is based on the principle of preserving a larger percentage of the natural enemies of the mountain pine beetle, to bring about not only a numerical reduction of the pest but also a more favorable relation between parasite and host, thus assuring more lasting benefit from the control operation. Encouraging results have continued from experiments in killing bark beetles by means of penetrating oils applied to the bark and by the introduction of lethal materials in the sap stream of infested trees, but the methods are not yet sufficiently perfected to warrant their use in large-scale control projects.
The continued demand for nursery stock due to the remarkable activity of the reforestation program in connection with the Forest Service and with the various emergency activities, such as the erosion control work, the shelterbelt program, the Civilian Conservation Corps work, etc., has made the control of insects affecting forest nursery stock and newly established plantations of vital importance. Of the numerous insects important in these connections, the white grubs are by all odds the most destructive. A thorough investigation of these insects is under way, involving not only a study of their biologies, but also the development of control mnethiods which will kill the grubs but will not injure the young trees. The nursery work is largely centered in the Southeastern States, while the work in plantations is centered in the Lake States.
The investigations on the locust borer in the Central States were continued along the line of preserving stands by means of stimulating new growth of trees from sprout growth following cutting of the badly infested trees and by mulching. The projects on the southern pine beetle, the white pine weevil, the beech coccus, the larch case bearer, the leaf-mining sawfly, the elm leaf beetle, and other native and introduced insect pests of trees in the East have also been considerably advanced. An extensive survey of the New England States to determine the occurrence of the balsam bark louse was made, and experiments in control, applicable to infested balsam trees used as ornamentals, were successfully conducted.
The work upon the insects associatedl with the Dutch elm disease has been greatly enlarged by the transfer of seven men to the Morristown, N. J., laboratory from the old Melrose Highlands, Mass.z., laboratory, and the employment of additional men on emergency funds. During the year a great amount of biological work has been done upon various insects found in elm, and much experimental work performed to determine insect vectors, with special reference to those which injure the bark either in feeding, ovipositing, or in the construction of brood burrows. During the year, as a result of field, laboratory, and greenhouse experiments, 50 cases of successful transmission of Cera to8to'mclla ulmi by the smaller European elm hark beetle (S3colytns inultisria-







'A24 ANNUAL RL'P(MTS OF DEPAICF-ME'NT OF A(;EWULTVILE, '1 0.'.5

)1;lv -11.4 fi-tilli rl't-111.1k (L ill fqle
Ille 11;1 ,
(-]lit hark 1wello i1I!11uryl)jmiui rlil(lw,

GYPSY MOTH AND BROWN-TAIL MOT11 CONT11601,

FEDERAL AND STATE FUNDS FOR GYPSY MOTH WORK

At flit, cl(,-(., if tit(, lisc;il ye;ir D34, during whic-li tit(, Nl-rk had lwvii carried tou mider ,,it allotment 'if flilld.- the Public W,)rk- Admin if
to redlice tile tield as, to I lvp v.,111ill l1w 1111lds :111thorize(I
for vXpcilditure durill', the tis(.;Il %ear PP:, '5. fillids aill(luilled <:"I*.'0.000. A small balance NNas availabl't, fil"111 III0 P1,1111k. NV(11-ks Adillinistr;ltiw l projoit'-t to closo up the w (wk that rkil1:ljlllA lllllilli -Iw(l at th.. (-fill 41f, tile fiscd year. Diiriii,. thi ,; periml (ivlr 1111)tll NVo1l,(,
tre.1ted ill a lim ited solid arca ill Poerwlnktoll, G r(,elltield, '11141 Ll d I, I I. 1: 1.< S., 'ind 1 12.(010 feet of Government. barlwd-wirc fuiicc (,nclw in- spra\ell aro."Is was removed m(l stored.
To suppluillent the funds available it S( ollwd advis'lldo tt) (0itlill ,1,, 11111(11 assistance of -.in emergency\ nature its 'was 1w, sibl(% Actinl,-, under tile sl)on.-;()rship of the Dep.irtnient of Agriculture of t1w 'St:iw of Pvnns%1v.mi-,i, flit, relief adiiiii&,trlitors of Luz(,rne ,md Ltickawanna ('omitie-,- zet up mioll
VCtS, \Vl!!(-h CODUTIM'd somewliat intermittently fr(mi late ill tile fall lf Ilo:4 to fit(" ("Ild of the tise'll year 1935. The Conservation Del);trinwia (;f climetts and the St.;it.e forester of Connecticut also supplied details 20 men each from Civilian conservationn Corps camps locateil ill (w iwar tit(, barrier zone in New En.,41clild. As a restilt of this lw1p. with the
re-ular funds set tip by the cooperating State.,;, the year's w(wk
Was C;Irried the primary objective being to redlice tit(' llld
most, threatening infestations. Scoutin- Nvork foi, prote(-ti\e purposes ill Tile mitiving portions of Ole barrier zone and in was atti mpted in
only a limited way oil accollitt of the small immlcr of trained -,cmt 4 that omht be spared from otlier -work.

WORK IN AND ADJACENT TO THE BARRIER ZONE

Tlii,; Nvork w,,is confined almost exclusively to territory in the s'llitllvrn part of 11erksliire County, Mass., and in ill(, northern part tif Litchfield ('minty, Conn., where sinall infestations had been foull"l the previolls (W
wilere male illoths Iuld been c(anglit at ca -,(, 4 duriiig- the proviolls
summer. Durill" the wiliter, 57 infested :irca.4 were located and 11.555 e,-lt-lusters Nvero treated. This involved scouting (if :%071 mllrtl, (4 Wl)mlland and
*,73 iniles )r roadway. Two hundred and two af, r e.S ()f vv(tm1l:,ll(1 were thililled. Co most favored food plants rentoved. -.ind the sl:ish burned, ind 3.517 wres 44 woodwind were, spr.1yed ill .1111le, bul-laps being applied ill the Nvlw -t illfesled

'I'll(- New York Conservation Depirtment, jo-incil)ally viindle,1 men
ill (1viliall (")ln-orvatioll ('orps eanil)s. scmilid portiou-, ol' Essex. IV:trreu. Sister, md lirmime counties s west of tile kil-riol. zone '111d S010(le(I Ire:) ,; ill ('ohillibia -111d colintie" w ithin tit(, Z(;11(,. No ill i4lll, w ert, 1,1111liti.
ill tile counties we-4 4)f tile Imi-rier zime lit Nt,\\- York hiii 3 iiifcslotions tot"llim-, 117 c-, cluster-s Avere l''c:ltcd ill tit(, town (,!" Allslorlitz, I 1 5 pl- ,- clusters in 11ill-z(l;i1e -,iwl 2 rntlwr scriou, illfc!4ted Imillf", totaling 7"-,("!) clusters in Plltcllc- s ('oll1l1\. Tlw ,( ti(,w w( rv Ire.-ite(I by tli(. f(xco 111:0 dep:Irtm ent in N;1,1,- ,Ill :11111 1Sll1Y()1k ("m intios, L()nL- :tm l ill tile Now(ol""ll tit' tho, 11-r(ilix. ill Niw Y ,rl%. No Pifo-t.itil-n Nv.is flw id ill Snffolk 11111ty, hut, ill I'm ilitY 2 1 sm ;tll
%1- 11'41 lfw :114,41 ill ( ) 11:1 %. 'I'41w il 'ITI'l 1' \ 'T(l 1,10111(l lit N ''rill T (m il. i'VIT:11 lilik's \\(,ro folind
in fill- l"l-w i\ :,fill 1"p(lo A ll
44 1111. 4.lbov( \"(T1, \cd 1,.N tit(-. N e%\
tile end (d, ill(, \( ;lr
.\ -1;11lw w (I :if
tf lm r 4vry :111(l id1w r iji.111,1,1:11 1111". fr(m l 1111, oll 1,()114:







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 25

Island. All of these shipments were free from infestation, except aL single lot of cordwood on which one egg cluster was, found. A limited amount of checking work was performed in a number of areas that had been scouted by the State force but no additional infestation was discovered.
GYPSY MOTH WORK IN CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMPS

In the area between the barrier zone and the Connecticut River, work has been carried on throughout the year by men allotted from 18 Civilian Conservation Corps camps. In most cases 20 men have been detailed from each Camp for this work, which is carried on under the supervision of the gypsy moth office of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. One forest camp is located in Vermont, 5 in Massachusetts, and 7 in Connecticut, and, in addition to these, 5 camps under the control of the Department of the Interior are located in the Massachusetts area. This work is a continuation of that taken up during the previous fiscal year.
The average number of Civilian Conservation Corps men on the gypsy moth work on days when work was performed was 428. Owing to arrangements allowing for the making up of 1oA time on Saturdays, only 1.1 percent of available time was lost. This is a mal-rked improvement over the record oif the previous year, when 15 pereent of available time was lost. During the year 103,445 0-hour man-days were used on the project, being some 26,000 more man-days than during the previous year. This increase in man-days made possible a large increase in the volume of work accomplished, especially hand control practices in severe infestations. The tree growth on a total of 407,053 acres of woodland and open country and along 1,441 miles of road was examined for gypsy moth infestation. This is slightly less than was accomplished the previous year, owing to the more intensive work done in infestations. Tabulations of the year's work show a large increase in accomplishments, with nearly a million individual trees examined and 4,685 destroyed. Fallen trees and branches and undesirable tree growth, also species particularly favored by the gypsy moth, were removed from 984 acres, leaving these stands less favorable for gypsy moth increase, and in better condition for future gypsy moth work. A total of 612,069 new egg clusters were found and treated. During May and June 1935, 396,933 trees were banded with burlap, and by the end of June 1,388,430 gypsy m-oth caterpillars were destroyed by men patrolling them. This type of work is seasonal and many more caterpillars will be crushed in July before the season is over.
The work has demonstrated the practicability of using Civilian Conservation Corps men for gypsy moth work in the area under consideration and has resulted in preventing large increases in the gypsy moth infestations in the area worked between the Connecticut River and the barrier zone and has materially decreased the danger of spread from this area into the zone.
During the year a large extension of the Civilian Conservation Corps gypsy moth work east of the barrier zone was proposed and, if put into operation, it will probably result in greatly extending this work for the coming year, although not to the extent requested.

WORK IN NEW JERSEY

On the northern rim of the area that was previously infested. in New Jersey. several male moths were taken in the summer of 1934, in tile townships of Mendham, Morris, and Randolph, and a single moth was captured in Pahaquarry Township near the Pennsylvania line. The State gypsy moth force carried on scouting work in the fall and winter in the first three towniships and Federal agents were detailed to work in Pahaquarry Township and toscu certain sections in the townships previously mentionedI near someC of the ca ,,s, where male moths hadl been captured the prev-ious summer. Iii all. 3,0312 Icres of woodland were scouted and, in adIdition to thiis., 532 acres in the region of the Palisades near the George WahntnBi-id.- Fort Lee, N. J., were scouted by tile State force. No infest ation was- found in Pahaquarry Towvnship, but two locations, totaling 31. egg clusters. Nvere discovered, in Morris Township, and one consisting of 14 egg clusters was foud onl the Mteuidl.1aRandolph Township line. These areas were sprayed inl JIune and aI beltsu' rounding them, aggregating 1178 acres, was also treated. The State and Federal forces cooperated in calinyiuig through this work.







26 .NN1AL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935

WORK IN PENNSYLVANIA

With the Federail and State finds available in the Pennsylvania area and tie assistaillPe from Llzet-lie a1nd Lak aal l 'lnlies previously referred to, it wais found possible to scout intensively flood arels with in the infested terrt ory lonig the Susquehi1 lanna Rvrd LackaVa II t :I usssemnbl ing-cage sites
weril m ll I moths were ap ured last Slmr111If, I S of previously loc fed infestations in outside territ ory, and to d( considerable scouting and (rejsoting in tihe generally inifested area. Woodland areas were thinned and the slash was burnled in sectiolls W1e0re effeclive scouting could not otherwise be done, proll Were relloved froll stulDps in territory preViously clt over, and the 11t dangerous areas were sprayed during May id June. Burlap hands were also applied in woodland and residential sections vhere considerable infsit tion exists. These burlaps were patrolled and all caterpil ar< found were destroyed.
In a total of 70 infestations found during the fiscal year 1934 in 15 lightly infested townships, only 10 were reinfested in 1935, and 5 of these were in localities where only single egg clusters were found during 1934 awl where no spraying was done. In the other 5 the trees along the property lines were not sprayed because wind drift would have caused the spray to lodge in adjoining property not covered by permits.
During the year 8,698 shipments of quarantined forest products, nursery stock, and other materials were inspected and a total of 70 gypsy moth egg clusters were found and treated. There were a few quarantine volat ions, and in anch of the cases prosecuted by the State the defendants were found guilty.
SPECIAL SCOUTING

Fronm the latter part of January to the last of April, special survey work was carried on with negative results west of the Hudson River in the extreme 'soutlieastern part of New York, in northeastern Pennsylvania adjacent to the New York and New Jersey State lines and the area where regular scouting work has been performed, in sections of northeastern and southern New Jersey where no scouting or cage work had previously been done, in New Castle County, Del., and in three townships in Cecil County, 'Md. The State authorities in these States and in Ohio were urged to do as much special survey work as time and funds would permit in territory where Federal work was not planned. Fifteen Federal experts were detailed to this work. They paid particular attention to trees and nursery plantings on large estates, around hotels, gasoline stations, cemeteries, and dumps; also in localities where large movable equipient used in construction work might have been used or stored. Although an average of not more than 4 days was spent in each town, the work was sufficiently well done so that it is believed any sizable infestation would have been noticed. The State of New Jersey furnished an inspector who worked with the Federal employee assigned to duty in that State. Pennsylvania and Ohio also dil considerable work of this type. No infestation was found in any of the outlying territory.
SPRAYING

DIuring the spraying season more than 7.701) acres of woodland and 6.30I resident iail properties were treated in the Pennsylvania territory, and the other a -rs are Indicated under the States concerned. This involved the use of G1
high-power spraying machines in the following States: Mussachuwtts. 11 : Contelicut, 12: Pennsylvania, 27: -New Jersey, 2. In :addition to these, 9 sprayers were loaed to the conservation department of the State of New York for ir ating infestations on Long Island, in the Bronx. and in Austerlitz and Milan In the barrier zone.
The weather during the spraying season was not so favorable as usual and UoJll erTHileI fillne wals lost oil ce1 ti111 of raill a[11ll wet folialgo.
Assembly ing-cage work was conluceted in ermuout, Massachusetts, Connect i\i\0 ,ilnd Pelinsylvania.
DEFOLIATION IN NEW ENGLAND

In the summer of 1934 defuldution mused by the eypsy moth was considerably il exlc5s of that recolded for 193. For the entire infested area total of 19.3(11 ne of woodlnTil with fron slight to complete defoliation were found, Is cmarel with :197) :arrow rtcom al fr 19. Illgnl there was less






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 27

defoliation in the eastern part of the infested area than had been recorded in the several years immediately preceding. This was particularly true as to Barnstable and Plymouth Counties in Massachusetts. Bleyt nd these sections the amount of defoliation increased considerably, particularly in New Hampshire, westward to the Connecticut River, and in Massachusetts from the central part of Worcester County to and beyond the above-named river. The records for the summer of 1934 showed that there was considerable increase in defoliation for Maine and New Hampshire. Massachusetts showed some decrease, owing principally to a decided decreasee in the southeastern part of the State, which was not offset by a large increase farther west. There was a decided increase in the amount of defoliation in Rhode Island.

EFFECT OF DEFOLIATION ON FOREST GROWTH

Beginning about the middle of January 1935 an extended series of observations on the extent of gypsy moth infestation and damage caused to woodland was begun in several towns in the eastern part of Franklin County and the northwestern part of W'orcester County, Mass. The purpose was to obtain accurate records of the degree of infestation, the types of growth, the natural conditions of the infested areas. and the amount of injury caused by defoliation. Areas were selected for which records of degree of defoliation in 1934 were available. One area was selected in Athol, 3 in Orange. 4 in Erving, and 8 in New Salem. Mass. This work has been under way for such a short time that it is hardly possible to draw very definite conclusions with respect to the effect of defoliation on all species of trees. It has been definitely established, however, that one complete defoliation is sufficient to kill hemlock. for in the Athol point 38 out of a total of 42 large trees of this species, ranging up to 55 feet in height, were killed by being completely defoliated in the summer of 1934. The other 4 trees in this group were not completely defoliated and still show signs of life. With respect to white pine, a section of the same point in Athol has quite a stand of small pines averaging about 5 or 6 feet in height. A count showed that one-sixteenth acre of this area contained 94 small pines. All of these were heavily defoliated in 1934. and at present 25 percent are dead and the remainder are in very poor condition. In all of the areas where white pines were selected within sections that were defoliated, these trees suffered injury. depending on the degree to which they were eaten. If they were completely defoliated they were killed. At a hillside location in Athol 42 pines ranging in height from 30 to 35 feet have died as the result of complete defoliation in 1934. Most of these pines attempted to refoliate after being stripped of their needles. Last winter they were more or less covered with the short. undeveloped new needles, but since then they have turned brown and are dead. For all of the 16 acres in which records are being taken the proportion of growth favored by the gypsy moth is rather high. In general, the growth most desirable for gypsy moth foo( consists in the main of white, red. black. and chestnut oaks, poplar, and gray birth. By actual and careful checks of the areas, which range in size from 2 or 3 up to 50 acres, these favored food plants comprise from 30 to 95 percent of the entire growth, the general average being between 60 and 70 percent. White pine and hemlock, which have been eaten so heavily, comprise from 5 to 60 percent of the woodland growth, the average probably being about 20 percent. The remaining growth, which might be considered only partially or not at all favored, consists of paler birch and red maple, with a scattering of other species. It can be seen, therefore, that for most of the area where the records are heinz taken the crowlth is. in the main. exremely desir:ble to this insect, and this fact is attested by the extent of defoliation that I:is taken place in those areas.
THE BROWN-TAIL MOTH

In general, there was a light-to-medium infestation of this species throuchout practically all of the infested territory, but no instances of appreciable defoliation were reported during the summer of 198,4. during the winter of 1934-35 numbers of winter webs were cut by the States in Maine, New Ilampshire, and Vermont. For Maine only partial records are available, and this work was performed by men from three Civilian Conservation Corps camps. A total of 72.819 vwebs were cut and destroyed in 23 towniis located mostly in the southern part of the State. In New IHampshire webs were cut in towns throughout the greater part of the infested area. A total of 1.548.27 welbs







XNNUAT. I'Ll,"POItTS OF OF -:%GR1CULtUIk1:. 1935

Wer(,
w Nvere ''lit bV ill(Ill

1)).1,I)w -t it'll (if tll(- illf- It-il trea NN-t-r(, ex;iiiiilled fia. Nveh-z '11111 -1(;9.:))52 \vekiv cu! TI i e Nvintir xvis r-()iiidcred uilf.l\ wahle fill. llrvival '11A 01(.>e records il diC.Ile fl)"It, Iwl-.

GYPSY MOTH QUARANTINE ENF0RCVN11---NT AN-1) CERTIFICATION
REGULATORY CIIA.NGES

Revised quaraitthic re _,uhtititills Avc're V) 1 eelllw effefliv. 0 Jcdwr
2, 1934.' This involved tile first C11:1111-(, ill tile -I,sy 1.1lotIl illfc- tt (l 1(9,31. Oil the bisis of frecdi)in from tis evideiiced hv tlii, in-iwct itll
of iiiillit)iis (d ("bristnias tives over ,I I)vri(,,! of (,ar<, -, upi 1emente(I I)y (,!)- ervatiol.)s 14 di trict inspectors coiltlllilollsl 141"ItiWw(I ill t1le affi'('It, d it wlts ilo)--ilde ti) relivwe, fl.()In tile ji-litly iiife.,- t(,d territ( r ill Veriiv)nt ct,-rllili to vils wlJ;i,- ;ji I() the Can:i(Ij:in border -in(! t1w jiortliNvestern ()f Ille
jrfo,,S[ d zolle. Oil the 1,t!,er 1),-md, a member td toj viis ill the h _,h t I v
-(-tions (A ILdiw, New Vermwit, and Coiniecticut were lo
lwivily iiifc It2d. Tbis eiiijrrenlent of tll(, IleN-ily illfeqe(I strip ()f territory from 1 to 3 tiers of towns xvide oil the ni)rthtr]i b 'Ilild.lry of tbe former ttrea. Conditions of gypsy 1110th infestation ill the aff(_ 'cled IoNvils Nvere determined by specitil scouts of tile gyl)-y nioth quar.witille lillit '111,1 L)NCivilitin Coii.servation Corl)s workers emplt)ye(l under the suj)eivi ;ioii (,,f Stat( Oflioifls. The fiiids were sufficient tt) ju- Iify these tmvn.- 1wiii" be:ivily n1ther tb:in lightly infe-4ed. The prineip,il effect' (,)f this c1,.,m-(, ill the adniiiiistration ()f the qu.-irintine is the embargoing ( f ll!(, iiit.wenieit (,f Christnias trees frcm the.,,4e latter areas in whieb the tive-,- 1'()rmerly Nvere eli _,ihle for certifiefltioii ifter iw peetion. There were also a f(,NN- niiiior in
pr(,,ducts ,iffected 1).% the certification requirements.
CERTIFICATION OF QUARANTINED PRODUCTS
Itoutbie demands for inspection and certification were met by -l fort e of 21. inspectors. Eacb inspector was assigned to a district and Nvis lield re-q)imsible for all details of quarantine enforcement in his district. Wlien Jij),iiiese
beetle and gypsy moth certification Nv:is required, this joint injection service ,ilso wts provide(I by the district inspectors.
Qtiarries and nurseries in sections of the lit-litly infested qr(,.i ill which
niolli Difest.,ition, had not previously been fonn(l Nvere scwite(] fm- e-, chistvrs. The nurseries concerned Ii.,ld previl)usly beell szef-filted :Illd 1'( Ulld free fnaji the Jripanese beetle. Deteriniliation of freed(,ni fniii moth
iIjfv-,;IIti01l of these establishments ind their surroundiii,_,!z zill()Nved theiii t(I receive 1wrinits for their -shipnlents without detailed insjwction of e.icli article.
in,,I)eetion Nv;is perf( )rined froin rilid-Novewher wil H I lt celllher 15. 'Mild Avo:itber (Wring niu(-h of this period filcillijitell ('XIIlliI1:l1i()1l ()I' the t re(-. At the pe:ik ()f the inspeo-tioll ( :lrly in, Deccilll)cr, 60 tellljwr, Iry insI)ectlin< werc elllj)lo ,ed. During the V:11 Nv
377 c,,irIf1ad,, ()f trc(-, 4- Ili addition, 20(; ctirloads vvre shij)j)ed froin Ole 41 Vurmoio tmviis r(-Ie.,is(,d froini quar.tntine ill October. Thi 1()t:il ()f 583 c,'Irs S161j)('d froill tho (is re'-'Illated i..- c(IIIII,:11-i'd Nvi!ll I t( I,11 ()f
(.:ll.1c.ld ,- cvrlifi( d 111('refl-mll ill 19"1:1. As t1w inspwIfI(I 11*4'('..- :111
ill the lig"Ittly filf(-led nre.l. i)IlIv 11 lll()Ill e,", Nvas foillid.
Pr(-'ellve tile 1 1111 4)f 1:11-,e niimhrr 4 ,I' -vI)-y nioth chisters ()n 1:11irel
led tt) :1 ill tile I1I.(w 41(jllre \0 101-ch.V tiliS ('tlllllll()(iitN- NN 'I S ('('I' I : I'l
L:iiircl (jililititi(-, m ltler pi"wes'-ill- Ill(()
filliel-:11 Iliec(-4 t be ill-;peclvd. '1, 114, 1,0 f V0, I in.- ptwf i'm
I ill) iW d I t) 11 w4o, bvivc+ #,., 111 sl1i'l I 1 (111:1 Ill i I I(- T 1w 1)11111- 4 Hli< illl- Iw rlcd 4ql file I()t In 111l< TW IIIII(T 1IT11111-e 41('11
w ithill it Nv:I- :lfo, h 1:1111-ol xvcre :lfter
I I I -, ( ) f I I le I(X-al i I i ( 'S] I i I q w rs des i 1-111 g I () 111,11111 f:IcI 11 re d4'(-()I-:l I :j ve :I rt icle';t C"l1t:Iil1iII1,__, I;IurvI 1")I. lliflvl lllcnt under (. vrtificiii(m Nvere -i\eii ivrlilw.ites for nl;tlfri:iI (00nitied fr(lin 11ii-o wdiife,,ted
Froill Ill 111411 tlit, first ill 1)(wewber, iii-i ectl()ils wore
TM I110 Of lf,l Iolt- fl-W il W Iliell cvcr,_,I.evll 1".11-Ils Nven, -:10w red 1,111. 11ijillicilt.







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QIJAIANTINE 29


The scouted lots, totaling approximately 10,000 acres, were located in tie
lightly infested gypsy moth area of western Massachusetts and southern
Vermont. All inspections gave negative results. A total of 30,700 bales of
boughs was certified for movement from these lots.
The quantities of articles of the respective quarantined products certified during the fiscal year are summarized in tables 10 to 13. The number of gypsy moth egg clusters removed from inspected products showed a 350-percent
increase over the preceding year.

TABLE 10.-Nursery stock certified under gypsy nwth and/or Japanese beetle quarantines, fiscal year 19.35

Gypsy moths found
CertifiMaterial Quantity cates Larvae
issued Egg and
clusters pupae

Number Number Number
Shrubs -------------------------------------------------------- 696,460 5, 756 2 0
Specimen trees ---------------------------------------------- 54,438 1, 149 0 0
Young trees ------------------------------------------------- 167, 413 1,078 3 0
Specimen evergreens ------------------------------------------ 84,688 1,801 0 0
Young evergreens -------------------------------------------- 1,690, 794 6, 579 7 0
Seedlings, cuttings, and small plants ---------------------943, 676 3,823 0 7
Potted greenhouse plants ------------------------------ 32, 648 922 0 0
White pine trees ---------------------------------------------- 85, 179 145 1 0
Total -----------------------------------------3, 755, 296 21,253 13 7


TABLE 11.-Evergreen products certified under gypsy moth qutaran tine, fiscal
year 1935

Gypsy moths found
Certifi- cutr n ua
Material Unit Quantity cates
issued Egg Larvae
clusters and pupae


Number Number Nu mnber
Boughs, balsam twigs, and mixed greens ----- Box or bale ... 39, 514 5,370 0 0
Christmas trees ------------------------ Number ------ 888, 189 214 0 0
Laurel --------------------------------------- Box or bale .... 13,561 3,423 1 2 0
Miscellaneous -------------------------Box -----------5,470 713 0 1
Total --------------------------------------------- ---------- 9,720 2 1

In addition, 30 larvae of the brown-tail moth were removed from laurel.

TABLE 12.-Forest pro(lucts certified under gypsy moth quara1tic(, fscal
year 1935

Gypsy mot hs
found
Certifi- _____ __Material Unit Quantity c.ates
issued (U-La rva
Eg lus- an
ters pupae


N1, Wer aumbr \umber
Barrel parts, crates, crating ---------------- B un d I e o r 1.194 1 0
Logs, piles, poles, posts, ship knees, and ties2 Piece 330 3, 9.1 3)
Fuel wood -------------------------------Crd '2 225 0
Pulpwood -----------------------------------do _. 3-.-9- !, 4- 27 0
Lumber ------------------------------------oard feet ..232 2.45 1,1 1
Empty cable reels ---------------------------- 32. 741 05 21
Shavings-----------------------------------Bale 21, 121 1t 0 0
Shrub and vine cuttings -------------------- -42; k,7 -
Miscellaneous ---------------------------------umber 12 7U1 3 0

Total ---------------------------------- .---------------- --14,1-- -, 142







30 ANN UAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULT URE, 1935

TABILE 13.-Stone and quarryi product., eccrtifled under gypsy mnoth quarantine,
fiscal yicar 19.35

Gypsiy mths0
found
Material Unit Qatt ae
is~ue Egg Larvae
pupae

Number NVu m br Nu rber
('ru.)hed rock----------------------------- Ton----------- 927, 190 1, 35 4 0 0
Curhing--------------------------------- Running feet-- 51. 20 1,55 1 00
---l--------------------------------- Ton------------, 2'3 2 9 0 0
Granite----------------------------------lItiece----------- 46, 54 )5 12 8
Do)--------------------------------------- RunnimngfeeL.. 72,.700) 30 0 0
Monumental stone------------------------ Piece ---------- 13, 17_9 19")26 1 0
(trout ----------------------------------- To)n----------- 13, 7685 413 1 0
Marle --------------------------- ------Piejfce---------- 22-,'1 245 0 0
P~iving' blocks---------------------------- Numinbe r------ 1, S17, 61.2 476 3 0 187
--------eou ------------------------- Picce ---------- 27, 4757 531 0 0
Do----------------------------------- Ton ----------- 4,603 30 0 0
Total ---------------------------- ---------------- ---------- 15,705 371 175

This does not include 28 egg clusters found on cleating and blocking used to secure granite on cars.

ROAD PATROL

h1ighway inspection onl roads leading fromt the lightly liifes ted sections to nonqluarantined territory started with the stationing of an inpeto lo the
Mohawk Trail near Savoy, Mass., oin Septemnber 12. The first interception of a gyp~sy moth infested plIant was imade on September 24. From October 15 to 27. 13 additional p)osts were establish .hed-3 in 'Massachusetts indl 10 in C'onnec-ticut. Early in November live posts were e- stablishied onl the border of the lightly infested area in Vermnont. Closing- of fill posts wvas ac lse ewe
D ecemnber 3 and1 22. Twvo sl~jeliolnt al Ihosts were'( operatedl in sout lieinstern 'onn1ecticut for short perio(ls just prior too tilte (liscoftinluaflQ of this work. Whlen 01 Ceratinog at their lull (--:pac-ity, these pestS, were nimnne by .53 road inspectors. Six inlfested lots of ma,,terial were hAted at th)e os;ts and found to co-ntain 1 brokeni and '26 liol-mal eg lutr. just prior to cliSing. of
the posts for the se,,,'son, a truck conitning 1:'N uncertilled hrsmstrees Nvas sttiplpedl while eji route, from Lewiston. Maito 1aacaLogIslandn~. Ex'iuninat ion of about one-third of' thle trees, disclosed ( 21)L0 ypsy mot heg clusters. The entire 10:1( Nvas ordered retulrnled to the XeneralIy intedoi area. Another impoKrtant itrepioni de ote(iscovery of 75 ise- w od
wvoodl already truc-ked to Port Chester, N. Y., a l)4)iint out-side the quaralltine(l zone.
VIOLATIONS

Investtions were made of 416 appl)arent violations of the gypsy moth land brown-tail m1oth1 (junlr-mtine. In the Bureau's first prosecutions for violations of the gylpSy miothI (h1u1 rantiiie in over 10 eas a coninerci:0l shipp~er nd~ a "1n,11100n carrier were veh fined for the shtipuient and( tri'auisport.atlon of un1cer-tifiedI fuel wood fromt llarrington. Maine, to Elkins Park, Pa,. A thiird prosec,-(ution was pentdinl'. inl the United States District Court of 'Southerni New York
at, thet endl of the fisc-al yeat~r.

BROWN-TAIL MOTH SCOUTING

Wwbzvrva lions by (listriet inspectors dIsclos.;edI :i ;Iltered infestations ofr the bro)wn-taill imth inl Orono, Mine, and twvo slmall inifestaqtions i Old Town, M.T it 1 n. B10oth of hiese towns11 Mr ot'lde, the hromvn-tail molth regu-nlated Zone, but within ft(e lightly inlfetedt' gypsy muoth retitdzone.
SATIN MOTH SCOUTING

Scot itr or ati(4oh eg-z chlu-ters beyond the boundairies of kno wn Infestedt
ten or ~': sperformedl hato in J1uly and nearly in Aiiw4t. Ploplar and 'willo1w t ret-s were e'X1lniT14ed for prneof tile it tiisses,. At the ronelinq~ton of thie







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 31

survey, infestations had been found in seven towns in which the moth was not previously known to exist. One of the new infestations is in southeastern Connecticut, 2 are in New Hampshire, and 4 are in Maine.
Within the infested section, satin moths were noticed depositing egg masses at Concord, N. H., as early as June 6. In northeastern Maine moths were found ovipositing as late as August 2. District inspectors in New Hampshire and Maine observed very little satin moth feeding, as compared with the 1933 defoliation. In some localities where large numbers of hibernating larvae were noted in the fall of 1933 there were no signs of feeding in the summer of 1934. Satin moth egg clusters were not as numerous in the quarantined zone as they were in the summer of 1933.
By arrangement with the Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines, an inspector from the port inspection office at Seattle, Wash., was detailed from July 22 to August 12 to scout a tier of counties in central Washington east of the area in the State designated as satin moth regulated area. Observations were confined to black cottonwoods and willows, the host trees of the insect in the Pacific Northwest. Three weeks' scouting in Klickitat, Yakima, Kittitas, Chelan, and Okanogan Counties gave negative results.

DUTCH ELM DISEASE ERADICATION
SYSTEMATIC SCOUTING
At the outset of the fiscal year elm trees confirmed as infected with the Dutch elm disease (Ceratostomnella ulni (Schwartz) Buisman) numbered 2,012 in New Jersey, 8 in Connecticut, and 1,235 in New York. This total of 3,255 diseased trees had been discovered as a result of scouting operations carried on in a tri-State area of 1,400 square miles since the disease was first detected at Maplewood, N. J., in June 1933.
Systematic scouting, already under way for several weeks on July 1, 1934, continued until the end of August, when reduced funds necessitated dismissal of Federal scouts. Scouting was continued in New York with men employed on State funds until brisk autumn winds in October defoliated the elms and forced abandonment of foliage scouting for the season. Before discontinuance of summer scouting, all of the originally known infected area in New Jersey and Connecticut had been surveyed twice, and the New York State scouts had finished a partial third survey. Discovery of infection at points near the margiiA of the infected zone required several extensions of the 10-mile protective zone included as an additional work area circumscribing the known infections. It was principally in these extensions that scouting was hurried and incomplete.
Definite and severe wilting of elm foliage, later confirmed as Dutch elm disease infection, was first oh'served during th summer of 1935 in the Bronx. New York, N. Y., on May 16. Systematic scouting from that date to the end of June resulted in the finding of 904 additional cases of infection, 559 located in New Jersey, 341 in New York, and 4 in Connecticut.
EXTENSION OF WORK AREA
Discoveries of infected elms at points beyond the previously known diseased area were made during July, August, and September 1934 at 6 points in New York, 4 locations in New Jersey, and 3 towns in Connecticut. New Jersey finds were made 3 miles north of Hopewell in Montgomery Township, Soimerset County; at Petersburg, in Morris County; at Echo Lake, in Passaic County: and at Princeton, in Mercer County. The most remote infections found in New York during 1934 were at Katonah, Cross River, and Crugers, in WVstchester County; Stony Point and Sloatsburg, in Rockland County: and just west of the Suffolk-Nassau County line near the village of Central Park on Long Island. Contiguous to the 193: known infected zone in Connecti'iit, new infections were found in Norwalk and about 4 miles north of the village of Fairfield, both points in Fairfield County.
New finds at points isolated from the tri-State zone of infection comprised 1 infected tree in Old Lyme, New London County, Conn., 4 in Indianapolis, Ind., and 1 in Norfolk, Va. As a result of 1934 scouting in Cleveland, Ohio, where the disease was found in 1930. 1931, and 1933, two additional infected trees were removed.
Included in the tri-State infected zone at the end of the fiscal year was a total of 2,478 square miles. of which 1,402 square miles were in New Jersey,







32 XNUAL 11IEPOIITS OF DEPARTMEN'__T OF kGI'UCLTTI't~lE, I19%.\52 in ew Yur,10 and-24 ill C!'ji'l icut. This :111 iceseo hi~oi
11!;itely 1,075 squre iles OIvel. lhe areall knq,'Mn to) he inil'ected4 at the tend1 of Ilhe proi' Ioti falyer The' OijIC Jote('tiNve Zobelf inl which' scu u id :a Iitat i il work wee alo el ior-11ie-l .1f1i~llt Ct t(I ll :1t Idit final 2'171) sur ii jilc's, iiiakintg a tota1 work area, (f 4.6;4s sZquare iiIie.

PROGRESS IN REMOVAL OF DISEASED TREES

.Just prior to the 1934 field scouting, 1,487 infected trees hiad been removed and 5 trees known to be infected were staniling. This wa-s thle niearest dp~proacll to complete removal of infected trees accomplished up to that time. As4 the slllimnuers scout jug prog-ressed thle numb11er of stanlding(, infected tret's increased, until at the end of Jufly there were 2,983 1ife cted trees still standing. Cases of inifected trees inmbered, 1,682- inl Jlyl, 1,998 in Augupst, 391 in September, andi 228 in October. When determinations of infection began-411 to (decrease in September anl opportunity was afforded for redutcing" thle niuber of standing infected specimens. 'With the exhaustion in Sep~tember of -New Jersey funds allotted for removal of infected trees, there still remiained at the end of 1934 a total of 1,325 infected trees, 1 of which was in Connecticuit, 4 inl New York, and the remainder in New Jersey. Eradication crews organ-ill izedl under the allotment of P. W. A. funds available late in Decembher soon reduced the number of infected trees as the sanitation work progressed through(lut the affected territory. By February 2 the few remaining infected trees in C'onnecticut had been felled and burned. New York was entirely free froml standing infected elmis by March 30. In Newv Jersey, all1 clii trees- that could be confirmed by laboratory diagnosis were eradicated lby April 15. Laboratory cultures made from dead and dying trees removed (luring Novembher and IDecember arnd in the course of the large-scale sanitation prograin extending from December 28 to Mlay 10 determined 416 cases of IDutch ehin(leae Scouting, by the permanent personnel tand newly trained scouts place d in thle field under the wvork-relief program in June located 891 additional infectionls. With this addition of 5,606 confirmations of infection (luring the fiscalI year, the total of (diseased trees detected thus far inl the major infectedl zonle increased from 3,255 to 8,8631.

QUARANTINE RESTRICTIONS TO PREVENT ENTRY OR DISSEMINATION OF INFECTION

F"oreignl Quiartintine No. 70, originally effective October 21,. 1(0:43. to regurilate tile inllportation from Europe of elm logs or elm material with bark attached,
"as ended. etfect ive Janua ry 1, 1 4)3,5, to place a n emb~argo) agalinst the imnportat ion of elmn veneer logs. Domestic Quarantine -No. 71, effective Feb)mnary 25, 1.9)5, imposes a rigi(I embargo on the movement of all plants or Parts (f plants of* all species of the genus I '71w ini fromIl t l ie I',no mvn (ise; s (l ( a rea in 4 'onnect icut, 'New Jersey, and New Yiork. State quarantines Iprohibitin1_ the( int Irast ate ilimoYellent of lost niat eril from in fected sect ions are also) inl tlpe n t iou 1.
C'OOPERtATIVE ENTERPRISES

iUder coo perat ive ag~reemenits between thle Bure1-au' a'nd the inlfectedStes
ealch (Irg';a iizat ionl has aIcci ded certain delinlite phssof the 'vr.Scoutling for thle pturp tse of localting, (lisease trees and deati or dy\ ing elms i-s designaitedl ,is a lFederal ,wt ivitIy. ( 'ul uring- of twg rom cIs ']Ill 1e 14 o har10in iii fewt ioni is prI'formIlled by employees of' t his, 11ure-t:11 iiw1ir uder the suiperl1'11 d, Oflie technician in t'hia uge of the 1hi t.1ora or4o thle I Mivision of, Forest
Pal lt d gv, ureaof 1.a111t Indist ry, a t thrist owi N. .1. In iornmatiin ceone.''i iii~ ii eel'tI s wcillelts, is In miet I ter I lie Sta1te cont melorgnidti'l
Sta ~tlui ~ tlI l co 1tIact owners of dis eased, ole:ld. or n1i41il0,111ol street to secureTT 14crnlis itll for renu1ov, Most (If 01li treere410a1i New York anti.
Ne .er'y" s perfIruined uijoer couit ract:s. let by.\- lie It ate poects to) COIlOx I)'i 1i1(1c4d inl tis typ e of work. A numb111er ofI crld icat i n crews\1 weralo
t'ii~lt, eioil 'State funds14. nofa as ftiils were alll.Ili evdsae
treesrequring emov ll ( 'oliniecit w rcfelld :uuud buru v by ,N tonauhr
i I its II I New\\ .lerey tm4N -it i'1tsfor lisa I reeI erath( iat ion ra:1tdly ex\hau1sted t~ 1 1u, I R Ol 1In a Ir 1:1jI In I wth Stat erdcto prga I 'aIIw. I \:s hal t ed o n
Sept nd ~e 17k.New Yt N'h Statle con lit Inluied its rclli(%') a Iot inll e(-eWimee. u







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 33

in Connecticut and New Jersey felling and burning of diseased trees was taken over as a Federal activity with the inauguration of the Bureau's sanitation program in January.
Finances to carry on scouting and eradication were obtained from a variety of sources. Available at the beginning of the fiscal year was a regular Bureau appropriation of $150,000 and an allotment of $6,000 from the National Recovery Administration. On December 21, 1934, a tund of $667,000 was allotted to this work by the Public Works Administration. As the regular appropriation bill contained a clause providing that the Dutch elm disease appropriation could not be augmented by emergency funds of Federal origin without reimbursing the Treasury for the amount so added to the regular appropriation, up to the total of that appropriation, the emergency funds actually expended amounted to $527,000. These emergency funds were exhausted in May 1935. On May 28, an allotment of $250,000 was approved from work-relief funds. Reorganization of the project on a work-relief basis was in progress at the end of the fiscal year.
State appropriations of $30,000 each were available at the beginning of the fiscal year in New Jersey and New York. In August 1934 an additional New York appropriation of $142,500 for Dutch elm disease control work became available. New Jersey funds were largely exhausted by the middle of August 1934, and not until the following June were further New Jersey funds allotted to Dutch elm disease eradication. On June S a State emergency appropriation of $25,000 became available in New Jersey for scouting and eradication activities. Several Connecticut garden clubs cooperated in employing scouts to survey their respective towns.
ELM SANITATION ACTIVITIES
When emergency funds allw:ted by the Public Works Administration became available on December 28, 1934, it was possible to build up an organization capable of quickly eradicating all standing, infected trees, aInd in addition make heavy inroads on dead and dying elms existing in the major diseased section. Decision to remove the latter type of trees was justified by the fact that they constitute potential sources of infection or are possible breeding places for the known vectors of the disease. Under conditions prescribed for employment on public-works funds, suitable men were selected from among those registered at the offices of the National Reemployment Service in the counties where the work was performed. As many experienced tree surgeons and tree climbers were unemployed during the winter, an efficient corps of workers was assembled. By the end of Janu:ary 791 temporary men h'ad been employed. Workers paid from emergency funds reached a maximuum of 1,174 just prior to dismissal of the sani: ation force on May 10 because of lack of funds. With disbandment of the crews, most of the Federal sanitation work was discontinued until reorgnization of the work on a relief basis was begun in June 1935. The State of New York assisted in this work by taking over 144 eradication-crew members for 10 days, s parting May 25. In furtherance of this work luring Federal inactivity, an emergency New Jersey appropriation was available on June 8 for the employment for a period of 3 weeks of twenty-five 6-man eradication crews and fifty 2-man scout crews.
By the end of the fiscal year, sco uts had tagged some 690,00,0 (lefd or (lying trees, with the additional marking for (les: ruction of 335.000 misuel!:'nlous elm units, comprising stumps, slash, logs, and fuel woo'd. Vhn,. eradiation crews were operating at capacity in Mirch and April their weekly production frequently exceeded 20,001) trees and 14,000 miscellaneous units. In the coi:rse of the 4,, months' intonsive sanitation prograin eradication cr(ws removed )r destroyed approxiiia.tely 460,000 dea(l and (ying trees and 160,000 stumps or other miscellaneous units. This left at the end (if the fi (al year a residue still marked for destruction of 230,000 Irees and 175,000 other elm units.
Men assigned by the Civilian Conservaton Corps to IDuch elm disease eradication under the supervision of Bureau employees wore a major factor in much of the elm-sanitation work pert')rmedl in woodland areas. At the end of the year approval had beenIi granted for the construction of 3 Civilian Conservation Corps camps in New Jersey, 2 in New York, and I in C('nnecticut. When fully organized, these camps will be devoted exclusively to Dutch elm disease control activities.
Coordination and active direction of the work were supplied by a skeleton force of federally appointed men. This reached a maximum of 179 at the
24118-35-3







34 ANNUAL. ],-I-POETS ()F DEPART MENT (W A(;RR ULTUEE, 193.5

14i;tk f)f 1114, -11111111411' -P.'ISOII, w lil(-li the w indw r w as r(-du,,(-d to
ah''tit :"0 Jw ll;( W ith if lj(, <;tijli-ttli n N%,()re'lri ill V G;-1 01c, jw llll;W ,-lll ;[ ,t d 1(, 111'(1111A
INFORNIATIONAL ACTIVITIES
:I cli-cular, 'I'll(, Dutch F1w
, it.
cati('11 P rl ji o-t 'Siale, illd L'w ;ll atiloll, ill
resim nd i n1, 14 Ilw Im ild ll'cf Is 111' ('till, h I ill' 14 ';H it oil:- T-4 -ceiv"'I f 1-( ll I I ill6 i \-i,!Ii:l all, I cill v '11A I Im -11 1-df-11 clllh:- m d (,i%-i(. I r-,,lTliz I iI)l1-< li\ 0.1v
the di ca ,(, ImW 1!Vv;1tt1llill! the
Iar.,-; (,r 1, oullciill- W el'i, i:-; lled (ill till, 1) 1 v tl (' -N ('\\- Jel-- v "Illd ( '411111(w ti(-ut E\i1erimelit St;iti-n-z mid the New Y(Prk ()f
Agriculture. Then, h;i.,4 been a c(iiislailit delimnil for edtlcntil-iiil Tjiwml-in- the S,\ 111140111s (If The di I
Mld slwci llells 4 ilknown This ImS Jjiet lj MCI~ filiC fli': TriblltiOTI (If 11lii1ll1T<
1111''lls ()f stcrilizwl ('1111 w1i(A
t c-rether with spccilllells (If j8COTI/111S M111tiNtl-i(OFIN itEd if 111i's
b(IfIth"s engrave,
WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST CONTROL

As -I result of an a1h)tment of funds bx On- 1"tiblie Adiiiiiii- u,;iliiln M,
Aul-m4 1933 and the i-i -,nnjent tif n 1,11, L(, ul"imilt m, I;ihl,1' 11,11111 th, Civihill"
Corps. iii(irt, exteii -ivo, taria- ()f white phle \\('Ik- '-iV(H 111'111f-il pil against Mister ru-t Ow rt<1 ezlr than in. aliv ]It-1-iw1 illcit- lit
work wa hel-iiii (ib(mt IS )*etars a; ro.
Control ij;e !sures cmi -kt of currant land
(IL,,ibcs) growiii'L ill (,)I- n(ar t1w piiic stands, and loc.ll pnitecti(,11 1I 11lis
is effective ltcl -,; I rd less (if 11w intensity of the di-citst, ill the vicill1i., lil:,-wr
vii st cminot -W ick pine if tht re are no currant (w the iiiwi-tiii dl, taiwe ff 1900 to 1,50f) fect of the phle, ex(vpl 111:11 lhl i-111kiva t (I black currcm is o wl -uptiblc- that it i-4 v 1(o (1( -Tvly
it through(,ut the, whiu, pine regit)ii:-4, particularly N\ hen within it ni;lc of N% iiiw pine stalls.
The pint, ;iroas to be protecti'd Jill the 1-11ited State', total ahlillt I hm-dor illo-l-f 1 -e 11,o, liv:1,4 !'i-mli wilich
Iwrry plant< mul-4 Im, r4,m(,vo,(I to abmit 24.,-,()11.000 aercs. lit i he N(it-i
'llm lit (It' tho control ire.i,:-: li:iv( h(vu iul!iiii
tion : ill the NV(,.,-4terii St.iic 4 "IbOlIt (010-thii'd : lit TlW <,illilici-11 App-A;l( 101111 ""kite :11)()Ilt (Ilw-fil'th; and ill the N(lrth C(,wriil Statcs il,;ii;i .lit i
ill tiw v as I Nvh(de, 200.1611.! 3 curniii (ind NN-cro,
dc.- ti-(, ('It wl .-Wres of white piiie 1.md with 1132.!116 lah(wr.
The C'ivilian C'(wps S"1111died .-1*-,5 :,(-6 1:11;-'r 1,(Ii- "ll'.<
v.-ork an(I dcstr() N( d cwi-;mt ii li .1-1(1'71-1 'wre:%4 -if
I'llid. T;w 1'0111 lilllk r (d, the w4ak \v.ls with 11. W. A., si;ltll. 'inol
Im 11 funds. (hel "01)(P) illen wert. clllp!41vk d ('11 (-(-litrol wol-11-. .11i'mi
w ere C ivili;lli to tllil- li1*11ject 1,1,4)111
Till, %\(wk oil ill N\i1h :,1 wd N\itil
l'j.(I( I-;tj f''i. th e
ire ,,J%rit iii, t ihlc 1 1.
T "'I [ I, A"ibcs-f W '0111 (J"a Pir th'' f 1111 )011:1- 1 r P',1I
.. . .........


lit
i rr
T:C,


I r q V
r r ri 1. fHk) IA 1 7.
T I
2
j r

.... .....







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTI NE 35

Pine-disease surveys are conduct ed to a lInmuted extent, each Year as, opplOrtunity arises. The p~urlpose of these( -urvex s is to deteiiie the 1)(0111 at wluic'l local control measures should be instituted in the iuiidiate futii,. mm The discovery of blister rust in a new section iieans that the wh-ite inesl ill I hat section can be expected to suffer seriouIs loss unles's local colit rol ulca'sulres, includling IRibes eradication, are promptly carried oul.
Continued spread of the rust inl the East was evWinced by the findling' of' the disease onl white p.ine for the(- first time inlSse and~ P'assalic CounItie, N. J. ; Allegany and Garrett Counties, 14(. ; Pendleton County, WV. Vai. ;('a County, Ohio ; Dubuque County, Iowat ; Bec'ker CoI~unty, Minn. ;( l evJak
soMarathion, Oneida, Adamis, and Lincoln Co)unties., Wis. onud in ()wioign
Leelanau, Emmet, Otsego, Alcona, and SanliiLzc ('olnit les, Mlich. Lifect01 iOnilf R6bes wvas found for the first time in -Nelson County, Va., and in Fre~leriyL] and1 Montg 1liery Counties, 'Md.
InI 01he West a new pine infection c-nter was iccatedl oii Steamlboat Creek, Doug"las County, Oreg-.. about 1,00 miles from Calif orniia, but scout ita., ill the sugar pine forests of northern California failed to reveal thepeec of the(rust. In the western white pil( re gion of northeastern Washington, nlorthiernt Idaho and northwestern Montana. 89 new centers of pine infection wveroe rePorted, making, a total of 129 for tlte region. All of these, have developed within the last 12 years and there are undoubtedly many others still undiscovered. Of the 39 newv centers, 8 were inl northern Idaho and northeastern Wa1shington onl the Kanlksu National Forest, 1 on the Lilo National Forest. and 4 on the Cabinet -National Forest in Montana. This is the first record' of pine infection in Montana and in these national-fo-rcst units.
Careful inspection and study of white pine areaS shiow that very LU tle new infection is occurring onl white pines in the areas thatt hiave been broughIt under control by the eradlication of Ribcs, but in similar unpilrotected areas, the rust is increasing rapidly and causing, serious losses in whlite pine Stand:.Z. particularly among the younger age classes. This steady spread and iiuten'4-illcaiion 01 the rust in"unprotected areas is indicative of the need for vigorous and coiitinuous application of control measures to protect the valuable white pine forests of this country.
Since the European or cultivated black currant (ffib(s S ujyrum) is. iore sus'ceptible to blister rust than any other species of RibeN, andl is, one of the, dueti agents in its long-distance spread and local establishment, the eradicatti o this plant inl white pine reg.ons is a general control n1~siethat will ]!e of, material aid in checking the spread Of tile disease. D uring the past sao 70,927 of these plants, were eradic ated inl six _North~ealstern and Lake 'States. This work has been completed in Rhode Island and in large, parts ofsera other States. In the Appalachian region black currants are very selreaid in the West they have beon eradlicate I in the wNesterni white pilne and sugar pine regions.
In order to prevent the distribution of time (disease troihthe niov*einent of infected white pine planting stock, ffibe.,-free zones. are estabhshed andl maintained around nurseries in coop~erationl wit Ii the owners. InI est al, lisiinig t ils( zoneCs all Ribc.8 are eradicated wNNithin 1,500 feet and all cultivated black currants within 1 mile of the nlurseries-. rfl se zones are k ept frt e f bin yearly inspection and reworking- wh-ere nees.,..sary. I urin', 1934 tis wvorlk wxvcarriedl onl around 74 nurseries *n IS State :, thus fordingg pi'ot ectioli for iinillions. (4 white plles be4 in~g gr(wn for forest and tornamientzil pdaniiilg. Tilt number of these nurser-ies certified as having co nipletelv protected pines tha, coulId be a uthlorizel foI'r iuiterst ate sl IijI mIIenIt i S d ~SC Uis -2( in t ile' repo))rt1 of I II( Division of Domiestic Planit Quaranitines.
Pre-eraicl(atiomi surveys wvere otpleI oni 2,M11.4,--, aces which, S,2l.22:*. acres were in the eastern white pi ie reiomi, m 1 .220,21 1 inl 1lw wct eru, white p) ie and sligal' pine regiOliS. Ti Vo'(' Pake's it lH)1J5-iIh t 1i il hulA'1 the locat ion, thle acrca(,;z. andA the P ill, b Ncoi I I' ma: 1uvigulh> White pinle values to warrantl~l theirl.rtc 1 amfroi )it isor rlt 1 Tiero- m of this -8vork make it Ji)511~to deci n o~w I ieerolri jn i thu Ihall. vi accoliIlisll mos;t oil each.] arca anud to mnake- a1 reu tnI hree-tmat e () tlt, amount of wXork lneoe~i-;ir to (-' ttliisli ('Id!! hi.
A survey of forest lIs im Colorado4 anid Wyniin was inlitiateed ill 1184 to determine the distribution andl vahue o(f whit- piiime- ill !h(-1, Sta e ad
scert ilte imunuberol and1( Bj~iso ib". cci nf :inIhe1e> altIsa h
for applying" -omitro)l huatr~ ie foretts of these 1vf 1~ Stte ge I te
about 31 ,500,000 re- wit hum thlt bo)un' la 1-ie s of, 21 nlat b nihi ,intoa







:'6 ANNUAL ELP01',TS OF Dj-:PA1,'TMEN'1: OF AGRICULTURE 1935

pio-lis, will 1 111(liati r4-.(,rvjtjolI. So 1',Ir tllll 1*t ,Ijjjs Of the survey show that theIV aIe oil 12 nati(m.il foi-ests, :'I imtiomil parks, mid 1
iv -erv;ltioll sill Ipt 11-1 Ing \%Illle pille. an(i lhat liver o00,11MR) acres of this IIIV l -ljl)jjol't ('011 11)'t rativcly Naillithle while pille :-;UIld-. The NvIlite pines.
()f three species-I'mioi li(xiII4, ill(, lindwr pine, whi(1i occurs through(,ut the timhei'ud mc.i s of* bolit 1'. (Obic(iuh the NVlliLf'-h.1rk pine, found
ill llortliNvesteril aml 1'. (Iristut(l, tile pille, which occurs
ill -till tile forests (11 inulo except the extieille ll(jltll(.Ili ill(l north\vestern 4)11 (1 1, The c,,iimicrcl il v.tlue of tjlc ,e NvIlitc pilles llot grem, although they provide ralll'o ,d tjc:- lillial props, luniber, fetict, pw-t ,, zind hiel wood for locil I I:- e. In ad(liii-m, t1w v are very v;ilu;1hle for tll prolectioll 4,f w llersheils, tile III-ev( lit ion, (,I, (.ro (I ceiiie i j v; i s. Tlwre are 11 slwcics of Pib' in this Ill
they range 1roia 1 to 38 hu- hes per acre in tile uphw(l type.- iiid front Is to
*)79 lju.shu.s 1wr acre ill the iiiul'St Stl'UMIJ bOttOIll",. lt tiltt Oil tllt'
supporting ,,()(,d w1jite pine, stands the control of bli-ter rti, t h.v Ribic, er.ldicitiou Nvoul(l be practicable at a inodvr ite cost.

WHITE PINE BLI.!')TER RUST QUARANTINE ENFORCEMENT

Ali tionuind for white-vine stock was noted by nul'seYVIIIell Ipplviilg
for permits last year. Commercial. 111SI)eCted J'or
Fe(jentl certilk.10011 in the -,)riii(,r of 1935 Nvere found to be practice illy sold out, and this Bureau li:ts received more applications for permits from Fc(leral an(I iulte imi-series than in previous years. The praeti(-ztbility ()f growing rust-free piiit s in int'ected regions, under the sziiiitation re(juirenicuts of tile white joitift bii,4er rust quarantine, lias been demutistrmk-il. The (jum-mitirie require., Rib(,, -fv(v zones for the growing of five-leafed I)Ines in iIIf%'oJ0d Stltesi for iiiter -L Itc under Federal perillit. Alter it. i1u1'1_:CIYlIl,1ll effects
era(lication of currant ind gtw cherry plitnts within the zi)iws, miller
ilie leadership) of traii.,o-A #-(ztL(! mi(l Federal blister rust cw.itrol ,in
iiispector Of Otis 11iii'll-,am make- a ,wuruli for any remaining, laouts ()I- sfv illiigs, and tile crew i1i"Iy I)e requirett to cover the arei rup(,Ac(fly Lwfoi-e the nur ,ery
-e. i ct I for sprouts,
1 4 flii;iVy certili(-'. Eicli i ar thereat'ter the ein eo,
,! ue(lliijgs. Or lioi i,- plantilips of currants and ill the smiizition
zonus. lltll'- CIA DIC111(jil)", State till rz- eriuzi (if M Jlo, Vii-illia,
aild ollio, and 11-lawd 1"Ortst ,-'wrvice ljtlr -erics ill W( >t Vil.gill;.l ;1ild
Mojitail l, Nvere (ertilled the eiir mid %vere -r.iw(.(l iiiiie--ilipplilIr
vei-jiiit,4. A third Forest .-1Cl'Vi(1'(2 111,11-.141W, (l('st1'0V('(1 1(-Venll lllw ls.lll l Rih(s in !I,(, I!- zollk"', N\*,i.,.; alTr(Ived for \\ilte pille seedill"
The (111(li-anflile v'":Is allierl'ied, ('11'e(Aive March 1 _), Vk*15, to 1-cquire th:lt '.hIpjiwii, s ()I' ( !Arrmt ; iid goosoherry plants to 2\11ritiesita must he hy :I colitl-()l Ilk-1.1111t froui that .44atv. Such ak-tioii iv;is iii of a
I (,collt YCL 111,zti(,n szottin" :lsi(le two piu(- 41.owill- arcls ill which 110
vurrailt or phni, i ay be gn)wii. Ton St:itk,,,4 h;i\o nmv set asile
area-zi 'Jild Cle Fcdcl-A (III-111"llitille
Ill) 11i;[Y he shipli(A to Si'lic" W 11114illt :1 c('1 ltn)l m it
from tho (111.11-alltille ()Ilicel. (d, tIll, Si;lte (d,
TI-x isit illspectiw: 4 it r:Jl\v;iy term inal, hitcl-( 4-ifl-fl
73 N 0,1 tl ioll" llluriil ,, till, ye, Ir, '111d W 11w
I w (.1 h. 1,m -ce r(q,,) r; I, (1 ]40 11 i I I I I i() I Is if n I It I I t I, I I r I st S I r, I I lsp(irl i I) L I Ill (.k. Ii, jilk (l v"11111, jj:111(..- Ir,,Ill M istel. rll- t illfccto(l SkItes. kt W 1,111111:11 H "k, re4trict( d pkmt- wert niriled kick to the -'ellders. Al ro l(kide st'itiolls they
:11A Vd. C llif ()1-11'a 41,11( 11111cor." I-Iplirit'(l Ilie
41f Etll' Ijwnll hllck curr:111I.-4 Irrivill- from I NA'Nv .1cl-sey officers
I'll 1-11 ished ill 1"w ili"I I ii'll as 14) Ili im lividli'll till(v I.: i lio .11 11:itive w hitt, pilles frilm Nvw Y,)HI1 fiv -,Ilo. Tho (dlicers N\ere lhle to check t I I is,
li'lulitil-%
C I ATIZ EAL AND FORLAGE INSECTS
G It ASS I 10 LIVERS
D111111121, the fi-ill I)f an exteiiive survey (if grn.sslioppcr comUtions Nv:is C4111(luch-d in NN,:4tjj tll(., JS s t,'Jj( s iljcljjjj('(l ill tjl( callill"ligal
\ Jlif-ll w'Is cimilill-It'd the sunimer. This survey hidic:ited a ,Zrent reductimi Ili pjm1ntii)ijs over most of tile nrv:t included in the







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 37

control campaign. The heaviest infestations were centered in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North DI)akota, and Montana, but graisshop)liqers occurred in sufficient abundance to require control in the States of South I)akota Iowa, Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, Arizona, Idaho, California, Nevada, and New Mexico. A considerable portion of this reduction in populations, compared with 1934, may be attributed to the success of the control campaign. The infestation in the northern part of North )Dakota and Minnesnta wns undoubtedly increased by migrations of grasshoppers from Canada. The requirements of the various infested States for control in the spring of 1935 were successfully met with the funds and materials available.
CHINCH BUG

After the completion of the control campaign late in the summer of 1934. a survey of chinch bug abundance was conducted, c operatively with .arious States in the Corn Belt, to determine their probable abundane in the spring of 1935. This survey revealed the presence of the highest overwintering pol)llations of chinch bugs on record in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri. and, Iowa, and populations of menacing proportions in the States of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, and in southern Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. A considerable increase in the area covered by the infestation was also observed. Recognizing the emergency nature of this situation, should spring weather conditions be favorable for chinch bug development, Congress appropriated $2,500,000 for the control of these insects. The very cold, wet spring delayed migration until after June 30, the indications bein" tlat, although severe local outbreaks could be expected in some of the States involved, the extremely wet weather over most of the area had reduced the outbreak to a level at which it was not so serious as that occurring in 1934. In Oklahoma. Kansas, and Nebraska the infestation was practically eliminated. Detaled studies on improving barrier methods and materials, and in determining methods of preventing severe infestation by reducing or eliminating certain of the small grains are being made, and more accurate methods of evnalu:ting chnch bug abundance have been developed.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER

In the summer of 1934, in addition to the usual abundance surveys made in selected areas known to be infested, a survey was conducted to -dineove any, extension of European corn borer invasion around the margins of te known infested area. This survey revealed only minor spread of the ,' bovr ( rin the past 2 years. Damage surveys indicated extensive loss to sweet-corn growers along the eastern seaboard, particularly in MIassachusetts an(l Connecticut. and on Long Island. An increase in infestation was noliced in Neo', Jersey and in two counties on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. However. i1, infestations in the one-zenerat'on area in western New York, Ohio, and Indiv)' has maintained approximately the same degree of severity for the past 1 yoerDuring this period climatic conditions have been definitely unfavorable t, corn borer increase.
Varieties of field corn resistant to corn borer attack have beoon fuirthotested and have maintained their resistance to the borer. In co0oe tie ,vi the Bureau of Plant Industry, further crosses have been made of th(se rsoi:,: varieties, and on effort is bing made to) discover new resistant charaet < new strains resistant to the borer. This work has now been eotend'e1 tstudies of resistqane in sweet corn for utilization in the sw'veet-corn .a:]ni,* areas and market producing centers.
ALFALFA APHID
Resistance of alfalfa to the attack of the alfalfa aphid, appIroaching ahs lte immunity, has been definitely proved in a number of trIins selected frm varieties of alfalfa widely grown in Kans, s and Clifo ,nia. The st ,in's have been carried t hrolig a nu1n6er of "O!,*ra i-a! 1(1 suljected to everQ test. Results indicate that resistance is inhlerited. EItoented attempt ts )o i-nkol:tne strains of aphids that are able to survive on the resistant plants have resulted in failure. An effort is being made. in cooperation with thle IUreau of I'lan t Industry, to develop strains of alfalfa having desirable agronoiic characters combined with resistance to aphid attack.







NNU kT. OF DFI'Al',T,-NTE-T OF

WHITE GRUBS

A new I;ihw-at0i-.\ Iweli I 1 i--1 wd lit Wi -- fol- tllc 1111rimse of
stlltl ill L" 11w V;11'111111.,u ()f white -rubs iiih-iiii Wl ,cwi-iii md ,urnajil4lill'-r tl supplellw ilt illliljlr \N4,1k 1111(it.l. \\.i\ III 111411am l. A 11114111-11 the
-,nw l.v redllce(l the tall)(111111 411 w hitc-l'-'rulp exist'l'ielicell, as
w illi That ill 1(1."4. ihi- i-- ,till a m ;tj,)r p i-(ohlem ill the
;tIld a 1111111114,1, ()t, 1111 111 e
fcellili -, (of' Ille lwwh li;ivc iwli(-ated 1hit they fi-eii willt ly mi I 111111iber
h'i'I'd I hl-m I(-'1Iw It '111(" ('1111 ivated iiv;ts. in
fldt I it b I I Io t I Ie I .:["c (11, ccl-lain trecs m ill T hi-4 401-- t-rv;itifii luts lin
imptirtaut bearing oil the lm<,- iljility of colill-()l of the lleeth- lly spi-aylli"
shrubs aild oil Which lh( y were previously belit v(-d ti) dk peild alilit) ;t
exclusively fA)I. food.
HESSIAN FLY

too (1(,t(,rmhw- t1w lw 4 11;1t( (if ,e( dijl- to Ill.( vellt lws ,Ljli fly dal!la-e to wileft 11;lvc hecit c(miph'ieil alid ill Illw t (,f the 11-ca illullided
ill the l1liddh, Plaim, Detel-IllillItion of the 1)(-t (1111v (if
Ilas Imt, yet 1'ci'll accurately made for the Eastern Stites, and pl()t- are still heing- maintained ill this re"Joll.
Ext(,Iisive to- t--; of a lai,,-,,e number of varieties and ctraiii.,; (of wheat, to
dete:-Illille their resistance to hessian fly tattlaCk, havo, been cmiducte(l ill California, Kansas, and Indiana, with the result that -I few viri( ties have been found to be practically inalluile. It has been defillitely (letcrillille(l. that this'.
to stleo-ee, (Iillg relierati0ii-s. Breeding wm-k is ill characteristic is transmitted ?I
active progress, ill Cooperation with the Bureau of Plant 1whist ry ill -,ill three
States, ill ,ill attempt to dev, lllp strains of wheit that will have ,ati-4,jctury
agrwlonlic (ImIlities for the vlrious arclas and also the quality. A
tccl iiic for artilici'll iIlf(,. speed 111) the (If selvoion. particularly ill the al'cas whel-C Ilesiall fly outbretaks tare spormlic.
It has been provell that little barley (Hordcum. pu8ifluw -Nutt.). a c(immmi and widely distributed wheat-field grass, 'Ind other -%vild aro ci mnionly
ilifi-4ed with the liessiall tly and may s(TVIL, ,Is r(1<(1IWo)A;rs of iiii'estatitin i',)iwhf, lt.
tk iiumber of native parasites ()f the Iws 4ian fly have beeii distrilmted duriiithe vc;II. to ill 'which thev Were not previou"Iy estahli-sheil, '11141 mle
E'airolwall specie-, Was introduc(,"d.
HAIRY VETCII BRUCHID

pe-'t of the vetches lias gthieti a firin foothold ill t1w Atlantie S t'l I I. '1711i'4 beell calle(l Ille 111tiry vetch liruchid. I)III it als() ilifests the
-11101)01 variclic'-4 ()f vetch as well -,is other cI().,c] v rcl;lwd Thi, illsect
1, w -, n ddmi
i, .1 witive ol, Ellrf)pe and Nvn< lit-St. discovk lvd ill thi
N J., ill 19' 1. It i-- ill)\\- I-iitlw n to 1w )11.( S. ,,I ill D t'l.lw llv llavy!alid,
V irgilli'l, N (ortll C :1I-(,1*111,I, nlid 8(m ill C :11-1)lill.l. Ill ..I"z
lini it has been found ill 15 cmillti ,,. aild ill the ,lllllillcr (d, it \N,
ilm;(-d (t) have (1,1111:1.4ed ill(, vetch secd crop Jill pill-I (4 Illis -11-c't 1( Ille cVent I)f 10) 1wrc('111. Ill S''11111 C;1ridilln ()IllY t\\o cwlWic- ;iiv (.1 k ill I W i it fest od,
T hi- lw t fil\:- il..; (Ili the i111111:11111n "llid ille blirl-m v intt)
till, -(- A till,\. lilatill.c. V sti: I I I v 111c till, -O ,dl%
but hilliN 41re sl-iilctillw. impriswivil ill 1IIwp(,;,-ed
11111t.1111itt'k :1116 it i 4 helievit-III t ]w t I Ill, i ll-w i I lw i \ 11; \ I, hc(-Il int 1*4 '(111ced illi() Ilw I'llitc(i Sklh-:- ill w ay. T ill, i 1111,11111o I(' \(Ich seq d
ill I)III F, dt'l w l:l h'll I 11111m Illc ;rI*()NViI1,9 (1,111o 1,4)1, Its I I ";
]it,(. is v stiW il-d : 1141 )-- 11(m w t' l k11(m il. ( v -cpl Ille
1(- Jtiwl ill \\hich Tlw milills spend till, \ illtcl%

ADDITIONAL, INSECT VECTORS OF STENVART'S DISEASE

11 1)w \cl-tlol's (11, 41f 4o her th"Ill till, c(ol-li
(ChIlt tOrW 111(l lill-endy Imqmn too carry Ihe disen-se
()v( r w ild4'r. 11:1s IwI111 (-11111111ed lluriw- Ilw Vc:ff T he lli-w:lse 11:1- 11c( I) ('IIItured fl m 1\\.,) '14111ilil,11:11 Sjwcic,, (01, Ill-ctirs, ('11(1( focm m a dcnt I't-11 /a/a Ill.. 4.1 1](-:1 beetb. )ill-c:111 S11'.+ccled is 11 vcctm., 111111 stillous (1picalls Melsh.,
a 10(411,11 I'll em -11.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 39

These cultures were made from individuals collected in the field in Virginia, in April before corn was planted, and the insects apparently had carried the infection over winter.
CORN EARWORM

The summer of 1934 was marked by one of the most severe and general outbreaks of the corn earworm ever recorded. From Ohio on the east to Iowa and Nebraska on the west and from Minnesota southward to Arkansas the insect wreaked havoc with the corn crop. In Iowa alone the loss to corn was estimated to have been at least 10 percent of the crop. Other crops, such as tomatoes, were severely injured throughout this region.
For several years limited investigations have been conducted in an effort to obtain practical control of this pest in corn. These studies have been intensified and expanded and a full program has been set up with a view to determining fundamental facts regarding the insect, including the geographic limitation of hibernation. Some 13 observation stations, lo;ated from Kansas and Nebraska eastward to the Atlantic coast and as far north as Connecticut, have been established for this purpose. At four of these stations, located in Virginia, Missouri, Indiana, and Kansas, respectively, intensive observations on all phases of the behavior of the insect are being carried on. Included in this program are investigations of resistant strains of corn, control through insecticides, and the utilization of variation in farinm practice or cultural control.
INSECT PESTS AFFECTING THE MILLING INDUSTRY

During the year it was demonstrated that, contrary to common belief, the eggs and young larvae of the flour beetles pass unharmed through the milling process. This indicates that infested grain and infested clear and low-grade flours fed into the product for blending constitute the most important sources of infestation for flour in the mills.
The relative efficiency of the several standard fumigants used to protect stored grain has been determined. The perfection of a method of applying one of these, viz. hydrocyanic acid gas, to milling equipment has resulted in lower costs for fumigants, increased efficiency, reduced labor charges, reduction in loss of running time, and elimination of loss because of stock ordinarily removed from milling machinery and sold as stock feed.

EUROPEAN CORN BORER INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION

Issuance during the fiscal year of 16,184 certificates for commodities requiring Federal certification to meet the requirements of State quarantines or orders on account of the European corn borer (Pyrauista nubilali.s IIm.) was an increase of 55 percent in the number of certificates required in the same territory during the previous fiscal year. Articles covered by these certificates had an estimated value of $186,.391. This sum is 83 percent greater than last year's estimated valuation of certified commodities. With the exception of November 1934, when the number of certificates issued approximated that of the previous year, the monthly certificate requirements uniformly exceeded those of any previous month since reorganization of the Federal corn borer inspection service in Jamnuary 1933. Stimulated sales of roots and plants of dahlia largely occasioned the demands for this type of iispection an(d certification.
State European corn borer quarantines or orders necessitating maintenance of a Federal inspection service remai (led unchanged (luring the year. IEntry of likely carriers of the corn borer from infested States into Arizona, California, (Colorad(lo, Georgia, Louisiana. Nevada, Oreg(n, Texos. and Utah was still conditioned on Federal inspection and certification.
Few of the State quarantine orders were revised or r ,isud during the year. In a revisionll effective January 15, 1934, the Nebrash; Slate (quarantine was changed to eliminate celery, ot an(1 rye straw. cosmn os, zinniia, and hollyhock from the articles under regulation. Restrictions fornmorly imposed by the Nebraska quarantine on the movement of vegetal)le and floral plants from Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio were also eliminated. A supplement to Colorado European corn borer quarantine no. 4, effective May 1, 1935. permitted entry into Colorado until July 1, 1935, of cornstalks and fodder when sweetened and processedl in hammer mills approved by inspectors of this Bureau. The State of Illinois on May 8, 193t3. modified its corn-hborer quarantine to permit admission into that State of g-reen sweet corn and corn







40 A-N-NUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGnicULTURE, 1935

on thp ear froin 28 wini'este(l cmintiel;; in t1w ,outhNve:-4(,I-n part (If Ilid'alla. A ,;tfcly zji)(- (if unijifcst( d counties is pic.,,crilwd twt\\c(iii tlif sc ( xcvpwd c()II1;lI(-, 2110 eolinties w1ii(Ii Nvere wli(ylly or pii-tiiilh- unl(-r rest ricl it'll prior t(i i-(- (,c;ition of tli(- Fed(,ral (pim-;intirle in 1932.
All jilt 11N. l1w "I'ZI-ic"11111re and
(11" V11-1111"I 4)11 Ort(llwl. 4, Vi.A. ro,-trict" the s1lipillew of c"rtaill lik(,]N, cmrivr.s (if )miei. ililest.1ti(Ill from Accmnac aiifl Nortliampton
If) otIler 1);Irts of the Si!!l-(' (.Xtell'.41 1.-0 S1llW(1N-< fililo(l to Dwate
tilt, lit-: fill the m;IiIl"a:A of Vir,_Jllia, t1w i., cilf, rct.,l to lil.wlfi-le
tll(, illf'i- Inti''ll to the SlIfll*e L :itt ;-. fill 7. P i,30 ,
the V i r. -i n ita ffiter- I t t (, I ui i.:!111 i I I e was extel)(10f '11' J, _i, )ulawl rt all(I
AL i I \-].-in(] anion.- as hifc.;ted.
Oil June 3, Vj:05, t1w Main(, quaranliiw ()n ;wcwmt of this ii, >ecl lwc:iTi-I(uffkc;ive. This qtjir ,,iiiiiie regulates t1w off (till
k-Ut lbfwers of cevtziin types of plants ill the Nt w 1'iill1:iiA States
ttnd shippt,,d into tll(' ,-4ate of 'Maine. priricip:11 olle-- ;iffel-l('ll Ity this qtlariiii,, iiw. 'I'll(- 19",:1 tho-e wiforc(,d (lurii,.- 1934.
Ill by tIll, Eiirope;in eorn borer -ind J i;,lim-e lwetie or
gyp-V 1110th, illis I"O'(1c.-A in ,ic(,tion wa-4 ren(lered by the periii.ilwnt hi,--f1c(_,,,ion
1*()I.(.(,. W ith the Ja1i;lw .,e '11(v ile 'ill(I Zyp N' III,-ill ](III Cfll'ii- 'I'li-c:1dy
cowrim, all corn borer iiift sted territor.v ill tli,,, Alhllle AtLiiitA(,. .M4 South Atlantic Sta(-. there rem-iineJ hilt t1w e i ;,wrli N lrlll
t(,,, it which it was ncce zzlrv to station 1S-:i'_-l(d to
corn borer certification. fil --pector,-4 In nolicv01-11,111pilig Wrritory NN-cre
in Detroit, Mich., Indkiii:itpolk, In(I., land Cle\-ela!ld, Olliti. tlii-eo i:ispecim's w(-re Coll tillu4al.,-z I v occiipied by their ZI'- i'__Ti1llVIlt to IMI-1-1;DW trillI W!ihin the JwPtine -e 1)(wile qiiirnitined area (Icinan(!s f(ir (.( ,n blror cerlifi(,;ttion ()n Loll'"", wl, re IAli i( Ilt to (ille
tillie exchl-ivily to 111i." work. Mw;t of the 1)11. Iimtnts ill t lils territilr '
by tile JaPailose beetle, so Nvei,0 entitled d to 1w,,tle certilLaws in hulk. villimit 4)!' from 1-1:tIA (-(11010 1:4,t tw llitt 1) N- a n
in, pctor ";ii1v c.ilI,; from t1w )!ci !(, I)II1ci, ill New
York Ci t y. I ille suinnior inoilzli Nvh( n -li;piiieiit- ()" d;i1ill:i :11id
o t I I e r p I- d I I, I, i.1 i ri I I g c, rn bo re I- c (, I ', I fi i t I (, I I NN C Y t n Illilki"'nilill. 111(I to J:111,1110-t-1 ll In"') "lich
cirrll I)e(*V<.,- .IF.V Was "I'_11 I",(' J,11 alic.se

pers(,I I (J carl'i( d w) clrll
I- i w l I 1,(, 1) -i-4 of -f cr)?* I', Nv, T-k
I lit 'I v, here J(1111t lic0 le :"I'd 1 11,11
?!!f(1 1):11", 44 1 1w roill i1w .
ill-1w, ti(,Il vl"if z 0) New jw-( \. Iil- 'v'!I0.1"I _il t 0 'V! I c, 111 i fi -,, I :1( 11, 1" 11,(,! Ill (,\ :I Ill 1, 1 1- W lW illi
f
A ll S t: (1: F t' l'.1-:11 11, r i irtiti
of; I i I 1. .1_ 'w c 1 01
Nv.l" ],Ili 110 :1ilw (I Illy A tl (,
'514) If) 1.(1110 if lIW (T I(1< iii c ic'i 1,1' thi, '2 1 c-iiii,*t,:- ill H it,
I ll l ll- I 'fill (0 l ilt, N" 'lilt,
lw( I I
f 111 i < f, I rl 1, 1, 1 11 i I I ft i I I I I I ( I I I If I \ I I I I I- t TI

I I v I fri -ni I ) G:, i 1) I'l" I I I I I i
I I If it It i( ill I I-N of 'I Ill 1 :1 t I ( III 1 :IIIL fr f .111 1 t
2 ". 1: 1 T_ N- ill c(li,!iiIl- 1h o
Irf R \ cl. :111 fi-ivi(l ri-ce frfm W imi. Fou I* i lilt (I C !- i x Ili I I--Cliry
i% c,,Iocd it) A 11:11it:.- C lillini v fr(lni 2S ti, GS pci-oci t st:ilk illN% ilh I 111111,4)1,111 (it' 1.5.-) lm -v:w por A li
ill All:lfltil ('4111111V :111d line in May Citunt y (ill furiller
]w 11-1).11 (IM1111 ()f Will "t.ilks Showed slight ill renat Ions. Inf, I1.111;1 I i, Ii I ;1c (I I 11 1.1-d i I I t 11 i,4 urvey iisod as a has Is for t I ic Issuance of






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 41

certificates to uninfested establishments during the fall of 1934 and until April 15 of the spring of 1935. For the purpose of obtaining infestation data in areas of the State from which oat and rye straw is certified, additional counts and inspections were made in the northern and western sections of the State for possible infestation spread and population increases.
Stubble counts for corn borer infestation were made in the less populous sections of Long Island by the inspector stationed in that district. In thoroughly canvassing the island late in the fall, there were examined 5 fields in each section and 125 stubbles in each field. Observations in connection with the survey showed that many of the farmers in 1934 cut their corn stubble at the ground level in accordance with good corn borer control practice. This was particularly apparent where sandy soil had been well cultivated during the growing season. Not much corn is grown on the eastern end of Long Island, so it was with difficulty that the inspector located cornfields there for counts of infested stubble. Nevertheless borers were quite evident in many fields. The survey extended to 26 localities and included counts in 51 fields, with a total acreage of 307 acres. Infestations found in Nassau County ranged from 2.4 to 52 percent, most of the stubble showing approximately 30-percent infestation. The highest infestation was found in a 4-acre field of sweet corn at Jericho. In Suffolk County negative counts were made at West Islip and Lake Grove, with other points showing infestations ranging from 0.8 to 43.2 percent. Infestation in this county is apparently heavier in the northern section than in the southern townships. At Southampton, the easternmost point to which the survey extended, 2 fields examined showed respective infestations of 15.2 and 21.6 percent. Fields of dahlias examined as a part of the corn borer inspection of dahlia roots disclosed further heavy infestations of the borer. One field in particular at Quoque, on the eastern end of the island, showed an especially heavy stalk infestation. As many as 11 bor;'ers were taken from a medium-sized plant.
Degrees of corn borer infestation in heavily infested sections of Connecticut were determined by four scouts employed by the State Agricultural Experiment Station. It was found that the infestation in the State equaled or exceeded that of 1933. Some fields evidenced 100-percent infestation. In the New Haven area inspection of one shipment of beets to comply with the Maine corn borer quarantine disclosed heavy infestation in the tops, resulting in refusal of certification. This condition was reported as rather general in that section of the State. Corn borer destruction of sweet corn wnas somewhat general throulout the State. causing the growers considerable loss. Prices of roasting ears harvested from infested fields were so low that some farmers plowed under their crop rather than harvest it at a loss. Local sweet corn shipped into the Boston market was more heavily infested with the corn borer than for several years past. A prominent Vermont canning factory appealed to its corn growers to practice corn borer control to insure the quality of their crop. Stalk infestation as high as 50 percent was observed by State nursery inspectors scouting on the Eastern Shiore of Virginia. The borer was found generally established in Acconac and Northampton Counties, from the Maryland line south to Cheriton. Completion of a preliminary survey of infested territory in Pennsylvania by entomologists of the State showed that there were fewer borers in the northwestern sections than in 1933. An increased I 'in estation was observed in most of the recently infested counties in the central and east-central sections. Investigations in the oldest and imost hevilyv infested areas, in Erie and Crawford Counties, showed a continued decrease in borer population.

BLACK STEM RUST QUARANTINE ENFORCEMENT

The quarantine on account of the black stem rut of grains (Piccinia praminis) regulates the interstate movement of barberry :1 Mahonia IiPlants, except lerberis th unbergii, the Japanese arherry, and its rut-iminmune varieties. These regulations provide that nurseryinen who grow only rust-resistant species, as determined by inspection, may be granted permits for shipping to the grain-growing States of Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Such action is in support of the campaign waged for several years by the Department and the above States in destroying those barherries that spread the rust. Applications of 23 growers and 1 dealer were approved during the year, authorizing shipments under these regulations. Thirty ship-







42 ANNUAL JI-A-011TS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935

1[1('Iit'4 in '11q):11-clit vildatif)n of the qUanintine were iiiierctlited h v tr.tn- it ilIsIwct(,l-s the ye;ll- -111d returned to shippers. W tho-se, 21 Nvcrv
found oil ilivesti.,"Iti'm to be shipments by pers(ins unaware of
the rv.-Wati(iii-z.
H#( r1wris Ames 01S), a new hyhri(l (if' J)cl-bvrix cm-ered by
Plant Patent -NI). 9,1, Nvas 'IfIded I() the list (If sliccie" determined .1.,4 resistant to III(, rtl.,-4t, 111;tkill ,, .1 t(it:11 ()f 27 species thit nmy he shipped under joermit. 'I'lle Bureall t\.lil.ihIe for (Fstrihution lists showiiig (1) B. fbunbcr (Iii and
its rust-immune lim-ticultural v;irioi tivs, in iy be moved inter-oate \vith(lilt permit ; (2) 1.0 ( i 1) c ris :it if 1 11 a h () ii ia ,I wci cs or v, i r iei ies sufficiently resistarit t( lilack tem rust I'm- Iljplllcllt illto prwvocd Statl-: ( :1) 1 Borrberis,
Afa It ('711,1, a I [(I '11(11, o1wrlicris -1 iecie-s ()I- \-,i riet it-, w h it -it t re ,u-,4-ej it it I(' I (I at tack by hl wk ,teiii rust -,m(l which l1lay not he allied ilito l,1-()tccto,'(i st'lics; .111(l
(4) pccie iw \-,iricties ()I' Berb(ris or -110ion 'a for which retution to) hinck
Went I'll.-4 att;tck 11,1 Imt been, determink-d aii(l whi(Ii therefore Tn:t v iwt he
moved to Protc(-led Stat( s at least Until their susceptiliAily to rust attack I)as been determined.
of Mallollia for decor, tj vc purpose- wily, includiig-,, lwIl\ gr tpc Mr( goll frgrilie), Nvere rcinoved from i-estriction-, under a wo(lificati(m ()I thc (Iiiir:ilitine Nvh*icIi became (oil Ychruary 20, 19:35. The native specie,4
in the Northwestern an(I much used 1'()i- decoration, have he(.11 (loerwini (I its re-i- tant to the disease.

BARBERRY ERADICATION

Approximately 18,900 square milv,-s of territory in the Nortli ( centrall .--raingrowin- St-,ltes was surveyed for common barlwrrv bushes duriii,-, tl:(, fiz(-:i1 year, resulting in the eradication of more than ')TOP)o busl!vs (ill diffel.ent properti(Is. This worb, was a continue, I ition of the puhlic-\vllvk 4 prw-,ram
for thc prevention of steni rust undertaken ill August Men
to conduct the field work were obtaineil throligh the local recitiplilN mew t !tl( e.-;, ill accordance with the rules and re riihitions approved by the Pullli( 1\'()rks Administration.
ORGANIZATION

Fifteoll S4atc-, co()perve(I with the United 'St.iie.4 Department of -k,--Hcil1tti1-e in the barber -(T.111iC.Ltion pr(l-raill dilriw-, tllk Iso, 'A WiTk NN"'Is
coii(hicted as a F(,(Icral project, kvith resp(,ilsihility for .,-,ellonll restin.- Nvith tho Department. 1'ecaiise i)f the 11:1111re ()I* the work.
the perm:nwitt field personnel Jm ; Iwon, l-(-,1rif ted llilwst ('11til-el v to a leader ill
chav-e ind ono clerk in cat-h :--t.ite. Illo 'Ictive fil ld .11,111-oxiinatit-ty ]'-'() tr;ihio(l in( n vi rc (,n, !il() to, -iijlfllViso t1w \\-(),k ill' L1h(lI*cI'-q oht'lille(l thr(Al'-Al the 1-coll)JIloynicilt, ''Ilices. I the NviTit (T HP 111t 1 !'4. \0 1011 Weather eollditk)ns pleventod field survey. ta frallit"I 111oll rel;lilleol
to a ,-ist vith the 17,ener.i] informational program.

SURVEY AND ERADICATION

90ki;i(- wore vellierc(l in NNI'ero \vfvt, 1111-\\11 to
bv 1111111''I'm is :111(i vIw ](, li)-:11 ilI(1X II01-i(1IW (1,l 1110111 ('(1111d hoL' 0 Till-](- \k-d 1,non 1; 14) 10 Melt W(Te S111 4'I'VISCd h\ I'(111"clilt'll \\ith prc\i(ms pr(wediliv. i:11der N\.1v oil
\vtIs vmvilluc(l 1;11( hit') 111cccit1hor lit,1411'(1 NV(1;111.(,1furtlier Nvork of, t1lis illillf."Iclik. 11111e. F 11111111vill-, 11:1, pril cd
cf I*c(-1i\c-, pal-til-111,111 v in w en, Till llw ro
'P w rc :11-o of lllliw l- M il)[11 W isc(qi-,ill, I illifl.
111d i'111:1. '111A M i,11i.-m l \NAw rr h:11-11cl-ries ;It,(. I'll fit i I'll]. pal-licillti-I rivers .Illd it \%.,Is 1,111111d lW (11SI i, V M cl- 1;0)li -ll
1,; t rl w r r v iril*v ,-41 il 1,,ii, m d hrln:-, I licni uw !or cionti-ol.
( )n I 1w (it liv i. I 1 :1 1 1 i I 1 :1 1 1 1114. 4 4 1 1, 11 I :I I I s 4 1 1 1 Ft ; I ilit 11111 '1 Ill-, th e I I I I I s I I I I I I I \ \ \ , I I I I I I. 1 1, l I I it, I' I I I] I c I 'I-- d 'Ie l 11 i I I v o y
t I I t i r, I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I , i I I I i 11 I I I I i \ I I
S I I 1 1 -s I I I I 11 4 I' I I -- t I I : I /. It v( I I I I I I I I 11, ( ( I f
(11* 1 )w 1-filit I'll] JW W i,:1111.
(1)\ St;ijc ,) tht. jq- jdic.itioqj d,-Ita f(ir thc fiscal year.







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 43


TABLE 15.-Progress in barberry eradication by States, fiscal. 1 ar 193 v-T5

Total Total EIIployState properties barherries Territory Men nhent,
cleared o destroyed covered Cnmployed .
bushes etoiI.A

Number Number Square mei!rs Number Vlan-hours
Colorado ----------------------------- 95 23, 696 1:4 48 12, 069
Illinois ----.---------------------------- 1, 033 16, 204 4, 430 269 48, 126
Indiana ----------------------------- 133 3, 037 359 :9 12, ):"I
Iowa ------------------------------- 872 22,717 2.537 205 6i, 952
Michigan ------------------------------ 1, 1S2 113, 981 6;22 1.) 39, 70
Minnesota ------------------------------ 232 4, 983 343 76 24, -25
Missouri -------------------------------- 102 3, 626 2,86 '0 :32 3,9:5
M ontana ----------------------------- 15 1, 216 2,4 12 4 r97
Nebraska ----------------------------- 40 140 :01 93 1 7
North Dakota ---------------------------- 11 330 557 4 6, 218
Ohio ------------------------------------- 1,026 137,009 1, 836 11I 45, 059
South Dakota ----------------------------- 26 142 434 22 8, 171
Wisconsin ---------- ---------------- 1,229 0, 405 2,987 120 10S, 402
Wyoming ----------------------------- 2 7 358 26 5,413
Virginia ---------------------------------- 41 187,863 30 1 1 1 729
Total --..------------------------- 6,039 575, 356 18, 922 1, 257 398, 867

140 additional men were given 2,486 man-hours of employment in connection with the barberry-eradication program by the Virginia Emergency Relief Administration.

Common salt was most generally used for eradication during the year. Less than 1 percent of the barberry bushes were found to survive )rcpier treatment with salt. From 10 to 15 pounds is the recommended application for a bush from 4 to 6 feet high. Bushes are dug only where the salt treatment would endanger nearby trees and shrubbery.
Sodium chlorate alone or mixed with sodium chloride proved ailn effective
killing agent when applied as a spray and drench, particularly ill vinnection with eradication of native barberries (Dcrberbi can adcn.si. ) iii southwestern Virginia. A gallon of the solution (containing 2 pounds of chaeinical) wIs
found sufficient to cover 40 square feet of ground surfce. Other cleimicals used experimentally have not proved as effective, economi1al. readily available, and safe to hale as common salt.
INFORMATIONAL ACTIVITIES
The various informational activities constituted anl important peit of fi the preeradication work during the year and included deimonstratioii.: at local. county, and State fairs, news articles in local papers, illustrated talks I ofori rural and urban school groups, and the distribution of illustrated pariaplllet lesson plans, and circular letters.
During the year school children reported a total of 6S9 properties on whi barberries were growing, resulting in the eradication of more than n.i
bushes. The interests of school children and adults have been eIlcoura;* through a carefully organized educational program in each of the States. a regular part of the field program during the year, brief illustrated tal:
were given before 5,933 schools in 70 counties. Results of this work by State are shown in table 16.

TABLE 1.-Rcgits of informational irark by Statc, fiscal y ur 1935

Bar- People Cr ir- Pleoph
Coun- 13ar- berries reached Coin- Bar- hTrriU' reowhe 0
ties berry de- through tics berry de- throu
State covered loca- stroyed infor- State covered loca stroyed info'
on tions as re- rua- oil tInS as r'- m1:aschool re- stilt tional seool re- Sult t,o
work ported of re- activ- work ported of re- acti
ports ities I ports ithit

Number Number Number Number' SXui.*r1 Iu r .amber ua
Colorado -...-- 8 4 56 3, \:5 North 1)akota 2
Illinois---------- 6 79 671 15, 591 Ohio - )7 ;2221Indiana --------- 5 30 108 11i, ()0 Soil Di I)akota 6 4 13
Iowa n---------- 10 175 0 26, 35 W iSCom sin ..... 1 4 31 2,.
Michigan------- 4 189 14, 6 st, 00 I Wyoming-_ 5 1 3 7
Minnesota 2 66 179 10, 003 ---
Montana ------ 8 11 312 25, 000 Told 70 I::37.
Nebraska...---. 8 17 17 15, :20

o This figure represents bushes destroyed on properties actually reported by children. Often the re pa rt of 1 bush is indirectly responsible for the eradication of niany in the surrounding territory.







44 .\NXUAL EEPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICTJLTURE 1935

RUST SURVEYS

ill cel-faill 1''c;Ililks ill Milm""Aw ;Hd North Dikot l, the 193-1 losses f!qjlll 1,11NI ill Illo nrta vi-v Durin- the spring
k irlw l-li'', h1w u "11. illfc(-tt tl 111:111 u -11;ti lilli :1 1111111bor of
1,icil Plic- (11 FUNI fievehiped ne:ir ii,4(itlier
\,,iiii 11w lWe"i'(11114,41 :1 -plv.td of t1je e\ci.p! ill thos(_"
lo, :t I i I i(.- NN I I,.: e I III ro w (. re fi-I (Itiont I!(,\\ '< 1) 1. :,: 1'. 1, ,, S. T i:- uredinial stage ot Nit-111 1,11-1 (11, \\jw lt I'lill 11"t t:rvivt, ilw w iniI i, ()I' :',I --j;inw nly in T exas
ill st)ljlf. ()tll(,r years. T llcrt Nva I,% .\i, Itcl-ing oil
k.
Sovell 111111drod :111d ci"flity-tw(i rust spvcinwn-- cd1(-c!wl in ](1:11 i'lelitified
as to 11w physiolowic forms imltint. Vjjp Illoq llyppi-illy Ij, Was jIW 0111 AP11 Win 5V 10TIPt"AIM 1110 w1urptant wild wo Nvide-spreall, CoristiIwed 10) wwnl of 11", iotal numOr of (Ah wi(w idwitiliA. wl"T, as Awn 34, v.1li,1 :tl-(1 11"111 1well lel;1livcly r;tr(,, ''n Iw ici-iii of !ho iw : ]. A -lityercl;t fw ,lil it (,ich ,lh vi", c(ii ( :-v 1,11-I'l-N, \t, h il" -I
cifT.-i('111 I'W '111 W iN 1"'m id ill ei(.1i :,5 colioctifqi: (d 1.11., t (,htailleil fltilll ;:1-A ll plants
fiiiiii h;irhci-ri(-, ftirll -v itidi(--ating that tile bu-lw'- are all jlnilorta!lt fletor in the ;:ersistuIlm Il 1,11YAW"gic hirms alid t1w prodlic!i'lll (if Ili-W Wlf- .
the Winter of PI:; 1- :,5 the uredini,,il, iaL,(2 of :.- ,w:n rw- t of wheat ov0rwinti,; e(i rather aImn(,;tii1Iy in Texas Wit little was foiiii(l ci,,i of a
;lcrcago of htt(, -MI"'It ill K(wl-::s ln l Nrhri Til" (vill. N%-t Nvent'll-1. uljri! ,,, )1,ly alld tile first lw1l, (if Julie
ill ;inl :1 sil''ciflelit ;-'rowth (if graills ill the sprill-,--who"at
I re: 1. Tht, (,I'oll< Wele frwi I N%.tek to 10 days. anill ill >wano jii-t iiices w( k.la t xv i i 1, 11 i o r ci niditioii- i 1 1 1 (". the devc 1 1 q it I lelit of I- I I s 1. soutIl Nv i (1,.: ( I -':, and 24 ill ('11ol'illoll- of fI,()I!l K ;111-as illd
Nvbri- ,;t ini- ili- Qt 'Almn W Once,; V4111411T (at I-PSAIIA
sIN(-; i" 1 1. P,1111 i!ldi( ,ltoll th;'t ilwy were fiPill'-, :it Illo, I"lle (11' DOI) pi'l. square foof (-ich in 21 it, w,>. A- I rt,-ult kf x ,itlwr c(inoliti0iis fiir tho -pt*(,ad
,d N"ith "lie )vid(-Npread
w ,( ;It :11 rw't in r('''ent (,;Irs (wcurred ill t1w ll' '
A 11,,I, Al i -it I-list (!evclolq- j (ill 1,yi, "11A oilw i. ills licnih;1, 1) Nvas rcPlli -Iely U tt 1w 1-11-1 ('11
furt:wl
111 1'1,01 to 11A. nV ollsiAq, lill-11"'s
lw l ll llrllerol]N ill ill!(, it is
410,; wortl! : nQ hav'' usmlit-! Spri"UN

CLAsSIFICATION OF BAI'B1:1_ZRI:-.S

1HArpQ = 50 -, IN lp'.Kd- t f
.11 'AnAlAd 111, ium ind linr<, rb- Ihi, Vniled
n1,;i! phi ii 1411. M 1. Dwriva wo, rill K IH34
;W! nw, hl ill ill VISK2 Q W15 11-:, W1,111 (11110110A 1- (ArrIllim 111- mc Nil~ '11w 1- -, r ;irilit'd 1":I: l
In ilw lii(:i-Il W
M Tent i a I" w i n i ru I i I I i L, m I I i II : i st :i i W. Mid. d mindwr (if
I tv 7 \vvrv v n if-, :i i i i I (,.,I i:N i -11, 1- K 1 ( Ilm N\ :I s (il oii i lit I It I a 11 re
l,:j1:-;1 I! !1'rw- lirly vwmp In'111 -11111 wrwill .
1) 1,;1 111t, 1,;1-1 y ;ir '-'7 11(11*111i t ) h ip ',.ic (if
!Ier th:111 illy ,(" w (1, ill 10 w illu K A I tile !41'11" i-i(l:ls coll,i N4). r, \-:,, ( d I ('I rAWre, W the im-,Vcq thit
(11milill. I 1\1,11, i-qll, K fly Me 100, m of D'onislir ITIm Qu"ImUnies.

TIZIAA CIZOP AND GARDEN IN-SECT INVE TIGATIONS

NVIRENVORMS

TI1vl-ti_..It 'i'll, (111 th" i'1)Iltr1,l (if ill the :lrens ('r the W est
ll;lv t '. Ilfilm -11. 1111, 11 'it of ilc lIld ill _' -, i'l \\-itll 11.17111th a
11 4, ;!1 :1 M i- ll 1111, :tir I ellips'Fil U VeN 'Ili, .u t If tile
lrnpi jfi : id, :111W l" :11111 j,41p rill:iiioi 'I" i Nvovl im the Lind w ir(1 .11 C :11--Iill t 11;1 1w e ll 1-fifill-Iii'li'd .11111 Ille






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 45

that losses from this pest can be reduced by proper fertilization, crop rotation, and early planting. Where an abundance of land is available the noncultivation of land for one season will also aid materially in reducing wirewormin populations.
The Gulf wirewormn (Heteroderes laurentii Guer.) is becoming of greater importance each year in the Gulf region and on the Coast:al Plain. This wireworm is likely to be more al)undant in land that has been tilled year after year than in untilled land.
BEAN AND PEA INSECTS

The Mexican bean beetle continues to be the most important pest of beans in the United States, and while the winter survival for 19.34-35 was lower in Ohio than it had been for several years, with favorable spring conditions the beetle populations built up to the point where the insect caused considerable damage. Both field and laboratory tests of many types of insecticides have been conducted in Ohio and Virginia. The work with insecticides showed qu'te conclusively that derris powder mixed with water and applied as a spray gave exceptionally good control of the bean beetle, both in Ohio and Virgin'ia. Cryolite also was effective. For sonre unexplained reason, the dosage of magnesium arsenate, that is, 1 pound to 50 gallons of water, which heretofore had been effective in the control of the bean beetle has not yielded the same results during the past few seasons, and it is now necessary to use 2 pounds of magnesium arsenate to 50 gallons of water in order to bring about the same results. This high dosage may result in some injury to the bean foliage.
With the establishment of pea-canning factories in the Northwest, tihe control of the pea weevil has increased in importance. The utilization of a border trap crop and the plowing under of these border plantings prior to the time that the main plantings blossom have given encouraging results. During the latter purt of the year this work was expanded to include studies of the weevil in the Dayton, Wash., area.
The pea aphid again caused heavy losses to the pea growers in Wisconsin, New York, and Ohio. The investigations this season consisted primarily of field-plot tests with several insecticides, and while the results to (late are only of a preliminary nature and cannot be used as a basis for reconiumendations on pea aphid control, the indications are that a derris powder spray may be useful against the pea aphid.
BEET LEAF HOPPER
In the beet-growing area of southern Idaho the early-season indications were that heavy leaf hopper populations could be expected. The early-season prospects were borne out by large numbers of leaf hoppers appearing in the beet fields late in the spring. In California, studies on the migration of the leaf hopper and its desert host plants have been continued. Observations have also been continued on the effect of spraying desert hosts and the elimination of Russian-this le on leaf hopper populations. The actual operation of these two latter activities was conducted by the sugar companies and the State workers.
An added feature of the leaf hopper work N\as the outlining of thle critical breeding areas of the leaf hopper in southern Idaho. This work had foi its objective the possibility of controlling weeds in the abandoned land and desert areas through proper land handling as a means of reducing leaf hopler I)populations. Evidence accumulated indicates that native grasses which are not hosts of the leaf hopper will replace the introduced weed hosts in the large breeding areas if given an opportunity. Similar studies have 1)bee ca rried on in Utah and Colorado; however, the areas involved here are much larger than in sou'hern Idaho, and consequently the information regIarding the critical breeding are:s of the leaf hopper in these two States has not been as complete as for sout hern Idaho.
TOBACCO INSECTS
Derris powder has shown excellent promise as a control for the tobacco h11, beetle, especially in the seed beds. Similar control has been secured in tihe field, but the cost of such treatments has not been determined. Iarium fluosilicate, heretofore reported as useful in the control of flea beetles in the shadegrown tobacco areas of Quincy, Fla., has not proved satisfactory during the past season, as it may cause considerable injury to the tol) (: i.plant. Cryolite,







4 6 NNV. T, IJA"ORTS (q' DEPMCI*: TENT OF \GRICUIAJAIE 1935

whil( cfft ctjvi :Igaim-4 tile flea hcelle, 111sto under (-(,rtain conditions Imiduces

Inntorials have been listed flir lt-id ai-seliate an(I paris
I'm- ille of the tdlacco but as et no promising
lwl,.eI.jIl 11"Is 1well found.
'ho work oil pf'st,4 lias liel-11 directed primarily to the Ilse
of i H,,_,ht trnp ill warehou.-ws, co kill hi lled with fililli";Itioll. III control te.-4,9 Ifiese 111(lasures have offecte(l a v decided reducti()II ill the .1rumlilt of
tol.mcco destroyed by the eigar(Ate 1welle alld the 101'lceu illotli.

BERRY INSECTS
of I)i-rry illsects havt coilsi zt(A 111,11illy of a stully (Wf the control of the ra -plwrr frilitivIllirm and thf, rcd Iwrry mite ill tile PuYillup Valley of WasllillLJ I'll. Cillinti'(4 tests lmvt twell cw1dileted l -aillst Illc straxvberry Nveevil. lit Cliallbou I'll, N. C., to devel(q) ill treatiliellis and (.Illtilr,11 contr()I. measures that Nvill avold ille (if rv.-;idu(,S
oil the berry at harvest tinie. The sl rawherr i v crop ,I) 11w ('()nst(il Plain
flevelops fruit n1th''r Slowly ill sonw :Ill([ (Iftelitillies it is to
Irelt the to pre\*ent fllim.li:gre from t1w sII.:iNvhci.ry weevil whi-ii Ilicre Ire
lar ,,_re -_reoll Ilerrie'.; on the plant. The use ()f an arsil-nical, at slich ,I period would lc:lve all 44)jectiollable residue oil the lwrry at harvest. "I'lle resillts (if Ilwso, L(,St.s Nvere ilimuclusive.

STUDIES OF NONARSENICAL INSECTICIDES
L:iborlatory experiments all(] Ilinge fiebl-plot test., to deterniiiie the relative tt -xicity of pyrethrin wid dei-fis mixtures. for the ccitnil of sever(il species ,if worms, have carried on at several The field-plot
te- I.-; oil c;lhklope 11:1ve slom-ri definitely that derrk dusi IlliXtlll-('-, 4-1-11TIillillfrom 0.5 to I percent of rotoitlne ore effective ((mmi(in callkige
worin, le-ss, effe(-fiv(l, the cabha,(4e looper, and still h-s (ITective a,_,ailist
the diamond-Naek moth. The indications, nevertheless, vre tli:tt dorris pm-der ,\vill be a useful materi.il ill the c(lintrol of all three species of the-w c 01hage peqts. Ili (,vneral pyrethrum dust mixtures Nvere less 01'ective thjii lh(lse of
derris a-alust all Ihrec- spccios. Ali outstanding feature( of the Itil)mitory
toxicity tesl'..: i: the differvilt "Iction of derris oil tile illsect testoll. I"w- ('X-Imple, the cch'ry leaf tier is not affected by derris powder: the ili-lily worm, "vIlile repelled by derris, is not otherv.-Ist, :I 11'ect c(I : I lit, c, limii4 ill cabbo-e Nvorni, on the other limid, readily succumbs to) deri-i,.4 pm-der.
MISCELLANEOUS VEGETABLE INSECTS
Fil Ill i -atiml of "\\.cetpot4lto(-, (to be wed fol. seed purp)-- ('s) Nvith parlitlichlorobelizelle has yieldod Some, ver\
In (":11ifornia the cle'lilill- ill) of ni-litsli.i(le, t1w Nvinter lwst plant (if tilt, jwplwr weevil, Ims prm-ed to be (if v:ilue ill r( 'durill'-' ilijllr fr(.111 this pe-1.
E"perillivilts (in the tul-ilip in Lmlisi:ilw Hull. (lerris (hist may
.S.11i.,-4-tetorily pr()tect, the tili'llip from (111111:1g.e.
GREENHOUSE AND BULB INSECTS
1,(- Is to (IlIlterilline the vallie of bot wl-iter 17(w Ihe cimtr('ol Ill* Tllit(1 4
t11:11 dk.Iphii1i lilt), -erhera, and cyclamell. al.- %Ncll 1, (if
v:1rieties lid, chrys.111tilenillill, may be :- lwcc- I'll I I v \0011olt IllInt .4 lidel-11w ill.ilir.y hut will
mid tlitit other v:trieties will sulTer IiLht tt) Ili

F\1wrilil''111" with Imt Nvater fill. the control of the iri, sbom, til.it the
jap:.11(1-41 Il'is nm v Ile efflclively vit'llel. ill tile m- f"Ill. but 01:11 f:lll
lit i.4 p i.c I ,
11,\Jcarl nw:110111.'. 1wc:1111o .111 imporintit post ill served rn'cl Ill- ill,(- in till, Ell-lclll .4taft- :11111 t1w ciiitr(il Nvt)rk th.-it till-: pest is ,uscel1illic to
N\0 11 It I I-, l(. \-:11lic w id I
h o''ll I I I I i I q I IY I- I I I I\V I I Im I t'i I I I I i L I I I I lo t it-, ('I l, 1.111 -, N\. i I I I 11:11011111(.111, t I m -21 rI I I lie vild ( f I he ;- I () r. i g I per i od, f ()r I ho (,I lilt rol o f I lie ,,lit I I i ( ) I I I t I I r i I , \%. i I I re"Ill I ill it (I (,(, i dei I rc I ; I n In I i m I I )f I he I., I \v I I 1 4 1 f Iv C( 'I'll) A t1d ill 'Ille iir, I :I neil- PreVelit -erm lint ioll. T ht, I 11:1,4 votil illut4l :1,; 11 III-q 'Indii)Ills ,ind Ims been rvp(witd fr(lin jw:wt ic.-illy t ljlf entire I'llitvill "."tatt's.







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 47

MUSHROOM INSECTS

In the investigation on mushroom pests special emphasis has been placed on possible use of napthalene and paradichlorobenzene. Chemists of the Division of Insecticide Investigations have been associated with these studies.

QUARANTINE ON DOMESTIC NARCISSUS

The narcissus-bulb quarantine was revoked, effective April 1, 1935. This action was taken because attempts at general eradication of the eelworm and the greater bulb fly had not been successful, the pests occurring year after year in most areas where such attempts had been made. Furthermore, both these pests have become established in commercial bulb plantings in many States in addition to those in which they were known to occur in 1926, when the quarantine was established.
The removal of the Federal quarantine left the interested States free to act in placing such restrictions as they deemed advisable. The State of Oregon thereupon issued a quarantine on the entry of narcissus bulbs, with inspection and fumigation requirements similar to those formerly in effect under the Federal quarantine. State officers of Florida, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Texas announced that inspections of narcissus would be made the same as when the Federal requirements were in effect, and Maryland officers announced their intention of continuing inspection of these bulbs as part of the general nursery-inspection program.
For the season of 1934 the State nursery inspectors in 27 States reported to the Bureau the inspection of 235,486,085 narcissus bulbs. Detailed information on the number of plantings and bulbs and the extent of treatment in the individual States is given in Circular B. E. P. Q.-373, issued on April 23, 1935.
From July 1, 1934, to April 1, 1935, 154 violations of the quarantine were intercepted at transit-inspection points.

COTTON INSECT INVESTIGATIONS
The issuance of information on the distribution and abundance of insects attackIng cotton, together with timely advice on methods for their control, was resumed during the year. Reports about cotton insects were included in the Insect Pest Survey Bulletin and in press releases and radio broadcasts along the same general lines followed with insect pests of other crops.

BOLLWEEVIL
The initial bolhveevil infestation in the crop season of 1934 at Tallulah, La., was comparatively high, but the hot, dry weather from June 18 to the end of August held the weevils in check. Experimental plots dusted with calcium arsenate following standard recommendations gave an average increase of only 236 pounds of seed cotton per acre, or 19.5 percent, as compared to 419 pounds, or 45.4 percent, during the previous year.
A large series of field and cage tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of a number of insecticides, mixtures of insecticides, and insecticides diluted with carriers. The tests at Tallulah showed the value of several other nmaterials for bollweevil control, but none was found to be superior to calcium arsenate dust. Mixtures of calcium arsenate and hydrated lime, mixtures of paris green and lime, and a mixture of calcium arsenate and copper arsenite gave good results. These preliminary results suggest that these materials may be useful for regions where it may be desirable to reduce the amount of arsenic used or when other insects, such as the cotton flea hopper and cotton leaf worm, must be controlled along with the bollweevil. Tests with thiodiphenylamine (phenothiazine) and sulphur, and with derris root in inert carriers, indicate that these may have a place among effective nonarsenical poisons. Tests conducted to compare the results from dusting with calcium arsenate early in the morning. at midday, and late in the evening were favorable to the early morning applications; and tests to compare the results of dusting at 4-, G-, and 8-day intervals were favorable to the 4-day program.
For the third year in succession, in tests at Florence, S. C., a mixture of equal parts of hydrated lime and calcium arsenate was as satisfactory for the control of the bollweevil as calcium arsenate alone when each was used at the rate of about 7 pounds per acre per application. Other mixtures of lime with calcium arsenate and with parts green gave good results.







48 A-N-NUAf. I JJIORTS OF VF'PAJ'TA1E'_NT OF V;UICULTUJU' 19:15

The fourtll ;Ipplic"ItII)II (it' '11"'clA te to III(, -oil, it t!1(. rate
of -I(H) 1)(11- acre, NNis applied 4 11 I 1,1''l ;I1 a t(it.11
of LGOO poill)(I 4 11)lflied. The nvci-age ield of :(,v(l cotilon lici, t(,r(, fi-r 19:'P4 fr(J111 the treate(l 1)!ot vv:IS 1,701 I)minds aiid fi-mi t1w mJrl,.tt4,(l cl:eH: 11(a, 1,741 I)ollrl(l:,;, a difft relwkl of 43 lioimil,,; oi- 2.5 1wr(oiJ. In aiid 193'' the
plot y1(,Id(,d 111i'lc than the unircated ld(it, N.\hile, iii tiA the
pkit \\1111 t1le calciIIIII ;II..'Unate, yielded le.- s. "I'liesc N-ield reci)i,(Is indicate that excc 4.siNo of calcillill (h) 11()t 'tiTect tiw Niel-I If clotoll
on tll(' typo of alll]Ni il sawly loam soil nenr T ilhil:ih. Durin;_, 11,):,4
VelvetI)(.,[lI-; .,_,l.eNv 11ol'111.111Y ou tie treated plot but ;() -beans ;ii,(l lwll
died.
That :i I)aliw( evil oepa ,4onfllly live for an ent4c, N-far (icmolv-41,ated It T.III11l;IlI ill 19:14. One, weevill 10aced in a hiiierii.ition (',Lg(' oll November IG, Nvi,4 List (d)setve(I (! i v- later on _N'()v(,m!wr 10, 1'.):A.
Anothei- \wTvIl pl;ict-d ill -,I hibernation (-.I v(, (ill Ntivem!-er 1, Nvt.- ,It-cr\ed
3-7 tLi c, later on November 12, 1934. "I'lle weeviN 115zo(l ill given -pecial efire durin,, the ,-unimer of V1.14 and xvcre Plac(,d iti hilorli"t.
tion (-,tgos ill the fall. They died during the folloNvirg winter.

PINK BOLLWORM

Extensive releases of the parasites Excristes robor(ttor Fall. an(! -1ficrobi-acro? brevicorW8 Wesm. indicate tlicy are not adapte(I to cmiditions in Toxas wid TIox'co NN.-het-e the pink boll\voi-in (weur.s. Although tlioso in-ec(s re:iiiil asitize the pink bollworin, E. roborator eniierges too earl in tlie sprii m(l -11.
brcvicorni. dw s not survive the winters. Four other si)(1cle-, of ire
now being bred for releasinl- -I,; follows: Microbracon rec-eived from I '.!yl)t where it had been imported from (,:ist-cvntinI _k1li-if-n :
Elasmus sp., introduced from Egypt; Microbracon in.c1litor v, int-rmlllce(l
from Hawaii; an(l Cliclonus blackburni 1Ousek, intr(-)duced fron) l1wv;)ii.
Studied Car(, un(ler Nvnv to determine the resistlince of ditfen iit tit
cotton to pink bollworm attack, the characters can.sin,-_ t1itinfluence of different cultural and climatic fiwtors on llie e ch:in ct(,r ;, oh.- ervations at Thlbualilo, Din-an-0, 'Mexico. indicate that Me pink I)t)I1Nv,,rni li;i-4 a prefeienee for holls bebvepn th(, a,,,,es of 36 and 41 (Inys froin il!o (I:1t4, of
As tl.(, infe-intion becciiies henvior tf!e I)rlfercnco i.. n(l bf) !!- (if all w(-; are infested. Studies of pink 1)()fl\v()i-jn (LimI t, :n 11
vicinity of Thalmalilo sfio-ved that the re(luction ill vio!il ot* -eed t Ile
reduction in 4rade of lint, and the damage to the lod ciai-cd a to the
crop of $22.97 per acre.
COTTON FLEA HOPPER

Tliv re-ults of te.4,- at Poit Lavaca, Tex., durin- t,.vo Qwn zoii -hmv t1ml the avera,_,e Increase in se(,d cotton per acre in the jd(its tre:ifed 1'(ii, Hie cotton fle-,i hopp('1- \\(I 4 '220 1)(Ilmd" Nvith a net profit of $9.7.5 in ;Ili(] :106 riiiijl(l< \\,ili,
,I 11vt proll" lit' 1!1,24. Jn -,I ,ories of ":'G (-:i,. ,e icsts in -which 17l.7,01
cottoll 114"1 llo]111(11, 4 Wel'o ll 10 1):trls of Wphnr. 'I'll(, lic;ivy migration of Ilea 1](11111ors to clolton occllrl'ed
the fir-t Nveck (if .11111(l in 1935, which
tli:m in 1!1:1 1. St i(-] .v serves I () catch i'
cf )11 s I t I r I I I I love Ill ell t t 11 1 W I' -S i T I 1110 S I )I' i I I _' I It I I 1 1110 I r
I I n I rc 11 If ( .1 (,(1 oil I h( I le (I I' I I I I f I I N i I I v I I i I I t n 1
I I I t, ille vottoll III I I I 1. 4 11 1,( 1111 .1 01 (111 1 h o v t I. N\ I I 1 4 1, 11 11 1 r I I I I )I : I v.. I I I 1 1
c(,th)n cfo klcbuv, ;!iid liloot1wco']. NiT10 L011orn I I s o I j)i if rs -u r n I 1, 1.1 1 N. :1 (1111" n I I.

APHIDS AT'FACKING COTTON ROOTS
rfw l 4 "(1fl- I I%-ill (it. v i1i i 11 rc
parti(.1111111Y th A 11:1111h. 11:1ill, and 'It
]-'it S C ., 1 (11 11) (.1 ill t ).(11 Ill( I- I- i'
70(lidi-r(ldirls T r ilida 1,1111.,f "Ili :III(I 1111111110 "Ill. '1110
V i I"' i I I i ; t NV 11 i It t Ile
P, tll(,I* I \N-( ) j to '(*i('.-; 11.1 v v I (14111 I'(11)(Yrt Cd
only from Ilie ('nrl)1lnw4.






BUREAU OF ENTOMIOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 49

PINK BOLLWORM CONTROL

The outstanding developments of the year in the pink bollworm situation were the finding of infestation in several additional counties in northern Florida and western Texas, no recurrence of the insect in the original infested areas of Florida and Georgia, and c()ontiinued progress in the eliadication of wild cotton in southern Florida and in the special control I)rogram in the Big Bend of Texas.
The new findings involved 7 counties in Florida and 3 in western Texas. The fact that only 20 specinmens were found in these 10 counties indicates that the infestations are extremely light. As mentioned( in a previous report, the discovery of such light infestations is due to improved methods o()f inspection, particularly to the use of the gin-trash machine.
NEW INFESTATION IN FLORIDA

On September 3, 1934, one larva of the pink b'ollworm was found in gin trash at Bascom in Jackson County. Jackson is the largest cotton-producing county in Florida. Additional gin-trash machines were sent to the area, and practically all trash in the county was inspected during the remainder of the season. As a result, seven additional specimens were taken at Bascom, and on September 26 a specimen was found in trash at Cottondale, also in Jackson County. Nearly 2.000 bushels of trash was inspected in this county; consequently, the finding of only nine specimens indicates that the infestation was very light. The other findings in Florida were in Suwaniiee, Levy, and Hamilton Counties, near the regulated area, and involved 3 additional counties, Dixie, Lafayette, and Taylor, which had no ginning facilities. Only seven speimens were found, indicating that the infestation is also very light in these counties.
The Federal quarantine was immediately extended to take in the infested areas but, as the season was well advanced, it was impossihl( to obtain and install the necessary equipment for carrying out all of the regulations. The measures taken to prevent the spread oil the insect consisted in sending the seed to designated mills, the compression of lint, the disposal of gin trash, and the clean-up (f gins after the close of the season's operations. At the close of the fiscal year the winners were making plans to install sterilizing equipment so as to carry out the regulations in full during the coming season.
WILD COTTON IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA

The eradication of wild cotton in southern Florida was begun in 1932 to eliminate a severe pink bollworm infestation and has been continued each successive year. Because of climatic conditions, this work can be carried on only during the fall, winter, and early spring.
Eradication activities were resumed about the first of November, and, owing to a very dry season, especially good progress was made. All of the areas cleaned during previous seasons were again recleaned. During this recleaniag intensive scouting was carried on to locate any cotton that had been overlooked, and a number of scattered plants and small colonies were found( and removed. At Cape Sable, where most of the wild cotton is now located, a considerable area was cleaned for the first time, and in addition all of the area previously cleaned was covered. Many of the islands and keys in IFlorida Bay were also cleaned. ID)uring the season a first clean-uIp was lad covering 908/ acres, from which 76,920 mature and 58,404 seedling plants were removed. From the area recleaned 6,413 mature, 1,00;(.G21 seedling, and 1 77,477 sprout plants were removed. This mighPt at first appear to he an unusually large number of mature plants to have been found on areas r viously cleaned. As the inspectors had had 2 years' experience with wild cutn, they h:1 naturally become more famnilitar with the v i ius coalitions ui er which it grows, andl during the past year they were able to locate many plants that had been overlooked, as shown by the large number removed. Most of these curred in the Cape Sable area. Because of the importance of maintaining as great a distance as possible between the (ciultivated and the wild cotton, the seven most northerly counties along the west coast where wild cotton oceurs were gone over after the regular clean-up work was discontinued. This was done to remove the seedlings that had come up and thus prevent their fruiting before work can be resumed next fall. It is very encouraging to note that during
24118-35- 4







50 1' 1 1'011TS 01' DEI'.UTMEN'j1 OF V;1V C LT kE 1935

vach reele,
I)ro-ro- s is lWil" f 111:111ts i" illdicatim that
A
""'111-11141 wo ri, "Tiol"; "11"-4' W ild c4)tIt)n prvvioi I
Idallfs this
When the (.1.,11lie'lli(Ill W wilil c"Ittoll \vas fil"It 1)0 41111 IIIH)V lAants Nvere found :row iiig ill ()jl s()jjjt (if the key.s. 'I'll(, r(%m ()v1l1 4)f these plants
Witli(lut hrc-ilJii- ( IT s(iw(, \N-Ili11 WM1111 put (itit sprout Iii,11ILS,
.1piware(I to he (Illil(' a pl-40dem, 'ti](1 We"k, he-run to determille the pr;wt i("Ihi lit v of (1('st 1 .\ ill"'. "-il(I ('"t 1011 With P Excelleiit rcstilts were (ibtaille(l, thel f()I.e the 1110 11"d w ils lls('11 tllroIlgll(,Ilt tht,, Iqlst
14111s"ll. As the lwjsmlill g tivatiliellt :1101W is Y,11.1le" vxlwr)--- lve. limvever, it has heell used only where flie points Nv(,j.e
Melitioij hws heem made Ili previoij- repmq-, ()f tll(, sill'.111 exio-rimeuital plant(d' cultivated and wild cottlin in the 13nitp(j st.lj(,,, pl;Illt introduction. (1arden-. at ('Impim-111 1 ield. In t-,)peratitin will, Ill(, ()f 1,1,11)t Ilj(Illstr\-,
-; F(111(lNed ill"lle(-ted. 0 11
'111 frilit, from this cott(in wo, '111(l
1(williolls of the llilll Ij()jI\V()rljj 1'()Illlql ill Illi., A t the be"illuill'-, (If ()to fisc'll No "ir it Nv.i-s not considered worth whilo I(, Iii.lilitlill jilese
my 1()ti (_,er 1' ,r insliecti(in purpi:- es; the (Ilhciml- (If Chapnian l,"it1d mov( (l all of the N-filli;1lilt. plallt ; ilito 't scrt'(11)(1d hwi,(, aiiil dostrove(I the remaining ones.
CONTROL PROGRAM IN THE BIG BEND AREA OF TEXAS

The special control pro)-rain be-un in the Big Bond area 2 years aqo was continued. This program is for the purpose of rediwint: the heavy hifestition
less
.cjjjllr the dail-or of the sl)read of the liest to file maiii Cotton Belt. "I'lle illeasures consist Of thorou.411 clean-up of field .; aii(l preinises, after picking is completed, delayed planting tile foIIoX%-iIjr Spl-ill r, illl(I tli(, Ilse ()f Sulall plots of cotton to trap the litte-eiliertring motels. Ili the sprin- of D34.
28 trap plots were us(,41, and these Nvere continue(I mitil. ihmit flit, first of August, at wlik-1 tillio the field cotton had reaelied approximately the SzOlle size and fruitin'- The blooms were collected daily and worm.-z liml heen
foulld ill all bla I of the plots; in only 5 t)f dwse. ll()Nvc ver. Nv,- the ti(in over I jwrcent. At the time the plots Nvere (Iis(-()ntimw(1 iiifc.stlition had
be( n !'(1und in 13 adJacent fields, illl(1 in only 1 fit'Id N ,ls t1w ilift.-Stat (III over 1 percent. This indicated that t1w infestation Nv.is building ill) vei-v zlowly.
No re-uhtr rin-trash inspections Nvere made, Imt duriwr Sel)temher a fevv illeldellt:ll inspectil)IIs were 111"Ide its tillie 1wrillitted. 0n tselAellihel. W. (;'Y.11 hrvao wei,( taken fnmi tin, trash of 17 bales; oil 'Sei)tember 17, trish fn)m 10 bales rmllaille d 9,_'5 worllls; Oil September 23, froin 17 Imles vwitaincd 9.31;:')
worins; and oil 00oher 8, trails froill 12 klk s contained 9,.1 62 \v(Irms. It will
he noted front the forezoillf_" that tile Ivel"I _re 1111111hel, ( !' W01'1W-: 1101- b'do
ringed froln :11mut 90 to 'I little aver 'I'll(, first cottoii fr(lm i farin (,oiltililled 11hout 1.36 Nvorlll.- per bale Ili 19.1-:1 ind 1,160 ill W32. Aiiother farl'.11
11:1(1 lilt ;1 er(l-(. of about worms from the first coltmi ill 10,":' ind 922 In
A.-4 the fiv ;pecl il Ill., jimile durin,-, flit, year mithr di-wussioii work, :ihoiit it Illonth 1:11or Illail tlms( lli;ide in 19:):1 -i, d 19:)2. no wrilrittt ct m paris(llls call be iluilh'' it, will h(, 11(ited. limveviv. ihit Ilio iiiiiii1wr k much snmIler than in 1932. Evcn thou,_,h t ritlwr I'll."-,e 1111111her fit' Nvmlli.- wns I'muld ill flit, 19:).1 crop, there was v( r v litllt,, it' :iuy. kodd (hmm ro; ill kwl, fir Ili(, fir- i lime since the pitik ill fit(, 11')1,, 1100TA tilt'
to llick cWtoll froill the I(q) cr()p ()f litills.
Y ield ch :Ilrlip lic ,Iill on ()(-14dwr V. hut it 'llwilt flit, I 11"st (If I)V(,ellllwl- very much llc:ldway c(mid he Ilmde. Tlli -; \\-:Is (Ille 0) tho fact th"it
Ili(, tol) vrop of' holls pnidw-ed ct)ttml, :11111 cm)SequelillY del:l ( d tilt) c()II1111i'lioll (if* picking_ % 'I'll(, imr-1 h,.tvily infe.4ted 11('1(k lind lwoTl c1c:111ed lwfoltl Ille end 44 ;m d :ill cl(,:m -1lp Nv"Is ('w illil(1rd im .1.11111:11-y 12. A t111.11 If 3.,S91
q'1(-;lll(,d nt :m nver'l,-c cw l lit' S1.12 lier "wrl, fw. I;lllor ,Illd equipilivilt.
M 11w (,W t 41t, i)\(,I- tilt, '2 previolls ye'll's and
is (Im p'll-ti v 1.1 f1w 1-;14.t 111,11 c(iltoll ()lit'llifilI 11111ch e:11.1 or 111.111
I I s('(1 I I c I I I Iy. flit, f':lrlw rs il1lllw di;1f1,1 v liickill_ nlid ".1ve the fold's 114) further cultivaliwi. with the rw. ulf th"It ,I cwisidernlde "1111millf (If we(-11" anA
N%:is j1T-(dt1(-0d, (-IC;lTl-up wm-o dillicult. The priiicip:d rv.,ismi for
111v l1(mv\(,r. Nv:i.,- the fnct that It \v:is iwccs- m*y h) ii.ty hN)rer-, it
th.111 the preNi''lls INvo cle"111-111)". T ht, 111'1(1 c1c:1TI-111) Nv:is.
fidhiw cd 1) v :I llm l,4e 1( 11111V-;(I c:111vns'- "Ind ('111 v fill.(,(. lots of 4(,ed ('110111, tot"llill--, T lli .111 114-4tro.vi'd \vith 1,1141 ('011.141111 (If tilt.
() \v I I e rs,







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 51

Trap plots were used again in the spring of 1935. The cotton was planted in the field, instead of being grown in hotbeds, and later transplanted, as was the case during the two previous seasons. The plots ranged in size from on( fourth to one-half acre. Owing to unfavorable weather, the cotton did not begin growing as fast as was expected, but weather conditions also delayed the field cotton, and the trap cotton began blooming at least a month in advance of the field cotton. Bloom collections were begun on May 20, and within a few days infestation was found in several of the plots. At the end of the fiscal year infestation had been found in all 13 plots, anrd a much larger number of worms is being found this year than last. This may te owing to a deren('e in the emergence of moths each year. On the other hand, it may be because the field clean-up was a little later this year. on account of tl top, crop mentioned above. If so, it indicates very clearly that the earlier the fields can be cleaned each fall the fewer moths there will be the following spring, as worms will have less time to enter the soil for hibernation. The delayed planting date of April 15 was satisfactorily observed. Field cotton in Brewster County has just begun blooming, and a few worms have lh-en found, but the cotton in Presidio County is considerably later, and no blooms have yet been produced.
NEW INFESTATION IN TEXAS

The new infestation in Texas involved Andrews and Ector Counties and all but a small part of Midland County. The last is not a new infestation, as this area was previously under regulation, having been release February 28, 1933. The last findings had consisted of 2 sl)eclinens it the 190"1 crop. On October 18, 1934. a specimen of the pink bollworm was found in trash at Midland. This was followed by additional findings on October 23 and 24. Owing to the lack of ginning facilities, cotton produced in Andrews and Ector Counties is ginned at Midland, hence they were involved in the infestation. On October 24, 1 )ecimen was found in gin trash at Stanton, in Martin County. An examination of the gin records showed that most of the cotton from which the trash came had been produced in Midland County, with only a few fields from Martin County represented. Intensive inspections were miade in these Martin County fields and the gin trash from the remaining cotton was caught separately and inspected without any indication of infestation being found. It seems almost certain, therefore, that the above specimen or-inated in Midland County, and this information did not seem to warrant including Martlin County in the regulated area. Inspections were continued during the remainder of the ginning season without finding any additional specimens. It will thus be seen that, as was the case in other new areas, the infestation in this area is very light.
The three counties mentioned above were again placed nn(ler regulation, and the movement of products therefrom was handled accordingly. Inasmuch as the ginners had had previous experience with te regulations., they cooperatel whole-heartedly.
CHANGE OF INSPECTION METHOD IN REGULATED AREAS

Heretofore gin-trash inspection has been nmade in each comity un(ler re aulation to determine whether or not infestation was present a1d if So to wia degree. IT the fall of 1933 green bolls had been collected from a numl)er of lightly infested counties and were later inspected as a check on tile laboratory method. It was demonstrated that a rather light infestation could be discoveredd by this method. Therefore, as an economy measure, a plzIn was worked( out whereby a number of gin-trash crews could be eliminated anl at tie same time a check on the infestation condition could still be taken, aithlouh somewhat delayed. This plan is to collect green bolls in the fall in counties where infestation has existed for some lime. The bolls ore preserved and inspected later in the season, as regulatory activities decrease. In um se no inlestaiP is found in the bolls, gin-trash inspection is to 1)e Substituted the following season.
SITUATION IN OLDER REGULATED AREAS

Intensive gin-trash inspections were carried on in the older regulated areas of northern Florida and Georgia. In Madison County, Fla., 1 Specimen of the pink bollworm was found, but in the other counties of Florida and in the three counties in Georgia the results were all negative. Intensive inspections







52 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPAR'-TME"NT OF AGRI%'CULT'URE, 19

were al .o cried on Ini the wes(-tcri extension of Trexas mid inl Iv~ andJ Rowoe\,(,t Coi cN. M .,broughAt under regzulation lastA setason. Ini Tiorry County,
TeX., 2 spc Iefswr owld, hut the results wevre negative il the rlmiiwn
Co~n i~ uii-tr.+h Sed olt iniliunted thatI inifestaltin ill about the swlne,
tiere ~ l~4 e~r i llexists ill 11 lesafforId ValIley (0, Ariztlna~ 'i1 inl ther Po, os; Valley ofl Te(xas. Ili the ref~iining r(M. lllaIted are-as the new mejfthodI (if h)11ll~te .'']I ]):,- lecii suhtitt(i for gin-i rash inspewction. The exaininati'n of I hi.S liii )t''i1 i ot ye't coiiipltosd ; however, infe*(stationl has1, alreldvbe
estalisedexcept in I )iia Anai County, N. Me x.
A su1mlmary ,fII thec vaioj(us kinds; ofl inspec~htion, together with the number X spe 11i Is ft irmd, is shomx n inl table 17.

T.\:m*I .-Sniin n!()I iflxpCct iofl for the pitnk bollirwr in relqulated crop sca.mol of 1.94


Gin trash FedLbrtr



worm worms T IrI J


New a~~:1
Jac%>i) Ointv, 9 3-----------0
1 1c '. ()uni ic in Flir'~ 1. ----'5 7Ir 0 0 1751
i'h1,P------------------------ 761 4f 0 0 60 6
T I l------------------------------ 3,254 20 ~ 3 0~ 241

.f"co \ il-y, ',. MNex ----------------91 0 0 IS 1
Peco'T ejli t----------------------------- -2 51 0 0 101 0
8wB ', ,~------------------------ CA 27,041 0 0 23:) 48
11 td~i'I h QUt y, Texc. (souffheast-I
-- - - - - -,, I 1 ~ 0 0 4423

A j V~ - 2:------- 0
'1 \V M -----------------------0 0 0 0 )
'icn IN 1i:, Ariz. and N. Mex.. 1) 0 0j 0 U
'1ir, 'n, A r-- ---------------------------------- -- --- -- --- -- 1l r 20 1 -28
-oT~r -i ------------ 3. 0_3 ~ 0 0 ~ 6 49)
X~~~~c u.i xc-Pm v a~ New

--t~----------------------------1 3 8 U22 0 -:_AI 2.3
(rand ta ------------------------23 f7 2* 18.12 20 1 ,715 2, 731i

T' Pink b 1), ro-!i r c s tl I t 'a It i NVtc, bu It 30 1,plc i jir en s ur T1 rur ia I, \ill fm ,n d.

INSPECTION OUTSIDE REGULATED AREA iS

IiiiteiiIi ll-, I1B~e11 I ro seso rr l I lI nltv f k t kar ,etie I i
Secct I' )I I i ]ile Ii I eoly :tdja'c t o- I~(' toth regufil]: I di a rels. lvher IV esa 1i1-4 wX 'tiAd iL ho Iluw't lila'l tI I ovI Ir. As IuI dlIaI, I l- rIs In~ Ii~ Ii m in Ihe l1wer Rio 4 aide Valle o( YIf TIF:s wilth l kV I il -'iel~ nit. I\uiH nr w
I5 thI cro tp a1~11&QI v.eia Ie'~v In~'c I lii' I IeIi.tei th~
set'!~~~~~ ~~~ I4ij lf (,-,Iatr alit! I Io~i iu~~~~~~~~~~ NViiI i 1X s4 st \ee s t' i V5!el e 5010 e
Antd\ hi i' i hihiieti l'1ic uswr arido a h a


t~ N I; r :N::: ri 11 11n Wit"i 0~' cxl Iide Iy c i e r n I)ea i lt
\~~~.i~r i Yt r It 11~d 1II o F'i~h Il-l''i Ii V.i I~ut'l flt' aji ii t



nim x'efoid VtIhsecpill, Ilhe results fIII all ginrsh Inspl ect;ill
xxri4 lx~ (11 li i tui Sfte :lI In Ix 1. At d he cs IoI t e
mimi: te ~ t itoraor inslec i1n o4 gre I4 an bihi Iatil. &4Ihe\tV







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 53

aisc negative at the close of the fiscal year; however, there is still some material to be inspected.
A summary of the various kinds of inspection and the amount of material inspected is shown in table 18.

TABLE 18.-Summary of inspections for the pink bollworm outside regulated
areas, crop season 1934 1

State Gin trash Field Laboratory

Bushels Afan-days3 Samples
Alabama -----------.--------------------------------------------------- 4,860 100 1, 140
Arizona ---------------------------------------------------------5,341 9 30
Florida ------------------------------------------------------------------- 925 11 0
Georgia ---------------------------------------------------- 5,285 12 361
Louisiana ----------------------------------------------------- 0 0 1,409
Mississippi ------------------------------------------------------------ 0 0 330
Oklahoma ----------------------------------------------- 30 0 454
Texas ----------------------------------------------------- 14,810 58 1,123
Total -------------------------------------------------------------- 31,251 190 4,647
Mexico:
Baja California ------------------------------------------------------ 1,676 0 0
Chihuahua I -------------------------------------------------------- 30 0 0
Coahuila ------------------------------------------------------------ 228 0 0
Nuevo Leon --------------------------------------------------------- 632 0 0
Tamaulipas ----------------------------------------------- 452 0 0
Total --------------------------------------------------------------- 3,018 0 0
Grand total ------------------------------------------------------- 34,269 190 4,647

All results negative, except that 105 pink bollworms were found in the Juarez Valley of Mexico.
CHANGES IN REGULATIONS
During the fiscal year 1935 two changes were made in the pink bollworm quarantine regulations, both of which were for the purpose of inluli(tg the newly infested sections.
Amendment no. 1, effective September 19, 1934, was made for the purpose of adding Jackson and Suwannee Counties, Fla., to the regulated area.
Amendment no. 2, effective October 31, 1934, was made for the purpose of dtding Dixle, Hamilton, Lafayette, Levy, and Taylor Counties, Fla., and Andrews and Ector Counties, and part of Midland County, Tex., to the
regular ed area.
The above areas were designated as lightly infested. At present the regulated "rea(s include 3 counties in southern Arizona, 14 in north-central Florida, parts of 3 In southern Georgia, 9 in southern New Mexico, and 17 entire coulties and parts of 4 additional ones in western Texas. Of this area five counties and part of another in Texas are designated as heavily infested and all of the remaining area as lightly infested.
CONTROL AND ERADICATION MEASURES
No changes were made this past season in the measures enforced to control aid prevent the spIread of the pink bollworm from infested areas. These
consisted of (1) disposal of gin trash, (2) sterilization of seed, (3) supervision of oil mills, (4) fuigiation, compression, steaming, and roller treating of Iit, (51 road stations, and (6) cooperation with Mexico.
DISPOSAL OF GIN TRASH
Most gins are equipped with cleaning machinery through which the cotton passes before entering the gin stands. A considerable amount of trash is taken from the cotton by this machinery and many pink bollworns are discharged with the trash, the number depending, of course, on the degree of infestation. The regulations require the daily disposal of this trash by burning, sterilization, or grinding. Several years ago the Texas and New Mexico regulations were amended to require the daily disposal of trash to December 1 of each year, the average killing frost date being prior to this. The ginners have
- lways cooperated by continuing daily disposal of trash until a killing frost occurs, if it is later than December 1.







54 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 191,15

KFJI) STEIMUZAT]ION
T hr ;- lt'rlli/ itjllj of (,ed IIlj(l(qI1llc(ll Ili(- Illw'I im plirt llit ill Ille Ifilik

as .1 c(pill]' 11111 ill- 1,1*lw fl (if 111:ich ilw i. P- ('1111il-p A Nlth a
Illol"111W IN1111d, -10 111;11 lilt, ()f tl,(. seell i-4 1-tq'iIIA "d :11 ill tilliv.s.
D urini-, ill(, li i>t s,)7 44 111('se llw chilw s 111"lled illjlI"llXII1l I1l.j%
411* lw ated to a 14,iiijicriture of 14.5 t'ir 1 hw ir, :iiiol li:ii dio j ::.,I
I () 1) ri v t, I I I collt: i I Ili nat i (ill, is perillillf'd I ( 0 nw \ t to) tll V
is prill(ArAly I() t,-ke care of lilantiu,, zcol, and oluriw, *kho,
swiik- ill- 10 tmi-4 (if ,ecd wti-e s trea t ( d.

SUVI-ItVISION OF 011, MILL'The I;t(-k of oil mill in wne ,cctioils of the regillatf'd lmlkoz it Ilkwessary each year to outside mills to handIc ( *,d fr(,ni the regulattsd
a rea s. The-se, mills are equipped Nvith milchinery to to the 11 located Within the area. Approxiiiiitely 7(owi) t4)ii- of skvd Nvcrtcrushed. 'Several of the mill- were equipped with 1-(,Ilcl*- f(ir clit
and mill-ruil tin .9- iers, and 12.2'--%s5 kiles were so treated.

FUMIGATIO.N, COMPRESSION, STEAMING, AND RM LUt TREATMENT OF LINT

Futlli,_,atioll is lmw listed as all ilptional treatment and. as a re-,- ult. wflv thr,,,plal&- Nver( operated during tht- They tic,1It(,(l 5(li kili- (.f hill 1!.(" ',41;
Niles of linters. Of the winter liv.ttcd, halc liad lwk ,l
Juarez V;tlley of Alexico. At lbo, 12 c(onplV Z 41--Z "1wralill'-r, 4,f hill
land 9,G(A kil(,< ()f liiil(-r 4 were tr-at(,d. A IllulAwr lf 11; ve rol't'l.
and 27,70S kiles of lint Nv(,re treated by this Illethod. A
was operated by the iate of To xas at Presidio aud ti-cssited 2,(),*,:, holes (,f ']W.

ROAD STATIONS

A roo in,-;pection station wa!z imlinlail ('d at the julletil)II tit' the l"I't'-diiii
and Rui(b,.<(i rot-ids 11/2 miles south of Al.irfa, Tex. Tlli- -t;!tl()I) Is ()Pe!*:.11 1(t "')
prevent the inovenient cf hiCc-tcd wakrial froill Ilw III,-, l1eol I I \\ : Is
op-1w.1 evtcullwl* 1, VC1, and clo,-wl January -1. aftor Ili(- 11(,1il -111)
lia(i pr.-ctically 11100TI ClMIletcd in the 114- Bends A tw il 44 4.122 (%-rs
ins'pc(.h,(1, fl-f-Ill w hich I collti ;(.;tl W C To!, ni;,,,(-. T lil, -t, of 27 lw 11' ,(,od cilthiii. allill othcr 111411( 1-1:1k 1-0 pi, k [Illl 6
pilloxv "I"A qlliAs, :ill 14 which Nvele hill-ned, and T pickWhich treated '111d ()f the 44 c()i0i-c;itlon- nii:w, li fowid tk1o
be w ith Ow 1,;1 11-1 hojilw (lii-w J15 liviii _, ;iii(l llc ilt w orw .- lit irql
"I'lle.4e were ill 111" (if illd -c d cWti'll fr"Ill
trucks tl..i! h:id bveni luiuflii 4 Iwh jlr'ldllct N() liviw-, w(01.111, eNo,-, 'Ws-N
found ill that had 1w, 1: st(.riltz"(1.

((K)P1-Jt\'IION WITII XfK-XICO

In the Col 1cl ws .111d J11;Irlz Valleys (if Mtxi(.41, illinw(li'llelY I(U.lolit 'o ille l'i" Bend and till. El P;is() V.Illev olf 1,(.X;[-. ri.,po-tiveh
is Which is \vIlh Ill- pink In
'11v to em iti-111 Illo 111-ect w ith
v[J"r4-4,d itl tli',,- coulill, v, tlrh ns fi,-hl ch,:m -iip, -,-d tovlliz:itit ii. :i!tl sulicrNi illl (if (tit 111111s. In m d I:i:-, ,w Ill- f,
t1w r(, Is I free inter( lif vi-il- 1,% thl ('Illcl:lk :111ol
this projects Ili)(] :1 spIcil, lilt -plrit (if 1.4

,ruuum.,A%i-k NN*F:i-,vii, coxruzou.

cottoll P1"4)dIhV'I ill Ihe Tlllirlwri l woo-0 ;Ilva ill Al lzol-,l is fnwl N(lg;Ilt-,, ('11 ti.t.
For
t I I v I r I I I I I I I 11.1s I s. -tit h e rili I I ( I f I I I
a I i t tJ( kot I oil I t 14 ,-a fit -t I I z I I I t y







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 55

in the southern end, but the bulk of the crop began about 18 miles al)orve Tucson, extending northward about 12 miles. About 2,000 acres of Pirna or long-staple cotton and 5,000 acres of short-staple cotton were grown, and a gin for long-staple and a gin for short-staple cottons were operated. Practically all trash produced was inspected with a gin-trash machine, with negative results. Toward the close of the ginning season field inspections were made of the top crop of bolls, and a light infestation of Thurberia, weevil was found about 3 miles north of Tubac, in Santa Cruz County, and another at Sahuarita, 18 miles south of Tucson, in Pila County. A supply of hollies was collected, and at the end of the year examination of this material had not quite been completed. A few specimens have been foulnd in material from three additional fields, all located near Tucson. None of the material from the Rillito-Marana district, where the bu!k of the crop is grown, has been infested. Only 30 specimens have been found, which, together with the negative gin-trash inspections, indicates that there is a very light infestation in the top crop of bolls.
The measures used in controlling and )reventing the spread of the Thurberia weevil are the same as for the pink bolhworm. These consist of disposal of gin trash, sterilization of seed, compression, fumigation, and roller treatment of lint, and the clean-up of gins, oil mills, etc., at the end of the season. The results of each of these activities are included in the figures given for the pink bollworm.
BEE CULTURE

Pollination studies on the Pacific coast show that bees shift their activities to fruit varieties in accordance with the sugar concentration of the nectar. Fruit-tree varieties within the same species were found to show wide variation in nectar concentration, resulting in wide variability in the pollenizing effectiveness of bees.
Cooperative studies with the University of California on the cost of honey production indicate that the average cost is 6.9 cents per pound, while the average price received by producers during the year was 4.5 cents per pound. Of 225 California apiaries studied in 1933, S percent made a profit, 8 percent broke even, and 84 percent operated at a loss. Similar conditions prevailed in 1934.
Uncontaminated beeswax is known to be white, but white wax required for the manufacture of candles, cold creams, etc., has been difficult to prepare from the crude brown and yellow western beeswaxes. Studies in cooperation with the University of California have shown that brown stains we-e caused by iron rendering utensils. Wax rendered in glass, aluminum, and stainless steel was white or yellow. The source of yellow pigment was found to be pollen, although some pollens do not impart color to beeswax.
Loco weed (Astragalus trichopodus) was found to cause a widle-spread death of adult bees in southern California. It was likewise found that Matilija poppy (Ramneya coulteri) also affects adult bees. Four other plants, three of which occur in California, are now definitely known to be poisonous to bees.
The difficulty of combating American foulbrood, a contagious disease of bees is further emphasized by the fact that the disease has recurred in the experimental apiary at Somerset, Md., in combs that had been treated with formaldehyde and in which healthy brood had been reared for a period of 5 years. Studies conducted in cooperation with the University of Wyoining in an apiary of 1,700 colonies indicated that honey produced above (lut'en excluders in diseased colonies in practically all cases contains enu~lwJi stores of American foulbrood to constitute an infectious (lose. This fact is contrary to the general belief. On the other hand, out of 58 samples of honey, representing a crop of 220,000 pounds from a, commercial -ipiary in Wyomiiwn havig a more or less constant infection of American foulbrood, all showed a spore content less than the minimum infectious (lose.
Work is under way to test the resistance of Caucasian, ('arnia ln, and common black bees to European foull)rood, another contagious 1isse o be(s, and although it is generally concede(d t iat this disease can he readily conitrolled, an unusually virulent type of this disease has heeii found in New England. The in(lcaltions so far are that this particular strain is not a menable to the usual methods of treatment.
Surveys of pollen reserves ill ((mnercial apiar.es in the Intermountain States bear out the result of previous experimentatl work that an abundailnce







56 NNum, RLP()],LTS OF DYPAITAJE'_N'1' ()F A('JZICULTVIIE 1935

of pillen ill the Ilives ill the fAl I.,-; Ill,,111y wintering
and III, the pi-miticti0ii (if cl)l(kllics for the Imili-, Il.m..
have I(Ill" supposed that tim ilitl(.Il ImHoll ill the lllve 4 Ow fall was (letrim ental. Ill colillectioll m-Itli Illi., it h-,is 1well I'm illd lll lt individual c(di)IIies vary widely a,, to tlj(- qil;inlilie.- ()I' pollen ill fit(- f-A l atill that localities also diffcr willely % itll ve iwct 11) the availabil.ty of pillell.
Ill c()op(.1.,11i1,ll with the Itailway 1,\press A,,ency, a preliiiiiijaz-v stlid). of Vie 1()s- (if packa(,e lw(- and (itieciis iii traiisit Ivrl; hi'(111 ('11 ) 11111h.te;l. mendatiims relative o) llletliod.- of shippill" '1116 11:11101ill" becs ill tnlll- .t have beell put into ol'fe -t, with the result that lol_ S(IS Iffe '111114)SI. ill, and 1wtI\(-(Iwrs an(I express ,i (_,encies have expressed their apprcciaLion (if' tile Nvork ().' dw bureau in reducin.,-, losses.

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS
SCREW WORM

During 1f):'1 Ihe crcw w0cm tly spi-cad rapidly from flie reLitively small area in soutliern Get)rgla and northern Florida infe.-,te(l ill 19:1:1, so that by the close of the summer of 1934 a large riumher of' infest ttioiis occurred in the States of Geor-la, Florida, Alabama, A-11sAssippi. an(I Lmii 4.ana, and a few in South Cart )hn:i. Ili the West thO jOilled Widl tile 11.eik of
normal infestation ii 'I'exas and other 'St.itcs. Durin-, the lzite
summer and full oi' 11,'34 the pest had hicreaseA to stich pr(q),irtions that lts ravages resulte(l in heavy loss to the ft-irillf'rs :111(l stocl\Illell. a re-lilt of urgent requests for the sum of $5.000 was transferred from mother
appropriation to aill in the direction of a cimpai zn this pe Enior-ency Itel*ef Admimstration in each of the st;tws i)f mississippi. (.eorgia, and Florida also pi-m-ided S,7,500 to carry on vdticitional and c(introl work in these ,States.
In order I() prevent the repetition of the losses suffered ill 19:'4. flie, ."et jnaMn,_, appr(;pr7.-itIons for the fiscal year el:Idi,, June 30, 19:16. '1l)jIl,()Ved May 17, proviii(A in immediately 4available .111pl.''pria ion Of Of t1lis
sum, $425,000 i.- boing used to conduct a wide-spre:id vo qor.iiie cducntional and control c 111111,li.-Ii in South ("arolina, Georgm, Fll ri(,a. Alahaiii.i. At:
tand ,mltheastvrn Tex.i,,: :tn(l for rc.-circh NN-4)rIx Nviih the
lioqw of dil v(-I()ping more effective i!A clie.ipcr contil)l meiliods. Tht, prini.-iry screw 8vo!,m Ily (Cochliom via amcri(aoa I('. anfl. 1".) i,.z pvi h:,,hlv responsible 1'()1, 90 iv v, ilt or inore of j.ifctatioii.s. It hreed-, onlY in livin;z aiiinmis -ind can, so fir as 1 nown, be contr(illed by killim', tho hirv.w ilit-v i it
'I'll(, control, Nvork aims, tliorefore, to teacli livestock llletlli ds to v*event
their animals to the attack of the 11v ;m(l )ww to treat aminials th-,c iii:iy 1w infcstvd. To assure tb it tll(, proper tre-miwit is -illl)lied, niedicine in ,llfficielif I(Il treat infw-7,ed :171:1111,11S is furnishc(l froc.
On Jm w :',11, 2-1!) 111011 W(IF0 ill Illis Nv(irl ill :1,-,0 c(m ilties, .1110
21,(V 1) ()1, Iiiiie :ii- oii am i 15,0()() -,m mis of' henzol had

havf, (' ,Ijlilm ed ();l Ille hild()"ies :ind (if q)(_,c!es of
;md w, of
i!IilIl;l I m e (if, I 1 0 v screw
W"I'M IIv Coc,1,-11'om ,,. 1',i m ac( U(irla indic.1to Ilril pr(ip I-:Aioll of
,j]('11 ('fTers I l1w :11IS 01, ],edlici fill ill w ildlife.
1101ZSE BOTS

TlIV(*SIi11':1tj0l1', (ITI 11101110d" foil. (if h(Il's(Is have
(!4 vch)lwd Ili (,IT, ( Ilve Ire:1tw e'It f(w dt-ti-oy.11" Iho Int'ectiNe of G ,-,ifcrop/11111s ill fc.,41 I'milis D M ;ccr w hivIl I-cillaill ill tho '11t:1,11ed "o Ilw hair ()f III(, m limal for I 1wriod .11ter I,\ censed. 'I'lle Ill Ilwd.
w h ich c('11"I -t-; illlpl v it, I).,I 11*1!g lw t \\ i,, I, \\-:i(,.r
tvillpel"clire of Its* F., is suppIcilicill1TI.- the
c:irbon di, iilphidp tre-,itment in the f;ill (if the Y01111.
STABLE FLY

if,)(.:I I iolls incorporated ill Ill(, type (if tr:ip NvIlich operates by 11!f, :IliIjII;Il'-4 HIT-01PAl It giVO jir()m i zo ()f reallyy reducin,1- Iliv nylllu 11TICII to I)\- tlje sttllilt 11y. Pi-viiinin:iry stmly of the breo-,ding







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 57

habits of this fly along the coast of Florida disclosed that prolific breeding takes place in decomposing piles of Sargassumn sp., a brown marine alga. Destruction of such breeding places would decrease the abundance of the fly.

AUSTRALIAN CATTLE TICK

Experiments carried out cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry and the Florida Livestock Sani ation Commission on the Australian cattle tick (Margaropus annulatus austrulis Fuller) confirm the field observations that deer serve as an effective host of this tick. Apparently, however, there is greater individual and seasonal variation as to the number of ticks reared than in the case of the more normal bovine host.

BLACK FLIES OR BUFFALO GNATS

An outbreak of black flies (Siniuliumn sp.) during the spring of 1935 in Arkansas and Louisiana, especially in the 3.ississippi Delta area, caused considerable injuPy and some deathss in livestock. An interesting discovery, and one which may have a definite bearing on finding some method of controlling these injurious insects which have heretofore been more or less immune to control procedure, was made during the winter of 1934. It was found that under laboratory conditions eggs undergo a period of aestivation for as long as 8 months. Under field conditions the eggs are washed into river cut-offs and bayous, where the stagnant water is unfavorable for development. The advent of subsequent floods and the consequent agitation of the water where the eggs have remained dormant produce ideal conditions for the emergence of enormous numbers of the adult gnats.
EYE GNATS

Observations on the biology and abundance of eye gtnats in the Winter Garden section of southwestern Texas were carried on throughout the year. In June of the current year a representative of the Bureau was sent to assist in the reorganization of the gnat abatement district of Coachella, Calif., where the residents were anxious to continue the control measures recommended by the Bureau.
MOSQUITOES
Much assistance has been rendered by the Bureau to various loc,'l, State, and Federal agencies in making mosquito surveys, and waging cmnrol campaigns in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Oregon, and Washington.
In the Southeast, mosquito surveys, with recommendations as to suitae'o control methods, were made at Parris Island. S. C., in cooperation with the United States Marine and the Naval Medical (_'orpe: at Savannah, (;a.. anl Yirktown, Va., in cooperation with the National Park Service; an( at Roao.ke Island and adjacent territory on the North Carolina Uanks. Studies of th, salt marshes and salt-marsh mosquitoes of Florida have been carried out during the year, and assistance has been given to county organizations, the Ste board of health, and the Emergency Relief Administration in mosquito-onvl problems. In the control of A d(7e.s ac!pii L., consider hble help wa iv-' to several towns and cities in Florida which suffered an futhrek of de .- fever
Mosquito-control activities in the Northwvest consists pvinripaliv in die in projects in Multnomah County, Oreg., under funds allotted by S. E. R. A. and the city of Portland; and in the Columbia National Forest in co0lIf:rani)i w\iti the Forest Service of the North Pacific region.
Experimental work has been carried out to test the effectiveness of I OSqitO larvicides and methods for controlling Mansonia perturbants Walker ald ,ilher species in Florida, and Ardes aldrichi I). and(l K.. A. tcxa,1 M]1i.. ad the so-called "snow-water" species in the Pacific Northwest.
Investigations have been carried on, in cooperation with the Pathlo&i a] Division of the Bureau of Animal Indlustry, on the transmission iof the fatal malady of horses known as equine encepihalonyit is by mosquitos. It has been shown in numerous tests that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is an efficient carrier of the western strain of the disease, but a very poor carrier of the eastern strain. The only instance in which the eastern strain was transmitted from an infected to a healthy guinea pig was in the







58 ANNI-AL (W J)I I'AITMFN'J ()F 1!):,5

(d, :I Ifit 4)f \\Ili(.)I fed ('11 111(. fo"tpalk III the
I It I I.\ "u i fica ] I i I I I I ( )S( I I I I I I q S W i r( I ill 1'(-('t ( 41 1 ).V f4'( 4 1 i I I g (I i Si I
I I t i 11's n I I I I I I (, i I I I I f i lit. (-(.rchral perilid :1 1111 1 I.v fi-4'd I Ill-, pel I s r I I s 114 1 1 I'l I i I I ,Ili If(,;[ I I i Nv I I ()f I I ) I 'I'lw disease
\\a" tr')lp-illittil'd O f JI(II-111"ll P ,Ilillc'l as carly its 7 d'INS 111'1 ;is ;,It( lis
11w infective nw::I. This ind llj;lt lilt, lim-(lIIi11W<, :Iftcr
ing illfc( fl d. Illay carry till' di"case :is hilig as till.\- I i N.

SAND FLIES

;tit(] dikin-,,,, Nvork ill controllii);,, salt-mar,. h sand Ilie,-: li;lvo 1wen ecilitililled "Ill(I extelvit-d ill Gvorgja under the partial divectiiii (4 Ili(,

USE OF BLOWFLY MAGGOTS IN THE TREATMENT OF INFECTED WOU' NDS

The objects of this inve-i have becil ( I ) 1() dcvi--Z( I i lnetho(I of producill" sterile ('111d of Il.,1vi11,_, Oicill I)\ .1i kililf. 1111-ml-l"wit,
the ycir, so that surgeons cmilkt depend upoll t1wil. Iwspital to
11:1ve a continuous supply at all tinw ; (2) to Nvoi-k mit, ill cmilwratimi with
-- llrgeons, S11(vesA,111 Illvalls; of applyill'-, th(- maggot I reatmelit to hillimil wounds
(3) to investigate how lit, 'p
maggots, prodiv their romark.ible bediiig eff(,cts.
The first tNvo objectives have noxv Iw(1i carric(l ()lit, and sur(,i mis (4-siring
to use maggots should 11.1ve no difficulty ill geithiu, sterile or ill kilowing how to use thein. Work oil the third objective shows Ilint. ill addition
to rcinoving the (liset,,ed tissue. maggots excrete certniii zuhsi;mc(-, into the would. tilt(] that, oil(, (11, the"e .1-1lbstalices, called '.111:111toill ", stillllilntf, 4 lipaling. This innteri.il (,--(if) also he Ifurelmsed, and duriw4 the In.-zl 4 ninths considen0de quanliti(-, (if it linve booqj ms;pd Nvith gnitify Ili(-- tff(wts Ii.v dwtors tllvoll, ,liout the United Exeretions of inn-I'(1 (
f i(lelltifi( (J. No,
11ot -e -Ili(-Il Jill laboratory tests killell ccrinill discisvcausing bacteria ill 5 to 15 ininutes witholit ilijifiring liuman

HOUSEHOLD AND STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS

Considerable llas been --!ven t o hwist 111)idt'rs, c( 11111wn-i'll I'll-Ills,
and Federal and loc'll a,_,encies ill controllim, hou,,ehold nid -:1,(1rod-pI*m11,l('t All)(111" Other Studies colidw-ted (111rill- Hle vi,, Ir, the ilive- 1i("Itioll,4 on nUac k i i I,",* cottoliscv(I ine'll ill stor-w-'e, the (,ffcct (It* I 1111i i'r;l lit s
MI I If(] t If(, developilleilt of a funli-al 't I'l I r cl, it llc-n 111o I '. 1, a il p Iri ailt
As -I rcstilt of the purported decre, Ise ill the 11 fertilizer, larger stocks of t1tis material Nvere kept in duriii- lift, p-ist
y e, i i Tliv.sc stocks hvc,1111c. heavily infesk,(I Nvitil tli(, lw(,tIo. The
by tlii< illsect were 11(11 so mlich (111(, 11, (1:1111:11-0 to lilt, 111(1;11
ils(ff :is to) de"tructioll tit' sacks mill the c(,st iif 1;ihiii- imidvoil ill rc-,-z:wkiwr. It Nv.)" I'muld th-.11 fIllI&,,0hi-, Avith IiNdv(wv mie iciij -.i z it the rnte of I pulid Of sw1illin cyanide to 1,01;0 colic wC1 tit' torage ji:l(-( 1,( Ilmved I)v :1
1 lll()Iltll latill" 11 -HIL the allililli'l ()f cy:lllide. l_.Ive
I C 1 1) V c(lilt rol.
Ill 1-(IIwI..Itiol1 with the jilin"Ill 11f lwli'w to dotorlilitio
till, (if fliIiii-niltI., (III diwcmiltiii which were
ill 1w ldzicod itt illo new 1'cllernl
T o Sil, ctilllh lf-l( ,l O w i ;I I I _-4 I 111:11 Ill\ t", 1.( 1-(,I1:it (It] 11: 11111111, 11 (' I I p
f I et rallydrow l I Ill I 111114-11e) i S I Ili--, 1,11111 i g;I III 11": 1 i I I I t 1( t Iles m oths.
N\i1II this matitilli:11, c(III'llwit'll lvldo l- coll(lililm< NN10,11 :111pl.''whod 111w-1, :1011.111y follild in the 11(ilm" i7ldk';Ilo d 1h:It it i 111111,0 cfflwti (, :is :I fluill-1110 :1-nillst the N\t'hbin", cllollw -z th;Ill ;I Illixtun. 1)(II'(1111t
40, "Illylelle dichim-i(h, 'Ind '25 1wrivilt of W11-:1o.111firid( .

IDEN11FICATION AND CLASSIFICATION oil, jNsr.crs

nullifIcr 40, I*(,(.(1ived f1w lms rv,111 Mol, lilt,
1111110-ol. Ilhlljiltcd ill 1114, provii'll" v v. I I% 'Speci:11i'ls lw vo It'voted
111cir clitire lime 14) the idfl1tifi,-:1tioII I)f this 111:11el-kil ]mt II;Ive
1111:1111c to mcot the irlcn ,Isill- ol, till,, sol-vice. Ill the atlempt
f') 1114, ,tllvltld (ill the
vlli- Ilic:l I il ill lit' Nvoril fill-1114,1 I es, 1 i c t (k 0 1 :11111 oil I y
,I few 4t 11 (111 -S 4 If I I I I I I I Ill ri. I i:i\ v lwcii (,( )ill I I el r4l lin (I su I mii It e( I f.)r pu I ol i(-i I ion.






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 59

FOREIGN PARASITE INTRODUCTION

During the year special effort has been made to eliminate living host material from the shipments of natural enemies forwarded to the United States. This was largely accomplished in dealing with the parasites of the oriental fruit moth, the Japanese and Asiatic beetles, the pink hollworm, and the hessian fly. In these cases the results were highly satisfactory, and it is planned to extend this method to other activities.
The principal hosts of the parasites imported and the countries inll which the material was obtained were:
Countries in
irhii(h the material
Insect hosts of the parasites: wats collcctcd
Oriental fruit moth --------------------------Japan. chosen.
Japanese and Asiatic beetles -------------------- DIo.
European corn borer -------------------------Italy.
Pink bollworm------------------------------ EYypt.
Alfalfa weevil --------------------------------- France, Italy.
Hessian fly ------------------------------------ France.
Pine shoot moth---------------------------- Austria.
Larch case bearer--------------------------- Io.
Birbch leaf miner---------------------------- )o.
Elm leaf beetle_----------------------------- Frane. Italy.

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH PARASITES

A total of approximately 25,000 cocoons and 5,000 adults were forwarded during the year. Twelve species of parasites were secured from this material for liberation; the most abundant of these were Dioctes nmolestae Uch., Phaeogenes nigridens Wesm., and Macrocentrus thoracicus (Nees). The success attending shipments of adults is illustrated in the case of a consignment of 4,096 Phaeogenes nigridens females forwarded in cool storage via Panama. This shipment reached the laboratory at Moorestown, N. J., 5 weeks later with less than 1 percent mortality.

JAPANESE AND ASIATIC BEETLES

The importation of parasites of these beetles from Japan and Chosen has continued on a small scale. Shipments were made of Tiphia popilliarora Roh., a larval parasite of the Japanese beetle, Tiphia sp. no. 29, parasitic upon the Asiatic garden beetle, and Tiphia sp. no. 6-b, parasitic upon the latter host and the imported serica. All of these were shipped in the adult stage.

EUROPEAN CORN BORER PARASITES

What is expected to be the last bulk shipment of corn borer larvae from Europe was collected in northern Italy in November and December 1984 and forwarded to the United States in January 1935. This comprised a total of 1,113,000 field-collected larvae and was estimated to contain 17,000 Inarcolata punctoria Ronman, 167,000 Lydella grisesceas II. D., and 4,730 Eulhnmneria alkae E. and S. All of these are larval parasites already established in the United States and are to be used in extending the area of colonization.

PINK BOLLWORM PARASITES

Investigations of the parasites of this pest of cotton were started in Egypt in October 1934. Colonies of adult parasites of several species for rearing purposes were secured through the courtesy of the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture. Shipments were made of Microbracon kirkpatricki Walk.. a promising parasite originating in east Africa, Exerites roborator (Fab.), and Llaxmus sp. All of these arrived in excellent condition and are now heine' reared in quantity at the laboratory of the Division of Cotton Insect Investientions at Presido. Tex.
ALFALFA WEEVIL PARASITES

Small shipments of alfalfa weevil parasites have heen forwarded from France and Italy. A total of 1,726 adults of the egg parasite Peridesmia phytonomi Gahan were forwarded to the California Agricultural Exp)eriment Station dur-







60 A-N _Nl-- T, Rl'I)ORTS 01,- DEPATITNITE'NT OF AGRICULTURE. 1935

In- Vchru;irv and M;irob for col()nizati(,n Ili thnt .-,tate- Sni:01 cllisilrilillelits
of Path. Iplf'O(X ('01 cijca Thmn.s. and Tctrasfichus tn(crtu.s both of
which aj-u larNal have also been ni;td('.

IIESSIA.N FLY PARASITES

Sillail 411ipllwl t< Af pz 'llrwl NV:llk. '111(l 7'1 chaci" rcwalw' Walk.
were of Dk'J'5. l,(,tll of these are ininl-r j1.Lra the I1e:-;si.ll1 III%- ill J."Ill-olle.

EUROPEAN PINE SHOOT MOTH PARASITES

TIMM: collecthns of infested with the pino ,- hoot itioth vere nmljo in
Austria May ind .11111c., -Illd tilc e werv f(Il-warded 1() 111o Vl1iL(-1 St:ll(ls
for i-earin- ()lit the Exaniinatiwt (d indicates that this111"Itel'i"ll cont(aills sullicifij num1wi-, ()f nine --zjw(,i(- ()f p:ira ,iles for col1IiJz,1tion. The most important of are Copido.'(plia wniclllatulll Pal., f'j11'1'q
dubia Fall., and 7'ctr(i8fichas turionion

LARCH CASE BEARER PARASITES

Duriw-, M.Irch a total of '_'00.010 hibernatiu,- c;i<- wei-e ill
and forwarded to the UnitcIl! 14:iw4. rev(-flleil 1
parlasitization of 44 pei-cent. The greater porti(w of Owse wel*e Chryool laricinellac Ratz.
BIRCH LEAF MINER PARASITES

Field collection of leftf mines of the hirch le.-if min( r iv i.'-: c()l1(!tlclt September 1934 in Au.;tria, wid 1 t oT,'A I I ) f 11(1 e Tlw dominant wero Pb(oiomo, is lntl
poniess (if Chalcitloid(?;t. Three thwu Zm(l i1niclaturc of the !'w-Inf-land (,f the latter were forwarded, in additimi to ti'll, (11WULity (11'
cells llw;ltiolled.
ELM LEAF BEETLE PARASITES

In,,ectary tests indicate thzat Tctrasticlms v.,07ioniclaciolf, M.ircl al, tlCt oi -_, Fll'asile of tile elill ](,:If beetle, the wl"iler ill ille '11,111t
way expl;1ill the diflictlIfy (d e 41'11)11'hlllellt ill 1!w I'llito'l stll(-,
l.c:ll-('d flel(I-col]("'Ied Illateri'I we"'o ;tlld kille. F i( i-l ill Vrnllce ;1[t;Ii1w 'l n
or 17,'', jel-c('111 ill tlm ll :;J"111 llilw rl";llillL' clill k"If hoell(" fW *
Ill !41 1!'e 1_111if'li M :lrcl w d
h1v tile ta(Alillid fl N. I i, (I ch I c t (11"S is f"41 11 'a 11, 1. l. lw i th( adult bc-01t, allki ll o

COOPERATION W'ITH FOREIGN ONGANIZATION,13

!lw N(:11.
of ric"lltliro
fo r Ih o -4 0 1,11(111 ((11.11 It 1;
4,i\*(,:l h v 11:1- I'tr o:111 Ill ; --f'111111ill." ill
11:11*;! '11('-- ,It- tk ( ip ittt lit III h ,
birch V ill J"I":111 11N. tl'i" Ili\ Ishl!'' w ith
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I F ; I I I Z ( I I I I I I r I I i I I it 'I I I I I I I \v

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siclil -.1"N'lIv.
I < (If 1':lr;l'ites have I'l)"v-:11"ded (1111ifil-, 1110 10 the colliltries li -tcd i1j, tilldo






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 61

TABLE 19.-Shipments of parasites to foreign countries during the fiscal year

Country Host Parasites

Egypt ------------ Mediterranean fruit fly ------------Opiu humilis Silv.
Do --------------- do ------------------------------- Diachasma tryoni Cain.
Do ----------------- do -------------------------------- Tetrastichus giffardianus Silv.
Do ------------ Pink bollworm ----------------------M licrobracon mellitor Say.
Italy --------------- Oriental fruit moth --------------- Glypta rufiscute1!aris Cress.
Do --------------...... do -------------------------------M acrocentrus delicatu3 Cress.
Fiji ---------------- Mediterranean fruit fly -------------Opius humilis Silv.
Do -------------- do -------------------------- Diachasma tryoni Cam.
Do ------------- ----- do ------------------------------- Tetrastichus giffardianus Silv.
Poland ------------ White grubs --------------------Elis spp.
Do --------------do ------------------------- Tiphia spp.
Mexico -----------Pink bollworm ------------------ Eeristes roborator (Fab.)
Do ----------------- do ------------------------- icrobracon breticornis Wesm.


CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS
TESTS OF HOUSEHOLD INSECTICIDES AGAINST HOUSE FLIES
The testing of various household insecticides against house flies by the method of Peet and Grady and by a turntable method, which was devised in the Division of Control Investigations, was carried on in cooperation with various insecticide manufacturers. The object of these studies is to improve the methods of testing so that satisfactory specifications for fly sprays can be written. One of the requirements is the adoption of a standard insecticide with which unknown samples may be compared. Phenothioxin was found to have some promise as a standard.
SURVEY OF THE INSECTICIDAL VALUE OF DOMESTIC SPECIES OF ROTENONE-BEARING PLANTS

In cooperation with the Division of Drug and Related Plants of the Bureau of Plant Industry, the insecticidal action of extracts of some 3C0 samples of roots of Cracca, chiefly C. virginiana, collected in 18 different States, was tested against house flies. The most effective roots were found in eastern Texas, southwestern Georgia, and Florida. The plants found north of Georgia possessed very little toxicity. The sample most toxic to house flies was collected in Harrison County, Tex., and contained 1.8 percent of rotenone. The demonstration of correlation between the Durham qualitative color test for rotenone and the effectiveness of the extracts of Cracca has facilitated the search for plants of high toxicity and the selection of plants for cultural experiments.
INSECTICIDAL EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF PYRETHRUM

In cooperation with the Food and Drug Admninistrtion, tests, of the insecticidal action of samples of extracts of pyrethrum were made to find which of the three methods of chemical analysis for pyrethrins was best correlated with the insecticidal properties. Tests were also made on the insecticidal effect of mixtures of alcoholic solutions of pyrethrins and rotenone.
TESTS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AGAINST MOSQUITO LARVAE

Some 200 synthetic organic compounds, made or obtained by the Division of Insecticide Investigations, were tested during the fiscal year against mosquito larvae. In addition to phenothiazine, which was more toxic than rotenone to culicine mosquito larvae, 14 other compounds were found that compared favorably with rotenone in toxicity. Organic compounds of iodine were found to be more toxic than organic fluorine compounds.
GELATINE-FILM METHOD FOR TESTING INSECTICIDES

A method applicable to testing the effect of light on the toxicity of various types of insecticides by imbedding them in a thin film of gelatine was worked out during the past year. When cabbage worms were fed gelatine film containing derris, in cabbage-leaf sandwiches, they were killed. Pyrethrum powder fed in the same way did not kill them. On the other hand, the cabbage worms







X _N N I.." A 1 1' 1 1'() 1: 1 1) 1-- 1) 1, 1 A i E _N I I 'T I 1 1.'., 1

JAI T f
It I I f 'V i.1, li 1111 v j 1 1'.%
t I w 1 1, I I I

THE EFFECT OF LONV Tl._MPE1tATUJtE.S ON LARVAE' 01' THE ( 1GAItE'l- r IIEFJI.ic

A v -11-1o !Ili, O f t-111111,11,1 111.4
In ill
4,_\ t-I Viii'D 11111(b 1() (14,11-1111ilk Illf, to,,Ilip e r itllro- 70
1,;j] It. frcii-z !;4



RELATIVE TOXICIT117 OF AIZSE-NATES OF CAL(AUM

Fxprini(-iltal work li;ts siom-it tllat then, 111"I Iw l lit,
to '_\ 11 IV (11, ill.11 ft.
a Ild I I lw liil, i 1 1, T o -I> \\.lilt I '' It N o, t I
of' c ry
I J.v t 11 I w
coli (Jll I' Xl c.

ATMO.S11111AUC FUMIGATION OF BALED COTTO.N

Tll (-xll, ril.I(ilital wcr!-, ill flllill 4;lti( 11 of fi;ili (j c(stjoll ,It tip. -t.jrW,'IS olifill't-1,41 Willtill Ill- li,4(iill

S T. -] I k61LIZATION OF GRAPES FROM SPAIN

G rapvs lilt I lo ji- od hit )m Sl ,itl Nvi i-k, I 1.( zl i et I !I I c, ilan(Tc i;I j1l.*I 111 i t lt,-; I I:
i I I N( \v Y()rk and 11w-I(on 1'(ir I lilt- ill 1 I it oil \N i I I t
;,Ill fi uit 11-% The metliml 4 4 q): d vill'-, Olt. t ;ilvt III0
i i ;Ipl 11 ic lt it on (1111-i w, the fir.sL 1):t ii, i Ili-, Wt a 10; t 1*1
I 1w 1 ) i v i, to I I ( 11' k oll t r I I il ve- l 1 :4,0 i

STERILIZING RICE STRAW BY HEAT

1!14111 (111 of AnT)''l-ted ricit, strlw \%orked mll \\hicll
ill 1,,;h- t)f zlv;lw ill a vacillll ,) cIli;I!I11wI.. ille 'illd
t I lit i I I I it I ti I A s a 1 at'll( Iw i *k, 1*( lit I I i I
f I--. "PI 1<1 t rc:lt I I k i n be t 1 i i,, (I t I I a
I r I I ft )( it i it 4 1( 1 Isi t y.

FUMIGATION OF VE.TCH SEFD

T-As liladol. to (1citit 1.1, (1 1 Illf,
cy ,.Ifj c 'w id o n d d i-w -!J '!(-, '1,:)[ -- 111-4 1-:,1 ::;-I)1I(tI \\ 1!11..Ilt
of injury, ond (21) t!w ;w, ntiaii(oi iiiiii-i -<;II.% kl:! Iho vm i- 11,
Of thilt weevil L11*11011,o., "It" h qlos V 1 -r. hot

MISCELLAM-:01", (0NSTl'U('Ti0% AND TF.STING

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I N S E( Al 'I I E I N N' Et-,Tl ATI 0 N S

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AUUREAU OF ENTO.AMULOGY AND PLANT QUARLANTI-NE 63

the interest of better cooperation with the Yaik-lit a borntory o)f the IDivision of Fruit Insect Inlvest igLkioIns.
Search amioig lalnt miaterials for rIwv 1Aeiicid _ojiiilc'Uinds was (,,ii inuI2d. Perhaps the oul-tanding res ult was;T1 thfinldl ilt ofaiiw1ei Ithae and roots of the tree tobacco (Nicotiana glaca) If flte, uhe4ei tt Anabasine is an alkaloid, very similar to nicoitine lin it- phy.Nsical, chemic-al, and insecticidal properties, whic-h wvas firs L predilo >y\-illielically in the- Division of Insecticide Invest iga tion s several years ;mt-. anwhich was later found in a Russ iaii weed, namely, Anabasis aphlylli.
Many pla'nt samples reputed to possess ins--eicbiul pro)pewties were r eceived from various tropical countries, and 12 of them., naiiiely, t aeraiimuo ",
Ga8i chiiaacrista, Cr01011 c(Ipit(IIuN, HOh aim a u taut ,uil H. H a Jl!tfoiiun, Ichithy otnethia sp. (bark), Jacqua Iu1cn j Loaiocarpit., capa.,,5-;tI L. moospennu8., Maclura pomrn R a, Pi.scidia- cemm n iu_, and Ptercru POa fU ith~l(lis, were put through an exhaustive chemical examination, without, however, the finding. of any particularly promising compound,,. Derris and cube continue to hold front rank as organic insecticidal materials, and the study of them wvas continued. Considerable progress was made in the attempt to, correlate the toxicity of particular samples with various chemical determinations- which it is lhoped, will lead to the possibility of evaluating such materials in the chemical laboratoi'y without recourse to laborious biological testing. A critical study of the methods of determining rotenone was also carried out. which unearthed c ertain errors in the previously used procedure and led to the development of a more, satisfactory method. Craeca viryiniana, or devil's shoestring, continued to be the only American plant in which rotenone has been found. During the year an exhaus-tive study was made of several hundred samples. Of these. samples. 3.30 were collected by the Bureau of Plant Indiustry in its survey of the uccurr( nce of this plant over the United States, and the results show that the best samples collC from Georgia, Florida, and Texas. Two samples were found that contained 1.8 percent of rotenone; many contained only traces or none at all.
Considerable attention was devoted to nicotine, including a search f'or in-soluble nicotine compounds. One promising new inaterial oif this class-- wai develop-ed. This product, called nicotine-peat, is the result of the comlbination of icotine with powdered pe,;at-. Some peats when usdin their natural state hold as mch as 9.9 percent of nicotine in relatively i'olub1le form,. and after siinp1l( acid treatment some others, can holdl as much as 13.7 percent. A sc ond lnmateria a solid soluble by-product of the other, known~ as nicotine humate. was developedt at the same time, and may find a place as a substiltte for the more volatile niicotine su11phate. It contains about 83 percent of iticotine.
The study of pyrethrum, as anl Insecticide was renewedl, aIId some important forward steps were made. A method wvas (Ieveih4ied for1 pre(parinlg one( ("f the two active principles. namely, pyrethrin II1. in a high tate ()C purity by a method mtuch niore -in1Ile tand much less drastic than lfl neosy us ed. Considera,-b!e progress ,,aIaso made toward a similar separation of pyrethrin I. As- a eul of these studies it will be po-sible, to test The toxicity of the two comp~ounds'. . Of the synthetic organiic chemlicals made inl the lbratory, only two (,-(-inpounds, namely, I hemiothiazine and pllen)tloxin, senm to merit par1lticlar attention. Pheno~thiazine, an organlic sullphutr compound, w-8ith the f~iil C JTILNS. was given a field trial aga.-inlst the( codling- moth inl tile summer1( 1,98'4. The crude, ma' erial then a vai!hIble c.1"1nn11ierciallv was onIly Qiu ( percent pure and~ very dark L Ilrd n h a e poorw resul i o ind r
pehasto attributed to these fats. A niew ntihod of prej ariii, t ih, jin'(itt W~ts(evlel by which it is, easy to pre1:1Ae at pure, 1tiht-coli l( pui. At the sugsio n andI uni(ler theI( _tuiLan(e of thew I oilo o)f 11 se 1t Id IN-(e~ ~-I; tions a lar-ge commercials conce(.(rni underto4l ~kpro luc't io of h11o Ii1 iai(1;hzine1( by the niew method, and lag batche s of exc-ellenit materia ecae a aa i o the bureau for testing._, ini thme 5! X() l!"'15. 1Many1 subst huh Ld deixa ieso phenothiazine were prepared-(, buit aMllprave les toxic- andA hience ()I little initerest. Effor-t was also, made to dlevelopk pyridliie deriva t ives, similar to the phienothiazime derivaivoes, but nothing' i, pomising, was- ohbta in ed. The. (d her compound t hat in preliminary tests <1huwNed 11mrked to)xicit y to codhiiiimz ilootlhi wvas phenothioxin. Metlimds of pr~eparing Wtili a erudie, o~ily matterilcnann







%A ANNUAL REP012:6 OF DEPAE.TMEN1 OF AGRICULTURE 1935

a large proportion ()f this e(wipound, and the pure substance itself, were Nvorked
()lit, I'lit 11() large batches Nvere ulade. 'I'll(, toxicity of this compound apparently disappears rather rapidly al't#,r applicati(ai to fi)liage, 1wi-haps because of vola I i I it y.
1"Und;1111ell Ill stildies (,f the ch.tracteristics of oil eniulsi-ms, to develop sp iflcations fi)l. the preparatil)ll 111(1 111''de of application of t1w hest possible insecticillal prep"11"Itioll 44 tilis 11:11111-o' have beell c(nitillued at tile lab ears it \%-:is fmilid possible to rec(,ver awl ineasure hilylily refined iiiineral-(iil dep)sit:.4, I'lit, tile lliethod is tedious, and it fail-- with ()ils; so attelilion \vis turned to lal)(initory metlimls, aii(l '111 S(Qlle 1[ W;is 1wilill possible
11) predict the ()il deposit ,- (ill chiyaiillwiniiiii by of' ( xperiiiients
iiiad(- viih p.traffined plates. Studies have also bevil iumle to fi.A otter in,- ecticid ll ill'ttel'i'lls which, \vllell add(41 lo oil ('11111kif)IIS, Nv()Uld dissolve in the oil 01;1- o., ;tIld, Cifliam.c. A6 ill-ecticill-il or ()vicidal effect, particular attention being directed to oil-.- ()Iuble conihinati0iis of iijc1)Iitw. Two j)ro)inisin,1, types of materials Nvere found, iianielv, a comidnation of' nicotine with I)eta-iiaplitht)l and the nicothie -salts of the halogonated fatty aulds.
At Mailhattan, Kans., a stu(IN- was begun of zeveral problein., (-(,!in(,ct(,d \vitli the, fumigation of flour mills and 11(mv prodw-ts. Deteriii:nations ()f the coni.,entration, Of hydrcwyanie acid gas ill typical ftlnlig, ,ti(lils were Iliade, all(l the
(if fillui-ating tile milling inwhinery i-Alier than the mill as a whole Avas (11einoistrated. 'I'lle impo rta lice of 111"lilit'lillill- a 11i"ll vacuuni ill
corlic-etion Nvilli N"Icullin funiiplallion (if fli)ur prodwts \vis denimistrated. T) ie
,-reat offset the load of flour has in ihsorhingr tho hydrocyanic acitli hence roilidriiig larger dosal,_,es than the size of the clitimber would ccna to indicate,

III connection with experiments eoiiducted in cooperntiim with tho llpuieau of 1'1 11lt 111(111 411'y to determine tho effe(,L of Nv;tslihig- oil the removal ()f re .;idlics oil Ziplilt's. nlillw roil,,- "Initl \S(-, w ere n'(111ired. 111,111y ill, replii,-ate to fuviii -h dat;i f(ir '1-;tjld V ()f TV() si-cial lllkl:es
( f tile vill-latioll to be CxIWCted allwil," the in I S'lillple \V(1;'k1 111:11le. 10')
individual oyplec, from an unwn,-1itil lo'. boing run it Wn liiii-wn. 1). C., w)d 100 .roups of' '2 apples from a Nv-iAled lot lwin- run if Wenatchoo. Wash. Tile f0i mer bit showc(l an extreme v.it-iation from 0.073 to 0.214 ir(,iind I menn of 0.1 10 i rain pf u pmid, and the latter lot a rinige fl' )lii 0.006 to 0.050 around a jii(,:m of 0.028.
--ilfle Nvork Nv:i,, 0one oil t1le (1( 1eT'Il1iM1tl0l1 Of r(ISM11 Of
1,10eltolle :111d l-!!(-(1til1v d('11()SIted bv --pnlvs cf lltlillill- derr1-;, cllhe. and val-iou-4 Ili(.()I im Illixture". '11j, red colol-illietric 10-A 1,()I* l'iltent)II(I l4l*(1VI()UslN* deVC1-ped I'l-ove", f.111.1v sllit;!ldc !'()I. follow ili _: tho 1t)-s of, (14'ri-is delw tll(. Iliet )title (. ,Illd :11<() 1'e dell rlllilw d
A sttid-v was iwide (if Ilie Icad :,,iid (- )iiioni 11 c1le'vill'y 0111;l(Tw,
and 7 tlio flcve 1()) Illit'llt of sati-l"Ict(WY 111(ltlWd,- of a n: 11'.
In the :]wll \Ze(l. the lead c('111ollt of till, clwwinLfrom 0,025 ti) 0.610 141, lill p ,I. p(IIII)II, 'illd Of Ille frwli Pr;lill per p 'llri'l. T he nr elli prove'l ill 'llp' It) lit- hit:1,or t1l;Ill
Xv',I ()n illo k l-ii t11:11 It ;Itl 11:1(1 heell hilt this llm y
jl lvf, lw '.li (1111, 0 ) flic ntlditim l;ll ( f w her
Iw w iillf, 4)f w l's 1111del-t;60111 ill 11111 of In of
:W ce -<()Y V 11 ,Ifcri:lls liscd to illiprove Hit. ,t:lhility (W (4 .1p11l'c;Iti0lI of ill-lwlirilkt Str(- 4 Ilid upm l Ille stlldv 41t" Nvottill- Illd
,Nt t1w P:Irk, M d., -tntiw l n S11111v (r till, -lflpllnlcd lih-'l-wr
NvIlich have v clillie ilih) i)l'q 1111 i :lids ill tho
()f :pr:lv fr(Oll fl*ll'it, Nva, lllldcrt:,J -ell, .11)(1 it NN-.Is fouled th'it, w herens
I tw v d,; ])(it (1mvii im illedialet v ill :wid '(1111tions as Ilio d(), they (if, 11 vdr(d vsi .111d 11(.11ce shwild he frv, Illy prep-ired. :kt
1). C., I I'llY study W, N\01ing :Ill(] spve ldill;7 1)(lWel" Wns bcglln,
111:11,111Z W-41 (d, l1W;l1-1l1,Cllwnts of sliffn(v Icr-i(lil .111d illiel.f.wint wilsiml :1 poll-olcilill I)il. Detailed stlldic., \V('I'e lWldo of sonp Solutions.
fl.-Ill NOlich Ille rv',It depolidellce id, wettiii,_, pmver on ctincenti-Mimi mil on 1114' J';11111 1)t" 0 ) f:ltl v w id i- o;I.,.4ily Sven. N il Ill, C(Ill] 11101,01:11 \vettilu-l
1well stildw(l, alld Iliv cl lilll,- f()I- "4ollo of thell) sh(M*11 tq) IK,
1.\t 1*;I lit. I I I t he '11 I-.- v 4 ) f t li is w (Irk 1 \v4 ) #111"I I i t a t i ve Till 1114 )lk ( ) I' v i slin I I y ( I ( I w I I r: I I I I I I I I ( 1 I ( r; I ( I i 11'k, rv I I ( ( , I II NvOll I I I)g a 11 ( I I 11-c-111 in If I )( W (1 1, N\ ON de-






BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 65

veloped, depending on the displacement, by the solution being studied, of a film of oil spread on a glass plate or a celluloid surface, respectively.
The study of the relative toxicity of insecticidal materials to goldliah. which has as its object the discovery of possible relationships between twx'icity and chemical constitution upon which future synthetic work cain he based(, ws continued throughout the year. The principal experimental study invoived the determination of the relationship between the optically active and optically inactive isomers of dihydrodeguelin. It was found that the opl ically active compound is approximately twice as toxic a s the inactive compound. This fact has an important bearing on the question of the toxicity of derris.-, cube, and other rotenone-bearing roots, for it is now believed that the deguelin they contain is optically active, and hence it may be appreciably more toxic than the inactive variety on which all toxicological resuits have been based so far.
A rather extensive investigation of calcium arsenate was undertaken. The dependence of the insecticidal and phytocidal properties of calcium arsenate on its mode of preparation and finished chemical constitution is not well understood. The work during the year confirmed the existence of a previously suggested definite basic arsenate which can be called tetracalcium arsenate. A phase-rule study of the whole system (lime, arsenic acid, and water) was also started in the hope that the higher temperature adopted, 62' C. (143.50 F.), will result in attainment of equilibrium, a goal that was not reached in a similar study conducted several years ago at 350 C. (95 F.).
A few examples of the miscellaneous analytical and investigational work done to aid in various activities of the Bureau indicate the scope or volume of these activities. One hundred and ten samples of miscellaneous insecticidal materials, such as calcium arsenate. spray oils, and fluorine compounds, were analyzed to check on their suitability for experimental use: 70 samples of derris, cube, and other rotenone-containing powders were examined: numerous chemical reagents were tested for arsenic for the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, etc. Analyses were made of 380 samples of pine wood to which insecticidal materials had been applied. Of these samples, 19' were from trees injected with sodium arsenite, 30 from trees receiving copper sul hate, 96 from trees to which mercuric chloride had been applied, and 49 from trees that received sodium fluoride. These determinations required the development of special methods of analysis, since the resins in the wood interfered with the application of the methods ordinarily used for insecticidal elements in organic materials.
A search was made through the 737.500 United States patents issued during the 17-year period from 1917 to 1933,. inclusive, and 47 mimeographed lists containing the numbers and brief abstracts of those relating to insect-destroying devices, insecticide sprayers and dusters, fruit washers, and washing procedures, etc., were issued.

TRANSIT INSPECTION
Transit inspection was inaugurated at a few strategic railway terminals in 1920 for the specific purpose of enforcing the white pine blister rust quarantine in effect at that time. The value of checking mail, express. and freight shipments of restricted plants in interstate movement, and turning back those moving to uninfected regions. was immediately recognized, and the work has been expanded from year to year to cover other railway centers and to include enforcement of all Federal domestic plant quarantines. The effectiveness of such inspection is shown by the gradual reduction in the percentage of violations found. There were 11.9 violations per 1.000 shipments inspected in 1920 in the enforcement of 1 quarantine, and only 0.6 violation per 1,000 shipments inspected in 1934 in the enforcement of 11 quarantines
Of special interest in the work of the fiscal year 19835 was the findin of 50 live Japanese beetles at Chicago on July 11 and 12 in a refrigerator car of beans arriving from New Jersey. The ear had been partially unliaded. nwl careful inspection was immediately made of all hampers available at eomnmission-merchant houses. Intensive inspection of produce arriving from ithe infested areas was continued lthrouzhout the summnier by ins)ectors of the .Japanese b-etle and transit inspection projects. find S liv, bo,,tles anl 157 dead ones were taken from 97 of the .14 cars inspected during the ,oson. han cars contained the largest number of beetles. Railway :,rneie, vre, rm,,ired to fumigate or thoroughly clean such infested cars under the sulervisiOnn of an inspector.
24119-35--5







66 ANN-T-AT, (q 1935

I C I If ru sNt iii i (,,.i it I I %\,;I- 1-4,111111 1) ,, N\" i
1 S I i t i I ) i I I I ) I i I I -, S I I i I q 1v (I
1 t z (" 1 N'r I Q4 a I t to I 10 "' s i I i I Q i I 11) 1 s i i i : c r (m.riml 10111 1" qls under qualviltilo'.

:i< fit Ike
T j I I

I I I r t I I 114
r I I I t i I I
I T' 1 1 s I i I I NN 1 .0 1 1 11 1 1 I f I t I I I \v S I I I I j I f 'i I t
a no 1 1,11 ( q I t S ;111, n < i 0 1 1 V W n q p q I a n t
op-i(Atuml amn; ;mj totally witkor Wspecliwi hei,:m -e 411' the
()I' fim(l,,4 :ippr()priated for this projo(-tA(-tivo c(loperation i ; renttlvre(l hy 40' Ill" ill WhiCh 11-IllNit
ilm i conducted. The Stan, ill lhf, ) I.(.
-ilip-inted cidl:0)(mitors of the Dep:1111114 11t. The a(14,4111"in, cIll'( tri-ellient (if Ferloral pl:tnt quarantine i -z vital to 4tllle 111,41t0climl :111d Such
cmTmathm should he extended to other IvW4 nov m-Aml omly by Puleral inspector In such c(wpul-Aive work. the timing: inspnj"rs report no the
State authorities shipupaits; of nursmy snyl; mw-in r withmit St.ito niin ory in jje(.Jion certij ic ites or Nvith hivalid or eNpiccd cei-Tific.ite-4. :ililiioi -,lt such ,Oiipmonts are nt)t interrepte(T .11A 1-of-111.110(l he(.;Illse tof the ahsellc(l (4 <1 tllti)l* '
au I I iority. As the (Areci resiflt (of' 4evei,:tl yc.ir< of ON xv, A, a (,Qoinued
O(Wrense is not"I in I I.- e number Of' jj()j)*jqjjnVd Sjliljnj(qljS llyn-ino 1111%oUW11
traii Ili tables 20 and 21 it will be noted that kring the tknal Innir 1911 494,39.5 shipments, were inspentol for (junranlinp ("mqAianov m 25 judnts wul that 1.749 were found movinz in apparent violation of Votltral (Iiiirmitino remilaI ions. The ttbles include n(,t only stations NN-1wre VP(101-al iTl JWCTioll 111.011tained, but :04) statim4 Nvo)rkoll c()oponitivoly with the State -z, m(l with other projects of Ole BiTT-(,au. Year-roill](1 inspection, "vi I I I I N11-1 ime 1" )1,(v Was
carried on only at 11oston, -New york. Phil,114,1111lia. and
WNwhington. 1). 0 Insp(miom durim: nm pry-shql; shippinL: NV a IN
iimint-aine(] at Kansas (Ity, 0mahn, St. Piul, Awlwol. Orw Sent'W and
SIVAnne. The Pittsburgh work Oid not be, rjn until 'May 1. Other plint in
the tahle represent either part-time cooperative in-pociiom or jdn(v Nvhert, only a few days' \N,(-)i-k Nvas done to detei-inine the statti:- ol' a city a trnnsitinspection point.

T.%iti.F 20.-Summary of shipownts of 2mrscry mlol 0/1"I. and plant
produds inNp(wqcd in transit during the lycal ycar 190

station ShIPTIlentS Carlwid,; st,,ition ship-Tients Carloatis

A-ri mbrr A'n mber i io" Or Poonor
A flan t a ------------------ 4, 2 2S ------------ 'New York-------.- 13 5 4
110.9toll ------------------- -12, P."5 --------- 011101A arld Council
C I I i (.:I [zo ------------------ 102, 4 1 0 2RR I t h i Iffs - : 3, 424
Cinririnqti --------------- 5 7 ----------- P1 I i 1: 1 ( Ivi 1) 11 i a ------------ St,9 73
C I v v 4 I i n 41 ---------------- 10, .) ,, 1 47 Pif t him h ----------- 2 9 I
D !t1h,; -------------------- 49 1 ----------- 1'()rtlim il, or(,t: ----------- 22. 72 1 27
Detroit- .. --------- 10,:,12 : S3 ST. Loui ;- : .i I .
Fort W orth -------------- lot St. Ptillhuld 37. 17 .........
IndoA11:11)(di --------------- 14, j! V2 S('al 110 P". :1,2 ------------- .17,4s7 '267. OS S pol'Ime ------ ...... I 192
Kmn n Coy ----------- St 30 Wiwhinntom ------------ 14016 1
M emlod; ............... IV)2 --Fol A ..............
N1 0 wau k", Soo ......... VA 066
..........
I WIVI,01 iTiformatfon.
) ( )( t 11(- khove shipmvjlt! ',1)7,:1 to \ cri, cim i :nctl by pucM I)ost: cNprvs : iml 1! !rci;ht .







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 67

TABLE 21.--Shipmcnts of nursery stock and other articles inl crept d in violation
of Federal plant quarantines at transit-intpection points, fiscal year 193,5

Shipments intercepted in apparent violation of quarantineStation
No. 38 No. 45 No. 48 No. 52 1No. 53 No. 62 No. 63 No. 64 No.71 Total

Number Number NumberlNumber Nutuber Number _Vurtuber
Atlanta ----------- N---er ------r -----I----------------- unber7
Boston -------------------- 154 102 3 1 2----------------- 262
Chicago ----------- 14 41 200 2 6 40 14 1 318
Cincinnati ------------------------- 2------------------------ -------- --------------- 2
Cleveland ----------------- 2 3 ....... ...... 5
Detroi --------------------- 11 10 ------------------------ ------------21
Indianapolis ------- -------- 1 -------- ..------- ..------- ..---- ........... .
Jacksonville --------------- 1 68 -------- 1 3 -------- -------- -------- 73
Kansas City ------------ -1 22 -------- 1 27 2 11 64
New York ----- 161 349 20 17 9 ------ 1 557
Omaha and Council Bluffs ...------ 2 22 ---------------- 8 11 ----------------- 53
Philadelphia- --------------31 253 -------- --------- 34 7-------- --------- 32-5
Pittsburgh 1---- IS---- 3 -------- -------- -----------1-------- -----------85
Portland, Oreg --- -------- --------------------------------2 46
St. Louis ----------------------------------- --St. Paul and Min- I
neapolis --------- 2 4 6 9 1 22
Seattle ------------ 12 -------- 1 --. 5- 3 9 -------30
Seoa e ---- --------- 1------------ ------ --------4----5
Spokane--------- ----1 4-------Washington ----------------------- 2 3 1 ---------- 6
Total -------- 30 405 1,126 2 36 154 73 18 1 2 1,845

I Quarantine No. 38 relates to black stem rust; No. 45, to the gypsy moth and brown-tail moth; No. 48, to the Japanese beetle; No. 52, to the pink bollworm; No. 53, to the satin moth; No. 62, to narcissus pests; No. 63, to the white pine blister rust; No. 64, to the Mexican fruit worm; and No. 71, to the Dutch elm disease.
2 The total number of violations represents 1,749 shipments, of which 82 were in violation of 2 quarantines, and 7 were in violation of 3 quarantines.

In addition to the figures shown in the table of violations, trunsit iisi~ectolls intercepted 100 shipments moving intrastate in apparent violation of State quarantines relating to pests covered also by Federal quarantine. Of these interceptions 4 were made at Boston. 1 at Detroit, 53 at New York. 13 at Philadelphia, 28 at Pittsburgh, and 1 at Washington.

TERMINAL INSPECTION OF MAIL SHIPMENTS

Terminal inspection is now maintained in the District of Columbia, in the States of Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana. Oklahoma. Oregon. Utah, and Washington. and in the Territories of Hawaii and Puerto Rico. No change has been reported during the year in the inspection points or in the list of plants and plant products subject to terminal inspection.

CONVICTIONS AND PENALTIES IMPOSED FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE PLANT QUARANTINE ACT

The following convictions and penalties imposed for violations of the Ilant Quarantine Act were reported to the Bureau during the year:
European corn borer quarantine (domestic) : One conviction. with fi'.e of $100.
Gypsy moth and brown-tail moth quarantine: Two convicti,, n- with f1,s aggregating $50.
Japanese beetle quarantine: Six convictions, with fine- az-retatin ,110.
Quarantines affecting Mexican plant products: Fines aggreatin, 452 were
imposed by customs offi ials on the Mexican borders "ii 2t lrs n cau.)t
attempting to smuggle in from Mexico prohibited plants an( p'ai4 t ',uts.
Quarantines affecting Canadian plant products: Fines ," .. i.. 10 wcrt
imposed by customs officials on the (anadian bhorer against twu prscn-; cliight attempting to smuggle in from Canada prohibited plinis.







6S AN N- ()1 It ,1 .t~ EA I M\ F:N f 14 ~iI[ 'I .\61 UI'% E, 193'15

FORE I)1:GN PLANT QUARANTi N ES







1I~te~4II r I a I l I I'VxiItdi I I\ e ~ d I~rt ti lt LIeIL
vli I Ii I-d I, SCt'ai 'iii (I Iv;L1111-t I- II ( i i, acjr i l coial trta N t




'Illo tl'u- :a i4)V& ft~rllv t qji a iia* ill( .'i ta2l g (crt Slillt a nd4'1 planI~t'



} roa 1115ls re(st rictai d- ;to ( enltry, anld arIe S lhject toilet :11ana, if icsay
Ii.~~jnfakt 1,111,11le j ,1p-41 Of e excluding plia dieaes m inse tct Ptc Ts.
Ama 1 rg t i et ia a 14 alt 1 1 ii, al ;ln prIu t ar II II'C' SI a i k j t5 ultst
wate 4 (Il fllti i (bag%'gin~g) a imd('o to ba~: s': oim It ags fro~m Erlw could ri( .s (prohibited c Iii ry f Jan:. 1, 1 3 : ,9nd certain l);tokin,_ nateri.l- A rweord is gie )f theo imporltation of the prI'(l1>t' ji li' i-ttd by ini'~pect(tJ's of the, Bureau andl, if it(,(s ry treaited 'ulaler their -lrv'in

IPORTATIONS OF NURSERY STOCK, PLANTS, BULBS, AND SEEDS

The11 jiijiortnt ionls recorded in talules 22 to 24 were, ontered, undelr permit, sub1ed toi njpee1 of tand treldtliiiiit, whnnees\iy ndrrguaion3o
(2urai~ iieNo. 37.

TA\IJuF 22.- ,,raiul, Of fruit mn~1 wit cutlings rind xf'iol. f 1114 of -osI, ttscks
undr u~~i~n4.Q uraonlinec No. 437, bY, cqitinti of or?!Ii) fi 1 IIli I/ ar l

~fgrsinlica~e actual number of jrpgtn ri~


Kind of maeil Azores Bel- g11r1- ada- rr-mat tFrarnce e, I



A p~ricot -- -- - -- - - 42 - - -- - --
A v o c a, - --- -- - - - - - -- - - - - -
('h rry. 42 1 4 - - -- - -
Fig---, ------------- ------ ---- 1-2
--------....------------ 30--- 11 --164 ------------------------ - - - - - - - - - - 2 7 I - -. . -
Pe r -. r -2 --- --- -- -- -- -
- - - - - -
1 1s 1nc k 6 o- - - - - - - - - - --2-
Told--------- ------- --------2PI( C~3 ,002
- - -t- -








BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY ANID PLANT QUAIANTINE 69


TABLE 22.-Imporftatim of fruit n Dut ('111d I8 1 010, C. i'lil l


Union Tot:11
of SoHuiv Itl vitt
Kind of material Hon- Hun- Italy Nether- Poland Pent VIt Soduras gary lands lnd cialist
Rlepub- 1935 1931
lies


Cuttings and scions:
Apple -------- ------------------------------ 1,400 ---------------- 2, 19 565
Apricot ---------- ------ ------ ------------ ---------- 64 106 63
Avocado ---------- 41 ------ ------ ------------- ----- -------- 41 141
Cherry --- ----- -- ---- 875 ---------------- 971 109
Fig --------------- 6 -------- -------- -- 15 234
Grape ---------- 206- 52 ------------ -------- -------- 75 21 88,051
Nut.------------- ----------- ------164 1,003
Peach ------------------ --------- ------------ 5
Pear ----------- ----- ---- ------------ 550 -------- -------- 633 254
Pineapple ---------- ------ ------ ------------ -------- ------- -------- 22,)006 30
Plum ------------ ------ ------ 6 ------------ 450 ------ -------- 1,159 160
Spondias --------- ------ ------ ---- --------1---------------------- 16
Punei------------ ------ ------ ------------- -------- -------- -------- -----1
Rose stocks ---------- ------------------5,952,825 -23,500 -------- 6,600,325 6,536,150

Total-------. 41 206 69 5,952,825 3,275 23,500 139 6,62S,895 6,626,787


TABLE 23.-Importation of bulbs under regulation 3, quarantine no. 37, by
country of origin, fiscal year 1935


Kind of bulbs Ber- Canada China Czecho- Eng- France Germany Greece India Ireland
muda 3lovakia land


Number Number umber Numrber Nu rber r number XtmbeT Nuibr number u iber
Chionodoxa --- --------- 24 -------- -------- 6
Convallaria ---- -------- 62 --------------------------------12,194,980 -------- ------------Crocus -------- -------- 162 -------- -------- 3,940 -.-Eranthis ---- -------- -------- -------- -------- 200 ..-. -Fritillaria ----- -------- 1 -------- ---------200 ..
Galanthus --------------------------------7,567 12 ---------------- 150
Hyacinth ------4,500 915 -------- --------- 12 346,350 -------------------------------Ixia ----------- ---- 6
Lily ---------235,975 1,447 3,070 72 3,482 436,086 6 99 6,294 36
Muscari ------- -------- ------- ------- --------512 27 -Narcissus --------------------- 17,880 -Scilla ------ -------- -------- -------- -------- 1,960
Tulip ---------- -------- 959 -------- -------- 421 138,950 -Total-. -- 240,475 3,576 20,950 72 18,300 921, 386 12,195,025 99 6,294 156


Union
1nion of
Kind of bulbs Italy Japan Mheux- ehe s cot- Swr- Sof So it Total
na land ifriea ist Hepublics


!Vu in- um- Nu i- Niun- NumNumber Kumber ber ber Number ber br ber Number .: War
Chionodoxa ----- ------- ------------ ------ ------ 482,429 ------ ------ ------ --------- 45
Convallaria ------ ------- ------------ ------ ------ 34. 9 ------- --------------------12 27
Crocus ---------- ---- ------------ ------ ------ 9,07,353- ------500 ------ --------. 9, 15
Eranthis -------- ------ ------------ ------ ------ 301, 774 ------ ------ ------ -------- :,,7
Fritillaria ------- --------- ------------ -- 364, 209 ------ ------ ------;-----1, 110
Galanthus ------- --- --- ------------ ------ ------ 62, 94 9 .. 1I,. 3:32
Hyacinth- ------25, 000 ------------------ ------ 12, 990, 104 ------13, :---- -1
Ixia -------------- --------------------- 330, 775 ------ ------ 52 330 i
Lily ------------ 2, 046 17, 514, 523 363 2 -\7, 329 ------ ------ 6, 20
Museari ------- -----------. 1,147, 126 1,111 5
Narcissus ------ ------- ------------ ------ ------17
Scilla --- 1, 41-2, 476 12 1,000 1, hsa.44s
Tulip I-41,-1- .- 71-0-0--1-- 7 1 7,71 7102,, 42

Total ------ 27, ) 17, 556, 372 363 2 iN, 411, 711 21 500 52 17, S09 129, 420, 24;


I Narcissus iniportations under regulate ion 3 of (uarantine n 37 are linite I to importdion- of the Chinese sacred lily (INarcisus tazeZtta var. orietliis, the en' ry of which is permitted into the I Hawaiian Islands for local use and distribution in th0e i'lhnds only.








70 lN NUAI i, !EIP( 'IS OF J)EPA1TMEINT OF A(;rICUTURE, 193,)


TAI. _4.-Inportatin of seeds ?titdvr rcgulvitiiow o. (I)uaIrantine No. 37, by
(Touitril of oriyin, fiscal Year 1935

Nut OrnaCountry A pple AiriC(t Bananai (herry Elm and menl
I palm and tree


'ound ounds PoundS Pounds Pound Pound Pounds A F ron 1i a.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 4
A---r -i .................... ... ... .. ... .. .. .. .. 14,76 1 17
A u ria .. .. .. .. ., ;7 .33 43,59

B I L- n ( )n I2 ... ... .......... .... ... .... .... ... ... ...... ..... .B olivia ---. .. .. 15 ......
B o rn e o 2.. . . . . . . . .. . .... . . ... . . . . . . . . .- - - --. .. . . .. . .2 - -
B r a 7 il -.-.-.-.-.-.-. -. .- .- .- .-- - - - - - - - .-.-- - - -.-.-- - -.-.-.-- - -.- ..-- 3
B r- --i-h- --ia n a .. . . .. .. . .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. .-.. .. . . .. . ...-8
Brit-h on-ur-s it -C an il Zo n e .-.----------------------. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 3
Ceylh- -------- 2
China-- ------------------------- ----------------I-----------------440 1,175 1, 114
Colombia--------------------------------------------- ---- ------- -------(Cllba --------------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 1 74---C'zechoslovakia ............................. -51- ....... ....... ....... ......-----5-Iennmrk-------------------------------------------------------... 2-................---918
I)ominia-------- -------------------------------- .---------------------------- 11
Dthia --------------------------------51 -------- ------- ------- --------3-------Ecuador----------------------------------------- --------------------90
England- ------------------------------------ .----.-.---------------------- I5
France ... ... ....---------------------------------10,7 . ------1,100 10----- 17,-2-7-8
e -rmany .....--------------------------------------------------310---------- --------1,S2
(; r eece--- ----.------------------------------------- ---- -------------3--------------.1

(ien'a-------------------------------------- -------- -------- ----------------- -------- -- I
ltionl-urs ..--------------------------- --------------- --------I-----------------11 1
1ndia ---------------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -----itd------------------------------------ ---J--- -------- --------------------------------42C
-------------------- ------------ ------------- -------- ------- ----j a ....................------------------ ------------------------ 5 -- A, X

ri:~ SP -- ---------- --------------------- ------- ------- ------- ------ --- I--- ---------nhdi~ -------------------------- ------- ------ -------- --- ---- ------- 1
---------- -------- ------- -------- 1 ----p\helm'------------------ ----I-I--------------- ------ ------- -------- --------2
.. ..1 3



Nctrxi Iiv---------------------------------- --- ------- ------- --- --- ------ -------- ------- 1


Ck -- - - -- - -------: --- --- : 71--Nor,.% ~~~--------------------------------- ------- -------- -------- ----- --\cntaie i----------------- ---- -- --- 5- 0
t ir 1. i.. . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 7- 3
M a n c u rial .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . ----- -. 2 . 5l













nent'i -1:. il t~ l :I l *k t' o If~ela e u Ie & Ira t! T~ rra Ia ~ u Tr I I Iurtv
R~oAI"~I tiiol- of rn i wii id and t ree d cron I 'an Zo, I1 taIm IaIL.udnt aa,.0
M e 'i'o .. . ... ...... ....f . ..I I l ... .. ... 270 ")1 an.. 1i, r . . . .. ir e a nd
f j i . . . . ..w k .. I. oIf .' w I. .o r. F iji 1
Ftl J ,ii em JI a, N era, Ind S.. . . .oll, w:..t v ". in,.l ,a nd 1 te lit.. il m
of fl thtA A.







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 71


TABLE 24.-Iniportatioa of ,wds under regulation 3, Quarantine No. 37, by esountry of griffin, fiscal year 1935-Continueil


Country Peach Pear Persim- Plum Quince Rose Miscel- Total
mon laneous

Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Argentina ------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 4
Australia ------------------ ------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 14,778
-- ---- -ii- 104 5 -------- 45,838
Austria -------------------- 6 21 -------- 11
Bahama Islands ------------------ -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 4
Barbados ------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 2 2
Belgian Congo -------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 2
Bolivia --------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 15
Borneo --------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 2
Brazil ----------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 184
British Guiana ------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 8
British Honduras ----------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 100 106
Canada --------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 8 -------- 7,989
CanalZone ----------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 1 13
Ceylon --------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 2
China ---------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 2,729
Colombia ------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 64
Cuba ----------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 1 23
Czechoslovakia ------------------- -------- 94 -------- -------- -------- 2 -------- 25,745
Denmark ------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 1 -------- 921
Dominica ------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 1
Dutch Guiana -------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 3
Ecuador -------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 3 93
England -------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- I -------- 6
France ---------------------------- -------- 140 -------- 16 -------- -------- -------- 29,391
Germany ------------------------- -------- -------- -------- 100 -------- -------- -------- 1,792
Greece ---------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- I
Guam ---------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 3
Guatemala ----------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 3
Honduras ------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 12
India ----------------------------- 2 -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 2 21
Italy ------------------------------ -- ----- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 54,476
Jamaica --------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 4
Japan ----------------------------- 60 955 37 -------- -------- 506 -------- 7,506
Java ------------------------------ -------- -------- -------- -------- ___- -- -------- -------- 20
Madagascar ----------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- ----- -------- -------- I
Malay States --------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 1
Manchuria ----------------------- 20 1 -------- -------- -------- 2 -------- 439
Mexico --------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 10 30
Netherlands ---------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 52
New Zealand --------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 3
Norway -------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- I
Philippine Islands ---------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 14
Scotland -------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- so
Seychelles Islands ----------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 75
Spain ----------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 4
Straits Settlements --------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 14
Tahiti ---------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 4
Trinidad ------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 221
Uganda --------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 1
Union of South Africa ------------ I -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 8
Uruguay -------------------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 1
Venezuela ------------------------ -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- 9
Total ----------------------- 89 1,403 37 220 11 525 119 192,689







0 *
12 A N ', I L 1: 1, 1 -( 1, 1:- 1) 1. I I l FN I () I' A 4, 1 I C I 'F 1" F, 1 9 :;.-,

A nddh hm In flip WWI, ri- rdi-I in 10 M ilrp:v ori i Ili rT 11' 1 1 rill nj, I I h IV ) n i I I q ll I ; ( f Ill is v -r -I i.1 I i I I III! !f I r I iI I I I I I i I I j I ill-I *-''I i4iii,
WK YK I Im"nik 4 twOm :I A r: P -w-. W WA. It i X02111 "IlilwK. w-ri, 011Ii, wi A mini r14 10P n I a :11111Pq W-111 ( .1 11 h r
in qM "I Ind h I Y I A I I (c frol I I I )pI I I,.: I r -_ Fr: ipi., Gornmr,; I I viwiry, :if" I Ja In Ili.
Ill :1,1(lif i''ll to th e I 111!vill-, I !: e lr
f r, q H I 10 I I I VI I i I I P A I 1 1! 1 1 1: 1 ; !i !, i- it m I i f I j 1 :1 ;j 1 j i!4, N -. 3 7 i
C (llii il)O .111 it I 'llit (.([ ,-;I I I p < 11 Z. I rpf- ,ill, I 1-11 1 ;Irld i IV I (P
Inw, j K I'll IMU" I K ills, ::lid of K r 11111 twin 1q.
T( nulli( rizo Ihe inipori:i1i(,Il of IN, lwwrinl SAW IRTfilits Nw"; issuill, as (iniqui rpd will !I AG pwrink s jqm- I durdiv i 'A, W-N I A twr 11011.
hip rp-0 of (otry iindpr slwAN IWII&tS i-SU(41 undcr IV lmnishai- of rpoubi I ho 14 of Quamw inio -Ni). :17 for Ilip I 0171P Ka tit lOwIdUl: I lip in 1111T r" S1111plied Nvith new vnriviips Nnd news-mo- projawitipy -wAdc PC by py-rhilental. edwatilwil, or wimiliBe 1jurpisis, P furidshiql W wildt- 25.

T_%iiri-: 25.-Spil(WI-Imnaff hopoilatAn, jKli? par WA, with ( Pvfibfwd total I(w fiscal Yc"rx 1920 Q


Fowl ye ir iss Tollwal for flnol ynir ,, I _N)-35


Permits issued Inaport a ions under Perinits k ue I
Mass of PlInts


Num- Qunntity N urn I Qu irithy Num. &I m i A y Num- wnniky I
ber nuthoirized her I WiToned her wKwints! Or :14MMM

Daldia .............. 204 7,000 173 C 749 L 163 69, 437 09S W, 0111
crladliolll- ----------- 156 276, 1, 7 145 192, 175 2, 217 .5 1. 1 Q 916 L 91 A 21 tul 153
Iris, loiPou< -------- 64 1, il 1, 410 41 Ili--, 13 1, f 41 6, 113. 7 ,,, I 1 4:1 i 411, ,22. (130
Iris, 1.dioinatous____ 1 ,): i -,, SDI 52 1 371 IjA2 :0 M I, >0 1 01 162. 3103
Nnrcisw ........... 71o 2 637. 632 w 2 00 1, 037 1,553 164, (174 1 3! 1 SO. 3 ,6, 040
Ore! i i (I -------------- 2,- 0 21, 90 7 22 1 11 411 Z 61) 2 1, 1 4 2. SHI 2 12. 216,
penn --------------- 43 2, C, 3 M I 697 1,310 L 112, Of I joil (04, 611
Row ................ 1 w3 41 nxii 95 SAM 1,62, Sit 7D, 4 447 qqj N
Fruit t t weA and
smill fruits)__ 42 joN3 33 1,11019 301 3A 153
11"hMv"n ........ 211 3t(05 111 2j 72, 2,,),,, 1, ,2 1, 1,,N 1 4 2"i 3A)
M WHarienuo bcdbs,
rot t v I c ---------- 2.-):3 1 13, 35 222 00 7 2, 341 H 231,). 4 l 2: ( 10 7 5 27: 1
.) 7 27 Ok i I I -, 6 lot 90 :4 322 4. 401. W 3 77 It Ilk 62S
,rot at ......... 3 L 707 1214 3 1, 519 3 Z V2 & G 14 7 OW I I A I A, 251 1 1. 605

QU LWAy refers to ninuber of pqrWating unii, as plirlt I)iills. corin ttilwr ind
otlicr iii oiri ils.
2 'I'lVe di fTerence bot% een the number of nar6ssus I&I o i njNM&I and those !in t horiieil rl.ay Ie t,\ I'Limed by the Net Umt soniv of t hc 1wrinit s under w hich t I ie w I ul I :, were imported were issued dur:n,: the previous Ord year.
3 'I'he d1wriLy between lid; Ocure nivi the nclu 11 it".d of the t-flunin My"M is W AM to I he f "1 1 Kilt a single pArinit umpixithorizu the entry of nwethin I uUMphints niwl under each classI wriun the par 1=7 spwial 1wrnill; wim, iwww"l Niol""Ohin I he entry & An) 1596 jAwnts, Willis, mot other inwwrAq, .\ iiitil (if 2,621,G91
w c.. Nvi-ro illill(WIcd, c(iiiiiiared \\I'll 61;: .21G in I! 1:11. lilcrit'n-o"I
i Jill tiolls, is c''111parcd w ith thoiso in 11l:'4, ire Iw icil ill .111 T l I e
is ill ifilporl;i1ions ()I' loillliili iri,: l1w ro 1.0k).",,.520 l1w re
Iris WITS iffol"I"M ill INS 111:111 ill INA In YQ5 111411-p ,Jlpi'i:il jWrIllil '- N\ (TO
:11111 1111, 111111111pl, til, liernlit 11101cl- \Nliwh i fill,, 111:11 Voll< NN01-0 111A,10 WHS
th:111 'hirilIL-, nily provioul- p:lr Q 11:1! ;lilt in,, N t'. "'T
III]" p P c I,(,p Ill III lilt, \\ 11- :11111111ri/k" I c litry ll 111:1ill
;I I-1-:1 ]:,-pH1pnl \\i1 l Ilw nlid P ost l1lilict,
N lw rplp 1,1;1 lit ifill'orl I: iolls 1!1 ly 1w 111:111t, ll Iw [ il, T ho d i-I rihill i('Il tif iln] 1 I]' I I I j 1 111, (it' 1) 1)(11 111 i 1 111:1 It, I, i; I I h y S 1 :11 i, -Ill '\\ 11 ill In h Ip :26 .







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 73


T-kBLE 26.-Distribution, by States, showing plants, bulbs, and other Materials,
of speefal-peiinit nwterial iinported during the fiscal Year 1935


State or Territory Dahlia Gladiolus Irisbulb- Iris, rhi- Narcissus Orchid Peony
ous zomatous

Number Number Number Number Number Number Number
California --------------------- 119 391 100,024 414 509 3,836 1,151
Colorado ---------------------- ---------- 10,931 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------Connecticut ------------------- 33 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 400 38
Delaware ---------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 108 ---------District of Columbia ---------- ---------- 300 ---------- ---------- 27 10 ---------Florida ------------------------ 10 3 50,013 2 14 2,199 ---------Hawaii ------------------------ 9 64 ---------- ---------- 48 1,088 ---------Idaho ------------------------- ---------- 59 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------Illinois ------------------------ 510 31,908 ---------- 38 ---------- ---------- 16
Indiana ----------------------- 169 12,807 ---------- 7 ---------- ---------- ---------Iowa -------------------------- ---------- 1,003 ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------Kentucky --------------------- ---------- 655 ---------- ---------- ---------- 2 ---------Louisiana --------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 28 ---------Maryland --------------------- 50 682 50,000 ---------- 74,518 39 ---------Massachusetts ---------------- 424 14,091 ---------- 19 ---------- 634 12
Michigan --------------------- 34 15,784 2,535 ---------- 612 ---------- 34
Minnesota -------------------- 151 8,117 ---------- 519 ---------- ---------- ---------Missouri ---------------------- ---------- 36 ---------- ---------- ---------- 27 ---------New Hampshire -------------- ---------- 6,000 ---------- 7 ---------- 39 ---------New Jersey ------------------ 1,098 5,220 ---------- 145 ---------- 2,204 9
New York -------------------- 951 9,422 256,865 1,009 521,489 429 81
North Carolina ---------------- ---------- 5,()00 106,000 12 66,447 ---------- ---------North Dakota ----------------- ---------- 29,513 ---------- 70 ---------- ---------- ---------Ohio -------------------------- 361 2,226 4,000 12 3,998 133 19
Oregon ------------------------ 330 27,422 25 96 46,682 23 ---------Pennsylvania ----------------- 146 ---------- ---------- ---------- 101 1,641 19
Puerto Rico ------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 432 ---------Rhode Island ----------------- 80 912 ---------- ---------- 54,525 ---------- 14
South Dakota ----------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------- W1 ---------- ---------- 131
Tennessee --------------------- ---------- ---------- 600 260 ---------- ---------Texas ------------------------- ---------- ---------- 50,000 ---------- ---------- 19 ---------Utah -------------------------- ---------- 604 ---------- --------------------- ---------- ---------Vermont ---------------------- ---------- 5,957 ---------- ---------- j ---------- 47 ---------Virginia ----------------------- 65 ---------- ---------- -------- 68,457 2 10
Washington ------------------- 156 84 548,481 62,296 5 159
West Virginia ----------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------- 54 ---------- ---------Wisconsin --------------------- 53 2,984 ---------- ---------- ---------- 90 4
Total -------------------- 4,749 192,175 1, 1658,543 2,371 900,037 13,435 1,697

MiscelHerba laneous OrnaState or Territory Rose Fruit ceous- bulbs, mental Total
roots,
etc.


Number -Number Number Number Number Number
Alabama --------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 100 100
Arizona ---------------------------------- ---------- ---------- 4 62 532 598
Arkansas --------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 8 ---------- 8
California -------------------------------- 185 ---------- 307 19,417 12,421 138,774
Colorado --------------------------------- ---------- ---------- 153 ---------- 213 11,297
Connecticut ------------------------------ 12 ---------- 260 1,016 142 1,901
Delaware -------------------------------- ---------- ---------- 4 54 6 172
District of Columbia --------------------- ---------- ---------- 3 140 41 521
Florida ----------------------------------- ---------- ---------- 189 2,270 20,658 75,358
Georgia ---------------------------------- 52 100 ---------- ---------- 27 179
Hawaii ----------------------------------- ---------- 154 ---------- 395 431 2,189
Idaho ------------------------------------ ----- ---- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 59
Illinois ----------------------------------- 4 107 588 140 172 31. -1,1R3
Indiana ---------------------------------- 52 3 377 242 27 13, 6S4
Iowa ------------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 1,003
Kansas ----------------------------------- ---------- ---------- 4 ---------- 12 16
Kentucky -------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 55 85 '(97
Louisiana -------------------------------- 12 ---------- 5,950 ---------- 3,105 9,095
Maryland -------------------------------- ---------- ---------- 1 2 19 125, 3 11
Massachusetts --------------------------- 3 14 338 U'l 2,S43 1,,-,,537
Michigan -------------------------------- 10 18 794 2 3 IS4 20, 29S
Minnesota ------------------------------- ---------- ---------- 48 76 42 s'
Mississippi ------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 300 ---------- 300
Missouri --------------------------------- 12 6 ---------- ---------- 20 101
Nevada ---------------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- '10 6 16
New Hampshire ------------------------- ---------- 1 49 22 45 6, 163
New Jersey ------------------------------ 3,123 524 3,191 966 42,162 5,s, 612
New Mexico ----------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 5 ---------- 5
New York ------------------------------- 25,468 93 7,562 38, 143 99.614 M1, 124
North Carolina -------------------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 7, U65 ---------- 1 s5.426








74 ANN1TAL IEF)11T.- ()F DEP\lT.1ENT (-F .1GilCLTURE, 1935

TABLv 26.-Distribultion, by ifes. shui0ng plant bulbs. and other materials,
f lyrf ial-jermi it mtl ((' uimportedO during tihe iCfl Pit ( d5---'n -Cutinuid



St ite or Territory He Fruit Ir I'us rna- Total
ceous rut, mental
r


Number Number Number Number Number Number
(hiio .. ..... .... ...27 2t'I 3,913 Id~.9 10,450 30,b31
(r Jo r c. .. ... .. .. .. LU .. .. I) 3,1 37 75, 160
Pe n y1:na .............. 90 ZW11 1, 1,1 519 4, 507
Puertol wo-------.---.-------------... --440.... 21 2 17 519
NRhol 1..I .l1--- ---------------------------- --.. . .. .. . .10 300 58,041
South (a:omima-----. . .. . ..------------------------------.. ... .20 204
Soutl 1):kota------ ----------------------------313 103 122 743
T en niessee.. . . . . . .. . . .I.. .. . . . . .6 929
Texas- . ..--------------------------- 46 ..1- 477 50,730
U'tah . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.) . . 694
1Vernm ont.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 4 6, 053
11r inid .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 1 SM, 533
W hineton ------------------------------- 1 1 629 143 1, 3 4 613, 331
WestVirginia---------------------------..--..----.----.. ----------. I. .12 .24
Wisconsin ...------------------------------.. ---------------104 -..-.-3 3,320
Total.- ..-.-..-...-..--.-.-..---.---30,014 1, 21,724 ,007 lt,--13 2, 624,694


IMPORTATION OF ELM LOGS UNDER QUARANTINE NO. 70
Under the provisions of Quarantine No. 7. on account of tihe Dutch elm disease, 50 elm logs from Europe were imported subject to hot-water treatment as follows: Through the port of Baltimore, 20 logs; through New York. 8 logs; and through Norfolk, 22 logs. Hot-water treatment was applied at the following places: Baltimore, 20 logs; Indianapolis, 8 logs; New Albany, nd., 14 logs; and New York, 8 logs.
Quarantine No. 70, effective October 21, 1933. providing for the entry of elm logs from Europe if free from bark, subject to hot-water treatment as a condition of entry, was amended. effective .Jnnuary 1, 1935\, to prohibit the importation of elm logs from Europe. This action was taken for the reason that logs were arriving with the bark incompletely removed. In some cases the adhering remnants of bark were found infested with living adults and larvae of scolytid beetles, which are known to have a part in the spreading of the fungus causing the Dutch elm disease.
IMPORTATIONS OF COTTON, COTTON WRAPPINGS (BAGGING), COTTONSEED HULLS, AND COTTONSEED PRODUCTS
Tables 27 to 30, inclusive, indicate, respectively, the inportations during the fiscal year of cotton, (ottol waste, cotton wrappines ( begging cottonseed h111ld, and cottosUed product,,, which wore inspected and, When nIlceSsary, funigated or otherwise treated under supervision. The actual number of bales of cotton, cotton waste. and huggine is inflicted and, inasiluch as hles vary in size, they are referred to as running bales. TABLE' 27.-finhportaltloi of runnin( bales of pinfle'd coft by Country of g1roth and port of entry, fiscal year 1935

Calex- De- El Fa- (1-11liou- Island 1o- New
Country Boston ve<- tn 1iW Oruf ico troit P hens ton Pond hal port


An1lo-Egyptian "ulan 5,671 ----- ----- --- ------- ----- ......
S 2 - ~ - ------- ----litr v 1 1 1 303 -- ---- --.-- .-..--Biriftjnh W est Irle 10 ---- -.- --- --- - -('h a -...... .... ---900 ------- --.. .
1Cr jIt-- - - 37, I.", -- - - -- -- - --
111, -- - ----7~~-- -- ---- 2 3 -- - - - -- -- -- --
22-, :1100 --- - - - -- -- - -- -

tozr .1------------1, 421 421 ------- -------s33 15, 215 1 9 2 571

Total---------51,15U 500 421 225 300 3M3 I5. 215 1 9 2 671








BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUAIIANTINE 75


TABLE 27.-Importatiu (of running bairN of gin f('( cottont, bY ('omilry of growth i
and port of entry, fiscal year 19 3-Continued


Country New N;iagnira Nor- Port- an &r uo~oa
York Eills folk land Aic i IF()boS


Anglo-Egyptian Sudan ----------------------- ----------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 2,67
Argentina-- .--------------------------------- --- ------ ---- -I--------2
Brazil --------------------- 919 -------- ----- ------ -------- ------- 220--------- ------- 1,142
British West Indies--------- 2------- ------ ------ -------- ------- -------- ------- --- --- 12
China-------------------- 1,867--------- ------ 315---------- 471 424k 731 I-------- 4,70S
Ecuador -------------------- 7------ ---- ------- -------- ------- ------- ------- -------44 7
Egypt -------------------- 6,680 -------- ------- --- -- --- --- 4225
Hlawaii------------------ ------- I--------- ------ ------ -------- 3 3
India -------------------- 21,997 -------- ------ ------ -------- 969 1506 30,056
Japan---------------------- ------- -------- ------ ------ -------- 1 ----- 230
Mexico------------------- 5,023 ------ ------ ------ -------- 3,184 1,907------ -------I 20,139
Netherland India----------- 1,142 -------- ------ ------ -------- 700-_------------1,,,12
Peru--------------------- 1,398 -------- ------ ------ -------- ------- ------------1,4,6
Puerto Rico ---------------- 19------- ------ ------ -------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 19
United States (returned) --- ---------14------- --------208 ---- ,9 --- 10 22,304
Unknown---------------- 24,650---------- 53 ----------------------------- ---- 24,728
Total--------------- 63,704 14 53 315 208 5, 327 8,156 861 10 '156,884

'Includes 40, 755 bales linters.

TABLE 28.-Importation of running bales of cotton waste, by country of origin

and port of entry, fiscal year 1935

Balti- Bos- Buffa- Charles- De- Hous- New Newv- New NiCountry more -ton lo ton troit ton Or- pot Yk agara
leans pr or Falls


Argentina ------------- ------- ------- ------- --------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 31---Belgium ---------------- ------- 1, 808----- --------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 6,065-----Canada------------------ ------- 536 178----------- 314--------- ------- 116--------- 190
China--------------------- 500 960-------- --------- ------- ------- 50 ------- 21,412---Colombia ------------- ------- ------- ------- --------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 165---Czechoslovakia ------------ ------- ------- ----------- ------- -------- ------- ------- 100)---England ---------------- ------- 6,804---- 6 ---- 97 ------- ------- 6' ,50O
France ------------------- ------- 181----- --------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 3,010
Germany ----------------------- ------- ----------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 1,048---India ------------------- ------- 1,121 -------------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 25,447---Italy------------------ ------- ------- ------- --------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 178
Japan --------------------- 454 1,075---- 300 ----- ------- ------- ------- 15,913
Netherlands ---------------111l 422----- --------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 1, 960_ --Scotland------------------- ------- 19 ---------------------------- --Spain ---------------- ------- ------- ------- --------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 1,816---United States (returned)- 70 ------------------- ------- ------- --------------- ------- ------Total--------------- 1,135 12,926 178 306 314 97 50 116 83,217 190


Nor-Phia- Prt-Ric- Roses St. San Sa vn-et
Country Nor- dephilan Port- Rih Pouses St.an Fran- SaronSahn Set Total
folk dephia lnd for PointAlbansCisco Pdo nl ~


Argentina --------- ------ -------- ------- ------ -------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------ 3
Belgium ------------ ---------- ------- ------ -------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------ 7,873
Canada------------- ------ -------- ------- 25 476 1,703 ------- ------- ------- ------ 3, 538
China--------------- ------ 11,984------ ------ -------- ------- 3,104 803--------- 60 38,873
Colombia ------------ ---------- ------- ------ -------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------ 165
Czechoslovakia ------------------ ------- ------ -------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------ 100
England -------------- 10 159------ ------ -------- ------- ------- ------- 73------- 13,229J
France-------------------- ------ -------- ------- --------80------ -------so------- 3,271
Germany------------- ------ 15--------- ------ -------- ------- -------------- 1. 063
India ----------------- ------ 133-------- ------ -------- ------- 50 ---- --------26,751
Italy------------------ ------ -------- ------- ------ -------- ------- -------- ::1: ---- ------ 178'
Japan ---------------- ------ 3,435 50----- -------- ------- 2927 1, 306 200 2, 522 28,, 182
Netherlanls --------- ---------- ------- ------ -------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------ 2,513
Scotland ------------- ---------- ------- ------ -------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------ 19
Spain ------------------------- ------- ------ -------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------ 1.816
United States (returned)------------------ ------ 5--------- ------ -------- 3--------- ------- ------- ------ 78
Total ------------10 15, 731 1 50 25 476 1. 706 6, 16 1 2, 109 273 2.,582 127, 652







76 ANN UAI, R II [ OP 1, (F IF.NT OF A1ICULTURE, 1935

TAIi: 2'k--Impfrtation of unnin 111w b us of 1ging, by country oorigi and port of 1i1icm, fiscal yc ir 1935



Country 0 o ,





Ar- -- --- --- -- -- 36 - - -- 31 - - -- - - 142 -
an a-------------------- ----- 4-4- ---- --A u stria-- 132 ------ ----- -- -------------.... .. -- 4 49 225 2.. .. V 1, 2 ------.. .. 9 .. .
-----------2-6 771,2 -02----" 3, 7597 90 97
China ----------------- 412 ------------ 412------------. -207Cu 1: ----- 40 ---------- --------- ------- 27--- -------Czechoslo akia --------- ------ --------13's--------------- ------------- - 216 ------ ----- -- -- -- -- -1-- --1--Engad ------------- 54 837 ..... 138 ---- 6,712 4, 46 167 5 1".
France ------------------ 1,539 ............. 540 4 .604 1, 169 ------ 1, 918 -----Gecrmainy------------ ------ 134 ---- ---- --- 740 1,5660--------------- 15---India ---------------200-------------------------159 416 60
Irelan( -------------- 19 52 ------ ------- ------ ------- ------ ------------- 194......
Italy ----------------------------------54 -845 .
Japan -------------- 1, 100 800 -------9,740 ------ 1,241 6,6 .. s
K e n y a 1.. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . -. . . . . . . . .
Netherlands ----------- -- 73 176 43 909 ------36 1 ------- 1,703 -----N ew.Ze. ..la.nd -. -- - -----... .. ... ... 10.......
Norway -- 8- 560 '792 ----Portugal -------------------- ------------------- -------188--- .-2191
Rhodesia, Suthern.....------------ --------19 ...
Scotlandl ---------- ------ ------ ------ ------- ----- 10,086------ ------ ------ ------ 2.0%,
Spain --------------------------------------------56 916 5, 7 .
Total---------1,875 4,872 138 10,961 5, 757 19,879 26,374 727 8,203 90 19,711 996




Country

0------ ---- 210

620



Argntia----------------- ------- ------------ ----1
Ausfralia ------------------------------------------------ ....... ........-...... 159



(hr:inac,---- Jm I o._Belgiu mn .... . 571 44 .. .- . . .. . . 40 .... 7,042

anada 3i;0 1,258 12 27h 59 50-- ----- r ...... .... . -9,8
-a ---- 1---I; . . ii . . -.. . . . . . . . . t . . . . . . . . . . ... .
S --------




C(, Z ch n'lka- -- --- ---- ---Egypt-------------.... .... -. . .. --.-------- --1, ,
England-------.........-6,020 2, 12 -.-.... .... 1,404 . ,9
F'rance---------------.46;O 62 ... .. .... ... ... ... .... ..... 10, 82
(he rnian y -. . . 119 .. .. ... .. .. . . ..-. .. . ; 2 ... 1I
India .... ..-.. . . ... ... . .. .. .. .. . ... ...- $3
-rla d-... .. .- ... .. 315
italy J a1in 1 3 2,o 51. 1 J 2, 500 102 1 .S, 106
Kenya 16
Ibat aia 20----- --21

Nea Zr ihnl ....1
N o r : .. ... ... .. ... .. . .. .. . .. .. ... 1,35 2

Puerto I{ ie' 1.. 0 - 1,f l1
l um re ini, "ulut bcrn .. .-.... .. . . . .. 19
'sldS( tl td .. ... 107 12,274

Tutal . ...11.,1 2,2v. 1.,2 .... 12 2> ......i++i; .0 21...... 5,2 3 10 1, 520







BUREAU OF ENTO-MOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 77

TABLE 30.-Importation of cottonsecd( hnl als and cottonsecd product.', fiscal
year 1935


Port Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed
hulls I cake meal oil

Pounds Pounds Pounds Gallons
Baltimore --------------------------------------------- --------.------------ 3, 722, 000 ............
Boston ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8,566,000 ------------Brownsville -------------------------------------------.------------ 8, 641,193 7,000 102, 488
Calexico ---------------------------------------------- 5,827,970 ------------............................
Eagle Pass ----------------------------------------------------- 8,931,033 972, 195 89, 907
El Paso ---------------------------------------------------------- 514, 137 2,370,696 267,672
Hidalgo ---------------------------------------------- ------------ 26,222 .......................
Laredo ----------------------------------------------------------- 35,240,323 50S, 751 511,021
Naco ------------------------------------------------- ------------ ------------ ----------- 13,336
New York -------------------------------------------------------- 226 21,443,101 -----------Nogales ----------------------------------------------------------- 1 110,205 -----------Philadelphia --- ...............------------------------.------------------------ 4,768,000 -----------Portland ----------------------------------------------.------------ 1,117,180 400,000 -----------Presidio ----------------------------------------------- ------------ ------------ 54,167 -----------San Francisco ---------------------------------------------------- 32 1,000,923 -----------San Pedro -------------------------------------------- ------------------------ 640,000 __Seattle ------------------------------------------------------------ 222,000 750,000 ............
Total ------------------------------------------- 5, 827, 970 54, 692, 347 2 45,313, 038 984, 424

1 Cottonseed hulls are permitted entry only from the Imperial Valley, Baja California, Mexico.
2 Includes 7,400,000 pounds of fertilizer composed principally of cottonseed meal.

In addition, the Bureau supervised the entry of 18,8-3 samples of cotton, cotton linters, cotton waste, and bagging imported by freight, express, and
parcel post, and as passenger baggage.
This year's importations of cotton waste are the largest since 1923. Of
outstanding interest, however, are the importations of cottonseed cake. meal, and oil, which represent for each commodity the largest yearly importations since cottonseed products were placed under restriction in July 1917. A comiparison of the importations of these several commodities with the average
yearly importations thereof for the preceding 10-year period, July 1. 1924, to June 30, 1934, is as follows, with figures for this year's importations given first: Cotton waste, 127,652 bales-52,843.4 bales; cottonseed cake, 54,692.347 pounds2,448,677.5 pounds; cottonseed meal, 45,313,038 pounds-,128,339.2 pounds;
cottonseed oil, 984,424 gallons-2.55 gallons.
During the 10 preceding years a total of only 63 permits were issued for the entry of cottonseed cake, meal, and oil. This year 265 permits were issued.
IMPORTATIONS OF GRAIN, BROOMS, AND BROOMCORN

Table 31 shows the importations of shelled corn and 'seeds of related plants inspected under the provisions of Quarantine No. 41.

TABLE 31.-Importation of clean shelled corn and elcan seed of other plants
covered by Quarantine No. 11, by country of growth, fiscal year 1935

Country Corn Sorghum Sudan Country Corn Sorghum Sudan
grass grass


Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds
Argentina ----- 829,909,611 269, 581 7, 133, 382 Manchuria ----------------- 1,500,000 ---------Australia ---.------------------------ 2,778,630 Mexico -------- 321,758,863 ---- ---------Bahamas ------ 75 -------------------- Netherlands__- 336
Brazil_ 132 ---------- 35,801 Rhodesia,
Bulgaria ------- 11 --------------------- Southern ..-- 17, 244, 5S4
Canada -------- 198, 159 --------------------Rumania ------ 30, 604,610 -----------------Chile_. 8 -------------------- Union o'South
Cuba ---------- 824,926 -------------------- Africa ------- 50,728, 765 59,065
Dominican Re- United States
public -------1 1,314,222 --------------------- (returned)_ -- 149, 771, 247
England_-- 28,332 -------------------- Venezuela4 ---- 42
traiti ---------- 87,500 ---------- ---------- Yugoslavia 10, 109, 803 .......................
Hungary ---- ------------------------561,048
Italy ---------- 50 ------- ---------- Total-- 1, 436, 113,396 1,769,581 10,567,926
Kenya --------- 13,532, 120 -------------------







N -N U- L R F, 1'1)1 I () 1 1) VVA I J I I" N T () F .% (; 1, 1 C ULT VR E, 1 9 5

oi 1, 1 oo I,, I: 1; 1) -0( hIC", /I ulob r Q11(in101,11C N') 41, 1) 1 -o I I I I t 1 1) 1 Ol'i 1/ 1. lb, :.-I
....... ... ......
CwI w I- v
u()rri c )m

Na m Ic r I ,l 1, -V 70,f r B(71 -q
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
----------------- 'i otal -------------------- C4, Zfj 3-11
--------------------------III ;Idllitiont in ,Jwcliojl v ; 111,111o under Qu.1ralitine No. 41 of the f(dIoNving:
Cl)1*11 oil the cob, greell, pounds; and corn oil the c(J), nature, 4,070
poill)(I.S.
Thw Bm-( ,-lu also supervised the entry 1111der Quantiltille Nli. 24 of 5,(m
p(mrol< ()I' Zllclled corli and under Quirantine No. 55 of tli(, following: Seed or p;iddY rice, 2,488,671 pounii1s; rice sti-mv, 5,400 1),tlc< ; ind :n-ii(Jes illade. of rice ,tr;iNv, 1914.
Th( ent-ry of slielled corn Ims been re -:tricted from :01. f(irol-ji countries and l()c,-il1At,,s by quarantines since J.anuary 1. 1927. Tlik ve:ir'.,-z impoitati(ms of sh( 11(,d coril lill(Jer cxi ,tfiu,, coI'll Q11:11-zintilles 'Nos. "1 (11;(] 41 rt pi-(,seiit the import'itions since th,,it dato. They tot(il 1.441.113.5111 pounfls.
Tl)e ivenige yearly imporotions under tliese two qu.irnwine-4 diii-iii,-, Ilic tl/ ,-.vear preceding peril w(,ro, :-" A75,1SS pounds. "I'll( impoi-tntions under
Qimnintine Nil. 41 of seed. Sud.m gn-,i- set-41, ;md br(wilw('1-11 are
also Alv;-llollt pre(Tdclit ill W' iz('- ll'Tortation -z (,f s(ln-dmm l1ll()l;lltcd
t o 1 7 o. 5Ss I i I i i i d s i I i ? I I I 1 7 G v e
avvr i-e yeirly importiliwis 4 t114-It, INV(l yvoj- were 56,023.6 poim(1:-z :iiid 70,700.Co -lill: I(Il't 'It It ills
(fable 32) totiled 4S.-11 1-Inles ,his The Ivcr.llf(l V(1:tF1N jlllp'1-t:i1i,,11, of
this commodity for the 10-yeir pi-ocfdiiig period, Jill\ 1. 1 12 1. 1, -Ili! 1 1,
Nven, 5 9 2 bflvs. Undor Qul'irin inl-n Nos. 24 4ind 41, 111 e i i i i i i, i i i i i i T 9
1,11;"4 ve;tr was 61 1 Lost year 172 perinit,; Nvere i, 4ued.
T 11 1 11* Hj1P()I1,ltj()1IS of sood m- ]):Ill(] v rico from M"Xico, 1111der VW
N )5 ; Je tll(. 1.11. ", st qinc( 1920. (T]w entry of see(l or paddy vi(-4,
llij)it(I(t Cr(JI11 all Other forch.,ti cl,)untrios ;m(l locllities.)

IMPORTATION OF BAGASSE UNDER QUARANTINE NOS. 15 AND 16

Effw-tive October 1, 1934, Foreign Sugarcme Qwir:mIlue No. 15 N\";I< IMIC111101 to l lit florize tl)(, entry of "pccitlc ill'ttcri:1 Is on c. lldi i, Ili I ]ill I N
or are to be, so trentot], or 11111 Illif net 11 red tlllt, ill t1w iud'-111olit of
ill(, 1)('11"ll-tillent, tlleir entry Nvill involve Ill) pv.-t ri.- k.
Dj*I-(-tjv4- J,11111:11-y 1, 193 -). 1)(mic"tic sli gnlrcllllc Qual'all-illo 'No. 16 larl N wicn(led Io nllow omr.\ fromi Puerto Rico wid 11,1xv.-Iii.
I these (111,11-.Illtlllc 4 ;I,< .1loontled inl1w rt.Iliors ll ivll,
ft)ll- ws: Ffid"r Q11"I I oilt illo No. 1-5. I'lw1l fl l*(,1'111
.3,729.1"16 poijnilz (ind 1):1 tlu, t, W.) 101111lds; Wider Qirtr mino 'No. 1 (1.
from Piierto ltic,) flild polinds, :11111 TO
poll I I (I S.
IMPORTATIONS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

-Ili(] 1 Sljow Ity countric-4 III* 01-1-ill :Hld ontn k
t he killfl., z nild (111,1 11 ti i(-, of fruit" :1 '111 vegiIt :I hlos im por" 1 -11 i I Vilik'd 81:lte -4 ;111(1 into MINN-nii mi'l 1,11ol-to Wc' tho fi--:)l 1 1 el.
wr I I I it :m I 4111doct I o i I Is I wvt it) ll it t t I le port of fil-st I 1IT111cl. till: lwlivk ,101!)11:1 T,:l lit Im N o. -A P, Nvoll ;1- im pol tntim l.. I f 01*:1 11TIdt'lNo. 20S. nud I- r 11144 1 lit,
1-#)I.ltov, in to, t1il. T ill, tIO :11 (.f I It -t,
nwl 2111.76:' ,57!k


11111-ilu r th '. V C'Ill'. 11. :111,11f Y ])III-111
for Ili,, 4qitry ()f !1-:111 1-) 1.,, of frilit': :,lld







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 79


TABLE 33.-Fruits and vegetables imported, by countries of origin, fi.cal
year 1935

[Imported under Quarantine No. 56 unless otherwise designated)

Kind Country and quantity Total


Apple ------------------------ pounds- Denmark, 163; England, 100: Netherlands, 550; New- 917, 609
foundland, 96; New Zealand, 916,650; Sweden, 50.
Apricot -------------------------- do-.-- Chile, 22,130 ----------------------------------------- 22,130
Aralia cordata ---------------- do Japan, 2,120 ---------------------------------------- 2,120
Arrowhead ---------------------- do .... China, 170,574; Japan, 250 -------------------------- 170, 824
Artichoke:
Globe ---------------------- do Argentina, 60 ---------------------------------------- 60
Jerusalem ---------------- do- Mexico, 70 ------------------------------------------ 70
Asparagus ----------------------- do Argentina, 106,822; Chile, 3,416; Mexico, 35 ----------110, 273
Asperula odorata ---------------- do .... Germany, 52 ..--------------------------------------- 5
Avocado ------------------ do ..... Cuba, 6,296,401; Mexico (seeds removed), 39,112..... 6, 335, 513
Balsamapple -----------------do Cba. 2,V6: Mexico, 3,500 -------------------------- 5, 666
Banana ---------------- bunches-_ British Honduras, 341,234; Cayman Islands, 89; Co- 52,226,825
lombia, 3,627,126; Costa Rica, 2,898,535; Cuba, 6.207,932; Dominica, 2; Dominican R1epublic, 3,350; Ecuador, 1.061,074: Guadeloupe, 187; Guatemala, 4,580,748; Haiti, 577,902; Honduras, 13,978,090; Jamaica,
1,470,5S2; 'Martinique, 13; Mexico, 8,852,160; Nicaragua, 3.110,451; Panama (including Canal Zone),
5,517,299; Trinidad, 48.
Bean (green):
Faba --------------------- pounds-. Mexico, 107 ----------------------------------------- 107
Lima --------------------do ---- Cuba, 3.582,922: Mexico. 65,r -8 3, 48, 550
String ------------------- do Cuba, 29,927: Mexico, 996,909 -------------------- 1,026, 536
Beet ----------------------------- do ---- Cuba, 250; Mexico, 230,S21 ------------------------- 231,071
Berry (Rubus):
Frozen ---------------------- do ---- Scotland, 171,000 ----------------------------------- 171,000
Natural ------------------ do- Norway, 1,547; Scotland, 150,0 --------------------- 151,547
Broccoli ------------------------- do ---- Cuba, 25 ------------------------------------------- 25
Cabbage -------------------- do Cuba, 22.080: Mexico, 29,824: Netherlands, 391,000- 442,904
Cacao bean pod --------------do Costa Pica, 216; Trinidad, 763 ----------------------- 979
Cactus -------------------------- do ---- Mexico, ,.535 -------------------------------------- r. 535
Carrot --------------------------- do ---- Bermuda. 500; Cuba, 2,135; Mexico. 484,994 ----------..7. ,29
Cassava ------------------------- do ---- Cayman Islands, 175; China, 300: Cuba, 171,593; 172, S
Guatemala, 20; Panama (including Canal Zone),
750.
Cauliflower ------------------ do- Mexico, 1,174 ------------------------------------ 1, 74
Celery --------------------------- do---- Cuba, 221; Mexico, 32 ------------------------------- 53
Chayote --------------------do .... Cuba, l5.114; Jamaica, 30; Mexico, 1,93S ------------- 17,382
Cherry:
Dried, sour ---------------do Yugoslavia. 689.953 ------------------------------689,953
Fresh ----------------------- do- Argentina, 1,763; Chile, 11,023 ---------------------- 12, 786
Chinese watermelon -----------do Cuba, ----------------------------------------- 100
Cipollino -------------------- do ---- Greece, 1.098: Morocco, 2,580,904------------------2-, 52. 602
Citrus medica -----------------do- Albania, 3,240; Algeria, 100; Italy, 397; Palestine. 17. 944
14,207.
Clover top ----------------------- do... Mexico, 571 ---------------------------------------- 571
Coriander -----------------do ---- Mexico, 369 ---------------------------------------- 369
Cowpea ------------------- do Mexico, 150 ------------------------------------ 150
Crescentia aata ---------------do -- Mexico, 2 ------------------------------------------- 2
Crosnes -------------------do ---- Belgium, 498 --------------------------------------Cucumber -----------------do ---- Cuba, 2,139,631; Dominican Republic, 130; Mexico, 2,169,-Ill
29,650.
Dasheen (includes colocasia, inhame, Azores, 261,950: China, 309,001; Cuba, 175,203; Do- 2, 52, 783 malanga, taro, and yautia), pounds. minican Republic, 1,256,641; Haiti, 2,100; Honduras, 25; Jamaica. 30; Japan, 146.350; Mexico, 983;
Nicaragua, 500.
Eggplant -----------------pounds-- Cuba, 4,857,581; Dominican Republic, 624; Mexico, 5, 240, 122
381,917.
Endive -------------------------- do ---- Belgium, 1,047,935 ---------------------------------- 1,047, 93Garbanzo -------------------do .... Mexico, 32 --------------------------------------- :2
Garlic --------------------------- do -... British Guiana, 6; Chile, 2.699.310; China, 4,. : 9
Cuba, 15.000; Egypt, 7,100; Greece, 75; Italy, C; (
Japan, 532; Mexico, 2.201,397: New Zealand, 21(0;
Spain, 1,166,654; Uruguy, 1.-40.
Ginger (crude) ------------------- do ...-- China, 352,404; Cuba, 18,604; Ecuador, 1,300; Jaipan, 7
469; Mexico, 32.
Gourd ---------------------- do ---- Mexico, 7 ------------------------------------- 7
Grape -------------------- do Argentina, 9,021,796; Ch:l, 21T,112; .Mexico, t2; 16, 5, 101
Spain, 7,56i8,54l.1
Grape (hothouse) ------------- Belgium, do32; Nethcr is, 470 ---------------------... 6 2
Grapefruit ----------------------- do_.... Cuba, 7,5,511; Haiti, 1,200------------ --- ----- 2
Horseradish -------------------do_ Grry, 1,90; Sweden, "- <
Husk tomato ---------------- do--- Mexico. ,(.----- --------------------Japanese horseradish -----------do Japan, 5 ...... )
Kale --------------------- do ..- Bermuda, 190,610------------Kohlrabi ------------------------ do- Mexico, 21-8 2. 1S
Kudzu -------------------------- do-- China, 66.11; Cuba, -%4L 3 ,
Footnotes at end of table.








80 ANNUAL REPOJJS OF DEPARTMENT OF AG(;ICULTI-I{E, 1935


T~inu( 3-Fruitv at1 rg'etablcs imported, by countries of origin, fi.vral year 1!'.,.-cotl killed
(Imported under Quarantine No. .56 unless otherwise designatel


Kind Country anl quantity Total


Leek ....-- ..- ..-- .-.-........ pounds.. C uba, .585 5.. -. -.- ---.--..- 5Ss
Lemi-on.......................- do.... Cuba, 480; Italy, 71,83; Mexio. 53; Uruguay, 700. 7,3. 176
Lettuce ..---- .-- --- .- ..- ..----- do.... M exico, 39,260-- .- ----- ---------------- --------. 60
Lily bulb (edible) ..--..-...-.---do.-.. China, 25,850; Japan, 16,5l6. - .. 26,015
Lime (sour),'.------------------do... Antigua, 3,450: Argentina, 700: Cuba, 1001; Dnin- 9, 500, 00
ica, 677,:356; Dominican Republic, 16,024; Grenada,
31,407; Haiti, 14,867; Honduras. 17,475: Jamaica,
I 4,630; Mexico, 7,232,70); M ontserrat. 338,934;
Panama (including Canal Zone), 2,440; Peru, S. St.
Lucia, 80),238; St. Vincent, 3,000; Trinidad,
120,975; Virgin Islands, 14,817.
Mango (seeds removed, frozen) .do.... Philippine Islands, 40" 408
Melon- ..----------------------do.... Argentina, 177,130; Chile. 4.378,836; Mexico, 1,638,102; 7,462,321
Peru. 3.954; Spain, 1.264,?J9.
Mint ...-----------------------do-.-. Cuba, 4,520; Mexico, 2 ---------------------------- 4,54
Mustard. ...--------------------do... Cuba, 8,624; Mexico, 95.033 .------------------------ 103,677
Nectarine.. ..-------------------do...- Chile, 298,40.-----------------------------------28, 480
Nectarine (hothouse).-------------.do Belgium, 71.. .. -------------------------------Nopale ...----------------------do.- Mexico, 515.--------------------------------------- 515
Nuts:
Acorn.-.-------------------do---- Turkey, 23,489,770 ---..----------------------------23, 89, 770
Chestnut.----------------- do..--. China, 16,280; Italy, 13,024,479; Japan, 609,038; Portu- 14, 503, 309
gal, 844,I66; Spain, 8,816.
Okra..-----------------------do....-- Cuba, 1,338,324; Mexico, 66,040 -------------------- 1, 404, 364
Onion.. ..-----------------------do.... Arcentina, -37,752; Australia, 219,097; Bermuda, 91; 10, 652, 802
Chile, 4,232,170; Cuba. 12.651; Egypt, 2,722.430;
Hungary, 14; Italy, 1,-03,224; Japan, 100,000; Mexico, 392,385; Netherlands, 4,20; Philippine Islands, 35; Portugal, 500; Spain, 253,173.
Orange:
Under quarantine no. 56:
Fresh.-.----------------do... Cuba, 51,753; St. Lucia, 120 ------------------------ 51,%73
Frozen ----------------do ---- Spain, 1,473 -------------------------------------- 1.473
Mandarin (quarantine no.28).do.. --- Japan, 1,610,264 ---------------------------------- 1,610,264
Papaya..- ......----------------- ---- Cuba, 73,581.------------------------------------- 73.551
Parsley.. ...---------------------do..- Bermuda, 1,400; Cuba, 50; Mexico, 15,914.----------- 17,364
Pea ----------------------------do.... Cuba, 3,405; Mexico, 4,214,474 ---------------------- 4.217,879
Peach --.----------------------- do---- Argentina, 9,970; Chile, 66,376 .---------------------- 6,346
Peach (hothouse) --------------.do.. Belgium, 47 ------------------------------------------ 47
Pear..------------------------do..- Argentina, 92,328; Chile, 72,371 -------------------- If4,S99
Pepper -.---------------------- do... Bahamas, 90; Cuba, 4,330,210; Mexico, 3,763.778---. 8,094,07t
Pigweed.. ..---------------------do...- Mexico, 1,015------ -.-. ---..-.. --------------.-l,015
Pineapple. ..------------------crates-- Azores, 25; Costa Rica, 5; Cuba, G72.3.19; Dominican 743, 42
Republic, 3,493; Ecuador, 6; Guatemala, 3; Haiti,
183; Honduras, 149; Jamaica, 1; M1exico, 67,169;
Panama (including Canal Zone). 2.
Plantain.. ..------------------pounds.. Argent ina, 2,1 6; Brit ish ionduras, 45S.740; Cayman 14, 907, 454
Islands, 3,575; Colorbiia, 3,242; Cuba. 6,133,550;
Dommnican Republic, 7,044,.60; Haiti, 249,448;
lion iuras, 462,325; Jamaica, 100; Mexico, 59.120;
Nicaragua, 2,700; Panama (including Canal Zone,
486,598; Virgin Islands, 220.
Plum.. ..------------------------do- Argentina, 51,370; Chile, 40,295.-------------------- 91, 665
Potato:
Under quarantine no. 56.-.do.. --- Bermuda, 999,794.. -----------------------------99, 794
Under potato regulations (order of Canary Islands, 40,000; Cuba, 2,165,789; Mexico, 2,312, 49
Dec. 22, 1913). pounds-- 57,623; Spain, 49,066.
Pumpkin. ..--------------------do.... Cuba, 101,165; Dominican Republic, 24,033; Mexico, 136,074
10,876.
Purslane --------------------- do Mexico, 1.93-------.. ....-....--.--.-.-.-. -----.1,93N
Radish.. ..---------------------do. Cuba. 677; Mexico, 123,128- .----------- ------ 123, 805
Roselle --...----------------------do. Mexico, 30--.-..- .- --- --- -- ----------- -.-.30
6t. Johns bread---------------do. Cyprui, 785,462; Greece, 22,400 Italy, 290,.170 --------1. 09, 332
S ify. ..... .--------------- do Meo, 1,527------------ ------------------------ 1527
Shallot ----------------------do- lel.ium, Gil ---------------------------------------...616
Spinch...--------------------- do -Mexico, 67, 734.. ------------ --.-----------6 67,4
SIuash. ..----------------.------ do. ermuda 30; t'ha, I,33. 1eico, 76,2.36--. .__-.---93 i19
Strawberry..------------------do. -__ Cuba, 15; ltexIco. 7,326 7,341
Swretpotato I.----------------- do .... China, 4,200 ----..... .- 4, 200
Swiss chard -------------------.. .-. lco, 11,451 .-.-.--.------ 11, 41
Tamarind bean pod----------- do Ati a, 10,50: liarlaid o.,2,000, 000, 1.000. India, 2t0, 30m
58029, .1101co0, 1,079, Montserrat, 13.100; St
luatl, 15,991.
Toruito -----------------------do---- -f nia, 9,018, Itahmunu, 143-3; Canairy Islands, 77,t 01, 4.
42,7152. ('uba. 41 ,71'.* M exico, :15,479,tial; Virgin
lands. 56,. 80
Turnip --..----------------do -'ub.t, 2,77; .1---ico, 2.O,82---.------------ 2.6 .-..1, 900
Footlantvs at end of table.







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 81

TABLE 33.-Fruits and veget(Ibles imported, by countries of origin, fiscal year 1935-Continled

[Imported under Quarantine No. 56 unless otherwise des:piated]

Kind Country and quantity Total


Vaccinium (cranberry, etc.):
Frozen ----------------pounds-- Newfoundland, 3,498,349 -------------------------- 3,498,349
Natural ------------------ do .. Finland, 13,211; Newfoundland, 657,051; Norway, 682,476
9,346; Sweden, 2,868.
Water caltrop ---------------- do .... China, 11.480; Japan, 20--------------------------- 11,500
Waterchestnut ----------------- do ... China, 2,061,188 ------------------------------------ 2,061,188
Watercress ------------------ do ---- Mexico, 3,647 ------------------------------------ 3,647
Waterlily root ---------------- do .. China, 16,602; Cuba, 55,378 ------------------------ 71,980
Watermelon ----------------- do .... Cuba, 108,090; Mexico, 312,819 --------------------- 420,909
Yam 2 ---------------------------- do .... China, 23,400; Japan, 12,011 ------------------------ 35,411
Yam bean root ----------------do.... China, 27,100; Mexico, 2,009 ------------------------29, 109

I Sterilized by refrigeration.
2 These sweetpotatoes and yams were imported into Hawaii. Although the importation of sweetpotatoes and yams into continental United States is prohibited by Quarantines 29 and 30, that prohibition does not apply to Hawaii or Puerto Rico.

TABLE 34.-Fruits and vegetables imported by ports of entry, fiscal year 1935

[Imported under Quarantine No. 56 unless otherwise designated]

Kind Port and quantity Total


Apple ----------------------- pounds-- Los Angeles, 550; New York, 917,059 ----------------- 917, 609
Apricot ------------------------ do ... New York, 22,130 -------------------------------- 22, 130
Aralia cordata ------------------ do ... Hawaii (all ports), 2,120 ---------------------------- 2, 120
Arrowhead --------------------- do ---- Boston, 6,000; Buffalo, 13,400; Detroit, 200; Hawaii 170, 824
(all ports), 25,450; Los Angeles, 1,000; New York, 42,800; Niagara Falls, 2,200; Portland, 1,700; San Francisco, 72,110; Seattle, 5,964. Artichoke:
Globe ---------------------- do ... New York, 60 -------------------------------------- 60
Jerusalem ------------------ do .... Laredo, 20; San Ysidro, 50 --------------------------- 70
Asparagus ----------------------- do .... Calexico, 13; New York, 110,238; San Ysidro, 22- --- 110,273
Asperula odorata -------------- do New York, 54 ------------------------------------- 5
Avocado ----------------------- do. -- Baltimore, 414; Boston, 80; Brownsville (seeds 6,335,513
removed), 24,057; Douglas (seeds removed), 15; Eagle Pass (seeds removed), 5,551; El Paso (seeds removed), 3,323; Hidalgo (seeds removed), 888; Jacksonville, 420; Key West, 710,689; Laredo (seeds removed), 4,133; Mercedes (seeds removed), 307; Miami, 56,848; New Orleans, 2,484,579; New York, 1,599,478; Nogales (seeds removed), 118; Philadelphia, 1,080; Rio Grande City (seeds removed), 146; Roma (seeds removed), 574; Tampa, 1,442,813.
Balsamapple ------------------- do-.-- Calexico, 3,500; New York, 2,166 --------------------- 5,666
Banana ---------------------- bunches-- Aberdeen, 1,270; Baltimore, 3,498,969; Blaine, 3,559; 52,226,825
Boston, 3,082,748; Brownsville, 68,536; ButTalo, 1,050; Calexico, 1; Charleston, 1,214,970; Corpus Christi, 13,893; Detroit, 12,955; Eagle Pass, 12,511; Eastport, 3; El Paso, 337,901; Galveston, 2,547,493; Hidalgo, 1,405; Houston, 47,887; Jacksonville, 976,921; Key West, 1,020; Laredo, 560,582; Los Angeles, 1,931,816; Miami, 250,176; M Iobile, 2,123,498; New Orleans, 13,525,289; New York, 14,315,282; Nogales, 6,048; Norfolk, 632,728; Philadelphia, 4,620,688; Portland, 2,850; Puerto Rico (all ports), 464; San Francisco, 1,424,971; San Ysidro, 1; Sault Ste. Marie, 3,530; Seattle, 289,417; Sumas, 40,574; TacoBean (green): ma, 1,757; Tampa, 674,060; Ysleta, 2.
Faba ---------------------- pounds Calexico, 5; Nogales, 99; San Ysidro, 3 107
Lima ----------------------- do .... Laredo, 17,677; New York, 3,582,922; Nogales, 46,870; 3,648, 550
San Ysidro, 1,081.
String --------------------do- Brownsville, 1,339; Calexico, 2,403; Douglas, 2,831; 1,026, 536
Eagle Pass, 941; El Paso, 38,464; Laredo, 292,741; Mlercedes, 2; Naco, 803; New York, 29,927; N ogales, 632,044; San Ysidro, 25,031; Ysleta. 10. Beet------------------- ....do Calexico, 2,402; Douglas, 440; Eagle Pass, 235; El Paso, 231.071
219,126; Naco, 40; New Orleans, 270; New York, 250; Nogales, 8,042; San Ysidro, 158; Ysleta ,108.
24118-35 -6








82 ANN UAL ()I.-T I, IEA TM N ,F AIRI LT RE, 193'5





[Imported under Quarantine No. 56, uniless otherwhe so gatd

Kind Pvrt and oruantilit y Total


Berry Pu 1
--------- -- -- pounids.. New York, 171,000 -- ---------------- 171,000
Nao rtl - - - - --do New York, 151,547 -- - - - - - - -- 15 1.,47
IBiroccul 1i ------------- o-- N ew Yo rk, 25, 25
C aba:ge-f,-------------- do----.. Calexico, 1,525; Dougula, 5,211; EagleI Pass, 54;El 442,904A
Paiso, 797; Laredo, 6S;Naco, 1,145; New York, 413,0-,O, Nogailes, 19,703; .-mn Ysidlro, 212.
Cacaio beain pod --------------- do-- New York, 979 ---- -- ---------(-act us------------------------ do --- Brownsville, 40; Calexico, 4; El1 Paso, 1,959; Laredo, 635
4,511]: Mtercedes, 3; Nogaldes, 10; San Ysiflro, 8. Carrot------------------------ do.---- Brownsville, 5; C ale~xico, 3i,95 '~ uls 434; Eagle 487,6829
PaIss,' 35-5; El Paso, 4 '52,741;' Miaimi, 110;* Naco, 170;. N ew ()rlean iiis, 900;) New York, 1,62.5; ogls25,S03; Sa1n1 Y Sid iro, 34 0;- Ysl t, 1, 211.
Caissava----------------------- do --- Key West, 4,353; New Orleans, 20; 'N ew York, 16)7,330; 172, 838S
Cauiflwe-------------doSeattle, 300; Taml'l 8.35)
C au i ,)'xe --------------- d ---Calexico, 67. Doug as, 48;,- Eagle Pass, 30; Nogales, 1,474
1,315;1 San Ysidro, 14.
Ce~lcr-------------------------- do.. Ceic,1;Nw or,2;SaYido14----------- 25
Chayot ---------------------- do.. lPs,10 e Vs,85 ae 1,798; Miami, 1,8
3,796; N ew Orleans, 4,3019; New York, 6,5)14.

D1)ried, sour ----------------- do ---- Boston, 56,490; New York, 567,324; Philadlelphaia, 68S9, W5
66,139.
Frrei --------------------- do New York, 12,786--------------------------------- 12,7 SChino-, wa:terrmelon------------(1o ---- New York, 100-------------------------------------- 100
C I ------------------------ 0----o. New York. 2,58S2.",(2 -----------------------------2,82602
('It rl/ 77,1i(7 ---------------- 1----d... Detroit, 140; El Paso, 1; New York, 17,803----------- 17,944
Cloe top(' ) ,- -------------------do 1()Igls, '571 ---------------------------------------- 571
Coriandeltr ---------------------d -- CV4xco --------------------------------------- 369
('w)pea ------------------------ to... LaIreo, 1,50 ----------------------------------------- 150
(r cni bl------------------1;o Nogales, 2------------------------------------------- 2
-----~e--------------------- flo. ew York, 498-------------------------------------- 49
Cucu:m.er--------------------- do ---- Calexico, 318;, Douglas, 1.('71: Eagle Pass, 102; Key, 2,169, 411
West, 128,091; Liredo, 5100; Mercedesi, 2; Miami, 93,800;) Naco, 28N3; New Orleans,; 8,3,200;: Newv York, 1,773,216; Nogatles, 27,348; Tampa, 61,451; San Y'ddro, 26.
Dasheen incueoo~sa inlhame, Boqzon, 13,98luffalo, 7,48 0; Calexico, 9& 3; Detroit, 2,152, 7S3
ma~llnga, taro, and yautial), Pounds. 1,'ijo: Kiey West, 6,85 5; Los Ang' eles, 9,000; Miami, 100; New York, 1,130,507,; Niai,::ra Falls, 13,555S;' Portland. 9,42S; Puerto Rico (all ports), 419,222; San Francisco, 282,100; Seattle, 113,888; Tampa, 25, 16t)7.
Fggpl 11nt. -------------- pounds. Brownsville, 330; Calexico, 10;, El Paso, 707; Key 5, 240,1Ifl
Wett 23,(,2n; Laredo, 1,297; 'Miamii, 3,015;1 New Orleains, 3,34.122; New York, 4,437,515; Nog ales, 37,- 3 Sa Y sidro, 20; Tampa, 59,903.
Eni'-------------do. e ok ,4,3...--------------------------NoYrk71,793.5

6al(--- -- -- -- -- -- -- - - - --- -- Bus,, M,400 Brownsville, 10,55)-0; Cale'rlo,. 11,921; G, 099,208
Dm1)ougAs, 1,C13; Eagle Pass, 12,01.5 'El Pqso, 38m,13; aai(all ports,), 7,132; 11lAl~m 3,998s; Lairedo, I l~22,08;Mercedes, 24; Namo I100 New Orleinq. r 5G I I New York, 2 769,8 27; Nogales, 23,423; Pulerto Rico (all ports), 1,614,($ 6; San Franc~sco, 30(: Sain Ysidlro, 2.15'7.
(1iu7(r (,rde --------------do---B'sm s,2,1:, Buffalo, 11,37C; Calvxlcf 32:' Chicac o, 373,009
1 00; 'Detroit, 600 IrwaIi (all ports),11, Los Alivioles, T-1(); New York. ?%,2 rwaara FaMl, 11.7ol, Purtland, 1,44W; San Francisco, 209r.,401;

~ ;i~ o Iv[ Merce1 7, 7
r '------ do Bioston, ~7,4;Brown,;\ille,, 1:,0: Calexkco, 219- 16,8&57, 101
Va~ Pss 25;Lirodo, New York, 5964;

t-d-- Xv ~ l w York, "'2,02 82,302
~ iuf~z~ o, osonA''0 Key Wet v,12SO Nw O reInt, 7 529, 711
1 s~\31, Newv York, 5,1'27"-3

I liik I. to (lo ~onvle W 'lxc,1.'; Eagle Pass, 3,3 4; C,.003 .
l'2 P ~u. 1510. o 2: N-'cl Ystd -ro, 40.
,,r h cre 6,1 )i r do 11 ."~i ."l o ~ ~ - - - - )
Y, l v~. Y rl, 1)9 1 1 - -- -- -- 190A ).
~~~; .1 'h l-ic, I -" I'. .o 1S 1 218
~io ~o on,1 ,iXI.lint i', I,1 ',I )M rot ,300 ,os 66, -.V..

II 1 Prt -ir~lI ,RP >i FranciscO, T-,7~7

I ,~''In 1---,-----N----r,--- ls856







BUREAU OF ENTOM\OLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 83


TABLE 34.-Fruits and vegetables irnportcd by portts of entry, fiscal yar
1935-Continued

[Imported under Quarantine No. 56, unless otherwise designated]

Kind Port and quantity Total


Lemon ----------------------- pounds-- Calexico, 1; Mercedes, 2; New York, 783,123; San 783, 176
Ysidro, 50.
Lettuce ------------------- do.... Calexico, 1,327; Douglas, 3,482; Eagle Pass, 1,894: 39, 260
El Paso, 280; Naco, 565; Nogales, 31,552; San Ysidro, 160.
Lily bulb (edible) ------------ do Boston, 1,500; Buffalo, 1,440; Detroit, 360; Hawaii 26, 015
(all ports), 2,015; New York, 5,300; Niagara Falls, 1,700; Portland, 300; San Francisco, 12,100; Seattle, 1,300.
Lime (sour) ---------------- do.... Baltimore, 13,258; Boston, 79,305; Brownsville, 9, 500,060
234,801; Eagle Pass, 1,011,485; El Paso, 300,996; Hidalgo, 2,538; Key West, 1,980; Laredo, 4,822,488; Los Angeles, 736,075; Mercedes, 8; Miami, 3,691; New Orleans, 7,057; New York, 2,247,334; Nogales, 23,128; Philadelphia, 2,421; Presidio, 28; Puerto Rico (all ports), 1,562; San Francisco, 10,317; Tampa, 1,588.
Mango (seeds removed) (frozen)..do ....-- Portland, 408 ----------------------------------- 408
Melon --------------------------- do ....-- Calexico, 1,102; Douglas, 561; Hidalgo, 370; Laredo, 7,462,321
1,590,759; Mercedes, 109; Naco, 10; New York, 5,824,219; Nogales, 44,976; Rio Grande City, 4; San Ysidro, 211.
Mint ---------------------------- do ..- Calexico, 1; El Paso, 15; New York, 4,520: Nogales, 12- 4, 548
Mustard ------------------------- do___-- Calexico, 12,641; Douglas, 137; El Paso, 79,C16; Naco, 103, 677
60; New York, 8,624; Nogales, 3,189; San Ysidro, 10. Nectarine ----------------------- do .... New York, 298,480 ---------------------------- 298,480
Nectarine (hothouse) ----------do .... New York, 72 ------------------------------7
Nopale -------------------- do .... Douglas, 222; Nogales, 293 --------------------------- 515
Nuts:
Acorn ----------------------- do ....-- New York, 21,000,859; Norfolk, 1,786,740; Philadel- 23, 889, 770
phia, 1,102,171.
Chestnut ---------------- do .... Boston, 136,028; Hawaii (all ports), 122,561; Los 14,503,309
Angeles, 331,763; New York, 13,664,513: San Francisco, 218,714; Seattle, 29,280; Tampa, 450. ,Okra ---------------------------- do.... Brownsville,' 80; Calexico, 42; El Paso, 140; Key 1,404,364
West, 25,975; Laredo,' 65,778; Miami, 11,127; New Orleans, 436,172; New York, 509,199; Tampa, 355,851.
Onion ---------------------- do-.. Boston, 1,471,160; Brownsville, 940; C!lexico, 17,771; 10, 652, 802
Douglas, 10,984; Eagle Pass, 14,260; El Paso, 166,906; Hawaii (all ports), 79,401; Key West, 6; Laredo, 142,004; Mercedes, 34; Miami, 2,550; Naco, 3,725; New York, 8,429,974; Nogales, 35,254; Portland, 35; San Francisco, 20,096; San Ysidro, 97; Seattle, 249,600; Tampa, 7,595; Ysleta, 410. 'Orange:
Under Quarantine No. 56:
Fresh ----------- ---- do --- Boston, 2,800; Key West, 42,688; New York, 6,385-.. 51, 873
Frozen -------------- do .... Baltimore, 1,473 ------------------------------------ 1. 473
Mandarin (Quarantine No. 28)_do ... Portland. 200,635; Seattle, 1,409,629 ----------------1, 610, 264
Papaya -------------------------- do --- Key West, 13,559; Miami, 24,819; New York, 32,233; 73, 581
Tampa, 2,970.
Parsley --------------------- do ---- Calexico, 20; Douglas, 61; El Paso. 15,724; Naco, 65; 17,364
New York, 1,450; Nogales, 2; Ysleta, 42. Pea ------------------------------ do ...-- Calexico, 215; Douglas, 1,432; Eagle Pass, 5; Laredo, 4, 217, S79
1,480; Naco, 295; New York, 3,405; Nogales, 4,101,173; San Ysidro, 109,874. Peach ---------------------- do .... New York, 76,346 ---------------------------------- 76, 346
Peach (hothouse) --------------- do.... New York, 47 --------------------------------------- 47
Pear ----------------------------- do .... New York, 164,899 --------------------------------- 164, 899
Pepper -------------------------- do .... Brownsville, 1,926; Calexico, 3,259; Del Rio, 451; 8,094, 078
Douglas, 11,379; Eagle Pass, 52,711; El Paso, 267,650; Hidalgo, 1,142; Key West, 46,050; Laredo. 113,353; Mercedes, 61; Miami, 3,512; Naco, 2,410; New Orleans, 215,918; New York, 4,03'P,751; Nogales, 3,275,656; Presidio, 142; Rio (Irande City, 12; San Ysidro, 32,613; Sasabe, 50; Tampa, 2(,069; Ysleta, 963.
Pigweed ------------------------- do---- Douglas, 536; Nogales, 479 -------------------------- 1, 015
Pineapple ---------------------- crates-. Baltimore, 17; Boston, 11: Brownsville, 1,1(;0: 1 Tg- 74", 425
las, 9; Eagle Pass, 2,192; El Paso, 14,10; JaekQonville, 39; Key West, 366,156; Laredo, 47,5?; L'os Angeles. 30; Miami, 12,(05; Niwo, 4; New Orleas, 59,260; New York, 227,420: No 4Sles, 4; 'Piwrio
Rico (all ports), 41; San Frantcisco, 2; Tampa. 13,395.
Okra was admitted from Tamaulipas, Mexico, through the ports of Brownsville ant Lare lo lm,er special conditions.








84 Am Nmi NALJIOTs (wF 1)EPii-ml En1 OFm Ah I & IlTUAIHE, 19K-)


TAIIL it [- its fg~ I vey .(i tal, I -- im p,,t. I4f by pw I., of ( ntril i, -i Ise ycar
JU"o- 'I In i I II (4d

ffiIIPrteol undoitr uraitine No. 7,0, tunless otlu-r-wis- (eIgnated

ToIn Pojrt and1 j wintit y Tot ul


P!in a n ............I( Ions 1,, a1 lt imore, C50 Kt., XWest, 42'-,,1,1Lo Angele1ts, 141,9 07, 454
120; Mimi, 257,91n; Niw (Orleaxp. A-.0AMA NPw York, T5,4M9 Piladt elpi,2:1u Pul to RI'Mo

15,0074.
Plum1 don N 1 .. ew York, 9l1fX5 -- 91---------------U-nder Quarantine No. t d N uiv York, 1457949, 7114
Under potAto re~aromus (order of J ~os H5,I4; Nmqo 5,90o; Nwv lea,o ",491; 2 3 12, 480W
1)vc. 2 2, 11s-------- puI ndS__ NeA took, 2,156,1,5:S Noga,;les, 26~;Puerto ico (-IlI ports, ,0.
Pumlpk inr ------------ do- Ca'lex.:o, 9 D5; lvulas. 2,0;KyW0,296 a147
redo, 3,354; Mercedes, ,Ail: Miamin, 3sic: co 1,420 New York, 121,272; Non dles, 1,lJ0 Rio (irande~ City, 12;:a Ysidro, 43;' :_ Tapa, 7(4. Thrmlino ............ 1.. I ('alxic, 764: Doruls, 277; El 1) :-o. 11: Nogales, 1.3 1938
R a d ish................ do. ('Aleiro, 3,613- Douadais, T%: 1> l Pss, 29,. El Paiso, 123,80
111.747; Nac-o, 25;, Ne-w York, 677; Nogales, 7,61"; Sant Ysidro, 32; Ysleta, G. Roselle------------o. Noa,3.------------------------------- ---- N,!ie,30
St Joh)ns bI ; readI- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---do____ Nev York, 9i-\l02; -Norfolk, 110,2A ---------------- 1, 332
S --------------------------- (o--- ISa n Y:idlro, 1,.527------------------------------------ 1. 527
Shallot------------------------ do-- New York, 6-16-------------------------------------- 616
Spinach----------------------- do CAlexico, 452 Douvlas, 1,257;-, 1El P s37,79i2; -Naco. 7 3
49,-; Noga, les, 2.11-: Sa n Ysidro, ]-', Yslec,i 2-1. 6,3 S .uash----------------------d CI .... Caloxico, 3,595; ogla, 7,943; al:as 2, 495: 93, 119
El PAso, 1T,,: Ilidalg.o, 75; Laedo, 10),163; Mercedes, 576 Mimi 40; Naco Won~; New York,
1A1;Noga les 32,102C: San siro 442; Tampa1,
2 V;4s1t, 083.
Stawery------------O ... El Paso, 7,319; New; Yor, 15; Ningales, 2; San Ysidro, 7, 341

SweTO K potato -----------------d(o. --- H1aai (all ports), 4,200----------------------------- 4,200
Swiss Chad--------------------do CO--- El Paso, 114451 -------------- ---------------------- 11, 451
Tamrind bean pod ------------ do ----. Czilexio, 33; El Paso, 775;: New Orlea:ns, C~io: New 200, 305
York, 191 ,77f6; Nogales 11: Sa 1riiwis(o. NJo Tomiato----------------------d- CI.. Boson, 42,247: Bros' noville, ,,6 Blao 22,30;: 7 7, (601, bS43
('alexico, ~,2;De]lxRio. 23;, 1~u.s 22.,: F Eale. Piss, 9,6;El As,2033;1idl, 716; Rey Ws,1,770.,0; Laredo,37,30 1.osAnels 1,7-4,214; Mercede, 9; Miam!ii 1,042,2; Naco, 4,645:) N ew OrleanIrs, 2,11 I t I- ; Nte% Yo rk :3,7), si)8, 5f1,9 : NogIlt, 33 : ,47T2,3' 27; Pres .:ii o, 16t5,r; Puellrto Rico (all ports,). 2,850;u Rio(irad (':ty, 20; i1oma, S4 San1 Franesio, 271,254; San Ysdro, SO4 TJAmpa,

Turnip ----------------------- do... Calexico, 470; 1)oulpls, 50O: Eagle Pass, 20; El1 Patso, 2 61,.6
25,5;Naco, 20: Newi York, 2,77;Ngle,373 SnYsidro, 19; Ysleta, L24.
Vaccivzinm (cranberry, etc.):
Frozen --------------------do (I Bloston 3A,170; New York, 2,01. 79 ------------3, 498,.349
Nat ural .------------------o--- Boston, 20.560;) Chicagi o.,400 Newk York. Gh,06 62. 4 76
Philadel1phi, 122,400, Port Ifuron. 124,600. Waiter cAlrop----------------....do.... lhwai iH arlw UKt~ ,10 Now York, 96o,.i~zr 11. 0
Falls 600K; Sani i Fran cisc(o, 6. 1 (XI Seatle,-1400. Watches nut- -do, Blm,;5 Rhino 1tu 6,,I Til, (-hcg,2,011

Lo ~ 1 Anee.1540; Neow Y, 400,I I. Nigr .
1alI29,046: Po tal.100 Pivirolad, 1,0;San

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NN ;tierlmk rot- 1 New Y( rk, V-6X;Prt Lt;nd.l I ,Mio, San Fraisco, 71,SO
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4 i; r Pv -W: Igte. 1,:t i g ira t all ., o t 1.ils 129, 24 1
San 2rnoao 2,9)0







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 85

PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS ENTERED FOR EXPORTATION OR FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EXPORTATION

In addition to the regulated imports for consumption entry recorded in tables 22 to 34, this Bureau supervised the entry under permit, either for exportation or for transportation and exportation, of considerable quantities of plants and plant products, as follows: Flowver bulbs, cormis, and tubers, 416.68'2 ; fruit trees, 1,596 and 2 bales I and 1 box': cacti, 41,119; orchids, 308 and 2 cases'1; mis,cellaneous plants, 38,644, 11 bales'1 and 16 cases'1; sugarcane, 406 pounds; :miscellaneous seeds, 2,418 pounds and 2 cases'1; apples. 11,450 pounds; beans,
-string. 4,515 pounds ; cauliflower. 3,3063 i)4unds ; chestnuts, 460 pounds ; cucuimbers, 1,000 pounds; eggplants, 55,300 pounds; garlic, 2,141,983 pounds; ginger root, 280 pounds; grapes, 142,490 pounds; grapes, hothouse, 538 pounds; grapefruit, 10,317,288 pounds; lemons, 2,104,305 pounds; lily bulbs, edible, 600 pounds; melons, 17,500 pounds; nectarines, 1,500 pounds; onions, 9,024,898 pounds; oranges, 29,747,727 pounds; peas, 446,70S pounds; peppers, 67,510 pounds; pineapples, 113,543 crates: plums, 9,910 pounds; potatoes, 5066,411 pounds; tangerines, 4,000 pounds: tomatoes, 18,319,944 pounds; waterchestnuts, 1,052 pounds; bagging, 2,134 bales: broomcorn, 7,218 bales; shelled corn, .5,129,234 pounds; cotton, 112,284 bales, including 1.816 bales of linters, and 109 packages; cotton waste, 2,971 bales and 1 package; cottonseed, 883,945 pounds; cottonseed cake, 1,140,264 pounds; cottonseed meal, 352,738 pounds; seed or paddy rice, 1,975 pounds; rice straw, 98 bales; and wheat, 7,395 pounds.
MARITIME-PORT INSPECTION

SHIP INSPECTION

Ships from foreign countries and from Hawaii and Puerto Rico are in-spected promptly upon arrival for the presence of prohibited or restricted plant material.
The inspection at ports in California, Florida, Hawaii, and at certain ports in Puerto Rico has been performed by State and Territorial officials serving as collaborators of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
A record by ports of the ship inspection appears in table 35.

2 Information as to exact quantity not available.











86 ANN VAT, 1: 1 14) ],'1 ()F DFJ J.'l M EINT OF ('I I (J71AJ: It E, P.



















































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BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 87



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88 A N N UAF ()KP tT F I)I'EPART,'M ENT ()I- AGRILTVRE, 1933,

C\10 INSPE(i ION

All l u Ita iso ~a ilt(]n 1l;i lit j'l qlI hjUijet to)p~ht~If~l n
res t rict ios rllspecte i~i (,111 at thet( I rl ofil eiry 4it- I ie pw)t o f first a rri a,1 A I*''l lSuI inJ-ratj1 II)' l)OrItS pji.' ill t'lltl 3G.
I I :I ,III(i io to t (I IIT( II I(, 1111)1)rFt NIt i (In c r((It I e d to thIe Mex ia bordtWe-h'r ports thI1er e N' To se',1;11 111 iJ11ali(1 iI IIl,4).1,at IIIonS t IIa It were. 1.( S mall II.It b tn du11ty wva S asese1 11NV eUs-toms1" kl(1 illo ent ry ma'ide. All these( Small lotw o4evr were
ii-spwcted. It wasls n iwesesary, to dtoecnieal time atsva I sirtsr
to tlilt illpeetiufl of iiscellan1eows cargoesA- ill order toll estaIblisi th1c true stItuls of the' inmortation 'and to supcervi Se the eC"leaing (if shipmenits conitalining pro)hibited packing material or con~ltainlated with (libjeetionlable 11ate(rial. Such as soil1.

T,,ABLE 3J6.-Iw18p0tiOnl Of Nhfjinit, of plant aind plant products offered for cn try, fiscal year 1.03)


Ship- Shipmnents m~ents
in- Ship- in- ShipPort spected mnents Potspected' ments
Find en- refused Pot nd en- refused
tered entry tered I entry
under under
permit perm it

Number Number Yumber Vu mber
Baltimore-------------------- 282 1 Mobile-------------------------8 0
Bellinghiam- -------------------- 71 N0 ac o---------------------------1 0
BlameDO ---------------------- 65 1 New Orleans ------------------ 1_841 3
Tloston---------------------- 1,490 1 New York------------------- 11, 901 152
Brown rsville ------------------- 9"1 0 Nogatlesi--------------------- 3, 50 2 3
Buf1ftaTlo ----------------------- 541 0 Norfolk ----------------------- 162 0
Ca le \ico ----------------------- 2f08, 0 Pellsaciola 2 ----------------------(0 0
Cha1-rleston ---------------------147 2 Ph11J i lelIphIiia S0
C"hicagLo ------------------------ 31 0 Port Arthur-------------------- 3 0
Corpus Christi t -------------------1 0 Fort Huron I2-----------------------72 0
1)el Rio ------------------------ 11 0 Portland, Oreg-------------------80o 2
Detoint --------------------- 526 6 Presidio ----- ------------------ 210 0
IDoultlas --------------------- 260 0 Puerto Rico (,ill ports) ---------- 481 I
--l Ps------------------- 1, 163 0 Rio GIrande City --------------- 41 0
-l--as -------------------- 5, C668 0 R o111:1-------------------------- S2 0
GalIvesto n----------------------22 0~ Sa )io-------------------- 6 0
llidaiLgo --------------------, 5 2 Sa Fr-anisco ?------------------933 1,4
Ilnoiu --------------------------- 44W 4l9 Sa n 1)edro I------------------------60t 0
llwuston ---------------------- 167 0 Sanm Ys idro--------------------- 130" I
Jaksnvll --------------------79 0 Sasahe -------------------------------- 0
Key ----------t- 27o' 0 avnh----------------------3 1
LaIredlo----------------------- 3,929 14 Seattle------------------------- 613 4
1,sAn s 2---------------------- 7 0 I aImpa I------------------------- S t
Merede---------------------- 5 0
Miin -------------------------18 Total -------------------410,6912 276

I Port clo)sed Dec. 1, 191j31. 3 Collabomrators saitionedl :t these ports. I Port closed Juneit 15, 1935.

DISINFECTION

IDisitifcwt ion Is required (f certain c iinod ilwit :1,s as coi(dition oft entry aid Wf other c' titilo1dit ies NNwe inspectin reeal th l resenvlce of1 inljurliouls
inlsects' Or plant diese.Iuring he!( fiscnl yeair b1e follow)\iniz plant material
was tr iletell 1under 1 thle supervision of ills]lt iii's ofr til. Bhirt'a 11 : ( 'ottfin, 9,
bales 'Ut t n jt els, :12,25G h11les 1o'i~nw~t. t1.571 ha hes : cotto smpes
!N( ;baggtig,:127 bales ;4 coltIi;-nse 111hull li ir, 15:1) bales ;bomuon 5,8
haes;rice tiber, illials;ga;ls 5~52barl n 9,3114 half kirrels
and kes: ; chest nuits, .5,097 cae nnd hairrels ; t ree seetds. :t6 aei~ us
an~ 8~ ickge ;i scellaiwnouila plit. s, 87 os;nacsu ulbs ilipo)rted
unde spcia perit,75958; nd bu11los Irs 19,5291.
In add 1(1 It lo) t0o1 It i 111) iV0i th10re wereI I r(':I I ci at t11he 11 Inspet ionl h11 ous at I ah
Ingun,1). C ., various hiiins(flatltellimdcto slillsssow
inl table 41.
AIRPLANE INSPECTION

TIh vee thonls:i11 qtId one hundred and fifty lrdnsarvigfo oeg coun1rit. :nd lawal ilere 1151cte 1durn the fi1 cnl year. These' nirp llliCs
a rr, ,,d at the folloIng~i_ I.- port, if tIll try (aexlo Los A el s :111Iie







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 89

and San Francisco, Calif.: Nogales, Ariz.; Miami, Tampa, and *West Pain Beach, Fla.; San Juan, P. R.; Brownsville, Eagle P)ass, El I1aso, L:iredo, and Presidio, Tex. ; and Seattle, Wash. A total of 918 interce)ti()ns of prohibited and restricted plant material were taken from 5-37 airpanes'.
FOREIGN PARCEL-POST INSPECTION

Through cooperation with customs aid post-office officials, mail packages from foreign countries which are f10u'1d lo contain Idants or plant products are referred to inspectors of this Binreau for exalninati,n. Such packages
arriving at ports of entry where no plant qluarantine inspectors are stationed are forwarded by the postal officials to the nearest )ort where inspection can be made.
Table 37 indicates by ports the number and disposition of foreign mail packages inspected during the fiscal yet-r.
Table 37 includes shamrocks, which are permitted entry through tlhe Inails provided they are free from soil. It has not been the policy to include such importations in the annual reports for the past few years but, inasmuch as they represent a considerable amount of work. it seems desirable that they now be shown. Of the number of packages listed above as inspected, the following represent shamrocks: Boston, 8,550; Chicago, 4,885; Detroit. 640; Los Angeles, 388; New York, 31,509; Philadelphia, 3,581 ; St. Paul, 561; San Francisco, 748; and Seattle, 128.

TABLE 37.-Foreign parcel-post packages inspected, fiscal year 1935

Refused Refuse d
entry Diverted entry Diverted
Port Inspected (entire to Wash- Port Inspected (entire to Washor in ington or in ington
part) part)

Number Number Number Number Number Number
Atlanta I ---------- 42 3 18 Naco -------------- 58 0 0
Baltimore --------- 2,400 64 226 New Orleans ------ 237 20 99
Boston -----------1 10,306 87 806 New York --------- 45,908 1,536 2,401
Brownsville ------- 595 13 17 Nogales ----------- 423 23 5
Buffalo ------------ 67 25 7 Philadelphia ------ 10,314 324 733
Chicago ----------- 8, 830 491 270 Portland, Oreg.3-- 18 6 1
Detroit ----------- 4,351 161 257 Puerto Rico (all
Eagle Pass -------- 335 2 2 ports) -------------3 1 0
El Paso ------------ 884 157 26 St. Paul I ---------- 8, 174 156 158
Honolulu --------- 441 19 0 San Diego 1 4 ...... 70 0 0
Jacksonville I ------ 560 75 90 San Francisco 1---- 5, 428 224 0
Laredo ------------ 629 42 3 Seattle ----------- 1,634 92 2
Los Angeles l 2 .... 4,949 148 0 Washington, D. C_ 753 13 ---------Miami I ----------- 40 38 1
Mobile ------------ 1 1 0 Total -------- 107, 450 3,721 5, 122

I Collaborators are stationed at these ports.
2 394 packages diverted to San Francisco for treatment. a 8 packages diverted to Seattle for treatment.
41 package diverted to San Francisco for treatment.

MEXICAN-BORDER SERVICE

The increase in the movement of railway cars from Mexico which took place during the fiscal year 1934 continued during the fiscal year 1935. A total of 30,736 freight cars were inspected in the Mexican railway yards. Of tis
number 28,422 entered the United States and 6,841 were fumigated as a condition of entry. This represents an increase of 74+ percent in tie number of
cars inspected, 73+ percent in the number of cars that entered, and 26+ percent in the number of cars fumigated over the fiscal year 1934. Of the
total number inspected, 1,507 cars were found to be contaminated with cottonseed. Cleaning was required as a condition of entry. The usual f'e of $4 was charged for each car fumnigated and all fees collected were covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. A siiary of the railway-car in.pection and fumigation is given in table 38. In addition to the freight cars listed in table 37, 4,368 Pullman and pas-enger coaches crossed the border and were inspected.







90 .ANNUAL RnEPeOnrTS OF :lPAnTME*rNT OF 19,5

T\InIE 38.-I nspetin and fumigflatiion f rriilway c8 Proving the border from Alkxico, fisCal jir 19i3


Pars CrwihCars Cars Fees
Port ins cotto entered fumigated collected


Number Number Number Sumber Dollara
Browns ville.........................- ............... 693 24 656 16 64
Doul s .. ............................- .......... 899 18 b99 34 136
Eagle Pass.-............- ............- .............. 2, 262 209 1, 938 903 3, 700
El Paso ---- ...- ........................- ........... 6,976 354 5, S2" 11,245 4.448
Laredo. . ..------------------------------------ 12, 567 703 12, 032 3, 417 13,868
Naco. ..---------------------------------------- 717 29 716 14 56
Nogales... ... ...------------------------------------ 6, 3M 132 6, 118 1, 131 4,800
Presidio. .. ..-------------------------------------- 234 38 234 81 324
Total... .. ...--------------------------------- 30, 736 1,507 28,422 6,841 *27,190

I Includes 31 cars not from Mexico.
I The apparent discrepancy in fees collected and the number of cars fumigated may be explained by the fact that it is customary for the railroads to purchase fumigation coupons in advance.

Plant-quarantine inspectors at Mexican border ports take an active part, In cooperation with the customs service, in the inspection of vehicles, baggage, personal effects, and express packages from Mexico. A total of 203,833 pieces of baggage and between 3,500,000 and 4,000,00) vehicles, including 56,233 street cars, were inspected. This inspection resulted in the interception of a considerable quantity of prohibited and restricted plant material. A record of such interceptions appears in table 43.

INSPECTION IN PUERTO RICO AND HAWAII

III addition to the enforcement of the foreign-plant quarantines and regulatory orders, the inspectors stationed in Puerto Rico also enforce tli provisions of Quarantine No. 5S. This involves the inspection of fruits and vegetables in the fields, in packing houses, and on the docks, and all shipments of such products moving to the mainland have been certified as free from pests.
Inspection is also made of parcel-post packages originating on the island and destined for points in continental United Stales. A total of 718 packages were inspected and 60 were found to contain prohibited plant material and were returiled to the sendler.
A record by ioniths of the amounts of fruits and vegetables inspected and certified for shipment to the mainland appears in table 30.
Inspectors stationed in Hawaii art engaged principally with the enforcement 4f Quarantine No. 13 on account of the Mediterranean fruit fly and the melon fly. Inspections were made in the fields, in packing sheds, and on the docks of such fruits and vegetables as are permitted to 11ove to the mainland.
Inspection was also nade of parcel-post packages originating in the Hawaiian Islands and destined for points on the mainland. A total of 89,843 packages were opened and examined, 99,344 packages were inspected without being opened, arid $0 packages were found to contain prohibited plant material.
As an acco )minodat ion to travelers between IHiwaii and the mainland baggage is inspected and suled in Honolulu. During the fiscal year 2,343 pieces of baggage were inspected and sealed ulder this arrangement.
In both Hawaii and Puerto Itico valuable assistance was rendered by insular pilint-uarantiline inspectors sevvilg a coll~lrabnts.
A record of the amounts of fruits and vegetbles insl ected and certified for shlpment front Itawaii to the muainimalid apnears in table 10.











BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 91



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IThe edlible root (Ne7lumnbium Pndmtirb I) is also wxell known to the trade as41 iitu; ro)ot.

INSPECTION OF SPECIAL-PERMIT AND DEPARTMENTAL PLANT MATERIAL

As in previous years, all id:iiits finiporte-d unde-r -peciil Imniilit have beeni insp(cted at portt, of enitry designuied for such matori:1. A abulnir record
of, special-perinit liJjortaI'tioiis I<1W11h'5el1tcMl ill 1.d able 5. Tin' inajowi ty (if Such sZpeIl -perm11it impormtant ion)IsI' hve been1, as" inl formerly -(. yeas, ill:p cteod aIt Xa iI I n, 1). C. aI l t I Ie(', t()oet lk.ei'N WitII I dopl a1tfill, I I I 11piwt1*(at ion an 1 1d (i -4trihUtI ., frIomIl S]I Washint )1, jilplUd jug domwstic plat eteringi :1nd leaving- the I list ricl of Codlumian are ilolopete1 anid IIIi ji d for)I shlilflfleit at I he I I j )It riflent inspection hise, inl the nursery' or in frc,_igt, Wxr~ or )0t tlce
A s I nI Iry of tlile in s Iect lis i ma ide a2 1. VaWsl Ii iigt on, I.). (,i- g i in tnlo 41.







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 93


TABLE 41.-Summary of plais and plant product. offered for in.upcction in the District of Columnbia, fiscal year 19.35


In- InMaterialinspected For- Domes- Fumi- Other- feste( fected
eign tic gated %e with with
treated insects diseases


Lots of seeds (departmental) ----------------------- 5, 550 3, 863 4, 855 501 892 284
Plants, cuttings, bulbs, roots, rhizomes, etc. (departmental) ------------------------------------------- 13,281 71,620 15,610 7,366 1 369 1 207
Miscellaneous unclassified material, other than plants
and seeds (departmental) -----------------------206 89 74 22 4 2
Shipments of plants under regulation 14, Quarantine
No. 37 (commercial) ------------------------------- 1,179 ---------250 94 344 302
Shipments of plants and plant products under regulations 3 and 15, Quarantine No. 37 (commercial) ----- 721 -------- 401 54 66 51
Containers of domestic plants other than departmental (mail, express, freight, and truck) ----------.-------- 8,900
Shipments of plants by private individuals ----------.-------- 2,910 10 89 99 45
Interceptions of plants and plant products referred to
Washington, D. C -------------------------- 1,263 -------- 517 143 105 39
Cotton samples referred to Washington, D. C _------ 17, 417 -------- 17, 417 --------..................

I Lots.

INSPECTION OF PLANT-INTRODUCTION AND PROPAGATING GARDENS

As heretofore, plants grown and distributed by the Bureau of Plant Industry from its plant-introduction and propagating gardens were inspected and certified prior to shipment. Plants shipped from Mandan, N. Dak., Coconut Grove,
Fla., and Chico, Calif., were inspected by officials of the States concerned, cooperating with this Bureau. Those distributed from Savannah, Ga., were
examined by an inspector of this Bureau. Table 42 indicates the number of )lants inspected and certified for distribution.

TABLE 42.-Plants, budsticks, cuttings, tubers, roots, and stipvncuts of seeds
examined for distribution froinv plant-introduction and propagating ga rdcnm,
fiscal year 1935


Bud- Budsticks, Ship- sticks, ShipStation Plants cuttings, ments of Station Plants cuttings, ments of
tubers, seeds tubers, seeds
and roots and roots


Number Number Number Number Number Number
Bell, Md --------- 48,952 1,806 ----------- Mandan, N. Dak 312,887 ----------...........
'Chico, Calif ------- 9,317 538 81 Beltsville, Md.... 4,321 -Coconut Grove,
Fla ------------1,752 1,936 33 Total ------- 387, 838 30, 984 11,289
Savannah, Ga----- 341 2, 127 ----------District of Columbia ------------ 10,268 24,577 11,175


INTERCEPTIONS OF PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

A record of the number of interceptions of prohibited and restrictvd plants and plant products appears in table 43. Many (f tfese iliter'el)II lis wer"
found to harbor insect pests and plant diseases and many others. while showing no infestation or infection, must l e considered potentially dangerous, as they came from countries where pests not present in this country are known to occur.
Interceptions made at bridges, ferries, and crossin.gs at the Ml(exi(-aii and Canadian border ports have all been considered is having b taken fromn
,baggage.








934 A 77 N IA IEP()]lTS- OF DEPA]I IF' N ET OF A11 19T RE, I'93


TA!:4:V-Yullstt hr Of it tcrcr pti tf I roji t ( anit r( x Iriu d plaoti awl pb(6fit I rouux.fcI y arJi.


11 l i~ ~e i (aro In iill Ini ju irte.rs In1, rt Total


PIr,(,o R Pro.- le Pro- Ie Pro- I"(" Pr,,- Ie Pro- ht11alt t ---------- to6 42 36 1 4 82 5 143
------n --- -- --4-- 4- - 1 2 2 10 2 2 07 107 25

1 ro, n v i 1!e ---3 --- i 10 3u - -- - - -- --- 3, 230 330,
IPrunsi- ek1------ ------- ----- ------- ------- ------ ------- ---- -----IJul1 --------------1 l ---------4 29 ---- ------- ----1 5 21,
'le;w - ------2,044 -- -- - -- -- --1- -- -- - -
C! iarl e-Loil 100-- 2-- -- - - - - A 19 2,04411
CIcago------------ 1 0 10 0 22 310-------- ---------------234' 310
('rus(hi6 41 7 r
Del Riol---------I 59 --4 ----- -----4-Detrfi 71------ ------- ------1 57-3--3 ---- ------ ------- ------ ------- 78 74
D ouglas 3---------- 7 10 72 35 5 1 ---- 5---3--- ---- 7S 17C
bagle P-----------1,537 j---------- ------------ ------ ------- ------ -------1,538 10-1
ElP~-- -- --, 6 1 87 -------------- 0 132 -- ------ ------------------ -- -- 14 22- - -- -- - - - 145 2
U~v~on -----6 2 2------ --------2 5 20 1 8)7 14
ilIp r t ~- - - - - 7 0 1 6 1 131
lidlgur----------- 1,209 7T- ------- ------ ------- ------ ------- ------ -------104 79z
Hoouu~--------51 204 141 3 --------2 4 666C 214,
hoso ------ i------- ------ -------S IS 1- 1-20-2Ja'ck soilvilIle 6 1 1------ --------4S 29 7 12 23 "1 79 50
Rev West 6 ---------134 341 2 421 8 15-4 39
Lre 10 ----------- 4,737 43---- ---------1------- ------ -----------43
Lo- AngeleS8 --- 3 2 0 7 74 79-------- 1 0 78 82
"Ie rced es--------- 345 4 ------ ------- ------ ------- ---i --------------3t
I ini ------------ 402 902 9 3 8 32~ 130 517 23 1 5 75 534
Nao--------7 3------------ ------- --------------3e Orezs---30 366 I 1 4 3 1 5" 1 101 77 14 1034 4
'New York-------- 1. T23 1, 778, 29 2)I1 1 309 1, 540 28621 123 104 12 2.,507 13,664A
N( -----------2: ,34 612---------0 23j ----- ------- ------ ------- 2,349 6535
Norfolk------ ------- ------- 1-- -----06 2711
1~na-------- ------- ------- ------ ------- ------ -------1 6 19, 3 3
P!liael 1,111" 23 1 26 ,6 4 1 26 2S 31
Po(rtI A r t 1ur 0 --- 2 2 01 1 24------- 71 14 1 17
Port Huron -------- 0 73------ ------- ----i- ------- ------ ------- -----Portlnd --- --- -- 12 08 4--- -- - -- -- 4----- ---------uertic (al 4 0------------- 6------ --------- 4 5 1~ 01 47 7 1

l~~~jo~5 (;d~e(iy 8--------- ------- ------ ----- -------- ------- ------ ------------1
Nt1al 1 1 142) 17 1412
.anl~igoS __ 11 4----------- ------ -------8 0 312
iri Fr ricico 1'l1 21 233 261 123 '50 s4 11 49 g1
0an Vcidro I-------4,106 144 0-- --- --------------------,5 12
_Ar Pedfro --------16 7 5 1 15 (qI------ ------- -------------- ------ ------- ----- ----------------------041lu
J, L1, 74 17 ----------------- 14 17
Savainah------------1~~----- 0--------------10-02- 4 10 1
Setl-------------74 40 3 0 2 1 2 0 1 01 103i 7
Tanip 33 0 1------ --------191 5 3 7 1

Bech8~0 2--------------- 11 0 i 1 14
Ysea----- 1372 22 --- --- ..
Tot LI ----- :11, 6,,2 V 10773 73 s 3 ~ lI.4 ,9 7 2,26 3f 05 1,

I Wor k a1 liHod b)y in~pector stat loneo I ait ivy in i, (ha.
( ort 1,,rl I )oc. 1I, 1, 'j 1
I n'rc p' ion in :i ire, re Or le I at 1 u ('U 012 strain only, tiid tho number reportedly ropre,,4ntt
1 ri I f in, lot f 1 W r I bYr jiL.
4 1' rI I man. 1 : "i
XV~~~r~ Tt ~l It ' i r Stit on., I At M ''11:11, Al
~ ~ 1~ r r e I It r f e~'p r
1,'r 10 1 Il I uul B o, 1 9 4 i i I 4 r T o i ,I i h ir k Y







BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 95


PESTS INTERCEPTED

During the fiscal year the inspectors and collaborators of the Bureau collected from foreign plants and plant products insects belonging to 1,680 recognized species -and others distributed among 1,488 genera and families, fungi and
bacteria belonging to 280 recognized species, plant-parasitic nemlatodes belonging to 14 recognized species, and numbers of interceptions of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes, or other agents that could be referred to family, genus, or other group only. Many of these interceptions were of considerable economic or scientific importance.
A total of 44,754 interceptions of insects and plant diseases were made during the fiscal year 1935. A summary of the interceptions appears in table 44,

TABLE 44.-Nutrber of interceptions of insects and plant diseases made dilling the fiscal year 1935


Cargo Stores Baggage Quarters Mail Total

Port
In- Dis- In- Dis- In- Dis- In- Dis- In- Dis- In- Dissects eases sects eases sects eases sects eases sects eases sects eases


Baltimore------------- 254 31 109 146 1 1 36 22 36 14 436 214
Bellingham -------------6 5 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 11 8
Blaine----------------- 5 4 0 0 7 2 0 0 0 0 12 6
Boston I ------------------81 62 192 18 7 58 13 18 6 36 12 385 280
Brownsville------------ 44 3 2 0 230 4 26 0 0 0 302 7
Buffalo---------------- 0 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0) 17
Calexico--------------- 0 0 0 0 30 1 0 0 0 0 30 1
Charleston------------ 441 15 9 58 0 0 2 0 0 0 452 73
Chicago---------------- 1 4 0 1 0 1 0 1 15 6 16 13
Corpus Christi 2 .... 0 0 9 23 0 0 1 1 0 0 10 24
iDel Rio---------------- 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 13 0
Detroit---------------- 42 49 3 7 1 0 0 0 19 31 65 87
Douglas---------------- 0 0 0 0 22 3 0 0 0 0 22 3
Eagle Pass------------- 79 3 1 0 95 5 0 0 0 0 175 8
El Paso--------------- 133 39 1 1 208 123 0 0 5 2 347 165
Fabens3--------------- 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 4 1
Galveston------------- 5S7 4 33 109 3 0 23 4 0 0 646 117
Hawaii---------------- 93 0 4 0 104 0 1 0 107 o 0"309 0
Hidalgo---------------- 8 4 0 0 39 9 0 0 0 0 47 13
Houston--------------- 20 4 55 174 1 0 13 1 0 0 89 179
Jacksonville 4---------------9 0 20 85 0 0 3 0 5 7 37 92.
Key West4--------------3 0 1 6 11 2 2 0 0 0 17 8
Laredo ---------------- 730 16 1 0 134 1 0 0 0 0 865 17
Los Angeles ------------ 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 12 0 15 0
Miami 4---------------- .. ... 79 6 45 18 292 15 126 6 4 2 546 47
Mobile 6 -----------------679 3 116 385 2 6 20 7 0 1 817 402
Naco------------------ 5 0 0 0 28 0 0 0 0 0 33 0
New Orleans ---------- 1,908 146 368 554 86 23 250 84 29 6 2,641 81a
New York ------------ 6,824 2,907 3, 573 1, 398 1,853 640 764 143 247 172 13, 261 5, 260
Nogales --------------- 2,983 615 1 8 389 123 0 2 6 0 3,379 748
Norfolk--------------- 49 4 4 10 0 0 5 3 0 0 5S 17
Pensacola4 .-..-.--.-..-.--.-. 0 0 34 80 0 0 13 0 0 0 47 s0
Philadelphia -------- 1,698 261 438 1,010 6 8 207 109 192 155 2,541 1,543
Port Arthur------------ 12 1 45 135 0 0 14 3 0 0 1 139
Portland--------------- 5 3 2 2 7 0 0 0 2 0 16 5
Presidio -------------- 35 0 U 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 39 1
Rio Grande City ---- 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2
Roma------------------ 1 0 0 0 0 0 U 0 0 U 1 0
San Diego4--------------2 0 24 7 3 1 5 0 1 U 35 8
San Francisco 4-----------553 40 181 54 285 9 199 3 285 8 1, 503 114
San Juan--------------- 3 2 1 0 7 1 0 0 0 1 11 4
San Pedro4 ............----247 4 193 55 83 4 43 1 0 0 1566 64
San Ysidro------------- 23 3 0 0 22 4 0 0 0 0 45 7
Sasabe6---------------- 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 U 6 0
Savannah-------------- 0 0 24 52 0 0 8 0 0 U 32 52
Seattle ---------------- 260 65 59 26 75 21 109 30 46 60 549 202
Tampa4----------------19 11 16 74 2 1 4 0 0 0 41 86
Thayer---------------- 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Washington, D. C -- 830 359 0 0 9 1 0 0 1,454 619 2,293 979
Ysleta----------------- 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 4 2
Miscellaneous -----------2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 U
Total ---- ------ 18,755 4,690, 5.5731 4,668 4, 124 1,028 1,892, 426 2.,502. 1,096 32,S46, 11,908
Includes interceptions at Providence, R. I.
2C Closed Dec. 6, 1934.
3 Closed June 1, 1935.
4 Collaborators stationed at these ports.
s Includes interceptions at Gulfport, Miss.
Closed June 15, 1035.







9(5 ANNUAL RvPi'uvTS OF DEPANtTMENT: OF AGRICULTURE, 1935

CERTIFICATION FOR EXPORT

I )i 11.,(,il tikt I yew- V 111, a total oif (;.!N ui)7nsrj~e~'t u 2.792.1'29
vvn'ii it' f1I1 ;111( plant irwoti-ts, Nvere ilispected( anwl certified for h)p 11:(-'filT? I lit, viia req(uireinel,; it' forin coiit ries. While this
reji e~nt~ al r'a Wo 315 in the number o)f shipments, there was an
'iU1l: Iilwe~se fT1,555 ini the total niitiiber ofcotneseriedor

L'e~ tieits wreiS~l((1at 26 ports andl cove retl 58 different commnodlities vliiuli wotro expior eti 58 foreign countries. Smie of the Iiiire important
tiifl~~ N tis ii'l-~t-tetl a1d1(1 tifid were: Apple s, 2.148 shipmnents, copnsisting ot' 1.2-50142 bxs, t,90 baskets, andl 38,W64 barrels; pears, 8S42 shipmnents,
(u~'~is!i(g)f 5.41l)o)xeS,* Iotatovs. 1,121; shiiimenit-, consistingl of 300770 as,13,S11) barrels, andl 8.410 crates and boxes; oranges,, 479 shipments, con-isting- of 291I.597- boxes; grapefruit, 160 shipments, co)nsistlng of 21,0)05 boxes;
iiisellaleusfruits an(] vegetables, 1,190 shipments, consisting of 108,539 conitainiers. Tue cortifi('ation of apples and pears was conductedI cooperatively with the Bureatu of Agricultural Economics.

UNIVERSITry OF FLORIDA



3 1262 09236 6474







































0I -1 Gf1"NNT PRITING~ OMCIct 10


1 V~ ?Ii'Su'r itthutyi ()f I ()4iItnIvit5. Wat 41iln (Tun, 1).(..--------- .Price to cents