The periodical cicada in 1911 [Tibicen septendecim L.]

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Title:
The periodical cicada in 1911 Tibicen septendecim L.
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Book
Creator:
Marlatt, C. L
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
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Government Printing Office ( Washington )
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aleph - 029685642
oclc - 27931340
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L OP N-RY -




EIssued February 13,1911.
Issued February 13, 1911.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY-CIRCULAR No. 132.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.




THE PERIODICAL CICADA IN 1911.

BY

C. L. MARLATT,
Entomologist and Assistant Chief of Bureau.

0


724530-Cir. 132-11


AASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1911


f~35



























BUREA UT OF ENTOMOLOGY


L. 0. hOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLrIFTON, Executive Assistant.
W. F. TASTET, Chief Clerk.

F. TT. CHTTTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigations.
A. ). HOPKINS, in charge offorest insect investigations.
W. D. HUINTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. ROGERS, in charge of preventing spread of moths, field work.
ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial work.
MABEL COLCORD, librarian.









United States Department of Agriculture,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


THE PERIODICAL CICADA IN 1911.
(Tibicen septendecim L.)
By C. L. MARLATT,
Entomologist and Assistant Chief of Bureau.

INTRODUCTION.
Two important broods of the periodical cicada (fig. 1) will appear
this year. One of these belongs to the 17-year race and extends from
New York southward into North Carolina, in general lying east of the
Allegheny Mountains.
The other is one of the
largest brood of the
southern, or 13-year,
race and covers the
lower half of the Mis-
sissippi Valley. Both
of these broods have "
been very well studied
in past years, and their
distribution has been
satisfactorily and in the -
main probably accu-
rately determined. FI'. 1.-The periodical cicada ,Tibicbn s.ptcndccim): a, Adult; b,
The approaching reap- same, side view; c, shed pupal skin. (Author's illustration.)
The approaching reap-
pearance, however, of these broods of the cicada is already leading to
inquiries, and this circular is issued to meet such inquiries, and also
for the purpose of securing reports of occurrence to add to the present
knowledge of the distribution of these broods.

17-YEAR BROOD II.
This brood, in the main, occupies territory inunediately east of
Brood I-a scattering brood appearing in 1910. Its exact range is
shown on the accompanying map (fig. 2), the black dots indicating
records by counties only of the appearance of the insect in former
years at the regular 17-year intervals. In many cases we have numer-


CIRCULAR No. 132.


Issued February 13,1911.






THE PERIODICAL CICADA IN 1911.


ous records for individual counties, but these are represented on the
map by a single dot. This is one of the best recorded broods, since its
almost exclusively eastern range brings it into the immediate vicinity of
the larger towns and more populated districts of the Atlantic seaboard.
It has been reported in Connecticut regularly every 17 years since
1724 and in New Jersey since 1775, and almost equally long records of
it in other States have been made. At its last appearance in 1894 it
was carefully studied, to determine distribution, for New Jersey by


FIG. 2.-Map showing distribution of 17-year Brood IT, 1911.


Dr. John B. Smith, for New York by Dr. J. A. Lintner, and for the
other States covered by its range by this bureau, with the aid of
State entomologists and local observers. Some of the southern
records obtained in 1894 are doubtful, and this applies especially to
localities in North Carolina, because of the appearance the same year
of Brood XIX of the 13-year race, which, in North Carolina, may
touch or overlap this 17-year brood. It is therefore very desirable
that all observers in South Carolina report occurrences this year of
the periodical cicada to clear up these doubtful records.
Thlie distribution, as listed below, is based upon all of the available
records:
(onner'tirut.-Fairfield, Hartford, Litchfield, Middlesex, New Haven.
IDistrirt of Columbia.-Throughout.
Indstian.- -Dearborn, Ponmey (?).
Maryland. Anne Arundel, Calvern, Charles, Prince (;e()rg(,s, St. Marys.






THE PERIODICAL CICADA IN 1911.


Michigan.-Kalamazoo.
New Jersey.-Entire State.
New York.-Albany, Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rensselaer,
Rockland, Saratoga, Ulster, Washington, Westchester, and on Staten Island and Long
Island.
North Carolina.-Bertie (?), Davie (?), Forsyth (?), Guilford, Orange, Rorkingham,
Rowan, Stokes, Surry, Wake (?), Warren (?), Yadkin (?).
Pennsy lvania.-Berks, Bucks, Chester, Dauphin, Delaware, Lancaster, Lebanon,
Lehigh, Montgomery, Northampton, Philadelphia, Pike, Potter, Schuylkill,
Wyoming.
Virginia.-Albemarle, Alexandria, Amherst, Appomattox, Bedford, Buckingham,
Campbell, Caroline, Charlotte, Culpeper, Fairfax, Fauquier, Fluvanna, Goochland,
Hanover, Henrico, James City, Loudoun, Louisa, Lunenburg, Madison, Page, Pittsyl-
vania, Powhatan, Prince Edward, Rappahannock, Spottsylvania, Stafford.
West V'irginia.-Brooke (?).

13-YEAR BROOD XXIII.

As already indicated, this is one of the largest of the 13-year broods,
dividing this honor with Brood XIX. Brood XXIII, appearing this


FIG. 3.-Map showing distribution of 13-year Broodu XXIII, 1911.


year, occupies the Mississippi Valley from northern Missouri and
southern Illinois to Louisiana, covering particularly the States bor-
dering on the Mississippi River. Its distribution is indicated on the
accompanying map (fig. 3) by black dots representing counties
merely, but the abundance of the distribution of the insect is indicated






THE PERIODICAL CICADA IN 1911.


somewhat by the size of the dots, the small dots indicating scattering
or occasional colonies and the large dots abundant and general
occurrence of the insect.
This brood was given very careful study by the writer in 1898, and
several thousand replies were received in response to circulars dis-
tributed throughout the region where this brood was supposed to
occur, and also covering a much wider surrounding region. Local
investigations were undertaken at this time by the official entomolo-
gists of the several States, notably Forbes (Illinois), Garman (Ken-
tucky), and Stedman (Missouri). These State 'reports confirmed
and supplemented the records obtained by this bureau, and are the
basis of the records given below and of the map.
Nearly all the reports for 1908 indicated the occurrence of the
insect in enormous numbers. Unfortunately, however, there was
some doubt as to the correct reference of some of the localities in
Illinois and Indiana, and perhaps northern Missouri, where there was
an overlapping of this brood (XXIII of the 13-year race) with
Brood VI of the 17-year race. In the case of the records, how-
ever, assigned to the 13-year Brood XXIII in the States men-
tioned, wherever there was a question as to the accuracy of the
reference to the proper brood a query follows the county in the list
of States and counties given below. It is very desirable, therefore,
in obtaining records of this year to note particularly the occurrence
of the insect in northern Missouri, southern Illinois, and Indiana, to
clear up any doubt which may be attached to the records from these
districts.
In the list of counties given below those followed by a star (*)
indicate counties in which the cicada occurred in one or more dense
swarms, in most instances many reports being received from the same
county. In the unstarred counties the cicada was observed in few
or scattering numbers, or at least was not abundant. The counties in
italics duplicate old records. The counties lacking confirmation by
the records of 1898 are inclosed in parentheses and included with the
others.
The State and county records follo()w:
A labamTna.-Etowah.
Arkansas.-Arkansas,* Ashley, Calhoun, Carroll, Chicot,* Clark,* Columbia, Craig-
head,* Crawford, Crittenden,4 Cross,* Desha,* (Franklin), Fulton, Garland, Hot
Spring, Howard, (Izard), (Jackson), Jefferson,* Lafayette,4 Lee,* Lincoln, Logan,
Lonoke,* Marion, Mississippi,* Monroe,* Newton, Phillips,* Pike, Poinsett,* Prairie,*
Pulaski, Randolph, St. Francis,* Saline,* (Searcy), Sebastian, Sharp, Union, Van
Buren, Washington, \'oodruff.*
Georgia.-(Cobb), (Coweta), (Dekalb), (Gwinnett), (Meriwether), (Newton).'
Illinois.- Alefander,* Crawford,* Edgar, Edwards,* Gallatin, Hardin,* Jackson,*
Jas per,* Jefferson, Johnson, Lawrence,* Macoupin, Madison,* Marion,* Perry,* Pike,
Puliski,* Randolph, Richland, St. Clair, Scott, Lnion,* Wabash,* Washington,Wayne,*
While, Williarminm.*
I Nonr of t hu,.rA h.iil Irs, all of which were queried, was confirmed In 1898, and the record of this brood
In Georgi 1i4 undijiti1(Idlc y rrroneoils.






THE PERIODICAL CICADA IN 1911.


Indiana.-Bartholomew, Daviess,* Fayette, Floyd, Gibson,* Jackson, Jennings,
Knox,* Montgomery, Owen, Posey,* Putnam, Ripley, Spencer, Sullivan,* Vander-
burg,* Vigo,* Warrick.*
Kentucky.-Ballard,* (Barren?), Butler, Caldwell, Calloway, Carlisle,* Christian,
Clinton, Crittenden, Daviess, Fulton,* Grant, Graves,* Green, Hancock, Hardin,
Hickman,* Hopkins, Livingston, Lyon, Mc-
Cracken, McLean, Marshall, Muhlenberg, Ohio,
Todd, Trigg,* Union, Webster, Wolfe.*
Louisiana.-Bienville,* (Bossier), Caldwell,*
Claiborne, Concordia,* East Carroll,* East Felici-
ana, Franklin,* Madison,* Morehouse, Ouachita,*
Pointe Coupee,* (Red River), Richland,* St. Hele-
na, Tangipahoa, Tensas,* (Washington), West
Carroll.*
Mississippi.-Adams, Alcorn,* Amite,* Attala,*
Benton,* Bolivar,* Calhoun,* Carroll,* Claiborne,
Coahoma,* Copiah,* De Solo,* Franklin, Gre-
nada,* Hinds,* Holmes,* (Issaquena), Itawamba,
(Jasper), Jefferson, Lafayette,* Lawrence, Leake,
Lee,* Leflore,* Lincoln,* Lowndes, Madison,*
Marion, Marshall,* Montgomery,* Neshoba, New-
ton, Oktibbeha,* Panola,* Pike,* Pontotoc,*
Prentiss,* Quitman,* Rankin,* (Scott), Simpson,
Smith, Tallahatchie,* Tale,* Tippah, (Tisho-
mingo), Tunica,* Union,* Warren,* Washington,*
Webster,* Yalobusha,* Yazoo.*
Missouri.-Audrain* Barry, Benton, Boone,
Callaway, Camden, Cape Girardeau,* Cedar, Chris-
tian, Clark (?), Clinton, Cole, Cooper, Dade, Dal-
las, Dent, Douglas, Gasconade, Greene, Hickory,
Howell, Iron, Jeferson, Johnson, Knox, (Law-
rence), Linn, Maries,* Miller, Morgan, New Mad- t
rid,* Osage,* Ozark, Pemiscot,* PerrM/,* Pettis, I
Phelps, Polk, Pulaski, Reynolds (?), St. Charles*
St. Clair, St. Francois, St. Louis, Scott,* Taney,
Texas, Warren, Washington,* i'ebster.
Ohio.-Hamilton.
Tennessee.-Benton,* Carroll,* Chester,* Crock-
ett, (Davidson), Decatur,* Dickson,* Dyer,* Fay-
ette,* Gibson,* Hardeman,* Hardin.* Hayuood,
Henderson,* Henry,* Humphreys,* Lake,* Lauder-
dale,* Lewis, McNairy,* Madison,* (Maury),
Montgomery, Obion,* Perry,* (Robertson), Ruth-
erford, Shelby,* Stewart, Tipton,* Wayne,* Weak- t -
ley,* Williamson. A


GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS.

The periodical cicada is so well known
that a general account of it in this place
is unnecessary. When it appears in
great numbers it naturally causes con-
siderable alarm and arouses fears for the
orchards. The actual damage, however,


FIG. 4.-Egg punctures of the periodical
cicada: a, Twig showing recent punc-
tures, from front and side, and illus-
trating manner of breaking; b, twig
showing older punctures, with retrac-
tion of bark, and more fully displaying
the arrangement of fibers. Natural
size. (After Riley.)

safety of shade trees and
is usually slight, except in


the case of newly planted orchards, and even here, by vigorous prun-
ing back after the cicada has disappeared, much of the injury
caused by the egg punctures (fig. 4) can be obviated.
Ordinary repellent substances, such as kerosene emulsion or
carbolic-acid solutions, seem to have very little effect in preventing
the oviposition of these insects. Some more recent experience, how-






6 THE PERIODICAL CICADA IN 1911.
ever, indicates that trees thoroughly sprayed with Bordeaux mixture
or lime wash are apt to be avoided by the cicada, especially if there are
other trees or woods in the neighborhood on which they can oviposit.
The most reliable means of protecting nurseries and young orchards
is by collecting the insects in bags or umbrellas from the trees in. early
morning or late evening, when they are somewhat torpid. Such
collections should be undertaken at the first appearance of the cicada
and repeated each day.
Apr d UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
A approved. I|1 ||| 1 |||IIi ||I|||J||
JAMES WILSON, II 1 WI10U1 111 111 111111111


Secretary of Agriculture.
WASHINGTON, D. C., January 3, 1911.


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