A bibliography of cyanide compounds used as insecticides, 1930

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Title:
A bibliography of cyanide compounds used as insecticides, 1930
Physical Description:
58 p. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Cupples, Homer L ( Homer Leslie ), 1899-1973
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. -- Division of Insecticide Investigations
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U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Insecticide Investigations
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Cyanides -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Insecticides -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"E-354 ; June 1935."
General Note:
Caption title.
Statement of Responsibility:
by H.L. Cupples.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030255835
oclc - 32754561
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lcc - Z5858.E2 C87 1935
System ID:
AA00022931:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Bibliography
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
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        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 53
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        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Back Cover
        Page 59
        Page 60
Full Text











June 1C'35


A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF C"ATIDE CCiPO TDS.USZD AS I! SCTCIDES, 19:;f

By H. L. Ou-ples, Division of Insecticide Invcstl -itions,
Bureau of Ento.u)locr7 and Plant Quarantine,
United States Dcpartnc.nt of Agriculture


IITRODUCTI ON

Hydrocynnic acid is one of the most effective and widely used in-
secticidal fumigantt. The literature relating to its prep.:aration, .'hsical
and chernical properties, methods of np-1icition, and toxicity to plants and
animals grows more vol.u-iinous each year. Cuprous ,rcy.nice has iven pronisc
in tests as a stomach insecticide, and r','n" orjnic cyanides, or nitriles,
have been proposed as contact insecticides. T, is need of comrehen-
sive treatise on the uso of canird.s as economic poisons.

As a start in this direction the Division of Insecticide Investi'.-i-
tions of the Bureau of EntomologU and Plant Quaraintino has co-r'ilod the
present biblioira,-h'.. It is believed that the -most important literature
is the latest and that a digest of the recent articles on the sujjcct will
bo of groat interest and usefulness.

In view of the enormous number of journals in rKich articles of in-
secticidal interest are published, it is manifestly inr-',ssible to examine
all of them, and deendence rust be placed uLpon abstract journals. Accord-
inglyr this bibliogr'h-hr, intended as the first of a series on the subject,
was prepared by consulting the 1930 files of the following abstract
periodicals':

Chemic1al Abstracts
Chemisches Zentralblatt
E:periment Station Record
Quarterly Cumultive Index I.'-':,icus
Review of Applied -itomology, Series A
Review of Applied Entomology, Series B

Obviously some articles on cyranides published late in 1930 were not
abstracted until 1931 an,1 hence arc not included in this bibliograr.-hy.

It is planned not cnlY. to ]:.: abreast of ,..rront litcri-ature on
cyanideo used as insecticides, but .-radaolly to ,-or. -p, on a -rly basis,
the oast literr.tmr. so thet eventuIlly a cor.1lote di:'r.ct of all information
on the subject shall be av-.ilablo. The publication of this l;.r1j volume of
data can be accomplished more easily by this plan of a series of bibli-
ographies Och covering one year.


E-354





-2-


A ITmY11.TJS (W)

F3 IGATORS DISCUSS PROBLEiS OF PEST CONTROL OPERATIONS. Calif.
Citrogr. 12 (9)-'1 322-323. 1927. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec.
62: 449. 1930.]

Prof. H. J. -Quayle stated that in their tests best results on
the red scale were secured by a spraying followed by a fumigation,
and that two fumigations would not give as good results, as a
large percentage of the scale which survived the first fumigation
7ould likewise probably survive a second. Prof. Quayle stated
that the spraying probably loosened the waxr covering on the
scale, putting it in a weakened condition so that it could be
killed by the following fumigation.

(2)

ENTOMOLOGY. 41st Ann. Rpt. Tex. Agr. Expt. Sta., 143 p., 1928.
42nd Ann. Rpt. Tex. Agr. Expt. Sta., 163 p., 1929.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 624. 1930.]

The California red scale is a major post of Citrus in the lower
Rio Grando Valley and is rapidly becoming more prevalent through-
out the fruit-growing section. From the standpoint of scale
mortality, winter fumigation with calcium cyanide dust is satis-
factory, but reinfestation occurs in the latter part of July and in
August, causing much d'-mego to fruit before harvest. (1928: 42-49;
1929: 41-47, 146-147).

(3)

DEPARTIIE!T OF ENTOMOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY. Ann. Rpt. Toch. Sorv. Dept.
Agr., Haiti, 1928-1929, Bul. 17, 213 p., illus. Port-au-Prince.
1929. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 553, 1930; 18 (B):
224, 1930.]

Notes on a number of cotton posts observed in Haiti during
1928-29. Dysdcrcus andreae (cotton stainer) is the most important
pest of cotton. The adults fooeed on the fallen bolls and lay their
eggs on the ground beneath them. When most of the nymphs had
hatched, the soil around the plants was dusted with calcium cyanide
and the plants jarred, thus causing the nymphs and adults that had
already crawled up them to fall to the ground. Fallen leaves and
debris were raked over, thus exposing any bugs that wore hiding
beneath them. Almost complete control was thus effected.

Bed bugs (Cimox lcctulaoius) were effectively controlled in a
large building by fumigation with calcium cyanide dust spread on
papers on the floor at the rate of 2 lbs. per 1000 cu. ft. of space.
The doors and windows were sealed with paper, and all bugs were
killed, even in the centers of mattresses or in deep cracks in the
walls. (157-166)





d-i'


ALT, H. L. (4)

IITHIBITION OP RESPI-ATION BY fHYDROCYANIC ACIDIt Biochem, Ztschr.
221: 499-501. 1930. [Abstract in Cherm. Zontbll 101 (II): 3166.
1930.]

The respiration of animal cells (from kidneys, liver and s leen),
investigated by the method of Warburg, is completely inhibited by
su-affIcient concentration of hydrocyanic acid. The procedure and
conclusions of Dixon and Elliott are rejected.

ANDREWS, E. A. (5)

THE TEA SEED BUG (POECILOCORIS LATUS). Quart. Jour. In.ia Tea
Assoc.' 1930: 15-27. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A):
532. 1930,]

An account is given of tah attempt to control P. latus by machine
dusting with calcium cyanide. The machines were fitted with long
flexible nozzles which could be raised gradually up the tree. The
operators moved backward in line against the wind, which carried
the dust over the whole area in a uniform cloud. The results were
irregular and unsatisfactory, but a decrease of 30% of starred seed
was secured by two applications, one on the 15th of July and the
other on the 3d of September. It was found that two-thirds ounce
to a bush was required for satisfactory dusting, so that the cost
per acre of each application would be 2' pounds 2 shillings for
material alone, whereas the maximum benefit that might be obtained
by reduction in injury is estimated at 2 pounds 14 shillings an
acre.

ANSON, M. L., and MIRSKY, A. E. (6)

REACTIONS OF CYANIDE '7ITH GLOBIN HEMOCHROMOGEN. Jour. Gen. Physiol.
14: 43-54. 1930. [Cited in Quart.. Cumulative Index Mcdicus 8:
352. 1930.]

BACK, E. A., and COTTON, R. T. (7)

-CONiTROL OF INSECT PESTS IN STORED GRAIN. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmcrsl
Bul. 1483, 33 p., illus. 1929. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18
(A): 347. 1930.]

The successful use of hydrocyanic acid as a fumigant for grain
in bulk is not possible for the aver.gc farmer at the present time;
the method of application is very involved and its use is restricted
to elcveators with modern ma.chiriery and technical workers. The treat-
ment consists in nixing fine granular calcium cyanide with wheat
throughout the bin, by means of a motor-driven hopper installed
over the stream of wheat at a point close to uhorc the wheat enters
the bin. In this manner; 25 lbs. of the fumigant is incorporated
in each 1,000 bushels of wheat; tht =an be conducted at a temperature
as low as 40 F., and should bo caatinucd for 72 hours.




-4.4

BAGLEY, G. (8)

SHYDROCYANIC ACID. U, S. Patent 1,31,331, issued October 15, 1929;
applied for Februay 26, 1925; assigned to Carbide & Carbon
Chemicals Corp.,' Irew York, N. Y. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24:
209. 1930.]

An electric arc is maintained beneath the surface of a bath con-
taining a hydrocarbon oil such as kerosene or fuel oil, and nitrogen
is brought into reactive relation with the oil in the vicinity of
the arc. An apparatus is described.

BARSKY, G. (9)

PREPARATIONC OF METHYLAIMrIE. U. S. Patent- 736,872, issued
*November' 26, 1929; applied for March 30,*1926:; assigned to
American Cyanamide Co., New York, N. Y. [Abstract-in Chem.
Zentbl. 101 (1): 1217. 1930.]

Methylanine is prepared by the hydrogenation of hydrocyanic acid.
As catalysts platinum, palladium, lead, nickel, and platinum-iron
are useful, at 165-180, and increased pressures may be used.

BECKRS, W. (10)

RECENT RESULTS IN THE FIELD OF HY-DROCYA!TIO ACID. Pharm. Presse
1930:. 86-87., 1930, [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101: (I1) 1975.
1930.]

A short review.

BECKERT, A. C., and BERTELSMA]N, W. (ll)

SEPAILATION OF HYDROCYAN.IC ACID, AWIONIA, AIND HYDROGEN SULPHIDE FROM
GASES.' French Patent 670,668, issued December 2, 1929; applied
for March 1, 1929. [Ini French. Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101(I):
1880. 1930.]

The gases are washed with a solution containing ferric oxide
to which free ammonia is added. The required ammonia is obtained
by noat'ing ammonium sulphate and the resulting ammonium hydrogen
sulphate is used to acidify the wash liquors.

BEGELUlT'T, H. (12)

ON COCCIDS IITFESTIINTG COFFEE. Moded. Proofsta. Malang, No. 71 (1929).
[Tn Dutch. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 362. 1930.]

S One of these pests is PMlaioliepis 16nsi-pns, which may be attracted
into trenches half filled with loaf-litter, and there poisoned by
strewing with calcium cyanide dust.


>' t









BEIIIDL, C. (13)

HYDROCYA'IC ACID. Austrian Patenrt 116,1`3, i.sv.od Ikbrur.ry 10,
193'-); r'liod for 1.Itrch 6, 1923. [AbstrIct in Chen. Zcinti.l.
101(1): 29G8. 1:30.]

Mixtures of nitrogen and gaseous hydrocrarbons are passed over
heated catalysts at ordinary or increased pressure. Suitable
catalysts are the metals tungsten, titanium, vanadium, m Pncsium,
aluminum, iron and alloys, preferably with addition of rlk li
carbonate.

BLLOGIU and VICIANO (14)

A STUDY OF HYDROCYANIC ACID AIWD ITS iiIXTU?S 7ITH CYAi0GE1j CHLORIDE.
L.ed. Paises 'Calidos 2 (1): 3-19. 1929. [In Spanish. Abstract in
Rev. Aopl. Ent. 18 (B): 155. 1930.]

The amount of sodium cyanide used is 2.5 g. per cubic meter
against rats and 5 g. ap,.int insects, half this ,io.unt of sodium
chlorate being employed in each case. The two are dissol-ved separately,
then mixed and poured into a container. The hydrochloric acid, at the
rate of 18 cc. per cubic meter, is poured into another vessel, and
the liquids are allowed to mix in a lower chamber where the gas is
generated. The dose for rats kills adult insects, but not the e .-s
of lice. At the insecticide dosage the eggs of Pediculus humanus
are killed in 10-15 minutes, aild adult insects in'5 minutes at most.
The lachrymatory effect is very pronounced, which, in conjunction
with the fact that the lethal dose for man is 0.94 mg. per liter
as against 0.33 mg. for hydrocyanic acid, renders this fumigant
very safe. It is cheaper thEn hydrocyanic acid and penetrates
equally well. The effect on'foods is similar to that of hydro-
cyanic acid, and it does not injure the color of delicate fabrics.
It only affects nickel plotting A.t much higher dosages, -ind such
surfaces can be protected with crc.so. There is no fire hazard.

(15)

WXERILEIThTAL STJDY OF THE USE OF A itIXTURE OF HYDROCYANIC ACID AiD
CYAITOGE1 CHLORIDE 11T DESTRUCTION OF RATS AND INSECTS ON SHIPS.
Bul. Off. Internatl. HZrg. Puib. 22 (2): 320-325. 1930. [In French.
Cited in Quart. Cumnulative Index Mecdicus 7: 625. 1930.]

BERGERKSVE`P.RBAND ZUR VEP.ERTUIG VON SCHUTZRECHTEI! DER KOHLENTECHNIK (16)
SG. M. B. H.
HYDROCYANIC ACID. German Patent 488,271, issued December 24, 1924;
applied for Dcccrmbcr 24, 1924. Addition to 411,104. [In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 2552. 1930.]

German Patent 411,104 describes the manufacture of hydrocyanic
acid by treating the vapors of organic or inorganic thiocyanates
with oxygen in the preocnce or absence of contact substances. This
method is now extended to non-volatile thiocy.nates, which h arc
atomized and then treated with oxygen.


-5-





-6-


(17)

HYDROCYANIIC ACID. German Patent 489,182, issued January 14, 1930;
applied for March 18, 1925; in Poland April 19, 1924; in EnglTnd
April 23, 1924, Addition to 410,418. [In German. Abstract in
Chmin. Abs. 24: 2247. 1930.]

According to German Patent 410,418 hydrocyanic acid is prepared
by treating thiocyanic acid with gases containing oxygon at a raised
temperature. This reaction is. now effected in the presence of
alur'.inim, aluminum oxide, or an alloy of aluminum with iron, etc.

BIDEAU, J. (18)

HYDROCYANIC ACID FUJMIGC-ATION AGAINST INSECTS ALID RATS. Arch. Mod.
Pharn. Nay. 118: 352-89. 1928. [In French. Abstract in
U. S. Pub. Health Engin. Abs. E-880d: 34. Chem. Abs. 24: 189.
1930.]

In spite of its manifest advantages the use of hydrocyanic
acid should be forbidden because of its toxicity, except in particular
cases where conditions can be completely controlled, such as in un..
inhabited buildings. Bibliography.

BLACKIE, W.J. (19)

PRESERVATION OF BOOKS IN THE TROPICS. Agr. Jour. Fiji 3: 84-85.
1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 617. 1930.]

In order to minimize the serious damage caused to books and
documents by insects and moulds in the tropics, the bookcases must
have closely fitting glass doors and contain the vapor of some
volatile chemical doterrant. The books should be treated with a
suitable protective poisonous material, after fumigation with hydro-
cyanic acid.

BODANSKY, M. (20)

CONVERSION OF CYAITIDE INTO THIOCYATATE IN iuX AND I-I ALKALINE
SOLUTIONS OF CYSTIME. Jour. Pharmacol. and E.-pt. Thor. 37: 463-
474. 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 2200. 1930. Physiol.
Abs. 15: 210. 1930-1931.]

Administration by mouth of 10 mg. of potassium cyanide in a
gelatin capsule produces a rise in the thiocyanate secreted in the
saliva which corresponds with that produced when an cquimolocular
proportion of potassium thiocynnate (15 mg.) is given. Evi'donce
is presented to show that KCN reacts with c-stine, in alkaline
solution, to yield thiocyanate.






-7-


BOHEC, J. (21)

FUMIGATION AND R&T PROOFIr:G ON BOARD SHIPS. An.r. Hy,- 8: 579-59S.
1930. [in Frcnc:L. Cited in Quc^rt. Cumrlattive Index:: Modicus 8:
492. 1930.]

BORDE1it, A. D. (22)

NOTES ON SOME DECIDUOUS FRUIT INSECTS. Crlif. Dcpt. Agr. Bul.
19: 572-573. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 710.
1930.]

uysius ericao (false chinch bug) was observed in early June in
an apple orchard; 80 one-year-old apple trees were killed. In a
similar outbreak in 1928, grape vines over an area of 6 acres were
.defoliated,. Successful treatnme-nt was obtained in one instance by
dusting with calcium cyanide early in the morning.

BORESCH, K. (23)

IS THERE A RELATION BETEEfTl THE OCCURRETICE 0F HYDROCYATIC ACID
IN BUDS AND THEIR ABILITY TO SPROUT? Beitr. Biol. Pflanz. 17:
259-271. 1929. [Abstrnct in Chem. Zentbl. 101(II): 3791. 1930.]

The limited experimental evidence does not permit of a general
answer to the question. As far as one may judge, the evidence is
more positive than negative. Two new plants were found which pro-
duce hydrocyanic acid.

BRADDOCK, W. H., and TINGLE, G. R. (24)

SO-CALLED CYANIDE RASH IN GOLD MINE RILL WORKERS. Jour. ,Indus. Hyg.
S12: 25.9-264. 1930. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index Medicus
8: .353. 1930.-

BRAULTE, H., and LIKE, R. (25)

THE VISCOSITY OF GASES A"D VAPORS. III. INIPLLTJECE OF THE DIPOLE
MOMENT ON THE I.LA 1IITUDE OF THE SUTHEKIAD COUTSTAFI. Ztschr.
Phys. Chem. 148 (A); 195-215. 1930. [In German. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 24: 4675. 1930.]

The viscosity of hydrocyanic acid (and 13 other compounds) was
measured over a temperature range of several hundred degrees.

BRIjILEY, F. J. (26)

THE EFFECT OF CYA1TIDE ON THE CARDIAC R-YTHII OF E1MBRYOS OF -FUlTDULUS
HETEFROCLITUS. Physiol. Zool. 3: 283-290. 1930. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 24: 5884. 1930.]

*Six-day-old embryos of Fundulus heteroclitus were placed in
various concentrations' of potassium cyanide solutions; the rate
of heart beat and the time of cessation of the cardiac contractions





-8.4


were determined. At various intervals after the heart rhythm
stopped, the embryos were removed from the cyanide and placed in
Ssea water, and the ti:-e -:nd rate of recovery were studied. The
SrcJ.Its of the exporirnio:ts seem to show that (W) the toxicity of
cyanide to the embryonic hearts is directly related to tio concen-
tration and to the lon.th of exposure; (2) the time of recovery of
the heart boat depends on th' concentration of cyanide but is in-
dependont of the length of exposure; and (3) the rate of recovery
of. the heart rhytli after the heart has started to contract is
constantt regardlos.s of the concentration of cyanide used or. the
length of expomLsure.

(27)

HE EFFECT OF I:'TRACELLMLAT CYAITIDE 0Y CLEAVAGE OF ARBACIA EGGS.

Physiol. Zool. 3: 366-372. 1930. [Abstract in Chom. Abs. 24:
5884. 1930.]

TnWhen fertilized Arbacia eggs were placed for 30 soeoncs in
0.01 M potassium cyanide solution and then returned to sea water,
the first cleavage was delayed for 10-15 minutes. The first
cleavage was also somohat retarded (4-5 minutes) when thoy w7ore
injected with lago doses of 0.01 M potassium cyanide solution;
howeveovor, it was proven that this delay was due to the disturbance
caused by the micro injection. It is concluded that the anesthetic
action of potassium cyanide is due to its effect on the plasma
membrane and not on the internal protoploasm.

BRITTON, I. E. (28)

COTrROL OF AITT IITVASIOS. Conn. Agr. E::.t. Sta., Bul. Irmed.
Inform. 67: 25-30. 1929. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A);
545. 1930.]

In most cases calcium c-.anide may be used as a funigant for the
nests in place of carbon bisulfide, but it is not recommended on
lawns, as turf is usually killed by it.

BROCK, A. A. (29)

ORCHARD Zj.IGATIOIT ITJURY. Calif. Dept. Agr. io. Bul. 13: 570-
572. 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 678. 1930.]

Excessive concentration of hydroc.'-ic acid in tent fuig-ation
for citrus scale results in severe pitting of the fruit. Actinic
r2',rs of light, before or after fumnigrtion, intensify plant injur-.
For this reason night fumigation is recomrrnendeil, especially in
hot leather. Navel o-oranees aro more resistant to injury than
Valencia oranges or lonemons. Temporaturos .bov, .70 F. or high
humnidities should liko,:ise be avoided, else injury to fruit or
foliage ma:, result. It is impossible. offoctiv'ly to fur.igate
citrus trees with hydrocya.aic acid ;7-ithout burning back for a
fow inches the tcndoro.t shoots. Slih,,t burning, of the foliage
is not considered injurious to the trc,.s,






-49,-


----- (30)

OIL SPRAY DAlAGE TO CITRUS. Calif. Dopt; Agr. L.Ioi Bul. 18: 572-
574. 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 678. 1930.]

Hydrocyanic acid fumAigation was more effective in kllin- citrus
scale than oil spraying. Only highly refined white oils wore at
all satisfactory. Oils mixed with lime sulfur and used during the
late summer season or before periods of hot winds caused scvcro
summer burn. Oils not sufficiently refined or contr.-Ainin toxic
materials often gave severe fruit or foli-,gc. drop. Hco-_-, oils
retarded coloring of the fruit and resulted in a decre'scd rate
of growth of the oranges. More dan-i-o is caused 'by spraying when
the trees arec in need of irrigation rather than following irric'-:-
tion-tho reverse of furaigotion injury.

BRUITER, S. C., AGETE, F., and BOUCLE, L. (31)

REPORT DN TREATIZ'TS OF GRiT LI:LA 3ZA:TS AGAI.-ST THE PYRALID
MARUCA TESTUIAIIS. Rev. Agr. Corn. Trab. 12 (10): 31-36. 1930.
[In Spanish. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 507. 1930.]

The experiments were made in Cuba to free green lima beans,
intended for export in the pod to the United States, from the
pyralid Maruca testulalis. Vacuum fumigation with hydrocyanic
-acid proved unsatisfactory, but fumigation for 2-1/2 hours in a
20-inch vacatrn :,it'. 9 pounds of carbon bisulfide per 1,000 cu.
ft. seemed suitable for work on a commercial scale.

BUCHAI1TA1T, G. H. (32)

CYAIIOGT CHLCRIDE-*,D0oCYA:TIC ACID IIXTURE (AS A UfHIGAWT).
U. S. Patent 1,738,280, issued March 12, 1929; applied for ilay
29, 1925; assigned to American Cyanamid Corpany, 'ToW York, ,.Y.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 913. 1930.]

The freezing-point curve for mixtures of liquid h:-1-drocyranic acid
and cyanogen chloride is recorded, and it is proposed to use as a
fumigz.ant a mixture cont -nin- from 17% to 61.4% (eutectic) of
cyanogren chloride, f: irm between -18 and 45.5 (cutoctic)

BUTLR, 0., and JETIiTS, R. R. (33)

EFFECT ON PLA.ITS OF CYANIDE FUI-IGJAT70 FOLLOTIiAT SPPiYIiTO 7ITH
BORDEAUX MIXTURE. Phytopathology 20: 419-429. 1930. [Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 24: 4577. 1930. N. H. Sta. Bul. 250: 19-25. 1930.
Expt. Sta. Rec. 63: 243, 543. 1930.]

Whether injury follows cyanide fumigation of plants spra:-ed with
Bordeaux mixture depends upon whether cupric cyanide is formed.
Its formation does not occur if the ratio of cupric sulfate to
calcium oxide is *1:0.2, insoluble cuprous cyanide being formed
" instead, and it iL-formcd in negligible T-jnounts when'the ratio is 1:4





-10-


or higher (that is, with a greater proportion of calcium oxide).
However, in mixtures of a ratio of 1:6 or higher a soluble double
cyanide is formed which is injurious if the plants are wetted.
Between the ratios 1:1, andl 146: cupric cyanide. is .formed in amounts
which decrease with increase. in calcium hydroxide. Where. plants
must later be given a cyanide fumigation it is recommended that
an approximately neutral Bordeaux mixture be used (ratio around
1:0.2); it should not be used on plants, having a greater sensitivity
to soluble copper than the tomato.

BUZZO, A., and GUERRA-C. C (34)

PARXI'TSONISjI AND POLYNEURITIS AS SEQUELS OF POTASSIUM CYANIIDE
POISONING. Rev. de Espocialidades 5: 243-253. 1930. [In
Spanish. Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index Medicus 8: 353. 1930.]

CALIFOPI1IA CYANIDE COVI1PANY, INC. (35)

IHYDROCYANIC ACID. French Patent 662,569, issued August 8, 1929;
applied for October 19, 1928. [In French. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 24: 470. 1930.]1

Dried and powdered alkali cyanide or alkaline earth cyari',.e is
treated with supcrhcatod steam, preferably containing carbon di-
oxide or sulfur dioxide.
------- (36)
HYDROCYANIC ACID. German Patent 490,710, issued February 3,
.1930; applied for April 10, 1927. [In German. Abstract in
Chem. Abs..24: 2247. 1930.]

A calcium compound giving off hydrocyanic acid at ordinary
temperatures is prepared by mixing solutions of a calcium salt
and hydrocyanic acid, or a cyanide, in anhydrous liquid ammonia.
The compound is;precipitated and obtEined by filtering. In the
c::.ar.plo, solutions of calcium nitrate and c.mmonium cyanide are
mixed, giving the compound ammonium calcium. cyanide.

CAPOGROSSO, A. s. (37)

IISECTICIDE CONSISTITG, OF AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF ALKALI CYAITIDE,
WITH THE OPTIONAL ADDITION OF CUPRIC SULFATE AND LEAD ACETATE.
French Patent 659,739, issued July 2, 1929; applied for August
8, 1928. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Zontbl. 101 (I): 121.
1930.]

The. solution is finely vaporized and' hydrocyanic acid is evolved
by,the action of carbon dioxide.from the air or from the plants.
The load salt serves to reduce the alkalinity and the copper salt
acts as a fungicide.

CASSER, H. (38)

WORK OF THE HEART II THE ABSEliCE OF OXYGEN. :V. INHIBITION OF
THE ACTION OF HYfDOCYA 1IC ACID BY DIHYDROXYACETOIE AND GLYCER-
.*'AL.EHYDE. Arch. Ex:,t. Path. u. Pharr.akol. 149: 240-246. 1930.
[In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 5059. 1930.]






-ll-

Dihydro.yacetono and glyccrarl.i.h:rde prct:ct the heart a-ainst
the toxic action of hydrocyanic acid, rbut not when the ox>,,:cn is re-
placed by nitrogen. They also prevent potassium cyanide from in-
hibiting the resriration of bird red cells by forriin- c-.n-hyrdrin.

CHRm ISTIA A (39)

EDITORIAL NOTE. Prakt. B31. Pflonzenb. 7: 2 37-232. 19:3.

CLAR A. J., and WHITE, A. C. (40)
ACTION OF IONIC CHANGES ON THIE OXYGEN CO::STJlTION OF T=2 FROG'S
AURICLE. Jour. Physiol. 68: 433-440. 1930. [Abstract in Chc:.
Abs. 24: 3056. 1930.]

The results obtained with the frogIs auricle confirm those
previously reported for the ventricle. Oxygen consumption of the
auricle can be abolished by cyanide without affectini- the mechanical
response.

COCK, S. A. (41)

FUMIGATION OF CITRUS TREES. RESULTS OF SIX YEARSt T7CRK. Jour. Dept.
Agr, Victoria 28: 445-448. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent.
18 (A): 653. 1930.]

Since the fumigation of citrus trees, owing to the failure of oil
enamulsions and other sprays against red scale (Chrysomphalus aurantii)
in Victoria, has been made compulsory, some 193,000 trees have been
fumigated by Government outfits at an average cost of 2 s. 2-3/4 d.
per tree. Calcium cyanide is now used for all trees, the G
fumigant (granules) being used for lumens at the rate of 1 ounce
to 100 cubic feet. The operations should begin, according to the
condition of the young fruit, usually late in December or early
in January, provided that the temperature is not lower than 50
F. and the humidity is less than 75%, and. should end late in April
or early in .ay, at which time the weather conditions produce
danger of injury to foliage and fruit. The work is done at niIt.
One fumi-ation sometimes gives incom.ploete control, due to unsuitable
weather or the resistance of the scale at certain periods of its
growth. Trees showing infestation a year later should be sprayed
(in January or February) with a white oil emulsion. In some
localities shrubs, deciduous fruit trees, anl vines become infested;
spraying during the dormant season with oil emulsion of usual winter
strength is recommended.

COLLINS, C. D. (42)

APPARATUS FOR USE II FUIMIGATIITNG SHIPS T7ITH HYDROCYANIC ACID, ETC.
U. S. Patent 1,745,078, issued January 28, 1930; applied for May
11, 192.5; assigned to American Cyanamid Company, Iew York, IT. Y.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 1452. 1930.]


Structural features.





-12-


-,. 5. (43)
?,-: j-'- L --- -'.T ... -- C-. PL--,7S WI "-n-j-DROC':I C
::-?i::: s.r:A cR .:.: 1TIi ?C. -. A::I
A--I. ". S. ?-er.t 1,"--,!-=, i- ei A--ril 8, 1930; allied for
1-23; assi-:i to Atnican C-ana-.ii Co., :Tew Yor_:, N. Y.
[A-:stract in Zh z. Abs. 4;: 25^-. 13D.3
-- a as ta', gj la.: or china cl-y is .ixed
ith a.-.-' .:-3-._-en .- pond, .;.?. c a ls ciciuam c:2Ae, and calci-_m
oxice ana ... chlorine. At t:. tire f utise the xixtvre is du.ste-.
on the nIants -.i de r-rs:- :. ; -_. to moist air.

------ (44)

-:::.::.::-. : ::3 S-, ?r- 13. ::al.raan A-r. Jour.
1i: 559-=--. 1-. [A:stract in Rev. E. nt, 1. (A): 657,


cys rove very ef icacious ainst. the achyteria


.. ... 7... . F. (45)

?A...... :"3: .3er. De"t. C.. -sell.
~ (-=)._: l5-:. 1_ [In -;an. Abstract in Chs.1. Ab s.
."':i 4 -::. 1!^-.]

a _- :- zc-':r .-c -- i--tectioan -f the ,::-h o and enol forms of
-c :-c-'c-tic-.. ester, th: constitution "-:" ?.:---'oc. .--ic acid ar.i the
sthcsis c: c-'::teonces 7ith c_....cr."z.ce '-ois'L. b:r.is are am.onc the
"jccts --" .S3. -h-- att :-... to z.._-cC whether other molecular
-" :... tha1n ..C:" --r- -r-:- -.t i- :-.7'.. ;--an-c a cc 7as not s-.ccocssf:.1
:75::.* of th --.... -- fi:i::: --.-/ t "-' "-tion-


-----,- r. Z (4a:-:
"--*.... -'--.-;-=' i'T --- (: ^^ .*s L -;.o^ j~ -. -- ou
!?Q, 1 -- 22--.-_., f .--t+t_ i Chem, .t-*. ?:* 9271. 1930,]

-;: Sab ". process for re- o: '-e--n, fido :--i hydro-
: '-:-''.-l aci: 1: -.:-i--:.'.- with a "-7 v.: sol-ution _'"-* sci'-l _-L, c~r;on.rtc-,.
-_i-" is rovi-.'ifi- : i -\" aera- ic-, was Lj-._^.^"-^i *'- "t.- r- in ..... tia!
~-': = -r 2- ; -- -,

.:s:-:3 + C32= "" S.j ^

21 + .a-, 7 + =..-S
Sa .3 + C2-_ _,-J4

e rna c tions f;--h:-*'-.:-: r' n:t iA-..:ly re'.rsile, soliu':. SIfiie
--e"i-s-fide, -io:.!f.te, s-.!fite and sr.1fate.
--"-i,': uTlfi>e --., elez .- r'.ct' -*ith h-~i-r-c':,nic acii. to form thio-
S-.--:--.ai r-----.ct -c: cyarni-en extraction. Mixt-.res
..-.. :--"...' h- .... ..' .i ..... -*-.. ..; a re'r :::.-:ern ed for .-,.ore
...-.. !1et. remo ":" .y5r':::.*- :.7.:fd-. A reco-v'ery of the thiocyaraite
as .r sulf"77-.*:,-.", aj:- *: r -- pl.*a -







DECKRT, .7,

THCUGH--S PRCi.-'r-D 3Y 7-7- C-A.? 7'1- 1- -
BA~j'JSZ t S Cr A 17 7-~
BAJLJS. Ztschr. Aew. t. 15: "--3. 1 In :-
Abstract in Rev. A-zI. -t. 18 (A): 187. 1'7.3

nThe f'.igxation of houses with yir::r-nic aci- ,-: ..:..t
"1 oot r-es ba.iJulus is no co n in Z-72--.'.. In the s-ier of !-
over 50 cuildins were t-.hs trea-: .

(4a)

LAriS 00ii. -_ -- i7:SEC- 7S-^ !2 31 r- -. .... .. -_ .:
CC ?-ZT- 13ES. Z4-s-'hr. Desinfekt. u. .-r-* tei ~." 115-'-" --:.
[In C-er:.ar. Cited' in C:i--- r -"-:.tie -.i : .: -"i s -. .-.-
DELZ Ii', I,. "'(-I-:

DIC-i'OACETIC ACID. -. Soc. "- -: -:7-:J.. I:? [:-
French. Atstr-ict in :--. A:s. 24: 2-Y5. 3 1'.]

Excrinents estl -s.i.'-sh ca2-'lrtic action : _."-r:;..an. c '.:: -
in the for7artion :: ic1-.oroacetic acid fro2 chloral and -:si
c'-anidac-. A met-.:*. is -iven for the :r:.ration :'c"i. ...-
acid.

DEUTSCH: GOLD- 'UHD SI)T ?-SC:-2::S--2:A: .... ?.ZS (")

STEI-G =?-Tf :Z:A::. .-IC AC-CA:-. .-o ..... ,.:.,,
3, 1930; appniei for ieb"r 2 ?, ?. [In :r!3'n. .'str:.:'-
in. Chnr. Albs. 2-1 2-.7. !?.;.]

Accorlin-j to 3.r-:. ?atr.t-" "7,S i>-i,. :-ir:--a-icaci is
.'sorbed in graanul:ar :- rcr.t.s other thEn active 2'.r: :n, o. g,
in kieseli ..r. -This ross is now i.-'r-.-: b- trcatr-: the
obs orb:ints with acids, acit- salts, etc., to roe i..itis,
and with or without hoati:- in c:--::.

S(5')

H^?.-CCYA-:IC ACID. :-.r:- ." PatOnt il- 15, Ass-.-i ::- ... :>s
crrnlit-d for Niov:--3 r 1, 19Z-. [In 2-r:-.-. trct i
Abs. :24: 4:92. 17'J..

*Hy-diroc:'.nic aci'. is 1-'-rc.to.i froc its addition :- t... ', 4 ith
metal salts to :..i the o-,irocy'nic acid either a.lonc or t2":L.:-r wTitn ot:er irritants.
.LJU Fc1 v n.ndc c '1iui >c10-or
T"h-- FcC1-.2HC_. ad calci-n 7 .. chl.ritc, in the prcr-rtions :"
i0".-'4 or 1:;, liberate :--c-ic. ac:" and chlorine -hen treated
.ith "rarm 'ratcr.. -: use of -t.ratrd. chlorine or ':?::..i7:. atr is
also r.c-tioned.





-14-


------- 5 -2-

PROCESS AID APPARATUS FOR CODUCTI1TT C:EliICAL REACTIONS. German
Patent 504,498, issued Aukust' 4, 1'930; appealedd for August 18, 1925.
[Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (II):' 2553/ 1930.]

The fluid reactants meet in a round vessel in which a stirrer
revolves in a comparatively small quantity of the reaction products,
causing the liquid to move in a circular manner. Centrifugal force
drives the liquid up to the edge of the container and the reaction
products are continually removed over the top. Examples include
the production of hydrogen peroxide and hydrocyanic acid.

DICXEIS, F., and SIiMER, F, (53)

Oi TISSUE GLUCOLYSIS: THE EFFECT OF FLUORIDE AND SOiE OTHER SUB-
STAECES. Biochem. Jour. 23: 936-958. 1929. [Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 24: 869. 1930.]

Cyanide inhibits glincolysis when present in very high concentration.

DIXON, M., and ELLTOTT, K. A. C. (54)

EFFECT CF CYT.-:_m C7 THE ?ESPIRATION OF ANIMAL TISSUES. Biochem.
Jour. 23: 812-830. 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 426. 1930.]

The respiration of typical animal tissues is made up of two parts,
one of which is inhibited by cyanide while the other is cyanide-
stable. As all of T'arburgts mechnnisr.is are yan id-nsitive, the
authors believe that his theory can no lon-er be re-ardcd as able to
account for the whole of the respiration of animal tissues.

DOLLEY, P. T. (55)

HYDROCYA-TIC ACID. U. S. Patent 1,761,433, issued June 3, 1930;
applied for October 19, 1927; assigned to California Cyanide Co.,
Inc., New York, IT. Y. [Abstract in Chaom. Abs. 24: 3611. 1930.]

Dried and powdered al-kali c--..r'do, or olkr.lino garth c anidc is
treated with superheated steam, preferably containing carbon dioxide
or sulfur dioxide.

DREITSKI, P. (56)

SPECIES OF BUGS KIT BULGARIA AIID iTFASURES FOR THEIR COITTROL. Tray.
Soc. Thlg. Sci. Nat. 13: 63-96. 1928. [In Bulgarian, with suimary
in Germran. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (B): 92. 1930.]

An account of observations on the bionomics of cimicid bugs,
carried out in 1926-1928 in Sofia and environs. The use of in-
secticides for control is discussed, and it is pointed out that
fu;i -ation would be the best method, but hcs so far not been
practiced in Bulgaria. Hydrocyanic acid at a concentration of
0.1-0.2% kills all stages in 24 hours.





-15-


EDWARDS, I7. H. (57)

REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. Ann. Rpt. Dept. Ac-r. Jamaica 1929;
22-23. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 615. 1930.]
Serious damage by Cosmopolites sordidus in Jamaica was found only
in a few banana plantations where clean cultivation and the destruction
of breeding-p.laces had not been carried out. In c-xcriments to find
a practical method of destroying it inside the tissues of suckerz
intended for plantations, neither fiuni;Ultion with carbon bisulfide or
hydrocyanic acid (under atmospheric pressure and during; various
lengths of time), nor submersion of infested suckers for periods up
to 2 hours in a water solution of hydrocyar-ic acid gave satisfactory
results.

D'Ef.iEEZ DE CHARLOY, D. (58)

CONTROL OF PHYTALUS SMITH IN 1927-1928. Rev. A._-r. Maurice 47:
164-165. 1929. [In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18
(A): 141. 1930.3

During 1927-1928 the numbers of Lachnosterna (Phytalus) smith
captured in various parts of Mauritius amounted to over 133 millions.
In tests with insecticides good results were obtained with calcium
cyanide.

----- (59)

REPORTS ON THE OPERATIONS FOR TET C07ITROL OF PHYTALUTJS S.,ITHI DUIRINK
THE SEASONS 1926-1927, 1927-1928, 1928-1929. (,iauritius, 1927-
1929). [In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 429.
1930.]

In experiments with calcium cyanide to control the larva: attack-
ing full-grown and half-grovmwn canes very poor results wore obtained,
probably because the texture of the soil prevented the diffusion of
the gas, and further tests wore made with .-cunm) cane. It was found
that 10 g. of calcium cyanide to each stool killed 90% of the larvae
after 24 hours, while 8 g. and 5 g. destroyed 775 and 503, respectively.
When dry sand was mixed with the calci.iri cy.mnidc in order to obtain a
more bulky substance that could be applied more uniformly, with a 5 g.
dose the mortality was 735. Experiments reported by W. H. Edw.rds
show that calcium cyanide dissolved in water, to be effective in
fields of ratoon canes, has to be applied when the soil is dry and
absorbent. On young canes it is just as effective when dr- as I:hcn
applied in wat er.

----- (60)

INSECT PESTS IN MAURITIUS IN 192?. Ann. Rpt. Dept. Agr. Mauritius
1928: 6-8. [In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 559.
1930.]




-16-


Pests occurring on sugar cane included Rhizotropus pallens, which
was controlled with calcium cyanide followed by ploughing. Soleno-osis
gerninata was troublesome in seed-beds, particularly tobacco, but was
controlled by applications of calcium cyanide. For the pyralid
8rambus seychellelus, on lawns, a solution of calcium cyanide, 1:500,
gave the best results.

ESCHERICH, K. (61)

THE OCCUPRENCE IN BAVARIA OF IIISECTS INJURIOUS TO FORESTS. Forstwiss.
Centbl. 1930: 457-478. 1930. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. 18 (A): 627. 1930.]

Hylotrupes bajulus, which is attracting increasing notice, should
be combated in buildings by fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas.

FEIL, A. (62)

OCCUPATIONAL POISONING WITH HYDROCYAZTIC ACID. Prog. Med. 1089-1101.
1930. [In French. Abstract in Qaart. Cumulative Index Medicus
8: 353. 1930.]

FELLEIBERG, TH. VON (63)

HYDROCYAITIC ACID DETEPILI1TATION IN KIRSCH. IIitt. Lebensmtl. Untersuch.
u. Hyg. [Switz.] 21: 43-52. 1930. [In German. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 24: 3317. 1930.]

Kirsch is a liquor distilled from fermented cherry juice. In
14 samples the free hydrocyanic acid varied from 0 to 36.5 mg. per
liter, and the total hydrocyanic acid from 0.3 to 45.8 mg. per liter.
Analytical methods are outlined.

FELT, E. P., and BROMLEY, S. W. (64)

SHADE TREE ITSECTS IN 1929. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23: 137-142. 1930.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 395. 1930.]

A paste of calcium cyanide and castor oil applied to areas
infested by Saperda vestita '(linden borer) has given encouraging
results.

FERiTELIUS, W. C., and JOHITSON, W. C. (65)

LIQUID Al'nOITIA AS A SOLVTET AND THE AI':01TIA SYSTEM OF CO1POUTIDS.
VI. ORGANIC ATi]0NIA COMPOLUIDS. 2. THE N7ITROGEiN ANALOGS OF THE
ALDEHYDES, KET(iTES, CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND CARPBONIC ACIDS. AIK0iTO-
CARBONOUS ACID. Jour. Chem. Ed. 7: 1602-1616. 1930. (Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 24: 3988. 1930.]





-17-


A review of the extension of Franklints arrnonia zcystem to
organic compounds. Franklin regards hydrocy-inic acid both as the
anammonide of' -immnnoform-nic acid and as ammonocirronous acid. The
cyanide .zroup also gives to hydrocyanic acid many of the .-jro r.rties
of an aldehy-le. Gma.iidine, melarmine, cyan-a-ide, dicyaninide, etc.,
are ammono carbonic acids; their cher.ic. .l behavior is consistent
with such a view.

FERR ALRO, G. (66)

THE TOXICITY OF HYDROCYAITIC ACID Ii: RELATIOiT TO HE PARTIAL
PRESSURE OF OXYGEiT. Sper. 84: 115-143. 1930. [In Italian.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 5380. 1930.]

The toxicity of hydrocyanic acid vias determined as a function
of the partial pressure of oxygen and a curve was constructed show-.
ing the time, until death occurs, as depending on the concentration
of the oxygen present.

FIINNIEMO,0RE, H., and COX, C. B. (67)

AUSTRALIAN PLAITS WHICH COTAIIT GLUCOSIDES YIELDING HYDROCYATIIC
ACID. Jour. Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales 62: 369-378. 1928.
[Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101(I):',1806. 1930.]

The following plants were found to contain varying amounts of
cyanoycnotic elucosides: Acacia Plaucescens, Acacia cheolii,
EuihorbiL drummondii, Goodia lotifolia, Poranthera microphylla,
Poranthera cor.m Tboa, Ecalyptus corynocalyx.

FLACHS, K. (68)

ILI.PORTAIIT DISEASES A-1D PESTS ON VEGETABLES. Prakt. 31. Pflanzenb.
7: 250-e64. 1930. [Noted in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 181. 193,.]

FLORIAINI, L. (69)

GLUCOSIDES C01ITAI!TII:G HYDRZGEIT CYA1:IDE. Rev. Cent. Estud. Farm.
Bioquim. 17: 343-357. 1928. [In Spanish. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 24: 1883. 1930.]

A discussion of the significance of the occurrence of cyanogenetic
glucosides in plants, and of the hydrolysis of such glucosides.

FRAZZETTO, S. (70)

TE ACTION OF CERTAIN ACTIONS 01: THE TOIT:1 A"ID ON THE AUTOMATIC
MOVEMENTS OF THE ST01ACH OF THE FROG. Bol. Soc. Ital. Biol.
Sper. 5: 514-516. 1930. [In Italian. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
24: 5870. 1930.]

The salicylate, benzoate, cyanide, and tartrate ions c:erb an
inhibitory action on the tone and also on the automatic movements
of the stomach of the fro,-. 7ith the first three, such inhibitory
effect may be preceded by a brief transitory increase in the tone,




-18-


FREDE:THAGEIT, K., and CADENBACH, G. (71)

SOLUBILITIES ATD COiDUCTIVITIES OF ITT0RGA.1IC ALD ORGAITIC SOLUTES
I1J tYDROFLUORIC ACID. Ztschr. Phys. Chem. 146 (A): 2--5-280.
1930. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (I): 2349. 1930.]

Potassium cyanide dissolves in hydrofluoric acid with evolution
of hydrocyanic acid, but mercuric cyanide dissolves without libera-
tion of hydrocyanic acid.

GALARDI, A.-N. (72)

HYDROCYAITIC ACID. British patent 308,786, complete specifications
not accepted; applied for LIarch 29, 1928. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
24: 470. 1930.]

Liquid hydrocyanic acid is stabilized by the addition of small
quantities of dilute sulfuric acid or aqueous acetic acid, or of
formic acid or acetic acid containing sulfur dioxide or carbon
dioxide, or of sulfur dioxide alone. The sulfur dioxide may serve
as an alarm gas in fumigating.

-- (73)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. French Patent 672,205, issued December 24, 1929;
applied for March 28, 1929. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
24: 2247. 1930.]

Liquid hydrocyanic acid is stabilized b,- the addition of sulfur
dioxide, dilute sulfuric acid, acetic acid or formic acid contain-
inT sulfur dioxide or carbon dioxide. The sulfur dioxide also
serves as a warning a-cnt.

GASSIR, G., and RABIEN, H. (74)

FORCIITC PLAITT GROWTH WITH HYDROCYAUTIC ACID GAS. Gartenbauwisscnschaft
1: 385-402. 1928. [In Gcrnon. Abstract in Expt. Sta. Roc. 63:
428. 1930.]

Detailed results of oxperimcnts with hydrocyanic acid supplied
to various plants.

GATET, B. A. R. (75)

AirIUAL REPORT OF THE DIVISION OF ENTOlOLOGY FOR T7E YEAR 1928.
Ann. Rpt. Med. Dept. F. I. S. 1928: 69-74. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. 18 (B): 14. 1930.]

SVarious substances of possible larvicidal value were tested
against. A. vagus, but none was found to compare with mineral oil
in price and efficiency. Commercial calcium cyanide killed all
larvae in 1 hour 40 minutes when used at the rate of 1 part to 20,000,
and was effective at lower concentrations, but could not be recommended
for field use until more is known of its possible toxic effects on
other animals and plants.





-19-


GESELL, R., KRUEGER, H., GORHAM, G., and BERNTHAL, T. (76)

REGULATION OF RESPIRATIOT: COPJIELATIOT 0F IC' ZI.ROUS FACT:?RS OF
RESPIRATORY COI TROL DU2 I:IG IiTRAVE:ICUS lIJEC TIIO1 OF Si I..
CYAIDE AND RECOVE---Y. Amor. Jonur. Fh,.iol. 94: 339-,14. 19:'.
[Citcd in Quart. Cumulative Index ILdicus 8: 352. 190.]

GLUUD, W., KELLER, K., and KLE;:PT, W. (77)

THE OXIDATION OF HYDRCGEM THIOCYAITATE AITD AJ:;0:IU.J THIOCYA=UATE
TO HYDROCYANIC ACID WITH THE HELP OF ATI.OSPHZRIC OXYG[T.
Ztschr. Anorgr.n. u, Allgi Ch-.m. 188: 37-46. 1930'. [In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs6 24: 26S-1. 1930.]

Thiocyanic acid and ammoniumn thiocyanate can be vaporized
without decomposition if the aqueous solution of the acid or
salt is dropped into a heated flask or sura-ocd rith hot -ir or
super-heated steam. They can be oxidized to bydrocyanic acid aind
sulfurous acid, the reaction dopendin on the contact surfaces of
the oxidation flask6 Glass, quartz and cer-umic materials, and
aluminum had small effect on oxidation, but iron, steel, nickel
and copper hastened the reaction doci.,drly. The temperature of
reaction varies from 450 to 7500 depending upon the contact sur-
face used. Hydrocyanic acid is stable in the presence of a large
excess of air at 750 and the presence of sulfur dioxide increased
this stability,

GRASSE, P. P. (78)

A FRJIT TREE PEST: ZEJZERA PYRINk. Prog. Agr. et Vitic. 92: 544-
547. 1929. [In French. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A):
176. 1930.]

For some years the larvae of Zeuzera pyrina have caused con-
siderable damage to f:-uit trees in the south of France. The most
effective method of control consists in inserting 0.1-0.2 g.
calcium cyanide or 0.2-0.4 g. paradrichlorobonzene in the galleries
and subsequently closing up the openings.

GRAY, G. P., and KIRP12ATRICK, A. F. (79)

THE PROTECTIVE STUPEFACTION OF CERTAIIT SCALE IIISECTS BY FYfDRO-
CYAKTIC ACID VAPOR. Jour. Econ. Ent. 22: 378-892. 1929.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 911. 1930.]

.Then black scale (Sais.etia oleae) and red scale (Chrvzorh)1alus
aurantii) arc first exposed to a sublethal concentration of hydro-
cyanic acid and are then subjected to a concentration which is normal-
ly lethal, more of the insects survive than is the case when the
order of exqposurc is rcvere'rd. This "protective stupefaction" was
observed in.both resistant r"nd non-resistont strains of these
insects. Apparatus for the measurement of hydrocyanic acid con-
centrations is described. To avoid "protective stupocfaction" in
fumigation practice a quick distribution of a high concentration





-20-


of hydrocyanic acid to all parts of the enclosed tree should be
effected. A dosage higher than normal but of correspondingly
shorter exposure increased scale kill without greater dancer to
the tree. It is advised to pull the tents from the trees against
the wind so thr.t the escaping hydroc'c-aiic acid will drift over
trees .already treated and avoid stupefying the scale on trees
about to be treated.

----- and KIRKPATRICK, A. F. (80)

THE RESISTANCE OF BLACK SCALE (SAISSETIA OLEAE BEMI.) TO HYDRO-
CYANIC ACID FUMEiIGATION. Jour. Econ. Ent. 22: 893-897. 1929.
[Abstract in Cher. Abs. 24: 911. 1930.]

The black scale from the so-called resistant district of the
San Gabriel Valley, California, are more difficult to kill than
those in other districts. They can be killed by high dosages of
hydrocyanic acid. The percentages of mortality securedd at low,
medium, and high concentrations were 75, 95 and 100l respectively,
with the resistant strain, and 100% in every case with the non-
resistant one. The higher concentrations are liable to cause tree
injury.

----- and KIRKPATRICK, A. F. (81)

RESISTANT SCALE I!IVESTIGATIOKS. Calif. Citrogr. 14: 308, 336, 364,
380-381. 1929. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 41. 1930.]

Black scales (Saissetia oloac) and red scales (Chrysomphalus
aurantii) from some districts were more resistant than from others,
but the more resistant ones could be killed by a heavier dose of
hydrocyanic acid that closely approached the tree tolorc.nco. Early
fumigation is undoubtedly an advant.-e`., though many very small
scales survive. A series of single and double "umigaLtions variously
timed through the season indicated that black scales are more difficult
to kill during the second moulting period (a natural period of
dormancy), and such as survive are particularly hr.rdy and sometimes
able to survive subsequent treatments. Black and rod scales that
h.?.v been stupefied by a weak doscn-;. of the {.s are more difficult
to kill than normal ones; concentration of the gas during the first
few minutes of exposure is therefore of the utmost importance. A
quick distribution, as nearly instantaneous as possible, of a high
concentration of gas is the ideal method. This can be accomplished
by means of a blower, or by making use of the pressure developed
when liquid hydrocyanic acid is vaporized; excellent diffusion is
thus obtained in loss than 30 seconds. Improvement resulting from
this method will be much more marked in winter and spring thr.n in
summer, because of the -.isual absence of favorable natural convection
currents during the winter and spring seasons. Scales are sometimes
stupefied by gns lca-in- from the tents and drifting to adjacent
trees; this may be avoided by working toward the wind.






-21


GROSS, P., ISER, M., and SCHfWARZ, K. ()

THE SALTIiTG-OUT ACTIOT. I Monr.tsz. Cho.. 55: :.7-306, ,C-:3?. */i .
[Ab.-,tr-ct ir. Chem. Zcntbl. 1,01 (II): 11'-. I9, ,.]

D_.tprminration.i wore "',','.c of the partition of 0'.ccto1. i .n h--r1
cyanic acid botuc.:. btbenzene and aqueous solutions of v.r'o-us cnn.-
centr.tions.

G-UERI1I, P. (33)

?:?,CC:AITIC ACID CCITM1T OF LOTUS. Conrt. -A. Ac a. Sci. I1::
1011-1013. 1f^:2'. [In Fronch. Abstr-.ct in Chorq. Abs. .: 6S2.
1930.]

Fifteen spoecios of Lotus -cro fociin to contn.in hydroc-" nic :.cid.
in the form "f llucosidu. For hho d.ctorninu.tions 25 rro of do-
folia-tcd stoms weore mnccrr.to. in 250 cc. of wv.tor for 2 hours ..t
20-220 in n. liter fllask. Dii;til.l.tion .7;'; thon carried out until
80 cc. of distillito had bcoar colloctud. hic d.istillcrto was divided
into two portionss; (I) to mlJ o qu':.lit:-,tivc tests by the Prur-sian
blue reaction, "and (2) for quantitative (lot. r-iL: -tion of h/crdroc--": .ic
acid by titr".tion with 0.1 :" silver nitrate. The amounts obtainoCL
varied according to gec-r.mic.:- location, etc., from 0.097 C. to
0.918 g.

------- *(84)

HYIDROCYANIC ACID IU LEGiMS ITS LOCALIZATION I11 T.2 VARIOUS
ORGA:-S AS THFE CYA:TOJE7ZTIC GLUCOSIDE. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci.
190: 512-514. 1930. [In Fren-ch. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24:
2774. 1930.]

In legumninous plants cont;Ainrn- hydrocyanic acid the c-ano-enetic
glucoside is differently located in different species ,nd differs in
a given species at various periods of its develonme'nt.

GUiP, w. (85)

PEST CONTROL*. German Patent 430,349, issued Au'm-t 31, 1929;
applied for March 28, 1924; assiGned to Chcischne FPnbrik Dr. H.
Stoltzenbcrg," Hamn..r.:;, Germany. ,.. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (I):
732. 1950C.]

Use is made of the absorption compound. of anh].-drous iydrocyanic
acid with pure silica gel, which spontaneously reTenerates the
absorbed *hydrcyanic acid. For :.".o, 3 -'arts of finely pondered
-silica gel, preferaobly purified by o!:;osis, are added to 2 r; .I'ts of
ice cold .hy:iro.z ;.y.he's--:*'ic acid, nnd the rcsultin, dry powder
is stored in a closed contal-n2r.




S-22-


GYE, W. E., and PURDY, W. J. (86)

THE ROUS SARCOMA NO. 1: LOSS OF.FILTRATE ACTIVITY AT INCUBATOR
TEiMERATURE: PROTECTION BY MEANS OF FHYDROCYANIC ACID. Brit.
Jour. Expt. Path. l1:.20-2?. 1930... [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
24: 5841. 1930.]

Filtrates of the Rous sarcoma No. 1 are unstable at incubator
temperature, and slowly become inactive. This loss of potency
is prevented by the addition of hydrocyanic acid. It is unknown
whether such preservation is due to the prevention of an oxidation
or to the inhibition of a proteolytic system.

HAEiT, s. K. (87)

HYDROGEIT CYANIDE IN LIMA BEANS. II. IIFLUEYCE OF HEAT;ON THE
POISONOUS PROPERTIES OF THE BEANS. Ztschr. Untersuch.
Lebensmtl. 59: 211-216. 1930. [In German. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 24: 5082. 1930.]

For analysis a 50 gram sample of beans is powdered, shaken for
3 hours with 400 cc. of SArensen citrate buffer pH 5.9, and the
extract distilled with steam through a condenser, the end of which
dips into 50 cc. of 0.04 N sodium hydroxide solution. When 250 cc.
is obtained, 1 g. of potassium iodide is added and the solution
titrated with 0.05 N silver nitrate solution (1 cc. = 2.70 mg.
hydrocyanic acid), with the aid of a comparison solution titrated
to the end point. The error is 0.1 mg. hydrocyanic acid, and amounts
varying from 6.5 mg. in Madagascar beans to 53 mg. in Rangoon beans
(per 100 g. sample) were found. If the sample has been previously
heated or treated with acid so as to destroy the enzyme, 25 g. should
be mixed with 25 g. of an active meal of the same type before
extraction, and allowance made for the hydrocyanic acid content of
the latter. The enzynmo is destroyed without affecting the glucoside
content by prolonged heating at 125, but is unaffected after 3
hours at 80.

HAHI.AilP, C. (88)

RED SPIDERS IN GREEIT HOUSES, AND THEIR CONTROL WITH CYANOGAS.
Ztschr. Pflanzenkrank. Pflanzenschutz 39: 386-389. 1929.
[Abstract in Chom. Zentbl. 101 (I): 887. 1930.]
Even at the high concentration of 3 mg. per liter Cyanogas is
not effective in eradicating rod spiders.

(89)

TELEPHORID LARVAE AS PESTS II THE GREENHOUSE. Ztschr. Pflanzcnkrank.
40: 117-124. 1930. [In Gcrman. Abstract in Rev.Appl. Ent. 18
(A): 431. 1930.]


Chrsanthemum plants are very sensitive to calcium cyanide.






S-23-


HAIL, C J* (9N)

NOTES OI THE CONTROL OF SCIOE OF THE .:CRE I1IORTA-T IISECT PESTS OF
CITRUS II SOUTh-E.'I PICLESIA. rhcdjria A.nr. Jour. 27: 737-747.
1930. [Abztirnct in Rev. A]1'J. Ert. 18 (A): 633. I: Q.]

During the rains bctwe--n December '-nd A::ril attack rcciru by
Coccus hesDcriduim and. Chrysomr'nalus aurantii, the latter beinf a
majdr pest. Owing to climatic conditions fu'miation with hydirr-
cyanic acid can only be zn1drtikcn on a largj s!?ole when the fruit
is almost fully developed, that is, betw.en the end of Arril and
the onJL of Juno, when the rains have ended and the new growth has
not yet appeared. Even if the scale is killed there is no time
for it to drop off and the fruit to recover. Treatment is there-
fore made to prevent infestation in the following year. Annual
fumigation aa{nst C. aurantii is now7 undcrtac!:,-r- and has almost
completely controlled Coccus hos)eridum.

HAI.R, E. E. (91)

EXECUTION OF ROBERT H. WHITE BY HYIROCYANTIC ACID GAS. Jour.
Am. Mcd. Assoc. 95: 661-662. 1930. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative
Index Mudicus 8: 352. 1930.]

HARDY, F. (92)

FROGHOPPER INCIDENCE IN 1929. Minutes and Proc. Froe-hopper Invest.
Comm. Trinidad and Tobago, pt. 18: 71-80. 1929. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 506. 1930.]

Dusting with calcium cyanide succeeded in limiting fro,'hopper
incidence to the areas of infestation of the previous year.

IALDY, F., and ROSS, R. (93)

CYAiICGCAS DUSTING FOP. FPROGHOPPER C01TTROL. Minutes and Proc.
Froghopper Invest. Comm. Trinidad and. Tobago, pt. 17: 399-408.
1929. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 223. 1930.]

Experiments with Cyano-ps calcium cyanide on a su-gar-cane estate
infested with the froghopper (Tomaspi3 saccharine) in Trinidad led
to the conclusion that dusting with this insecticide can only be
considered effective when the first generation is completely suppressed
throughout the area treated. This is practically impossible unless
the problem of the grasses harborih.n the insect in fields and traces
can be solved.

HARGREAVES, E. (94)

REPORT ON THE ET1TCOMO0LOGICAL SECTION. Section I Rpt. Lands and
Forestry Dept. Sibrrn Leone 1928: 20-22. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. 18 (A): 98. 1930.]






-24-


In experiments against Balanogastris kolae infesting the mnuts
of kola, nuts placed in brine remained in good condition, but were
rendered unpalatable. Fumigation with carbon bisulfide or hydro-
cyanic acid-destroyed the wecvils but badly discolored the nuts.

HARTECK, P., and KOPSCH, U. (95)

GASEOUS REACTIONS OF ATOMIC OXYGEN. Ztschr. Elektrochem. 36:
714-716. 1930. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 5612. 1930,]

Hydrocyanic acid reacts with atomic oxygen, with the formation
of water and cyanogen.

H J, J. 0. (96)

RECOVERING CYANOGEN COMPOUNDS FROM GASES. U. S. Patent 1,742,505,
issued January 7, 1930; applied for March 23, 1923; assigned to
The Merrill Co., San Francisco, Calif. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
24: 1166. 1930.]

A gas containing cyanogen compounds and hydrogen sulfide is
brought into contact with water to absorb substantially all the
hydrocyanic acid and part of the hydrogen sulfide; the hydrocyanic
acid and hydrogen sulfide are removed from the aqueous solution
thus formed by continuously diluting the atmosphere surrounding
the aqueous solution with a condensable gas such as water vapor;
the gases are partially condensed at a pressure substantially less
than atmospheric pressure and the condensate is separated from
uncondensed hydrogen sulfide.

HEERDT-LINGLER G. M. B. H. (97)

PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PEST CONTROL. Australian Patent 19,006,
issued October 15, 1929. [In English. Abstract in Chem.. Zentbl.
101 (II): 2563. 1930.]

The protective material cyanidess, especially calcium cyanide)
is used in the form of spheres or briquettes. A suitable apparatus
pulverizes the material and blows it out by air; the pulverizer and
air pump are actuated by the same handle.

HEZOG, W. (98)

PROTECTION FROM TEXTILE INSECTS BY -EANS OF HYDROCYANIC ACID.
Ztschr. Gesell. Textilind. 33: 641-643. 1930. [Abstract in
Chem. Zentbl. 101 (II): 2850. 1930.]

Hydrocyanic acid is the most suitable material for protecting
textiles, leather, or books, as it does not attack: metals or fibers.
In Germany it is commonly used in the form of' "Zyklon B" (two parts
kioselguhr plus one part hydrocyanic acid.), u&ing a hydrocyanic acid
concentration of 0.1-0.2L, by volume.






HEYMANS, J. F.


( )


DISINFECTION WITH SATURATED SOLUTION CF OXY-Eil ITT P';ESE-C OF
HYIDROCYAiTIC ACID. Bul. Acari. 1icci. [P,-ris] 103: 317-319.
S1930 [In French. Cited. in quart. Cumunlativo Ind!.x .crlicus
7: 344. 1930.]

HIITDMARSH, W. L. (100)

LETHAL DOSE OF HYDROCYANIC ACID FOR RUMIiA.TTS. Jour. Council
Sci. Indus. Res. (Austr:lia)) 3: 12-13. 1930. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 24: 5065. 1930.]

The lethal dose of hylrocy.n-ic acid for sheep is 1 m:,. per
lb. body weight, and for the cow (one experiment) is roughly
of the same order.

HITKEL, L. E., and DUIET, R. T. ( I01)

STUDIES ON qYDROGEiN CYAITIDE. II' THE COL.POUITDS FCORED 3Y THE
'ACTION OF THE HYDROGEN HALIDES ON HYDROGENi CYA;NIDE. Jour.
Chem. Soc. 1930: 1834-1839. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24:
5655, 1930.]

The preparation and properties of various compounds between
hydrocyanic acid and the hydrofc.n halides are investigated.
Bimolccular hydrocyanic,.acid (imino formnyl isocyanide), m. p.
85, may be readily and quantitatively pr.:-r.rod by heating 1
mol of chlormethylu.no-formamidine (2HCN.HCI) with 1 mol of
quinoline and depositing from the vapor by passing through a U-tube
cooled with solid carbon dioxide.

HOBER, R., and TITAIEV, A. (102)

THE SECRETARY ACTIVITY OF FROG LIVER. Arch. Geosell. Physiol.
(Pflu'gcrs) 223: 180-194. 1929. [In Gcrm7.n. Abstract in
Physiol. Abs. 15: 36. 1930-1931. Chc ;. Abs. 24: 5880. 1930.]

Dyes added in small concentrations to Ringer solution and per-
fused througi-n the isolated frog liver were secreted and concen-
trated up to 1,000 times, 11nrcotics and cyanides have a reversible
inhibitory action on this secretion.

HULL, F.M. (1:3)

THE PLANT LOUSE PROBLEM OF THE TEXAS GULF COAST. Jour. Econ.
Ent. 22: 774-777. 1929. [Abstract in Rev.' Appl. Ent. 18 (A):
65. 1930.]

In one of the important vegetable 7Trc.-dinj centers along the
Gulf coast of Texas, the standard control measures against aphids
are rendered ineffective by low temperature and. iigh winds. Attempts
to discover a satisfactory method of control -hnve included experiments
in fumigation be neath cheep tar paper covers, in which the most
successful fumigant proved. to be calcium cy.nnide, at a dosage of
0.0285 oz. to 70 cu. ft., with a one hour errosure.







7trLSE1iERG (104)

EXPERI1,EHTSI7-TH CALCIUM. CYA2'IDE IN COMBIATI1G GREENHOUSE PESTS.
Ztschr. Angew. Ent. 14: 285-315. 1928. [In Gerynor. Abstract
in Expt. Sta. Rec. 62: 449. 1930.]

An extensive table is presented giving results of various in-
vestigators in the use of calcium cyanide, both in regard to in-.-
sect kill and injury to plants. It is concluded that calcium
cyanide is an. outstanding material for protection against a whole
series of greenhouse pests. The cost is less than for most other
materials, especially nicotine preparations, and in comparison with
spray materials it has the advantages of simplicity of application
and freedom from soiling the plants.

=IRD, C. D., and CARAMHAN, F. L. (105)

THERiAL DECO1,POSITION OF ETHYLLILINE AND BEIIZYLAIITIE. Jour. Amor.
Chem. Soc. 52: 4151-4158. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl.
101 (II): 3392. 1930.]

Ethylamine at 600 yields acetonitrile, hydrogen, and some
ethylene, ammonia, hydrocyanic acid, and methane. At 890-9000 the
products are ethylene (decreasing with increasing time of reaction),
hydrocyanic acid, and a little aimmronium cyanide or acetonitrile.
.Benzylaminc is completely stn.bla at 275-300, and is stable for a
short time at 5350. At 630 it yields benzonitrile, benzene, toluene,
paraffins, hydrogen, hydrogen cyanide, and traces of secondary amines.

I. G. FARBENINDUSTRIE A.-G. (106)

GAS PURIFICATION. British PaCtent 321,9862, issued iTovember 25,
1929; applied for Augist 23, 1928. [Abstract in Chem. Abs.
24: 2866. 1930.]

Gases such as crude cool gas are washed with a liquor comprising
rnmonium polysulfide and r.mmonium thiosu.lf-to together with sufficient
,.mmionia completely to absorb hydrot--n sulfide and fix the hydrocyanic
acid.

---- (107)

PPEPARATION OF COPPER CYA"-IDE ATD COPPER THIOCYAUNATE CO IPU0T1IS.
British Patent 323,802, issued January 10, 1930; applied for
October 10, 1928, and December 1, 1928, and February 6, 1930,
[Abstract in Chom. Zcntbl. 101 (I): 2791. 1930.]

Insoluble compounds of copper cyanide and copper thiocyarnatu,
suitable as dusting materials for insect control, mty be prepared
by either of the following methods: (1) To a solution of a copper
salt ammonia is added in insufficient quantity to dissolve the
r'culting precipitate, and the resulting product is mixed,
preferably at a low temperature, with a cyanide or thiocyanate.


-626*..






-27-


(2) A copper salt solution is directly precipitated with a cy.nide
or thiocyan-tc in the prcscrco of an or.grnic nitro rn-cont-.ini-:r.,
compoi.und such r.s methyyl.airAi, ethylo -di"minc, u:. ..i-
pyr-.inc or pipcridino.

-- -- (1<- )

HAI!DLIITG AII0IONIA AT HIGH TZ.[PhATURES. British Patent ,425,557,
issued February 17, 1930; applied for September 15, 1928.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 4124. 1930.]

Decomposition of ammonia at temperatures above 60C', is leo.sened
by so construction : the apparatus that the gses come into contact
only with surfaces containin.z- silicon. The .aratu; is suitable
for use in connection with the production of .ydry en cyanide from
ammonia and carbon monoxide.

(1.09)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. Fr-r.ch Patent 665,633, issued September 20,
1929; applied for December 13, 1928. [In French. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 24: 923. 1930.]

Alkali metal cyanides, or mixtures containing alkali metal
cyanides, are decomposed in the presence of water by means of an
excess of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures to 50. The liberated
hydrocyanic acid can be removed, from the mixture by lowering the
pressure.

(110)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. German Patent 485,989, issued iToc-om.ber 8, 1929;
applied for March 2, 1923. [In German. Abstract in Ghom. Abs.
24: 1185. 1930.]

Hydrocyani.c acid is prepared by passing formamidc, mixed with
ammonia or similar indifferent gas, over a catalyzcr below 400o.

IMPERIAL CHEMICAL IIIUSTRIES. LTD. (ill)

HYDROCYAUTIC ACID. French Patent 639,995, issued -_ovz mbc,,r 8, 1--2'9;
",applied for December 31 1928; in En-land Tebruary 10, 1928..
[In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 1703. 1930.]

Hydrocyanic acid is obt.-ined by passing formamide over a
dehydrating catalyst -such as nhluminur,. oxide, zirconium oxide
or thorium oxide, which has boon heat:i for a prolong, time
at a temperature above 1000.

(112)

CATALYTIC PREPARATION OF HISRO0CYAIIC ACID. German Patent 49c,73J3,
issued J-aune 2, 1930; applied for Ja-nu.ry 1, 1929. [In Gcrmrn.
Abstract in hc'. Abs. 24: 4592. 1930.]
A hct i Abs. 24: 4592. 18.








Zirconium oxide, thoriTm oxide, or aluminum oxide (including
commercial forms of alundum) may be revived as catalysts for the
production of hydrocyanic acid from formamide by heating to
temperatures over 1000.

JACKSOIT, R. M. (113)

APPARATUS FOE. ThMIGATING TR2ES WI Tf HYDPROLCYA1IIC ACID. U. S. Patent
1,773,582, issued August 19, 1930; applied for July 10, 192C;
assigned to Owl Fumigating Corp., ITew York, F. Y. [Abstract in
Cheu. Abs. 24: 5104. 1930.]

JAC03SZT, w. C. (114)

(ROP.T FOR 1928 OF THE) BjEAU OF PL-T QUJA ATI: AD PEST CONTROL.
Calif. Dept. Agr. Mio. Bul. 17: 653-683. 1928. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 14. 1930.]

The increasing numbers of the coccid Chr7som.:halus dictyospermi
have resulted in the enforcement of strict inspection of plant material
from the Southern States, and such plants as palms with imbricated
loaf bases are required to be fumigated with hydrocyanic acid as a
precautionary measure. Since the presence of the walnut husk fly
(Rc -olo-tis mu!andis) became known in California, special problem
has been the treatment of walnuts with part of the husk adhering to
them. The treatments tested hava included dippin. in the standard
walnut bleaching solution, vacuumm funigr tion with hydrocyranic acid
or with carbon bisulfide, atmospheric f' i.ij.tion with hydrocyanic
acid, hot water treatments at teoeratures from 1100 to 1250 F., hot
air, and steam. The tests arc as yet incomplete.

KAWA:7JRA, C. (115)

ACETALDEHIYDE CO0TTAIUED ILT RABBIT BLOOD UJITE,= VARIOUS CONDITIONS.
Jour. Kyoto Prefectural Ie.d. Col. 2: 223-256. 1928. [In
Gerrman. Abstract in Chvm. Abs. 24: 417. 1930.]

Under normal conditions rabbit blood contains 1.2-4.2 mg.
acetaldehyde per 1000 cc., mean 2.65 mg. In two cases no acetalde-
hi.de was .found. Cyanic acid poisoning decreaLes the content.

(116)

ACET0i:E IIT RABBIT BLOOD LUDER VARIOUS C01DITIONS. Jour. Kyoto
Prefectural Med. Col. 2: 257-280. 1928. [In German. Abstract
in Chem. Abs. 24: 417. 1930.]

In rabbits, the acetone content of the blood increases remarkably
after hydrocyanic acid poisoning.







KOmI-ABREST, E. (117)

ACCIDEiTTAL INTOXICATIONS DUTE TO HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS. Ann.
M-1d. Logalc, do Criminolo-io ct do Police Scicntifiquo 9 (4):
132-135. 1929. [In Fr: n- Abstract in Rov. ". -Al. Prov.
51: 689. 1929 Chem. Abn. 24: 159. 1:)0.]

Recent deaths from funi nation with hydrocyanic acid are traced
largely to poor after-ventilation. In some cases ,iuppo s'-rlly ventilated
rooms contained 10 pa2ts rcr 1,000 of h-,drocy?.nic acid. Strict rcila-
tions relative to fuziiig tion are rccommondca.'.

--- CAMPUS, DESOILLE, and VILLRD (118)

SEVrE INTOXICATI01T BY CO.PC.JTDS DERIVED FROi TAI-TAL AILD
FORiZTIOIT OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN BLOOD. Bul. ot Moem. Soc. ;:-1.
Hop. Paris 54: 261-267. 1930. [In French. Cited in 'uart,
Sumulative Index I.cdicus 7: 203. 1930.]

----- and LUPU (119)

T FATE HYROCYA:TIC ACID IN BLOOD. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci.
187 (6): 362-364. 1928. [In French. Abstract in Chcn. Zcntbl.
101 (I): 2439. 1930.]

The rate of loss of 'hyirocyanic acid at 20 rand at 370 was
observed for blood (or blood serum) free of gl-ucose and for blood
(or blood serum) contjainin 300 m.:. glucose per 200 cc. At 20
glucose-free serum showed no loss of hydrocyanic acid (24 mg. per
200 cc.) in seven days, whereas that containing ; glucose lost 70.l5
in the same time. Glucose-free blood lost, at 200, 10.s8 in seven
days whereas that with glucose lost 21.085 in the same time. It is
concluded that the absence of hydrocyanic acid from the blood of
those poisoned cannot be duo to the effect of the blood sugars.

----- VILLARD, H., and CAPUS, L. (120)

OCCULRRENICE COr SULFOCYAITIDES II: ORGAI.,,I sS. POST-I:ORTEII CHAiGE OF
VEROAL, DIAL AND GARDE:AL I1IT0 HYDROCYANIC ACID COMPOUNDS.
TOXICOLOGICAL SIGMIFICA1TCE. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 190: 281-284.
1930. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: :506. 1930.]

It is shown that in caao of barbituric acid poisoning: thiocyanic
acid will be formed in the mtreofaction of the blood or viscera.

KREBS, H. A. (121)

STUDIES O THE PROTEOLYTIC ACTION OF PAPAIT. Biochem. Ztschr.
220: 289-303. 1930. [In German. Abstract in Chcm. Abs. 24:
3804. 1930.]

The digestion of protein by papain is inhibited by heavy mc-tals,
and the heavy-metal content of protein preparations may be sufficient
to account for the fact that the papain activity is very ltrrcly
sup)rcssed. Removal of thcs; impurities from ,-clatin may increase








the activity of the papain proteolysis 30 times, and substances
-;.,hich bind- the heavy metals (sodium pyrophospohato, hydrocyanic acid,
y steinoc ond hydrogen sulfido) .reatly increase the proteolytic
-effect of the papain. Hydrocyanice acid. rnd hydrogen sulfide in a
similar manner increase the activity of other pa-'ain-like -nzyrmes.

nIELE, V. K., and I.IcIALLY, J. G. (122)

HYDROLYSIS 0? HYROGEN CYAi!IDE BY ACIDS. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc.
51: 3358-3375. 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 70. 1930.]

The rates of hydrolysis of amygdalin and hydrocyanic acid w-hen
catalyzed by hydrochloric acid and by sulfuric acid have been
quantitatively studied. For 5 Y concentrations hydrochloric acid
hydrolyzes amygdalin ten times faster than sulfuric acid. For
hydrocyanic acid the difference is even greater. When the con-
centration of hydrochloric acid was varied from 1.95 N to 7.84 N,
the velocity of hydrocyanic acid hydrol-sis increased about 1000
times. This increase in velocity corresponds to the increase in
activity for corresponding concentrations of the undissociated
hydrochloric acid. -mnolecule as moasured-by E. M. F. methods, and
it is- s-.. -:stod that this increase involocity is dcue to an in-
crease in th; concentration of activated- hydrochloric acid molecules,
A 4 N hydrochloric ocid solution is mroro than six times as effective
in hydrolyzing hy.lrocy-nic acid as a corresp-onding hydrobromic acid
solution. A tentative mechanism is proposed..

KUDO, F. (123)

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES 0F HYDROCYANTIC ACID: II7LUJEi7CE UPON PROTEIi
IcETk3BOLISM. Jour. Oriental Med. 13: 19. 1930. [Cited in Quart.
Cumulative Index Medicus 8: 352. 1930.]

K17HT, R., and M1EY M, K. (124)
CATALYTIC OXIDATI'iS 7ITH FH.'I:T. Ztschr. Physiol. Chem. 185: 193-
216. 1929. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 1127. 1930.]

-Compounds-containing one or more ethylene linkages represent a
new group of substrates capable of catalytic oxidation by hcmin.
Experiments are described with a number of such compounds, including
tests of the inhibitory action of hydrocyanic acid.

LEEMC}:KE, H. (125)

STABILIZATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID. U. S. Patent 1,780,198, issued
*November 4, 1930; applied for June 23, 1926; in Germany July 3,
1925. EAbstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (II): 3114. 1930.]

Hydrocyanic acid is rixed with a small amount of substance which
may hydrolyzo to yield an acid, such as lead tetrachloride, stannic
tetrachloride, arsenic trichloride, easily hydrolyzed salts of iron
or zinc, neutral or acid esters of inorganic or organic acids,
carbon tetrachlorid:, chloroform, trichlorethyleno, etc.







-31-


LIiTDEIAImTT, H.,' and WIEGREBE, L. (126)

C0dTSTITUTIOI; OF CO-4.OI S -TI._, ,I-VALC'TB.. GAPJB01:. 3 r. Deutt C...
Gesell. 33 (B): 1650-13F.7,. 1930. [In Germi:-.. Abstract in C:..-.
Abs. 24: 5018. 1930.]

For hydrocyanic acid, isonitriles, and cya-.ic acid, for ls of
the tyrpe (I) CiITX or (II) C A TX, where X = H, R or OH, are
contrary to the octet rule. It should be possible to decide, at
least for isonitriles, whether they have the structure C 5 i
(III) by determining their parachors, providing that in the
liquid state they do not undergo cn:tct.sive molecula- association.
Formula III, derived front the octet theory, seems to hold for six
isonitriles; this formula also agrees better than the older ones
with the properties of these compounds, such as their stability,
the lack of any radical characteristics, and their addition reactions.

LII:DiTER, F., and LIIUT, F. (127)

HYTRCCYA1TIC ACID. U. S. Patent 1,751,933, issued I.urch 25, 1930;
applied for October 18, 1927; in Gerinan- October 30, 1926; assi;-;nid
to I. G. Farbcnindustrie A. G., Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 2552. 1930. Brit. Chem. Abs. 1930
(B): 419. 1930.]

A mixture of carbon :.iono::ido and amr onia is passed over a
catalyst comprising iron carbide and molybdenum, at a tcr.-crrture
of bout 450.

LOCKWOOD, S. (128)

TIM GTAPE LEAF HOPFR Ili CALIFOPdIA. Calif. Dept. Agr. Mo. aBul.
19: 582-584. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appol. Ent. 18 (A): 711.
1930.]

For many years the standard r :.*i d.r for the leaf hopper was
spraying the lower surface of infested leaves with nicotine sulfate
and fish-oil soap, but for larre areas this has generally been super-
seded by calcium cyanide dust. Although nicotine dusts appeari to
kill the nymphs more quickly than the adults, the reverse is found
when calcium cyanide is used. From 15 to 30 lbs. of calcium cyanide
have been used to the acre; 20 lbs. should be sufficient if there
is no air movement. If calcium cyanide has been a:-.lied when the
air is sli-htl-r moving, it is advantageous to use an oil spray on
the soil under the vines to kill the hoppers that have merely been
knocked down. Tests have been made which indicate that a :7ixt'.re
of 2/3 calcium cyanide dust and 1/3 gr.ni.les is effective when
applied at the rate of 25 Ibs. to the acre. The dust stupefies
the hoppers, and the rn-ahules finally kill them. Such a mixture
is,.howeiver, apt to clo, the machine. A dust of even consistency
but somewhat coarser than that now used would be desirable.





MAAS, J. (129)

ITAPHTHALEHiE TO C CONTROL RED SPIDER. Gartenwolt 33: 305. 1929. [In
German. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 26G. 1930.]

Greenhouse fumigation with calcium cyanide against TctrSnyc.hus
telarius 'ofton. injures the planIts. Naphthalene proved quite satis-
factory, and directions for its use are given.

MALEITOTTI, E. (130).

EXPRIIUE1ITS AGAINST THE PEAR. PSYLLID. Coltivatore 75 (26): 235-241.
L929. [In Italian. Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 4. 1930.]

Psylla pyricola is a serious pest of pears in northern Italy.
Spraying with nicotine-soap being inconvenient in some cases, experi-
ments were made in July on fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas,
excellent results being obtained with 6 g. sodium cyanide per cubic
,meter. Volck emulsion, at a strength of 3%, also gave good results.
Relative costs in Italy.are given.

MIDDLETOi, W., and SMITH.., _. F. (131)

NOTE. ON A :TW i:ETHOSD OF DETER: I:Ti1T& EFFICIENCY II' CO-TROL. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 23: 289. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A):
415. 19o30.]

In contn'u. of the boxwood leaf miner (1,uIatb,-r'. o. us bbxi) by
hydrocyanic acid ,. ',, tion, auditory observ!tion L.Za been found to
be a gocd i.t'l of deterwininp, the efficie-cyr of control. The
larvae ove withinin their mines on warM spring Ca;y, producing a
faint but definite rustle in the infested bush, which can be dis-
tinctly heard by a trained observer. The value of such observations
is very high if thoy are made in spring, from one to four weeks
after fumigation.
:IADOVEMAU,.-C., and GH1OR-HIU, P. (132)

SODIUM ITITRITE AS A DOE FOP. EXPERIiE:TAL POTASSI'Ivi CYANIDE
POISOITIT'L. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 102: 164-165. 1929. [In
French. Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (I): 2765. 1930.]

Dogs withstood two to three times the lethal dose of potassium
cyanide when 10-20 cc. of freshly prepared 105 sodium nitrite
solution were intravenously injected immediately at the cessation
of respiration.

MULLER, D.- (133)

THE BEHAVIOR OF GLUCOSEOXIDASE IN DIALYSIS AID TOT7ARDS HYDROCYAIIC
ACID, CARBON MONOXIDE OR I TKYLEIIE BLUE. Biochem. Ztschr. 213:
211-219. 1929. [In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 387.
1 30.]








Glucoseoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of -lr.cose to ,-l'.c'ic
acid, and this is inhibited by hydroc-yanic acid only when the con-
centration reaches 0.01 IT.

(U,:<)

GLUCOSEOXIDASE. AND ITS RELATIC::. TO HS,-rRCYAiTic ACID, $A- ,::
1-0IIOXIDE DI, :,IET;,YLE!' TLUE. Beret. 18th Skand. i:-,turfor.,. r':,'
Copenhagen, Aug. 26-31, 1929. 557 p., illus. Coponha'.:n. 1929.
[In Danish. Abstract in Chen-i. Abs. 24: 2769. 1930.]

An enz:.: prepared from molds (Azcr::illus .i' Mc-r.) catr.1lyzzs the
oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid by oxygen. The en.-- 7- is not
an iron pyrrole comlround (7arbuirg'ls universal respiration -nz:-Tne),
since it is not inhibited by hkrdrocyanic acid or carbon monoxide
(p. 426-431).

MUNCH, H. (1::F)

THE MECHANIISI, OF UREASE ACTIV,'ATI01T. Ztschr. P>:rsiol. Chem. 187:
S241-,rj51. 1.930. [In Gurman. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 2476.
1930.]

The activation of jack bearn urease by hydrocyanic acid and by
glycine was studied from the point of view of cha,!:--,s in affinity
between enzyme and substrate. Only with low enzyme concentration
and prolonged action can an increase in reaction .-velocity on
addition of hydrocyanic acid or glycine be recognized.

----- FICK, R., and 1IICOLAI, F. (136)

DISIJFECTIiTG. German Patent 502,844, issued July 19, 1930; applied
for January 29, 1927; assi-ncJ. to I. G. F-trbenindustrie A. G.,
Frankfort-on-the-.Main, Germany. [In German. Abstract in Chem.
Abs. 24: 5437. 1930.]

Hydrocyanic acid gas is produced directly in the room to be
disinfected by the catalytic or th.--rmal decormiosition of formamide.
The gas may be mixed with other substances such as esters of
chloroformic acid.

IMUIRO, J. W., and THOI.:SON, W. S. (137)

REPORT ON INSECT INFESTATION OF STORED CACAO. E. M. B. 24, 40 p.
London, 1929. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 174. 1930.]

Cacao arriving in Londlon is frequently found to be infested, the
insects having probably attacked it during the drying stages in the
country of origin. The most important of these pests are Araccei'is
fasciculatus, Corcyra ce'Thalonica, and EBDhcstia clutella. Preliminary
tests have been carried out to deterir.nio the effect on E. elutella
of fumigation of cacao in bars with hydrocyanic acid. Th_ result
showed practically 100L mortality of larvae, rupa. and adults,
after 9 hours exposure to a concentration of about 1.57, and the


-'i -








cacao beans were found to absorb a relatively low amount of the gas;
in any case the roasting of the beans during manufacture would elimi-
nate any gas absorbed.

NZ2iETH, L. (138)

THE. EFFECT OF POTASSIUM CYANIDE OR HYDRO0CYAiIC ACID ON CULTTURES OF
CANCEROUS TISSUE. Arch. Expt.'Zellforsch. bes. Gwc-bcbzichtung 8:
177-180. 1929. [Abstract in*Chcm. Zentbl. 101 (II): 3438. 1930.]

The growth of cancerous tissue was aided by the addition of
small amounts of hydrocyanic acid. With 0.01 percent potassium
cyanide the cultures grew three times as rapidly as the controls.
In higher concentrations there was sometimes no effect and some-
times a checking of growth. Cultures in which growth has been
completely ch-ckcd gave a positive reaction when used to "ihoculate
mice.

11=UE411, B., and MANKE, G. (139)

THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE. Ztschr. Eloktrochem.
35: 751-765. 1929. [In German. Abstract in Chom. Abs. 24: 3702.
1930.]

Catalytic oxidation of hydrocyanic ...cid in a A percent mixture
with air was measured between 450 and 900 with rates of flow from
163 to 1092 cc. per minute. The products formed were nitrogen,
nitrogen trioxide and nitrogen tetroxide, and those wcre determined.
On platinum, the highest yield of oxides was 94.9 percent at 700
at 1092 cc. per minute; on pure fdrric oxideo, 85.4 percent at 900;
on ferric oxide with bismuth trioxide, 90 percent at 700; on ferric
oxide with 10 percent potassium oxide, 71 percent at 900; on copper
oxide, 46 percent; and on nickel oxide, 57 percent. It is concluded
that at high gas velocities the reaction may be represented by:

2 HCN + 3-1/202 = H20 + 2NO + 2002

1IEWALL, H. E., KILLING, W. J., and SINNATT, F. S. (140)

HYMDDRCGEII CYANIDE IN THE CASEOUS PRODUCTS FROM THE PROPAGATION OF
A ZOTE OF C01.SUSTION THROUGH POWDERED COAL. Fuel in Science and
Practice 9: 234-236. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 5972.
1930. Brit. Chem. Abs. 1930 (B): 648. 1930.]

When a conical lhear of fine coal is momentarily heated at its
apex with a small flame, combustion proceeds autogenously through-
out the whole. Hydrocyanic acid has been detected in the gaseous
products of such combustion in varying amounts, up to 161 parts
per million. The amount of hydrocyanic acid produced increases
with incr:;'.3o in combustion temperature, and there is a wide
variation in the minimum temperature at which hydrocyanic acid
is formed from different coals.






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ITEWIT, L. J. (141)

REPORT OF THE ENIITOMOLCOIST. Ann. Rpt. Dept. Agr. W. Aust. 1928-
1929: 32-33. 1929. [Abstract in Rev. A Ein. Ent. 18 (A): 290.
1930.].

Calcium cyanide dust was successfully used at the rate of .-'5
Ibs. to the acre against ,ysius vinitor and lilezara viridula,
especially against the nymphs, and Smynthurus viridis. For treat-
ment of stackin. sites and flooring dunnagc:. against the grain
weevil (Calandra F.ranaria) it was only partly, successful.

---- (142)

THE RED-LEGGED EARTH MITE (PENTHALEUJS DESTRUCTOR). Jour. Deot.
Agr. W. Aust. 7 (2): 115-118. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Aipl.
Ent. 18 (A): 464. 1930.]

The mite may be destroyed with calcium cyrnide dust. This
should not be applied to moist foliage, nor when there is any
wind. Powdered naphthalene dusted around the plnmLts acts as a
repellent.

NIEUWVE1TBURG,, C. J. VAN (143)

ALKALIMETRIC TITRATION, IITDICATORS, AND TIRATION ERRORS. Chr-m.
,7eekbl. 27: 143-146, 158-160, 174-176, 19 -188, 206-209. 1930.
[In Dutch. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 5361. 1230.]

Titration curves are reproduced and discussed for nitric acid,
hydrocyanic acid and hydrochloric acid against potassium hydroxide.

OESTERREICHISCH-ALPIYE I 0iTTAI-CESELLSC-AFT (144)

PURIFICATION OF WASH WTATERS CONTAINING CYijIDE. Austrian Patent
118,009, issued June 10, 1930; applied for June 24, 1929.
[In German. Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (II): 1262. 1930.]

The wash waters are passed through towers countercurrent to
gascs containing carbon dioxide, and the liberated ".rdrrcy:.nic
acid is collected by known methods.

OLSET; J. C., BRUITJES, A. S., and SAIBETTA, V. J. (145)

GAS PRODUCED BY THE DECCLPOSIIOiN OF TIROGCELLULOSE :.:TD CELLULOSE
ACETATE PHOTOGRAPHIC FILI1S. Indus. and Engin. Chcm. 22: 360-063.
1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 4397. 1930.]

Films of nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate, 'ith or without
gelatin emulsion, were decomposed in flascz in air, in nitrogen, or
in gases from a previous d:conposition. The hirh1,y toxic Cases formed
wore carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and hydrocyanic acid; the loss
toxic gases, acetic acid and hydrocarbons. The quantity of carbon
monoxide evolved was about the same as from heated newspaper. The







-36-


quantity of nitric oxide may reach 40 percent with nitrocellulose
'film, -but is absent with acetate filmt. mulsion-coated acetate
'films produce considerable hydrocyanic acid, derived from the
gelatin. Explosion of the gases (ependn upon quantity biburned and
excess air; in large quantities explosions occurred.

PADDOCK, F. B. (146)

THE BEE MOTHS. Jour. Econ. Ent. 23: 422-428. 1930. [Abstract in
Rev. 'Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 485. 1930.]

The moths Galleria mellbnella and Achroia grisella have a world-
wide distribution. They cause considerable loss among combs in weal:
'colonies and among stored combs. Natural factors of control are
lacking and artificial measures hitherto tried have proved unsatis-
factory. Experiments indicate that fumigants lose their effectiveness
at temperatures usually prevailing at the time of customary treatment.
Paradichlorobenzene was not effective below 750 F., carbon bisulfide
is only partly effective at 71 F., and calcium cyanide was not fatal
at 700 F. It is difficult to obtain a lethal concentration under
practical conditions.

PAOLI, G. (147)

*SC0E APPLICATIONS OF SOLUTIONS OF SODIUM CYANIDE AGAINST IITSECTS.
Bol.- R. Staz. Pat. Veg. Romac 9 (n.s.) 1929. [In Italian. Abstract
in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 46. 1930.]

A 3 percent solution of sodium cyanide destroyed Macrotermes
bellicosus. Solutions as weak as 0.3 percent are effective against
the ant Tapinoma erraticum, and against the Argentine ant, Irido-
myrex humnilis, in Italy, though a large amount of liquid must be
used over a large area of ground. In fumigating a room against
Pseudococcus mamillariae, on Cereus, the sodium cyanide was simply
placed on the floor. A dose of one-half ounce per 1,000 cu. ft. is
recommended, repeated after 10-15 days, although the plants seem to
be able to resist a dosage of one ounce per 1,000 cu. ft.

PARFENTJEV, I. A. (148)

RESEARCHES IN INSECT TOXICOLOGY. Fourth Internatl. Cong. Ent.,
Ithaca, N.Y., 1928 (ii): 857-864. [Abstract in Rev. Appl.' Ent.
18 (A): 318. 1930.]

It was found that the susceptibility to insecticides of the
insects investigated was related to their capacity to lose water
when placed in a desiccator, the more susceptible species losing
more water in 30-40 minutes than the less susceptible. Dead in-
sects lost more water than live ones, and this might be utilized
to distinguish dead weevils from stupefied ones, as individuals
of C. rranaria after being fumigated with insufficient dosages of
hydrocyanic acid remained in a state of torpor for about two weeks
and then revived.






-37-


PERMA,F.

THE INFLUENCE OF AM1MONIA UPON HYDROCYANIC ACID IN ILLUMIIATIIIG GAS.
Plyn a Voda 9: '181. 1929. Paliva a Topeni 2: 158. [In
Czechoslovakian. Abstract in Chem* Abs. 24! 5977. 1930.]

Ammonium hydroxide removes hydrocyanic acid from illuninatinf
gas; as the concentration of ammonia incrc.-eses more of the hydro-
cyanic acid is removed. In concentrations of 1 to 5 g. per 100
cubic meters of gas the ammonia is ineffective, but between 10 and
50-g. p6r 100 ctibic meters of gas the hydrocyanic acid is removed
completelyy' The'formation of sulfocyanatos in cleaning liquids
is increased by the presence of arrmmonia; the hydrocy.nic acid
removed as sulfocyanato, however, does not exceed 10-20 pcrccnt
of the total hydrocyanic acid removed from the gas.

PETROV, A. (150)

IEW METHODS OF APPLYING HYDROCYANIC ACID IN THE CONTROL OF PESTS.
Izv. Prikl. Ent. 4: 288-290. 1929, [In Russian. Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 132. 1930.]

A short review of the use of Zyklon products and of calcium ,
cyanide for fumigating with hydrocyanic acid.

PIERGE1TILI, D. (151)

PEST CONTROL. French Patent 659,733, issued July 2, 1929; applied
for August 2, 1928. [In French. Abstract in Chcm. Zontbl. 101 (I):
278. 1930.]

Pest control on fruit trees, using hydrocyanic acid evolved
from potassium cyanide and sulfuric acid. Gas-tight tents are used,
the walls being impregnated with a soap and alum solution.

QUAYLE, H. J. (152)

NEW MATERIAL FO- CITRUS FUEIGATI01ON Calif. Citrogr. 11: 296-298.
S1926. [Ab-tract in L opt. Sta. Rec. 62: 448. 1930.]

The material is calcium cyanide dust. Tre-es sprayed with water
before and. afte- d.stini: showed no injiu.-; the material is safe
under any conditions of ordinrr> fu:i-:' tion, contrar-7 to earlier
experience with another calcium cyanide crc, found. Hiore than 90
Percent of the hykdroc"L-'.ic acid iz liberated in 5 minutes, and 9
to 99 percent during 45 minutes. Kand. and power dust applicators
are illustrated. In tent fuii,-oation a sr.-aller amount of cynnide
is necessary in the form of dust than as a liquid, to effect the
same kill. This is probably due in part to the h:-4rocynic acid
being evolved from innumerable particle which ar: often in close
contact with the insects, and in part to the fact that when using
dust there is loss loss of hydrocyanic acid throu-h the tent. This
relationship does not appear in tests in a tight fumigatorium.

LIBRARY
frr, PT ANT BOARD




-38-


In effectiveness against scale one ounce of this calcium cyanide
dust (30 percent cyanogen) is equal to 20 cc. of 96-98 percent
hydrocyanic acid (one unit in the 110 percent dosage schedule)&
The use of dust settles the important question of safety in the
handling and transporting of. .hydr.rccyaic- acid, and excellent gas
distribution is obtained. It -appears that :the margin of safety
between the killing of the insects and inji;ry i.to the tree is
greater with the use of the dust.

(153)

FUMIGATION AND SPRAY CiOBINATION FOR BED. SCATE. Calif. Citrogr.
12: 349, 360-361. 1927. [Abstract in Expt, Sta. Rec., 62: 449.
1920.]

A spray and a fumigation may be considered as more or less
conplementary. For this reason, and for the reason, that certain
scales are just as likely to survive two fumigations as one, there
is an advantage of the spray-fu.migation combination over. twp'..
fumigations. Likewise, there is an advantage of the combination
over two sprays. Scales on outside fruit are most apt to survive
the fumigation, while the same scales ought to.be most readily
hit by a spray. While sprays following fumigation are fairly satis-
factory, they are not quite as satisfactory as where the fumigation
follows the spraying, and there are other rcasonn why the spray
should be applied first. Where an oil spray is applied there is
more or less of the spray on the tree when the fumigation occurs
later, and this is shown to protect the tree from iJijury during".'.
the fumigation. Oil sprays also tend to dissolve the wa:r cover-
ing of the scale and to loosen some of the scales.

(154)

DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FUMIGATION OF CITRUS TREES. Fourth Internatl.
Cong. Ent. Ithaca, N. Y., 1928 (ii): 155-161. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent. 18 (A): '303. 1930.]

A review of the fumigation of orchard trees, which is practically
limited to citrus. The increased tolerance of certain coccids to
hydrocyanic acid in some districts in California is discussed.
Fumigation is more extensively practised in southern California than
in any other part of the world, and in 1.927 about 65,000 acres or
nearly 6,000,000 trees were treated, at a total cost of about $2,000,-
000, or approximately $35 per acre. The most expensive part of the
equipment is the tents for covering the trees, of which there are
about 20,000, representing an investment of about $1,000,000. Fumiga-
tion is not considered. satisfactory unless the results are sufficiently
effective to last for two ycars or longer, although under certain
conditions annual treatment is required.





-39-


RAMSAY, A. A. (155)

HYDIROCYAiIIC ACID CONTEINT- OF SORGHU7J]I.-SUDAII HYBRIDS. Apr. Gaz.
N. S. Wales 40: 735. 1.929. [Abstract in Chem.. Abs. 24: 1136.
1930.]

Sorhumn-sudan hybrids were bred from female sudan grass and
male Saccaline sorghum. The hydrocyanic acid content of the Tlants
was: Sudan grass, 0.00001 percent; sor4hum, 0.003 percent; hybrids,
0.0000 to 0.011 percent.

- --- and.HEHRY, M. (156)

ROSEWOOD (HETERODEIIDRO1IT OLEAEFOLIUM) A:TD NATIVE FUCHSIA (EF='OPHILA
MACULATA), TUO POISOiNCUS PLANTS. Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales 40: 834-
837. 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 3811. 1930.]

Hydrocyanic acid in native fuchsia, liberated by the enzyme
naturally present in the plant, reached a maximum of 175 mg. per
100 g. of plant (dried at 100) in May, dropped to 4 to 8 mg.
during July to Novcmber, and then increased to approximately 155
mg. in December. In rosewood over 12 months old a max imum of
approximately 4 mg. per 100 g. of dry plant was reached in March;
with plants under 12 months old a ma::im-Lum of 15 mg. was attained.
No marked effect of weather conditions on the yield of hydrocyanic
acid was noted,

RANDALL, M., and HALFORD, J. 0. (157)

EQUILIBRIA IITVOLVING SOME COMPLEX IONS OF SILVER AJD THE MREE E',-ERGY
OF SOME SILVER COMPOUIIDS. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 52: 178-191.
1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 1273. 1930.]

A method is presented for the theoretical treatment of equilibria
involving the solution of difficulty soluble compounds in W7eal: acids
or bases to form complex ions. The method is applied to new data
for the solubility of silver chloride and silver oxide in ammonium
hydroxide, and of silver chloride and silver cyanide in aqueous
hydrocyanic acid.

-and HALFORD, J. 0. (158)

THE DISTRIBUTION OF AMI.MONIA BETVWEEI TOLUEIIE AND AQUEOUS SILVER
A JiOITIA CHLORIDE AND IHYDRO:XIDE, AND OF HYDROGEJ CYAITIDE BETWEEN
BENZENE AND AQUEOUS HYDROGEN SILVER CYANIDE. Jour. Amer. Chem.
Soc. 52: 192-194. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 1269. 1930.]
The activity coefficient of hydrocyanic acid in HAg(C'I)2(aq.)
in unity at 250.
RASCH, W. (159)

THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE USE OF HYDROCYANIC ACID III TH CONTROL
OF PESTS. Ztschr. Agnew. Ent. 14: 316-324. 1928. [In German.
Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 62: 449. 1930.]
A review of contemporary practices in the use of hydrocyanic acid.




-40-


R1ER, R. (160).

USE OF CALCIUMf' CYANIDE AS AN INSECTICIDE IN FLA.TCE. Fourth Interntl.
Corig. rn"., Ithaca, 17. Y., 1928 (ii) 87-99. [Abstract in Rev.
Appl. Ent.' 18 (A): 300. 1930.]

In France the use of calcium cyanide as an insecticide has been
almost exclusively confined, to the treatment of insects in dwellings
and greenhouses. Field experiments were made, both by dusting ahnd
by injecting it into the soil. As a dust it is ineffective against
P.h.nchota, including aphids and coccids, which can only be "destroyed
when the insecticide is used in a confined space such as a green..
house or a tent. In the case of subterranean larvae its efficiency
depends on a number of factors,- such as the individual resistance
of the insect, its ability to oscapc from the gas, the nature of the
soil and tho 'dogroee of humidity'. In sandy soils the mortality never
cxcooeedod 20 percent, whereas in the clayey varieties, which retain
the gas, it reached as high as 80 percent. The evolution of cyanidc
is nearly twice as rapid under humid conditions as under dry ones,
and it is recommended that applications should be made in fine weather.
MJligothos acneus, a small beetle that is very injurious to rape in
one locality, was killed in less than 30 seconds by dusting.

REICHSTEI1I, T. (161)

ALDEMYDE SYITTHESES. C0I.2ARISONT OF THE TMEE SIIPLEST FIVE-IM BERED
HETEROCYCLIC COLP2OT'DS. Helvetica Chim. Acta 13: 349-356. 1930.
[In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 3782. 1930.]

The Gatterman reaction (condensation with hydrocyanic acid) is
used as an example to show that among the simple five-membered
heterocyclic compounds, pyrrole is more reactive than furan, which
in turn reacts with greater ease 'han does thiophene.

RENTZ, Z. (162)

DETOXICATION OF CYAITIDES. Arch. Internatl. Pharmacodyn. et Ther.
36: 455-517. 1930. [In French. Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index
Medicus 7: 344. 1930.]

RHEII 0HOLD and CO. "7Z-EIUIITE I GSZL 11,C-UH1D .'- 0-ZSTEI.G-SETLSCrkT (163)

ADS^L-'l:' MA-:.TAL FRCT.L GYPSTJi.. German Patent 499,316, issued L.a:-
5, 1930; applied for A.:'il 12, 1927. [Abstract in Chem. Zcontbl.
101 (II): 2022. 1930.]j

Gypsum is -.Jd ".-:cr, porous by the process of allowing it to
absorb an excess of water. The proDduct may serve as an absorbent
for hydrocyanic acid in pest control.








ROBERTS, H. (164)

APPARATUS FCR FUMIGATING. AMII:AL BURP20VS UITH HYDROCYANIC ACID. U.
S. Patent 1,742,149, issued Decmboer 31, 1929; apli'!d for Octobe-r
5, 1925; in Cuba March 20, 1925. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 1191
1930.1]

Structural features.

R0ER, 0. : (165)

TITRATION OF CYANIDES. Tidsskr. "emi og Bergvesen 9: 127-129. 1929.
[In Norwegian. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 3727. 1930.]

A discussion of a number of volumetric methods for the deter-
mination of cyanides with standardized silver or nickel solutions,
and with Schulek's iodometric process.

ROSE1TTHALER, L. (16.6)

THE HYDROCYANIC ACID QUESTION. XXV. THE DETECTION OF HYDROCYA.IC
ACID-COIUT.INI!G SUBSTAIrCES IN DISTILLATES COTTA TIING H1YDPOCYANIC
ACID. Pharm. Acta Helvetiae 4: 62-63. 1929. [In German. Abstract
in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (I): 3086. 1930.]

In investigating plants containing hydrocyanic acid, it is
necessary to ascertain whether any of the hydrocyanic acid which
has been volatilized with steam is combined with other compounds.
The distillate is caught in water (insoluble portions are dissolved
in alcohol) and diluted to 200 cc. In one-half of the liquid the
free hydrocyanic acid is determined according to Volhard; in the
other half, after 24 hours, the total hydrocyanic acid is determined
according to Liebig-Doniges. Thc difference represents the ano'unt
of combined hydrocyanic acid.

---- (167)

THE HYDROCYANIC ACID QUESTION. XXVI. NEW OCCURRENCES OF HYDRO-
CYANIC ACID. Pharm. Acta Helvetiae 4: 196-199. 1929. [In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 5796. 1930.]

Supplementing a previous list of about 360 plants containing
Shydrocyanic acid, a second list of about 150 species is now given
containing the name, the family, the part where hydrocyanic acid
occurs, and references to the literature of its discovery.

SAM Go, BALD, J. G., and PITTI AIT, H. A. 0(lc)

IiNVESTIGATIOTS ON SPOTTEDD WILT" OF TOI0ATOSS. Bul. Council Sci.
Indus. Res. 44, 64 p., illus. Melbourne, 1930. [Abstract in
Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 665. 1930.]


-41-




-42-


The experiments indicated that thrips may inoculate a plant
with spotted wilt if they have fed on diseased plants. Unsatisfactory
resv.lts were obtained in controlling the disease by insecticide dusts
and sprays or -by fPmigation with sodium cyanide in greenhouses.

SAI1IIGAR, E. B. (169)

THE TITRATION OF POTASSIUM: CYANIDE, AMD OF FREE CYANIDE IN SILVER
PLATIIIG SOLUTIONS, BY [EANTS OF SILVER NITRATE. Trans. Amer.
Electrochem. Soc. 58: 49-68. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24:
5002. 1930. Brit. Chem. Abs. 1930 (B): 1074. 1930.]

A study was made of the effect of carbonate on the titration
of potassium cyanide solutions with silver nitrate, and of the
titration of the free cyanidle in silver plating solutions. The
presence of carbonate causes persistent precipitates during titra-
tion of the cyanogen, but these may be avoided by the use of dilute
solutions, and otherwise carbonates did not interfere. The removal
of the carbonate by barium nitrate, barium chloride, calcium
chloride, or strontium nitrate produced erroneous results and com-
plicated the titrations by promoting precipitate formation. Additions
of small quantities of 0.1 N sodium hyrdroxide wore without effect on
the titration result or on the' formation of precipitates. Additions
of ammonium hydroxide obviated precipitate formation, but the con-
centration of ammonium hydroxide had to be correlated carefully to
the amount of potassium i6dide used as indicator to obtain accurate
results. Titrations without potassium iodide yielded slightly high
results.

SATO, s. (170)

PHYSICOCHMiICAL INVESTIGATION O01 THE CASEIN-SPLITTIIIG ACTION OF
PAPAIN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE FUNDAHiENTAL PROPERTIES OF
ITS ACTION AS WELL AS TO THE MECHAIIISIi OF THE ACCELERATION OF
HYDROCYANIC ACID ON ITS ACTION. Jour. Faculty Agr. Hokkaido Imp.
Univ. 24, part 4: 101-151. 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24:
390. 1930.]

The quantity of casein digested in unit time is directly pro-
portional to the concentration of papain. Potassium cyanide greatly
increases the activity of papain, probably due to hydrocyanic acid
molecules rather than cyanide ions. The action is reversible: if
the hydrocyanic acid is removed by bubbling air, the reaction velocity
decreases to its original value without the hydrocyanic acid.

SCHI.IDT, M. (171)

CYAITIDE POISONING. NEW EFFECTIVE TPEATME11T. Ugeskr. Laeger. 92.
548-550. 1930. [In Danish. Cited in- Quart. Cumulative Index
Medicus 8: 353. 1930.]








SCIlIEDER, F. (172)

INEW lcASUREI.ETTS OF EFFECTIVE CROSS-SECTIO:S 70R GASES A:: VA-C.S.
Ztschr. Elcktrochen. 36: 700-74-. 19'30. [AbsLtrict in Chem.
Zentbl. 101 (II): :738. 1930.]

Curves of effective cross-section were determined for a numbt-r
of compounds._including nitro:Ien, hydrocyanic acid, and ,tylene.
Above 3'Voits the series corresponds to t'.c Grimm s'stc-, wVhereas
below this value an individual b:'havior is evident which is perhaps
related to the dipole moments.

SCHUSTER, F. (173)

THE ACTION OF HYDROGEIT PEROXIDE ON THIOCYANTATES. Ztschr. Anorgan.
u. Allg. Cher. 186: 253-256. 1930. [In German. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 24: 2964. 1930.]

By reactions analac:ous to the conversion of cyanide to cyanate
and then to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thioc;.anates are oxidizrd
and hydrolyzed quantitatively by boiling for 15 minutes with 30
percent hydrogen peroxide in 0.5 N potassium hydroxide, yielding
sulfuric acid, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. The ammonia is further
partially oxidized to nitric acid. Determination of the sulfuric
acid by barium chloride gives the amount of thiocyanate in the
original sample. The method can be used for the determination of
sulfocyanic acid, hydrocyanic acid, and hydrochloric acid in
mixtures by first determining all three by silver nitrate, then
oxidizing the first two and deterr'inin- in the reasulting solution
the hydrochloric acid and the sulfocyanic acid (as sulfuric acid),
finally obtaining the hydrocyanic acid by difference.

SChWAB, R. (174)

THE INFLUENCE OF DEXTROSE UPON THE TOXIC ACTION OF POISONS. Ztschr.
Gesell. Expt. Mced. 67: 513-538. 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl.
101 (I): 2276. 1930. Chom. Abs. 24: 1155. 1930.]

In experiments with animals, and with varied poisons, it was
possible to confirm the favorable influence due to the administra-
tion of dextrose. The best results were obtained with hydrocyanic
acid, in which case only the tests with mice were negative. Th.n
effect of dextrocose is probably in mr.any cases due to its reactivity
with the poison, as in the case of hydrocyanic acid, together with
an effect on the functioning of the liver and a general stren,-theninr1
of the organism due to the addition of large amounts of carbo-
hydrates. In some cases the poison is probably removed by conbin-
atiol with glucuronic acid.

SCHARZ, L. (175)

THE COiTROL OF PESTS INJURIOUS TO HEALTH BY HYDROCYANIC ACID. Ztschr.
Desinfekt, 21: 1-13. 1929. [In German. Abstract in Rev. Appl.
Ent. 18 (B): 58. 1930.]


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A survey of the use of hydrocyanic acid against such insects,
most of the references being from Gcrmr.nny. Tables show the various
dosages r quircd, and the absorption and .release of the gas by
cements and stones used in the construction of buildings.

----- (176)

THE EVOLUTION OF THE USE OF HYDROCYA'IC ACID FOR PEST 001ITROL.
Ztschr. Desinfekt. 22: 394-395. 1930. [Abstract in Chem..Zentbl.
101 (II): 1600. 1930.]

Historical description of the application of hydrocyanic acid
in pest control.

SEDD01T, H. R., and ?;IITG, R. 0. C. (177)

FATAL DOSE FOR SHEEP OF CYAITOGEITETIC PLA1:TS CONTAINING SAMBUITIGRIlT
OR PRUIASIP. Jour. Council Sci. Indus. Res. (Aust.) 3: 14-24.
1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 5065. 1930.]
Experiments carried out by feeding to sheep Acacia glaucescens
and Ereienphila maculata indicate that the administration of a
cyanogenetic glucoside (in air-dried plant) at such a rate that
the hydrocyanic acid content is equal to the minimum fatal dose
of hydrocyanic acid itself is attended with fatal results, provided
that sufficient enzyme is present. Since the plants themselves are
relatively deficient in enzyme, this was supplied by the addition
of sweet almonds. Whereas free hydrocyanic acid or the glucoside
in the plants is fatal in doses equivalent to 1 mg. of hydrocyanic
acid per pound of body weight, the isolated glucosides were fatal
only in doses corresponding with 2 mg. per pound. Plants are con-
sidered dangerous if the percentage of hydrocyanic acid is greater
than 0.02 in the fresh plant and 0.05 in the air-dried material.

SHIBUYA, T. (178)

THE ITFLUE!JCE OF HYDROCYAITIC ACID "JPOir THE CULTIVATION OF FIBROBLASTS,
LIVER CELLS AND SARCOMA CELLS. Japan Med. TTorld 9: 280-285. 1929.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 2174. 1930.]

Sarcoma cells have an especially strong resistanc. to hy1drocyfanic
acid and can be cultivated in hydrocyanic acid media. Fibroblasts
and liver cells are highly susceptible to hydrocyanic acid, showing
degenerative chanroges in a dilution of 1 to 4,000.

SKIITIER, H. M. (179)

THE GIANT :.-OTH BORER OF SUGAR-CAiE. Trop. ATr., V. 7, !To. 1. 1930.
[Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 250. 1930.]

Castnii licus, which is confined to Trinidad, British Guiana,
and :;omr other parts of South Akmrcrica, has greatly increased in
southern Trinidad. The insect attacks banana and coconut,. lhich are





-4 5-


introduced plants, as ,7ell as sugar-cane. Calcium c.y ni-do, blown
directly into tho burrows, Wis tested as a mI-'nz o' killin the
larvae remaining in the stool after the can. h-il bcon cut, but it
was Unsatisfactory.

SOCIETY ANON. HOLLAITDO-BELGE POUR LA FABRICATICU DU COKE (In)

PURIFYING GASES. British Patent 314, 861, issued January. 1960;
applied for July 3, 1928. [Abstrnct in Chom. Abs. 24: 1495. 19> i.]

Details of a process involving the separation of hydrogen zil'i \~
and hydrocyanic acid from gases by washing them with alkali c .i''Lon..te
solution and then expelling the hydrogen sulfide and hydrocyanic acid
from the solution with carbon dioxide.

SPEYER, E. R. (181)

A TMITE-FLY PARASITE (ElCARSIA FCOP.E0SA GAHAI). 14th Ann. Rt.
Expt. Res. Sta. Nuarser"- Market Gard. Indus. Devlpmt. Soc. (l9 c):
96-100. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 600. 1930.]

The parasite Encarsia formosa Gahan is bred for the control of
Trialeurodes vaporariorum. In cases of severe infestations of T.
vaporarium, fumigating with tetrachlorethane or h'ydrocyanic acid
gas will destroy the adults without affecting the parasites. The
dosage per 1,000 cu. ft. is 5 ounces tetrachlorethane or 1/8 ounce
sodium cyanide with 1/2 fluid ounce of 33 percent sulfuric acid.

STAITILAID, L. N., and WALTOIT, C. L. (182)

EXPERIMEITTS ON THE CONTROL OF PEAR I'IDGE (COITARIIIIA PYRIVORA).
PROGRESS REPORT. Rpt. Agr. Hort. Res. Sta. Bristol 1929: 124-129.
1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 597. 1930.]

Calcium cyanide applied in June and worked into the soil to a
depth of 4 inches at the rates of 1/2, 1, and 2 ounces per square
yard, effected complete control in the case of light garden soil,
and when applied to heavy wet soil in October, resulted in a con-
siderable reduction in infestation. A rate of 1/2 ounce per
square yard appeared to be the most satisfactory.

STPAID, A. L. (183)

MEASURING THE TOXICITY OF IITSECT FtJIIGAJITS. Indus. and Engin. Che.i.,
Anal. Ed., 2: 4-8. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 1185.
1930,]

The methods used for establishing the relative toxicities'of
insect fumigants are revie.7ed. The greatest error in these methods
arises from the attempt to determine minimum lethal concentrations.
A method 6f measuring relative values by comparin- concentrations
which kill 50 percent of the test insects in a period of 5 hours
has been investigated. These concentrations may be designated as
the 5-hour median lethal concentrations. The method sem ,; to
possess greater possibilities for accurate work on fumigants than
those now in general use.




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TAMAYO, 1.1. L, (184)

DETE1.T1 I1ATI ON OF CYAK!IDE BY COPPER SULFATE. An. Soc. Espan. Fis.
Qui. 28: 724-727. 1930. [In Spanish. Abstract in Chem. Abs.
24: 4237. 1930.] :

Titration of coripper by.-.discharge of the color of the tartro-
cupric complex by potassium cyanide has been described, and the
same reaction can b`e used inversely for the volumetric determination
'of cyanides by cupric sulfate in the presence of alkaline tartrate.
Results obtained by this process are shown and compared with those
by the Deniges method.

TAIMAITIT, G., and ROHMANN, A. (185)

IiTFLUEiCE OF PRESSLrSURE ON THE ELECTRICAL COIDTUCTANCE OF SALT SOLUTIONS.
Ztschr. Anorgan. Allg. Chem. 183: 1-29. 1929. [In German.
Abstract in Chem. Abs.' 24: 286. 1930.]

Determinations aere made of the effect of pressure from 500 to
3000 kilograms per square centimeter, at 200 and at 40, on the
conductivity of aqueous solutions of sodium acetate, potassium
cyanide, barium chloride, cerrous chloride, mercuric chloride,
ammonium cyanide, ammonium acetate and iydrocyanic acid.

TANAKA, K. (186)

THE INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC POTASSIUMT CYA;TIDE POISONING ON THE LACTIC
ACID AID LACTACIDOGEII OF THE .UJSCLES, AND THE RELATION OF
POTASSIUM CYArIDE POISOIIITG TO THE EFFECT OF I1ISULIN. Folia
Endocrinol. Japonica 5: 34. 19.29. [In DItch. Abstract in
Chem. Zentbl-. 101 (I): 553. 1930.]

Continuous subcutaneous injections of 1 percent potassium
cyanide solution in rabbits produce an increase of lactic acid and
an appreciable reduction of the lactacidogen content. If insulin
is simultaneously injected the effects are reversed.

TAYLOR, H. (187)

RESPIRATORY MOVEMENTS IN GRADUAL HYDROCYAIIC ACID POISONING.
Jour. Physiol. 69: 124-134. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl.
101 (I): 3327. 1930.] .

Ari'investigation of the breathing of cats and rabbits when
subjected to various doses of hydrocyanic acid.

THORPE, W H. (188)

BIOLOGICAL RACES IN IITSECTS AND ALLIED GROUPS. Biol. Rev.
5: 177-212. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 691.
1930.]





-47"


A review of the more important literature L-arin- on the *,..oct
of biological races. A biological race may be said to exist `h,.re
the individuals of a species c'Ln be divided into -u ..-.
isolated to some extent by food prefcrt:..cos, occurring in the sm
localit- and showin.- definite differences in biology, but with cor-
responding structural differences either few or inconstant, or com-
pletely absent. An instance of two races of a host differrn,-; in
ability to resist parasitism is supplied by Chrysomphalus avrot ii,
in relation to the parasite Comperiolla bifanciata. The aut}..-" also
discusses the development of str:,in; resistant to \yd:'oc;',nic acid
gas in Chr,'somnohalus aurnntii, Saissetia ,-,oan _and Asn','r.tjs
perniciosus.

UTKIIA-LYUBOVTZOVA, X. (189)

THE GEI1EPAL ACTIVATION OF IITPTACELLULA. P2OTEAS1S OF A:TI: ;L A.D
PLA1TT ORIGIN BY CYAliC ACID. ioch:. Ztschr. 222: 404-406.
1930. [In German. Abstract in Chcm. Abs. 24: 4797. 1930.]

Digestion by animal cell enzymes is activated by hydrocIrnic
acid, particularly at pH = 4, but this diminishes and becomes
practically zero at pH = 7. Glycerol extrnacts of liver, which
of themselves have but very little digestive activity, are con-
siderably activated by hydrocyanic acid.

VILLAS, D. S. (10)

PHOTOC:-I:ICAL DECOI.POSITIO1 OF TRIAT01,iC :.i'OLECULES. HYTia2GIE7
CYAI'IDE.' Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 52: 6.1-67. 1930. [Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 24: 1034. 1930.]

The hydrocyanic acid gas was illuminated in a quartz cell in
an electric furnace at 1000 C. A hydrogen discharge tube was
utilized for radiation and a Hilger E1 spuctro;rarh for the measure-
ments. The continuous spectrum was photo--rnp:hccd after prassae
through the cyanide, both at 1 mm. and at 1 atmosphere pressure, and
in neither case was tny absorption observed. Hydrocyanic acid is
not an "ionic" molecule. The brown coloration assumed by the illumi-
nated liquid hydrocyanic acid scoms to bo attributable to an initial
decomposition into hydrogen and cymnoon, followed by a polyricrization
of cyaniogen into paracyano9cn.

VOGT, G. (191)

THE ESTIMATION OF HYDROCYA:IC ACID IN PIAR-MACEUJTICAL PPEPARATIOiTS.
Pharm. Jour. 124: 475. 1930. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 5433.
1930.]

The vapors of hydrocy-.nic acid were carried b- rcarnz of suction
into 20 cc. of a solution of silver nitrate (6.30 g. per 1.). The
prccipitatod silver cy.nido was then dissolved by adding to the
solution 20 cc. of potassium cynidc exactly cquiv-lent to the
silver nitrate solution. After adding 1 cc. anmmoniur, hydroxide and




-48-


2 drops of 10 percent potassium iodide, the solution was titrated
with silver nitrate to first turbidity. Each cc. of silver nitrate
consumed indicates 0.002 g. hydrocyanic acid. On a dilute solution
of hydrocyanic acid, results were identical with those obtained by
the British Pharmaceutical method. Freshlyr prepared tincture of
chloroform et morphine, Brit. Pharm. 1885, proved very unstable in
regard to its hydrocyanic acid content.

VOTOCE., E., and KOTRBA, J. (192)

ITE7 APPLICATIONS OF IECUiMETRIC TITRATI01T. Chim. et Indcl-s.
[Paris] 21: 164. 1929. [In French. Abstract in Chem. Zentbl.
101 (I): 1977. 1930.]

A method of titrating cyanogen with mercuric nitrate, using
sodium nitroprussiate as indicator, in nitric acid solution.

7ARBT?G,., .TEG2LEIIT, E., and CTIISTIAiT, T7. (193)

CAKBYLAHINibE-HT.iCGL0DI ATID THE PHOTOCHE1iICAL DISSOCIATIOiT OF ITS
CA2B0IT iIONOXIDE CO:POUITDS. Biochem. Ztschr. 214: 26-63. 1929.
[In German. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 634. 1930.]

The fact that hydrocyanic acid can displace carbon monoxide
from iron-porphyrin compounds has led to the study of this reaction.

UATSOiT, J. R. (194)

(RE20RT OF THE EPARTi lT OF) ETTOMiOLOGY. Rpt. Fla. Agr. E'pt.
Sta. 1927-1928. 42R-49R. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A):
246. 1930.]

Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas under tents was vcr-r
satisfactory against the Florida red- scale (Chrysomohalus ficus),
which is most difficult to kill with sprays. For the pupae of
white flies, a higher concentration of gas was necessary than
for. either the red or purple scale.

7EDEII, H. (195)

DEFINITION AITD EFFECT OF C1O.LEX HEAVY METAL LI]:"AJGES. Arch.
Expt. Path. u. Pharrankol. 150: 332-353. 1930. [In German.
Abstract in Chocr. Abs. 24: 4449. 1930.]

Compounds of the heawjvy metals, particularly of iron, with
pQl1a'lcohols, carbonic acid, gelatin, peptones, prot,-)lbinic acid,
hydrocyanic acid -and a fewv inorganic acids, wore studied with
rospoct to their solubility, formation of complex ions, and
stability at various hydrogen ion concentrLations. The properties
of those link-gcs arc determined in part by the relative numbers
of acid a.nd hydroxyl groups to which the metal is bound.






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WEIDIITGER. (de:)
PEST CONTROL INi GREENHOUSES WITH CYA::OGAS. Prckt. Bl. Pfl-.nzonb.
7: 278-282. 1930. [iTotud in Rev. A:.l. Ent. 18 (A): 181. 19:C.]

WEiM1R, 0. (197)

THE DIPOLE .I01.E1IT OF HYDROCYANTIC ACID A4D OF SEVERAL iIITRILES.
Ztschr. Phys. Chcm. 4 (3): 371-392. 1929. [In Gcra-xn. A1bstr-ct
in Chem. Abs. 24: 7. 1930.]

An improved resonance method is described uhich makes u-su of
a piezoelectric quartz crystal as a frequency stabilizer; the
dielectric constant is mc Lzured with an accuracy of about 1 per-
cent. The electric moments of hydrocyanic acid, acctonitrilc,
propionitrilo, butyronitrile, -and bcnzonitrilc wero measured and
the dielectric constant and density of solid hydrocyanic acid vere
redetermined. The measurements of moments suag-.t a nitrile
bonding in hydrocyanic acid.

WHEELER, T. S. (198)

HYDROCYANIC ACID. British Patent 325,860, issued March 3, 1930;
applied for September 3, 1928. [Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24:
4123. 1930. Brit. Chem. Abs. 1930 (B): 508. 1930.]

Hydrocyanic acid is made by the action of an irc or spark
discharge on a mixture of a hydrocarbon such as methane, or gases
containing hydrocarbons, such as coal gas, and nitrogen or ammonia
which has been preheated at least to 800. The gas mixture is
preferably free fror oxygen.

WIELA.D, H., and DOPRER, E. (199)

SOMiE 0BSEVATIONS OI TIE ACTIOIT OF HYDROCYANIC ACID, HYDROCHLORIC
ACID AND ALUMINUM CHLORIDE ON UITSATURATED C01OOPOU1DS. Ber. Deut.
Chem. Gesell. 63 (B): 404-411. 1930. [In German. Abstract in
Chem. Abs. 24: 2733. 1930.]

Since unsaturated compounds undergo various reactions with
alLuninum chloride alone, it was possible to effect a definite
reaction with hydrocyanic acid in only a few cases.

WIETZEL et al. (200)

FOR'.Ai.IIDE AND HYDiROCYANIC ACID. Fed. Rpt. 39 (2): 669-672. 1930.
[Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 3487. 1930.]

The process of making formamide and hydrocyanic acid by expoozin-
alkyl format vapor and ammonia to a contact mass of dehyLdrating
character, at 200-300, was held unpatentable on appeal to the Court
of Customs and Patent Appeals in view of prior literature cited
during Patent Office proceedings.





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WILLIAMS, H. (201)

ACUTE HYDROCYANIC ACID POISN0I'G DUE TO SILVER POLISH. Jour. Amer.
Med. Assoc. 94: 627-629. 1930. EAbstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (II):
2009. 1930.]

In a series of hotels poisoning to dining room patrons was
observed in the form of acute gastro-enteritis. This was attributed
to the use of a silver polish containing 24 percent potassium cyanide.

WIIKLER, A. (202)

REGULATION OF RESPIRATION: EFFECTS OF HMi0ORRHAGE AIMD REIIiJECTICN,
AID OF IIT&TcTSIEC: S INJECTION OF SODIUM CAPRBONATE AID SODIUM
CYAiTIDE UPOIT RE3PETSE OF NEURO-1MUSCULAR MECHANISM. Amer. Jour.
Physiol. 94: 224-234. 1930. [Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index
Medicus 8: 353. 1930.]

WOGLUM, R. S. (203)

CO1TROPL OF RED SCALE BY SPRAYING AND J-l.IGATION. Calif. Citrogr.
12: 348, 364-365. 1927. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 62: 499.
1930.]

Data are presented'from which it is concluded that: (1) An oil
spray such as Volck Concentrate or Triple X heavy, followed by
fumigation, is the most dependable way to handle resistant red
scale. (2) It is corroborated that fumigation alone gives a
better kill on the wood than on the fruit. (3) 7Fhen using sprays
alone, the kill on the fruit is better than on the wood. None of
the single treatments gave a kill sufficient to meet commercial
requirements (over 99 percent). The -interval between the spray
application and the fumigation has averaged from 1 to 15 days. No
superiority between these limits has been found, and the point
needs investigation. It is evident that the spray loosens up a
large part of the scale, but where this scale does not die it
appears to settle back into its former position. An interval be-
tween the two treatments of not to exceed 10 days is recorrinended.,
Proper double treatment in Au.-ust-September season will carry the
fruit throu.L-h the fall in a commercially clean condition, and in
most cases handle the scalo and red spider for a full year. The
dosage recommended is 1-1/3 percent Voick Concentrate or Triple
X heavy followed by 100 or 110 percent fumigation. There is doubt
as to the equal efficiency of the lighter oils when combined with
fumigation.

--...-- and. LA FOLLETTE, J. R. (204)

RECENT INVESTIGATIONS OF RESISTANT RED SCALE. Calif. Citrogr.
11: 396-397. 1926. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 62: 448. 1930.]







-51-


Red scale is easier to control on ora-fcs than on lemons;
ordinarily 100 or 110 percent dosage will :hn.n.e this scale on
oranges.. Comparative tests showed that 125 percent dos:-e ermii-
cated.non-resistant scale, but in the case of resistant scale sur-
vivors were found in every instance. A lime-sulihur sprain, prior
to fumigation, slightly increased the red scale kill over that of
straight fumigation'. but the superiority was so slight as to have
no influence on commercial control. It was observed that where oil
spray was used, especially during warm weather, it often caused the
old red scale to loosen up and, furthermore, speeded up the hatch
of young insects. This condition, coupled with the complementary
scale kill on fruit and \"ood. bett7een oil spray and fumigation, led
to the trial of combination treatment. In a series of winter tests
the following average results were obtained:

Method Total kill

Fumigation - - - 91.0 percent
Volck oil, 2 percent - 92.0 "
Oil and fumigation - 99.3 "

WOJNtICZ-SIANOZECKI, Z. (205)

INTERPRETATION OF THE ELECTRICAL NATLFE OF THE BOID BETWEEN CARBON
ATD HYDROCEN; AIXD OTHER ELEMENTS. Rocz. Chem. 9 : 628-639 1929.
[In Polish. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 1554. 1930.]

The acid and toxic properties of hydrocyanic acid are explained
by means of electronic relations, on the basis of a previous partner
on the periodic law of elements.

WOLF, K. L., BRIEGLEB, G., and STUART, If. A. (206)

THEZ KERR EFFECT, DISPERSION AiD MOLECULAR STRUCTLIE. Ztschr. Phys.
Chem. 6 (B): 163-209. 1929. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (I):
1101. 1930.]

Based upon the Kerr constant, the optical anisotropy and tilhe
dipole moment, calculations relating to the molecular structure are
made for 31 substances, including hydrocyanic acid and cyanogen.

WOLGAST, X. (207)

CARBONATE-REE ALKALI CYAIIDES. German Patent 488,758, January 8,
1930; application March 19, 1925; assigned to I. G. Fa_'benindnstrie
A. G. [Abstract in Chem. Zentbl. 101 (II): 1536. 1930.]

A solution or suspension of alkali or alkaline earth cyanide
is saturated in the cold with carbon dioxide, and in a separate
operation the hydrocyanic acid is expelled by blowing with air or
by reduced pressure, and absorbed in a solution of alkali.






-52-


WOODHILL, A. R. (208)

THE CITRUS RED SCALE (CHRYSOMP01ALUS AURAITII). PRC-RESS REPORT 01O
FUMIGATION AN)D SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. Agr. Gaz. IT. S. Wales 41:
125-130. 1930. [Abstract in Rev. Appl. Ent. 18 (A): 339. 1930.]

A continuation of experiments on the fumigation of citrus against
red scale, in New South Wales. In most cases the trees were fumigated
for 45 minutes, calcium cyanide dust beinfi applied during the day,
and potassium cyanide by the pot method during the late afternoon or
at night. It was found that inspection shortly after treatment might
show an apparently complete mortality and yet the scale might be
plentiful during the following season. It was, therefore, decided to
allow 12 months to elapse before comparing the treated and untreated
trees. Field. obsz'-vations have shown that the spread of the scale
from tree to tree. is very slow, and that scales occurring the follow-
ing season on treated trees are the progeny of those surviving fumiga-
tion rather than migrants from untreated trees. Fine calcium cyanide
at 1 ounce per 175 cubic foot proved unsatisfactory, and was only
partially satisfactory at 1 ounce per 100 cubic feet. The coarser
form was also unsatisfactory-r at the latter concentration, and for
both forms a considerable increase in dosage is necessary. The pot
method, using 1 ounce potas.u.iu cyanide per 125 cubic feet, gave
satisfactory but not oerfect results. None of these dosages con:.
sistently produced results which were satisfactory over a period of
two years. Lemons are very susceptible to injury from a deposit of
calcium cyanide dust, a.nd the coarser type should alwayss be used
except under very dry conditions.

YOUNG, H D. (209)

EVOLUTION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID FROM CLCIUM, CYANIDE. Indus. and Engin.
Chem. 21: 861-863. 1929. [Abstract in Expt. Sta. Rec. 62: 448.
1930.]

S With any given calcium cyanide the rate of evolution of hydro-
cyanic acid increases with increasing relative humidity. With a
calcium cyanide, 80 percent of which will pass a 200-mesh sieve,
90 percent or more of the hydrocyanic acid will be liberated in
about two hours, at 50 percent humidity.

YUDE1TICH, N. A. (210)

THE ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD OF THE INEVE ACTED UPON BY CYANIDE
AIND ARSENIC SALTS. Zhur. Expt. Biol. MIed. 12: 370-375. 1929.
[In Russian. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 4860. 1930.]

Sodium cyanide or potassiLum cyanide causes the absolute refractory
period to increase 3-4 times, and the conductivity of the nerve then
disappears.







-53-


ZI..AOV. -P, v.(211)

CATALYTIC FOF.LATION OF iYDfCCfyAiIC ACID FP0.G A2 :O:IA A:D CARLiON
*IMO1TOXIDE. Jour. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 61: 997..1,'."-9. 1-C9.
[In Russian. Abstract in Chem. Abs. 24: 691. 1J2-C.]

The kinetics of the rer.ction were studied, -the ex-yeriments bein.'L
carried out in a -lazs tube 20 mm. in diameter anA 750 mm. long
placed in an electric nrn-'.ce, ai.- containing a la-'-cr of catal'-zor
ov-.r whichh ammonia and carbon monoxide iere pnaEse2. The main re-
action, IHM + CO = HCIT + H.0, is usuo-lly accor'anied by the follov,'-
ing three side reactions: 1) 2NH, == + 3H1; (2) 2CO == C + C02;
(3) 00 + H20 z- H2 + C02. T'2h C002 thus produc'kd is .cr h.rul,
causing rapid los-' of activity, of the catalyst.

ZTAIICK, A. (212)

USE OF HYDROCYANIC ACID. Royv. do Especialidades 4: 1707-1766. 19'D.
[In Spanish. Cited in Quart. Cumulative Index Medicus 8: -192.
1930.]




-54-
StUBJECT INDEX

(References are made to the citations by number)


Absorbents, for hydrogen cyanide, 163
Acetic acid, as stabilizer for hydrocyanic acid, 72, 73
Achroia Rrisella, control with bydrocyanic acid, 146
Ammonia, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 110, 198, 200
Ants, control with calcium cyanide, 28
Aphids, control with
calcium cyanide, 160
hydrocyanic acid, 103
Aphis vagus, control with calciir cyanide, 75

Balanogastris koLa., control with hydrocyanic acid, 94
Beans, cyanide fumigation of, 31
Bed bugs, control with hydrocyanic acid, 3
Books, fumigation with hydrocyanic acid, 19, 98
Bordeaux mixture, and cyanide fumigation, injury from, 33
Bqrers, control with calcium cyanide, 64
.Bulgaria, cyanide fumigation in, 56

Cacao beans, cyanide fumigation of. 137
Oalandra granaria, control with calcium cyanide, 141
Calcium cyanide, evolution of hydrocyahic acid from, 209
for various pests and insects, 3, 5, 12, 22, 28, 44, 58, 59, 60,
64, 75, 78, 89, 92, 9S, 104, 128, 141, 142, 160, 179, 182
in cyanide fumigation, 2, 7, 41, 43, 97, 103, 129, 146, 150, 152, 208
Carbon dioxide, as stabilizer for hydrocyanic acid, 72, 73
Castnia licus, control with calcium cyanide, 179
Celluloid, decomposition of, formation of hydrocyanic acid during, 145
Velluose acetate, decomposition of, formation of hydrocyanic acid during, 145
Cereus, cyanide fumigation of, 147
Chrysanthemum, sensitivity to calcium cyanide, 89
Chrysom-halus aurantii, control with hydrocyanic acid, See "Red Scale, con-
trol with hydrooy$anic acid."
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi, control with hydrocyanic acid, 114
Chrysomphalus ficus, control with bydrocyanic acid, 194
Cimex lectularius, control with hydxrocyanic acid, see "Bed bugs, control
with hydrocyanic acid."
Cimicids, control with hydrocyanic acid, 56
Coccids, control with calcium cyanide, 160
Coccus hesperidum, control with hydrocyanic acid, 90
Coffee plants, protection with calcium cyanide, 12
Combustion, formation of hydrogen cyinidc during, 140
Contarinia pyrivora, control with calcium cyanide, 182
Cosmopolites sordidus, control with hydrocyanic acid, 57
Cotton stainer, control with calcium cyanide, 3
Crambus seychellelus, control with calcium cyanide, 60






- 55 -


Cyanides
catalytic action of, 170, 189
detection of, 83 .
determination of, 63, 79, 83, 87, 143, 165, 136, 169, 173, 184,
191, 192
in preparation of hydrocyanic acid, 55, 109, 144, 207
in production of hydrocyanic acid, 53, 54, 55, 109
physiological action of, 4, 6, 20, 23, 24, 26, 27, 34, 38, 40, 53,
54, 62, 70, 74, 76, 102, 115, 116, 119, 121,
123, 138, 170, 178, 186, 187, 18D, 533, 2-1,
.202, 210
reactions of, 6, 20, 71, 107, 119, 193
Cyanogen chloride, as irritant with hydroc.-anic acid, 14, 15, 32

Denmark, cyanide fumigation in, 47
Dextrose, antidotal action for cyanide, 174
Dihydroxyacetone, antidotal action for cyanide, 38
Dysdercus andreae, control with calcium cyanide, 3

Ephestia elutella, control with hydrocyanic acid, 137
Execution, by lethal gas, 91

False chinch bug, control, with calcium cyanide, 22
Films, photographic, decomposition, formation of hydrocyanic acid during, 145
Foods, cyanide fumigation of, 31
Formarmide, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 110, 111, 112
Formates, alkyl, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 200
Formic acid, as stabilizer for hydrocyanic acid, 72, 73
France, use of calcium cyanide in, 160
Froghopper, control with calcium cyanide, 92, 93
Fumigant mixture, 32, 36, 43, 51
Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid, 39, 159, 176
apparatus and methods for, 14, 42, 43, 51, 79, 81, 85, 97, 103,
113, 136, 151, 152, 164, 203, 204
efficiency of, determination of, 131, 148, 183, 208
for various pests and insects, 1, 2, 7, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 29, 30,
31, 41, 47, 57, 61, 68, 79, 80, 81, 88,
90, 94, 98, 103, 114, 130, 131, 137,
147, 153, 154, 168, 175, 181, 194, 196,
203, 204, 208
investigation of, 15
laws concerning, 48
of books, 19
of buildings, 3, 18, 47, 61, 117, 175
of greenhouses, 196
vacuum fumigation, 31, 114

Galleria mellonella, control with hydrocyanic acid, 146
Glucosides, cyanogenetic ,
determination of, 83, 87, 166
hydrolysis of, 122
occurrence of, 23, 67, 69, 83, 84, 87, 155, 156, 167, 177
poisoning from, 177
toxicity of, 177






Glyceraldehyde, antidotal action for'cyanide, 38
Grains, fumigation with hydrocyanic acid, 7
Grape leaf hopper, control with calcium cyanide, 128
Greenhouse pests, control with calcium cyanide, 104
Growth of plants, effect of cyanides, 74

Haiti, use of calcium cyanide,.in, 3
Hydrocarbons, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 8, 13, 198
Hydrocyanic acid
absorption of, il, 46, 50, 85, 96, 106, 149, 175, 180
activity coefficient of, 158
catalytic action of, 49, 86, 99, 121, 124, 133, 134, 135, 170, 189
density of, 197
dielectric constant of, 197
dipolar moment of, 197
formation of, 71, 105, 118, 120, 140, 145
hydrolysis of, 122
molecular structure of, 45, 65, 126, 172, 190, 197, 205, 206
oxidation of, 139
partition coefficients of, 82, 158
photochemical decomposition of, 190
Spolymeridation of, 101
preparation and production of, 8, 11, 13, 16, 17, 35, 52, 55, 77,
96, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 127,
136, 144, 180, 198, 200, 207, 211
reactions of 9, 36, 46, 95, 101, 119, 122, 139, 149, 157, 161, 193,
195, 199.,
review on, 10, 212
solvent power 6f, 157
spectrum, absorption, 190
spectrum, Raman, 45
stabilization of, 72, 73, 77, 125
storage of, 50
titration of, 143
viscosity of, 25
Hydrocyanic acid, bimolecular, preparation of, 101
Hydrogen cyanide, aqueous solutions of, physical properties, 185
Hylotrupes bajulus, control with hydrocyanic acid, 47, 61

Imino formyl isocyanide, preparation of, 101
India, use of calcium cyanide in, 5
Insecticidal mixtures, 37, 85, 107
Insects, susceptibility to insecticides, relation to and rate of loss of
water, 148
Insulin, antidotal effect for cyanide, 186
Iridomyrex humilis, control with sodium cyanide, 15, 147
Irritants, for admixture with hydrocyanic acid, 14, 15, 32, 51

Lachnosterna smith, control with calcium cyanide, 58
Leaf hoppers, control with calcium cyanide, 128
Leather, fumigation of, 98
Lice, control with hydrocyanic acid, 14


-56 -








Macrotermes bellicosus, control with sodium cyanide, 147
Maruca testulalis, control with hydrocyanic acid, 31
Veliethnes aengus, control with calcium cyanide, 160
Methane, in production of hydrocynnic acid, 198
Mites, control with calcium cyanide, 142
Monarthropalpus buxi, control with hydrocyanic acid, 131
Moths, bee, control with hydrocyanic acid, 145

Nezara viridula, control with calcium cyanide, 141
Nitrocellulose, decomposition of, formation of hydrocyanic acid during, 145
Nitrogen, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 8, 13, 198
rTqysi ericae, control with calcium cyanide, 22
Nysius vinitor, control with calcium cyanide, 141

Oxygen, partial pressure of, effect on toxicity of hydrogen cyanide, 66

Pachyteria virescens, control with calcium cyanide, 46
Pear midge, control with calcium cyanide, 182
Pediculus humans, control with hydrocyanic acid, 14
Penthaleus destructor, control with calcium cyanide, 142
Phytalus smith, control with calcium cyanide, 58, 59
Plagielopis longipes, control with calcium cyanide, 12
Plant lice, control with hydrocyanic acid, 103
Poecilocoris latus, control with calcium cyanide, 5
Poisoning, cyanide
antidotal action for, 38, 132, 162, 174, 186
following cyanide fumigation, 117
from metal polish, 201
post-mortem detection of, 118, 120
treatment for, 171
Potassium cyanide, in cyanide fumigation, 151, 208
Protective stupefaction, in cyanide fumigation, 79, 81
Pseudococcus mamillariae, control with hydrocyanic acid, 147
Psylla pyricola, control with hydrocyanic acid, 130
Pyralids, control with hydrocyanic acid, 31

Rats, control with hydrocyanic acid, 14, 15, 18, 21
Red Scale, control with hydrocyanic acid, 1, 2, 41, 79, 81, 90, 153, 188,
203, 204, 208
Red Spiders, control with hydroc.anic acid, 88, 129, 203
Rhizotrogus pallens, control with calcium cyanide, 60
Rhodesia, cyanide fumigation in, 90
RhAoletis ouglandis, control with hydrocyanic acid, 114
Rhynchota, control with calcium cyanide, 160

Saissetia oleae, control with hydrocy.nic acid, 79, 80, 81
Saoerda vestita, control with calcium cyanide, 64
Ships, fumigation with hydrocyanic acid, 15, 21, 42
Smynthurus viridis, control with calcium cyanide, 141
Sodium bicarbonate, in production of hydrocyanic acid, 109
Sodium cyanide
for various pests and insects, 147
in fumigation, 14, 147, 168


- i- I -







- 58 -


Sodium nitrite, antidotal action for cyanide, 132
Soil, insecticides for treatment of, 160, 182
Solenoisis gMinata, control with calcium cyanide, 60
Spotted wilt, control with hydroc,'nric acid, 168
Spray-fumigation combination treatr.rent, 1, 153, 203, 204
Storage, of hydrocyanic acid and cyanides, 50
Sugar-cane, dusting with calcium cyanide, 93
Sulfur dioxide, as stabilizer for hydrocyanic acid, 72, 73, 77, 181
Sulfuric acid, as stabilizer' for hydrocyanic acid, 72, 73'

Trialeurodes vaDorarOrum, control with hydrocyanic acid, 181
Tar rvi.,_. erraticmn, control with sodium cyanide, 147
Tea seed bug, control with calcium cyanide, 5
Tents, gas-tight, in cyanide fumigation, 151
Tetranychus telarius, control with hydrocyanic acid, 129
Textiles, fumigation of, 98
Thiocyanic acid and thiocyanates, in production of hydrocyanic acid,
Tomaspis saccharina, control with calcium cyanide, 92, 93
Toxicity of cyanides and cyanogenetic glucosides, 100, 177
Toxicity of hydrogen cyanide, influence of oxygen concentration, 66
Trees, cyanide fumigation of, 151
citrus, 1, 2, 29, 30, 41, 79, 81, 90, 154
palm, 114
pear, 130

Victoria, cyanide fumigation in, 41

Walnut fly, control with hydrocyanic acid, 114
Weevils, control with calcium cyanide, 141
White fly, control with hydrocyanic acid, 181,.194

Zeuzera pyrina, control with hydrocyanic acid, 78


Zyklon, in cyanide fumigation, 98, 150


16, 17,77









UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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