A revision of the Ixodoidea, or ticks, of the United States

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Material Information

Title:
A revision of the Ixodoidea, or ticks, of the United States
Series Title:
Technical series / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
61 p., x leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Banks, Nathan, b. 1868
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ticks -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 56-60).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Nathan Banks.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029623514
oclc - 08658685
lccn - agr08000552
Classification:
lcc - SB823 .A31 no. 15
ddc - 595.7
System ID:
AA00022882:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    List of Illustrations
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Structure
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Life history
        Page 9
    Geographical distribution
        Page 10
    Abundance and historical
        Page 11
    Classification
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Table of the families and family Argasidae
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16-1
        Page 16-2
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Family Ixodidae
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 22-1
        Page 22-2
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 28-1
        Page 28-2
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32-1
        Page 32-2
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34-1
        Page 34-2
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42-1
        Page 42-2
        Page 42-3
        Page 42-4
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 46-1
        Page 46-2
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48-1
        Page 48-2
        Page 48-3
        Page 48-4
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Unplaced species
        Page 51
    Species erroneously accredited to the United States and catalogue
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Bibliography
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Index
        Page 61
    Back Cover
        Page 62
Full Text




FMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
,A-U O:F ENT TOOLOGY:4.
D, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


[OF THE IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS,

F THE UNITED STATES.


BY


NATHAN BANKS,
Assistant Entomologist.


ISSUED JUNE 6, 1908.


WASHINGTON:
MENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1 908.


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SERIES, No. 15.


U. S. DEPARTMENT


OF AGRICULTURE,


B1TJIE[A.T..J OiF-' ENTOMOLOC-Y.
L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.


A REVISION OF THE IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS,


OF THE UNITED STATES.




BY


NATHAN


BANKS,


Assista nt Entomologist.




ISSUE) JUNE 6, 1908.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.


1908.



















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY,
W1hailngton, D. C., March 11, 1908.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a
revision of the Ixodoidea, or ticks, of the United States, by Mr. Nathan
Banks, assistant entomologist in this Bureau. In view of the impor-
tance which some of the ticks have assumed as the known transmitters
of certain diseases it becomes very necessary that the different, species
be distinguished with certainty. This has hitherto been a matter of
great difficulty, since there has been no work of a systematic character
dealing with all the known species of ticks occurring in the United
States. To supply this need and as a basis for the life history work
undertaken by this Bureau on the cattle tick and other ticks, this
bulletin has been prepare(. I recommend its publication as Technical
Series No. 15 of the Bureau of Entomology.
Respectfully, L. 0. HOWARD,
KLutomolop4 s and Chief of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.





















CONTENTS.


Page.
Structure ------------------------.------------------------------------- 7
Life history ------------------------------------------------------------9
Geographical distribution ------------------------------------------------ 10
Abundance -------------------------------------------------------------- 11
Historical --------------------------------------------------------------- 11
Classification ----------------------------------------------------------12
Table of the families ---------------------------------------------------- 14
Family Argaside -------------------------------------------------------- 14
Table of the genera -------------------------------------------------- 14
Genus Argas -------------------------------------------------------- 14
Genus Ornithodoros ------------------------------------------------ 16
Family Ixodid ---------------------------------------------------------- 20
Table of the genera -------------------------------------------------- 2o
Genus Ceratixodes --------------------------------------------------- 20
Genus Ixodes ------------------------------------------------------- 22
Genus Hfemaphysalis ------------------------------------------------ 32
Genus Rhipicephalus ------------------------------------------------ 34
Genus Margaropus --------------------------------------------------- 35
Genus Amblyomnia -------------------------------.---------------- 37
Genus Dermacentor ------------------------------------------------- 42
Unplaced species -------------------------------------------------------- 51
Species erroneously accredited to the United States ------------------------- 52
Catalogue --------------------------------------------------------------- 52
Bibliography ------------------------------------------------------------ 56
Index ------------------------------------------------------------------ 61
3











ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES.


PLATE I. Fig. 1.-Argas minitus: leg I
2.- Argas miniatus: leg IV ----------------------------------
3.- Argas breripes: leg I ------------------------------------
4.- Argas breripes: leg IV ----------------------------------
5.-Ornithodoros coriaceis: leg I -----------------------------
6.- Ornithodoros coriaceus: leg IV ----------------------------
7.-Ornithodoros talaje: palpus ------------------------------
8.- Ornithodoros taltije: leg IV -------------------------------
9.-Ornithodoros megnini: palpus ----------------------------
10.-Ornithodoros megnini: leg I V ----------------------------
1l.- O)r nithodoros megnini: leg I ------------------------------
12.- rnitk odoros megn ini. tegument -------------------------
13.- Ornihodoros t ricatu: tegument .........................
14.-Ornithodoros turicata: palpus ............................
15.--Or ithodoros turicata: leg I ------------------------------
16.-Ornithodoros turicata: leg I\ ..............................
I 7.- Ornithodoros talaje: leg I --------------------------------
II. Fig. l.-( ratixodes slignaitu.: female shield and cox .............
2.-( 'ratixodes signutus: tarsi I and IV -----------------------
3.-Certi.ode.c signals: cal)itulum of female ..................
4.-eraixode's puts: capitulum and palpus of female .........
5.-Coratiods pul us: tarsi I and IV .........................
6.-Ceratixodes potus: shield of female -----------------------
7.-Crixodes pals: palpus of male below ------------------
8.-Cratixods putus: stigmial plate of female ................
9. qxodes ricin s: capitulum and tarsus I of female -----------
10. -Ixodes ricin as: COXW of female .........................
11.-Irodes sc(pilaris .: stigmal plate of nymph ................
12.-Ixodes calfornicus: female shield and capitulum ..........
1 3 .- I x o d e s r ic in u s : f e m a le s h ie ld a n d s t ig m a l p l a te - - - - - -
14.-Ixodes scapula ris: mandible, and coxe I and II ...........
15.-Ixodes scapulris: capitulum, tarsi I and IV, and shield, of
female; stigmal plate of male ........................
III. Fig. 1.-Ixodes cookei: larva ....................................
2.-Ixodes cookei: base of palpus of nymph from below .......
3.-Ixodes cookei: tip of palpus of nymph ------------------
4.-Ixodes cookei: capitulum of female ......................
5.-Ixodes cookei: tarsus I ..................................
6.-Ixodes cookei: coxa I -----------------------------------
7. -Ixodes cookei: stigmal plate of female ...................
8.-xodes cookei: shield of female ..........................
9.-Ixodes brunneus: capitulum and shield of female .........
10.-Ixodes marxi: capitulum, coxa, and shield, of female


Page






ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATE I. Fig. 11.-xodes hexaqopus: cox,-, of female ----------------------
12.-Ixodes dirersifosxit,.: tapitului of female ..............
13.-Iodes hexagons: capitulum and shield of female -------
14.-Irodes dirersifossus: shield, tarsus I, stigmal plate, coxaw
I and II, and tooth beneath rostrum-all of female ...
IV. Fig. 1.--Ixodes pratti: shield of female, capitulum of female, tooth
on rostrum, stigmal plate of female, and coxa I ......
2.--Txodes angustus: coxwe, stiginal plate, capitulum, and
shield, of female ...................................
3.-Ixodes pratti: stigmial plate of nymI-)h ................
4.-Ixodes pratti: stigmal )late of male, and tarsus I --------
5. Ixodes pratt i: hypostome ------------------------------
6.-Ixodes dentatus: teeth below on rostrum, coxic, capitu-
lure, and shield, of female ..........................
7.-Ixodes sculptus: shield and capituluim of female ---------
8.-Itxmaphysalis leporis-p(dustris: capitulum of male -------
9.--Ixodes sculptus: cox~.e of female .......................
1O.-Hmaphysalis leporis.-palwtris: tarsu, I, capitulurn and
shield, stigmal plate, and coxa 1, of female -----------
11.-IImaphysalis (hordeds. shield and capitulum, cox, I and
IV, tarsus IV, and stigmal plate, of female ..........
V. Fig. 1.-Rhipicephalis texanus: shield, capitulum, and mandible,
df female; capitulum and stigmial plate of male ......
2.-Rhipicephalus texanus: palpus from beneath ...........
3.-Rhipicephals texanus: stigmal plate of female, anal plates
of male, and coxa I ................................
4.-Rhipicephalas texanus: tarsi I and IV .................
5.-Margaropus annulatus: stigmal plate of nymph, and coxa
I of male .........................................
6.-Margaropus annulatus: shield, capitulumi, and coxa I, of
female ............................................
7.-Margaropus annulatus: tarsus IV of male, stigmal plate of
female, and shield and capitulum of nymph .........
VI. Fig. 1.-Amblyomma american' ti: male, and stigmal plate of female.
2.-A mblyomma americanum: stigmal plate of nymph, and
tarsus IV ...........................................
3.-Amblyomma mericanuin: hypostotie, shield, and capitui-
lur, of nymph; stigmal plate of male, and coxa I
4.-Ainblyoionma americanam: cai)itulum of female ----------
5.--Amblyomma maculatum: tarsus IV, and coxae I and IV -
6.-Aimblyomma cajetmense: tarsus IV, and mandible of male.
7.-Amblyom na maculalum: tarsus I, and stigmal plate of male-
8. -Amblyom ma tuherculatunm: capituluin of female, stignmal
plate of male and of female --------------------------
9.-Amblyomma maculatum: stigmal plate of female ........
10.-Amblyomm a iaculatum: capitulunm of female ...........
VII. Fig. 1.-Ambly omma cajennense: capituluni of female, and stigmal
plate of male ......................................
2.-Aimblyomma cajennense: stigmal plate and tarsus I of
female; coxv I and IV of male .....................
3.- Dermacentorvariabilis: capitulum and stigmal plateof female
4.-Dernacentor variabilis: capitulum of male .............
5.-Dermacentor albipictus: shield of female ...............
6.-Drjmwemtor cariabilis: leg I of larva ..................


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IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS) OF THE UNITED STATES.


PLATE VII. Fig. 7.-Dermacenitor itfens: coxa I, leg IV of male, and shield and
capitulunm of nymph -------------------------------
S.-Derviacentor r(wabilis: tarsus I ........................
9.-Dermwcenlor albipicttus: stigmal plate of female, and capitu-
lum of female and of male ---------------------------
1O.-Dermacentor nitens: stigmal plates of male and female,
capitulum, and shield of female ----------------------
11.-Dermacentor albipictus: coxa IV, and stigmal plate of male.
VIII. Fig. l.-Dermacentor occidentalis: capitulum of male and female,
shield of female, and tarsus IV of male --------------
2. -Perinacentor occidentalis: coxa- I and IV of male, stigmal
plates of male and female ..._ ----------------------
3. -Dermacentor nigrolineat s: stigmal plate of female ......
4.-lemacentor cemistus: coxa IV of male -----------------
5.-Dermacentor renustius: capitulum and stigmal plates of
m ale and fem ale ------------------------------------
.-- lDermucenfor parwpertus var. na rginatis : stigmal plate,
capitulum, and shield, of female ....................
7.- ?Iermacentor renustus: shield of female ................
8. -berm(cefor parumiapertus: stignial plate of female .....
9.- Deriwcentor igrolineatus: capitulum of female ----------
10. -Deraeutfor parumaperlus: shield and capitulum of fe-
male, stigmal plate and capitulum of male -----------
11.-Dermacevtor n igrolieatus: stigmal plate and capitulurm of
m ale -----------------------------------------------
IX. (By the late Dr. George Marx.)
Fig. L.-xodes scopularis: fresh female, and male attached to fe-
male ..............................................
2. -Ixodes scapularis: female, coxa I, male, female stigmal
plate, venter of female, and rostrum from beneath----
3.-Ixode. dentatus: engorged female, shield, and capitulum-
4.-Ixodes cooked: male and female above and below, stigmal
plate, and rostrum from beneath .....................
5.-Ixodes rwinus: engorged female, above and below ......
6.-Ceratixodes puts: stigmal plate and capitul im.........
7.-lxodes dentafus: rostrum from below -------------------
8.-xodcs marxi: engorged female -------------------------
X. (By the late Dr. George Marx.)
Fig. 1.-Deracentor bifurcafus: nyml)h, coxte, shield, venter, pal-
pus, stigmal plate, and capitulum --------------------
2.--tHemaphysalis leporis-palustris: male, and rostrum of fe-
m ale beneath ---------------------------------------
3.-Dermacentor variabilis: engorged female, above and below.
4.-Derwacentor variabilis: male, above and beneath, and stig-
mnal plate of female ---------------------------------
5.-A nblyomma americanum: nymph, above and below -----
6.-Hwmaphysalis leporis-palustris: fresh and engorged females-
7.-Margaropus annulatus: capitulum of female, above and
beneath .......... ...............................
8.-Jfargaropus annulatus: capitulum of male, above and
beneath ...........................................
9. -Dermacentor occidentalis: male ........................
lO.-Demacentor reticulatus: male ..........................
11.-Dermacentor albipictus: male .........................


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0
A REVISION OF THE IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF
THE UNITED STATES.


STRUCTURE.

The Ixodide, or ticks, are all mites of considerable size; even the
young or "seed-ticks are visible to the naked eye, while a full-
grown engorged female may be half an inch long. Their abundance
on many of the domestic animals and occasional occurrence on man
have rendered them well-known objects )f disgust in every clime.
The body is covered by a tough leathery ski, which in the female
becomes greatly distended as she engorges herself with the blood of
the host. Before distention the tick is of a somewhat triangular
outline, flat, with prominent, slender legs and a beak-like rostrum in
front. When the female becomes swollen these characters may be
hardly noticeable and the whole creature may look like some large
seed or bean. In most of the forms there is on the front part of the
dorsum a corneous shicid known as the s(-?tim. In the male this
scutum covers the greater part of the body, but in the female only a
small part in front. Articulated to the anterior margin of this
scutum, and usually within a slight emargination, is a small sub-
triangular piece, called the (capitulum, or head. This capitulum
bears the palpi, the mandibles, the mandibular sheaths, and the
hypostome. The last three organs together form the p]robo.(is, or
haustellum. The hylpostome is a median piece beneath (really of two
pieces) bearing many recurred teeth or denticles. The more basal
of these denticles are in rows, and the number of these rows has
been used in the differentiation of species, but is subject to some
variation. At the tips of the mandibles are two or three processes,
known as the apophyses; these have also been used in specific classi-
fication, but are now also known to be inconstant. The hypostome
and mandibles are inserted into the host when the tick feeds, and so
firmly do the recurved teeth of the hypostome hold that if one tries
to remove a tick by force the body may be torn from the attached
capitulum.
The palpi are inserted at the sides of the mouth parts and are of
four segments, but commonly one sees only two, for the basal is short





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UtNITED


and broad, and the apical is very small and often situated in a
depression near the tip of the third. The palpi are usually some-
what concave on the side toward the mouth parts, so that they may
sheath these parts. The comparative lengths of the second and third
joints of the palpi give useful characters in separating the genera of
.ticks.
On the dorsum of the capitulum of adult female ticks there are
two depressed pitted areas known as the porose areas. No one has
as yet determined their function. All female ticks of the subfamily
Ixodinve which do not have these organs fully exposed are imma-
ture and should not be described as new species. Various species,
and even genera, have been based on immature forms, owing to a
failure to recognize this point. The genera Phatdixodes, ilerpetobia,
Sarconyssus, and Gon ixodes fall in this class.
The shield is usually irregularly hexagonal in shape. On each
lateral margin is a pale eye-like spot or ocellus; in some genera these
eyes are wanting. The posterior margin of the body in most forms
is marked by a number (8 to 10) of short impressed furrows, which
outline a series of lobes or festooiis; these are more distinct in the male
than in the female, and when the latter is distended with blood they
are barely visible. On the underside or venter of the body there are
two median apertures; the anterior one not far from the beak is the
genital pore; the posterior one is the anus. In many forms there is a
curved groove behind the anus and from it a median furrow, while
in other species there is a curved groove in front of the anus and
reaching back each side toward the margin of the body. Tn all forms
there is a more lateral groove each side reaching forward to the geni-
tal pore. In the males of several genera there are one or two cor-
neous triangular plates each side of the anus, the anal plates. Occa-
sionally the abdomen terminates in a median process, or tail.
The legs arise from each side of the anterior part of the venter;
the cox are sometimes close together, sometimes more widely sepa-
rate. The legs are usually slender, subequal in length, but the fourth
pair is rather the longest, and sometimes larger than the others.
Each is composed of at least six joints, as follows, from base outward:
(Coxa, troclianter, femiur, tibia, metatarsus, and tarsuas. The latter
is commonly more or less definitely divided into two parts. At the
tip of the tarsus is a pair of large claws situated on a rather long
pedicel, and between them is usually a pulvillum. On the upper sur-
face of tarsus I is a pit covered by a membrane; this is known as
Haller's organ, from its discoverer, and is supposed to be an organ of
audition. One or more of the coxe are armed behind by spine-like
processes or teeth. In the males of some species the hind coxoe are
greatly enlarged. Above, and usually slightly behind the hind coxv,
are the stiqmal plates containing near their center the stigmal orifle





STRUCTURE.


or spiracle. Each plate is a corneous piece, the surface of which is
marked by granules of smaller or larger size. The shape and sculp-
ture of the stigmal plate is quite constant in each species, but liferss
in the sexes.
In some genera there are on the dorsui, near the middle, a pair
of small circular or oval plates, called by Doctor Stiles the dorso-
submedian porose plates; no one has yet discovered their use.
Ticks are usually dull-colored, but some forms are brightly mottled
with brown, white, yellow, or red. However. each species has a
characteristic shade of color, which, when once known, helps in field
identification; the colors accredited to the species in this paper are
those shown by alcoholic materials. In life most of the colors are
lighter or more vivid than after immersion in spirits.

LIFE HISTORY.
Ticks are parasitic during the greater period of their life; most
of them, however, leave the host to moult, and all, to deposit eggs.
Mammals are their ordinary hosts, but birds and reptiles are also
infested, and two species of ticks have been taken from insects.
Many of them show a decided preference for a certain animal, but
a number of our common species have been found on a great variety
of animals. Some ticks have apparently changed their host; for
example, the Texas fever tick, now chiefly found on cattle, originally
infested deer, and possibly bison.
In sucking the blood of their hosts the ticks, unless extremely
numerous, do but slight harm, but several of them have been shown
to transmit the germs of some disease, so that they become, in several
cases, economic pests of prime importance.
The life history of ticks has been investigated by several authors,
notably Curtice, Morgan, Lounsbury, and Hunter and Hooker. The
female tick, as the result of her bloodthirsty nature, becomes enor-
mously distended, and is then mature. The male mates with the
female for some days, after which the latter drops to the ground to
deposit eggs. These issue as elongate masses in front of the tick, and
may be as many as 1,000 to 10,000 in number. During the operation
the head is withdrawn into the body so that the surface of the
capitulum is close to the genital pore. As the eggs issue they are
coated with a viscous substance secreted from glands opening in the
membrane between the shield and the head. These glands are partly
eversible and enwrap each egg as it issues from the ovipositor. The
eggs are usually placed upon the surface of the soil or just beneath
it, and the larvue hatch in a few days. The young ticks, known as
"seed-ticks," ascend the nearest support of grass or herb and patiently
await the coming of some animal. Delay and disappointment must
often end in starvation and death. The seed ticks are, however, able





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


to endure long fasts, and many finally secure an attachment to some
animal. In a few days the young tick is rapidly distended by blood,
and drops to the ground. Here it seeks a hiding place and rests,
during which time there are many changes in the internal anatomy.
In three or four days the skin splits and from the six-legged larva
there issues the octopod nymph. Climbing a plant it awaits the pass-
ing of some suitable animal, and, when attached, feeds and falls off
again to moult, this time to the adult condition. It again waits for
a host, and, finding one, feeds and starts the life cycle anew. The
Texas fever tick and its allies do not drop off for moulting, but cast
the skin while on the host. This enables a more rapid increase in
the species. They drop to the ground, however, for the purpose of
depositing eggs. Several other ticks pass the first moult while on
the host, and some Argasida, deposit eggs on posts above ground.
In the true ticks there is a considerable difference between the
abdinen of the male and that of the female iii the development of
the dorsal shield. In several genera the male has plates near the
antis, andl ini some cases the hind pair of legs is enlarged in the male;
the porose areas are found only in the feinale; the sexes are, there-
fore very easily (list ingu ished.
The males and females feed side by side; but the younger stages
are often resticted to a different part of the host; thus the larva, of
several species occur in the ears, while the adults are on the body of
the host.
Ticks are able to live for long periods without food or moisture.
Four to six months are common periods, and cases are recorded of
feniale ticks fasting for eleven or twelve months. The argasids can
live for a much longer time; specinens of Argas have remained alive
in pill boxes for two years and three months without food, and Riley
records one specimen living for five years in a corked vial without
food. Even the young miay live several months without food. This
amazing vitality largely offsets the difficulty the tick may have in
finding a host.
Ticks are also well fitted to withstand immersion in water; even the
eggs and young stages live through long periods of submergence, so
that rains have little effect upon tick life.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.
Africa is the home of ticks, all the known genera occurring there,
and more species than on any other continent. Of the genera found
in the United States, Rhipicephalus, Margaropus, and Amblyomma
are tropical, and several of our species in these genera occur in Central
and South America. Dermacentor is our most characteristic genus,
and we have more species than any other country. Ixodes and He-
maphysalis are northern genera, both as well represented in Europe


10





GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.


as in this country. Two coninoin tropical genera, Ilyaum mai all(l
Aponomma, have not yet been taken in this country. The two genera
of ArgasidT, favor warm countries. Two of the European species
occur in our country, doubtless froin importations. Several other
European species have been accredited to the United States, but in
all cases through erroneous determinations. In the United States
the species of Rhipicphalas and Maiyarops are restricted to the
Southern States. Several species of Amtblyoin a spread northward
along the coasts and up the great valleys. The species of Deriia-
centor are more restricted in distribution, and more abundant in the
Northwest. In Ixodes the western species are quite unlike those of
the East. One species of Hanaphysalis is widely distributed in this
country. Although a few species are as yet known from only one
host, it is improbable that any are confined to one species of animal.
Derm acnetor is usually founl on large mammals and Ixodes on small
iia ninals.
ABUNDANCE.
Ihrlaiteu tor is our most connu(on tick. an(l the males are alw)ot as
numerous as the females. l /t poephcJblom and Jiiaraopit'u1o are abun-
dant locally, but the males of Jaq)ar-ojmss are not so often seen. In
Amblyomma the males are slightly less common than females. In
Ixodes the males are comparatively rare, and in several species un-
known to me. One species in the South is quite abundant, but of the
other Ixodes only a few are taken at one time.

HISTORICAL.

Since the group is of such great economic importance, the need of
a technical revision of the species is apparent. There has never
been such a revision of our species. Say described a few species ini
1821, Packard several more in 1869, and Fitch in 1871. Koch, in 1844.,
described a host of ticks from all over the world, naturally including
a few from the United States. Each of the authors worked inde-
pendently of the others. The late Dr. George Marx was much inter-
ested in this family of mites, and intended to monograph it, or at
least our native species. To this end he had prepared many fine
drawings and a considerable body of manuscript. I have had access
to this material, and can testify to its high scientific character. In
the genus Dermacentor, for example, he had the forms known to him
separated out as I shall use th+im in this paper. Later writers con-
fused several of these species, which he rightly held to be distinct.
Doctor Marx's manuscript is not suitable for publication, being frag-
mentary and out of date, but many of his figures are so valuable that
I have added two plates made up of them. These of course should
be credited to him.





IXODOIDEA, Oft TICKS, OF THE UNITED STA


In 1896 Dr. George Neumann, of Toulouse, France, began the pub-
lication of a Revision of the Ixodid&-. Doctor Neumann attempted
to monogral)h the ticks of the entire world, a task which in 186
doubtless seemed quite possible, and the Revision" was completed in
four parts. Since then he has exanned thousands of specimens, and
his studies have appeared in five notes on the Ixodidw supplementary
to the "Revision." It is quite natural that in examining such a host
of specimens from all parts of the world at varying intervals he
should be inclined to unite forms which to the student of local faunve
seem abundantly distinct. It is in this way that I differ from Doctor
Neuinmnn as to the species occurring in this country. I have seen
practically all the material that he studied from the United States,
including most of his types, and also collections from many colleges
and other institutions in this country, together with larger collections
made in the past few years. The types of Say and Fitch are lost,
but through the kindness of Mr. Samuel Henshaw I have examined
the types of Packard, now in the Museum of Comparative Zoology.
This enables me to place correctly several species hitherto misplaced
by authors. In 1899 Doctors Salmon and Stiles published a finely
illustrated work on the cattle ticks of the United States. At that
time their material was largely in Doctor Neumann's hands, and since
then several species have been collected in this country, and Neumann
himself has changed his opinions regarding several species.
During the past year Messrs. -WV. D. Hunter and W. A. Hooker, of
this Bureau, have issued a bulletin (No. 7.2) on the cattle tick and
other species, with much ethologic matter and valuable breeding
notes. In this paper 38 species are recorded from this country, and
3 unplaced forms, doubtless identical with some of the known species.
More species are to be exl)ected in Ixodes, so that our tick fauna may
yet have 50 species..
CLASSIFICATION.

Latreille, in 1795, made two genera for the ticks, Argas and lxodes.
The striking differences between the two were recognized by follow-
ing acarologists, some of whom even placed Argas with the Gamasidw.
Koch, in 1844, divided these two genera into ten-just about as they
stand to-day. He arranged these ten genera within three families-
Argasidw, Ixodidam (long palpi), and RhipistomidT, (short palpi).
These three groups have been generally adopted by later authors.
Neumann has modified it somewhat by using rostrum long or short
to separate the last two families. But this will hardly distinguish
some species of Amblyomma and Dermacentor. Doctor Marx, in
1892, made a somewhat different arrangement, dividing the group
into two-Catastomata and Antistomata. The former is, the Arga-
sidoe of Koch, the later he separates into three families-Hwmalas-


12





CLASSIFICATION.


torid,, Ixodidc, and Rhipistomidu. The Hlawnalastoridw of Marx
is based on a misconception; the type of Hamalastor is a Hyalotu ma.
while Sarcony8&ys belongs to Eschatocephaalws.
These classifications have placed a great deal of proninence on the
length of the palpi. Lahille, in 1905, in his tabular arrangement of
the genera, has subordinated this character to others, and I fully agree
with him. He places, and I believe correctly, Amblyomma near Der-
macentor instead of near Ixodes. Lahille, however, bases his main
divisions of the Ixodidu on certain characters of the male; whether
the male has five anal plates (Perissopli), or four anal plates (Arti-
opli), or no anal plates (Anopli). By this arrangement he sepa-
rates Hyalomma from Amblyomma, while other authors-and here
I agree with these latter-place these genera close together. Itn-
deed, the character used to distinguish the females of these two genera
is not always easy of verification, so that several writers have made
mistakes in this matter.
Moreover, I fail to see the importance in secondary sexual charac-
ters that Lahille places tipon them. They certainly are not of stif-
ficient value to characterize groups higher than genera, and are better
employed for groups of les, ser rank.
Therefore I have made use of another character to divide the
Ixodide into two groups, namely, the presence or absence of a curved
groove in front of the anus and continued back each side. In
Ixodes this groove is present, in other ticks it is absent, anl in most
forms there is a small groove behind the anus, not seen in Ixodes.
Ixodes differs in various other ways from the other ticks, notably in
lacking festoons to the posterior margin of the body. I have there-
fore placed Ixodes (and Cerati xode ) in a subfamily, Ixodinw, as
opposed to the other ticks, Amblyoinax Rlupiccphalas (and
Margaropus), by the peculiar shape of the capitulum, *have long
been considered distinct from other ticks, and for them a tribe is es-
tablished, the Rhipicephalini; likewise H(mapltysalis, by its peculiar
palpi, will warrant another tribe, the Himnaphysalini. Amblyomia,
Hyalomma, and Apoominc are more closely related to each other
than to Dermacentor. Two more tribes will thus be requisite, the
Dermacentorini and the Amblyonmini, distinguished not only by
the length of the palpi, but also by the lengths of the divisions of the
tarsi. These characters will apply to both sexes and even to the
nymphal forms. Other less important points aid in distinguishing
the groups, as evidenced by the synoptic tables.
Long after the above was written, I received a paper by Mr.
Cecil Warburton (Notes on Ticks, December, 1907), in which he
proposes practically the same classification as I have proposed above.
He uses the position of the anal groove to separate Ixodes from all
other Ixodidw, but for this group and all his groups uses new names,





IXODOIDEAY OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


instead of subfamily and tribal names based on the genus. He, how-
ever, keeps Der macentor in the same group as Rhipicephalus, which
I consider ill-advised and have placed them apart, Dermacentor
closer to Amblyomma. Mr. Warburton has also put more value on
the length of the palpi than I think justified, and also used, more
than I, the secondary sexual characters of the male. A summary
of my classification appeared in the Proceedings of the Entomo-
logical Society of Washington, Volume VIII, page 62, August, 1907.
Doctor Neumann has also lately (Sjistedts Kili-mandjaro-Meru
Expedition, page 20) given an arrangement of the genera in three
sections. He, however, places, and I believe wrongly, IHyalomima
near Rh ijicephiabis.
Our two families of ticks are very different, as seen from the fol-
lowing statement of characters:
TABLE OF TIlE FAMIlIES.
No (.twiorleS shief( on d(Irsllln : head hidden benelath front of body: anumS near
Illiddle of venter: skin roughened -........------------------- A rg .
A C0r1()I1s shield lresviit 41 dursutin : head distinct in front of body ; anus
behind the middle of v\enter; skin ol y finely striated -------------- xodidw.

Family ARGASIDI).
-No dorsal shield; head hidden under front of body; anus near
middle of venter; skin rougliene(d; coxa' usually contiguous or nearly
o; tarsi without apical pulvillum.
In the larva' the head and mouth parts are distinctt, in front of the
bodv as in the true ticks; there are also indications of a pulvillun
at base of claws. Ilowever, there is not as much difference between
the sexes as in the Ixodidw; so it seenis probable that each family has
specializedl along different lines. The argasids remain on their hosts
for only a short time, and many of them are most active at night.
Our two genera are closely related, but may be distinguished as
follows:
TABLE OF THRE GENERA.
Margin of body thin and acute ---------Argas.
Margin of body romded ---------------------------------------- Ornithodoros.

Genus ARGAS Latreille.
Body strongly depressed, elongate oval in shape, usually narrower
in front, margins thin and acute; palpi hidden under front of body.
Skin strongly wrinkled and with scattered smooth patches, most nu-
merous near the margin. No eyes.
Type.-A. reflexes Fabricius.
The famous "Miana bug" of Persia (Argas persicus Fischer)
belongs to this genus. The bite of this species was reputed to pro-


14





GENUS ARGAS LATREILLE. 15

duce death, and the early travelers in that country give long arid
exaggerated accounts of the creature.
I have seen two species from our country, which may be tabulated
as below:
TABLE OF TIlE SPECIES.
Anterior tibiw and inetatarsi each about three times as long as broad,

Anterior tibie and metatarsi each plainly less than three times as long as
broad -------------------------------- -------------------------brcrips.

Argas miniatus Koch.
Dark red-brown, legs pale yellowish, body nearly twice as long as
broad, broader behind than in front, broa(lest behind the iniddle,
tapering, and almost pointed in front, the margin often slightly
upturned,. except behind; surface densely and irregularly scarred
and pitted, the smooth scars of varying sizes and more ntnnerous on
sides and behind, in latter part arranged somewhat in rows, a lnedian
row and two or more lateral less distinct; ventral surface scarred as
above, most densely around the sides; 1)all)i very short and lacking
more than their length from reaching the anterior border; on ros-
trumn at base of 1)all)i is a transverse row of four bristles: the stig-
anal plate, which is scarcely distinct from the surroiindin tissue, is
a raised spot above the coxa IV and with a (urved anterior rim.
Legs (P1. I, figs. 1, 2) rather slender; tarsi barely longer than pre-
ceding joints, and suddenly narrowed at tip; the legs have very few
hairs; coxce II, 11, and IV are contiguous and radiate, coxa I is dis-
tinctly separate front the others, and at the sides of the beak.
The male differs but little from the female ; it is usually smaller;
the male genital pore is not nearly as broad as the vulva, and is situ-
ated farther back, and behind it is a short curved groove each side.
Length of swollen female, 8 to 10 m1m.
This species is a comlinion enemy of )oultry in the Southwest. froili
southern Texas to California. It occurs, also, on other animals,
rather rarely on cattle. Doctors Stiles and Salmon have described
the hexapod larva of this species. I have followed Neumann in
uniting Argas sanchezi Duges to this species, as the slight difference
in the structure of the mandibles is not constant.
I have seen specimens from Austin, Georgetown, El Paso. Patton,
San Antonio, Brackettsville, and Colorado City, Tex.; fromN Merced
and Riverside, Cal.; from Deming, N. Mex., and from Catalina
Springs, Ariz.

Argas brevipes n. sp.
This species is similar in shape and general appearance to the
common A, miniatus. It differs in the much shorter legs, as may be





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE U


seen by the figures (P1. 1, figs. 3, 4). The joints appear somewhat
more roughened than in A. miniatus, and the tibia and metatarsus of
leg I are distinctly swollen below before the tip. There are fewer
smooth spots on the dorsum of the body, and they are wider apart;
on the anterior part are three pairs of smooth spots, and a row each
side of them of four; outside of these rows the spots are irregular.
The skin is as densely wrinkled as in A. miniatus.
Length of swollen female, 5 to 7 mm.
Three specimens from Tucson, Ariz.; two were from a cavity in
Cereus gigcnteus, which was used, perhaps, by a bird.

Argas reftexus Fabricius.
This is the pigeon tick of Europe. I have not seen it from this
country, but Prof. H. Osborn, in Bulletin No. 5, of this office, page
256, says: It is common, I believe, as far north as St. Louis." Sev-
eral pigeon raisers have informed me that they do not know it, but
Thomas Wright, of Massachusetts, claims he has seen it in that State.
The species is more ovate in form than our A. miniatus, and the color
is grayer.
Genus ORNITHODOROS Koch.
Body depressed, oval or eloingate, sides subparallel, margin of
body rounded, not acute; palpi hidden under a median anterior
process. Skin usually with many irregular tubercles or granules.
Eyes sometimes present.
Type.-O. sa-ignyi Audouin.
A few species of this genus occur in all tropical countries, four of
them in the southern United States. Their bite is so very painful
that wherever they occur the inhabitants have given them common
names. Three of our species have received common names in Mexico.
0. meginini is known as "garrapata," a term also applied to various
other ticks; 0. tulricata as turicata," and 0. talaje as "talaxi." Dr.
Jesus Aleman (quoted by Duges and Megnin) gives a long account
of the inflammation and disorders consequent to the bite of 0. turi-
cata, and Salle has written of the pain due to the bite of 0. talaje.
Our four species may be separated as follows:
TABLE OF THE SPECIES.
1. Body provided with many short stiff bristles, hind tarsi scarcely three
times as long as broad at base, with one subterminal hump above,
anterior tarsi also with one subterminal hump; body rounded in
front; no eyes ------------------------------------------- meignini.
Body without bristles, but covered with rounded tubercles or granules;
hind tarsi more slender --------------------------------------


16







Tech. Series 15, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


FJIE 7


& c

0~~~
: i :0 o-0


~~iI2I~I2


IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. 1.-Arqas miniatus, leg I. Fig. 2.-Argas miniatus, leg IV. Fig. 3.-Argas brevipes, leg I.
Fig. 4.-Argas brevipes, leg IV. Fig. 5.-Ornithodoros coriaceus, leg I. Fig. 6.-Ornihodoros
coriaceus, leg IV. Fig. 7.-Ornithodoros talhje, palpus. Fig. 8.-Ornithodoros talaje, leg IV.
Fig. 9.- Ornithodoros megnini, palpus. Fig. 10.-Ornihodoros negnii, leg IV. Fig. ll.-Orni-
thodoros megnini. leg I. Fig. 12.-Ornithodoros megnini, tegument. Fig. 13.-Ornithodoros
turicata, tegument. Fig. 14. -Ornithodoros turicata, palpus. Fig. 15.-Ornithodoros turicata,
leg I. Fig. 16.-Ornithodoros turicata, leg IV. Fig. 17.-Ornithodoros talaje, leg I. (Original.)


36657-No. 15-08-2


PLATE 1.









GENUS ORNITHODOROS KOCH.


2. Two pairs of eyes present; tarsi IV with a prominent subterminal spur
above; front of body conical in the middle; leg I strongly rough-
ened ---------------------------------------------------coriaceus.
No eyes; no such spur on hind tarsi-------------------------------
3. Front of body conical in middle, tarsi I without humps above -------- talaje.
Body rounded in front; tarsi and metatarsi each with three humps-turicata.

Ornithodoros megnini Dugs.
Color red-brown to black, legs paler. Body broadly rounded in
front and behind, a constriction much behind the middle. Body
covered with many short, stiff, spine-like bristles (Pl. I, fig. 12),
stouter in front than behind, and on venter mostly hair-like, skin
only minutely roughened. Several broad depressions above, and oli
venter three elongate grooves behind and two in front. Rostrum
and palpi (P1. I, fig. 9) short. Legs (P1. I, figs. 10, 11) short and
stout; tibia and metatarsus of leg I not twice as long as broad, all
tarsi with a subterminal hump, no other tubercles, hind tarsi not
three times as long as broad at base, all legs with a few scattered
hairs. No eyes.
Length of swollen female, 7 to 8 m1m.
Male similar, but rather smaller and more slender. The nymphal
stage (which is frequently observed) has a body about one and a half
times as long as broad, broadest in front of leg III. much narrowed
behind, broadly rounded in front and behind, the body covered with
spine-like bristles, larger than on the adult, the legs nore slender and
more hairy. This nymph was first described and figured by Megmn.
Marx proposed for it the name Rhbicwhprio spiis,1111.
This species is easily known from all other species of O'ithodolo.'
by its bristly body, a..: well as by shape of tarsi. These, with the
greater difference between the a(lult and nymphal instars, indicate
that this species might well be the type of a subgenus. First found
by Duges in the ears of Mexican horses, it has been taken abundantly
in the southwestern part of the United States, usually from the ears
of cattle, but sometimes from other animals, including man.
Specimens have been examined from the following localities:
Aycock, La.; Georgetown, San Antonio, and Victoria, Tex.; Albert,
Santa Fe, and Mineral Hill, N. Mex.; Yuma, Ariz.: Los Angeles,
Santa Rosa, Santa Clara County, and Humboldt County, Cal.; Ash
Meadow, Nev.; Fremont County, Idaho; Davenport and Ames,
Iowa, and Lexington, Ky.
Its frequent occurrence in ears has won it the common name of
"ear tick" or "spinose ear-tick."


17






IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


Ornithodoros turicata Duges.
Color light brown, legs paler. Body broadly rounded in front and
behind, only slightly constricted behind leg III, the sides being nearly
parallel. Surface of body (P1. I, fig. 13) covered with many small
subequal, subconical granules. Impressions on dorsum small and in-
distinct, usually a curved one in front, subparallel to anterior nmar-
gin), and some in pairs behind; ol venter is a distinct lnedian groove
behind from anus, a curved transverse one half-way from anus to tip,
and subcoxal ones extending obliquely outward behind hind coxt.
No eyes. Palpi (P1. 1, fig. 14) rather slender; legs (P1. I, figs. 15, 16)
moderately long, the hind legs about as long as width of body. Tibhe,
inetatarsi, and tarsi I, II. and III with three tul)ercles above on each,
those on the tarsi most distinct; hind legs without any definite tuber-
cles, the tarsi being very slender; all legs with a few scattered hairs;
all tibi and metatarsi more thai twice as long as broad.
Length of swollen female, 6 to 7 mm.
I have seen specimens of this species from Keene, Kissimmee, and
Crescent Ci'y, Fla. (in gopher holes) ; Burnet and Brownwood, Tex.;
Las Cruces., N. Mex.; Phoenix, Ariz. (on cattle), and San Diego, Cal.
(on cattle).
The first description of this species was by Dugs, in 1876, in the
iiewspap~er El 1l)ertori() del Guan ajuato, and later (1883) in La
Naturaleza. M6gnin, in 1885, gave a fuller description with figures,
based on specimens sent him by I)uges. One of his figures shows the
hind tarsi with a sUbterllinal hl 10, not found in my specimens. In
the National collection is a vial from Doctor Dugrs labeled "0. twri-
tta, cotype. In this vial are 10 specimens, 7 of 0. ucyiini and 3 of
0. talrwiata as I have identified it, withoilt a hunr, on the hind tarsus.
I therefore suspect that Mgnin incorrectly delineated this appendage.
Tlis species was taken from hogs in Mexico, and also in Texas, and,
like the other species, will attack man.

Ornithodoros coriaceus Koch.
Color dark brown to black, legs paler. Anterior margin of the body
rather cone-shaped in middle, broadly rounded behind, sides sub-
parallel, only slightly constricted behind legs III. The body is cov-
ered by small, rather elongate gTanules, usually of a yellowish color,
in striking contrast to the dark skin; venter with granules on the
posterior part, less distinct in front. There are some fine hairs, at
least near the margin of body. On the dorsum are several depressed
areas where the granules are few or absent. Venter with a median
groove from anus behind, and from in front of anus one extends
obliquely down on the sides. Behind leg I is a smooth rounded spot
or eye, and behind leg II is another, rather smaller, eye. The rostrum
is usually depressed into a cavity, so as to be barely visible. The


18





ORNITHODOROS CORIACEUS KOCH.


palpi are short, the last joint cylindrical and deflected backward.
The legs (P1. I, figs. 5, 6) are long and slender, the fourth pair nearly
as long as width of body; tibie, metatarsi, and tarsi I, II, III have
several prominent tubercles above, and tarsi IV have a basal hump
and a prominent subterminal spur above. All legs with a few hairs;
the tibia and metatarsus are more than twice as long as broad.
Length of swollen female, 7 to 8 mam.
Described by Koch from Mexico. I have seen specimens from San
Francisco and from Santa Clara County, California. It has been
taken from cattle and from cattlemen. The spur on the hind tarsus
is very characteristic and, with the eyes, will readily separate it from
our other species.

Ornithodoros talaje Guerin.
Color light to dark brown, legs paler. Body cone-like in front,
broadly rounded behind, a broad depressed groove each side, united
in front. About four depressed smooth patches each side on dorsuni.
the hind pair more elongate. Venter with a groove each side run-
ning obliquely down on sides, a median groove from anus behind;
a depressed area in front of anus, and toward tip a prominent trans-
verse groove with recurved tips. Body thickly covered with large
roughened and sculptured granules, smaller on the middle of the
venter. No eyes. Rostrum usually sunk in a cavity, the thin edges
of which may partially overlap it; these edges are roughened like
the surrounding surface. The palpi (Il1. I, fig. 7) are short, and
have the last joint slender and deflected backward. The entire
rostrum is retractible, so that one may see only the tips of the palpi.
The legs (P1. I, figs. 8, 17) are short, but slender, and provided with
many fine hairs; there are no humps nor tubercles on any of the tarsi,
tibiv, or metatarsi. All tarsi are very slender; the tibiw and meta-
tarsi more than twice as long as broad.
Length of swollen female, 5 to 6 mm.
This species was described by Guerin M'neville from Guatemala,
atnd I have examined specimens from Gum Cave, Citrus County,
Fla.; Brownsville, Tex., and San Clemente Island, California.
The figures by Nicolet in Gu'rin's article are quite detailed, and
leave no doubt as to the identification of the species. It is readily
known by the simple tarsi and by the sculptured tubercles of the
body. It was not described until 1849 in spite of the fact that in
the Magasin de Zoologie, Annie 1845, it appears in the same form
as in the Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, Annie 1849. That volume of
the Magasin de Zoologie was begun in 1845, but not finished until
1849; moreover, as shown by the article itself, the tick was not
collected until May, 1847.


19






IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED


Family IXODIDIE.

Dorsum of the body more or less covered by a corneous shield:
head distinct in front of body; anus behind middle of venter; skii
finely striated. Coxve more or less separated; tarsi with a pulvillun
Stigmal plate behind coxa? IV. Male with dorsuim almost entirel3
covered by the corneous shield; in the female the shield is restricted
to the anterior part of dorsum, and there are on the capitulum a paii
of porose areas, not seen in males or in immature stages.
The genera and higher groups known from our country may b(
separated by the following table:

TABLE OF THE GENERA.

1. Venter showing a curved groove a short distance in front of the anus and
extending back each side to the hind margin; no posterior marginal
festoons: stignmal plate nearly circular; no ocelli; hind coxa of male
not enlarged ---------------------------------------(Ixodina?.) '
Venter showing more or less distinctly a curved groove behind the anus,
but none in front of it; the male with distinct marginal festoons, more
or less distinct in the female -------------------- (Ainblyommina.)
2. Capitulum slightly angulate on the sides; palpi with the third joint
shorter than broad, and broadly rounded ------------------Ceratixodes
Capitulum not tngulate on sides; palpi with the third joint longer than
broad, and slightly tapering toward the tip-Lrodes
3. Sides of capituluni angulate; ocelli present; male with anal plates; palpi
very short ------------------------------------(Rhipicephalini.) z
Sides of capitulum not angulate --------------------------------
4. Palpi with acute transverse ridges; stigmal plate nearly circular; porose
areas elliptical, distant; no distinct groove behind anus -----Margaropus
Palpi without transverse ridges; stigmal plate comma shaped; porose
areas triangular, approximate; a distinct groove behind anus,
Rh ipicephalus
5. Outer angle of the second joint of the short palpi acutely produced; no
ocelli; male without anal plates -------- (Ha-maphysalini) HWamaphysalis
Outer angle of second joint of palpi not acutely produced --------------(
6. Palpi longer, second joint about twice as long as broad; coxam IV of male
not enlarged; tarsi II, III, and IV plainly divided, the basal part
much shorter than the apical part ---------(Amblyommini) Amtrblyomma
Palpi shorter, second joint barely longer than broad; cox-P IV of male
enlarged; tarsi II, III, and IV indistinctly divided, the parts subequal
in length ----------------------------(Dermacentorini) Dermacentor

Genus CERATIXODES Neumann.

Venter showing furrows as in Ixodes. Capitulum not produced
anteriorly in the middle, but the sides somewhat angulate; poros
areas oval, transverse. Palpi short, third joint no longer than broad,
and broadly rounded. Shield unmarked, no ocelli. Coxa I close tc
rostrum, barely toothed behind; coxa IV of male not enlarged. Pos-
terior margin of body without festoons. Stigmal plate circular,


20





GENUS CERATIXODES NEUMANN.


Tarsi II, III, and IV divided, the parts of variable length, no tooth-
like claw at apex.
Type.-C. (Ixodes) putus Cambridge.
Our two species are separable as follows:
TABLE OF THE SPECIES.
1. Shield of female broadest on first third; divisions of tarsi II, III, and IV
subequal in length; capituluni less angulate on side ---------------putus.
Shield of female broadest on middle third; basal division of tarsi II, III, and
IV much shorter than apical; capitulum more angulate on sides-- signatus.

Ceratixodes signatus Birula.
Female.-Shield reddish brown, legs paler, abdomen yellowish
brown. Capitulum (P1. II, fig. 3) very broad, lateral angles acute,
hind angles not distinct, porose areas occupying nearly the whole
of upper surface, palpi short and thick, with some scattered bristles,
third joint but little swollen on inner side at base. Shield (P1. II,
fig. 1) much longer than broad, broadest on middle third, the lateral
lobes only well separated in front, surface with many rather small
punctures,- abdomen with a few very short hairs; the abdomen, in
swollen female, is very elongate; legs large and very slender; tarsi
(P1. II, fig. 2) tapering to tip; coxe I, II, and III (P1. II, fig. 1)
with a small apical process behind. Stigmal plate circular, peritreme
circular, surface with many minute granulations.
Length of female shield, 1.5 mm.
Several specimens from Pacific Grove, Cal., on a cormorant. It was
described by Birula from Unalaska Island, and through the kind-
ness of that gentleman I have examined one of his cotypes. Appar-
ently the same species has been described by Neumann from Japan as
Ixodes parvirostris.

Ceratixodes putus Cambridge.
Female.-Shield and legs dull yellowish; abdomen pale brownish.
Capitulum (P1. II, fig. 4; P1. IX, fig. 6) more than twice as broad
as long, rather wider at outer base of palpi than elsewhere, hind
angles not prominent, porose areas large, approximate, pointing out-
ward. Palpi (P1. II, fig. 4) rather large, second joint with four
long bristles on the inner side below, third joint with a swelling on
the inner side near base, the apical joint large, with a bristle each
side. Shield (P1. II, fig. 6) plainly longer than broad, broadest on
anterior third, somewhat concave and tapering behind, tip rounded,
the lateral lobes distinctly separated, surface with many irregularly
placed deep punctures, not all of an even size; abdomen above and
below with many long hairs. Legs large and slender, the tarsi (P1.
II, fig. 5) strongly humped above before tip; coxe wholly unarmed.


'21





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


Stigmal plate (P1. II, fig. 8; P1. IX, fig. 6) large, nearly circular,
with a circular peritreme, surface minutely granulate.
Length of female shield, 1.7 mm.
Male.-Body subrectangular, narrowed in front of third pair of
legs, broadly rounded behind. Shield not reaching to tip, with many
subequal punctures, some hairs near hind margin of body; venter
finely punctate; stigmal plate as in the female. Capitulum three
times as broad as long, with a median depression; mandibles about
one-half as long as palpi, hypostome still shorter, palpi (P1. II, fig. 7)
cylindrical, third joint prolonged in an acute point, the fourth joint
projecting below from near the base. Legs rather slender; coxw
unarmed; the tarsi tapering, fourth with apical tooth and subter-
minal tubercle beneath.
Length of male, 3.8 mm.
Specimens come from St. Paul Island, Alaska, and Bering Island.
Birula records it from Unalaska, and Kramer and Neuman from
Bering Island. Cambridge described it from Kerguelen Island, Ant-
arctic Ocean, and Evans and others have taken it from the western
isles of Scotland. It is probable that the Ixode8 uriwt of White (a
manuscript name) from Arctic America is the same species. It
occurs on several large migratory sea birds.
Genus IXODES Latreille.
Venter showing a pair of submiedian grooves reaching forward
from hind margin of body and connected in front of anus; no groove
behind anus. Capitulum produced anteriorly in the middle; porose
areas subtriangular. Palpi rather slender, at least in female, the
second joint usually twice as long as broad, the third not very much
shorter, longer than broad and tapering toward tip. Shield without
markings; no ocelli. Coxa I close to rostrum, with one or two teeth
behind; coxa IV of male not enlarged. Posterior margin of body
without festoons. Stigmal plate circular or elliptic. Tarsi II, III,
and IV divided, the basal part shorter than the apical part, and no
tooth-like claw at apex.
Type.-Ixodes ricinus Linnus.
Our species are numerous, and probably there are several yet to
be found by more thorough exploration.
TABLE OF THE SPECIES.
1. Tarsus I fully one and one-half times as long as the metatarsus ------- 2
Tarsus I barely more than one and one-fourth times as long as the
metatarsus ---------------------------------------------------
2. A stout backward-directed tooth on under side of rostrum from near
base of each palpus; shield fully twice as long as broad, with def-
inite lateral carin~e; porose areas about as long as broad --iversifosus.
No such teeth on rostrum below, at most only a tubercle; shield
broader, and rarely with definite carinoe; porose areas plainly
broader than long ---------------------------------------------3


22







Tech. Series 15, BL reau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


(7



N


IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. 1.-Ceratixodes signatus, female shield and eoxoe. Fig. 2.-Ceratixods signatus, tarsi I and IV.
Fig. 3.-Ceratixodes signatus, capitulum of female. Fig. 4.-eratixodes putus, capitulum and
palpus of female. Fig. 5.-Ceratixodes putus, tarsi I and IV. Fig. 6.-Ccratixodes putus, shield
of female. Fig. 7.-Ceratiodes putus, palpus of male below. Fig. 8.-Ceratixodesputus, stigmal
plate of female. Fig. 9.-Ixodcs ricinus, eapitulum and tarsus I of female. Fig. 1O.-I.odes
ricinus, eoxe of female. Fig. 11.-Ixodes scapularis ?, stigmal plate of nymph. Fig. 12.-Ixodes
californicus, female shield and capitulum. Fig. 13.-Ixodes ricinus, female shield and stigmal
plate. Fig. 14.-Ixodes scapularis, mandible, and coxae I and II. Fig. 15.-Ixodes scapularis,
capitulum, tarsi I and IV, and shield, of female; stigmal plate of male. (Original.)


PLATE i1.









GENUS IXODES LATREILLE.


3. Shield about one and one-half times longer than broad; all cox.e with
spines; second joint of palpus about four times as long as broad;
porose areas occupying greater part of capitulum; a small tooth at
base of each palpus -------------------------------------br eus.
Shield but little longer than broad; only coxa I spineI (in female)
second joint of palpis scarcely three times is long 8s broad porose
areas snaller------------------------------------- 4
4. Shield not angulate on sides, no lateral caring; porose areas separated
by fully their length; tarsus I rather shorter ---------------. aplllari.
Shield slightly angulate on sides, with traces of lateral cari -------
5. Porose areas large, separated by less than their length; coxa I with
very long spine -------------------------------------------ricbus.
Porose areas smaller, more widely separate; coxa I with shorter spine;
shield more rhomboidal -------------------------------- californicu.
6. Shield with definite lateral carin ----------------------------------7
Shield without definite lateral carinTe; coxa I with a short spine -------11
7. A large tooth each side under rostrum ; coxa I with one long spine ------10
No such teeth under rostrum -------------------------------------- S
8. Shield fully one and one-half times as long as broad ; coxa I with rather
short spine; porose areas triangular ----------------------- agtq s.
Shield not one and one-half times as long as broad; coxa I with long
spine; porose areas not triangular --------------------------------9
9. Porose areas as long as broad, the area separating them with a
scar ----------------------------------------------------sculpths.
Porose areas broader than long, no scar between them ------------ Cookci.
10. Shield narrowed behind; hind angles of capitulum very prominent;
porose areas broader than long, very small --------------------pratti.
Shield very broad behind; hind angles of the capitulum barely distinct;
porose areas nearly as long as broad ---------------------dcntatus.
11. Shield finely punctate, about one and one-half times as long as broad;
third joint of palpus longer than broad; porose areas small, sep-
arated by their width --------------------------------------marxi.
Shield coarsely punctate, barely longer than broad; last joint of palpus
about as broad as long; porose areas larger, not separated by
width ------------------------------------------------hexagonius.

Ixodes areticus Osborn.
This was described from one specimen taken from a seal from the
Pribilof Islands. It is recorded (No. 3500) in the type catalogue of
the Division of Insects, U. S. National Museum, but diligent search
on several occasions has failed to discover the specimen, therefore
I am compelled to copy the description of Professor Osborn, which
is not as specific as I could wish, yet indicates that the species is a
good one:
Elongate oboval, slightly contracted behind the middle, finely
transversely striated; dorsal shield deep chestnut brown, oval except
where truncated to join head; two divergent impressed lines or fur-
rows from near the anterior margin to behind the middle, where they
terminate abruptly, and external to which, near their ends, are short,
impressed lighter marks, one on either side. Palpi rather short,
blunt, truncate at apex, sharp edged, flat, and somewhat impressed


23





JXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


above; legs blackish except the joints, long, strong. The dorsum of
the expanded abdomen has two deep parallel furrows anteriorly and
three posteriorly, and the ventral surface has the ordinary furrows of
the genus, much as in vicious. The color of the alcoholic specimens
is a testaceous yellow. Length of expanded female, 6 mm. Length
of dorsal shield, 1.25 mim. ; width, 0.92 mm."

Ixodes californicus Banks.
Feaale.-Shield yellow-brown, legs darker brown, abdomen yel-
lowish gray, spotted. Capitulum (Pl. II, fig. 12) not nearly as
broad as in I. riucius, the posterior angles acute, the porose areas sub-
triangular, but plainly broader than long, and separated by about
their length, inner edge oblique; palpi moderate, second joint plainly
a little longer than the third, the latter not twice as long as broad.
Shield (P1. II, fig. 12) but little longer than broad, somewhat trape-
zoidal, the outer sides rather angulate before the middle, lateral car-
na- not distinct, but traceable, pnctuations numerous and fine. Abdo-
men striate, plunctate, and hairy; ventral furrows divergent behind,
legs rather slender, very hairy below, tarsus I fully one and one-half
times longer than inetata rsus, tapering to the tip, tarsus IV but little
longer than metatarsus, tapering: coxa I with a long, sharp, basal
spine, and a minute tooth at apex behind to all coxaw; stigmal plate
rather small, nearly circular, and its surface finely granulate.
Length of female shield, 1.2 mm.
Male.-Similar to that of I. 'Waimlar;s, but the shield has more
nearly parallel sides, and the stigmal plate is nearly circular, the
l)alpi are very short, and coxa I has a long, sharp spine behind.
Length of inale, 2 mm.
Specimens from Claremont, Santa Clara County, Santa Cruz
Mountains, and Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, all California.
The hosts were gray fox and black-tail deer.
Separated from I. ",n tis by shape of the porose areas, and from
I. scapularis by more distinct lateral caring, and many minor points.

Ixodes ricinus Linnwus. (P1. IX, fig. 5.)
Female.-Shield reddish brown, body, legs, and* palpi a paler
brown, unspotted. Capitulum (P1. II, fig. 9) very broad and short,
porose areas twice as broad as long, not separated by their length,
inner edge rounded, outer ends nearly reaching to basal angle of
capitulum; palpi moderate, second joint barely longer than the last,
the latter fully twice as long as broad. Shield (P1. II, fig. 13)
rather elliptical, plainly longer than broad, and the outer sides some-
what angulate much before the middle, lateral caring short and in-
distinct; many small, equal punctures, most numerous behind. Legs
long, tarsus I (P1, II, fig. 9) fully one and one-half times as long as


24





TXODES RICINUS TNN-7,US.


metatarsus, tapering to tip, tarsus IV also slender and tapering;
coxa I with a long sharp spine at base and a minute one at tip, II
with a small tooth at tip behind, others practically unarmed. (See
P1. II, fig. 10.) Abdomen above and below punctate and with many
hairs; in female before engorgement there is a submarginal groove,
incomplete behind; both ventral furrows divergent behind. Stigmlal
plate (P1. II, fig. 13) rather large, circular, its surface minutely
granulate.
Length of female shield, 1.1 nm.
Specimens in Marx collection from Kansas on sheep and from
Texas on cattle. I have compared these with European specimens
and they seem to be identical. Possibly they were introduced into
this country with the hosts. I have not seen a male. Practically
all of the previous records of this species in this country apply to
Ixodes seapularis or to I. cooked.

Ixodes scapularis Say. (Pl. IX, figs. 1, 2.)
Female.-Shield dark red-brown, almost black; legs and palpi
paler; abdomen brown. Capitulum (P1. II, fig. 15; P1. IX, fig. 2)
quite broad, hind angles acute, porose areas rather large, but plainly
smaller than in I. ricin us, much broader than long and separated by
fully their length, their inner edge somewhat truncate, and their
outer angle not far from hind angle of capituluim ; palpi elongate,
second joint a little longer than the last, which is hardly twice as
long as broad. Shield (P1. II, fig. 15) broad in front, plainly longer
than broad, broadly roun(led l)ehin(l, outer sides niot angiilate, alld
no lateral carinm ; punctuations fine an(l numerous all ()ver surface.
Legs long and slender; tarsus I fully one and one-half times as long
as the metatarsus, and tapering to tip; tarsus IV plainly shorter
than I, tapering to tip (see P1. II, fig. 15) ; trochanters I and II
swollen behind; all legs very hairy below; coxa I (P1. IX, fig. 2)
with a long sharp spine behind at base, and a small apical tooth,
coxae II and III with apical tooth, IV unarmed (see P1. I, fig. 14).
Abdomen finely striate, hairy, not prominently p nctate; before en-
gorgement there is a submarginal groove each side; stignial plate
(P1. IX, fig. 2) circular, its surface finely and evenly granulate;
ventral furrows divergent behind.
Length of female shield, 1.3 mm.
Male.-Dark colored as in female; the palpi are very short, second
and third joints no longer than broad; shield with subparallel sides,
densely punctate and very hairy; legs and cox, as in the female; the
stigmal plate (P1. II, fig. 15) large, an(l elongate.
Length of male, 2 mm.
From many places in the South, especially abundant in Florida
and sQuthern Texas, where it occurs on dogs and man as well as on


'25





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STAX


various wild animals; from Norfolk, Va., on cattle; McGregor, Iowa;
Texas (Belfrage Coll.); North Carolina, and Texas (Marx Coil.);
Maryland, on sheep; Indiana.
This species is readily separated from I. ricinus by smaller porose
areas and by the dark shield. It has been confused with I. ricinus
by Neumann in the Marx collection; however, Neumann described
the same species as new, I. ffiuis, from Costa Rica, and I have ex-
amined some of his type material.
Ixodes brunneus Koch.
Fctn tlc.-Shield brown, paler through the middle; palpi brown,
pale on base; legs pale lbrownish yellow, tarsi paler, other joints
marked with brown; abdomen brown, usually paler than the shield.
Capitulum (P1. III, fig. 9) small, hind angles not prominent; porose
areas Very large, angulate in front, separated by about one-half their
length ; palpi very slender, second joint plainly longer than last, lat-
ter fully twice as long as broad. Shield (P1. III, fig. 9) about one
an(l one-half times longer than broad, widest rather before the mid-
(Ile and tapering each way, no lateral carina, but submedian grooves
distinct, surface with many fine punctures, lateral lobes wrinkled.
Legs slender, tarsus I very long, about twice as long as the preceding
ioint, tapering to tip, hind tarsus also tapering, but not so much
longer than the metatarsus; coxa I with a large, short spine at base
and all coxa with a (listinct tooth at apex behind; trochanters II
and III swollenl behind. Body striate and punctate, with numerous
hairs: anal furrows parallel behind; stigmal plate large, circular, and
its surface with (juite large granules.
Length of female shield, 1.5 mam.
Two females from a tufted tit. Raleigh, N. C. (Brimley Coll.);
also one female from hermit thrush, Baltimore, Md. (Hassall Coll.).
This is the specimen named by Neumann Ixodes frontalis. At that
time, however, he had not seen the type of I. brui neus. Later, in a
key, he separates them on the ground that brunneus has the tarsi
attenuated gradually, while in frontalis they are narrowed suddenly
before the tip. In this specimen the tarsi are certainly not attenuated
suddenly, but are like the North Carolina specimens. There is
another specimen, in the collection of the Massachusetts Agricultural
College, which was taken from the neck of a "chipping bird," May 1,
1895, probably from Amherst, or near by; and the Ixodes kelloggi,
recently described by Nuttall and Warburton, is evidently the same
species, although the description is very brief. Their specimens came
from Californian birds. Koch described the species from one female
from Fringilla albicollis, from North America. I have not seen the
male. Evidently the species is confined to birds.


26





IXODES DIVERSIFOSSUS NEUMANN.


Ixodes diversifossus Neumann.
Female.-Shield, capitului, and legs very dark red-brown; abdo-
men grayish yellow. Capitulum (P1. III, fig. 12) rather triangular,
long, hind angles very prominent; porose areas rather small, sub-
triangular, much more than width apart; palpi long and slender.
Shield (P1. III, fig. 14) plainly a little longer than broad, broadly
rounded behind, broadest in front of middle, lateral carinve distinct,
reaching margin; surface with mostly small punctures, but those near
the margin behind are very large. Abdomen striate and punctate;
anal grooves subparallel; stigmial plate (P1. III, fig. 14) large, nearly
circular, coarsely granulate; coxv I (P1. III, fig. 14) with a large,
sharp, basal spine, a small apical cone beyond it, and similar cone on
coxve II (P1. III, fig. 14) and III, that on coxaw IV very indistinct;
legs long and slender, tarsi slender, tarsus I (P1. III, fig. 14) about
twice as long as preceding joint; all tarsi taper to tip. Under the
beak at base of palpi is a large backward-directed tooth each side
(see P1. III, fig. 14).
Length of female shield, 1.6 mam.
Two specimens (the types) from a raccoon, New Mexico, iii the
Hassall collection, and kindly loaned by Doctor Hassall.
Ixodes bicornis Neumann, described after the types of I. dibersi-
fossus were returned to the United States, comes extremely close to
this species, and I think is identical. It is from Mexico, and I have
specimens from Doctor Duges agreeing closely with the description
and also with the types of I. diversifossus. The male is still un-
known.

Ixodes pratti n. sp.
Female.-Dark reddish brown, legs and palpi paler. Capitulum
(P1. IV, fig. 1) broad, outer angles rather prominent, posterior angles
distinctly prolonged; porose areas broader than long, and separated
by one-half their width; palpi short, second joint about one and one-
half times as long as broad, last joint scarcely as broad as long; below
there is near the base of each palpus a distinct, stout, downward-pro-
jecting tooth (see P1. IV, fig. 1). (Hypostome, P1. IV, fig. 5.) Shield
(P1. IV, fig. 1) a trifle longer than broad, narrowed behind, lateral
caring distinct and reaching to the margin, surface rather densely
punctate, and many of the punctures quite large. Abdomen striate
and punctate, with very fine hairs; anal grooves plainly divergent;
stigmal plate (P1. IV, fig. 1) small, almost circular, its surface with
rather large granules. Coxve with a minute tooth at apex behind;
coxa I (P1. IV, fig. 1) with a moderately long basal spine (not as long
as in I. cooked). Legs short and slender, quite hairy, and the tarsi
(P1. IV, fig. 4) tapering to the tip.
Length of female shield, 0.9 mm,






IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS., OF THE UNITED STATES.


Male.-Body very slender, more than twice as long as broad, dark
brown, and very hairy; a deeply impressed lateral and posterior
groove; surface densely punctate. Capitulum not broader behind
than long in middle, sides parallel, posterior angles not prolonged;
palpi short, but longer than width of capitulum, the third joint a
little longer than broad, legs rather short, coxa- I with a very long,
slender spine behind, II with two humps behind, and III with one
hump; venter punctate; stigmal plate (P1. IV, fig. 4) twice as long
as broad, finely granulate.
Length, 2 mm.
A pair from Kerrville, Tex., May; one female from Sherwood,
ex., on a prairie dog (F. C. Pratt), and two females from Walker
Pass, Death Valley, California, from Tlwmomys (Fisher).
This species differs fromn Lrodcs diersifos1ss by the shorter tarsi I,
by the absence of large pits on posterior part of the shield, by shorter
spine on coxa I, by shorter palpi, and has several minor differences.
Nymphs, probably of this species, are from Kerrville on skunk, and
from Del Rio on rock squirrel; the stigmal plate is elliptical, and of
peculiar sculpture, as figured (P1. IV. fig. 3).

Ixodes dentatus Neumann. (11. IX, fig. 3.)
Fern wac.-Shield, capitulun, and legs dark red-brown; abdomen
early- black Capitulun (P1. IV, fig. G; P1. IX, fig. 3) small, hind
angles rather prominent; porose areas broader than long, nearly their
width apart; shield (P1. IV, fig. 6; P1. IX, fig. 3) only a little longer
than broad, broad behind, lateral carinai distinct, reaching the hind
margin. the middle area behind densely, finely punctate, elsewhere
with few punctures. Abdomen (engorged female) elongate, striate
and punctate, with many very short hairs; stigmal plate circular, its
surface minutely granulate, the stigma nearly central. The under
side of the rostrum shows a stout recurved tooth each side, just
behind the bases of palpi (P1. IV, fig. 6; P1. IX, fig. 7). Coxve I with
a long basal spine behind, and a small apical tubercle, and similar
one on coxve II, others unarmed (P1. IV, fig. 6); legs short, finely
haired.
Length of female shield, 1 mm.
Described from the type specimen in the Marx collection, taken
from. a rabbit in Maryland; the palpi are broken off. This is the
only specimen I have seen; it is very distinct, not only by the teeth
on the rostrum, but also by the shape of the shield.

Ixodes cookei Packard. (P1. IX, fig. 4.)
Fenale.-Shield yellow-brown, legs and palpi somewhat paler,
abdomen gray-brown. Capitulum (P1. III, fig. 4; P1. IX, fig. 4)
rather broad, triangular, the hind angles moderately prominent, the


28






Tech. Series 15, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


n

'N6


C3


. . .......". ~o o#














IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. 1.-Ixodcs (' ooki, larva. Fig. 2.-[xodcs cockei, base of palpts of nymph from below.
Fig. 3.-Lxdcs cookci, tip of palpuis of nymnph. Fig. 4.-Ixodes cookei, ca'pitulm of female.
Fig. 5.-Ixodes cookei, tarsus 1. Fig. 6.-Ixodes cookci, co)xa 1. Fig. 7.-Ixodes cookie, stigma
plate of female. Fig. 8.-Ixodes cooke:i, snield of female. Fig. 9.-IxodeW brunnctus. capitu-
lure and shield of female. Fig. lO.-lodes marxi, capitulum, coxw, and shield, of female.
Fig. ll.-Ixodcs hexagons, coxee of female. Fig. 12.--Ixodes diversifossus, capitulum of
female. Fig. 13.-Ixo)ites hexagonuts, capitulum and shield of female. Fig. 14.-Ixodes diversi-
fossus, shield, tarsus I, stigmal plate, coxae I and II, and tooth beneath rostrum-all of
feinale. (Original.)
36657--o. 15-008-3


PLATE III.








S





IXODES COOKED PACKARD.


porose areas about one-fourth broader than long, one-half their
diameter apart; palpi short and broad, the last joint barely, if any,
longer than broad, and plainly shorter than second joint. Shield
(P1. III, fig. 8) only a trifle longer than broad, somewhat narrowed
behind, widest part plainly in front of the middle, its surface densely
and rather coarsely punctate, the lateral caring moderately distinct,
running out slightly behind the widest part. Abdomen punctate and
with extremely short hairs; in engorged specimens elongate; the anal
furrows subparallel behind; the stigmal plate (P1. III, fig. 7; P1. IX,
fig. 4) large, elliptical, the surface granulate and the stigma situated
before the middle; cox, with a small apical tooth behind, and coxa I
(P1. III, fig. 6) with a long stout spine at base; legs rather long and
large, tarsi suddenly narrowed before tip, tarsus I (P1. III, fig. 5)
but little longer than the metatarsus.
Length of female shield, 1.5 ram.
Jale.-Yellow-brown, the palpi very short, the apical joint fully
as long as second; shield nearly one and two-thirds times longer than
broad, broadly rounded behind, rather densely and evenly punc-
tate, showing three shallow furrows, the median one not reaching as
far forward as the sublateral pair; stigmal plate large and like that
of the female; the coxve armed the same, but the basal spine on coxa I
has a more slender point.
Length of male, 3.3 mm.
This species is common on small mammals in the Eastern States, as
far west as the Rockies. I have seen it from Norway, Me. ; Salem, Am-
herst, and Sherborne, Mass. ; Washington Hollow, Manlius, Albany,
Catskills, Crane Point, and Rensselaer and Greene counties, New
York; Pine County, New Jersey; Plunmmers Island, Maryland;
Washington, D. C.; Agricultural College, Michigan; Iowa; St. An-
thony Park, Minn.; Brookings, S. Dak.; Denver, Colo.; Kansas;
Kerrville, Tex., and Guelph, Ontario, Canada. The known hosts in-
clude fox, mink, weasel, skunk, pocket gopher, striped gopher, porcu-
pine, woodchuck, raccoon, dog, cat, and robin. I have examined
Packard's type of this species, now in the Museum of Comparative
Zoology, and typical specimens of Ixodes ]exaqo uts var. ionrlspno-
8us of Neumann which are identical with Packard's form. I consider
Fitch's I. cruciars to be the same; Fitch gave three descriptions of
this species-two from specimens from human beings, the other from
a specimen from mink; they evidently apply to this species; all were
from New York. In both cases on human beings the bite was very
severe, and medical attention was necessary in one case.

Ixodes angustus Neumann.
Female.-Shield pale brownish yellow; legs very pale yellowish;
abdomen yellowish gray. Capitulum (P1. IV, fig. 2) small, triangu-


29





30 IXODOTDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.

lar, posterior angles acute, the porose areas long, trianguIlar, nearly
as long as broad; palpi with the second joint plainly a little longer
than the last, the latter about one and one-half times as long as broad.
Shield (P1. IV, fig. 2) elongate, fully one and one-half times as long
as broad, broadest near middle, broadly rounded behind, lateral carinT
distinct, but running out before the posterior third, surface minutely
punctate. Abdomen (engorged) very elongate, with very short
hairs, the anal grooves slightly approximating behind; stigmal plate
(P1. IV, fig. 2) transversely elliptical, its surface minutely granulate.
Legs short, tarsus I suddenly narrowing before tip, other tarsi taper-
ing to tip, tarsus I but little longer than metatarsus; coxve I with a
rather short, stout spine at base behind, and a tooth near apex, a
similar tooth on cox, 11 and III, coxm IV unarmed (see P1. IV,
fig. 2).
Length of female shield, 1 mm.
J7alc.-The only one seen is very small; elliptical; the capitulum
subtriangular, the palpi extremely short, barely longer than width
of capitulum: the shield elliptical, about one and three-fourths times
as long as broad, and but little broader in middle.
Length of male, 1.5 mm.
The type is a female taken from Neotoma occidentalis at Shoshone
Falls, Idaho, collected by Dr. Cooper Curtice, and now in the col-
lection of the Bureau of Animal Industry, this Department. Other
specimens come from various rodents of the Northwest; Glacier
Bay, Alaska: Portland, Oregon; Massett, British Columbia; Walker
Pass and Siskiou Countv, California. In the Fourth Memoire of
his Revision Neumann gives a second description based on two speci-
mens from Argentina, of what he thinks is this species; it differs in
several points of structure, and evidently is not the same species,
since the many specimens of 1. angustus examined by me agree closely
with the type.
Ixodes sculptus Neumann.
Fern ale.-Shield yellow-brown; legs and palpi paler; abdomen
yellow-brown. Capitulum (P1. IV, fig. 7) elongate-triangular, pos-
terior angles scarcely prominent; porose areas large, much longer
than broad, and only about one-half their breadth apart, this space
containing an elongate depression or scar. Last joint of palpus one
and one-half times as long as broad, second joint plainly a little
longer. Shield (P1. IV, fig. 7) one and one-fourth times as long as
broad, broadly rounded behind, lateral caring strong, somewhat in-
curved, almost reaching the margin, the surface densely and very
minutely punctate. Abdomen punctate and with many longitudinal
rows of short yellowish hairs; anal furrows subparallel; stigmal plate





IXODES SCULPTUS NEUMANN.


rather large, elliptical, its surface minutely granulate; all coxe (P1.
IV, fig. 9) with a small apical tooth behind, and coxa I with a long
basal spine; legs rather long, not very hairy, and the tarsi abruptly
narrowed near tip, tarsus I but little longer than the metatarsus.
Length of female shield, 1.4 mm.
The type, in the Marx collection, is from the Santa Cruz Mountains,
California. I have also seen two females from Del Rio, Tex., on
rock squirrel (Bishopp), which agree closely with the type, except
that the color is darker, the shield being dark red-brown, and the
abdomen nearly black. They are engorged, and the abdomen is
elongate.

Ixodes hexagonus Leach.
Female.-Capitulum and shield yellowish brown: legs and palpi
paler; abdomen grayish yellow. Capituluni (1. III. fig. 13) rather
elongate, hind angles slightly produced, porose areas large. subtri-
angular, as long as broad, and scarcely half their diameter apart:
palpi short, second joint only a little longer than broad, last not as
long as broad. Shield (P1. III, fig. 13) about as broad as long, taper-
ing behind, the anterior sides quite long, no trace of lateral caring,
surface rather evenly and densely strewn with quite large puncmtures.
Abdomen striate, when engorged elongate; punctures and hairs very
weak; anal grooves subparallel: stigmail plate moderately large.
nearly oval. the stigma in front of middle. its surface strongly grani-
late. Coxe (P1. III. fig. 11) with a minute black tooth at apex be
hind, and coxa I with a very short spine at base. Legs moderately
large., hairy: tarsi tapering to tip. tarsus I but little longer than the
preceding joint.
Length of female shield, 1.2 in.
Two specimens in the Marx collection from sheep. Kansas, and
labeled by Neumann as typical I. hexagoimus. Possibly they were
introduced with the sheep. Also two specimens in the Hassall col-
lection from rabbit, Baltimore, Md., labeled by Neumaln as typical
I. ewxagon us. The specimens in the same collection from spermo-
phile, District of Columbia, and pocket gopher, Iowa. also labeled
by Neumann as I. hexagonuis, are not that species, but the I. cookei
Packard (iongispirnosits Neum.) The four females from the United
States agree quite closely with a German specimen in the Marx col-
lection, labeled by Neumann I. hexagon us; but the porose areas in
the European specimen are more pointed in front, and the shield
is rather more coarsely punctate and wrinkled.
I have not seen a male from the United States, and both cases of
the species' occurrence may be importations. Nearly all the previous
records of this species in this country refer to I. coo Jei.





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


Ixodes marxi n. sp. (P1. IX, fig. 8.)
Female.-Shield, capitulum, and legs pale yellowish gray. Ca-
pitulum (P1. 111, fig. 10) rather broad, the posterior angles hardly
projecting; porose areas somewhat circular, far from sides, and
nearly their diameter apart; palpi with last joint fully as long as
broad, plainly shorter than the second. Shield (P1. III, fig. 10)
about one and one-half times as long as broad, broadest much before
middle, narrowed behind, with concave sides, tip broadly rounded,
lateral carinae practically invisible, surface very finely and rather
sparsely punctate. Abdomen with fine punctures and very short
hairs; stigmal plate very small, nearly circular, surface granulate;
coxw (Pl. III, fig. 10) almost unarmed, but a small tooth behind on
coxa- I and II and a short spine at base of coxa I; legs rather short,
tarsi suddenly narrowed before tip.
Length of female shield, 1 1am.
I have seen this species from Washington, D. C.; Salineville and
Wauseon, Ohio : Ithaca, N. Y.;, Portland, Mich.; Guelph, Ontario,
Canada; and Denver, Colo. It has usually been taken on red squir-
rels, but the specimen from the last locality was from fox. Two of
these specimens were referred( doubtfully by Neulmann to his va-
riety hc]-iwatis of lxodes cxaonu8, which, however, has an earlier
name in I. cantiiqa Johnston, 1849, a common (log tick in Scotland.
Through the kindness of Dr. William Evans I have obtained speci-
menis of I. canisotia and find that it has a more coarsely punctate
.hield than our species, and the l)oro5e areas are larger, while the
legs are larger and there is no trace of a spine at base of coxa I. I
lhave not seen the male of I. llarxi. I name it in honor of Dr. George
Marx, who had recognized its distinctness and given it a manu-
script name.
Genus H MAPHYSALIS Koch.
Venter showing a curved groove behind the anus, and from this a
median furrow back to margin of body. Capitulum not angulate on
sides; porose areas large, longitudinal, distant. Palpi short, second
joint with an acute basal prolongation outward. Shield without
markings; no ocelli. Abdomen showing festoons behind; coxa I with
one tooth behind; coxa IV of male not enlarged. No anal plates in
male. Stigmal plate broad, with a small outer point. Tarsi II, III,
and IV indistinctly divided, the basal part shorter than the apical
part, and no tooth-like claw at apex.
Type.-H. con cinna Koch.
I have seen but two species from our territory; the record of H.
concinna is due to wrong synonymy.


32






Tech. Series 1 5, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


:"--7. ,. -

















//
"'; F :..0'..-N: :'




















IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. 1.-Ixodes pratti, shield of female, capitulum of female, tooth on rostrum, stigmal plate of
female, and coxa L. Fig. 2.-Ixodes angu. us, coxoe, stigmal plate, capitulum, and shield, of
female. Fig. 3.-Ixodes pratti, stigmal plate of nymph. Fig. 4.-Ixodes pratti, stigmal plate
of male and tarsus 1. Fig. 5.-Ixodes pratti, hypostome. Fig. 6.-Ixodes dentatits, teeth below
on rostrum, toxae, capitulum, and shield, of female. Fig. 7.--rxodes scultus, shield and capit-
ulum of female. Fig. 8.-Hxmraphysalis leporis-palustris, capitulum of male. Fig. 9.-Ixodes
sculptus, coxae of female. Fig. lO.-Hxmaphysalis leporis-palutstris, tarsus 1, capittilum and
shield, stigmal plate, and coxa 1, of female. Fig. 11.-Hxmaphiysalis chordeilis, shield and
capitulum, cox~e I and IV, tarsus IV, and stigmal plate, of female. (Original.)


PLATE IV.








GENUS HJMAPHYSALIS KOCH.


TABLE OF THE SPECIES.
Shield of female as broad as long; palpi very heavy and short -------chordeilis.
Shield of female longer than broad; palpi more slender -------leporis-palustris.
Heemmaphysalis leporis-palustris Packard. (P1. X, figs. 2, 6.)
Female.-Red-brown to black; shield, mouth parts, and legs red-
brown, without markings. Capitulum (P1. IV, fig. 10) not twice as
broad as long, hind angles slightly prominent, porose areas elongate,
separated by much more than their width, a ridge on the outer side of
each; palpi rather elongate, second joint with a sharp projection on
the outer side at base; the inner tip is inflated above, or rather its
upper edge; the third joint also has a lamellar edoe above projecting
over the hypostome, and below there is a row of hairs on the second
joint (P1. X, fig. 2) ; the rostrum below has a distinct spine at each
hind angle. Shield (P1. IV, fig. 10) plainly longer than broad, with
many large punctures above, and the submedian grooves very large
and deep. Legs rather slender, the tibive and metatarsi I (P1. IV,
fig. 10) and II are convex below; trochanter I has a large projection
above, and II and III have projections behind, when seen from be-
low; coxa I (P1. IV, fig. 10) is bifid behind, the basal projection the
longer; other coxw each with a very small projection; all coxw have a
number of long hairs. Abdomen striate, and( with many deep punc-
tures. The stiglnal plate (P1. IV, fig. 10) is as broad as long, with
many rather large granules.
Length of female shield, 0.9 mim.
Hale.-Paler red-brown; capitulumn (P1. IV, fig. 8) rather narrow,
its posterior angles very distinctly prolonged; palpi shorter than in
the female, but the inner sides inflated al)ove as in the female; body
nearly twice as long as broad, lateral grooves distinct, but no basal
furrow to the eleven festoons; dorsal surface rather densely and
evenly punctate. The legs are as in the female, and the coxp armed
the same, coxa I being rather more strongly bifid behind; the rostrum
shows below the two small teeth behind as in the female. The stig-
mal plate is subtriangular, as broad behind as long, its surface rather
coarsely granulate.
Length of male, 1.6 mam.
The nymph has the shield fully as long as broad, and broadly
rounded behind.
Specimens come from Virginia; Shreveport, La.; Columbus and
Victoria, Tex., Grand Canyon, Ariz.; Kern County, Cal.; Maver-
ick, Tex.; Keene Valley and Dannemora, N. Y. Packard's types were
from North Carolina. It is usually found on rabbits, but the young
are often taken from birds, as quail, lark, etc.


33





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


Hemaphysalis chordeilis Packard.
Female.-Shield, legs, and palpi rather uniform reddish brown,
abdomen more yellowish brown. Capitulum (P1. IV, fig. 11)
nearly twice as broad as long, hind angles barely prominent; porose
areas large, and limited by a ridge each side; palpi broad, second
joint with a prominent sharp tooth on outer side at base, the two
palpi together broader than long. Shield (P1. IV, fig. 11) about as
broad as long, strongly and densely punctate, the punctures most
numerous at the submedian .grooves. Legs rather short, tarsi (P1.
IV, fig. 11) shorter than in [I. leporis-palustris, coxie (P1. IV, fig.
11) with distinct projections behind; that on coxa I is fully one-half
the width of that joint. Body striate, and with scattered, broad,
deep punctures. Stigmal plate (P1. IV, fig. 11) longer than broad,
with a short but distinct dorsal prolongation, its surface finely granu-
lated.
Length of shield, 1 mrm.; whole specimen, 5.5 mm.
The types, two engorged feidles from a nighthawk at Milton,
Mass., are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, where I have
studied them. I have also seen a female from Taftsville, Vt., from a
turkey.
Neumann, in his Revision," had placed this species as a synonym
of H. leporlis.-palIstrhs. but it is plainly distinct. I have not seen the
male, but a nyiph from the killdeer, taken at Fort Collins, Colo.,
may belong to this species.

Genus RHIPICEPHALUS Koch.
Venter showing a curved groove behind anus and a median line to
the posterior margin of body. Capitulum angulate on sides; porose
areas triangular, approximate. Palpi short and broad, no trans-
verse ridges. Shield without markings; ocelli present. Abdomen
showing festoons behind. Coxa I strongly bidentate behind; hind
coxa not enlarged in male. Stigmal plate subcrescentic or reniform.
Male with distinct anal plates. Tarsi II, III, and IV indistinctly
divided, the basal part shorter than the apical part; no distinct
tooth-like claw at apex. The palpi have on the lower edge a series
of long flattened teeth, as represented in the figure.
Type.-R. sanguineus Latreille.
We have but one species of this genus, a form very similar to the
type species.

Rhipicephalus texanus n. sp.
Male.-Red-brown, without markings; legs paler. Capitulum
(P1. V, fig. 1) broad, lateral angles acute, hind angles barely pro-
longed; palpi (P1. V, fig. 2) very short, not as long as half the width
of the cApitulum, but as long as the hypostome, their tips acute. Dor-


34







Tech. Series 15, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. l.-Rhipicephalus texanus, shield, capitulum, and mandible, of female; capitulum and stigmal
plate of male. Fig. 2.-Rhipicephalus texanus, palpus from beneath. Fig. 3.-Rhipicephalus
texanus, stigmal plate of female, anal plates of male, and coxa I. Fig. 4.-Rhipicephalus texanus,
tarsi I and IV. Fig. 5.-Margaropus annulatus, stigmal plate of nymph and coxa I of male.
Fig. 6.-Margaropus annulatus, shield, capitulum, and coxa I, of female. Fig. 7.-Margaropus
annulatus, tarsus IV of male, stigmal plate of female, and shield and capitulum of nymph.
(Original.)


PLATE V.








RHIPICEPHALUS TEXANUS N. SP.


sum one and one-half times as long as broad, the shield still more
narrow, and with subparallel sides, leaving broad lateral and apical
margins, the latter with twelve impressed lines; the shield with a
definite lateral groove reaching back from the eyes, and behind are
seven festoons, without basal groove; also two submedian impressions,
and three in the apical part, the median one the longest; surface with
many subequal punctures. Legs rather long, the fourth pair thick-
ened, anterior tarsi (P1. V, fig. 4) rather slender; coxa I (P1. V. fig.
3) with two processes behind on the style of Derdacentor, the inner
one much the tiricker, other coxT unarmed. Each side of the anus
is an elongate triangular plate (P1. V, fig. 3) ; the apex of the abdo-
men is somewhat pointed; the stigmal plate (P1. V, fig. 1) is elon-
gate, barely tapering behind and the tip upeurved, its surface with
many small granules.
Length of male, 2.7 mm.
Female.-Red-brown; legs pale; no markings. Capitulum (P1.
V, fig: 1) broad, lateral angles acute, hind angles distinct, but little
produced; porose areas triangular, situated on posterior part of ca-
pitulum, and touching on basal inner angle; palpi short, apex sub-
acute. Shield (P1. V, fig. 1) plainly longer than broad, broadly
rounded behind, eyes farther back than in most ticks, surface with
many large punctures, furrows separating the lateral lobes very dis-
tinct and reaching to the hind margin. Legs slender, all tarsi long,
coxae I (P1. V, fig. 3) armed with two spines as in the male, other
coxve unarmed, but with transverse ridges. Stigm al plate (P1. V,
fig. 3) not very much longer than broad, with a prominent dorsal
prolongation, its surface with many distinct granules.
Length of female shield, 1.3 mam.
Specimens have been taken at several places in Texas-San Anto-
nio, Victoria, Brownwood, Brownsville, Green Lake-and from
Albuquerque, N. Mex. It also occurs in Mexico. It has been taken
from dogs and horses.

Genus MARGAROPUS Karsch.
Venter without distinct curved groove behind anus, but no subme-
dian furrows. Capituluin angulate on sides; porose areas elliptic,
distant. Palpi short and broad, second and third joints with trans-
verse ridges. Shield without markings; ocelli present. Abdomen
showing more or less distinct festoons behind. Coxa I bidentate be-
hind, coxa IV of male slightly larger than the others. Four anal
plates in male. Stigmal plate subcircular. Coxv I more distant
from the rostrum than in most ticks. Tarsi II, III, and IV indis-
tinctly divided, the parts subequal in length; and a distinct tooth-like
claw at tip.


35






IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


Type.-M. winthemi Karsch.
The replacement of the familiar Boophilus by this almost unknown
name is a case where the inflexible application of the law of priority
is greatly to be deplored, especially since there is no resulting benefit
whatever to science.
But one species has as yet been found in the United States, but an
allied form is known from the West Indies, and will, perhaps, some
day occur in our country.

Margaropus annulatus Say.
Male.-Small, brownish yellow, legs paler, no markings. Capitu-
lum (Pl. X, fig. 8) rather crescentic, acute on lateral angles, hind
angles prolonged into short spines; palpi extremely short, shorter
than the hypostome, the joints with transverse acute ridges. Dor-
sum one and one-half tines longer than broad, broadest near hind
end, surface usually indicating two furrows in front, sublateral, and
three furrows behind, with many rather small subequal punctures;
festoons indistinct, but usually nine of them indicated. Legs slender,
the first pair short, fourth pair much larger than the others; tarsi
(P1. V, fig. 7) short; all with scattered hairs. Coxw I (P1. V, fig. 5)
with two spines behind, the inner one very short, the outer one more
slender and sometimes very long, and in front a long spine-like pro-
cess; other coxa- mutic. Two prominent long adanal plates, and
each side a smaller, shorter, curved plate; the tips of these four plates
are seen, in a dorsal view of the tick, projecting behind the posterior
margin. Stigmal plate small, subelliptical, with about twenty-five
or thirty large granules and many smaller ones.
Length of female, 2.2 inm.
Fe e ale .-Sh ield red-brown, often very dark, abdomen brighter red-
brown; legs pale; no markings. Capitulum (P1. V, fig. 6; P1. X, fig.
7) broad, hind angles barely distinct, lateral angles acute; palpi ex-
treniely short, much shorter than the hypostonme, and with ridges, as
in male; porose areas elliptical, widely separated, and pointing out-
ward. Shield (P1. V, fig. 6) plainly longer than broad, broadest at
eyes, quite suddenly narrowed behind the eyes; surface wrinkled, but
the middle of front is smooth; a few punctures, mostly lost in the
wrinkles. Abdomen with fine hairs; legs small and slender, hairy;
coxe unarmed; stigmal plate (P1. V, fig. 7) small, only a little longer
than broad, with a number of scattered visible granules, and many
very minute ones.
Length of -female shield, 1.1 mm.
Specimens may be taken from cattle in many parts of the country,
but are native only to the Southern States, where they occur on deer
and other animals. This is "the cattle tick" and the proven dis-


36






MARGAROPUS ANNULATUS SAY.


seminator of southern cattle or splenetic fever. Much has been writ-
ten upon it, and its life history is fairly well known.
It was described by Say from deer from Florida; described by
Koch, and later by Packard, and by Riley as Ixodes bovis. Under
this name it was long known, until Curtice proposed for it the genus
Booplilus. Neumann has recently shown that the type of Jlargaro-
pus is a true Boopi as8, therefore it is necessary to drop the familiar
cognomen, under which it had become of prime economic importance.
Neumann at first considered H. annu/datts to be of world-wide distri-
bution; but in 1899 Fuller separated the South African and the Aus-
tralian forms, and now it is believed that JI. annidatas occurs only
in North America.
Biological and economic accounts of this species can be found in
Bulletin No. T2 of this Bureau. This tick is rarely recorded from
any animal other than cattle: however. Mr. J. D. Mitchell has found
it on sheep, and I have seen specimens taken from ponies in Michigan.
Genus AMBLYOMMA Koch.
Venter with a distinct curved groove behind the anus and a more or
less distinct median furrow behind. Capitulum rather small; porose
areas longitudinal. Palpi long and slender. second joint about twice
as long as broad, third very much shorter than the second. Shield
usually with some markings; ocelli present, and on margin of the
shield. Abdomen showing festoons behind (except in distended
female). Coxa I with one or two teeth behind; coxa IV of male not
enlarged, usually with a spine behind. No anal plates in male.
Stigmal plate subtriangular or elongate. Tarsi II. III, and IV
plainly divided, the basal part much shorter than the apical part, and
a distinct tooth-like claw at apex.
ye.-.A. CajCnnen8e Iabricliis.
TFABJLE OF THE SPECIES.
1. (,oxa I with but one spine, metatarsi (except I) with two thickened
spurs at tips; second joint of paIpus not twice as long as third; porose
areas elongate; shield brown, with silvery marks ------------ cl(dlatum.
Coxa I~ with two spines; metatarsi without stout spurs at tips, only slen-
der hairs ------------------------------------------------------- 2
2. Projections of coxa I blunt and short; porose areas elongate; second
joint of palpus not twice as long as third; coxa IV of male with only
a tubercle behind ; large species --------------------------tiberculatum.
Projections of coxa I longer, and at least one of them sharp-pointed;
second joint of palpus twice as long as third; coxa IV of male with a
long spine: smaller species ------------------------------------------ 3
3I. Porose areas nearly circular; shield of both sexes pale yellowish, with
some silvery streaks and marks, and some reddish spots; shield of
female as broad as long cajennense.
Porose areas* elongate; shield brown, in female with an apical silvery
mark, in male with two small apical and two or four other silvery
spots; shield of female longer than broad ------------------a cricaU inm.


37





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED


Amblyomma tuberculatum Marx.
ffale.-Shield red-brown, with a narrow silvery stripe each side,
slightly above the margin, and connected behind to the silvery spots
on the festoons; from behind extend forward a pair of rather broad
silvery stripes which unite somewhat behind the middle and are here
connected to the lateral silvery stripes. In some specimens these
markings are much less extensive, but the spots on the festoons are
always distinct. Capitulum pale in middle of front, and also a
pale spot on the shield just behind the capitulum; palpi pale; legs
reddish brown, with tips of joints white; venter pale yellowish
brown. The capitulum is large and long, the hind angles rounded;
palpi short, the second joint not twice as long as the last.
Dorsum very broad in front, hardly one and one-fourth times
longer than broad, with many very small punctures, some larger
ones near the anterior angles; surface generally sm(-)th; no lateral
grooves, nor any before the festoons, which are not very strongly
marked. Legs large and long, hairs and tubercles below, but no spurs
at tips of metatarsi; the tarsi are very short; coxa with two flattened
tubercles, except IV, which has only one. Stigmal plate (P1. VI,
fig. 8) elongate, end tapering and upturned, with extremely minute
granules.
Length of male, 5.5 to 6 mm.
Fer/ile.-Reddish brown, shield with a large silvery mark each
side. containing one or two (lark spots, and two divaricate silvery
stripes extending forward from the hind margin, and sometimes con-
nected to the lateral spots; capitulum paler in front and middle than
on the sides and behind: palpi pale; legs red-brown, tips of joints
whitish; abdomen brownish, sometimes showing black lines. Capit-
ulum (Pl. VI, fig. 8) large and long, hind angles rounded; porose
areas rather small, elongate, well separated, and directed forward;
palpi short, second joint not twice as long as last; shield pentagonal,
sides rounded, plainly broader than long, and broadest in front of
middle, with many minute punctures, but some larger ones on the
anterior lateral lobes; body without hairs, usually shining. Legs
large and long, no spurs at tips of metatarsi, but most joints with
hair-bearing tubercles below; coxe armed like the male, and just as
strongly. Stigmal plates (P1. VI, fig. 8) elongate, of peculiar shape,
being longer on inner than on outer side, an elevated smooth boss
occupying the outer concave side, the surface with very minute gran-
ulations.
Length of female shield, 3.6 mm.
Specimens come from various parts of Florida, and are associated
with the gopher tortoise. The nymphs have, on the shield, a large
silvery spot each side, united behind at tips, and in front much broken
by the large punctures.


38





AMBLYOMMA TUBERCULATUM MARX.


This is our largest tick, and a very distinct species, allies of which
occur in tropical countries.

Amblyomma maculatum Koch.
ale.-Shield brown, lineate with silvery white, lines more or less
connected; a submedian pair in front, and a similar pair behind,
uniting in the middle; two lateral streaks connected near front, and
the inner one connected to submedian at middle; usually a few iso-
lated white spots on the festoons, but there is variation in the amount
of the white; legs more or less brownish, usually showing white at
tips of joints. Capitulum long, its posterior angles acute; palpi
short, the second joint about one and one-fourth times longer than the
last joint. Dorsum nearly twice as long as broad, with many promi-
nent punctures, most numerous in the middle region and in furrows;
several elevated smooth streaks; lateral furrows very prominent,
arising in front of eyes; festoons strongly marked. Legs rather
heavy, IV (P1. VI, fig. 5) pair much the largest; all, except I (P1. VI,
fig. 7), with a pair of stout spurs at tip of metatarsus. Coxa I
(P1. VI, fig. 5) with one very long, sharp spine, only a trace of the
basal spine; coxw, II and III with a flattened tubercle, IV (P1. VI,
fig. 5) with a slender sharp spine, fully as long as width of joint.
Stigmal plate (P1. VI, fig. 7) long, slender, its tip tapering and up-
turned, surface with minute granules.
Length of male, 4 mam.
Female.-Shield silvery white behind, on front brown, the white
of sides usually showing an elongate brown spot behind, and the
white of middle extending forward in two streaks, sometimes wholly
divided by a brown median stripe; legs pale brown; abdomen dark.
Capitulum (P1. VI, fig. 10) long, hind angles scarcely acute: porose
areas elliptical, widely separated, and directed forward: palpi shot
second joint but. little longer than the last. Shield pentagonal, fully
as long as broad, broadest before middle, its lateral lobes strongly
punctured, very few punctures behind; abdomen without hairs. Legs
large., tarsi slender, metatarsi (except I) with a pair of spurs at tip;
coxve armed as in male, except that the hind coxa bears only a
tubercle. Stigmal plate (P1. VI, fig. 9) longer than usual, with a
much smaller dorsal prolongation, its surface furnished with minute
granules.
Length of female shield, 2 mm.
Specimens have been examined from various places in Texas-
Brazos County, Esperanza Ranch, Brownsville, Victoria, Harlingen,
and Columbus. Other localities are Cameron Parish, La.; Virginia
(Niles); Orlando, Fla.; Memphis, Tenn.; and Tulare County, Cali-
fornia. It was described from Carolina." The recorded hosts are
.36657-No. 15-08----4


39






IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


cattle, horses, dogs, fox, and man. It apparently is not common ex-
cept in certain localities near the Gulf coast. It is very readily known
by the spurs at apex of metatarsi, a character not previously noted by
writers.
Amblyomma americanum Linnous. (P1. VI, fig. 1.)
Male.-Body usually a pale brown, or yellowish brown, with sev-
eral small yellow spots-two on the posterior border of shield rather
close together, one on each side margin in front of the former, and a
pair in front of middle of shield, behind and rather inward from
the eyes. Sometimes the anterior of these spots are indistinct, but
the posterior pair are nearly always distinct. Legs slightly paler
than the body. Capitulum broad, its posterior angles acute; palpi
not very long, second joint about one and one-half times as long as
last joint. Dorsum elongate, broadest in middle, surface rather
evenly, densely, and minutely punctate; lateral furrows not reach-
ing to eves; festoons distinctly limited. Legs short, IV (P1. VI, fig.
2) pair but little if any larger than I, all hairy beneath; coxa I (P1.
VI, fig. 3) with two spines, the outer the longer, a flattened tubercle
on cox II and III, IV with a slender spine behind about as long as
width of the joint; stigmal plate (P1. VT, fig. 3) long, semielliptical,
its tip slightly turned up, surface with many minute granulations.
Length of male, 2.4 mm.
Femle.-The shield is brown, reddish brown, or almost black,
often paler in front, on the posterior lobe a large prominent yellow-
ish spot; leas more or less brownish yellow. Capitulum (P1. VI,
fig. 4) rather narrow, hind angles rounded, porose areas elliptic,
divergent, and well separated; palpi slender, second joint twice as
long as last. Sield pentagonal, about as broad as long, broadest
much in front of the middle, apex nearly truncate, its surface densely
punctate: body without hairs; legs very slender, no spurs at tips of
any metatarsi; coxe armed as in the male, except that the spine on
coxa IV is barely longer than the tubercles on coxve II and III.
Stigmal plate (P1. VI, fig. 1) subtriangular, its surface minutely
granulate.
Length of female shield, 1.7 mn.
Specimens come from various places in the Eastern States-Wash-
ington, D. C.; Falls Church, Va.; Cape Charles, Va.; Chapel Hill,
N. C.; Bee Spring and Smiths Grove, Ky.; Springfield, Willow
Springs, and St. Louis (Packard's type), Mo.; Florida; Agricultural
College, Mich.; Shreveport, La.; Austin, Kerrville, Llano, Dallas,
Mountain Home, and Hockley, Tex. Marx recorded it from Lab-
rador and Sanborn from Massachusetts. Fitch recorded it from
New York, and it was described by Linnaeus from Pennsylvania and
New Jersey.


40






AMBLYOMMA AMERICANUM LINNIEUS.


It is now rather uncommon in the Eastern States, never as common
as Dermacentor vaabilis. Fitch wrote in 1870 that although for-
inerly abundant it had then become nearly extinct, he having seen
only one specimen from New York, and that taken forty years before
he wrote. He says that it occurs in the Southwest in woodlands,
and not in cleared sections. It is often taken from cattle, occasion-
ally from horses, hogs, dogs, and goats, once from panther and wolf,
sometimes from ian, and rarely from any of the small mammals. It
is commonly known as the lone star tick," because of the single
yellow spot on shield of female.
The Acarts ame-icamw, of Linnaus was taken by the traveler
Peter Kalm, in 1754, in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Its descrip-
tion will fit only to that species later described by Packard as Ixodes
uipunctata. Koch correctly identified and figured the species, but
Neumann in his Revision" considered ame picaius to apply to the
Dermacentor electus Koch. Later he changed, and used ainercanus
for this species. Fitch correctly identified the species.

Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius.
falc.-Pale yellowish or brownish yellow, with several irregular
silvery white marks and streaks each side, and a number of brown,
often reddish brown, spots, all arranged to form a definite., but com-
plex, pattern; some of the pale spots behind are bordered with brown.
Legs and palpi wholly pale yellowish, or greenish yellow, tarsi some-
times darker. Capitulum subtriangular, hind angIes rounded: palpi
longer than width of the capitulun, the middle joint more than
twice as long as the last; body broad, oval, broadest behind middle,
with many rather small, subequal punctures, but with four convex
smooth spots each side, and a smooth median streak behind : lateral
furrows very distinct, reaching fully up to the eves: behind are
twelve deeply impressed lines, the festoons fully twice as long as
broad. Legs rather slender, tarsi long, hind tarsus (P. VT fig. 6)
with three consecutive teeth below, one at apex: no spurs at tip of
any metatarsi, but long hairs below on all joints: coxe I (P1. VII,
fig. 2) with two spines, the outer one much the longer, coxe II and
III each with a mere tubercle, coxa IV (P1. VII, fig. 2) with a spine
about as long as width of the joint. Stigmal plate (P1. VII, fig. 1)
very long and slender, its surface with many minute granulations.
Length of male, 2.7 mam.
Female.-Yellowish; capitulum with some dark on the margin,
shield mostly silvery, with a brown line on each margin reaching
back from the eyes; legs pale greenish yellow, tarsi often dark, espe-
cially of legs I and. IT. Capitulum (P1. VII, fig. 1) much broader
than long, hind angles acute; porose areas nearly circular, and widely


41






IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


separated; palpi slender, longer than width of the capitulum, mid-
dle joint about twice as long as last. Shield pentagonal, a little
broader than long, anterior sides slightly convex, posterior sides
straight, tip rounded; surface densely punctate; body with scattered
white hairs. Legs slender, tarsi (P1. VII, fig. 2) long, cox, armed
as in the male, except that the spine on coxa IV is barely larger than
that on cox II and III. Stigmal plate (P1. VII, fig. 2) subtri-
angular, as broad behind as long, concave on upper outer edge, its
surface covered with minute granules.
Length of female shield, 1.8 mm.
Specimens come from various places in the South and Southwest.
It is abundant in southern Texas-San Antonio, Victoria, Browns-
ville, Tvalde, Rocks Resaca. Weets Ranch, Live Oak County, San
Tomas, etc. I have it also from Biscayne Bay, Florida; Fort Bowie,
Ariz., aid San Diego County, California. The species occurs also
in Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America.
It infests a great variety of animals, but is not common on cattle or
horses. This species was describedd from Surinam, and later, by
Koch, front Brazil under several names. To this species also belongs,
I believe. the IxodcN iCiP( I(t of Say, for none of our other species
so aptly fits his description.

Genus DERMACENTOR Koch.
Venter showing indistinctly a curve(l groove 1)ehind the anus, from
which a median line exten(s to niargin of body. Capitulumn not
angulate ()n sidles : porose areas elliptic and transverse. Palpi short
a(i broa(1, the second joinit barely longer than broad and with a basal
projectioni above, hut not outward. Shield usually marked with
white; ocelli present. Coxa I strongly bidentate behind; coxa IV
of male nmuch larger than other coxwP, and leg IV larger than other
legs. Abdomen shows festoons behind (except in distendedd female).
No anal plates to male. Stigmal plate large, usually reniform in
female, more elongate in male. Tarsi II, III, and IV indistinctly
divided, the parts subequal in length, and a minute tooth-like claw
at apex.
Type.-D. r ticulatws Fabricius.
TABLE OF THE SPECIES.
1. Females 2--------2
Males ---------------------------------------------------------8
2. Stigmal plate nearly circular, with from ten to twenty very large more
or less isolated granulations; shield without distinct punctures; color
dark red-brown, without markings --------------------------nitens.
Stigmal plate with many much smaller, more crowded granulations;
shield distinctly punctured, and usually with some pale markings-_ 3


42







Tech. Series 15, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. 1.-Amblyoimtma americanun, male, and stigmal plate of female. Fig. 2.-Awblgomma ameri-
canum, stigmal plate of nymph and tarsus IV. Fig. 3.-Amtblyomnma aiaericanurn, hypostome,
shield, and capitulum of nymph, stigmal plate of male, and coxa I. Fig. 4.-Amblyomma
americanum, capitulum of female. Fig. 5.-Amblyomnma mactlatimn, tarsus IV, and coxo I and
IV. Fig. 6.-Ainblyornma cajennense, tarsus IV and mandible of male. Fig. 7.-Amblyom ma
maculatum, tarsus I, and stigmal plate of male. Fig. 8.-Ainblyomma tuberculatun, capitulum of
female, stigmal plate of male and of female. Fig. 9.-Anmblyomma maculatum, stigmal plate of
female. Fig. 1O.-Amblyomma maculatum, capitulum of female. (Original.)


PLATE V1.










Tech. Series 15, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. 1.-Amblowmna cajemcense, capitulum of female and stigmal plate of male. Fig. 2.-Ambl/-
omma cajennense, stigmal plate and tarsus I of female, cox I and IV of male. Fig. 3.-Derma-
cewtor variabili. capitulum and stigmal plate of female. Fig. 4.-l)(macentor iwri(tbi., capi-
tulum of male. Fig. 5.-Drmacentor albipictus, shield of female. Fig. 6.-Arniaccntor
variabilis, leg I of larva. Fig. 7.--crmacntor nitefls, coxa I. leg IV of male, and shield and
capitulum of nymph. Fig. S.-Deriwcentor i(ariabilis, tarsus I. Fig. 9.-Dernmc dor albipictus,
stigmal plate of female and capitulum of female and of male. Fig. 1O.-Dermacentor nitcfns,
stigmal plates of male and female, capitulum and shield of female. Fig. 11.-Dermacentor
albipictus, coxa IV and stigmal plate of male. (Original.)


PLATE V1l.









GENUS DERMACENTOR KOCH. 43

3. Stigmal plate about as broad as long, with short and broad dorsal pro-
longation, and covered with many very minute granules, scarcely visi-
ble as such; shield plainly longer than broad, and much streaked with
white -----------------------------------------------------ariabilis.
Stigmal plate with much larger granules, at least near the peritreme___ 4
4. Stigmal plate without distinct dorsal prolongation; shield plainly
longer than broad ------------------------------------------------5
Stigmal plate with a more or less distinct dorsal prolongation ---------6
5. Shield mostly white, with brown streaks anid spots; porose areas close
together ---------------------_------------- (1bipictls.
Shield dark red-brown, with very little white: porose areas rather
widely separate .....g------------------ rolineatus.
6. Shield mostly white, about as broad as long -------------------------7
Shield without white, or but little, plainly a little longer than broad,
porose areas but little longer than broad, and well separated.
parutnapcrt Us.
7. Porose areas very small: stigmal plate with rather wide dorsal prolon-
gation ------------------------ ----- cdcentlis.
Porose areas larger: stigmal plate with a more narrow dorsal prolon-
gation -------------------------------------------- rcnustus.
8. Stigmal plate with from four to ten very large isolated granules;
dorsum without white4marks, only eight impressed lines behind_ 11itens.
Stigmal plate with many smaller, more crowded granules: twelve iii-
pressedl holes behind ----------------------------------------------9
9. Stigmal late about as broad behind as long, with dorsal prolongation,
the granulations extremely minute; dorsum marked with white
streaks and spots ------------------------------------------ariabilis.
Stigmal plate usually plainly longer than broad ; the granulations
much larger -------------------------- 10
10. Stigmnal plate without distinct apical prolongation; the sides of body
more nearly parallel ----------------------------------------------11
Stigmal plate with distinct apical prolongation; sides of body more
divergent ----------------------------------------- --- 12
11. Dorsumni mostly white. with brown streaks and spots in a, pattern ; hind
angles of the cal)itulnm but little produced: coxa IV about one-half
as long as broad on base; large species -- ..lbipictU.s.
Dorsum red-brown, with black lines, no white; hind angles of capitulum
much prolonged; coxa IV not twice as broad on base as long; species
of moderate size -------------------------------- nigrojlileatus.
12. Dorsum with few, if any, white spots; coxa IV about as long as broad
at base; hind angles of capitululn moderately produced parii iiapertu.?.
Dorsumn largely white, or much spotted with white ------------------13
13. Stigmal plate more attenuate behind; coxa IV about one-half as long
as broad at base ; hind angles of capitulum moderately produced- ven ust us.
Stigmal plate less attenuate behind: coxa IV not twice as broad on base
as long; hind angles of capitulum much produced -- occidentalis.

Dermacentor bifurcatus Neumann.
This species was described as an Ixodes, and based on a young
female from a wild cat, from Texas. Later Neumann placed it as
a synonym of Ixodes brunneits Koch, then still later stated that it
was a Dernacentor. It is, therefore, evidently a nymph of some





IXODOIDEA., OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


of the previously described Dermacentors; the shape of the stigmal
plate would. indicate D. tariabilis, but the lack of markings would
indicate D. partimapertus. Among Doctor Marx's drawings are
several figures of this specimen, and they are presented on the plates
(See P1. X, fig. 1) so that when the life histories of all of our
Dermacentors are known it will be possible to place this name under
the species to which it belongs.
I have not been able to locate the specimen which, according to
Doctor Neumann (in litt.), should be in the National Museum collec-
tion, but it was not in the material returned, nor indicated on the
list of material returned to the Museum.

Dermacentor albipictus Packard. (P1. X, fig. 11.)
JMale.-White above, with brown spots and streaks in a definite
pattern; capitulum, palpi, and legs white above, rest reddish brown.
Capitulum (P1. VII, fig. 9) quite broad, hind angles produced, but
not as long as in D. occideotcdlis; palpi short, not nearly as long as
width of capitulum. Dorsum more slender than in most species,
fully one and three-fourths times as long as broad, with a great
many rather small punctures, lateral grooves not very distinct, pos-
terior margin with twelve impressed lines. Legs rather large and
long, fourth pair much larger than others, teeth below large and
distinct. Coxa armed as usual; coxw IV (P1. VII, fig. 11) plainly
wider on base than long. Stiglnal plate (P1. VII, fig. 11) elliptical,
without distinct dorsal prolongation, its surface provided with many
large granules.
Length of male, 4 mm.
Fcmaltc.-Capitulum, palpi, and legs white above, reddish or yel-
lowish brown beneath; shield mostly white, a long median streak,
not reaching apex, a narrower, stripe each side, and some spots near
eyes, red-brown; elsewhere the white is rarely broken by small brown
spots; abdomen dark red-brown. Capitulum (P1. VII, fig. 9) quite
broad,, its hind angles only slightly produced, the porose areas very
large, and not far apart, the palpi very short and broad, the shield
(P1. VII, fig. 5) plainly longer than broad, usually much longer, and
broadest much before the middle, the punctures few and not promi-
nent. Abdomen rather more elongate, the sides more nearly parallel
than in allied forms. Legs long, the coxw armed as usual; stigmal
plate (P1. VII, fig. 9) large, semielliptical, without distinct dorsal
prolongation, and covered with many large granules.
Length of female shield, 2-2.2 mm.
This tick occurs throughout the northern parts of the United
States and in Canada. I have seen specimens from Adirondack
Mountains, New York; Michigan; Nebraska; Montana; Bear, Idaho;
Nevada, and Pullman, Wash. It has usually been taken from moose





DERMACENTOR ALBIPICTUS PACKARD.


and wapiti, but also recorded from the beaver. Packard first used
the name albipictus for this moose tick, as shown in the appended
catalogue, but later placed under this name a specimen of D. varia-
bibs. The types from the moose are still in the Museum of Com-
parative Zoology, where I have examined them. Neumann, using
Marx's manuscript name, described it as D. ,ariegatus.
The species is distinguished by its elongate form, especially the
long shield, the shape and sculpture of the stigmal plate, and by its
large size. This latter character, however, is variable, and specimens
are found that are not much larger than the ordinary D. tlariabilis.

Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann.
J1ale.-Dark red-brown, legs a trifle paler, no white markings.
except sometimes a few small spots, and a minute white spot at tips of
some joints of the legs. Capitulum (P1. VIII. fig. 10) moderately
broad, hind angles only very slightly produced; palpi very short, not
as long as width of capitulum ; dorsum one and two-thirds times as
long as broad, with many scattered, deep, but not very large
punctures, submarginal furrow very distinct on the sides, less so
behind; twelve impressed lines near posterior margin. Coxaw spined
as usual, hind coxv barely wider on base than long, legs rather short,
hind pair not so much larger than the others, and the teeth below
small and indistinct. Stigmal plate (P1. VIII, fig. 10) elongate.
attenuate behind, the fore part around peritreme with large granules,
a few down on the narrow portion. which is covered with smaller
granules.
Length of male, 2.8 mm.
Female.-Shield and capitulum dark red-brown or almost black,
without marks; abdomen blackish, legs red-brown, a faint white
mark at tips of some of the joints. Capitulum (P1. VIII, fig. 10)
moderately broad, hind angles distinctly prolonged behind, porose
areas rather small, nearly circular, and well separated; palpi as long
as width of capitulum. Shield (P1. VIII, fig. 10) plainly a little
longer than broad, with many deep punctures, those in the depressed
area each side especially large and numerous, almost confluent. Legs
rather small and short,- coxa- armed as usual. Stigmal plate (P1.
VIII, fig. 8) small, with a distinct, although short and broad, dorsal
prolongation, most of the surface with rather large granules, but
those on the prolongation very small.
Length of female shield, 1.1 mm.
Specimens are from Lakeside, Cal. (also Neumann's type in the
Marx Coll.), taken on man, and in a chicken house.
Distinguished from other forms most readily by lack of white on
shield, by porose areas, and stigmal plate. After describing this


45





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS1 OF THE UNITED STATES.


species, Neumann later made it a variety of electus (variabivis),
but it differsin many important characters from that species, and the
granulations of the stigmal plate are much larger.

Dermacentor parumapertus var. marginatus n. var.
This form agrees in general with the true D. parumapertus, but
differs in several minor points. The posterior border of the female
shield (P1. VIII, fig. 6) is margined with white; the porose areas
are larger and rather closer together; the lateral lobes of the shield
have fewer punctures. and the shield is more contracted behind the
eyes: the stigmal plate of the female (P1. VIII, fig. G) has a narrower
dorsal prolongation, and the inner margin is more convex; the
posterior angle-, of the capitulum (P1. VIII, fig. G) are less promi-
nent. Otherwise it is very similar to the type.
Several specimens from Mesa City, Ariz., from a jack rabbit
(Cordlev ).

Dermacentor venustus ii. sp.
Male-Red-brown, marked with white, but not so extensively as
in D. occ(- ,italox, usually but little white on the middle posterior
region; legs pIler red-brown, tips of joints whitish. Capitulum
(P1. VIII, fig. 5) quite broad, its posterior angles only slightly pro-
duced; palpi very short and broad, not as long as width of capitulum.
Dor nm about one and two-thirds or one and three-fourths times as
long as broad, with many. not very large, punctures; lateral furrows
distinct. Legs of moderate size, hind pair plainly larger and heavier,
and with the teeth below distinct. Coxe armed as usual, the coxa
IV (P1. VIII, fig. 4) nearly twice as wide at base as long. Stigmal
plate (P1. VIII, fig. 5) with a rather narrow dorsal prolongation,
with large granules on the main part and minute ones on the pro-
longation.
Length of male, 3.5 to 5 mam.
Female-.Capitulum and legs reddish brown, the latter with tips
of joints whitish; shield mostly covered with white-this white not
so much broken up by the brown dots as in oceidentaliU; abdomen
red-brown. Capitulum (P1. VIII, fig. 5) rather broad, posterior
angles but little produced, the porose areas rather large, egg-shaped,
and quite close together; palpi shorter than width of capitulum.
Shield (P1. VIII, fig. 7) as broad as long, broadest slightly before
the middle, and rather pointed behind, with numerous, not very large
punctures. Legs of moderate size, the coxo armed as usual. The
stigmal plate (P1. VIII, fig. 5) has a rather narrow dorsal prolonga-
tion, with large granules on the main part, and small ones on the
prolongation.
Length of female shield, 2 mm.


46







Tech. Series 15, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. 1.-Dermacentor occidentalis, capitulum of male and female, shield of female, and tarsus IV
of male. Fig. 2.-Dermacentor occidentalis, coxa- I and IV of male, stigmal plates of male and
female. Fig. 3.-Dermacentor nigrolinfatus, stigmal plate of female. Fig. 4.-Dermacentor
venustus, coxa IV of male. Fig. 5.-Drmacentor renustus, capitulum and stigmal plates of
male and female. Fig. 6.-Dermacentor parumapertus var. marginatus, stigmal plate, capitu-
lum, and shield of female. Fig. 7.-Dermacentor cenustus, shield of female. Fig. 8.-Derma-
eentorparumapertus, stigmal plate of female. Fig. 9.-Derinacentor nigrolineatu8, capitulum of
female. Fig. 1O.-Dermacentor parumapertus, shield and capitulum of female, stigmal plate
and capitulum of male. Fig. 1.-Dermacentor nigrolineatus, stigmal plate and capitulum of
male. (Original.)


PLATE V111.








DERMACENTOR VENUSTUS N. SP.


Specimens come from various places in the West; Olympia, Ya-
kima, Klikitat Valley, and Grand Coulee, Wash.; Fort Collins and
Boulder, Colo.; Pecos and Las Cruces, N. Mex.; Bozeman, Mont.;
Bridger Basin, Utah; Soldier, Idaho, and Texas (on sheep).
This species is quite common in the Northwest. It has been in-
cluded in D. occidentalis by Neumann, but was separated out by
Doctor Marx in manuscript under the name I have adopted. It is
larger than D. occidentalis, with more red and less white in the color-
ing, and differs in many minor points of structure, as size of porose
areas, size of hind coxce in male, etc. This is the species supposed
to be concerned in the transmission of spotted fever in Montana.
Dermacentor occidentalis Neumann. (P1. X, fig. 9.)
ilale.-Red-brown, with many waxy-white markings, often with a
waxy bloom, sometimes almost wholly white, but there is red-brown
near the eyes, on the festoons, and several submedian spots; moreover,
the white is broken by the many red-brown punctures; legs pale red-
dish brown, marked with white above. Capitulum (P1. VIII, fig. 1)
rather narrow, and the hind angles prolonged into very prominent
spines; palpi very short, not as long as the width of the capithiltmt;
dorsum not much more than one and one-half times as long as broad,
with many punctures, but mostly small; lateral furrows distinct and
long, twelve indented lines behind. Legs of moderate size, tarsus IV
(P1. VIII, fig. 1) with two very distinct teeth below and ome less
prominent, teeth on other joints distinct; coxve (P1. VIII, fig. 2)
armed as usual; coxv IV about one and one-half times as wide at base
as long. Stiginal plate (P1. VIII, fig. 2) elongate, with a broad
turned-up tip, almost truncate; large granulations on the m1-aii part,
small ores on the tip.
Length of male, .3 to 3.5 AM.
Female.-Shield red-brown, ntostlv covered with white, reA-brown
near eyes and in the middle region, ond the white broken up by the
many brown dots at punctures; capitulum and legs red-brown, latter
white at tips of joints, and generally paler above than below; abdo-
men dark red-brown. Capitulum (P1. VIII, fig. 1) rather small,
the hind angles prominent, and the poros- areas very sina 11 and rather
close together. Shield (P1. VIII. fig. 1) about as broad as long,
broadest before middle, and rather pointed behind, with many small
punctures and some larger, but not nearly as many large ones as in D.
parumapertus. Legs rather small, coxv armed as usual. Stigmal
plate (P1. VIII, fig. 2) with a broad dorsal prolongation, with large
granulations in the main part, and minute ones on the prolongation.
Length of female shield, 1.5 mm.


47





48 IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.

Nearly all specimens come from California-Occidental, San
Diego, Goose Lake, Siskiyou County, Santa Clara County, Humboldt
County; some taken from deer.
Closely related to D. eenustus, but with a more narrow capitulum,
and with a broader prolongation to stigmal plate, in the male by
shorter hind coxve, and in the female by smaller porose areas. Taken
together, I think these characters indicate its distinctness from D.
r'en 1s tus.
Neumann first considered D. ocidentas and D. venustus of Marx
as identical with the European D. reticulatus. There are, how-
ever, many differences, as he later recognized, and reticulatus
(P1. X, fig. 10) does not, as far as now known, occur in our country.
When he described occidenfdlis, Neumann included with it .
'Cnstws of Marx manuscript. However. I have restricted the name to
the form to which Marx applied it. ocidentals may perhaps be
credited to Curtice, for in a paper a on ticks in general he refers to
this species under this name and with a few words of description;
hardly, however, sufficient to identify it, and evidently not intended
to be a description of a new species.

Dermacentor nigrolineatus Packard.
M(ec.- Rather pale red-brown. no white markings, but the black
cwecal utarks show through in most specimens as several irregular
lines behind: legs more yellow-brown. Capitulum (P1. VIII, fig.
11) small and narrowv its posterior angles produced into long spines;
palpi very small an( stout. I)orstum slender, about one and two-thirds
times as long as broad : middle anterior region smooth and shining,
sides and behind densely punctured, and with many short hairs;
lateral furrows not very distinct, twelve impressed lines behind, but
the festoons are not as obvious as usual. Legs rather short, coxT,
with usual spines. coxa IV but little wider at base than long; stigmal
plate (P1. VIII, fig. 11) large, elliptical, without dorsal prolongation,
and covered with many large granules.
Length of male, 3.5 mm.
Ferle.-Shield red-brown. without marks; legs similar; abdomen
dark red-brown. Capitulum (P1. VIII, fig. 9) scarcely twice as broad
as long; hind angles distinctly prolonged behind; porose areas large,
oval, and distinctly separated; palpi small and short, not as long as
width of capitulum. Shield plainly longer than broad, broadest
much before the middle, tapering and almost pointed behind, with
very few punctures. Legs small and short, the tarsi very short;
coxoe with the usual spines, that on IV no longer than on III. Stig-
a About cattle ticks. Journ. Comp. Med. Vet. Archives, January, 1892.







Tech. Series 15, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. 1.-Ixodes scup luris, fresh female, and male attached to female. Fig. 2-I.rodrs scapularis,
female, coxa I, male, female stigmal plate, venter of female, and rostrum from beneath.
Fig. 3.-Lodcs d(titates, engorged female, shield, and capitulum. Fig. 4.-Iods rookei, male
and female above and below, stigmal plate, and rostrum from beneath. Fig. 5.-Leodes ricinus,
engorged female, above and below. Fig. 6.-Ceratixodes putus, stigmal plate and capitulum.
Fig. 7.-xodes deidatus, rostrum from below. Fig. 8.-Ixodes marxi, engorged female. (Draw-
ings by the late Dr. George Marx.) (Original.)


36657-No. 15-08-5


PLATE IX.














































































































j







Tech. Series 15, Bureau of Entomotogy, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


N


9Aar/X,del.
IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.
Fig. 1.-Dermacentor bifurcatiis. nymph, coxw, shield, venter, palpus, stigmal plate, and capitulum.
Fig 2.-Hxrmaphysalis 1eporis-pahstris, male, and rostrum of female beneath. Fig. 8-Derma-
centor variabilis, engorged female, above and below. Fig. 4.-Dermnacutor variabilb, male,
above and beneath, and stigmal plate of female. Fig. 5.-Avnblyomnma aniiric(nwu, nymph,
above and below. Fig. 6.-ttuaphysalis leporis-paltstris, fresh and engorged females.
Fig. 7.-Margaropus annalatas, capitulum of female, above and beneath. Fig. 8.-Margaropus
annulatus, capitulum of male, above and beneath. Fig. 9.-Derniacentor occidentalis, male.
Fig. 1O.-Derrnacentor reticidatits, male. Fig. 11.-Dermacentor albipictus, male. (Drawings by
the late Dr. George Marx.) (Original.)


PLATE X.


LIZ -








DERMACENTOR NICROLINEATUS PACKARD.


mal plate (P1. VIII, fig. 3) elliptical, of same shape as in male, no
dorsal prolongation, and covered with many large granules.
Length of female shield, 1.2 mam.
Specimens in the New York State collection at Albany, probably
from Adirondack Mountains; Packard's type, which I have seen,
was from deer from this region: I have some from Catskill Moun-
tains, New York, in June. Recently Mr. AV. D. Iunter has received
several specimens taken by Mr. Rumsey from deer at Laredo. Tex..
and Mr. H. S. Barber took one from deer at Crab Lake. Vila-- County.
Wis. Neumann placed this species in Lraina)/wa ls as a sylnyltn of
the European 1. (oncbiva, a species which now seems not to occur in
our country. It is allied to D. ulbip.tus, but differs in shape of
stigma plate, more distinctly separated porose areas. sharper hind
angles to the capituluni, shield more pointed behind, and in shorter
tarsi. Quite possibly it is the Iodes errata-., of Say.

Dermacentor variabilis Say. (P. X, fig's. 3, 4.)
Jfail.-Red-brown. (1orsuni with irregular white marks, the usual
pattern being a subinarginal stripe each side. starting from the an-
terior angles and reaching straight back to )eyond the inid(dle. where
they unite, or nearly so, and thence giving ofl branches straight back-
ward and obliquely outward to the side margin: along the sides and
on the festoons are scattered white spots. Specimens front Texas
and Florida often have these markiiigs mmore extensive and more con-
nected together, and some white on the median anterior part of (dor-
sum. Legs red-brown, the tips of the joints white. Caplitulum (P1.
VII, fig. 4) about twice as broad as long, its posterior angles '-lightly
produced; palpi nearly as long as width of the capituhum. 1)orsum
fully one and one-half times as long as broad, with many deep and
prominent pune'tures. but the anterior median region nearly free of
them: lateral grooves distinct: twelve impressed lines behind I egs
rather long and stout. hind pair much heavier than the others. and
the teeth below distinct. Coxa, armed as usual for the genus, the
hind coxTe but little broader than long. Stigma plate large and
broad, with a short dorsal prolongation, surface densely covered with
minute granules.
Length of male, 4 mm.
Femuale.-Red-brown, shield with white on the sides, and broadly
around the tip: a brown marginal stripe near eye. and sometimes
two white streaks in the middle area. Legs red-brown, tips of the
joints white. Capitulum (Pl. VII, fig. 3) fully twice as broad as
posterior angles only slightly produced, the porose areas oval,
of moderate size, and well separated;- palpi short and very broad.
Shield plainly a little longer than broad, broadest at middle, and


49





IXODOIDEA., OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


posteriorly almost angulate; punctures large, but not very numerous,
and few in middle area, usually four forming a trapezium behind the
middle. Legs (P1. VII, fig. 8) rather large and long, the hind pairs
with distinct teeth beneath; coxa armed as usual. Stigmal plate (P1.
VII, fig. 3; P1. X, fig. 4) large and very broad, in fact as broad
behind as long, and covered with many minute granules.
Length of female shield, 2 mam.
Specimens come from many places in the eastern United States,
from Labrador to Florida and Texas. West of the Mississippi it
is not common, and perhaps only introduced with stock.
This s)ecies, described by Say- is probably identical with the Ixodes
citc.(, of Fabricius from North America. Koch's 1). cl(cttws is the
same species. It was considered by Neumann at first to be the Ixodes
at(ii(.(U of Linntiis,. but later he accepted Koch's identification of
I. a1(//I/.(11 (U as an -lm !bI/omma au, and used D. cccthUs forthis Derlna-
cetow'. Fitch's descriptions of i. ro)bcrtsolm and I. 5)-stvf)Wt8 offer
nothing contrary to this forln. Although the western specimens
mn igilht 1Iae eei another species, the specimens from Virginia must
have ),en I). ,'ar/Ub
Ilie patterns of the white markings is Lpractically constant, but the
amuouint of white present is vaiale. The species is readily known
by the broad stignmal plate and the minute Lrmnulation thereon. It
has been taken from a great variety of animals, including man, but
seenis to prefer (ogs and (cattle to smaller animals, doubtless due to
the fact that tie freshly moulted individuals climb up several feet
from the ground in wait for a host. In the larva tarsus I is much
enla rged1.

Dermacentor nitens Neumann.
J c.-Redi~-birown. without markings: legs rather yellowish brown.
Capitlmin rather narrow, hind angles acute, but scarcely prolonged;
palpi very short and small, shorter than the hypostome and no longer
than the length of the capitulum. Dorsum one and two-thirds as
long as lr)ad, broadest slightly behind the middle, shiny, with some
punctures in front and on the sides, and behind are seven or eight
impressed lines; the lateral furrows are not very distinct, usually
three impressed groovees or furrows on the posterior half of dorsum;
some scattered hairs, mostly on the sides behind. Legs rather long,
fourth pair (P1. VII, fig. 7) plainly larger than others, and the
teeth below very evident; coxa I (P1. VII, fig. 7) with the usual two
teeth, neither very long: coxa II with two equal projections; coxa
III with two tubercles, and coxa IV, which is no broader than long,
with the usual tooth. Stigmial plate (P1. VII. fig. 10) but little
longer than broad, with from four to ten large, isolated granules.
Length of male, 2.5 to 2.7 mm.


50





DERMACENTOR NITENS NEUNIANN.


Female.-Wholly red-brown, legs paler, and abdomen darker, no
white markings. Capitulum (P1. VII, fig. 10) of moderate width,
with the hind angles only slightly prolonged: porose areas rather
large, well separated, and directed more forward than in other
species; palpi very short, not reaching to tip of hypostome. Shield
(P1. VII, fig. 10) a trifle longer than broad, broadest in front of
middle, very finely punctured. in middle region in front. and on the
sides, are irregular wrinkles. Legs rather long. teeth on coxa' shorter
than usual: stigmal plate (P1. VII. fig. 10) nearly circular, provided
with ten to twenty more or less isolated granules. all of large size.
Length of female shield. 1.4 mim.
This species was described from Jamaica and Santo Domingo.
Recently it has been taken at Brownsville and Harlingen, Tex.. and
I have some from Fort Bowie, Ariz. In the Museum of Compara-
tive Zoology there are specimens from Girand Anse. Hayti. taken
about forty years ago. It appears to prefer horses. and usually oc-
curs in the ears.
D. u/te.s is strongly separated from all our other species of the
genus. Especially noticeable is the scull)ture of the stignal plate
the few impressed lines behind with the male are also peculiar. Like-
wise the very short palpi, shorter than the hypostome. constitute a
peculiar character again seen in the cattle tick. and. as in that species.
may indicate some habit connected with the dissemination of dis-
ease.
UNPLACED SPECIES.
Ixodes erraticus Say.
Bodv oblong-ovate, gradial v narrowed )efore, sides hardly ar-
quated, with distant punctures. those behind more deeply impressed,
posterior margin with ten or twelve inlpressed lines which are
breviated by a submarginal impressed line two abbreviated lines be-
fore; head, posterior edge transversely rectilinear, angles extended
backward abruptly, and sul)acute : rost uin rather short: palpi oval-
orbicular. Found in the Southern States; the color is reddish or
ferruginous. with acute black lines." [It may be e ,wccitw ji-
qroliteatht Pack.]

Ixodes fuscus Say.
lBody fuscous. ovate, punctured, tergum with a few black. obso-
lete lines, and a profoundly indented submarginal line, posterior
marginal impressed line none; no distinct thorax; edge rounded;
head, posterior edge rectilinear, angles not promillient beyond the
rectilinear edge: eyes not visible; palpi suboval, terminal joint rather
longer than the preceding one. A common species." [A true Ixodes,
and probably the male of I. scaptlaris Say.]





IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE U


Ixodes cinctus Fabricius.
"iReliquis. magis oblongus. Caput ferrugineum. Scutellum tri-
angulum, ferrugineun, margine albo. Thorax et abdomen ferruginea,
antice cerea, scutellum late alba. Pedes ferruginei. Habitat in
America boreali Dom. v. Rohr. Mus. Dom. de Schestedt." [Either
Deirrmceotor eradatbi;,us Say or Amb lyoimna maculatum Koch, and
probably the former.]

SPECIES ERRONEOUSLY ACCREDITED TO THE UNITED STATES.

Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius. (Pl. X, fig. 10.)
Neumann at first identified the forms now called P. occidental
and P. 'cwUNsts s this European species. As shown above, these
species ar (1uite distinct, and there is no evidence that the true D.
it'f occurs in this country.

Ixodes frontalis Panzer.
As I have stated llnder Ixods brinuefis, Neunann's identification
of I. froutal4s was based on specuens of I. bruineu.

Ixodes inchoatus Neumanin.
Neumann questionably recorde(l this from the United States, but
the specmens asI have stated llnd(er I. arxil differ greatly from the
Eurocan I. i'Whoatis, and with more material I have described
themii as a new species-I. u,,arx.

Haemaphysalis concinna Koch.
As exl)laiue(l un(lel D. r/autor I/y!oubuatl, the record of II.
COP(uiua, is based oi a iisidentification of Packard's species.

CATALOGUE.
IXODOIDEA.
ARGASID.L
A 1R( AS.

Latreille, I'r(cis Caract. Ins., p. 178, 1796.
MINIATUS Koch, Arch. f. Naturg., X, p. 219, 1844; Salmon and Stiles, 17th Ann.
Rept. Bur. Anim. Ind., U. S. Dept. Agric., p. 402, 1902.
amewricana Packard, Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv. Mont., Idaho, Wyom., Utah,
1). 740, 1S72; Neumann, Mm. Soc. Zool. France, 1896, p. 9.
radiatuo Railliet, Trait6 Zool. Med., p. 718, 1893.
persicus Neumann, Arch. Parasitol., IX, p. 240, 1905 (not of Fischer).
saiichczi I)ugLs, La Naturaleza (2), I, p. 20, 191; Neumann, M6. Soc.
Zool. France, 1896, p. 16; ibid., 1901, p. 255.
BREVIPES Banks, supra, p. 15, 1908.
REFLEXUS Fabricius, Entom. Syst., IV, p. 426, 1794; Neumann, Mm. Soc. Zool.
France, 1896, p. 4. [Doubtful in U. S.]


52






CATALOGUE. 53

ORNITITOI(1),OS.

Koch, Arch. f. Nature., X, 1). 219, 1844.

MEGNINI Dug s, La Naturaleza Mexicana, VI, 1). 11.97. 1S3: MIcgnin, Journ.
Anat. Physiol., XXI, p. 472, 185: Neumnann, M(Sm. Soe. Zool. France,
1896, p. 42; Salmon and Stiles, 17th Ann. Rept. Bur. Anita. Ind.,
U. S. Dept. Agric., p. 408, 1902.
spijosum I Marx, Proc. Ent. Soe. Wash, III, p. 191., 1VS95 (Ihynchoprion).
TURICATA I)uges. La Naturaleza Mexicana, VI, p. 19)6, IS38; Mglnin, Journ.
Anat. Physiol., XXI, 1). 46, 1S85; Neiumanin, \6m. S(oe. Zool. France,
1896, ). 31.
autcricanws Marx, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., III, p. 199, 189 5.
CORIACEUS Koch, Arch. f. Naturg., X, p). 219, 1844; libersieht Archn. Syst., IV,
p. 31, 1847; Neumann, M Soc. Zool. France, 1,S96, 1). "1: ibid., 1901,
p. 258.
TALAJE (4ueriiu, Uev. et Mag. de Zool., 149), p. 342: MI&gnin, Journ. Anat. PIhysiol.,
XXI, 1). 470, 185; Neumann, Mfm. Soc. Zool. France, 1(i6. 1). 34.

IXODID2E.

Ixodinae.

I X0 )4.:S.

Latreille, I'l'('is (C'nrit. lls., 1). 17. 17!)(;.

ANGUSTUS Neuanna M['111. S()c. Z( o]. FI'ain(e, 1S9.9, 1}). 1 : ;: i))( i.. 1901. 1). 2S4.
ARCTICUS Osb)orn, Fur SeaIs an(1 Fur SealI sl; l (of the North I'acific ()(.cau,
III, ). -55, 1899.
BRUNNEUS Koch, Arch. f. Nature., X, 1p. 232. 1844, Ibcrsicht Arachii. Svst.,
IV, 1). 101, 1847: Neunii, Arch. I'arasitol.. VIII, 1). 454. 190. 4.
kIllog!yi Nuttall anid Wail inrton, 1I'ro. ('am i)r. Phil()s. S)(., XIV, 1). 190S;, ] 4)8.
CALIFORNI(CUS Bfllk.S, Proc. (',d. Acad. Sc. (8). III, 1). 3W9, 19()4.
COOKLI Packard, 1st Ain. Rept. Pel)o(dy A(ad. Sci., 1). 17, ;s.
ci'ci(wIoU Fitch, 14th Rept. Ins. N. .. 1'. 166, 1 871.
hcxafomUs var. lonfj pisn1osus Neumann, Mni. S()-. Zool. Franoe, 1!(.)1, i).

he agrmus Salmon alnd Stiles, 17th Am. Rept. Bur. Anim. Ind., I'. S. )ept.
Agrie., 1). 467, 1902 (not of Leach).
DENTATUS Neimnaiiii, M'in. Soc. Zool. France, 199, ). 119.
DIVERSIFOSSUS Neuiiaim, A-16m. Sow. Zoo]. France, 1899, ). 13).
bicoran i. Neumann, Arch. Parasito., X, p. 196, 1.906.
ITEXAGONUS Leach, Trans. Linfi. Soc. London, XI, p). 397, 1815; Neumann, Min.
Soc. Zool. France. 189)9, 1). 129.
MARXI Banks, supra, 1. i2, 1908.
PRATTI Banks, suI)I. 1). 27, 190S.
RICINUS Linncus, Syst. Nat., X, ). 615, 1758; .Neumam. Mom. Soc. Zool. France,
1899, 1). 112; Salmon and Stiles, 17th Ann. Rept. Bur. Anim. Ind.,
U. S. Dept. Agric., p. 463, 1902.
SCAPULARIS Say, Journ. Acad. Phil., II, p. 78, 1821; Compl. Writ., II, p. 21,
1859.
affinis Neumann, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, 189), p. 120.
SCULPTUS Neumann, Arch. Parasitol., VIII, p. 462, 1904.






54 IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.


CERTAT I XODE.S.

Neumann, Arch. Parasitol., VI, p. 115, 1902.

VUTUS ('anibridg-e, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 260; Neumann, Mcm. Soc.
Zool. France. 1)9, p. 12-5; Arch. Parasitol., VI, p. 115, 1902; ibid.
XI, p. 2.9, 1907.
bw(alis Kramer and Neuman, A;ariden wiihrend der Vega Exped., p. 526,
1883.
fimbrioIii. Kramer and Neunman, ibid. (male).
hirsut!gi Birula, Biil. Acad. Imp. St. Ptersbourg, 1895, p. 356.
S~(.NxaTUS Birla, Bul. Acad. Imrp. St. PItersbourg, 1)95, p. 357.
parrirostris Neumann, Mci6. Soc. Zool. France, 191, 1). 284.

Amblyomminv.

I.1-1IA II Y S LIS.

Koch. Arch. Naturg. X, p. 237, 1844.

(iORitmLriS Packard, 1st Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci., p. 67, 1869.
PI;1ORIS-PAI1USTRIS Packar1, 1st Ann. Repl. PeIbody Acad. Sci., p. 67, 1869,; Neu-
mann, Mni. Soc. Zool. France, 1897, p. 343.
rostr,ilis Dugcs, Bul. Soc. Zool. France, 1'8 p. 129.

AMBLYO MMA.

Koch, Arch. Naturg.X, )p. 223', 1844. Euthe.iucs Gistl, Naturg., p. 158, 1848.
AMERI( ANUM IUneWus, S'st. Nat., X. p. 615, 17-5: Fitch, 14th iept. Ins. New
York, p. :3(;4, 1S71 ; Neunmnn, Mcii. Soc. Zool. France, 1899, p. 20D;
Salnon and Stiles, 17th Ann. Rept. Bur. Aniw. Ind., U. S. Dept.
Agric. 1). 175, 191)2.
(orbi(b-lsi Say, Journ. Phil. Acad., 11, p. 7G, 1821.
unipanwtt(t I'ackar(1, 1st Ann. Itept. Peabody Acad. Sci., p. 66, 1869.
CAJaN NESE F abricSiu, Entom. Syst., IV, 1). 427, 1794; Koch, Ubersicht Araehn.
Sys t., I V, ). 79,, 1s47, Neumann, Mer. Soc. Zool. France, p. 205, 1899.
er(thitum Say, Journ. Phil. Acad., II, p. 76, 1821; Compl. Writ., II, p. 20,

,ixtun Koch, Arch. Naturg., X, ). 227, 1844.
MACULATUM Koch, Arch. Naturg., X, p. 227, 1>44; Neumann, Mom. Soc. Zool.
Fraice, P ,9, p. 249.
tigrinum Koch, Arch. Naturg., X, p. 227, 1S44.
tcnIlliim Koch, ibid.
ru brips Koch, ibid., p. 228.
ova t)) Koch, ibid.
triste Koch, ibid., p. 229.
TUBERCULATUM Marx, Insect Life, VI, p. 314; Neumann, Mcrn. Soc. Zool. France,
1899, p. 235.






CATALC(:UE.


55


1)E, -MACE -N TOIt'.

Koch, Arch. Naturg.. X, p. 235., 1844.

ALBIPICTUS Packard, Amer. Nat.. II, p. 559. l4 6' ; Guide Study Insects (part 9),
p. 662, B69 (Aug.): Amer. Nat., II, 1). 3;}5. 1M9.
variegattas Neumann, -Mm. Soc. Zool. France. 1 9.7, I). 367: Salmon find
Stiles., 17th Ann. Relpt. Bur. Anim. Ind., U. S. Dept. Agric.. p. 452,
1902.
reticulatu Salmon and Stiles, 17th Ann. Iept. Bur. Anim. Ind.. T-. S. I)ept.
Agrie., ). 448, 1902 (not of Fabricius).
BIFURCATUS Neumann. M1m. Soc. Zool. France, 1 9'.), 1. 122 (sub. I.odc.) : Arch.
Parasitol., VIII, 1). 453, 1904.
NIGROLINEATUS Packard. 1st Ann. Relt. Peabody Acad. Science. 60). 156,;9.
NITENS Neumann, 'm. Soc. Zool. France, 1S97, 1. 37-; Sall l 11and Stiles, 17th
Ann. I1elpt. BIur. Anim. Ind.. U. S. I)ept. Agric., 1. 455. 19)2.
OCCIDENTALIS Neumann, Arch. Parasit)ol., IX. 1p. 235, 19. s*
rcticulatus Neumann, Mim. Soc. Zool. Fran ce, 1 ,:97. 1). 3;) (part
PARUMAPERTUS NeInnann, M1%m. Soc. Zool. France, 19011. p. 267; Arch. Parasit(ol.,
IX, 1). 2;G. P ,05.
PARUMAPI'ERTUS Va3. MARGINATTS IBaiks. supra. 1). 46. 1)10.
VARIABILIS Say. Joum. Phil. Acad.. II. p. 77. IS21: (C'omip. Writ.. II. 1. 21. 1S51 .
am criut a Uof vario(l5 alHthors (not of Iillis'uS).
elcctu-N Koch. Arch. Naturg., X, p. 235, 1s44" Neumam, M5m. 'Soc. Z(l,].
France. 1901, 1p. 265: Salmon and Stiles, 17th Ann. Ilept. Bur. Anim.
Ind., '. S. )ept. Agric., 1). 455, 19.)2.
Del)t. Agrie., ). 455. 1902.
albip-IwtaN Paclkard, 1st Aim. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci., ). 66. 1S09 (not of
Guide Study Insects).
5-striduts Fit(h, 14th Ilept. Ins. N. Y., ). 3;. 1S71.
robt'rtsoii Fitch. ibid.
?puitctulatt.'. Say. JTourn. Phil. Aead.- 11, p. 7S, 1S21; Compl. Writ., I. 1.
21, 1,5).
VENUSTUS Banks. supra. ). 46, 1 .0s.

MA R( )PIPS.

Karsch, Mitt. Mfinch. Ent. Ver., 179, ). 96. Boophilws Curtice, Journ. Comip.
'\led. Vet. Arch.. XII, p. 1 1.
ANNULATUS Say, Journ. Phil. Acad., II, p. 75, 1S21" Coml. WXrit.. II, p). 19,
1859: Neumann, Mni. Soc. Zool. France, 1S97, ). 407: Salmon and
Stiles. 17th Am. Rept. Bur. Anina. Ind.. U. S. )ept. Agric.. p. 42,
1902- Hunter and Hooker, Bul. 72, Bur. Ent., I. S. I)ept. Agric., p. 30,
1907.
boris Packard, 1st Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci., 1). 6. 1S69.
boris Riley, Gamgee's Rept. Diseases of Cattle, 1). 121, 146).
indcntalu.s Gamgee, Rept. Diseases of Cattle, 1). 121, 1S69.
dugesi MC-gnin, Les Parasites, ). 126, 1SS0.






56 IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.

RH IPICEPHALUS.

Koch, Arch. Naturg., X, p. 238, 1844.

TEXANUS Banks, supra, p. 34, 1.08.

UNPLACED.

IXODES CINCTUS Fabricis, Syst. Antliatorumn, p. 356, 1805.
IXODES ERRAirlcus Sa, Journi. Phil. Acad., II, p. 77, 1821; Compl. Writ., 1, p.
20, 1559.
]xoiMs FUSCUS Say, Journ. Phil. Acad., II. p. 79, 1821; ('onpl. Writ., II, p. 22,
1 859.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

ALLEN. W. E.-Internal orjhohogy of the American cattle tick. Zo~,. I.;). niv. Nelhraska. No. 6i7, 1Jil5 l Ip. 245-27S, 3 Ids.
BANKS, N. -Sonlle aran'liida fr)on ('alifornia.

B',ANKS. I reatise oi1 the Acarina o r mites. XXVIII. pp. 42-49. 1914.
BANKs, N.- a'allgue hrf the United States. U. S. Nat. MIms.. XXXIIp. 595-!;25, 907.
l1EARI.Lf:. If. i. 'atthe tick on human 'ody. <4ul. 4, n. s.. )iv. Ent., U. S.
I c1l~t. Agric.. P1'. 4- 5. 1 4.

~I Ii, II. II.-. ('alifo~riiaii t ick. <(an. Entoiin.. IN!9, lip. 229-2:1.
1IRuw _. A\. -Ixodiihc nove vl parimi cognite Musei Zoologici Acadenihe
'a(,,r' '-ieiltiaruni I 'tro ilale. KlBul. Acad. Im1. Sci. St. Petersb.,
15) II. pp. 6 ,4. 2 lS., 1 5.
BUTL. T. The c'atte ic i'k ;nd 1he' quarantinee restricti(ns. N.( '1 St ;it I Ar,, I--.7. 1.9)8.
S.\101,(J Jl l -
)
1BUTLEJ, T. Y'gr'es niral( in ,Xie'liting the fever tick (Boophil s annu-
latu.' iin North ('alnrlilia. <('ii. N. (Car. I)ept. Agric., Jan. 1, 1906, 4 pp.
C.ONAW(. J. \\. Texas fever, )r acclimation fever. Exlj. Si a. jqp. 1l-1.8., 11 figs., 1s 97.

CUTI-CtE, C(. The 44il gy of the (c;Ittle tick.

(CuwTcl-:, (*.-About cattle ticks.
CURTu( i., ('.-Parsites. being a list (of those infesting the domesticated animals
and man in the l unitedd States.

CURTICE, (. littlele tick (Boopiu. boris Riley sp.) Biology. Agric. Exp. Sta., PlP. 2:'7-2.52, 2 ps., 18_92.
CURTICE, C.-On the extermination of the cattle tick and the disease 'pread by
it. DALRYMPLE, W. II., 11. A. MORGAN, and W. I. I)oDsoN.--Cattle tick and Texas
fever.





BIBLIOGRAPHY. 57

Duofts, A.-Turicata y garrapata de Guanajuato. VI, pp. 195-198, 1883.
DUGks, A.-Los Garrapatas de Mexico. 187-194, 1904.
FITCH, A.-Fourteenth Report on the noxious, beneficial, and other insects of
the State of New York.

FRANCIS, M.-The cattle tick, preventive measures for flrlm and range use.
FRANCIS, M.\C-VterilnrV Science. P piS., 1,S94.
FRANCIS, M.. and 1. W. ('ONNAWAY.-Texls fever. Sta., pp. 581-10 6, 1 .()9.
GUiPRIs--M:NEI'VLLE. F. K.-Genus Argas. A. taljc (u riin 5lbevitle. de Zoologie, Anime 1.S45, Araclm.. I1. (; (2 PP.) ( Issued l IS4..)
GUI::RIN-M:NEI~x'.E. F. .-- irgas tlaje n. sl). p. 342-344. 1849.
HASSALL, A.--Note on the chicken tick ( t r aqa amcrwun as.). <1(;th Ann. Rept.
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HAYS, W. J.-The moose tick. HAZEN, E. IL-('ttic tick in the human ear. 1871.
HOEIIR, F.-I'urther concerning the new chicken lague in Texas. Life, V, p. :;4S, IS98.
HOLLAND, W. J.-Concerning4 ticks. <('an. Eutom., PP98, pp. 96;-7.
HW6VARD, L. O.-Note on the chicken tick. HUNTER, W\. I).-Note on the occurrence of the North American fever tick on
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HUNTER, AV. I)., and AV. A. HooKER.-Iufrmatioi cowerilitw the North Amer-
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KALM, P.-Naehricht von einer Art Insecten in Norda merika WaIdlaus genamt
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MARX, (.-On the morphology of the ticks. 288, 1892.






58 IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.

MARX. (G.-[In Hubibard's The insect guests of the Florida land tortoise."
MARX, G.-[Plate illustrating ticks, published by the Entomological Society of
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MAYO. N. -.-Texas fever. 1897. +

MtGNIN 1. A.-Les Argas du Mexique. 476, 1S85, 2 pls.
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MILLER, W..McN.-Texas cattle fever. p p,., I1S! j5.

MIOIILY:R. J.. IL-Texas fever, with methods for its prevention. Anin. Ind., T-. S. I)ept. Agric., pp. 4S. 1906.
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MORGAN. II. A.-Rep(ort of the entomologist. Exl. Sta., pp. 9'2-10)5, S figs., 1894.
M ~AN-. IH.A.-Ticks and Texas fever. 14, 9l lils.. 1I899l.

NEUFMANN. GIt vision dhe la fimille des Ixodids. 1,96, lip. 1-44. 1S!7. pp. )24-420 18!99, pp. 107-294; 1901, pl). 24,-372.
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NEWELL, W.. and M. S. I)oUGHIERTY.-The cattle tick. Studies of the egg and
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BIBLIOGRAPHY. 59

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60 IXODOIDEA, OR TICKS, OF THE UNITED STATES.

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t Texas fever immunizing expert
in Georgia. WRIGHT, C.-The cattle tick.







INDEX.


Abundance .........
affinis, Ixodes. (See
albipictus, Dermacet
A mblyomma ........
AMRBLYOMMINzE ..
AM1BLYOMMINI ......
americana, Aryas. (
amr-icanus, Oraithoo
aiw ricanu n, Amblyo
angustUs, Ixodes ....
annula/as, Margaropi
areticus, Ixodes .
A rgas ...............
ARGASIDE ..........
biornis, Ixodes. (Se
bifurcatus, Dermacen
Boophius. (See Mar
borealis. Ceratixodes.
boyis, Boophilus. (
r(pits.)
breip s Argas ......
branneus, Ixodes .
cajeanense, Amblyoma
californicus, Ixodes..
canisuga, Lxodes ....
(eratixodes .......
chordeilis, lIa'ia(phys
ciuets, Irod s ......
Clas-itication .......
concbna, Ihmaphys(
cookei, Ixodes .......
corniaceas, Ornithodor
crenatuoa, Ixorles. (
omnuna. )
crUciarius. (f 041s.
(lt~ atas, I ffuI(8..
Dermacettor ........
D ERMACENTORINI...
diversifossus, Ixod(s.
dagesi, Ixod(es. (See
clectus, D(rmacentor.
erratioas, Ixodos ....
fimbriatus, Ceratixod
frovtalis, Ixodes.....
fuselus, IRodes .......
Geographical distrib
H KMAPH YSALINI ...
tixmaphysalis .......
hexagonius, Ixodes...
hirsutus, Ceratixodes.
Historical ..........
inchoatus, Ixodes ....
indc n/atus, Ixodes.
ropias.)
Ixodes ..............
IXODID ...........
IXODIN.E ...........
IXODOIDEA .........
kelloggi, Ixodes. (Se
leporis-palustris, Hmen


Page.


Page.


........................ 11 Life-history ................................. 9
scapularis.) lon gispinosus, Ixods. (See cookei.)
or ..................... 43, 44 maculaturm, Amblyomma .................... 37, 39
........................ 20, 37 M argaropus ................................. 20,35
........................ 20 marginatus, var. of paramapert.s ........... 46
........................ 20 marxi, Ixode ............................... 23, 32
See miniabus.) gaini, Orn ithodoros ...................... 16, 17
!oros. (See turicata.) min oirtus, Argas ............................. 15
mma ................... 37,40 mixtare, Amhlyiomam. (See cqj e tcisI.)
........................ 23,29 n i1)roia tu. Drrmaccntor- ................. 43,48
us ...................... 36 ni/ets, 1Iru'w -or.-................... 42, 43.50
........................ 23 oceideidalis, D r r wac, actor .................... 43, 17
........................ 14 orlicuhutts, Ixoeles. (See (jmtric uum, Am-
........................ 14 bto a .
e dirersifossas.) Or ithodoros ................................ 14, 16
tor ..................... 43 ovaubff, A,md!1owwi. (-ee maculatuim.)
rgaropus.) paruiprti/s, Dhrmary n/or.................. 43, 45
(See pa/:a. parrirostris, Jxwfhs. (See sigmtiUs, ('fr-ra
See annlatus, Marga- tixodes.)
ptfi('ls, Arqav. (See miliatUs.)
........................ 15 pratti, Lrorhs................................ 23,27
........................ 23,26 puCUafis, Lo(! s. iSee rari(tbilik, Drtma-
am...................... 37, 41 c ifor.)
................... 23,24 putus, ( /ratixod(s ............................... 21
........................ 32 quinistriatus, Lrodts. (See cariaailis, Dcr-
....................... 20 ac .
salis .................... 33, 34 rru/iats lArgjas. See miniatus.
........................ .0, 52 r.fli 'f A r as .. ......................... 14, 16
........................ 12 ri /icfla/is, Dermacen/fr ..................... 42, 52
i;s .................... 32,52 RHIPICEPH AI. INI. ............................ 20
........................ 23.2S Rh ipi p ali s..... ........................ 20, 34
os...................... 17. 1 ririn fI, S.od .......................... 22, 23, 24
See eajiafince, Arably- robJrsrmni, Ixrds. (See rariabils, I)rfa-

See cook/i.d ft/is, Goaixod(s. See irpori-palthstri, ,
........................ 3 2 l maphiisalis. )
rubipr:s, Iamblq omma. (Scmacuhattm,)
........................ 20, 4 2 h
..................*..... 20 fi hfzi, ArfjaY s. (See ti iiata )
....................... 22,27 i I/hipwcphaU 5 ........ ......... 34
innilats, MarqarorpUs.) "wrigpyi, Or,!ithodoros ...................... 16
(See variabilis.) sfap lariS, Il od(s ........................... 23, 25
........................ 49, 51 scilptms, Ixofir ............................. 23, 30
s (See pztus.) siau a/ s. ('rratirorlr ....................... 21

........................ 26,52 spio ifim, RhynCholpriw. (See 11gff iii, Or-
........................ 51 n ihodoros. )
uton...................... ) Structure ................................... 7

........................ 20 ta/ j(, Ornithodoros ......................... 17,19
...................... :. 20,32 /ifrllam. Amblyomma. (See macalatum.)
........................ 23,31 t#.r,,u s, Rhipicephalus ...................... 34
(See paus.) tiginloa, Amblyomma. (See macflatum.)
--------..--........... 11 tristi, AImbiyo n a. (See macaatum.)
........................ 32,52 tflbercl atum, A mnnblyoimra .................. 37, 38
(See ann/atus, Marga- taricata, Oraithodoros ....................... 17,18
a nipUnctata, Amblyomma. (See amrica-
........................ 20,22 nar .)
------.....-.----------. 14,20 urix, Ixodes. (See puts, Ceratixodes.)
........................ 20 variabilis. Derntacn/or .................... 43, 49
----.----.-..---.----... 7 variegatias. (See albipictus, Dermacentor.)
e brunneus.) venustus, Dermacentor ...................... 43, 46
naphysalis .............. 33 win themi, Margaropus ...................... 36

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