A bibliography of cyanide compounds used as insecticides, 1931

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A bibliography of cyanide compounds used as insecticides, 1931
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Cupples, Homer L ( Homer Leslie ), 1899-1973
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Insecticide Investigations
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Bibliography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 58
        Page 59
    Index of authors, inventors and assignees (References are to the citations by number)
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Subject index (References are made to the citations by number)
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
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        Page 70
    Back Cover
        Page 71
        Page 72
Full Text










I'lnvem'ber ,' ",."


A I:L. IOC-RAPHY OF CYANIDE CCi.'MO .'DS -S::i AS I;:SECTIC:ES, 1931

B.,T H. L. Cu, 'ples, Division of insecticide Invest' -ations,
Bvr.cau of Entomologo ann,1 P? :nt Q,-r ntine
United States Department of Agriculture

I wRCLUTC 107

This biblioe-rai'hy,, the second of a series dealing- with the
insecticidal uses of cyanide compounds, was preparred br consaltir:.-
the 1,-31 files of the following abstract journals:

British Chemical Abstracts
C.,emical Abstracts
Cherniisches Zentralblatt
Experiment Station Record
Physiological Abstracts
Qr'.rterly Cumulative Index .ecUctcs
Review of Applied Ento ology, Series A
Review of Applied Ento;iology, Series B.

(1;

A!OIYM OUS

E:ITOMIOLOGY. Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta. 49th Ann. Rept. 1929-1930, Bull.
470: 79-95. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 433. 1-;31.]

Against white grubs (L-.chnosterna) in flower gardens, G. A.
Filinger found that a solution of 8-10 oz. sodium cyanide in 50(U. S.)
g-ls. water, spria)kled over the infested n-ea at the rate of 2-1/2
gals. to each sq. yd. and washed off the plants one or two hours after-
wanrds to avoid injuring them, ;ave good results.

----- '(2)

FUMIGATIO1T FOR CONTROL OF SCALE I:'SECTS OF CITRUS TREES. V.. S. Ui'les
Dept. Agr. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Apr1. E..t. 19(A): 195. 1931.]

The best time of year for fumigation in :Icw South 7nles is from
December to March, as the fruit is then small, anrid as it e:.T-p.ds it will
throw off the dead coccids. White wax scale (Ceroplastes ceriferus
And.) is generally in the early stages of development in January rid
February and is easily killed, though later on control is far more dif-
ficult, In the case of red scale (Chrysomphalus aurntii Lask.) there
is no evidence that mortality ii higher from December to J-ua.uary than
in late autumh and winter, but if fumigation is delayed until the fruit
has nearly reached its full size, it will not become clean by picking
time. It is, however, better to fumigate late than to leave trees in-
fested until the following summer, though when the fruit is nearly ripe
fumigation may cause it to fall. The pot method and the dust calciumm
cyanide) method are described. Other methods include the use of a








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porous mineral 'earth impregnated with hydrocyanic acid which is kept
in air-tight canisters, and merely scattered under the tent. 'Another
method uses a high grade calcium cyanide compressed into small blocks
which do not give off their gas until they are ground up and blown
under the tent.

(3)

IiT.TU.RIOUS I:TSECTS AD OTHER PESTS. Kans. State Bd. Agr. Bien. Rept.
1929-1930: 103-118. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 64: 852. 1931.]

It -,s observed that insects did considerable burrowing on the
plats treated with various insecticides. All the arsenicals were in-
jurious to plant growth. Sodium cyanide and paradichlorobenzene
greatly reduced the yield. Most of the sodium compounds had a de-
flocculating effect on the soil, rendering it less permeable to water.

(4)

RESEARCH IN F1L.IGATION A-D STERILIZATION METHODS. Fla. Agr. Expt. Rept.1930:
86-87. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 65: 454. 1931.]

In connection with toxicity studies by R. J. VWilmot and R. L.
Miller a new and original metiod was designed by which insects in
cotton stoppered glass tubes can be easily and quickly exposed to an'
atmosphere of known ccXncntration of hydrogen cyanide gas. House
flies were killed in 128 sec. by 0.34-0.40%'hydrocyanic acid, and in
165 sec. by a 50% lower concentration.

ALLMAITD', A. J., and CHAPLIN, R. (5)

ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN CYA'I:IDE AND OF CARBON DIOXIDE AT LOW
PRESSURES BY ACTIVATED CHARCOALS. Roy. Soc. [London] Proc. Ser., A.,
132: 460-479. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 5328. 1931.]

By use of '. PirLni --ge the adsorption isotherms of hydrocynnic
acid were determined for four specimens of activated chrcoal (evacuated)
at 25C00. and over a pressure range of 0.001 to 0.2 mm. Hydrocyanic acid
behaves in a manner similar to r-ter. There are two distinct adsorption
processes, of whi-h both are active with steam- or air- activated char-
coals, but only one is active with chemically activated charcoals. This
difference is ascribed to the occupation of the regions of highest po-
tential by mineral matter.

ATDREWATAHA, H. G. (6)
THE APPLE CURCULIO. Jour. Dept. Agr.'West. Aust. 8(2); 106-114.
1.931. [Abstract in Ruv. Appl, Ent. 19(A): 467. 1931.]

As the weevils bury. themselves'at the base of the tree durin-
the& dny,',calcium cyanide might be applied irI or on the soil' around
the trunk, but this would probably hane to be repeated sbo often-as
to render its use uneconomical. '








ANSOi, M. L., and L.IRSKY, A. E. (7)

BEACTIOc1S OF CYAfIDE WITH GLOBIIT E-:':c:>J .GEu. Jour Ge. P-,'siol
14: 43-54. 1930. [.Abstracts in Brit. Cliem. Aor 193'. (A): I';iJ.30,
Chem. Abs. 25: 125. 1931.]

Cyanide reacts writh globin hemochrorjo-:r. (1) without displacir:
or competing with globin, or (2) by displacing -lcbin. The first com-
pound is probably a typical hcmochromogcn; the second is probably a
compound of cyanide with cy,,r.ide hemoehromccen.

AVERSE'!O, JALOUSTRE, and MIALRIll (8)

NEUTRALIZATION OF T.E TOXICITY OF VARIOUS PCISC:" BY T--CR:.: X.
Compt. Rend. 191: 734. 1930. [In Fre-ncL.. Abstract in Chem. Zentbl.
102 (I): 813. 1931.]

Experiments show that thorium X greatly reduces the toxicity of
various poisons, including the toxicity of potassium cyanide to fish.

BADGER, R. M., and BI.DER, J. L. (9)

ABSORPTICIT BAITDS OF HYDROGE CYANIDE GAS I'" THE YEAR I:'FRA-RED.
Pysiol. Rev. 37: 800-807. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 3567. 1931.]

The absorption spectrum of gaseous hydrocyanic acid has
been investigated in the region 7000-9200 A. U. Two weak bands of
simple structure and having P and R but no Q branches were found at
7912 and 8563 A. U. The hydrocyanic acid molecule is linear in-the
normal state and has a moment of inertia I = 18.79 x 1C-40 g. cm.2.
The distance between the carbon and nitrogen atc,.- is estimated as
1.15'x 10-8 cm. -A discussion is given of Che hyc.rocyanic acid molecule
with regard to its three fundamental oscillations, its dissociation
energy and dissociation products. The evidence shows that the
molecular structure should be represented by the formula H-C-N, and that
the normal molecule is built from a normal hydrogen atom and a normal
cyanide radical. No absorption bands could be detected in the photographic
infra-red.

BALACHOWSKY, A. (10)

THE VALUE OF T7HITE OILS IN THE CONTROL OF TH-E CC'CIDS ITJURIOTS
TO THE AUr.ANTIACEA3 AND THE ORI!A.B::TAL PL-ZTS. C0F SC... EfR FFAiTCE
Rev. Path. Veg. et Ent. Agr. 17: 396-4C6. 1930. [In French. Ab-
stract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 249. 1931.]

The author reviews the advantages and disadvantages of various
types of oil used as insecticides, and explains that hydrocyanic
acid fumigations have largely taken the place of heavy oils in the
treatment of citrus and other trees (in Southern France) in order
to avoid injury to foliage.

BAMAG-MEGUIN A.-G. (11)

CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF AMMONIA, HYDROCYANIC ACID, ETC. French Patent











706,725, issued June 29, 1931; applied for November 29, 1930;, in
Ger-any October 4, 1930. [In French. Abstract in Chem.i Zentbl. 102
(2): 1894. 1931.]

A pla binum-rhodium alloy is used as catalyst.

BANCROFT, W. D., and RIC!iTR, : .H. (12)

CLAUJDE BEPTARDIS THEORY OF NARCOSIS. Natl. Acad.. Sci. Proc. 16: 573-577.
193C. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 355. 1931.]

Th3 theory that anesthesia is due to reversible coagulation
of the proteins of the sensory nerves is thought to be supported by
the fact tlat strychnine, mercuric chloride, and hyd.rocyanic acid
proOduce, when in high dilution, increasing irritability instead of
na-mosis, this intermediate stage occurring as the proteins approach
the point of instability.

BAJTGA, I., SC:.EIDER,- L., and SZE1--GYCT.I 3)

EFFECT OF HYDROCYATIC ACID ON TISSUE RESPIRATION. Biochem. Ztschr.
240: 454-461. 1931. [In German. Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index hMedicus
10: 358. 1931.]

BARCROFT, J. (14)

TH] TOXICITY OF AT'DOSPHERES G2'TAIiIG HYDROCYA'.'IC ACID GAS. Jour. Hyg.
[London] 31: 1-34. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 2201. 1931.]

The specific power of hydrocyanic acid gas to increase the total
ventilation is an important factor in determining the specific toxicity
of the gas.' Man is relatively insusceptible to the inhalation of
hydrocyanic acid. The time of exposure sufficient for collapse is
about one-third of the fatal period of exposure. The extreme suscepti-
bility of the canary makes it very valuable as an indicator of lethal
concentrations hero a chemical indicator is not available. Pi'eons
arc as good sirn:e their vomit at the lethal concentration for the canary,
although their lethal concentration is about twice as great. :reat-
ment consists of artificial respiration, and the administration of
glucose and nitrites.

BAKER, J. (15)

THE EFFECT OF HYDRCGE:' CYANIDE ON THE I:ETABCOLISI: OF THE POTATO.
Du;pt. Sci. Indus. Ros. Ropt. Food Invostn. Bd. 1930:
61-64. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4914. 1931.]

The exposure of potatoes to air containing small amounts of hydro-
cyanic acid considerably increased the carbon dioxide production ,?nd
the oxyF-fn uptake, the respiratory quotient remaining at its 'normal
value of 1. Up to 0.5 cc. hydrocyanic acid per liter, no irreversible
effects were produced, but at highenor concentrations there was evidence





-5-


of damage. The rise in metabolism v.s followed by a ste-dy fall. Th-.
total sugar incrascd parallel with the :ictabolizm during the risi:.- sh.zc,
and decreased with the falli.-. metabolis.m It is co-.cl..icd that h.ydro-
cyanic acid at first activates, cna then jnacti-.rtus, the a-ylacC of
potatoes, simil-- ;y to its action on br,'- [y."-pse :*-.d the incrc-rsc in
sugar production gives incr(-e.ed redpi:-.won.

BERNIEWITZ, M. 7. von (IC)

THE SO-CALLED CYAITIEE ECZEi.:A. Jour. Indus. Hyg. 13: 115. 1931.
S[Abstract in 1."cn,' Zenthl. 102 (2); 3358. 1931.]

The skin affection occurring -tmon.'s,. .-_ld-;ine workers is not cauIst.
by cyanide poiso:'.rin, but is caused by the irritation from stro'- .-'alkalies.

BETn, H. (17)

HY:ROCYANIC POI0SOUIIT THROUGH 9:I:y. Zentbl. Gewerbh-..;g. 'Jnfallverhuit. 18:
249. 1931. [In German. Abstract in Chem, A.bs. 10: 35. 1931.]

* BEUSCH. (1S)

ZiIGAWIO 17ITH HYDROCYA:TIC ACID GAS AT THE CIVIC DIS::FEC:'ION I-STI-'TZ
AT KONIGSBERG, PRUSSIA. Ztschr. Eesinfektion 22: 723-725. 1S30.

[In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19 (A): 128. 1931.]

A description is given of a fu-i,ation chamber in which hydrocyanic
acid g.s, produced by Zyklon-B, is used to free furniture, etc, from such
pests. as clothes moths.

BHAGAVAIITAIM, S. (12)

RAr/',T SPECTRA OF S'01,E TRIATC'!.,IC ;OLrC'LES. :-iture 12C: 995, 1930.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 1735. 1931.]
Photographs of the spectrum of liquid hydrocyanic'acid show a triplet
with shifts of 2076, 2097.2 and 2122, the middle component being much
stronger than the others.

BOURDERIOTCITET, M. (20)

INSECTICIDE. French Patent C94,139 issued lovbrrjbr 28, 1930; applied for
April 18, 1930. [In Fren.ch. Abstract in Cnem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 3160.

:. 1931]

An* insecticide consisting of a mixture of liquid hydrocyanic acid with
3-6o oxalic acid as a stabilizer and 2-5 cyanogen br;):-ide as irritant. The
mixture can be stored or transported without d-'.n--r in closed metal con-
tainers (inamelled or lacquered).

BRACKETT, F. S., and LIDDEL, U. (21)

ITFRA-RED ABSORPTION BANDS OF HYDROG7:T CYAITIDE IN GAS AID LIQJID. S"ithsn.
Misc. Collect. 85 (5): 1-8. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 5349. 1931.3





-6-


A prism spectrograph of high resolution is described which was
used to investigate the absorption spectrum of hydrocyanic acid in the
liquid and gaseous phases. A value was found for the moment of inertia of
the molecule in good agreement with Badger and Binderts value, and their
conclusions are confirnoid as to the arrangement of the atoms within the
noleriile. onndes of vibration, etc.

BRATT, J. F. (22)

A CASE OF HYDROCYANTIC ACID PCISCITWG. Norsk. ;Mg. Loegovidenskap. 92:
159. 1931. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index l1edicus 9: 337. 1931.]

BRAUIE, K., and ASCYE. T. (23)

THE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT AND DIPOLAR MOMENT OF TFYDROCYANIC ACID AND CYAiOGEN.
Ztschr. Phys. .hLem. 14(B): 18-26. 1931. [In German. Abstract in Chem.Aba.
25: 5804. 1931.]

The tempe-rature coefficient of the dielectric constant of hydro-
cyanic acid and cy-.rnog-en was measured in the gaseous state. The values of j
the molecular polarization calculated from the equations P = 12.63 4-
(51200/T) and P 12.62- + (566/T) for hydrocypnic acid and cyanogen,
respectively, showed the dipolar momernt to be 2.88 x 10-18 for hydro-
cyanic acid and 0.3 x 10-18 for cyanogen.
'I
BREDIG, G., ELOD, E., and DEMIfiE, E. (24)

CATALYTIC FORMATION OF HYDROCYATIC ACID. II. FOEMATION OF HTDROCYANIC
ACID FROM HYDROCARBONS AND AICC:TIA. Ztschr. Elektrochem. 36: 991-1003.
1930. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 1176. 1931.]

The action of ammonia on ethylene, acetylene, and methane in the pre-
sence of catalysts was investigated.- At temperatures above 7000C.
h,.7lrocyanic acid formed, the yield rising through a maximum with increasing
temperature. Under given conditions the hydrocyanic acid yield is highest
with ethylene. The reaction between ammonia and ethylene is a catalytic
surface reaction, catal-ozed preferably by a mixture of quartz and clay or
by pure clay. 7"he highest yields of hydrocyanic acid, based on ammonia
uscd, were from the proportions I'HM3:C2"H< 1:1. The action of animonia
on ethylene or methane is not direct, but by disproportionation of the
hydrocarbon, e.g., C2H4. 2C+ 2CH4. Both reactions can be influcnc!d by
hydrogen or methane addition. The relation of hydrogen formed to methane
formed depends upon temperature, but at the best temperature of 8'00C. it
is quite independent of gas velocity. In the action of ammonia on
ethylene the hydrocyanic acid yield is independent of duration of contact
within the limits investigated. Methane forms hydrocyanic acid only at
temperatures at which the therrTiodynamic conditions for ethylene forma-
tion are present. It is probable that hydrocyanic acid formation-from
ethylene and ammonia, or nethane and mnnoniar, proceeds by means of the
into rrediate formation of ethylene.


BREDIG, G., ELOD, E., and KOITIG, W.


(25)







- 7 -


CATALYTIC FOERATI^:.T OF HYDPOCY-'IC ACID. V. CERIUM C:,ILZ AS CATAL:';- I'
T1lE F:R.R.ATIOUT OF HYDROCYAIIC ACID. ;tschr, Elektrochem. 7: -1. .
[In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. [.: 1177. 1312.]

'Thi formation of apreciable quantities of cerium nitride, cerium
hn'.arde' or cer: .-. carbide as inter-ledia,t, products of r, 2c,% o .
catal.'st dSrint cate;l:is of hydrecp- ni zacid. frr-;, carbon mono:c.iI-. and Pmmoni
does' not coite int. consideration. mmocnia formation iby action of
nitrogen and hydrogen upon. metallic ceriiumn is complete only in the presence
of'oxyt'-en'and with simultaneous oxidation of -cerilun to cerium oxide.
It was determined by X-rays that cerium oxide during catalr'is suffered
neither change of crystal structure nor lattice a:'r".-ement, Ai --rently
the formation of hydrocyanic acid from carbon monoxide and ammonia t'kes
place via nasc, .t, free carbon, On this .acis, the course of the reaction
Sis shown." 'LUnder the conditions no aen'.:':..; cy-- te is for.-:e-i as intermediate
product in the formation of hydrocyanic acid. There is apparently a relation
between crystal, size, adsorption,power, and catalytic activity of cerric
Iewe pti I Isize,
oxideds of the same properties, vihich have under-one various prelirinr-ry
treatments.

PREDIO, G. I' ELflD, .E... Ia jd' T-C~UL: (6

CATALYTIC F:,RLATIOIT OF HYDROCYATIC ACID. IV. Frhi.AOP OF T-IDROCTAIC
ACID FROM CARBON MOITCXIDE A:D AIL_:,OiA. Ztschr. Elektrochem. 36: 1< 7-1023,
1I50. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Aos. 25: 1176. 1931.1

Increasing the excess of carbon monoxide favors '-drc cyanic acid
formation more tjr2n increasing the amount of arm.onia, A".dUition of
nitrogen' causes merely a slowing down of the reaction. Hydro-en and
carbon dioxide affect unfavorably the app.?rent equilibrium of hdrocyanic
acid formation, carbon dioxide more so than hydrogen. Addition of
hydrogen reduces decomposition of ammonia, into its elements. L:.Ioisture
hinders hydrocyanic acid formation, not '-- displacir- the equilibrium but
by a secondary saponification of hLydrocyanic p T.c most probable irin
reeotions are: 2C0 + ?T. ^.ti" C l. O H CO0 00 -0.; 7ith the
following partial reactions: 2C0 C + G02, C t 1EFI "TCM + H2. Carbon
does not separate in solid .form, else it would coat the catalyst. The
reaction of hydrocyanic acid-with'watcrwas investigated, but no definite
conclusions wore reached. T sts were mode for intermediate formation
of fQrmamido, but this was unstable at the tcm.pcraturo used.

BREDIG, CG, EL8D, E., and 1I6LER, R. (27)

CATALYTIC FOR'EATIOIT OF HYDROCYANIC ACID. III. FORMATIOTI OF :;'iTROCYA::IC
ACID FROM CARBON MONOXIDE A:iD AMMONIA. Ztschr. Elertrochem. 36:
1003-1007. 1930. [In German. Abstract in Ch-cm. Abs. 25: 1176.' 1931.]

The reaction betw-een ammonia and carbon monoxide was investigated
at 5000, 6OCo,-.and 7000 C. The catalysts used were ox.idos of aluminum,
thorium, and cerium, -the first without support ana on 'broknc1i stoneware,
the second in admixture w.th aluminum oxide without support, ti'. last with
and without support. The best hydrocyanic acid yields were with aluminum
oxide without support and with cerium oxide on stoneware support.







Silica gel and admixtures with aluminum oxideand thorium dioxide
were unsatisfactory. With cerium oxide on stoneware the h:ydrocyanic acid
yields, lased on ammonia used, increase with temperature rise and carbon
monoxide excess, but diminish on increase in velocity. With a 20-fold
excess of carbon monzide and velocity of 12 liters per hour, or duration
of contact 0.1 nin. at 700oC.,' about 65,', of the ammonia is converted into
hydrocya-ic acid with simultaneous ammonia loss of l4% due to dissociation.
With a 10-fold cxcesi of carbon mono>:ide the maximum yield at 700 C0. was
about 48%; with 5-fold about 34. Dissociation of ammonia is about
25-20' of the h-ydrocyanic acid yield; at 500, 2-6J.; at 6000, 5-12`; at
700 C., 7-18%. From analyses of the final gases no conclusions can be
drawn as to ammonia dissociation. The reactions uH3 + CO HClI + H20, and
H20 + 00C H2 + C02 take place together.

BRU1ETEAU, J. (28)

THE CLOTIS MOTHS. Rev. Zool. Agr. et Appl. 29: 149-159. 1930. [In French.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 422. 1931.]

An account of the bionomics and control of the clothes moths,
with notes on insecticides tested by the author against T. tapetzella
at 22C. In addition to carbon bisulphide, chloropicrin and hydro-
cyanic acid, fresh pyrethrum powder and naphthalene were very effective.
All eggs, larvae, and adults being killed in 24 hrs. by heavy dusting
with the former and by the latter at the rate of about 4 oz. to
10 cu. ft.

BUCHANAN, G. H. (29)

PRESENT STATUS OF THE PREPARATION OF CYANIDES FROM CYAIAIMIIDE;
THE FIELD OF USEFULIESS OF CYAITIDES. Trans. Amer. Electrochem.
Soc. 60: (preprint) 20 pp., 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II):
3543. 1931.]

A review.

(30)

IUSECTICIDE AND FUMIGAITT. United States Patent 1,795,593, issued
March 10, 1931; applied for April 23, 19'6; assigned to American
Cyanamid Co. Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1931(B): 1124.' 1931.

Calcium cyanamide and sodium fluoride are fused in an electric
furnace at 1400C. and the product is cooled rapidly below 400C. With an
excess of sodium fluoride, leaching the fused mass affords a solution of
sodium cyanide. With only a small amount of sodium fluoride the product
consists mainly of calcium cyanide.

BTUPRELL, A. B., and PARRIS, G. K. (31)

IIIJLURY TO APPLE TREES FROM THE USE OF A CALCIUM CYANIDE, RAW
LI!USEED OIL IiIXTURE IN C011TROLLING THE ROUND -HEADED APPLE-TREE
BORER. Jour. Econ. Ent. 24: 711-716. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
25: 4348. 1931. Expt. Sta. Rec. 65: 854. 1931.].-






- 9 -


Tree injury is described which resultce-, from the use of ti-is
mixture in the control of S:"a-rd.t candi a. I-;, -., was fowJfi to Ie
most severe when the c:.:.ciuiin was eu.oo.. ciztt 1r. ou t p-rt of th';
borers before the material ": .. an iied ',e of so.ne oil qo:nr
than raw lii.c c. '..ay -r.-.aT.s red i.u th ".:..-or i.. ,' to the tree.

CALIFOPK",IA C7Al:IDE ....,, I". (32)

INSECTICIDAL A:.--RI1L. Ntorwegian Fa+ent 45,807, issued :>.;'ccr 12,
1928; applied for "-c rembor 2, 26. [In -e.wc,.o Acztract in Chem.
Zentbl. 1Oc'(II): 751. 1931.]

A ir.atcir co- ;isting of alkali- cr alk:_.ine carth-c'yanidc in
chemical coiabi..-:'ion vith hydrocyanic a, id -,r c'...rl Ca(C)2B .-:C'.

CA1.P, A. F., and WILMOT, R. J. (33)

FUMIEATIOU -S_-AR:i INK FLORIDA. Fia. Stato plart 7d. .on.t'.-.ly Bull. 15
(Nos. 5-8): 1-35. 1931. [A'.'stract i iev. AprpL, l.t. 19(A): 314. 19j1.]

An investigation of hydrocyanic acid fri -tion as applied in th.
field showed that fail-re to obtain insect kill .*-s primariy due to
low concentrations of the gas, owing tc leakage and cK,sorption by the
load. Methods of offsetti-.g these difficulties are reported, including
a metal fimnigatorium with an agitating system, and a fractionr-.l method
of applyin-; thc f-xniint so as to c.' --i..-te for absorptio-n, So..c
data are given on the toxicity of L, rocyanic acid to certain insects.

C-1IOVAS. GARCIA, C. (34)

FUMIGATICT WIh LiQUID iT:,C,'YANIC ACID.. 3ol. ..;r. Tcc. y Econ. [Spain] 22:
345-350. 1930. [In Sp...nish. Abstract in Rev. _ppl. -:t, 19(A): 19.
1931.]

Liquid :.drocyanic acid was first used for tle -tup ii tion of
Citrus on a commercial scale in Califcr-ni-. in 1917 and in -;.:-n in
1924. The method is described, with dta& relating to its aLplication
for controlling various Coccids in S-ai'..

CARLISLE, P. J., and DAI:GCL:.AJER, C. (55)

F'JUI'IGAflT. Canadian P.atent 314,635, issued Av-uct 25, 1931; applied for
October 7, 1929. Assi-ned to Poes3ler and Halchr Ce:cl o.
[Abstract in Ch.er. Abs. 25: 552'- 1931.]

Anhydrous ammonium cyanide is admixed in sufficient amount with
a product containing calcium cyanide to accelerate the evolution of
hydrocyanic acid upon exposure to the atmosphere.

CARLOS, A. S. (36)

PREPARATION AI1D APPLICATION OF I11SECTICIDES ALiD F[1.GICIDzS. Fert. F.cding
Stuffs and Farm Supplies Jour. 15: 749-750. 1930.
[Abstract-in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 2105. 1931.]





- 10 -


A discussion of the preparation and application of various insec-
ticides and fungicides, including hydrocyanic acid.

CHAPMAN, P. J., PARIKER, M. M., and GOULD, G. E. (37)

THE EUOIF7'US SCALE. jour. Econ. Ent. 24: 764-765. 1931. [Abstract in
Rev. .A4l. Ent. 19(-): 551. 1931.]

Chionaspis euonymi Comst. has caused serious injury to Euonymus
in Virginia for the past 50 years and is now practically the only
factor limiting the cultivation of this shrub. Good control was ob-
tained by two fumigations with hydrocyanic acid generated from Cyanogas
"A".

CHEpI, T., and PAK, C (3g)

PESISTAZ2E OF Oi.U1IVEROUS AND VEGETARIA1I RATS AGAINST CERTAIII POIS01IS&
Chinese Jour. Physiol. 4: 289-294. 1930. [In Chinese. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 25: 143. 1931.]

Ormniverous and vegetarian rats are equally resistant to strophan-
thin and strychnine sulfate subcu-taneously injected. Vegetarian rats
are twice as resistant to ephedrino-hydrochloride and slightly more
resistant to mrorphinoe-hydrochloride,sodiunm cyanide, and methyl cyanide.

COATES, J. E., and N-ARTShOJE, N. H. (39)

STUDIES ON HYDROGENi CYANIDE. III. THE FREEZING POINTS OF HYDROGEN
CYAI IDEE-WATER :;IXTURES. Jour. Chem. Soc. [London] 1931: 657-665.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 3229. 1931.]

With the aid of the freezing-point diagram, the solid-liquid
equilibria of the system HCNI-H20 are studied. The system contains a
single eutectic lying at -23.40C. and 74.5 mole% hydrocyanic acid. On
the hydrocyanic acid side of the freezing-point diagram the normal
molecular weight of water is given within 2% by the freezing point of
a solution containing 99 moee% hydrocyanic acid. On the water side
the curve is li4ear up to 9.1 mole. hydrocyanic acid. This branch shows
a marked inflection at 35 mole% hydrocyanic acid and -16.0C. suggesting
a metastable two-liquid phase region, which was found. The critical
solution temperature is near-24..00. from the curve, the critical com-
position corresponding with that of the inflection (35 mole% HCi ).
Two kinds of metastable crystals were found: (1) the rapid-growing,
dendritic type, considered to be hydrocyanic acid; and (2) the compact,
slow-growing type, considered to be a compound of hydrocyanic acid and
water. The limited miscibility of hydrocyanic acid and water at low tem-
peratures agrees with the large deviation from ideality in the partial
vapor-pressure measurements of Shirado(Chem. Abs. 21:2411). Also, this
system fits into the nitrile series with regard to its critical solution
temperature.

COUTITilO SAPAIVA, A (40)

THE ROLE OF FUMIGATION IN THE ECONOMICS OF CITRUS CULTURE. Bol. Agr.
e Pecuario, Mozambique 1930: 47-55. [In Portuguese., Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. 19(A): 599. 1931.]






- 11 -


A popular article on the fumimgation of citrus trees in :o::ani' i..t
with hydrocyanic acid against coccids. The species found in the
colony are C'nrysomphalus (As idiotus) aiJrantii "as'., C. ficus Ashm.,
Ltpidosaphes L .'}:ii : ,m. (:;.i- s s c cola .c,..), L. (1.)
gloveri Faci:., 'Coccus (Lecan'.um) oe':... L. and S-issetia ()
nigra 1ietn.

CMRT1,IT, L. J., and D::0:n.DS, S. M. (41)

D..TERI,IlIATION OF THE ACIDS OF THE CHLORIDE GROUP II7 T7 FPqSZiCE OF
T!.:IOS'JLFAE. Chem. -lows. 142: 337-338. 1931. [Abstract in Chem.
Zentbl. 102 (If): F79. 1931]

The- determination of the anions Cl-, Br-, I-, CT-, CKS-,Fo(CU) ,
Fe(CIT % and S= by precipitation as the silver salt in 1CL nitric acid
fails o work in'the presence 'of S20. A proc-dure is described which
detects as little as : 1 mg. Cl-, Br3, Fe(CIT)t; 2 mg. I-; 5 mg. C:?;
10 mg. CiTS-.

DADIEU, A. (42)

STUDIO LS IN RAJU.L, EFFECT. XI. RA.LXi: SPECTPD OF O.GTIC UBTA Cz3
(CYANOGEN C01, ?OUIDS). Mcnatsh. Chem. 57: 437-468. 1931.[In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4794. 1931.]

The most significant fearure for comparing the ?!afran spectra of
cyanide compounds is the frequency cf the C-1I group, scmci LaTt variable
according to combination, but only within the extreme limits 2050 and
2350 per cm., well inside of the region 1900-2400, which according to
previous experience is reserved for vibrations of triply bound atoms.
The- presence of the C_-IT line in isonitrilos arnd mustard oils indicates that
the classical valence formulas for these compc~t.nds, assuming double bonds
only, are misleading, and that the real structures are something more
like R-1T-C and R--*-C-S. On the other hand, the absence of the C-N fre-
quency in isocZaniates supports the clar. cal formulation -: :-O.
The Raman spect:-um of hydroc.'Lnic acid cthibius the lines 2194 and
2062, the former much the stronger. The lin2 ,O' 2 indicates that
the isomer HNC is present in an estimated concentration of 0,5% at room
t temperatures.

--- (43)

THE COiUSTITUTION OF PRUSSIC ACID. .laturw. 19: S95. 1930. [ In
German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 874. 1931.]

The Raman spectrum of pure dehydrated hydrocyanic acid w"s again
determined. Besides the known frequency'of 2094 cm.-1 (intensity 12),
two weak bands at 2062 (1/2) and 3220 (2) cm.- 1 were found. The 2062 line
is not due to dissociation. It is assumed that 3220 is a vibration
of hydrogen with respect to CN with increased C-1 frequency due to
triple bond. The other two lines are due to the two isomeric forms of
hydrocyanic acid; 2094 to normal hydrocyanic acid, 2062 to the
isonitrile form. For the latter a triple bond is thereby indicated: ,
in agreement with the results of Lindcmann.





- 12 -


(44)

EA!AN EFFECT AITMD .C0S:ITUTIOPAL PROBLEMS. II. CYATOGEIN COMPOUNDS.
Ber. 64B: 358-361. 1931. [In German. Abstract in. Chem. Abs. 25: 2364
S1931. ]

Th' constitution of hydroc.yanic acid can be decided on the basis
of Raman spectra. Frequencios of 2094, relative intensity (12), ,and 2062,
(1/2), indicate both HCN and HNC, the isocompound being present in the
order of magnitude of 1/2%. '.

DECKEPT, w. (45)

A DEVICE FOR THE DETEPEJITATTON OF THE SKAhLLEST QUANITITIES OF
HYDROCYANIC ACID IN THE AIR BY THE BENZID!ITE-COPPER ACETATE REACTION.
Ztschr. Desinfekt. 22: 65, 81-86. 1930. [in German.Abstract in
Chem.-Abs. 25: 4489. 1931. Ch'-m. Zontbl. 103 (I):1833. 1931.]

T.T':nty-five cc. of air is pressed through a filter disk wetted
with bonzidine-copper acetate solution. The tint is compared with a
color scale. T'.'o-thoucr.ndth2' meg. hydrocyanic acid ca.n thus be detected and
4 to 600 mg./cu.m. can be determined with an accuracy of 25'.

--- ---(46)
RECENT ADVANCES IN MILL FLf.IGATION WITH HPYROCYAITIC ACID, Muhle 68:
526-527. 1931. [Abstract in Chcm. Zentbl. 102 (I). 3598. 1931.]

Suggestions are given for unobjectionable fumigation with hydro-
cyanic acid. The concentration is controlled by the use of absorbent disks
that readily evolve hydrocyanic acid when distributed about the rooms.

DELASSUS (47)

ALbERTA: PINK BOLLWORM OF COTTON. Internatl. Bull. Plant Protect. 5: 4-5.
1931. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 188. 1931.]

The pest occurs in all cotton growing districts in Algeria, although
the intensity of infestation varies in different places. Decrees prescribe
the disinfection of seed, at one fumigation center, by means of hydrocyanic
acid.

DESCF1, G. (48)

PREPARATION OF FO0RJ.AMIDE AND ITS CONVERSION INTO HYDROCYANIC ACID.
Chim. et Indus., Special No., 589-597 (March, 1931). [In French.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 3620. 1931.]

Several methods are discussed for preparing formamide, Dehydration
of liquid formamide by phosphorous pent oxide yielded 17.8-21.&,o hydrocyanic
acid; by phosphorous pentachloride, 28.32% hydrocyanic acid; by fused
potassium hydroxide at 330-3400'28.3' hydrocyanic acid; by acetic
anhydride, about 1%; by acetic anhydride in presence of iron reduced






- 13 -


by hydrogen, practically no ydrocj,,:-nlc a.cid was evolved but consilr-
able ferrocyanide was forrerd; ty p-tolilVesulfonic acid, thorium oxide,
cuprous sulfate (anhyd.), aluminum chloride, and fused zinc chLloride,
practically no h-,.drocyanic acid was forced. PssiL.- forrmamide v. ors at
atmospheric proLiuire t}rov\i a quartz t te heated to 30- 1 C. yiel.-dl
31.6 hydroc,,,-.v. acid; under p'rc-ssurc of- .3'1 rmm. at .*--. . th. yield was
36.4%o (about 5C5 of theory); at higher tum,,erature the '.,ydrocyanic acid
yield decreased; in presence of thorium oxide under a pressure of
380 mm., at 430q3,, the hydrocyanic acid yield rmis 17. 7, at irher
temperatures the yield dccr-Psed;' at 380 mm. and 475 in presence of
aluminum oxide the hydrocyanic acid yield was 11.a%; at 47!0-4200
and 380 mm. in presence of sand the hydrocyanic acid yield was.,15. '.-;
in presence of iYon reduced by hydrogen at not over 450. the yield was
57.6 % at 450-475. 2-3.2% at -,C0. 23.5% at 360 and 15.4o at 2,' using
an iron instead of quartz tube, the yield in presence of reduced iron
was 44.76% at about 40009'with reduced iron on pumice stone 42.64 h.rr:ro-
cyanic acid was obtained at 500; at 380 mm. in presence of aluminum, the
yield was 57.r' at 5000and 11.4% at 350; at 3'"0 mm. and 5000 -in presence
of zinc powder the yield was 50,7e; at 3" mmne in presence of commercial
copper powder the yield was 32.7% at 4750Cand 32.'< at 500 ; at 3 aC mm. an'
440C. the yield was only 9.4% in presence of copper.-nickel, and considerab'
quantities of carbon monoxide and ammonia are formal: The pat-nts on the
manufacture of formamide are briefly reviewed, as are also its principal use

DEUTSCHE GOLD- LT1D SILB3ER- SCHEIDEANSTALT VOilALS R'7sSL'T-.. (49)

INSECTICIDES. German Patent 517,631, issued February 9, 1931; applied for
July 21, 1925. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 2924., 1931.]

An insecticide consists of hydrocyanic acid containing just enough
chloropicrin to produce a reliable irritant effect.

---- (50)

STABILIZING HYDROCYANIC ACID. German Patent 517,918, issued February 9,193:
applied for July 4, 1925, [In G:rrman. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 2817.
1931.]

Hydrocyanic acid is rendered ste.ble byadding such organic :.alogen
compounds (excepting irritants) which split off acid residues uLrder the
given conditions. Examples are dichlor-, trichlor-, tetrachlor-ethylene,
chloroform, etc.

(51)

REITDERII.IG POISOOJUS GASES PERCEFTIDLE. German Patent 524,261 issued May
12, 1931; applied for January 17, 1928. [In German. Abstract in C.ern. Ab
25: 3745. 1931.]

In fumigating, etc., with hydrocyanic acid, etc., the rr.isonous
gases are mixed with at least two warning substances, one of .'.ich,
e.g., cyanogen chloride or cyanogen bromide, is readily volatile and
acts at the beginning of the operation, while another, e.g., chloropicrin







- 14 -


or bromoacetophenone, is difficulty volatile and continues to act until
all the poisonous gas has dispersed. The warning substances may be
generated at the place of use.

---- (52)

ACCELEPRNTNG THE RATE OF DECCMPOSITION OF CALCIUM CYANIDE INTO HY-
DROCYA-IC ACID AND CALCIUM HYDR.OXIDE OR CAPRBOTATE. German Patent
533,957, issued September 21, 1931; applied for October 11, 1929;
in United States October 15, 1928. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II):
3042. 1931.]

ATrmoniln cyanide is added to accelerate the rate of decomposition.
The finely powdered, dry materials may be mixed, or suitable amounts of
hydrocyanic acid and ammonia may be added and the ammonium cyanide thus
formed directly along with the calcium cyanide.

DJATSCT1:OT7SKI, S.I., and ISSAJEIKO, T. I. (53)

JEW METHODS FOR QUALITATIVE DETECTION OF ACIDS. Chem. Jour. Ser. A.
Jour. Alg. Chem. (Russia) 1(63): 81-84. 1931. [Abstract in Chem.
Zentbl. 102 (II): 1165. 1931.]

The proposed methods indicate the presence of anions in mixtures
with the use of but one drop of the substance, and are based upon the
electrolysis of the salts. A strip of filter paper is moistened and
clamped between electrodes; the substance being tested is dropped on
the paper near the cathode and a suitable reagent is dropped on
near the anode. Characteristic reactions occur at intermediate
points on the filter paper, depending upon the relative ionic migration
velocities. A test is described for the cyanide ion.

EDDE, F.H. (54)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. French Patent 705,580, issued June 10, 1931;
applied for Yovember 14, 1930. [In French. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 25' 5253. 1931.]

Gaseous hydrocyranic acid is liberated at as high a temperature
as possible by using the action of a dilute acid on a solution of
an alkali cyanide. An acid is used which on dilution in water
evolves heat, and it is brought while still hot in contact with
the cyanide solution.

EDDY, N. B. (55)

REGULATIOI OF RESPIRATION. EFFECT OF INTRAVENOUS INJECTIONS OF
SODIUM SULFIDE, SODIUM CYANIDE AID iMETHYLENE BLUE UPON SALIVARY
SECRETION. Jour. Pharmacol. and Expt. Ther. 41: 435-447. 1931.
[Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II): 3508. 1931.]

Sodium cyanide causes a diminished salivary secretion and a
reduced oxygen consumption. Methylene blue causes an increased




- 15 -


salivary secretiohl increased 'blood circulation end blood tres.uro,
increased frequency of respiration, and increased oxygen con,.urjiott1,n.



REGULATION OF RESPIRATION. THE ANTAGONISM BETWEEN 1AETHYLEIE BLUE
AND SODIUM CYANIDE. Jour, Pharmacol. and Expt. Ther, 41: 449-464. 1931.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4939. 1931.]

Sodium cyanide given to anesthetized dogs after injection of
methylene blue had little or no effect on respiration, blood pressuree
or salivary secretion. An animal could survive a normally fatal
dose of sodium cyanide if methylene blue was ad inistered 10 minutes
before or not more than 2 minutes after the sodium cyanide.

EDWARDS, W. H. (57)

REPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT ENTOMOLOGIST. Ann. Rept. Jamaica Dept.
Agr. 1930: 20-21. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 628. 1931.]

Experiments in tent fumigation with hydrocyanic acid (against
coccid attacking Citrus) showed that the treatment can be carried out
in daylight in the autumn.

ELVEHJEM, C. A. (58)

THE ROLE OF IRON AND COPPER IN THE GROWTH AND METABOLISM OF YEAST.
Jour. Biol, Chem. 90: 111-132. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl.
102 (II): 1871. 1931.]

In cultures 48 hrs. old at least 80% of the respiration could
be stopped by potassium cyanide. With increasing age of the culture
the effect of potassium cyanide diminished, so that after 7 days the
respiration was not affected by potassium cyanide. Such a potassium
cyanide stable culture digests glucose, is destroyed by heating to
600. and may be inhibited as much as 70% by urethane. Potassium
cyanide strongly inhibits the respiration of yeast grown on beer wort.

EKnE, H., and HOIWMAS, T. (59)

HYDROCYANIC ACID FROM MZTHYLAMINE AS A LECTURE EXPERIMENT.
Ztschr. Agew, Chaem. 44: 278, 1931. [AbstraC in Oheam, Zentbl.
102 (1Ii1 373, 1931.]

A concentrated aqnaous solution of methylamine is atomized into
a bunsen flame which is directed against an ice cube standing on
a wire gauze over a funnel. The ice-water gives a reaction for
hydrocyanic acid.

(60)
CYANIDES, THIOCYANATES AND METHYL AMIITE. Arch, Pharm. u. Ber. Deut.
Pharm. Gesell. 269: 336-340, 1931, [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl.
102 (II): 3459. 1931.]




1 6 -


A review of thb literature' relating to the neutralization of
the poisonous action of hydrobcyanic acid within the animal organism.
Experiments were made to test whether there may be .a biogenetic rela-
tion between hydrocyanic acid and methylamine in the sense of the
equation: CH3NH2+02 x HCN+2W0. Using an excess of methylamine
sulfate the following reaction was found to occur: 3CH3NH2 +
4Cr03 + 6H2SO4 = 3HCIT+ 2Cr2(S04)3+ 121{20O (with a hydrocyanic
acid yield of about 10% of theoretical). This and other experiments
show the possibility of a biogenetic relation between -hydrocyanic
acid and methylamine, but at present there is. no direct demonstration
of this relation in the realm of plant physiology, A water solution.
of methylemine saturated with hydrogen suljhide, will react with
sulphur or sodium thio sulphate at 2000C. in a sealed tube: CH3NH2+ 3S =
HCNS+ 2H2S.

ESCHERICH, K. (61)

FYJ1.II GATION WITH ZYKLON AGAINST ANOBIUM. Ztschr. Angew. Ent. 17: 193.
1930. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 183, 1931.]

Fumigation of the altar of a church in Upper Austria with Zyklon
B was carried out from November 4th to November 12th, 1929, with com-
plete success. It is concluded that in a well-sealed building fum-
igation for 3 days with 2% by volume of hydrocyanic acid gas is
sufficient.

FARBSALZ-GESELLSCHAFT M. B# H. (62)

PROCESS nOR FORCING PLANT GROWTH. German Patent 517,115, issued
January 31, 1931; applied for November 25, 1928. [Abstract in Chem.
Zentbl, 102 (II): 112. 1931.]

Comprises the use of a decomposable cyanide containing calcium
carbide and ammonia (or a nitrogen compound which evolves ammonia).
For example, one may use calcium cyanide which contains these materials.
This process is claimed to greatly increase the well-known effect of
hydrocyanic acid.
----- "(63)

PROCESS FOR FUMIGATION WITH DECOMPOSABLE CYANIDES, ESPECIALLY CALCIUM
CYANIDE, German Patent 522,316, issued April 7, 1931; applied for
February 19, 1928, [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II): 761, 1931.]

The evolution of hydrogen sulphide from sulphides present as
impurities is prevented by adding an oxidant such as lead monoxide,
lead dioxide, or manganese dioxide. The effect of the oxidant is increased
by adding a finely divided drying agent, especially calcium chloride
or cupric sulphate.

FIOK, R. (64)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. German Patent 476,662, issued August 86, 1929; applied
for December 20, 1924. Assigned to I. G. Farbenindustrie A.-G.
[In German. Abstract in Chom, Abs.. 25: 562. 1931.]








- 17 -


Hydrocyanic acid is prerp're0. by hcatin- formalde.ydo to 1boevo
400C. for less than 1 sec. (1/10 sec. is mentioned). late--.rtin,
non-metallic catal,2ze-s such as aluminiumn "osate -i:,' be present, and
the pressure red.'ced. Exen)les are .-iven.

PICK, R. and NICOLAI, F. (65)

HYDROCYA:TIC ACID. German Patent 510,407, is.-7ic October.18, .1930;
applied for May 1, 1923; -ddition to 4_5-,989. Assigned to I. G.
rarbenindustrie A.-G. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 1040. 1931.]

The method of 485,989 for the production of
hydrocyanic acid by passing forrnamide and. ammonia over c2.t2lrzers at
4000C. is modified by using ammonium forimate or mixture of forr:amide -nd
ammonium format instead of formamide and rm::oni'.. Formic acid mry also be
added.

FIELD, J., and FIELD, S. M. .. (66)

CYA!iIDE-STABLE PESPIRATIOK. Soc. *xmto Biol. rnd liei Proc. 28:
995-996. 1931. Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index 1' dicus 10: 358. 1931.]

FIT:TEMORE, H., end COX, C. B. (67)

.CYV!TOGE=T7IC GLUCOSIDES In AUSTRALIAT PLANTS. II. (c-) ::C ?-H ILA
:.ACULATA. Jour. Proc. Roy. Soc.'N.S. Wales 63: 172-178. 1930.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 2455. 1931.]

Prunasin (cyanogenetic glucoside) has been isolated from the
bark of Prunus serotina, and its identity with the glucoside now
isolated from EreTrophila m acuiata has been confirmed by the mixed.
melting point method.

FLOREY, H. (68)

EFFECT OF GYAITIDE. ON :EAISM OF C"BLE-CSLL 70C T-C.J IIN I\A:AL.
.Brit. Jour. Expt. Path. 12: 301-305, 1931. [Cited in Quart.
Cumulative Index Medicus 10: 358. 1931.]

FIOSDORF, E.W. (69)

POISONOUS COISTITUEKTS OF TOBACCO SMOKE. II. Catalyst 16: 70. 19%1.
[Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (16): 338. 1931.]

Nicotine, hydrocyanic acid, hydrogen sulfide, end carbon monoxide
are present in tobacco smoke. Their absorption and. elimination by
the system are discussed.

FORNTEAU, E., and MELVILLE, K. I. (70)

STUDIES OF MERCURY CHEMICO-THERAPY. I. THE TOXICITY OF MERCURYY ;
ITS DETEPRMINATIOIT, IECHAITISM AND RELATICIT TO CHEMICAL C0;STI-
TUTION. Jour. Pharmacol. Expt. Ther. 41: 21-45. 1931. [Paris].
[In French. Abstract in Chem. Zenthl. 102 (II): 80. 1931.]







- 18 -


Tests are described with 18 mercury compounds, including
mercuric cyanide.

FOtVWEATHER, F. S. (71)

A CASE C7 CYAITDE POIC2TIYG BY SODIUM IhTROPRUSSIDE. Brit. MIed.
Jour, 344. 1931. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index Medicus
10: Z353. 1931.]

FRANCK,H. H., and HEIIldTI, H. (72)

THE PREPARATION OF PURE CALCIUM AND AAG-ESIUM CYAIIA2DES AND THE
QUILITRITJl OF THE REACTI:2S 'C0 (1-.:) 2HCT = CaC2 (MgCN02)
CO H2, Ztschr. Angew. Chem. 44: 372-378. 1931. [In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 3924. 1931.]

Calcium oxide reacts with hydrocyanic acid at room temperature
to give pure calcium c-anide. Above 40000.calcium cyanamide begins to
be formed, and at 6000- it is formed to the exclusion of the cyanide.
Equilibrir-m constants for calcium oxide reaction at 627C,- 727C0. 827 P-
8970are log Kp= -3.1, -2.5, -2,0, -1.8; for magnesium oxide at
627C'.7270C.8270C. log KP = 0,5, 0.75, 0.9. The Nernst chemical con-
stant for hydrocyanic acid is calculated as 3.5.

FRAPPA, C. (73)

VSZCETS INJURIOUS TO THE COFFEE TREES OF MADAGASCAR. Agr. Prat.
Pays Chauds 2: 245-257. 1931. [In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. 19(A): 372. 1931.]

The Gryllid Brpchytrypes membranaceous var. colosseatus Sauss.,
has been known in Madagascar for many years as a pest in the roots
of coffee and Albizzia lebbek. To destroy it, calcium cyanide should
be distributed through the underground galleries; small heaps of
leaves may be used as shelter traps.

FREDE7r:AkEIT, K. (74)

IEUTITY, I!I'irR RICTIOCIT, DIELECTFIC COITSTA1IT, DIPOLE MM01EIF,
DISSOLVIIIG P07ER AIJ DISSOCIAT:-'G POC-ER OF HYDROCYANIC ACID. Trp.ns.
Elecktrochem. Soc. (preprint) 60: 11 pp. 1931. [In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 5072. 1931.]

The researches of Kahlenberg and Schlundt are carefully analyzed;
a number of their experiments are repeated and new ones added.
Careful determinations are made of the dielectric constant and the
dipole moment of prre distilled hydrocyanic acid. The density and
internal friction of the acid are determined and the solubilities
eand conductivities of various salts in hydrocyanic *acid are measured.
The results in general check those of Kahlenberg and Schlundt and
are also in accord with the -uthorfs researches with liquid ammonia
and hydrofluoric acid as solvents.







- 19 -


FREDEIHAGE., K., and MAS 2, F. (-.)
THE DIELECTRIC CONISTANIT OF GASOUS E7'RYC-.T CY.:i:E AND 1T1 T'rTLZ
M0iC211T. Ztschr. Pys, Che; 10 (B): 112-1_. 19 [In Geran.
Abstract in Chen, Abs. 25: 241. 1931.]

The dielectr'ic constant of vapor from liquid hydrocy-nic acid
held between 30 and 15C9,'superheated to 30C. oC. Cas me.sured. Th.
condens3-r was built within a glass tube, and the whole w;as inserted in
an oven and submitted to high-frequency potential. The results re -iven
graphi.cally, and the dipole moment is calculated as 2.1 x 10-18 e.s.u.
PROBISHER, i'I., ana ST:h7TON, R. C (76)
L . %, J. R C.
THE EFECTS OF CER'AIu POISO9S UPO i:S3'ITO L.';.E. Aner. Jour. ".
13: 61-1--622. 1931. [Abstract in Rev. Apol. Ent. 19(B): li'). 1931.]

Potassium cyanide was relatively inert as compared with iodine
and bromine. Even in a 1%' sol-,ltion the full gro7n larvae of A.
argenteus were: able to survive for n--arly an hour, and (."', lived for
about 10 min. in a 10( solution. (Potassium hdroxide ,,as almost as
effective at 10% concentration). HIydroa cymic acid gas ;:illc within
10 min, when applied in an air chamber to larvae in a thin film of
water. The gas probably gains entrance to the body more rapidly in
adults, which are killed almost instantly.

FULTON, R. R. (77)

HYDROCA 0TIC ACID. Canadian Patent 311,301, israed May 12, 1931;
applied for June 25, 1930; assigned to The Kopoers Co. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 25: 3443. 1931.]

Ammonia gas is bubbled through aqueous ammonia to form a
mixture of ammonia gas and water vapor, the ami:onia-'atn.r -.ixture
is bubbled through a liquid containing one or more hydrocarbons
to form a mixture of ammonia gas, wviater vapor, and hydrocarbon
vapor, and the resultant mi :-ure is passed through a catalytic
material at 1100-1150 to form hydrocyanic acid.

GASS1IER, L. (78)

HYDROCYAITIC ACID ATD THE GASEOUS 1iSECTICIDES. Ztschr. CGesell.
Mldhlenwesen 7: 128-130. 1930. [Abstract in Chen. Zentbl. 102 (I):
2105. 1931.]

A review.

GAY, H. H. (79)
COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF LOW ALVEOLAR O0X'::, OF SODI CYATII:E A:D
OF SODIUM SULFIDE LUPOT RESPIRATOP7Y OVEIIEliTS AND RESPONSES OF IZJSCLE
TO DIRECT, INDIRECT AND REFLEX STIITLATION. Amer. Jour. Phyriol. 95;
519-526, 1933. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): ,699. 1931.]








- 20 -


GERBIS, H. (80)

A 7ATAL CASE OF HYDRCC-AiII C ACID POISOIITG. Saiaml. Vergiftungsfallen
2: Vergiftungsfallen 35-36.. Beil,-e zu Arch. Exot. Path. u. Pharmakol.
1931. [Abstract in C-hel. Zentbl. 102 (I): 3024. 1931.]

Report concerning the death of a 2,-:ear-old. laboratory worker who
,as hanctling a 55o potassium c.-anide solution. Apparently he had. poured
the potassium cyanide solution. into an open drain in vwich had collected
some acid, and -nad then inhaled the hydrocyanic acid thus produced.

GERWE, E. G. (81)

STUDIES O'T THE SPOITATECUS OXIDATION OF CYSTEIN1. II, III. THE
MZTHDD OF ACTION OF CWAiIDES AND CYSTI-T OK CYSTEITTE OXIDATION.
Jour. Biol. Chem. 92: 399-411, 525-533. 1931. [Abstracts in
Chem. Abs. 25: 5441. 1931. Exp. Sta. Record 67:196. 1932.]

The slow autoxidation of iron-free cysteine is not inhibited
by potassium cyanide. If iron be -added to poure cysteine the
accelerated oxidation which it produces is reduced a.-ain by cyanides
to the original low value. Iron a, ferro- or ferri-cyanide has no
accelerating effect on the oxidation. The addition of pure cystine
to iron-free cysteine is also without effect, contrary to the find-
ings of Dixn and Tunnicliffe. .

GESELLSC:AFT FtR KCHLETECMTIK M. B. H. (82)

HYD.ODCKTAIC ACID AND CYAITIDES. German Patent 509,935, issued
October 14, 1930; aoplied for June 8, 1929. [In German. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 25: 779. 1931.]

Anmionium thiocyanate dye obtained from the working up of the
distillation gases of bituminous fuel is oxidixed by nitric acid and
neutralized by aimonium hdroxide to produce hydrocyanic acid and an
oxidized residue useful as a fertilizer. The hydrocyanic acid can be
worked up into c-'nides. The nitric acid may be replaced by the
nitrogen oxides obtained by lurnin- ammonia for the preparation of
nitric acid.

----- (83)

PREPARATION OF TYDROCfANIC ACID. Germian Patent 530,821, issued
Au,-uit 1, 1931, applied for July 16, 1929; addition to 528,968.
[Abstract in Cl.ei.. Zentbl. 102 (II): 3393. 1931.]

In preparing hydrocyanic acid from ammonium thiocyanate and
nitric acid: (1) Before oxidizing ammonium thioqyanate with nitric acid
or nitrous gases, it should be converted to thiocyanic acid by acidi-
fying with another acid (sulphuric acid) and then separated from the
ammonium salt. (2) While still in the gaseous state (alone or in mixture
with other gates) the thiocyanic acid is brought into contact with
nitric acid, nitric acid vapors, or with nitrous acid or nitrous gases.






- 21-


GLTUUD, W. (84)

PREPARATION OF FEROC0YAITIDE SALTS FROM CYANIDE SOLUTIONS, A7D ITS
COIJVERSIOCIT TO FERRICYAUIDE BY TEATMENT WITH COMPRESED OXfGEN,
WVITH A FINIAL ELECTROLYTIC OXIDATION. Ber. Gesell. Kol-.ientech.
(Dortmund-Ewing-) 3: 385-394. 1931. {[Abstract in Chem. Zcntbl.
102 (II):1519. 1931.]

Hydrocyanic acid is first reacted with calcium '.,-".rroxide to
form calcium cyanide. Ferrous sulfate is then added, in weak alkaline
solution, to produce calcium ferrocyr-nide. Th calcium ferrocyaniL-- solution
is freed from calcium sulphate, then treated with potassium carbonate,
to yield I2.Fe(CN)6 +CaCO,. *After filtering off the calcium carbonate
the solution is concentrated, and KLFe(CU)6 crystallize i out. To
oxidize Ca2Fe(CN)6 to Cn- [Fe(C')612, a -.-*olution of Ca2Fe(C1J)6. 12
H20 is agitated at 1000 *in an autoclave with carbon dioxide and oxygen at
about 5 atmospheres' pressure. The final 5% must be oxidized electro-
lytically.

----- and DIEC..A1T, C. (85)

HYDROCYAITIC ACID. German Patent 526,716 issued June 10, 1931;
applied for Februaryr 7, 1930; asni-ncd to Gesellschaft fur
Kohlentech. M. B. H. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25:
4808. 1931.]

Thiocyanic acid is sbjected to a luminous electrical dis-
charge of suitable frequency. Examirles are given.

--- and DIECK1.I7', C. (86)

THE EFFECT OF ELECTRICAL DISCHAFC-ES U-ODT THIOCYAI:I C ACID. Ber. Gesell.
Kohlentech. 3: 420-428. 1931. [in German. Abstract in Cn-in. Abs.
25: 2647. 1931.]

The effect of electrical discharges upon the reaction:
HCUTS(aq.')-HCN(aq.) S(rhombic) was studied, both silent and glow
discharges being used. With the silent discharge, the yields were
too low and the energy consumption extremely high. With the glow
discharge, however, and with addition of hydrc.-'n gas, about 80% of the
thiocyanic acid was decomposed, 95-100% of which was recovered as
hydrocyanic acid. Var,,ing quantities of sulphur dioxide, -.ydrog-n
sulphide or sulphur are also obtained, depending upon the experimental
conditions. Electrical efficiency is very low, the ener-, con-
sumption being about 675 watt hours per mole of hydrocyanic add com-
pared with a theoretical requirement of only 3.87 watt hours.

---- and KELLER, K. (87)

PRZPARATIOI OF HYDROCYAJTIC ACID FfBY OXIDATION OF K. O0I[M
THIOCYANATE OR THIOCYATI C ACID 7iTH i:TRIC ACID, Ber. Gesell.
Kohlentech. 3: 395-419. 1931. [In GE-rman. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
25: 2382. 1931.]







In the oxidation of amnoi-iium thiocyahate with nitric acid,
to Get a good yield of hrdrocyanic acid it is necessary to count
on a 1l". loss of ammonia and nitric oxide, because of the fact
that nILtrous acid is formed, which, in turn forms ammonium nitrite,
and this is decomposed into nitrogen -and water. If ammonium
thiocyanate, however, is first converted into thiocyar.ic acid by
treatment with sulphuric acid, oxidation of the free acid to hydro-
cyanic acid can be brought about without this loss of nitrogen.
The reaction proceeds according to the equation: HCNS + 'I03 = HC1+
H2SO + 2110. A study of the most favorable conditions of concentration
showed that if a solution of thiocyanic acid containing about 40 g. per
100 cc. is treated with nitric acid solution antaining about 40 g. per
100 cc., a 95' yield of hy-drocyanic acid can be obtained with very
little' loss of nitric oxide or nitric -acid. This represents 3-4 moles of
nitric acid -er mole of thiocya"iic ac-id,- or a 10C< excess of nitric acid.
E/rceriments were made on a larger scale with the following results:
To manufacture 1,000 kg. of hydrocyanic acid from 176 thiocyanic acid
solution, 14,350 kg. of the thiocyanic acid solution, 13,950.kg. of
nitric acid (52,8%), 8.4 cu.m. of reaction water, 43.8 cu.m. of cooling
water and 10 kw. hrs. of electrical energy were required. This yielded,
in addition to the '.y.lrocyanic acid, 2,300 kg. of nitric oxide gas
and 3,820 kg. sulphuric acid.

-- -- KLEPT, W., :LLEP, K., FD:O d., end DIECK.LAi.T. C. (88)
01,7 T. -jL"R RR ., IZ

CO1TE_.SIO_::0 OF SOLUTION :. I7O POTASSIUM, FEIROCYAIE AID T=
O:-irATICi: OF TE LATTER TO E'RRI CiA :.17E BY C01IPRESSED AIR ATD
ELICT:OL-SIS. Ber. Cesell. Kohlentech. 3: 385-394. 1931. [In German.
Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1931 (3): 588. 1931.]

T:: problem investigated was the utilization of hydrogen cyanide
present in a gas in large quantities. This compound was first con-
verted into calcium cyanide, then into thle ferrocyanide. The [potassium]
ferroc'r'.-iide solution (20< solution) was first oxidized vnder 20-50 atm.
pressure with a mixture of o%-gen and carbon dioxide (at 1000C.),
and the oxidation then completed by electrolysis.

---- and RISE W. (89) .

U3E OF ITIC::.-L- AITD COPPER-SA.LT SOLUTIONS FOR BIi!OVAL OF HYDROCYANI C
ACID FRCLI CO2-OVEIT GASES. Ber. CGesell. Kohlentech. (Dortmund-Ewin_)
3: 437-452. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II): 1518. 1931.]

In the presence of ammonia, nickel -ulphide will react with
cyanide as follows:

TiS +2,-iH-CN= (NH)2S.+ Ni(COT)
Ti ( ) "7 .4


- "22-






Th- final comr-.ex cyanide d,'.-cvr. not yield a precipitate vith u. 'ro',_n
sulphie, nor will carbon ',.oxide liberate 1., it. In the presence of n. ',1nia, U',,'.-.r, some t.lioc anat is
formed by the action of tho mmonia on nicel-conpl'x. -
can be l',e-aly prevented L,' orkin. in the rsence of odium
carbonate or potassiumr carL'bincte, and exil-Ln air. In r.r o'.i.n,-,
hydrocyanic acid from coklc-oven gas, t.:rL fore, the amionia is
removed b'ofore the jas comes in contact vith the nickel solution.
The sodium nickel cyanide or potassium nickel :,:L-:il, is easily
separated. by crystallization, but the subsequent lil,-ration.of
hydro -anic acid requires the use of concentrated aci.-'z, which as .eot
prevents technical application of the process. The cop rcr salts
beha-e quite similarly e mept for a lesser stability towards
carbon dioxide.

---- and RIZSE, T7. (90)

THE COI:PLEX OYA-IDES OF IiCT.L, COPPER A1TD CHROMIUM,. zer. Gesell.
Kohlentoch. (Dortmund-Ewing) 3: 452-459. 1931. [Abstract in Ch..
Zentbl. 102 (II): 1519. 1931.]

Description of an investi-ation of the behavior of the complex
cyanides of iron, nickel, copper, and chromium tow.ar'" silver nitrate,
ammonium sulphide, and ferrous sulphate.

GOLSE, j. (91)

DETER. II.iATION OF CYAITITE II EBRRO-AiTD FE2RI- C:A.:IDES. Bull.
Soc. Pharnacol. Bordeaux 67: 217-'221. 1929. [In French. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 1931-: 5872. 1931.]

In Rose and Finkener's method the solution of 0.5 g. of salt
in 20 cc. of water is preferably boiled for 10 min, with 15 cc.
of normal sodium hydroxide and 40 cc. of 5% mercuric chloride
solution, the cyanide being titrated in an aliquot part of the
filtrate.

GRAY, G. P., and KIRKPA!TRICK, A. F. (92)

THE DIFFUSION OF HYDROCYAITIC ACID GAS. Calif. Dept. Agr.
Monthly Bull. 20: 373-382. [Abstract in Rev. Apol. Ent. 19(A): 616.
1931.]

Thc importance of even distribution of gas in the fumigation
of Citrus trees with hydrocyanic acid is briefly discussed from
the literature. Recent results of research in the control of
resistant strains of coccids (Saissetia oleae Bern. and Chr"3orm-
phalus aurantii Mask.) are recapitulated.

GTJERIIT, P. (93)

HfDROCYATIC ACID IiT LEGULLES. 7ull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 12: 1338-13'4.
193). [In French. Abstract in Ch-in. Abs. 25: 3690. 1931.]







The Leguinaceae resemble the Rosacae in their frequent
content of glucosides which give rise to hydrocyanic acid. Such
glucosides occur only in the seeds of the Picea. In the lotus
they do not occur in the seeds but appear during germination and
occur generally in the cotyledons, stems, flowers, and roots.
Tetraz-onolobus dorycnium and Bonjeania contain practically none
in the seeds except during germination and only small amounts
in the young plants. Phaseolus lunatus L. contains the glucosides
in stems, roots, and seeds.

HAMBURGER GASWE-RE G. M. B13. H. (94)

PRODUCTION OF YELLOW POTASH OR YELLOW SODA 13 THE R104OVAL OF
CYATIDE FROM COAL GAS. French Patent 692,868, issued Nov-
ember 12, 1930; ap-lied for 1.Iardi 28, 1930. [In French. Abstract
in Chem. Zentbl 102 (I): 552. 1931.]

The gases are washed in the usual way with an alkaline
suspension of bivalent iron, with excess alkali, With gases
containing carbon dioxide, counter-current washing is im-
ployed. The alkali content of the wash liquor is adjusted
in accordance with the hydrocyanic acid content of the gas, so
that only soluble ferro-cyanide is formed.

:AT)S, C. S., and BARKER, J. (95)

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF CYANIDE. 1. E__ECTS OF CYANIDE ON THE
RESPIRATION AND SUGAR CONTENT OF TEE POTATO AT 15. Proc.
Roy. Soc. (London) Ser. B. 108: 95-113. 1931. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 25: 4299. 1931.]

The respiration of potato tubers at a temperature of
15C. increases in an atmosphere containing a low concentration
of :'-yirocyanic acid. The respirator: rate first rises to a
maximum, then undergoes a slower decrease, i moderate treatment
with hydrocy-anic acid does not infl'Uiece the respiratory
quotient, and its effects are reversible; in severe treatment,
the respiratory quotient increases at the onset of the second
phase, aid irreversible injury occurs. The sugar content in-
creases during the first ohase, aud, in moderate concentrations
of hydrocyanic acid, decreases during the second phase. The
respiratory enzymes are inactivated by a high concentration, but
not by a moderate concentration of '.,Irocyanic acid.

HARGREA:E3, E. (96)

A:-,-TAL REPORT OF T.iE EITOTIOLOGICAL SECTION FOR THE YEAR 1929.
Ann. Rpt. Dept. Sierra Leone 1929: 16-18. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 115. 1931.]

Infestation of oil -,alm fruit by coccids has increased
considerably during the last few --ears, and it is considered
that they seriously affect the quality of the pericarp oil.







Harvest records indicate that :-l;tin-- with calcium cyanide
gave partial cbntrol-, since seven treated palms yielle-l 47
fruit \cads, of which only four were infested. The average
infestation for the whcle plantation was about 2.-r

HEERDT-LIMI1LER `r:SELLSCHAFT (97)

STCORI'X HYDROCYANIC ACID.' British Fatent : 717,issued
December 18, 1930: aprlied for October 8, 1929; in Germany
October 22, 1928. -[Abstracts in Chen. Abs. 25: 2817. 1931.
Brit. Chem. Abs. 1931(B): 246. 1931.]

FYydrocyanic acid (alone or absorb'-d in porous or rranuler
substances) is packed in closed metal containers from which the
atmospheric oxygen is expelled by boiling the hydrocyanic acid,
by .7:neration of an inert gas such as nitrcr-en or carbon dioxide
in the container, or by pumping .

------- ,(98)

FEST-DESTROYING AGENTS. German Patent 516,594, issued Jln-lary
24, 1931; applied for February 14, 1928. [In Germans. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 25: 2825. 1931.]

The agent depends for its action on the evolution of
hydroc-anic acid from alkaline earth cyanides when exposed
to air. The alkaline earth cyanides are powdered, optionally
mixed with irritants and odorants, and pressed into briquets,
etc., with binding material. Thus, calcium cyanide is mixed
with nicotine sulphate and briquetted.

(99)

HYDROCY'ATIC ACID. German Patent 529,877, issued July 18, 1931;
applied for October 23, 1928. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
25: 5253. 1931.]

Cans for storing and transporting liquid hydrocyanic acid last
longer if charged with hydrocyanic acid in an oxyI,.n-free atmosphere.

HEITLER, W., and RIEP G. (100)

QUATUM1 CHEMIISTRY OF POLYAT7I:IC :.'DLECL.ES. :-.hr. Gesell. 7iss.
GOttingen, IIath. u. Physik. Klasse 1930: 277-254. [In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4789. 1931.]

The general theory of v.alence is extended to rolyatomic
molecules by the Born,-Bloch,-Slater method. The general case of
a molecule containing univa.lent and n-valent atoms is discussed.
For hydrocyanic acid, two forms can exist having the structures H-C=E-
and H-!--C.

(101)

QUAITTU..I THEORY OF CHEMICAL BIiDI]!G IUI POLYATOIC .LCLECULES.
Ztschr. Physik 68: 12-41, 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4777. 1-71


- 25 -






Heitler and London's theory of chemical binding in dig.tomic
molecules is extended to polyatomic molecules. Examples discussed
include h':drocyrnic acid which theory predicts as H-CmIT, cynic
acid., C=CzN-H{ end cvnemogen, CIT-CIT.

.-ERRLEGZH, K., and LIESEBERG, F. (102'

HYDROCYATIC ACID. -German Patent 526,76?, issued June 10, 1931;
applied for Docember 17, 1927; r.ssignod to I. G. Farbenindustrie A.-G.
[In German. Abstractiin CLem. Abs. 25: 4980. 1931.]

H:ydrocy-2.nic acid is prepared by treating alkali cyanide with
sodium bicarbonbte in the presence of wvmter. The sodium bicarbonate
is present in excess and the gnerated hydrocyanic acid is removed from
the warm reaction mass by reducing the pressure.
Ex?!.ples are given.

HEYIAITS, C., BOUCKART, J. J., and DAUTRJEBAMBE, L. (103)

CAROTID SINUJS A1D PRZSPIRATORY REACTIOUIS BY C2'.UIDE. Compt. Rend. Soc.
Biol. 106: 54-55. 1931. -In Fronch. Abstrat in Chem. Abs. 25:
2202. 1931.]

A series of experiments with dogs in which h the cyanide .was
caused to act solely on the carotid sinus Pnd then solely on
the centers. The results show that the inhibitoryr action of cyanide
on respiration is due to the sensiti7ity of the carotid sinus to
cyanide, and not due to the action of the c.-anide on the centers.

(104)

THE SiE'SITIVITY OF THE CAROTID Si!'7S 7ITH RESPECT TO THE
HEART REFLEXES TOWARD CHE1;ICAL SL7BSTA:TCES; UICO'TII1E, LOBELIIT,
CYAiITIDES AID SUL}JILES. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 1l6: 1276-1279.
1931. [In French. Abstract in Ch-m. Z-ntbl. 102 (I1) 23751. 1931.1

HEY.ATS, J. F. (1105'

DISITFECTION BY HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PLUS HYDROCYAITIC ACID AS
ATTTTICATALYST. Arch. Internatl. Pharmacodyn. et Ther. 37:
196-198. 1930. [In French. Abstracts in Physiol. Abs. 15:616-
617; Chem Abs. 25: 3726. 19S31]

The mixture of hydrogen peroxide Rnd potassium c.-anide
(3 or 15% hydrogen peroxide to anri equal amount of 2L'c solution
of potassium cyanide) applied in a suitable manner to in-
fectious areas of the skin, or of mucous membranes or vo-iia s,
removes completely the infection. Printin- of the site of in-
oculation of vaccine on cows witn this m-ixture completely
checked all development of vaccinal eruption. It is believed
that in man the eruption of small-po:: riiht bu annulled by
the mixture and the evolution of infc-ction modified.


- 6 -







HICKS, J. F. G.


TR.- ROLE `F HYDROCYANIC ACID VAPORS II. THK CORP,-,SIC! OF ir.
Jour. Phys. hemrn. 35: 893-904. 1931. [Abstra.ct in Ch.
Abs. 25: 2961. 1931.]

Investigations were ma-de to detr6niine the part pla.-.,-d by
hydroc'anic acid gas in the corrosion of iron, particularly in
the internal corrosion of gas mains. From grauhs of the corrosive
effects (mg./iq.cm.) of various ..aseous mixtures against the
time of test (da-:s), it is concluded that: (1) hydrocyanic acid,
although not a cause, is the chief contributory factor in the
internal corrosion of gas mains, carbonic acid and oxygen fol-
lowing in order,* and (2) hydrocyanic acid possesses the greatest
intensity of effect arid is first in order of priority of attack.
It is :shown that in the -cases studied hydrocyanic acid does not
initiate the corrosion. The mechanism of the "cyanide corrosion"
of iron is similar to other iron-corrosion processes. Prussian
blue is the final product in the corrosion of iron in the interior
of gas mains. The conclusions drawn from the graph are checked
electrochemically.

HIILL, E.S. (107)

EFFECT OF IRON AND CYAI'IDES ON THE SPONTANEOUS OXIDATIC1 OF
DIALURIC ACID. Jour. Biol. Chem. 92: 471-481. 1931. [Abstract
in Brit. Ohem, Abs. 1931(A): 1246. 1931.]

"The spontaneous oxidation of dialuric acid is greatly ac-
celerated by addition of iron, except at -the normal optimum range
of pH 7.0-7.4 owing, perhaps, to the inability of oxygen to enter
the solution at a rate greater than normal. Autoxidation of the
acid is not inhibited by potassium -cyanide, whereas the acceleration
due to the presence of iron is inhibited. Comparison is made with
cysteinie and glutathione in cell oxidation.

HOSODA, N. (108)

INSULINT AND THE SI1UJLTAE]10US USE OF HYDROCYAITC ACID. Jour. Biochem.,
Tokyo. 10: 383. 1929. [Abstract in Physiol. Abs. 15: 381.
1930-1931.]

Since the hyperglycaemia produced in rabbits by potassium
cyanide injection is converted to a normal or a hypoglycaemic
condition by insulin, the author sugp-ests that insulin cannot be
the activator for the formation of hexose diphosphate.

HOUGHT01i, IT. W. (109)

FIAJMIGANT. Canadian Patent 280,056, issued March 8, 1929; applied
for August 10, 1925; assigned to Safety Fumiiant Co, [Abstract
in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 140. 1931.]

Cyanogen chloride is evolved from aqueous cyanide solution
by the action of nascent chlorine, using therefore a chlorate mixed





- 28 -


with a silicon compound.. Talc is suitable..



FLrIGAIT. Car.adian Patent 2W3,057 issued May 8, 1928; applied for
February 27, 1928; assigned to Safety Fumigant Co. [Abstract
in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 140. 1931.]

Cyanogen chloride is evolved from aqueous cyanide solution
by the action of nascent chlorine,
(111)

:FIPIGA1TT IN SOLUTION. United States Patent 1,790,095, issued
January 27, 1931; applied for July s, 1925; assigned to
Safety Fumigant Co. '[Abstracts in hem. Zentbl. 102 (II):
1184. 1931. Brit. Chem. Abs 1931(B): 864. 1931.]

A poisonous gas hydrocyanicc acid) and a tear gas (cyanogen
chloride) are dissolved in water containing about .5. of a
carbohydrate (glucose, alcohol, glycerine) rnid about l0 of ac-
etone. The gases are thereby stabilized and the fumigation can
be controlled.
L*
. (112)

COI0POSITION FOR KFT. GATING 7ITH HYDROCYAITIC ACID. United
States Patent 1,818,136, issued August 11, 1931; applied
for M:.rch 5, 1928; assigned to Safety Fumigant Co. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 25: 5501. 1931.]

A composition for the simultaneous generation of hydro-
cyanic acid, cyanogen chloride, and another cyanogen h3lid. such
as cyanogen bromide or cyanogen iodide by the action of dilute
hydrochloric acid co.iproses an inert material such as plaster
or cement mixed with an alkali metal chlorate, an alkali metal
cyanide and en alkali metal-halide such as sodium bromide or
sodium iodide.

I. G. FARBEEIT"-USTRIE A.-G. (113)

PZE0'.VAL OF AMMONIA, HYDROGEN SULFITE AND HYDROGEN CYAITIDE FROM COAL
GAS. French Patent 666,131, issued Sept. 27,1929; applied for December
20, 1928; in Germany December 21, 1927. [In French. Abstract in Chem.
Zentbl. 102 (I): 195. 1931.]

The gas, with the addition of sufficient ammonia to com-
bine with the hydrogen ulphide and hydrocyanic acid, is washed
with ammonium polysulphide and ammonium thiosulphate. After
sucp.ration of sulphur, ammonium sulphate .and ammonium thiocyanate
are obtained by fractional vaporization.

(114)

SPRAY ::ETHOD FOR CONTROL OF Ii1SECT PESTS ON PANTS. German
Patent 529,575, issued July 15, 1931; applied for IMarch 6, 1928.
[Abstract in. Chem. Zentbl 102 (II): 1910. 1931]







Consists of an a.queous solution of ca.Iciunr c..,-nidrl., .'Lrnqsium
cyanide, or their double, c..poo'nT'iE. with ..m-oni;. For c.:: R,
15 parts calcium cyanide are dissolved in ''5 T'rts -old water;
or, 98 p,-rts sodium cyanide and. !O0 _.arts calcium '.Jori'l. 2re
dissolved in about 400 parts '.watLr.

(. (115

COi,?POUi,)TD CONTAINIITG .: "A.r. Su..; CY/2"TE D .A:.:.'::IA. ..-'iss F-tent
141,748, issued October 16, 1930; ap-lied for Fh-bruary .', I..1 ;,
in Germany March 19, 1928. [Abstract in Chem. -:ntbl. 102 (I):
1507. 1931.]

A magnesium compound, such as marnos1iun h>Cydroxide, is treated
with hydrocyanic acid. and arr;nonia in th.e -oresence of an alcohol -
(methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, etc.). Z-:cess water muast be avoi'-i.

(116)

CALCTuI,: CYANIDE. Swiss Patent 142,733, issued December 16, 1930;
ar-.,lied for January 23, 1929; in Germany F. l-rary 13, 1928.
[Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 22584. 131.]

Hydrocyanic acid, diluted with indifferent gases such as
nitrogen, hydrogen, air, or ammonia, is allowed to react with
calcium hydroxide at temperatures below 10000., under conditions
such that the water produced by the reaction is quickly removed.
A stable product is obtained which contains more than p,< calcium
cyanide.

IMAGAWA, S. (117)

SWLLIjT EFFECT OF GLUCOSE ON KIrIEYS. Proc. Imp. Acad. Tokyo
6: 383-384. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (1): 1939.
1931.]

Such an effect is indicated by -::qeriments on animal
kidneys with phlorizin, mercuric chloride, and potassium cyanide.

IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES, LTD. (118)

EY:D-iC;rrIC ACID. French Paten; 6z2,543, issL..::d ovember 6, 1930;
applied for March 21, 1930; in England March 27, 1929. [In French.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 1642. 1931.]

Hydrocyanic acid is produced as described in French Patent
692,542, but the ammonia is not used in excess. Instead an ap-
preciable amount of a diluent such as hydrogen or nitroge-n is
used. The hydrocarbon may. be coke-furnace gas, and it rray be
purified and at the same time rix>_d with ammonia by bringing it
into contact with liquid ammonia.

IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES, LTD., WHEELER, T. S., and FLETCHER, W. B. (119)

APPAI1ATUS FOR GAS REACTIONS-AT HIGH TE,.IFERATURE. British Patent
349,958, issued May 27, 1931; applied for January 27, 1930. [Abstract
in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II): 1463. 193'1.] -BRAR

.TATE PLANT




- 30 -


The apparatus is suitable for the preparation of hydrocyanic
acid from ammonia and hydrocarbons, or for the cracking of hydrocarbons.

IIoPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES, LTD., T7MEELER, T. S., and FTANCIS, W. (120)

HALOGEN CYAI:IDES. British Patent 347,989, issued May 7, 1931; applied
for August 15, 1930; in United States August 16, 1929. [Abstracts in
Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II): 1924. 1931. Brit. Chem. Abs. 1931 (B): 632. 19-31.3

Hydrocyanic acid (in 4% aqueous solution) is treated in a pressure
vessel equipped with cooling rnd stirring apparatus with somewhat less
than an equivalent amount of the halogen. The reaction occurs at a
pressure of 20-30 lbs./sq. in. and a temperature of 20-30C.

IMPERIAL CHEMICAL IITDUSTRIES, LTD., ViEELER, T. S., (121)
McAULAY, J., FLETC}ER, W. B., and MILLS, H.A.T.

HYDROCY-.IIC ACIrQ British Yatc t 335,585; iesuoed Septembor 29, 1930;
applied for March 27, 1929, April 20, 1929, April 23, 1929, and
December 24, 1929. French Patent 692,542 issued November 6, 1920;
applied for March 21, 1930; in England March 27, 1929. [Abstract in
Cnem. Abs. 25: 1642. 1931.]

Reaction between a hydrocarbon gas (such as methane, ethane,
and various natural and artificial industrial gases containing hydro-
carbons) and ammonia, to produce hydrocyanic acid and hydrogen is
effected by passing a mixture of the hydrocarbon material with more
than one molecular proportion of amm6nia for each atomic proportion
of carbon, at a temperature of at least 1150, rapidly through an un-
packed reaction chamber. Hydrogen or water vapor may be present, the
gas mixture may be preheated to 900 or higher, and the reaction chamber
is preferably formed with smooth internal surfaces such as glazed silica
or sillimanite. Sulphur compounds and carbon dioxide may be removed from
the gases by passing them through aqueous or liquid ammonia.

IMPERIAL CHEICAL IDTJSTRIES, LTD., WHEELER, T. S., MILLS, H.A.T., (122)
FLETCHER, W. B., and McAULAY, J.

PF-PARATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID. British Patent 353,407, issued July
21, 1931; applied for February 21, 1930; addition to 335,947, [Abstracts
in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II): 3041. 1931. Brit. Chem. Abs. 1931 (B):
924. 1931.]

Nitrogen is used instead of hydrogen aS a diluent, at a temper-
ature of about 1150C. A mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen may also
be used.
IMPERIAL CHEMICAL IITDUSTRIES, LTD., WH-EELER, T. S., MITLS, H.A.T., (123)
.McATJLAY, J., and FLETCHER, W. B.

HYDROCYANIC ACID, British Patent 335,947, insuod September 29, 1930;
applied for March 27, 1929, April 20, 1929 and December 24, 1929
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 1953. 1931.]

In preparing hydrocyanic acid by reaction bot-.7-3on hdro cerlon s anc
ammonia as described in British Patent 335,585, the reaction mixture
may contain one molecular proportion of ammonia to one atomoc propor-
tion of carbon, or less, if the mixture also contains hydrogen.






-31-


ISACHEIKO, V. B., and BONTARTZEV, A. S. (124)

CALCIUI.' CYA1IDIE AS A :SA:TS CF CCI'TR'LLII7G CCCI1-S A'D TRIPS
IN GREENT EOUSES. Norbi Plantarum 18: 177-187. 1929 [In Russinn.
Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 227. 1931.]

An account of a large number of ex.erimcnts with 150 varieties
of ornamental greenhouse plants.

JABLCZYIISKI, K., and MACZKCWSKA, J. (125)
THEE POIS01TI:TG OF REACTI1"2S Ii HETERCG2ECUS SYSTEi:S. Ztschr. Anor-.
Al! '.-r .Mchm. 197: 292-300. 1.931. Roczniki Chem. 11: 139-152 (Ger.-,an
152-153). 1J, [In Germarn. Abstract in ChOLm. Abs. 25: 3551. 1931.]

In the reactions studied at 2500 the effect' cf the poison in-
creased with increase in concentration up to a certain concentration,
above which the effect was constant. The solvent used in each case
was 0.1 normal hydrochloric acid. Fydrocyainic acid (0.0C2 T) and
arsenious exide (0.005 N) decrease the velocity constant for the
solution of marble 30% and 12%, respectively. Hydrocyanic acid,
arsenious oxide and hydrogen sulphide (0.005 N).decrease the velocity
constant for the solution of mnngnesium 12, 9 and 22' respectively. -Hydrc
cyanic acid (0,01 I) decreases the velocity constant for technical
zinc by 67%, while arsenious oxide (0.005 N), hydrogen
sulphide (0.004 N), and iodine in potassium iodide (0.003 N)
increase the constant 33, 19, and 76%. Potassium iodide and
formaldehyde have no effect on the rate of solution of zinc.

JAEGER, A. 0. (126)

APPARATUS FOR EXPTHE.1IC CATALYTIC rAS =EACTI'i':TS. British
Patent 331,468, issued July 3, 1930; applied for November
4, 1929; in United States December 22, 1928. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 25: 177. 1931.]

An apparatus is described which is suitable for the
production of sulphur trioxide and which also may be used in
organic oxidations, ammonia purification, reductions, hydro-
genations, condensations, the water-gas process, or hydro-
cyanic cid synthesis.

JOI rson, j. Y. (127)

MAITUFACTURE OF AGENTS FOR COI'ATI1IG AI;' DESTRCYIN G PESTS.
British Patent 322,179, issued November 27, 1929; applied
for August 27, 1928; assigned to I. G. Farbenindustrie A.-G.
[Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1931 (B): 168. 1931.]

The agents- comprise cyanides readily decomposed by moisture
(alkaline-earth or magnesium cyanides) together with non-reacting
organic liquids (petroleum fractions, halogenated hydrocarbons,etc.)
and, if desired, wetting agents and (or) hygroscopic salts.




- 32-


KAISER, M., and FRIED, E (128)

FPL.IC-ATIDIT WITH HYDROCYANIC ACID,-(ZYKLON 3B)..* Ztschr. ,
Desinfektion 23:4-11. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I):
1811. 1931] "

Hydrocyanic acid, ini the form of Zyklon B', proved itself
excellent for killing insects infesting wood. The hydrocyanic
acid concentration was 3-7 g. per cu.'m., during a period of
7 days.

KARL, A. (129)

F.IGATI I*:G ROOMS WITH HYDROCYANIC ACID. French Patent 691,250,
issued October 2, 1930; applied.'for "'arch 6, 1930. .[In French.
Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (1): 2901. 1931.]

The room is first treated. with an irritating or suffocating
gas, in order to warn any persons who might be present. Then the
room is furigated with hydrocyanic acid containing another ir-
ritant which also serves to stabilize the hycrocyanic acid. After
ventilation, the r...nm is treated with a gas which destroys the
toxicity of hydrocyanic acid. For example, a solution of 6-10 g.
acrolein per liter of water is atomized into the roo' followedd
by hydrocyanic acid. 'containing 28.5% of sulphur dioxide. Finally,
the poisonous gases are neutralized by acetone.

KAUTSKY', H., and HIRSCH, A. (130)

:rSRGY CPAIIGES AT BOUNDARY SURFACES. I. CARC01TIC ACID REDUCTION BY
ITUCED, IIITR.AMOLECLTLAR REAP.RAITGEMEITT OF SILICIC ACID DERIVATIVES.
Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 64: 1610-1622. 1931. [Abstract in Chem.
Zentbl. 102 (II): 1532. 1931.]

The authors attempt to reduce carbonic acid, adsorbed
on a surface of a complex silicon compound,: by oxidation or
irradiation. It was shown that the carbonic acid was combined
in the following manner:,-- Si-O-CO-NH2. By long continued
additions of small :amounts of oxygen to the system at room
temperature, the carbonic acid was in fact reduced to some
extent, yielding hydrocyanic acid and ammonia.

KEESER, F. (131)

IR01 C0CnTEUT AND RESISTANCE OF THE ORGANIST TO HYDROCYANIC.
ACID AITD HYDROGEN SULFIDE. Arch Exptl. Path. u. Pharrnahol.
156: 340-345. 1930. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
25: 4047. 1931.]

Of rabbitt- :n (1) a milk-rice diet., (2) a green vegetable
diet and (3) a green vegetable diet supplemented by iron chloride,
the resistance to peroral sodium cyanide or subcutaneous sodium
culhide increases in the order named, presumably due to the
greater iron content of the organs.
A






- 33 -


KELLER, K. (132)

RE;:OVAL OF HYDROGEN SULPHIbE AID HY.DROCYAITIC ACID FR,5; CRUPJE
BE!TZE1IE. Ber. Gesell. Kohlentech. 3: 429-453. c1951. [In Ger-i&,n.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 229. 1931.]

In the presence of air and s-all quantities of t'irwonia,
hydrogen sulphide is readily renmovd from crude lenzene- by con-
version to anmonium sulphide and subsequent oxidation to am-
monium thio sulphate. A small amount of water is necessary, ,'-1iro cyanic
acid is removed simultaneously with hydrogen sulphide by conversion to
ammonium thiocyanate.

---- and GLTUUD, W. (133)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. German Patent 528,968, issued July 7, 1931;
applied for June 7, 1929. Assigned to Gesellschaft fur
Kohilentechnik M. B. H. [In German. Abstract in Che--. Als. 25: 5253.
1931.]

Kydrocy:nic acid is prepared by oxidizin- a;-mcniur thiocyanate
with nitric acid, ,1 : concentration of free nitric acid in t he
mixture not being allowed to fall below 1%. Ex:nples are giv.en.

KERSCHBAJM, F. (134)

STABILIZATION OF HYDROCYATIC ACID. Canpdipn Patent 276,019,
issued December 6, 1927; applied for :-'F- 27, 1925. [In Frcnch.
Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 1507. 1931.]

KILBOUPTJR, K. A. (135)

APPARATUS FOR FUI.IGATING El7CLOSED SPACES WITH HYDROCYANIC ACID.
United States Patent 1,809,279, issued June 9, 1931; applied for
October 3, 1924; assi-ne to Owl Fumigating Corporation.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4155. 1931.]

Structural features.

KOYASAKO, T. (136)

THE i-FLUENCE OF POTASSIUM CYAIIIDE POISOCI::TG iT THIE GLYCOGEN
C:iTEIIT OF THE LIVER AND THE E.'USCLES. THE REL1TIOIT OF POTASSIT1.
CYAXIILE POISONING TO THE EFFECT OF I7'SULI7. Folia Endocrinol.
Japon. 6: 117-118. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I):
294. 1931.3

Sin:le or repeated subcutaneous injections of 1% potassium
c-'nide solution, in rabbits, causes a decrease of liver glyco-gon
and, to a small d0oi-! e, in muscle glycogen. With simultaneous
injection of insulin the decrease of glycogen is checked.





KUDO, F.


BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCYANIC ACID; IIITUEIICE UPON CARBOHYDRATE
:ETABOLISM. Jour. Oriental Med. 13; 38. 1930. [Cited in QIUart.
Cumulative Index Medicus 9: 337. 1931.]

-(138)

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCYANIC ACID; IIFLUENTCE UPON BLOOD
CA.TAIL SE. Jour. Oriental.Med. 14: 1. 1931. [Cited in Quart.
Cumulative Index Medicus 9: 337. 1931,] ,..

-(139)

EFFECTS OF HYDROCYANIC ACID ITOXICATIOI! UTPOII PHYRLCOCHEMICAL
CHEi;ICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD AID SERUM. Jour. Oriental
Med. 15: 26. 1931. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index I-edicus
10: 358. 1931.]

GKUIIT, a. (140)

THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE, T, CO: ULJSUM.
ilitt. Gesell. Vorratsschutz 7: 8-11. 1931. [In German. Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 330. 1931.]

Hydrocyanic acid-gas from Zyklon B is effective against the
confused flour beetle if used at a concentration of 1 to 2 volume per-
cent for 24 hours, and the flour is not affected as it sometimes is
by chloropicrin.

KfSTER, H. (141)

FOCiATION OF HYDROCYAITIC ACID -R0I1: TECHIICAL GA.SES. Brenn-
stoff-Chem. 12: 329-334. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102
(II): 2540. 1931.]

Formation of hydrocyanic acid during the coking process may be
satisfactorily represented by the equation: NH3 C = HCN H2 -
-39.5 Kg. Cal., although other reactions may contribute to
hydrocyanic acid formation, such as the reaction of ammonia with
unsaturated hydrocarbons. By passing an electrical discharge
through methale-ammonia mixtures higher yields may be obtained than
by thermal methods, and this reaction may be combined with the
synthesis of acetylene in order to prevent the appearance of oil
or carbon deposits. A partial decomposition of the methane to
'CH-radicals appears to be a prerequisite to the formation of
hydrocyanic acid from methane and amminia, and this does not occur
in the purely thur :" processes. The electric, discharge also
produces higher yields of hydrocyanic acid in tho acetylene-ammonia
system. The electrical treatment of methane-nitroge-. mixtures
containing excess methane yields principally acetylene; with excess
of nitrogen the formation of hIydrocyanic acid predominates.
With a mixture containing 6.8% methane, at a pressure of 11 mm. mercuTy,
an h- .droncya.nic acid yield of 911% was obtained.


(137)






- 35 -


LARSOIT, A. 0, (1,)

PEA-TWEEVIL CONTROL I17 THE WLLIA,-TTE VALLEY. r. Ar.r. Ext.
Sta. Circa. 99, 12 pp., 1931. [Abstract in Rev. Arll1. Ent.
19(A): 578. 1931.]

The whole crop should be fu:,i.~a.t3i 17--iiately after
harvest and before it is cleaned. l:otes are given on the
employment of chloropicrin, hyirocyanic acid. ?, and carbon
disulphide, all of which are effective fumigants for preas.
Carbon disulphiide is the most suitable for small scale work
on farms.

LAWR, C. W. (143)

PREPARATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID 1FRCLi LIQUORS CO07AI-IIT
CY'AIIDE. United States Patent 1,810,4;7, issued June 16, 1931;
applied for December 14, 1928. [Abstract in CheT. Zentbl. 102
(II): 1750. 19371

Cyanide solutions obtained in processing gold -silver ores
containing copper are brought to neutrality with sulphur dioxide
after removal of the gold and silver.. After filterin:, thE,
solution is treated with more sulphur dioxide to precipitate the
copper and any silver still remaining in solution. The excess
sulphur dioxide liberates hydrocyanic acid.

LEFELTJRE, C., and GREGOIRE, F. (144)

TuHE ACTION OF SOIE DISTILLED AROMATIC WATERS ON THE ISOLATED HZART.
Bull. Sci. Pharmacol. 38: 355-365. 1931. [In French. Abstract in
Chem. Abs,' 25: 4622. 1931.]

Cherry laurel water in original concentration stops the
heart completely, but it recovers if the liquid is soon replace
by Ringer solution. In a dilution of 1:10 a slower decrease in the
L:-p1' itude is observed. Hydrocyanic acid has a delayed action
but causes a sudden stop in diastole.

LEHRECKE, H. (145)

HYDROCYA:IIC ACID AND ITS USE IN FUMIIGATIC0a. United States
Patent 1,780,196,' issued November 4, 1930; applied for
October 20, 1925; in Germrany October 27, 1924; assigned to
Roessler and Hasslacher Chemical- Co. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
25: 174. 1931.]

A finely di-4 .ed addition product of hydrocyanic acid and
iron chloride (with excess of iron chloride) is suitmblc for generat-
ing hydrocyanic acid by exposure to moist air. Calcium Chloride or
meagnesiium chloride may also be odded.

(146)

HYDIROCYANIC ACID'AND ITS USE IN F&lIGATION. United States Patent
1,780,197, issued November 4, 1930; applied for October 20, 1925;




- 36 -


in Germany October 31, 1924; assigned to Roessler and. Hasslacher
Chemical Co. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 174. 1931.]

A finely divided .addition product of hydrocyanic acid and iron
chloride '(with excess iron -chloride), -.-'ith the further addition
of sodium hypochlorite, is suitable for generating hydrocyanic acid
tof-ther with cyanogen chloride as a warning agent by exposure to moist
air.

----- (147)

STABILIZATION OF HRYDROCYANIC ACID. Canadian Patent 276,027,
issued December 6, 1927; applied for July 3, 1926. [Abstract
in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 1507. 1931.]

---- (148)

:-?'-DOCYA1TIC ACID AND ITS USE IN FL I NATION. United States Patent
1,780,198, issued November 4, 1930; applied for June 23, 1926; in
Germany July 3, 1925; assigned: to Roessler and Hasslacher Chemical
Co. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 174. 1931.]

Liquid hydrocyanic acid is stabilized against polymerization
or decomposition by adding aluminum chloride or other suitable
inorganic compound of a strong acid capable of hydrolysis under
the conditions of storage of the material.

---- (149)

H'-TER:CYANIC ACID STABILIZATION. United States Patent 1,792,103,
issued February 10, 1931; applied for June 23, 19Z6; divided and
c filed July 18, 1928; in Germany July 3, 1925; assigned to Deutsche
Gold- Lnd Silber-Scheideanstalt vorm. Roessler. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 25: 1953. 1931.] '

As a stabilizing agent there is added to liquid hydrocyanic acid
a small proporti n of an ester of a halogen-substituted organic acid
such as ethyl bromoacetate.

----- (150)

USE OF CHLOROPICRIN AS A WARNING AGENT WITH HYDROCYANIC
ACID IN FUMIGATING. United States Patent 1,786,623, issued
December 30, 1930; applied for June 24, 1926; in Austria
July 18, 1925; assigned' to Roessler and Hasslacher Chemical
Co. [Abstracts in Chem. Abs. 25: 787. 1931. Brit. Chem. Abs.
1931 (B): 784. 1931.]

Hydrocyanic acid (90-95%) and chloropicrin (10-5%) are
absorbed in active charcoal or kieselguhr.

LEIPERT, T., and HAFITFR, I. (151)

THE CLEAVAGE OF TYROSIHE AND TRYPTOPHAN FROM CASEIN BY PAPAIN
ACTIVATED BY HYDROCYAI1TC ACID. Biochem. Ztschr. 229: 427-432.
1930. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 1545. 1931.]





- 37 -


Only 47c of the total nitrog'en of cos.in is Virolyz--- es
amino nit:-'o,-n in 12 drl'.". jlir.stion by r.&v in-'1lrocyanic acid.
Tyrosine is set 7ree entir-l:y in proportion to the tot'l Mino
acid cleavage, and tr:.tophar-.n is only more or less prc.,ortion:'.l
to the total hydrolysis. JndeE the combined. nctio- of papain-
hy.rdrocyanic acid and trypsin for a week 71% of the tott.l ni-
trogen is hydrolyzed as amino nitrc.,_er but the hydrolysis of
tyrosine and tryptophan by the two en-rT- s to.. their seems to be
unaffected.

LI IGLER, J. (152)

USE OF CALCIUM CYA TIDE FOR FU7IATI0i!. United St-tcs Patent
1,82G,394, .issued August 25, 1931; applied. for M.arch 9, 192,; in
Germany :.:>rch 12, 1928; assigned to Deutsche Gesellschaft fuEr
Schl!diungsbeknmofung M1. B. H. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 5734.
1931.]

An opperatus is described in which a bodr- of calcium cy r.ni-,
is powdered by rubbing against an abrading surface and the powder
then blown out of the container in which the powdering is offocted.

LOCI17:C'D, S. (153)

FIELD E1IT0I.C.OLOGY. Calif. Dept. Agr. Monthly Bull. 18: 7l1-773. 192_.
[Abstract in- Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 420. 1931.]

Vines have been successfully fumigated against ?r:throneura
comes Say (grape leafhopper) by means of a tent of closely woven
sacking sl:,ported on a light framework large enour-h to cover the
new growth occu.. .ng before the end of I.W"y. ilcar the base of
the tent a slit is cut which has a self-closin.- flap. Calcium cyanide
applied with one stroke of a bellows-type duster killed the n:,7-r:hs.
The tent should be removed from the vine not later than 75 seconds
after charging. The cost of one trtm.ent was about 10s. an 1-cr-. A
paste-like paint of 2-1/2 oz. calcium cyanide dust and one liquid oz.
raw linseed oil, spread in a thin ?1.-yur over the entrance holes
through the bark, proved effective against borers.

LORi-.:AdD, C. (154)

TR.ATM..IEIIT OF DRIED FRUIT BY ^'iDROCYANIC ACID. Annt. Falsif.
24: 169. 1931. [in French. Abstract in Cher. Abs. 25: 3739. 1931.]

Investigation of the problem, following a request for
authorization to use hydrocyanic acid for the sterilization of
dried fruit, showed that, because of the variable moisture content
of dried fruit and the possible fixation of hydrocyanic acid by
the aldehyde groups of fruit sugars, there could be no assurance
of complete elimination of hydrocyanlic acid or even that it might
not be present in toxic amounts.




- 38 -


LCTCrRT, H. (155)

T-?: DIPOLE ::C.:E-IT OF H.TDROYA:IIC'ACID. "Ztschr. P"-s. -Chem.
14 (B): 27-30. 1931. FIn -'r-ern. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25:
5804. 1931.]

.ci; measurement of the dielectric constant of solutions
of h-7drocyanic acid in benzene and xjlol at different concen-
trations, and also at several temperatures in bc-nzene, the electric
moment was dLetermined. A moment of 2.54 x 10-18 was obtained in
benzene solutions, and 2.60 x 10-18 in xylol.

LACITI, D. B. (156)

E:OIT10LOGICAL FnTCTIOlS. Calif. Dept. Agra monthlyy Lull. 19: 831-848.
1930. [Abstract in Rev. A Epl. Ent. 19(A)" 691. 1931.]

A progressive increase- in the use of vacuum fur-.i,;:-ation of
material for export included treatment of persimmons for export
to Hawaii to prevent them from carr'inj Pseudococcus gaLhani
Green. By simply changing the type of container and treatInZ
in a single layer crate, a proper diffusion and distribution
of hydrocyanic add gas at a concentration lethal to the mealy-
u-.3 was obtained.

----- (157)

OBSERVATIONS ON VACUUnI FULIGATI01iT.. Calif. Dept. A-r. Monthly Bull.
20: 299-315. 1931. [Abstract in Rev. Acpl. Ent. 19(A): 582.
1931.]

Studies of vacuum fumigation of stored products, nursery
stock, etc., for the destruction of insect pests, particularly
with hIdrocyanic acid gas and carbon bisulfide are described.
The effect of the gases on, and their diffusion through, the articles
f-,ii 'ated are discussed.

,ATI:T, G- (158)

MU TZSi FOR LUYDROCUAiTIC ACID A*D ITS ALKALIiIE SA LTS BY ITS
T"A'jTS- A TIO1 _"-0 PRUSSIAN I-LUE. Jour. Pharmacol. et Chim.
14: 233-236. 1931. [In French. Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index
Medics. 10: 358. 1931. Abstract in Brit. Chem. AJs. 1931(A): 1329. 1931."

Air is drawn through the acidified solution of the substance under
investigation and passed over a strip of filter paper moistened
with 5% potassium hydroxide.. The paper is then treated with a few
drops of very dilute aqueous ferrous sulphate and a few drops of
105 hydrochloric acid. The intensity of the blue color is pro-
portional to the amount of hydrocyanic acid present, one part
hydrocyanic acid in l,000,C--'- parts of solution can be detected by
this method.





- 39 -


.--- -, and ZW7ANCK, A. (159)

CHEMICAL RiAGTTS "'-ICH S3CILD :, ,IE AF F '*'-AIO:'"- 7IT7
F.hROCYANIC ACID. Rev. de Zcpicialid 5: ]:1-19-7. l-:'.
[In Spanish. Cited in quart. Cumulative Index i ic:u 9:
474. 1931.]

MAlI3R-B0:LB, .R., and !'AI--50DE, ... (1 )
II:-SR.D .D.

FT.1I1GAIITS IN IITSECT CO!1TROL. Ztschr. AncQw. Chem. 44: 415-417.
1931. [Abstract in Ch -. Z-ntbl. 102 (II): 2201. 1-31.]

A review.
J i.RCH., 7Ski, *L, (!S1)

07, -WE USZ OF CHEMICALS III TKE FI.C-T AC- .,ST PYRPAUSTA :TUILALIS.
A FB.ELIi.IiIARY REPORT. Intc'ric.tl.. Corin Borer In.v-st. Sci. ?Upt.
3: 74-60. 1930. .[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 149. 1931.]

Experiments with hydrocyanic acid ?.as and ammonia showed that
it is impossible to destroy the larvar. after thc have bored
into the stalks by means of cases since these do not penetrate
into the interior of the plant.

METZC-R, F. J. (162)

APPARATUS AND -PROCEDURE FOR THE PREPARATICII OF ALKALI-AI AI.KALIE
EARTH-CYANIMDES. British Patent 261,722, issued January 12, 1927;
assigned to California Cyanide Co. [Abstract in Cliem. Zntbl.
102 (I): 1507. 1931.]

Hydrocyanic acid is reacted with a metal carbide in the
presence of a small amount (0.5 5.0%) of water as catalyzer.
For example:

CaC2+ y -HC = Ca(CN)2, x HC>+ C2H2

The resulting mixture may be mixed with indifferent substances
(talc, infusorial earth, calcium carbonate)for use as an in-
secticide.

MILES, F. (153)

SOIL ITSECTICIDES. Chem. and Drug. 114: 24.1-247. 1931. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 25: 5950. 1931.]

A discussion of the uses as soil insecticides of naphthalene,
cresol, commercial creosote, p-dichlorobenzene, cyanides, mercuric
chloride, carbon disulphide, and formaldehyde.

MILLS, L. D., and CROV7E, T. B. (164)

RECOVERY OF HYDTROCYANIC ACID. United States Patent 1, 509,248,
issued June 9, 1931; applied for August 14, 1928; assigned to
IvMerrill Co. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II): 1750. 1931.]




The solution of mete.l cyanides obtained by lixiviation is
'.cidified (sulphur dioxide) in the presence of a suitable salt
(copper sulphate). The liberated lhydrocyanic acid is removed
by r.ep.is of a gas sti'eam (a.ir) and, collected in milk of lime.

1.:}:RZECK:r, Z. (165)

THE BIOLOGY OF EPEES'1A ELUTELLA HB., A:D THE DAMAGE IT CAUSES TO
*BA .TOBACCO Ill STC'P.REHOUSES, WITH 1EASUJRES FOR ITS C0!NTROL. Agr.
Experimentation 6: part 3, reprint 29 pp., 1930(arsaw). [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 382. 1931.]

Control methods include exposure to heat, or fumigation
with sulphur dioxide or hydrocyanic acid gas.

MImGIR-WILLIAMS, G. (166)

CCO-iERSION TABLE FOR FUlMIGATION WITH HYDROCYAITIC ACID..
Bull. Office Internatl. Hyg. Pub. 22: 2125. 1930.
[Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index MLeicus 9! 474. 1931.]

(167)

EF-ECT OF PRUSSIC ACID FUMIGATION ON FOOD PRODUCTS. B1tl. Office
Internatl. Hyg. Pub. 23: 1065-1081. 1931. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative
Index Medicus 10: 503. 1931.]

--.---- (168)

EFFECT ON FOODS OF 1ThMIGATION WITH HYDROGEN CYANILE. Analyst
56: 46-48. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 1006. 1931.]

The results of many analyses indicate the effectiveness
of ventilation in removing excess hydrocyanic acid after fumigation
to destroy insects'and vermin pests in food, 'except in dried and
liquid milk, dried fruit, and possibly cheese. Absorption of
hydrocyanic acid is greatest in moist, finely-divided, unwrapped
foods. Orange and apple skins resist absorption, while peaches
and bananas are more easily penetrated. Cooking removes nearly
all the absorbed gas. Foods treated with less than 1 vol. of
hydrocyanic acid in 200 vols. of air and subsequently exposed to
fresh air usually retain less than 20 parts hydrocyanic acid per
million of food. Fertile hen eggs are killed by fumigation with
1% h}y1rocyanic acid at 30C. in 4.hours, although the quantity of hydro-
cyanic acid absorbed is very small.

---- (169)

THE EFFECT CT FOODS OF FICIGATIC, T WITH HYDROGEN CYAUIIDE.
irinn. Health, >"-ts. Pub. Health and Med. Subjects No. 60
(1930) 32. pp. [Cited in Expt, Sta. Rec. 64: 582. 1931.]





- 41 -


MORETTI, P., and MUJSCOLIUO, G. (170)

IUF.-LUE'.CE OF S0!:E CAR?0FYDATES 0C; T-Z TCXICITY OF ?:AS31'-i
OYAIIDE. Arch. Far'macol. Spera e Scib Aff- fA : ]-l.D. lT1,.
[In Italian. Abstract in Cheib-,. Aba tS :7 l..`l.]

Mixtures of 4o potassium cyanide solution and .-lu-'1ce
solution (1-C0l2) were allowed to stand at ,'C. for ,1 hrs.
rThen such mix'arr- in quantities corresponding to 2, 4, "rnd
10 times the minimum lethal dose of potassium cyanide were injected
intramuscularly into pigeons, the anir-.als r-- ained live and well.
It is calculated from the quantities of -lucose added that 1F.
of potassium cyanide is neutralized in vitro by 15 g. glucose,
or less. After a certain period of timr the otas-:ium c.-ri:ide-
hlucose solutions assume a distinctly ammoniacal odor; ho7wcver,
the reactions of Wortmann and Pagenstecher-Sch"nbein remain
positive. In attempting to hydrolyze the glucose in the -lucose-
potassium cyanide complex a mixture of potassium cyanide ninl
glucose solution was treated with yeast. After the treatment the
mixture does not r-'duce FYhling solution, which shows that
potassium cyanide, after combining with glucose, hYs lost its
antienzymic properties; however, its toxicity was not restored
by the treatment with -'east. Similar experiments in which -lucose
was replaced by other carbohydrates showed that fructose, galactose,
mannose, and lactose also neutralized the toxicity of potassium
cyanide, while dextrin, sucrose, and gum -.rabic did not. -Starch
was only very slightly effective as a neutralizing -.cont.

(171)

HEI'?OLYTIC EFFECTS OF POTASS TUM CYANIDE: :1EUTRALIZATIO7: BY
S01IE CARBOHFDRAT-S. Arch. F-r-acol. Sper. e Sci. Aff. 51:
167-171. 1931. [In Italian. Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index I.^dicus 9:
337. 1931. Abstract in Brit Chem. Abs. 1931(A): 507. 1931.]

In certain concentrations and at trnmoeratures above 37C.
potassium cyr-idec exerts ijn vitro a hemolytic action on the red
corpuscles of ox bicod. This effect is -*:cr2kcned when the salt com-
bines with carbohydrates capable of neutralizi'- its toxic action.
Strict parallelism is observed between the antitoxic and nnti-
hemolytic actions of the different carbohydrates.

MhNCH, E., and NICOLAI, F. (172')

iHYDROCYANIC ACID. German Patent 477,437, issued July 11, 1930;
applied for April 11, 1936; -,:lition to 476,662; assigned to
I. G. Farbenindustrie A.-G. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 562. 1931.]

The method of 476,662 for forming hydrocyanic acid from
formaldehyde or ammonium form-te is modified by leading the
vapor of the formaldehyde or n'iTonium format through metal tubes
over metal catalyzers at temper-tures above 300C. Examples are
given.





42 -

MUNTSCH (173)
0 POTASSI PiIA .1A!T&'ATJAT* AS AN. AlITIDOTE IN ACUTE ]'ORPHIiTE, COCAIIE
OR POTASSIUM CYAiIDE PT OISING. Arc.i. Expt. Path. u. Ph.rmakol.
161: 544-552. 1931. '[Abstract'in Chem. Zentbl* 102 (II): 3117.
1931.] "

In animal expe:-imaents, which are not necessarily directly
aP-6licable to human beings, it was found that potassium perman-
ganate injected intravenously or subcutane6usly did not alter the
symptoms.of morphine, cocaine, or potassium cyanide poisoning.

NAVARPRE, p (174)

A :ASE OF POISoNITING BY POTASSIUM CYANTIDE IN A TAILOR SHOP.
Ann. Hyg. Publ. Indus. Soc. 1930: 631-634. [in Irench: Abstract in
Chem. Zentbl. 102 (1): 2362. 1931.]

In a tailor's workshop poisoning was caused by a 60% po-
tassiuin cyanide solution, used for renovating gold braid. Poisoning
symptoms dis5.peered, upon using a 304 solution and avoiding the
handling of powderA potassium cyanide.

iIELETH, L., and CSABA, IE. k175)
THE TOXICITY OF POTASSIUM CYAIIDE. :,^-ar Orvosi Arch. 30:
363-367. [In Hungarian. Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I):
1639. 1931.]

In addition to the lethal dose, there is a so-called con-
vulsive dose of potassium cyanide. Immediately after poisoning,
potassium cyanide may be found in all the org?.ns and body fluids.
The life of poisoned animals may be prolonged for hours by
oxygen inhalation; acetone has c-: similar effect, to a less
degree.

7!IETHA.J:.R, A. (176)

THE I::FLUJEICE OF NICKEL COMPOUNDS AND OF CYAITIDES ON THE
CER I":ATIOw OF GIRIITS. 7iss. Arch. Landw., Abt. A, Pflanze
4: 607-634. 1930. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25:
2459. 1931.]

C-rains of wheat were placed in vessels containing water,
nickel sulphate, nickel nitrate, nickel chloride, nickel carbonoe,
nickel-potassium cyanide, potassium thiocyanate, and sodium thio-
cyanate solutions of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0% and the germination was ob-
served. Arranged in the order of injurious effects, the compounds
rank Ni(CX)2. '-1C11: i (IT03) 2 3TiC0 1 iCl 2UiS0.4. One-tenth percent
solutions of nickel nitrate and nickel sulphate accelerate germination.
It vias not determined whether the effect was due to physical or
chemical changes, although histological examination. showed that the
nickel solutions penetrated to the embryo as well as the endosperm.





- 43 -


iSIdLARU, Y. (1' 7'

PDOR:iATIOT OF BILE PIG:;.E:- 'IMNT T IVE BY .:.LcPI:-. A.. .r. Joir.
P:-(siol. 97: .54-6574'1931i [Abstrnict in Chei... Zentbl lI'71 (II):
1022. 1931.]
Addition of potassium cy;voiide prevented formation of the C...
ODA., y. (1'

THE IV-FLUEI!CE OF THE VARIO'S E:OC C-:,S 0(-"3 O
YPEP.RGLUCE:.IA A i LACTIC ACID OF :HE -L0OD I- C-c;-.C
CY'aI DE POIS0lIII3G. 'I, I'I. Folia -ndocrinol. Jspon. 5: 11-13.
[Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 170 (II):- 1560-1561. 1,. Chem.
Abs. 25: 145. 1931.]

Repeated subcutaneous injection of 1i potassium cyanide
solution (daily 2-6 mg. XCI per kg.) always causes an increase
of sugar and lactic acid in the blood of rabbits. Simultaneous
injection of insulin inhibits the increase. Adrenaline
and adrenal cortex extract inhibit or nullif" the increase in
blood sugar and lactic acid after chronic administration of
potassium cyanide, The sensitivity of the rabbits r* airst
potassium cyanide is greatly increased by choline.

OIKAWA, :. (179)
SUS'EFTIBILITY OF DOUBLY S-.RA-iALECTOiIZED RABBITS TO
CYYATIDE. Tohoku Jour. Expt. ,led. 18: 1-26. 1931. [Cited in
Quart. Cumulative Index Medicus 10: 358. 1931.]

PACK, H. J. (180)

T. -TES O0 iKISCELLAITEOUS T7'SCTS OF UTAH. Uto.-.. Agr. E:pt. Sta.
Bull. 216, 30 pp. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A):
69. 1931.]

A discussion of numerous insects and methods for
their control. Anasa tristis DeG. (squash bug) destroys
squash plants by inoculation of some toxic substance (or possibly
a disease) in feeding, which causes wilting and ultimate drying
of the leaves and finally of the whole plant. The best results
against the bug were obtained by dusting with calcium cyanide.

PAT1JE!, F. (181)

PRPARATION OF AQETALS. i[cnr.tsh. 58: 1-11. 1931. [In Germn-.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4523. 1931.]

Directions are given for the preparation of anhydrous
hydrocyanic acid '.n 95f yields; this may be kept indefinitely if
a few pieces of calcium chloride are added .nd the flask kept in
a desiccator over calcium chloride. Details c re also :-iven for
the preparation of HCT:CwI[Et.FCl from hydrccyanic acid, hydrochloric
acid and ethyl alcohol, The hydrochloric acid salt decomposes at room
temperature into ammonium chloride and forma.lacetal which serves for
the preparation of acetals.





- 44 -


PETERS, G. (182)

HYDROCYANTIC ACI-DJ-.IN CITRUS FUMIGATICIT. Umschau. 35: 312-315.
1931. [Abstr,-ct in ChZm. entbl, 102. (TI): 76G. 1931.]

A description of tent fumigation with hydrocyanic acid evolved
either by the "pot" method or from calcium cyanide.

(183)

H ".TCYANIC ACID. German Patent' 530,441, is,7uer3 *julyv 29,' 1931;
applied fdr November 2, 1929; assigned to-Deutsche Gold- und
Silber- Scheideanstalt veOri. Roessler. `[In -Germaen. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 25: 5253. 1931.1 :

Compounds evolving hydrocyanic acid' under the ''influence of
moisture, e. g. calcium cyanide, are mixed with varying amounts
of hygroscopic co'mrounds, e.g. calcium chloride, whereby the
rate of evolution of hydrocyanic acid is slowed down, and the
period of activity of the compounds is prolonged. The mixtures
may be used for fumigating greenhouses, etc.

PETERS, K., and SISTER, H. (184)

F:'?-LATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN THE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE.
Brennstoff-Chem, 12: 122-127. 19331. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
25: 2922. 1931.]"' ..

Yields of 70% hydrocyanic acid have been obtained when 1:1
mixtures of methane and ammonia were subjected to the electrical
discharge at diminished pressures and raid gas-flow rates. '
Increases in the reaction yields resulting from increases in dis-
chaige potentials agree with the calculated thermal equivalents.
T7ith l1 or loss of either methane or ammonia the yields of hydro-
cyanic acid become quantitative when calculated for the smaller con-
stituent of the mixture. Under high charges, excess methane and
ammonia form -.cetylene or decc.'.-iose into nitrogen and hydrogen,
respectively. WiciL a 3:7 methane-ammonia mixture a good yield of pure
crystalline ammonium cyanide results. The addition of ammonia
in the acetylene formation from methane prevents hydrocarbon
formation without dimtninishing the yield of acetylene, both tar
and. hydrocarbons reacting with ammonia to form cydrocyanic acid.
The influence of electrical charge, gas-flow rate and composition
upon hydrocyanic acid yields is shown in tables and diagrams. The
reaction mechanism is discussed at length.

PRATT, F. S. (185)

FTUTGATION GAS COITCEZTRATIO.TS Lf7l= TENTTS. Calif. Citrogr.
15: 440, 455-457, 1930. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 64: 243, 1931.]

Lopkre.g meter tests on canvas fabrics do not provide a
reliable index of the tightness of tents when operated under
field conditions. There is a marked difference between the







le-kage of f:0s from a tent end tV-. diffusion of --*s r-'ro ? r
scrple of fabric. '.Tith tents, moisture in the air pI;ys,: a -'r.
inm ortant 'e.rt in the factor of tent l*'-,-'e.- than the f-;.rLC from
which the tents -r. male. di is d.e to t-e fact that wettin:- the.
tent causes the ."...ors of the fabric to swell which In turn t:"lz
to close the interstices of the weave, thus *'-2 the tent ti-hter.
Tests show that a 6.5-oz. drill tent -ay be jus-t as bi ht as
an _-oz. U. S. Army duck tent. ThI;3 is attributed to the fact that
drill fabrics tend to tighten more than 7- or 8-oz. d k. Old.
tents in good repair may be just as ti' "t, if not tif-hter, than new
tents of 8-oz. U. S. Army due:. Until shriia',-a:e of cloth has
taken place in a new tent, the gas concentrations will be lower,
more rapidly by leakage than is the case with a tent that has seen
one or more seasons' use. Wind movements during fui-.i.-ation incre'z---
the leaka,-e, and thus lower the efficiency of the process.

UTIjTI, G. (,

PF-7:IGATIITG; TOIlAT'TO 7CsO S JITH :7-T'-RCYA'IIC ACID GAS T7 -S?:: .iTE
FLY (TP.IALETJROIDES VAPORAP.IUM). Jour. Dept. Agr. So. Aust. 34:
519-520. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 2233. 1931.]

A detailed procedure is given for the use of .l.-rocy'nic acid
as a fumigant.

BAO, R. (187)

A-?RELI:II:.ARY IOTE OF THE SUCCESSFUL TOPTi .iT OF T:H JAS;.:i:E BUG
(ATESTL.; CRU'qIiT.) BY ri'STI773 CALCIUi CYAITr. Proc. 15th Indian
Sci. Cong. 1928: 51-52. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 2&:l. 1931.]

Dusting T.ith calcium cyanide was found to have the effect of
stupefying tLo bi's on the bushes and bringing them to the Fround.
As a certain proportion of the bugs generally revived within a short
time, these had to be hand-picked and destroc-ed by dro',in-- them into
kerosene covered water.

REGRIE2, R. (188)

APIO'i TRIFOLII, L., I:JURRIUS TO V AEGET1E PLANTS. Bull. Soc. Sci.
ITat. Rouen 44-45(7): 27-30. 1928-1929. [Sn French. Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 722. 1931.]

Calcium cyanide gave up to 95 mortality of the weevils
when plants were treated under a bell glass, but when the
latter was not .-sed, 50-T5, recovered within 45 minutes.

REICHALRD, S. K. (189)

CYk' O GEITETIC GLUCOSIDES Ii: AUT3;'rAA PLA"T5. II. (b) PR:SE]CE
-''-7; S. I .. .. T. KA T II. 7b t;-' '-3
OF EZ.ES liT FCDJR PLXITS AS A FACTOR. IT T?-" 7OnSis::I, OF
STOC:. Jour. and Proc. Ro:'. Soc. N. S. Wales 63: 179-182. 1930.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 2455. 1931.]


The isolation of sembuni-rin and pranasin has afforded the




46 -

rc.portunity of testin-, by means of these cyancgenetic glucosides,
for the presence of enzymes in.plants capable of decomposing them
and liberating the hydrocyanic acid which they contain. Investigation
of E. maculata showed that the sample of dried plant employed con-
tained practically no enzymr.e, although containing a large amount of
glucoside. Another plant, Heterodendron olaeifolium, proved quite
similar. -The si-rificance of the presence of enzymes in fodder
plants is illustrated.

REIC:-EL, L., and ST:RASR, 0. (190)

IS:.:,.r:: OF LdYD0 C ACID. Ber. 64:. 1997-1999. 1931. [In German.
Abstract in Cher,. *-.s, 25: 5893. 1931.]

The absorption of isc-.my1l c,-snide, in heptano begins at 2329
A. U. for log k 0 and that of iso-&m:'l iso-yyanide at 2725 A. U.
-ith the pu'.-os, -'-nrous :':-irocyanic acid (I) in-heptane, no
absorption coulc detected up to 1935 A. U. for log k = 0 to 2.2.
If it is -s:'.u.cd, in an1logy with the similarity of the absorption curves
of the CO group in ketones PJ3 aldehydes, that tLie eplacemont
of the -hydrogen of (I)..by a bh-drocarbon residue does not greatly
infl-uence thj form o.f the curve, )itim',-- be concluded that the curve
of (I) consists chiefly of a nitrile curve shifted-by substitution
of the hydro-ron. Although the measurements do not permit of a quanti-
tative evaluation it is probable that (I) contains at most but a
few parts for hundred of the isonitrilo form.

REID, J. J. (191)

APPARATUS FOR G.U..E.ATI-G HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS FOR FItIGATION,
ETC. United States Patent 1,806,823, issuedL Hay 26, 1931;
applied for September 21, 1927. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25:;
4083. 19313

Structural features of sam apparatus which is suitable for
)X:in- various gas-forming reagents are described.

REPPE W. (192)

_-:'DROCYA:IC ACID. German Patent 511,517, issued October 30, 1930;
applied for October 20, 1923; addition to 485,989; assigned to
I.G. Farbenindustrie A.-G. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
25: 1339. 1931.]

In the preparation of hydrocyanic acid by the methods of
-) 5,.. I -Ji 51C.0 07 by hc,.tin- for.,,nmide or anmoniurm formate or
a mixture of both with indifferent gases over catalyzers, the
temperature is kept above 250C. Ex:amp:les are given

P. R.L:;T, J. R. (193)

2::. ASPECTS OF SHIP FUlUIGATIOT. U. S. Pub. Health Repts.
46: 1572-1578. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4644. 1931.]






- 47 -


Report on the use,. safet" mtasuresj and coTira.rative merits
of (1) liquid hydrocyanic acid with either c:,,-no-crn, .Ioride
or chloropicrin as a warning gas and (2) Z-.'>lb"-',-, which conzists of
an earthly substance ("11 Aitcmite") imnr,*n,-'tod with liquid vro-
cyanic acid. and marketed with 5, ohioropicrin as a warnL- *av.



EXPERI.MEITS WITH CERTATIT F1.,:IGAiTS USED ?'R THE, D'EST.UCTIC: OF
COCKROACHES. U. S. Pub. Health Repts. 45: 1623-1636. iL431.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4644. 1931.]

Zyklon-B and liquid hydrocyanic acid with s5 chlo-c icrin pro-
bably have equal lethal effect and are effective in killingC
roaches when used in the proportion of 60 g. per 10'-,) cu. ft. during" a
2-hr. exposure. Several other combinations were tried and are
reported in detail.

RII.LARSKI, PLEUS, FRIEDRICH, STREB, NOACK, K`.PT HFFI.AJIT,
and. :-:C1TSCHACK. (195)

THE HAZARDS OF PRETARATICr VERSUS THE SAFETY OF TRA7'SPC?.TATIOT
A jT HiADLIUG OF HYDROCYANIC ACID COiTTAEVII'G CYANOGEN C;LCP.IL.,
A ITE7 ABSORPTION MATERIAL. Jahresber. Chem.-rech:. 'echsanstalt
8: 71-79. 1930, [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 23 3. 1931.]

Zyklon now contains cyanogen chloride as an irritant,
in addition to hydrocyanic acid. It is prre-rared by passing chlorine
into hydrocyanic acid. In the presence of the resulting cypnog--n
chloride there is no danger of hydrocyanic acid being polymerized
(by hydrochloric acid) to cycnnuric acid. Likewise, in the gas
phase, nitriles and formic acid are not sources of dan--er during
chlorination. The formation of nitrogen chloride from the 0.15
of ammonia which is present is prevented by the d.ecomposin- effect
of hydrochloric acid.. Ex:.-losion experiments in lead cylinders
showed that the strongest detonating caps could not induce the ex-
plosion of either hydrocyanic acid, or a mixture of hydrocyanic
acid with cyanogen chloride. A new absorbent material is des-
cribed, consisting of cubes of highly absorbent gypsum, with
starch solution as a binder.

ROARK, R. C., and ITELS0IT, 0. A. (196)

DEITSITIES OF I.IXTURES OF AIR AIND VARIOUS FJUi.:IGAITS. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 23: 985-987. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A):
213. 1931.]

A formula is given for the calculation of the densities and
specific gravities of saturated mixtures of air and vapors of
liquid or solid f ir.igants. Only four of these compounds give
mixtures with air that have densities less than that of pure air,
and of these hydrocyanic acid is the only one commo.ily used
against insects.




- 48 -


ROBINSON, M. E. (197)

CYANOGE:ESIS IN PLANT-TS, .-idol. Iev. 5: 126. 1930. [Abstracts in
._Ysiol. Abs. .l5:r556. 1931; Chem. Abs. 25: 3029. 1931.]

Prussic acid, identified during the early part of the nineteenth
century as a constituent of r.anr members of the Rosaceae, is now
known to be present in plants from about 50 natural orders. It is
generally considered to exist in the plant exclusively in glucosidal
combination, but certain workers, postulate the existence of free
cy- idc. he function of prussic acid in- the plant is still quite un-
knoxn, although some workers consider that cyanides represent the
first stage in the synthesis of organic nitrogen by the plant. Others
take the view that the cyanophoric 4lucosides are excretory products, or
act as protective agencies in natural selection.. owing to their toxic
properties.

ROBISONT, R., :L.CLEO, M., and ROSEITEIM, A.H. (198)

THE POSSIBLE SIGNTIFICAN'CE OF THE P::OSE-P:cOSFHORIC ACID ESTER lIT
BO[E GROWTH. IX. CALCIUM DEPOSITIONS IN VITRO. Biochem. Jour. 24:
1927-1941. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (1l): 1021. 1931.]

Potassium cyanide was found to check calcium deposition, but
only in the absence of the hexose-phosphoric acid ester.

ROC:: 6ELL, P. 0'. (199)

PURIFICATION OF AIR. U. S. Patent 1,789,194, issued January 13, 1931;
applied for March 20, 19.25. [Abstract in C'em. Zentbl. 102 (I): 1799.
1931.]

Air, freed of moisture and acidic vapors, is passed through
granular material (activated carbon) impregnated with hexamethyle-
netetremnine. Activated carbon may be replaced by sodium hydroxide,
potassium hydroxide, sodium sulphide, sodium carbonate, calcium
hydroxide, barium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, alkaline pumice
stone, or alkaline gel. The process is especially designed to
remove hydrocyanic acid or cyanog,_n chloride from air.

ROSEiTT-AL, S. 1., and VOEGTLIN, C. (200)

.-: EFrECT OF SULPHYDRIL, IROIU- AND CYAOTCGEIT COMPOTVS CU THE
S. Healt ,T Tn.s.
OXYGEN CO oSTPTION OF LIVI-G CELLS. U. S. Pub. Health Rents.
S46: 521-539. 7 2,l. [Abstract in Brit. Chem. Abs. 1931(A):
.1187. 1931.]

::either form of glutathione influences the inhibitory effect
of cyanide on respiration, whereas metheiroglobin, sodium ferric
tartrate, and ferrous ammonium sulphate have a slight effect, although
the last two compounds do not actually accelerate oxygen consumption,
nor does glutathione alone. Cyanide reacts with iron compounds and
sulphur cormounds of tissues as well as with the respiratory enzyme.





- 49 -


ROSENTHALER, L. (92I)

STUDIES. CII EM.ULSIN. Bioc'c..,. Ztschr. 235: 2"-,'-232. 1931. [In
German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4EC4. 1 31.]

In the er"m-ic asymmetric synthesis in the al'.ehe-:. Irccyenic
acid- enilsin system the optical activity :iay at first incrce.zc T end
then decrease, and this occurs in the case of oll aele'yd-es investi-e.-ted,
th-ou-gh with varying velocities. Experiments ?.ave been yerfore'e
to test the various conditions which mi-ht 7.c :ount for this
occurrence.

RYAN, R* j.

G:LFTjSH SUSCEPTIBLE TO HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS. Calif. rept. Agr.,
1i--,nthly Bull. 19: 728. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 1593.
1931.]

In two cases, orchard fumigation with liquid hydrocyanic
acid caused the death of goldfish colonies in ponds located
about 100 ft. from the nearest tree.

ST. Io ISCO (203)

AITTHO-CYANOGEn FORMATION IN BUCKWHEAT ALD CEREALS. Comr.t. Rend.
192: 439-440. 1931. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I):
3018. 1931.]

SCHECHTER, M. (204)

ROLE OF LIVER IN IUTTERIiEDIARY METABOLISM OF CYANIDE. Ztschr.
Klin. Med. 117: `37-651. 1931. [In Germ.n. Cited in Quart.
*Cumulative Index Medicus 10: 358. 1931.]

---- (205)

CAPACITY OF ANIT.IAL ORGANS FOR ASSLIILATI,:! CYA-TirE JCITOL-MS IN
VITRO; MODIFICATION BY THR.OID PREPAPATIC.:TS, PARTICULARLY
ThYROXIITE. Ztschr. Klin, Med. 117: 652-656. 1931. [In German.
Cited in Quiart. Cumulative Index. Medrlicus: 10: 358. 1931.]

---- (206)

CAPACITY OF LIVER FOR ASSIMILATIOC OF HYDROCYACiTIC ACID IN VITRO.
Ztschr. Klin. Med. 117: 657-659. 1931. [In German. Cited in
Quart. Cumulative Index 1iedicus 10: 358. 1931.]

---- (207)

SPLITTING OF NITRILE PORTION OF ACEDO-ITRILE 17 A!:II.;AL
ORGANISM.; MODIFICATION BY THYROID PREPARATIONS, PARTICU-
LARLY THfROXINE. Ztschr. Klin. :.Ied. 117: 660-663. 1931.
[In German. Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index I.Medicus 10:
358.. 1931.]




- 50 1


SCEI/JTT, F. 0. (208)

TEE OXIDIZING NATURE CF THE ITERVE II/pT7LSE. Science 7!: 583-584.
1930. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II)f 255. 1931] *

Hydrocyanic acid or carbon monoxide increases the oxygen
consumption of nerves. The author concludes that a respiration
enzyme' is active in nerve cells, as in other cells.

------ -. and SCH.'ITT, 0. H. A. (209)
IHE NATURJE OF THE iTERVE IMPULSE. 'II. THE EFFECT OF CYANIDES UPON
MELTJLLATED TERVES. Amer. Jour. Physiol. 97: 302-314. 1931.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4061. 1931.]

The oxygen consumption of resting frog nerves can be
practically inhibited, by treatment with cyanides. The action potential
is abolished when the nerve is immersed in O.Ol normal sodium cyanide
about as-rapidly as in nitrogen. "Nerves stained "with methylene
blue are not protected against cyanides.

SC..Ai..T2T, C., and FICK, R. (210)

SPRAY MATERIAL FOR COiTTROL OF INSECT PESTS CONI PLANTS. German Patent
529,506, issued July 14, 1931; applied for March 3, 1928; assigned
to I. G. Farbenindustrie A.-G. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II):
1910. 1931.]

The material consists of a suspension of calcium cyanide,
magLesium cyanide, or their double compounds with m-ifLcniLa, in liquids
which do not decompose the cyanides and which preferably have insecti-
cidal properties. For example, a homogeneous suspension is made of 25
parts of calcium cyanide (or the diammoniate) in 75 parts of an
insecticidal petroleum fraction or coal tar oil fraction. Aliphatic or
aromatic halogen compounds may also be used (ethylene chloride, carbon
tetrachloride, dichlorobenzene, chloronaphthalene).

SCHWARZ, L., and DECKERT, W. (211)

PENETRATING PC7ER OF HYDROCYANIC ACID. Ztschr. Desinfekt. u. Gesundhw,
22: 749-758. 1930 [In Germnr:. Abstracts in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I):
649. 1931. Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 329. 1931.]

The quantity of hydrocyanic acid that has penetrated to any given
point in the material fumigated is ascertained by the use of soda-
lime kieselguhr tablets placed in small perforated porcelain con-
tainers. If these are placed in flour they must be enclosed in fine
silk gauze. Tablets hung in various parts of a room indicate the
average concentration 6f the bras, and simultaneous exposures of test in-
sects indicated the strength required to kill them. The exposed tablets
are dissolved in water and titrated with potassium iodide and silver
nitrate, thus detecting as little as 0.05 mg. hydrocyanic acid. The
gas has very great penetrative power, and it is unimportant whether
the material be coarse like rice or fine like potato flour. Penetration
into a highly absorbent material is slower thaxi in a less absorbent
one, and tht, !as is subsequently given up more slowly. There thus
results an after-uffect that may kill pests still alive when ventilation
begins after fumigation. Wood is penetrated by the gas, and a tablet





- 51 -


absorption of 2 mg. indicates e. concentrationn sufficient to kill
lotrupe bajulus e. s !..

SHOUP, C. S., ndo0Ti, J. T. (212)

CYA.TIDE INSENSITIVITY OF PARAM.ECTUM. Jour. Gen Physiol. 15:
107-118. 1931. [Cited in Qu.rt. Cumulative Index lf.iicuS 10:


SMITH, F. F., and F ISHER,. H. J. (213)

THE DOXVWIOD LEAF MINER (MOITARTHROFA.LPUS BUXI LABOU). Ienn. P'r t.
Agr. Bull., Vol. 13. no. 12 Gen. Bull. 497. 14 pp. 1930.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 435. 1931.]

Sprays and dusts are only effective against the adults,
and must be thoroughly and repeatedly applied. The bulk of the
paper deals with the hot water.treatment of infested nursery
plants, and field experiments in the fumigation of bushes with
hydrocyonic acid under tents of 12-oz. canvas treated with linseed
oil. .The tents are supported on wooden frames, 4 by 5 by 5 feet, to
enclose 100 cu. ft. of' space, and the preferred dosage was
2 oz. sodium cyanide in 6 oz. water and 3 oz. sulprhuric acid.
Fumigation should be #prried out when the plants are in a dormant
condition, that is from mid-November to ::arch. The plants should
be dry, as any form of moisture will result in foliage injury,
end the temperature should preferably be between 40 and 55F. In
plants fumigated in November the larvae may appear normal until
March, though apparently little feeding occurs, and they die in
early April. In those treated in the spring, death occurs during
May or early June.

SMITH, L. (214)

THE SNOWY TREE-CRICKET AND OTHER INSECTS INJURIOUS TO RASPBERRIES.
Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 508, 38 pp., 1930. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 318. 1931.]

Of several propietary sprays, the best killed only about
3C; of the crickets. Dormant oils proved useless as ovicides,
and lime-sulphur almost so. The use of arsenical sprays or dusts
is impracticable, as it would be necessary to treat the bushes while
they are bearing. Calcium cyanide and nicotine dusts were tried,
but -:ere finally abanrdoned oiing to high cost, difficulty of handling,
and great variation in toxicity. Complete control, however, was ob-
tained with a dust composed of 70%1 sodium fluosilicate and 30%
diatomaceous earth, applied at the rate of about 50 lb. to the acre
with a rotary fan blower.

SMITH, R. G., and ,ALCOLM, R. L. (215)

URTITARY SULPHUR AN-TDIOCYAJIATE EXCRETIC'iT IN CYAiyIDE POISOYING.
uJour.- Pharmacol.'and Expt. Ther. 40: 457-471. 1930. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 25: 2203. 1931.]








Rabbits on a constant diet were allowed: to. breathe hydrocyanic
acid fumes for certain periods for a number of. days. Inorganic
and conjugated sulphates, neutral sulphur, and thiocyanato excretion
in urine were determined. Neutral sulphur, increased during cyanide
administration, the increase being accounted for by excretion
of thiocyana'te. Inorganic sulphate decreased in most cases,
so that the total sulphur was the same or less. An increase in
total nitrogen caused an increase in the nitrogen-sulphur rati.o. After
intravenous injection of sodium cyanide, 61 to 100% of the
cyanide given was recovered in the urine duri-ng -the first three ,
days as thiocyanate. Conclusions: Increased urinary neutral
sulphur id due to detoxication of cyanide rather than depressed
oxidation processes. Thiocyanate 'formation is the principal
method of cyanide detoxication.:

S'YTER, T. E. (216)

THE TERi-.ITE PROBLEM IN THE PACIFIC AREA. Proc. 4th Pac. Sci.
Cong. Java 1929, iv, Agr. Papers, 143-156. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. 19(A): 224. 1931i]

To destroy termites in the woodwork of buildings and boats,
fumigation with hydrocyanic acid just before the insects are
ready to fly is successful, using 12 oz. sodium cyanide to 18 fluid
oz. sulphuric acid and 36 fluid oz. water per 1000 cu. ft, room
capacity.

SOCIETE D'ETUDES CHIMIQUES POUR L'INDUSTRIE
A10iTOIA AITD HYDROCYANIC ACID. (217)

Swiss Patent 143,982, issued February 16, 1931; applied for
June 3, 1929. [In French. Abstract in Cheo. Abs. 25: 4092. 1931.]

Ammonia is produced with hydrocyanic acid as a by-product
by passinr.z gas containing hydrocarbons, nitrogen, and hydrogen
over alkaline earth cyanehnide at 200-100000. and. mu;ider a pressure
of 1-350 atmospheres. Coke-oven gas may be used. In the example,
calcium cyanamide is heated to 7500C. in a tube through which coke oven gas
containing methane, hydrogen, and nitrogen is passed.
,
SOCIETY FRANMTCAISE DU GAZ SANOS (218)

USE OF HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS. French Patents 697,923 and 697,924,
issued January 21, 19'l and January 23, 1931; applied for
September 24, 1929. [In French.-Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25:
3133. 1931.]

Apparatus is described for emitting an alarm gas along
with hydrocyanic acid gas to prevent poisoning of persons thereby.

STANER, p. (219)

THE DISINFECTION 0O COTTON SEEDS. Bul.. Agr. Congo Belge. 21: 830-832,
1930. [In French. Abstract in Chom. Abs. 25: 37:63. 1931..]





- 53 -


''.* The best current practice for disinfecting cotton seeds
appear to b6 the iluse of the Clayton as apparatus or' he modified
SSimons apparatus. Clayton gas is a mixture of sulphur iirxode
and sulphur trioxide, while the Simons apparatus is based on the
disinfbcting properties of hot air on the dry seeds. For a
complete disinfection of the seeds one of the tcxic gass,.,
chloropicrin, carbon disulphide, or hydrocyanic acid, can be*
usedi. Soaking or dusting the seeds with copper-based products
offers a protection against fungus, while a similar use'of '
arsenic-based materials destroys the insects.

STANILAID, L. N., and WALTON, C. L. (22f)

A N1OTE ON THE CONTROL OF WOLLY APHIS ON 'ORP.CIIAT ITURSERY STOCK.
Rept. Agr. Hort. Res. Sta. Bristol 1930: 106-107. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 607. 1931.]

In an experiment during 1928-1929 on young dormant apple
trees, fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas (1 oz. sodium cyanide
per 100 cu. ft.-for 1 hour) proved almost a complete failure.

STEWART, F. C., and GLASGOW, H. (221)

APHIDS AS VECTORS OF LEAF BOLL AMONG SPROUTING POTATO TUBERS.
.* MY.Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 171, 21 pp., 1930. [Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 265. 1931.]

Aphids on seed potatoes may be killed without injury to the
tubers by fumigation for 2 to 3 hours with tobacco dust of a high
nicotine content or sodium cyanide, used at the rate of 1 oz.
or 1/2 oz., respectively, per 1000 cu. ft. of space.

TAMIYA, H. (222)

STUDIES OF THE METABOLISM OF ASPER-ILLUS ORYZAE. III. Acta Phytochim.
4: 227-270, [Abstract in Ohem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 3249. 1931.]

Potassium cyanide inhibited both growth and oxygen-
absorption.

TAYLOR, H. (223)

THE R:I.A.TCRY MOVEMENTS IN GRADUAL HYDROCY.AIIC ACID POISONING. Jour.
Ph-'.: .1 69: 124-134. 1930. [Abstract in Physiol. Abs. 15: 161.


SThe effect of gradual poisoning by hydrocyanic acid gas upon
respiration confirms the researches of Lumsden with regard to the
four centers: (1) pneumotoxic, (2) apneustic, (3) expiratory,
(4) gasping. In cats there is successive elimination of the first two
centers by this poison; in rabbits both these centers, if they
exist separately, are eliminated together, but gasping is very
similar to gasping in cats. In general the effects of the gas are
obtained in the same order as those given by sections of the
brain stem from above downward. Apnoea is not produced in a





.^-54 ."


gasping animal by over-ventilation with-air, nor do the respiratory
movements stop during the act of over-ventilation. in a cat the
form of the gasps is altered after artificial ventilation,'. Arti-
ficial ventilation with hydrocyanic acid gas mixture produces
failure of the respiratory movements. Cutting the vagi appears
to aid the formation of apneuses pr.educed by hydrocyanic acid; the
vagi evidently inhibit apneuses.

THOMPSON, M. R. (224)--

PURIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF ALKALI CYANIDES. Bur. Standards Jour.
Res. 6: 1051-1059. 1931. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4810. 1931.]

Sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide were synthesized from
liquid'hydrocyanic acid and the appropriate hydrozide or'ethoxide in
ethyl alcohol solution. No difficulty was encountered in producing
potassium cyanide of high purity, but sodium cyanide was always less
pure. This is due to differences in reactions and solubilities be-
tween sodium and potassium salts in ethyl alcohol, Recrystallization
from methyl alcohol was suitable in some cases. The silver nitrate
method of analysis was found to be the most accurate.

TSUKUNAGA, K. '(225)'

HYDROCYANIC*ACID IN SORGHUM. .Agr. Expt. Sta. S. Manchuria Ay Co.,
Res. Bull. 2: 49-58. 1931. [In Chinese. Abstract'in Chem. Abs.
25: 3690. 1931.] ..

Andropogon sorghum Broth leaves contained 0.0358 0.1066 %
hydrocyanic acid on moisture-free basis. Differences of hydrocyanic
acid content in varieties distinguished by differences in seed color
are: white 0.0587-0.0804 %, yellow 0.0358-0.'0868 %,
red-brown 0.0642-0.1066 %, pink 0.0542-0.0655 %, brown 0.0376-0.1066 %.
Varieties which produce mealy seeds contained 0.0376-0.1066 % and
C lassy seeds 0.0358-0.084 %, and the .varieties used for making brooms
contained 0.0412-0.0455 %. Kafir and Sudan grass contained much less
hydrocyanic acid than Andropogon sorghum Broth and sugar cane
(0.0698-0.0722 %.)

TUCKER, R. W. E. (226)

SUGAR-CATE BORERS. THE CONTROL OF DIATRAEA SACOHARALIS
IN BARBADOS BY MASS LIBERATIONS OF TRICHOGRAMMA MIINUTUM. Trop. Agr. 7:
292-295. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 105. 1931.]

A number of pests interfere in the propagation of the parasites.
amongst these, E. mhniella- and H. cerealellae were destroyed by
hand crushing the adults and by fumigating with just sufficient
hydrocyanic acid to kill all adults and young larvae, but not the
pupae of S. cerealella.

VIETORISZ, K. (27)

EFFECT OF HYDROCYANIC ACID ON RESPIRATION OF MALIGNANT TISSUE.
Biochem. Ztschr.- 240: 488-489. 1931. [.Inie'rman. Cited in Quart.
Cumulative Index Medicus 10: 358. 1931]






- 55 -


WAREURC, 0 .- (22 )

THE IJOIT-II,'I3I.TIO OF CELL RESPIRATION BY HYDROCYANIC ACID.. Biochem.
Ztschr. 231: 493-497. 1931. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
2,5: 2472. 1931.]

Dixon's discovery that potassium cyeniie affects only 6C^7 of
tn.' cell respiration is shown to be based on error. Liver, kidney,
and spleen cells are injured by the'phosphate buffer, as used by
Dixon. When these cells are experimented- with in a Rinrer-IT:. CO3
C02 rleium their respiration is completely inhibited by potassium
cyanide just as is that of -,east cells. Attention is called to
several other experiments errors in Dixon's work. A number of in-
stances are cited demonstrating that injury of the cell frequently
affects tie inhibition of its respiratory activity under certain
conditions.

-- --(229)

INFLUENCE OF HYDROCYAITIC ACID ON THE CATALYTIC ACTION OF MA:IGA7ESE.
Biochem. Ztschr. 233: 245. 1931. [In German. Abstract in Chnm.
yAbs. 25: 3552. 1931.]

A solution of cysteine in molal borate buffer of pH
9.5 becomes oxidized in the air in the presence -of small
quantities of manganese and this catalytic action is not noticeably
inhibited by even 200 times the amount of potassium cyanide. Since
iron catalysis under similar conditions is very strongly inhibited, the
two types of catalyst can thus be differentiated, The manganese cat-
alysis is incompletely inhibited even by 20,000 times as much
potassium cyanide.

WENDEL, W. B. (230)

ACCELERATION OF RESPIRATION OF RED BLOOD CELLS BY CYANIDE. Jour.
Biol. Chem. 92: xlvii. 1931. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index
Miedicus 10: 358. 1931.]

WICHMMJD, H. (231)

HYICTRLTFES BIJULUS L. IN DENMARK. Anz. Scha"dlingsk. 7: 13 -16.
1931. [In Da.nish. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A): 379. 1931.]

Iifestntion develops quickly under a slvte roof and ne-w breeding
places are constantly sought, .herocas there are tiled houses in 'which
H. Bajulus has been present for a hundred years, and only a
little of the timber has required replacing. Fumigation with
hydrocyanic acid does not destroy all the larvae, but heat,
applied by meens of the plant used for drying out newly erected
buildings, is stated to be satisfactory. The attic is heated to
60-700C. (140-1580F.) from 8 A.M. to 10 P.M., and in no case
has it been possible to find any living larvae after this
treatment.






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T7IEGA:D, C. (232)

DETDXICATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN VIVO. BY MEANS OF DIOXYACETOITNE
AiD DEXTROSE. Arch. Expt. Path. ua. Parmekol. 163: 150-155. 1931.
[In German. Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index Medicus. 10:
358. 1931.]

WIELAiD, H., and MACRAE, T. F. (233)

ECHAjTISM OF OXIDATION PROCESSES. XXVI. DEHYDROGENATING ENZYMES OF
MILK. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 483: 217-250. 1930. [In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 3364. 1931.]

The effect of hydrocyanic acid on the oxidation of acetaldehyde
formaldehyde, and benzaldehyde has been determined. Evidence
is adduced that the same enzyme is responsible for aerobic and
anaerobic oxidation in presence of methylene blue, and for dismutation.
The effect of hydrocyanic acid on all three reactions is of the same
order of activity.

WIERSMA, C. A. G. (234)

THE EFFECT OF POTASSIUM, CYANIDE NARCOSIS ON THE 1iERVES.
CONTRIBUTION TO THE QUESTION OF NERVE CONDUCTIVITY. Koninkl.
Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, Proc. 33: 180-188. 1930. [In Dutch.
Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (I): 107. 1931.]

Nerve conductivity in the presence of potassium cyanide
differs from that in normal nerves or in nerves poisoned by
indifferent narcotics.

WILDER-1JTH, V. L., and DAVIS, E. G. (235)

THE RED HARVESTER ANT AND HOW TO SUBDUE IT. U. S. Dept.
Agr. Farmers' Bull. 1668, 21 pp., 1931. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. 19(A): 746. 1931.]

Numerous methods of control are discussed. Calcium
cyanide sprinkled about the entrance hole suspends the
activities of the ants for a period of about a week or more.

WILLIAMS, C. L. (236)

FUMvIGANTS, U. S. Pub. Health Repts. 46: 1013-1031. 1931.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 3118. 1931.]

The dangers attending the use of hydrocyanic acid f6r
fumigation are discussed in particular relation to the methods
usually employed for generating or liberating it. The
residue from calcium cyanide remains dangerous after fumigation.
Advantages and disadvantages of adding a warning gas, ways in
which persons are liable to be overcome, methods of rescue and
treatment, and the use of gas masks are discussed. Other
fumigc.nts are briefly mentioned.





-57-


------- (237)

EFFECT OF. FUMIGATION C01 COCKROACHES ON SHIPS. U. S.
Pub., Hual.th Repts. 46: 1-8,',-1694. 1931. [Abstract in Chcm.
AbJs. 25: 4953. 1931.]

The object of this work is the eradication of cockroaches
in living compartments on ships fumigated for the destruction of rats.
Tests were made with liquid hydrocyanic acid with and without
chloropicrin (warning gas); Zyklon-B; .and chloropicrin alone.

------- (238)

AIR-JET HYDROCYANIC ACID SPRAYER. U. S. Pub. Health Repts. 46;
1755-1761. 1931. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index Medicus
10: 503. 1931.]

------- (239)

FUiIGATION OF LOADED SHIPS. U. S. Pub. Health Repts. 46: l,23-l82E.
1931, [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 25: 4953. 1931.]

Complete details are given.

---- -(--- 240)

REPORT ON SCIAE TESTS OF THE USE OF A IIE7 CYANCKGE: PRCD"JCT
IN SHIP FUMIGATIOCT. U. S. Pub. Health Repts. 46: 2048-2059.
1931. [Abstract in Chen. Abs. 25: 5726. 1931.]

"HCN Discoids" consist of wood-pulp disks 3 5/8"1in
diameter and 3/32" thick, which are very porous and highly absorptive.
It is claimed that these discoids can absorb 2 1/2 times their
weight of liquid hydrocyanic acid. Details are given as to use,
laboratory tests, tests on shipboard, and tests of spent discoids.

------- (241)

METHODS AND TYPES OF FUMIGATION. Bol. Ofic. San. Panam. 10: 1291-1310.
1931. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index Medicus 10: 503. 1931.]

WILLSTLTTER, R. (242)

FUTIIGATING ,WITH HYDROCYANIC ACID. British Patent 344,394,
issued March 4, 1931; applied for December 4, 1929. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 25: 4653. 1931.]

S* .In treating material in a closed chamber with an air current
carrying hydrocyanic acid, the hydrocyanic acid is added to the
gas by giving part or all of the fresh air current a fixed carbon
dioxide content and then passing: it over cyanide compounds such
as alkali"cyanides which are readily decomposed by carbon dioxide.






- +58 -


------- (243)

PRESERVATION 'OF ANNIIMAL .AND VEGETABLE MATERIALS. French Patent
690,886, issued. Sptember 26, 1930; applied for December 18, 1929;
in Germany January 21, April 15, and. September 10, 1929.
[In French. Abstract in Chem Zentbl. 102 (1): 707. 1931.]

The material is exposed for an extended period to
a comparatively low concentration of hydrocyanic acid (not less -
than 0.004 vol. '%). For the preservation of meat, 25 to 100:;mg.
hydrocyanic acid are used per kg. of meat.

(244)

PP2SERVATION OF AIMAILL A7D VEGETABLE MATERIALS. German Patent
515,960, issued January 16, 1931; applied for April 16, 1929;
addition to 513,665. [Abstract in Chem Zentbl. 102 (I): 1846. 1931.]

(1) The concentration,of hydrocyanic acid is adjusted to
the amount of material being treated; for example, in preserving
meat, over 20' mg. of hydrbcyanic abid are used to each kg. of meat
(25-100 mg. is mentioned). (2) During the preservation the
temperature shall not exceed 20oC, and should preferably be 1500"
or less. ,(3) The material being processed is exposed in compact form
to the action of hydrocyanic acid.
'. ... . ...
--- - __' * **"' ; ^ (245) '; :"

CONSERVIING ANITIMAL AIND VEGETABLE FOODS. German Patent 516,923, issued
January 29, 1931; applied.for September 11, 1929; addition to
513,665. [In German. Abstract in Chem., Abs. 25; 3097. 1931.]

In preserving food by hydrocyanic acid as described in 513,665,
inert gases such as air may be present in the hydrocyanic acid current.

7WOGLUM, R. S., LA FOLLETTE, J. R., LATDON, W. E., and LEWIS, H. 0. (246)

HANDBOOK OF CITRUS INSECT CONTROL FOR 1931. Calif. Fruit Growers
Exchange, Bul. 8, 24'pp., 1931.. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 19(A):
579. 1931.]

WOLCOTT, G. N. (247)

THE INITIATION OF ENTOIniOLOGICAL EXTEITSICON WORK IN HAITI.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 24: 131-141. 1931. [Abstract in Rev. Appl Ent.
19(A): 347. 1931.]

Reference is made to an attempt to control an outbreak of
Stenocranus (Saccharosydne) saccharivorus, Westw., on sugar-cane
with calcium cyanide dust.

YAGATA, H. (248)

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE IIFLTJENICE OF POISONOUS GASES UPON THE
PIGhTEIT-EXCRETING FUNCTION OF THE LIVER AITD THE KIDNEYS.





- 59--


II. CYANOGEN. Japan. Jour. Gastroenterelogy 3: 8C-54. 1331.
[In Japauese. Abstract .in Chem Abs. 25: 3084. 1-31.]

In rabbits the pir-ment-excreting function of the liver and
kidneys is injured by hydrocyanic acid poisoning. The kidneys
suffer greater injuries, which increase the dye-excretinr function
of the liver. Similar experiments were carried out with rabbits
after the administration of such liver poisons as hc'patttoxin,
chloroform, and phosphorous, or kidney poisons such as cantharidin,
potassium chromate, or uranium nitrate. The common liver poisons
seem to injure the kidneys so severely when acting with hydrocyanic
acid that the liver dye excretion increases. Kidney poisons
alone increase the dye excretion of the liver, but accompaniMe
by hydrocyanic acid the liver excretion is Icreased.

ZALES.I, W., and NOTKINA, L. (;?4:)

Ta'QLTESTION OF HEXOSE DECOCIOSITIC!T IN PLAiUTS. IV. THE MECH.ANISMI
OF THE STIMULATING EFFECT OF CXYGEI UPONI TIE POST-.:CTEM A3C0HCLIC
FEBIENTATION OF PEA SEEDS. Biochem. Ztschr. 213: 406-413 [Abstract
in Chem. Zentbl. 102 (II): 2747. 1931.]

In a study of the stimulating effect of air on the alcoholic
fermentation, the air was replaced by various hydrogen acceptors.
Only methylene blue and acetaldehyde were found to stimulate
the process. In a concentration of l0-3. potassium cyanide repressed
the fermentation (in the presence of air) to r.o extent of 51-54%, and
completely eliminated the excess normally induced by the presence of air.

ZISCH, P. J. (250)

LETHAL GAS AS MEAXMS OF ASPHIATINIG CAPITAL OFFENDERS.
Med.-Leg. Jour. 48: 25-27. 1931. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative
Index Medicus 9: 337. 1931.]







Index of
Authors, Inventors and Assignees
(References are to the citations by number)


Anonymous, 1, 2, 3, 4
Allmand, A. J., 5
American Cyanamid Co., 30
Andrewartha, H. G., 6
Anson, U. L., 7
Asche, T., 23
Averseno, 8
"Badger, R. M., 9,
Balachowsky, A.,' i0
Bamag-Meguin A.-G., 11
Bancroft, W. D., 12
Banga, I., 12
Barcroft, J., 14
Barker, J., 15, 95
Bernewitz, M. W. von, 16
Betke, t., 17
Beusch, 18
Bhagavantam, S., 19
Binder, J,. L., 9
Bondartzev, A. S., 124
Bouckaert, J. J., 103, 104
Bourderionnet, M., 20
Boykin, J. T.+ 212
Btackett, F. S., 21
Bratt, J. F., 22
Braune, H., 23
Bredig, G., 24, 25, 26, 27
Brodkorb, F., 88
Bruneteau, J., 28
Buchanan, G. H., 29, 30
Burrell, A. B., 31
California Cyanide Co., In
Camp, A. F., 33
Canovas Garcia, C., 34
Carlisle, P. J., 35
Carlos, A. S., 36
Chaplin, R., 5
Chapman, P. J. 37
Chen, T., 38
Coates, J. E., 39
coutinho, Saraiva, A., 40
Cox, C. B., 67
Crowe, T. B., 164
Csaba, M., 175
Gurtman, L. J., 41


c., 32, 1


Dadicuy- 42, 43, 44
Darg lmajer, C., "35
Dau,'rebande, L.-, '103, 104
-Davis, *E.. G., 235
DYeckert, W., 45, 46, "211
'Delass'is, 47
Demme, E., 24-
D e s champs ,-G.':,486
Deuts-he Gesellhcaft far
Sehadlimigsbekampfung' M.B.H., 152
Deutsche Gold-und Silber.
Scheideanstalt vormals Roessler,
49, 50, 51, 52, 149, 183
Dieckmann, -C.-, 85, 86, 88
Djatschkowrski, S. I., 53
AdAe, F. H. ..54, ~.- "
Eddy, N. B., 55, 56
E--ronrs, S. M., 41
Edwirds, 7. H., 57
Elod, E.i, 24,.25, 26, 27
Elvehjem, C. A., 58
Emde, H., -59, 60
Escherich, K., 61
Farbsnlz-Gesellschaft, M.B.H.,
62, 63
Fick, R., 64, 64, 210
Field,.J., 66
Field, "S. M., 66
Finnemore, H., 67
Fisher, H. J., 213
Fletcher, W. B., 119, 121, 122,
62 123
Florey, H,, 68
Flosdorf, E. W., 69
Forneau, E., 70
Fowweather, F. S., 71
Francis, W., 120
Franck, H. H., 72
Frappa, C., 73
Fred1nhagen, K., 74, 75,
Fried, E., 128
Frielrich, 195
Frobisher, M., 76
Fulton, R. R., 77
Gassner, L., 78






-61-


SGay, H.H., 79
Gerbis, H., 80
Gerwe, E. G., 81
Gessclschaft fMr Kohlentechnik M.B.H.,
82, 83, 85, 133
Glasgow, H., 221
Gludd, W., 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,
133
Close, J., 91
Gould, G. E. 37
Grny, G. P., 92
Groire, F., 144
Guerin, P., 93.
Hafner, I., 15,1
Hamburger Gisw.-rko G.M.B.H., 94
H nies, C. S., 95
Hargre.ves, E., 96
Hirtshorne, N. H., 39
Heerdt-Lingler Gesellschaft, 97, 98, 99
Heimar-.n, H., 72
Heitler, W., 100, 101
Herrdegen, H., 102
Heymans, C., 103, 104
Heymans, J. F., 105
Hicks, J. F. G., 106
Hill, E. S., 107
Hirsch, A., 130
Hoffman,,195
Hornemann, T., 59, 60
Hosoda, N., 108
HougLton, H. W7., 109, 110, 111, 112
I. G. Farbenindustrie,A.-G., 64,65, 102,
113, 114, 115, 116, 127, 172, 192, 210
Imagava, S., 117
Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd.,
S118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123
Isachenko, V. B., 124
Issajenko, T. I., 53
Jablczynski K., 125
Jaeger, A. 0., 126
Jaloustre, 8
Johnson., J. Y., 127
Kaiser, M., 128
Karl, A., 129
Kautsky, H., 130
Keeser, F., 131
Keller, K., 87, 88, 132, 133
Kemper, 195
Kerschbaum, F., 134


Kilbourne, K. A., 135
Kirkpatrick, A. F., 92
Klempt, W., 8-3
xfoni T7., 25
Konschzck *195
Koppers Co., ThL, 77
I It
Kortum, G., 2@
Koyasake, T.,-.136
Kudo, F., 137, 138, 139
Kunike, G., 140
Kuster, H., 141, 184
LaFollette, J. R., 21.
Landon, W. E., 246
Larson, A. 0., 142
Lawr, C. 7W., 143
Lefeuvre, C., 144
Lehrecke, H.-, 145, 14-, 147,
148, 149, 150
Leipert, T., 151
Lewis, H. C., .246
Liddel, U., 21
Lieseberg, F., 102
Lingler, J., 152
Lockvood, S., 153
Lorma-n', 0C, 154
LutC.rt, H. 155
I,:>cl:ie, D. B., 156, 157
Macl-eod, ivi., 198
MacRae, T. -F., 233
M-czkowska, J., 125
Magr.in, G., 158, 159
Maier-Bode, H., 16C
Maier-Bode, R., 160
Malcolm, R. L., 215
Marchlewski, L., 161
Maske, F., 75
Maurin, 8
McAulay, J., 121, 122, 123
Melville, K. I., 70
Merrill Co., 164
Metzger, F. J., 162
Miles, H. W., 163
Mills, H. A. T,, 121, 122, 123
,ills, L. D. 164
Virsky, A. E., 7
M:okrzecki, Z., 165
Monier-W7illiams, G. IT., 166,167
168, 169
Moretti, P., 170, 171







- 62 -


Mulle, R., 27
Munch, E., 172
Muntsch, 173
Muscolino, G., 170, 171
Navarre, P., 174
Nelson, 0. A., 196:
ITem-eth,. L., 175
Nicolai:, F., 65, 172
Niethammer, A., 176
Nisimaru, Y., 177
:Toack, .195
Notkina, L., 249
Oada, Y., 178
Oikawa, K., 179
Owl Fumigating Corporation, 135
Pack, H. J., 180
Pak, C., 38
Parker, M. A. 37.
Pau'er, F., 181
Parris, G. K. -31
Peters, G., 182, 183
Peters, K., 184
Plus, 195
Pratt, F. S., 185
Quinn, G., 186
Rao, R., 187
Regnier, R.,,188
Reichard, S. K., 189
Reichel, L., 190
Reid, J. J,, 191
Reppe, W., 192
Richter, G. H., 12
Ridlon, J. R., 193, 194
Riese, W., 8e, 90
Rimarski, 195
Roark R. C., 196
Robinson, M. E., 197
Robison, R., 198
Rockwrell, P. 0., 199
Roessler and Hasslacher Chemical Co,
35, 145, 146, 148, 150
Rosenheim, A. H., 198
Rosenthal, S, M., 2C0
Rosenthaler, L., 201
Ruiner, G., 100, 101
RPyan, R. J., 202


Safety Fumigant 06., 109, 110,
111, 112
St. lonesco, 203
Schec&'ter, 1:., 204,205,206,207
Sc- t, F. 0'. 208, 209
Schr.,Lttt, O.H.A.., 209
Schneider, L., 13
Schumann, C., 210
Sch vtajitoz,, L., 211'
Shannon, R. C., 76
Shoup, C. S., 212
Smith, F. F., 213
Smith, L. M., 214
Smith, R. G., 215*
SnyderI T. E., 216
Societe d' Etuaes Chimiques
pour 1 Industrie, 217
Societe Fr"'-ncaise d-t Gaz Sanos,
218
Staner, P., 219
Staniiland', .L. N., 220
Stewart, F. C., 221
Strasser, 0., 190
Streb, 195
If
Szent-Gyorgyi, 13
Tamiya, H., 222
Taylor, H., 223
Thompson, M. R., 224
Tsukunaga, K., 225
Tucker, R. 17. E., 226
Vietorisz, K., 227
Voegtlin, C., 200
Walton, C. L., 220
Iarburg, 0., 228, 229
Wendel, 17. B., 230
Wheeler, T. S., 119, 12, 121,
122, 123
t7ichrnaud, H., 231
Wiegand, C.*,' 232
Wieland, H., 233 '
Wiersma, C. A. G., 234
Wildermuth, V. L., 235
Williams, C.L., 236, 23Y, 238,
239, 240, 241 '
Willstatter, R.', 242, 243, 244,
245





63-

Uilmot, R. J., 33
Woglum, R. S., 246
Wolcott, G. N., 247
Yngata, H., 248
Zaleski, .W., 249
Zisch, P. J., 250
Zvanck, A., 159






- 64 -


Subject Index .
(References are made to the citations by number)

Absorbents, for hydrocyanic acid, 150, 195, 199
Absorption, of hydrocyanic acid, by foodstuffs, seeds, .etc.,
140, 154, 167, 168, 169
Acetone, antidotal action for cyanide, 175
Acet,-lene, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 24, 141
AcetyIlene dichloride, as stabilizer for hydrocy3nic acid, 50
Adrenalin, and cyanide, physiological action of, 178
Adsorption, of hydrocPnic acid, by animal charcoal, 5
Air, removal of hydrocyanic acid from, 199
Alerie,., c-,?nide fumigation in, 47
Amnmonia, in production of >-yIrocyanic acid, 24, 25, 26, 27, 77,
118, 119, 121, 123, 141, 184
Ammonium format, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 65, 172, 192
Anase tristis, control of, with calcium cyanide, 180
Anobium, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 61
Antestia cruciata, control of, with calcium cyanide, 187
Ants, control of, with calcium c-anide, 235
Aphids, control of,-with hydrocrnic acid, 221
Aphis argenteus, resistance to potassium cyanide, 76
pA_0ion trifolii, controlof, with hydrocyanic acid, 188
Apple curculio, control of, with calcium cya-nide, 6
Aspergillus oryzae, effect of cyanide on metabolism of, 222
Assimilation, of cyanide, by liver, in vitro, 205
Benzene, crude, removal of hydrocyanic acid from, 132
Benzidine-copper acetate test, for hydrocyanic acid, 45
Bollworm, of cotton, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 47
Borers, oDntrol of, with calcium cyanide, 31, 153
Bomvood, fumigation with '-"ydrocyanic acid, 213
Brachtr-ty-ces memobranaceous, control of, with calcium cyanide, 73
Bromoocetophenone, as irritant, with hydrocyanic acid, 51
Builbi-.-s, f,-ij-.tion with h'ydrocyanic acid, 129
Calcium carbide, reaction with hydrocynpzic acid, 162
Calcium cyr'namido, in production of hydrocyrniz Crcid, 29, 217
Calcium cyanide, evolution of hydrocyanic acid from, control of r.".te
of, 52, 183
Calcium c: n ido, for various pests and insects, 6, 73, 96, 114, 1`'4,
180, 187, 210, 214, 235, 247
Calcium cyanide, incymnide fumigation, 2, 35, 37, 52, 63, 124, 152, 153,
182, 183, 188
Calcium cyanide-linseed oil mixture, in control of borers, 31, 153
Calcium oxide, reaction with hydrocyanic acid, 72
C.n.i-ys, susceptibility to hydrocyanic acid, 14
Carboh'ydrates, antidotal action for cyanide, 14, 170, 171
Carbon dioxide, in production of h-drocy-nic acid, 26, 242
Carbon monoxide, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 25, 26, 27
Charcoal, activated, adsorption of 1'drocyanic rcid by, 5
Chionasspis euonymi, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 37






- 65 -


Chloroform, au stabilizer for ,ydrocyanic acid., 50
Ohioropicrin, as irritant with hydrocyanic acid, *1C, 51, 1H 193,
S194.4, 237 ,
Chol'ine, 'sensitization toward. cyenide poiooninf- by, 17-
h. sor Ihalus aurantii, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 2, 40, 92
Chrysomnphap. lus ficus, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 40
Coccus hesperidum, control of, with hyrdroyanic acid, 40
.cockroaches, control of, with hy:drorcya.nic, acid, 194, 23?
Corfee plants, protection with calcium cyanide, 73
Corrosion, of iron, effect of hydrocyanic acid, 106
Crickets, control of, with calcium cyanide, 214
C,--lnide eczema, 16
Cyamides, rnlysis of, 224
Cyanides, assimilation of, in vitro, 2C*.5, 206
C.-?nIdes, catalytic action of, 81, 105, 107
Cy0anides, detection of, 41, 45, 53, 158
Cyanides, determination of, 41, 45,. 91
Cyanides, physiological action of, 12, 13, 15, 55, 56, 58, 66, 68, 79,
81, 95, 103, 104, 117, 131, 136, 137, 138, 139, 144, 171,
174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 198, 200, 204, 207, 2"'c, 2C9,
210, 212, 215, 222, 223, 227, 228, 230, 234, 24., 249
Cyanides, preparation of hydrocyanic acid from, 102, 143
Cy:anides, reactions of, 7
C.-':-ides soil fumigation with, 163
Cyanides, uses of, 29
C.anides, complex, analysis of, 91
Cyanides, complex, preparation and properties of, 84, 88, R9, 90
Cyahonas, cyanide fumigation with, 37
Cv'.no;en bromide, as irritant with hy-drocyanic acid, 20, 51
Cyanogen chloride, as irritant with hydrocyanic acid, 51, 109, 110
193, 195
Dextrose, antidotal action for cyanide, 232
Dichloroethylene, as stabilizer for hydrocyrnic acid, 50
Diffusion, importance of, in cyanide fumigation, 92
DL,'-droxyacetone, antidotal action for c. ride, 232
Discoids, of wood-pulp, use of, in c-'.nide fumigation, 46, 240
Disinfection, with hydrogen peroxide-cyanide mixtures, 105
E. khniella, control of, with h-drocyanic acid, 226
Emulsinr-hydrocyanic acid-ldcy,-de system, a study of, 201
Er::cstia elutella, control of, witi. hydroc---.nic acid, 165
E.- t-hrocuura comes, control of, ,-,ith hydrocyanic acid, 153
Ethcno, in production of h:dtid-nic acid, 121
Ethyl bron.oacetate, as stabilizer for hydrocyanic acid, 149
Ethylene,. in production of hydrocyanic acid, 24
aEuonmus, fumigation of, with hydrocyaenic acid, 37
Execution, by lethal gas, 250
Flies, susceptibility to hydrocyanic acid, 4
Foods, cyanide fumigation of, 140, 154, 167, 168, 169, 243, 244, 245
Formaldehyde, in preparation of hydrocyanic acid, 64, 172
Forrr.mide, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 26, 48, 65, 192
France, cyanide fumigation in, 10






- 66 -


Fruits, dried, 3yanide fumigation of, 154
Fumigant mixture, 30, 35, 52, 109, 110, 111, 112, 145, 146, 150, 183
Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid, 36, 78, 92, 159, 166, 182, 185, 236
apparatus and methods for, 46, 63, 129, 135, 145, 146, 160, 152,
153, 159, 183, 191, 213, 218, 236, 238, 240, 241, 242
for various pests and insects, 2, 10, 18. 28, 34, 37, 40, 46, 47,
57, 61, 92, 124, 128, 129, 140, 142, 153, 154, 156, 157,
160, 161, 165, 186, 188, 194, 211, 213, 216, 219, 220, 221,
226, 231, 246
investigation of, 33, 156, 157, 185, 211
laboratory method for, 4
of buildings, 129
of greenhouses, 124
of ships, 193, 237, 239, 240
vacuinm fumigation, 156, 157
Furniture, cyanide fumigation of, 18
Germination of grains, effect of cyanide on, 176
Globin hemochromogen, reaction with hydrocyanic acid, 7
Glucose, in treatment of cyanide poisoning, 14
Glucosides, cyanogenetic,
occurrence of, 67, 93, 189, 197, 203, 225
poisoning from, 189
Goldfish, susceptibility of, to hydrocyanic acid, 202
Growth of plants, effect of cyanides on, 3, 62
Grabs, control of, with sodium cyanide, 1
H_. cerealellae, control of, with hydrocyanic acid; 226
Hydrocarbons, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 24, 77, 118, 119, 121,
122, 123, 141, 217
Hydrocyanic acid
absorption of, 89, 94, 113, 199
catalytic action of 125, 151, 229, 233
density of, 74
dielectric constant of, 23, 74, 75, 155
diffusion and leakage of, 92, 156, 157, 161, 185, 211
dipolar moment of, 23, 74, 75, 155
dissociating power of, 74
formation of, 24, 25, 26, 27, 59, 60, 69, 86, 130, 141, 184, 189
inner friction of, 74
molecular structure of, 9, 21, 42, 43, 44, 100, 101, 190
oxidation of, 11
preparation and production of, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 48, 54, 64, 65,
77, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 89, 102, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123,
126, 133, 141, 143, 164, 172, 181, 184, 192, 195, 217
reactions of, 72, 84, 88, 106, 116, 120, 132, 162, 181, 201, 224
solvent power of, 74
spectrum, absorption, 190
spectrum, infrae,-red, 9, 21
spectrum, Rainan, 19, 42, 43, 44
stabilization of, 20, 50, 134, 147, 148, 149, 181
storage of, 20, 97, 99, 195
transportation of, 20, 99, 195





- 67 -


c"-yr.nic acid air mixtures, densities of, 19-
H--.ir,..cyanic acid, aqueous solutions of, physical .ro.nrties, 39
H.ytro.re, in production of hydrocyauic acid, 24, -.', _17
'Hydrogen peroxide cyanide mixture, as disinfectant, 105
I.drogen sulphide, from impurities in cyanides, elMrr.in..-.tion of, .
Iylotrupes bajulus, control of, with hydr,,cyanic acid, 211, 231
Indicators, animal, for hydrocyanic acid, 14
Insecticidal'mixtures, 30, 32, 49, 52, 98, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 115,
127, 145, 146, 162, 1.--3, 183, 195, 210
Insulin,"antidotal action for c'.anie, 108, 136, 178
Iron content of organs, and resistance to c.2yanide poisoning, 131
Irritants, for admixture -with hydrocyanic acid, 20, 49, 51, 109, 110,
150, 193, 194, 195, 218, 237
Jamaica, cy-anide fumigation in, 57
Jasmine bus, control of, with calcium cyanidfe, 187
LP.cl.nosterna, control of, with sodium cyanide, 1
Lepr.idosaphes beckii, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 40
Le i1o.- :.:rhes gloveri, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 40
:ar.dag scar, use of calcium cyanide in, 73
:':gnesium oxide, reaction of, with hydrocyanic acid, 72
Mea.lybugs, control 'of, with hydrocyanic acid, 156
Mercuric cyanide, toxicity of, 70
Methr'-,e, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 24, 121, 141, 184
Methylarr-ine, in preparation of hydrocyanic acid, 59, 60
Methylene blue, antidotal action for cyanide, 56, 209
Methyrlene blue, .-hysiological action of, 55
Methylthionine chloride, antidotal action for cyanide, 56, 209
Methylthionine chloride, physiological action of, 155
Mon -.rthropal-us buxi, control with hydrocyanic acid, 213
M..osquito larvae, resistance to cyanide, 76
Moths, clothes, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 18, 28
:.Iozambiqu;, cyannide fumigation in, 40
Myllasuis citricola, control of, with hydrocyv:-nic acid, 40
iTarepsis, theory of, supported by physiological action of hydrocyanic
acid, 12
New South Wales, citrus fumigc-tion in, 2
i7itrites, in treatment of cyanide poisoning, 14
YTitro.rLn, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 23, 141, 217
Oxalic acid, as stabilizer for hydrocyanic acid, -0
Paramecium, resistance of, to cyanide, 212
P.-as, fumigation with hydrocyanic acid, 142
Penetr.ti- power, of hydro cyr-nic acid, measurement of, 211
Persimmons, firigation of, with hydrocyanic acid, 156
Pijncrs. susceptibility of, to cyanide, 14
Poisonir,., cyanide,
a case of, 22, 71, 80, 174
and cyanidc eczema, 16
antidotal action for, 8, 14, 55, 56, 60, 136, 170, 171, 173, 175,
178, 209, 232
by absorption through the skin, 17





- 68 -


Poisoning, cyanide (cont'dt..)
effect of diet om,, 38
relation to ir6n'content of organism, 131
sensitiz.ti6n to, 178, 179
susceptibility to, 14, 38, 178, 179
treatment for, 14
P6t.3sium permanganate, antidotal -action for cyanide, 173
Potatoes, cyanide fumigation of, 221
Preservation of animal and vegetable materials, with hydrocyanic
S, acid, 243,244, 245
.Pseudooocus -Eehani, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 156
Pyrausta nubilalis, control of,-with -hydrocyanic acid, 161
Rabbits, susceptibility to cyanide, 178, 179
Raspberries, dusting of, with calcium cyanide, 214
Rats, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 237
Red Scale, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 2, 40, 92
Roaches, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 194, 237
Saccharosdyne saccharivorus, control of, with calcium cyanide, 247
Saissetia nigra, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 40
Saissetia oleae, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 92
Saperda crndida, control of, with calcium cyanide, 31
Seeds, cotton, cyanide fumigation of, 219
Ships, fumigation of, with hydrocyanic acid, 193, 237, 239, 240
Smoke, tobacco, hydrocyanic acid content of, 60
Sodiumn cyanide, for various pests and insects, 1
Sodium cyanide, in cyanide, fumigation, 213, 216, 220, 221
Sodium nitroprusside, cyanide poisoning from, 71
Soil, injury of, by sodium cyanide, 3
Soil, insecticides for treatment of, 163
Spain, cyanide fumigation in, 34
Stenocrsnus saccharivorus, control of, with calcium cyanide, 247
Storage, of hydrocyanic acid, 20, 97, 99
Sulfur dioxide, in preparation of hydrocyanic acid, 143, 164
T, confusum, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 140
Tents, for cyanide fumigation, leakage from, 185
Termites, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 216
Tetrachlorethylene, as stabilizer for hydrocyanic acid, 50
Thiocyanic acid and thiocyanates, in production of hydrocyanic acid,
83, 85, 86, 87, 133
Thorium X, effect on toxicity of potassium cyanide, 8
Th'rroxine, effect on cyanide assimilation, 205, 207
Tobacco, in storage, cyanide fumirj;tion of, 165
Tobacco, combustion products of, hydrocyanic acid content of, 69
Toa(_toes, cyanide fumigation of, 186
Toxicity, of c ranides pnd hydlrocyanic acid, 4, 14, 70
Transportation, of hydrocyanic acid, 20, 99, 195
Trees cyanide fumigation of
Lpple, 220
citrus 2, 10, 34, 40, 57, 92, 182, 1L:5, 246
Trees, palm, treatment of, with calcium cy.nide, 96
Trialeuroides vaporarium, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 186
Trichloroethylene, as stabilizer for hydrocyanic acid, 50






69 -

Vines, c-.'ani6e fimig nation of, 153
7ecvils, control of, with calcium cm.nide, 6
Weevils, control of, with hyrdrocya.nic -cid, 142, 1?P
Tiite fly, control of, with h'-drocyr.nic acid, 186
"rood, c:rnido fu.migation of, 128, 211, 216
7.ooly '.phis, control of, with hydrocyanic acid, 220
Zi.:lon, in cyanide fumigation, 18, 61, 128, 140, 193, 194, -37.










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
II3 i III 11II II