The structure of certain dipterous larvae with particular reference to those in human foods

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The structure of certain dipterous larvae with particular reference to those in human foods
Series Title:
Technical series / U.S. Dept. of agriculture. Bureau of entomology ;
Physical Description:
44 p., viii leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Banks, Nathan, b. 1868
Publisher:
Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Flies -- Anatomy   ( lcsh )
Diptera -- Larvae -- Anatomy   ( lcsh )
Myiasis -- Anatomy   ( lcsh )
Dipteros (Biologia)   ( larpcal )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references ( p. 38) and index.
General Note:
"Issued January 10, 1912."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Nathan Banks.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029621599
oclc - 09605165
lccn - agr12000017
Classification:
lcc - QL461 .T39 no.22 1912
ddc - 595.77 B218s
System ID:
AA00022879:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    List of Illustrations
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Introduction and occurrence
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Life history
        Page 12
    Classification and general characters
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Synopsis of the groups and sarcophagidae
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Calliphorinae
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Muscinae
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Muscina group
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Homalomyia group
        Page 28
    Anthomyiidae
        Page 29
    Trypetidae
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Ortalidae
        Page 34
    Sepsidae and Drosophilidae
        Page 35
    The cephalopharyngeal skeleton
        Page 36
    Bearing of larvae on classification
        Page 37
    Bibliography
        Page 38
        Page 38-1
        Page 38-2
        Page 38-3
        Page 38-4
        Page 38-5
        Page 38-6
        Page 38-7
        Page 38-8
    Index
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Back Cover
        Page 47
        Page 48
Full Text





I vL


"I V


- Iv











12
----q
__ --+opt
W = 4
. ... =- -- ]-= ,4;.....


Io

CO


..... ........ ...................4;
I .....................................


ihA
iJ
IV













4
















































A 7
















I


































N












4-





N
>4






{



V -- A 4

4 4 7


-4 U 4~< ~--






- 4-


4 >4






4< -- 4-- -



4< 4<






4<4















4



>4 4 -










4<4 4<4< 4<






















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013
















http://archive.org/details/structureofcerta00bank









TECHNICAL SERIES, No. 22.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
IBU"REAU;I_ (o' 1]Nt'OMv(O ( '-.

L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.






THE STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS

LARVE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE

TO THOSE IN HUMAN FOODS.





BY

NATHAN BANKS,
Assistant.


ISSUED JANUARY 10, 1912.


AVA SHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1912.




























B UREA U OF ENTOMOLOG Y.

L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist and Chief of Bureau.
C. L. MARLATT, Entomologist and Acting Chief in Absence of Chief.
R. S. CLIFTON, Executive Assistant.
W. F. TASTET, Chief Clerk.

F. 11. (CIUTTENDEN, in charge of truck crop and stored product insect investigation.
A. D. HOPKINS, in charge of forest insect investigations.
W. D. HUNTER, in charge of southern field crop insect investigations.
F. M. W\EBSTER, in charge of cereal and forage insect investigations.
A. L. QUAINTANCE, in charge of deciduous fruit insect investigations.
E. F. PHILLIPS, in charge of bee culture.
D. M. ROGERS, in charge of preventing spread of moths, field work.
ROLLA P. CURRIE, in charge of editorial work.
MADEL COLCORD, in charge of library.


















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY,
Washington, D. C., September 1, 1911.
Sin: At frequent intervals and for many years the Bureau of
Entomology has been appealed to by medical men and others to
determine insects said to have been passed by sick people. The
majority of these insects have been maggots (larva of Diptera).
The characteristics distinguishing these larvo have not been well
understood, and the accompanying manuscript is the result of a
competent effort by Mr. Banks to assist workers in the study of
internal myiasis. I recommend that it be published as No. 22 of the
Technical Series of this bureau.
Respectfully, L. 0. HOWARD,
Entomologist and 07tieJ of Bureau.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary oJ Agriculture.



























CONTENTS.


Introductory .............................................................


Occurrence .....................
Life history ......................
Classification ....................
General characters ...............
Synopsis of the groups ...........
Sarcophagidoe ...................
Calliphorine ....................
Muscine .........................
Muscina group ..................
llomalomyia group ..............
Anthomyiidee ....................
Trypetid e .......................
Ortalid ...........................
Sepsid e .........................
Drosophilidoe ......................
The cephalopharyngeal skeleton...
Bearing of larve on classification...


Bibliography .............................................................
Index ...................................................................
5


Page.
9


9


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5
....................................... 35
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- 3 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 7


-------------------------
-------------------------
-------------------------
-------------------------
-------------------------
-------------------------
-------------------------
-------------------------
-------------------------
-------------------------














I L L U S T R A T I ( N S.


PLATES.
Page-
PLATE 1. Fig. 1.-Musca domestic: Side view ............................. 38
2-fusca domestic: Posterior stigmal plates ............... 38
3.-Musca domestica: Tip of body ................--------- 38
4.-Musca domestica: Head from above ...................... 38
5.-Lyperosia irrita-ns: Tip of body -----------------------38
6.-Lyperosia irritans: Head, side view ...................... 38
7.-Lyperosia irritans: Posterior stigmal plates------------. 38
8.-Stomoxys calcitrans: Anterior spiracle .................... 38
9.-Stomoxys calcitrans: Posterior stigmal plate .............. 38
10.--Stomoxys calcitrans: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton --------- 38
I.-Pseudopyrellia coriiicina: Tip of body ------------------- 38
12.-Ps udopyrellia cornicina: Anterior spiracle --------------- 38
13.-Pseudopyrellia cornicina: Head, side view ---------------- 38
14.-Pseudopyrellia cornicina: Head, top view ................ 38
15.-Pseudopyrellia cornicina: Stigmal area .................. 38
16.-Musca domestica: Anterior spiracle ...................... 38
II. Fig. 17.--Mfuscina stabilans: Stigmal plates ........------------- 38
18.Muscina stabulans: Tip of body, side view ............... 38
19.-Muscina stabulans: End of body ----------------------- 38
20.-Muscina assimilis: Tip of body, side view ............... 38
21.-Muscina assimilis: Stigmal plates ...................... 38
22.-Muscina assimilis: End of body ........................ 38
23.-Near Muscina: Last two segments ....................... 38
24.-Near Muscina: Anterior spiracle ........................ 38
25.-Near Muscina: Head, above- ............................ 38
26.-Near Muscina: Stigmal plate -------------------------- 38
27.Muscina stabudains: Head, side view ..................... 38
28.-Muscina stabulans: Anterior spiracle ................... 38
29.-Muscid (: Tip of body, side view...................... 38
30.-Muscid C: Stigmal plates ............................... 38
31.-Muscid C: Anterior spiracle-- ......................... 38
32.M uscid C: End of body ............................... 3
33.-Muscid A: Tip of body, side view----- ----------------38
34.-Muscid D: End of body------- ----------------------38
35.-AM uscid D: Anterior spiracle ............................ 38
3G.-Ml~scina stabulI/(1ns: flead, above-----------------------38
37.-Muscid A: Stigmal plate .............................. 38
3s.-Muscid A: Anterior spiracle ............................ 38
Il1. Fig. -Ch1Ysom yia (t'): Tip of body, side view- ................. 38
40.-Muscid B: Anterior spiracle ........................... 38
41 -.Muscid B: Tip of body, side view-----------------... 38
42.-Mu s(id B: Stigmal plates .............................. 38
43.-IMuscid B: End of body ----------------------------38






ILLU STIATI ON S.


PLATE IIT. Fig. 44.-Tritoxa Jlexa: Stigmal plate .............................
45. Tritoxajlexa: Anierior s)iracle .........................
46.-Tritoxaflexa: Tip of body, side view .................
47.--Ch somyia (?): Stigmal plate ...........................
48.-Lucilia syIvarum: Iead1, side view ......................
49.-Lucilia sylvarum: Ti1) of body, side view..............
50.-Lucilia sylarunm: Anterior spiracle ......................
51.-Lacilia sylrarum: Stigmal plates .......................
52.-Ckrysomyia (?): Anit erior spiracle .......................
53.-Euxesta thorax: Stigmal plate ...........................
54.-Lu ilia sericata: End of body ..........................
55.-Lucilia sericata: Head, top view .......................
56.-Protocalliphora chrysorrhra: Tip of body, side view.....
57.-Protocalliphora chrysorrhan: IIead, side view..........
58.-Protocalliphora chrysorrha'a: Stigmal plates ..............
59.-Euxesta thomax: Tip of body, above .....................
60.-Lucilia sericata: Head, side view .......................
61.-Lucilia sericata: Tip of body, side view ...............
62.-Calliphora erythrocephala: Head, side view ..............
63.-Calliphora erythrocephala: Stigmal plates .................


IV. Fig. 64.-Sarcophagid D: Tip of
65.-Sarcophagid D: Head,
66.-Sarcophagid D: Head,
67.-Chrysom yia macellaria:
68.-(Chrysomyia macellaria:
69.-Chrysomyia macellaria:
70.-Sarcophagid C: Head,
71.-Chrysomyia macellaria:


body, side view ..................
above .........................
side view .........................
HIea(, side view.................
Tip of body, side viev' .........
Anterior spiracle .................
above .........................
End of body ...... ... .. .


72.-Sarcophagid B: Stigmal plates ......................
73.-Sarcophagid A: Two segments, venter .................
74.--Sareophagid A: Two segments, dorsum ................
75.-Sarcophaga incerta: Segment, venter .....................
76.-Sarcophagid B: Tip of body, side view ................
77.-Sarcophagid C': Tip of body, side view ..................
78.-Sarcophagid A: Anterior spiracle .....................
79.-Sarcophagid B: Anterior spiracle .......................
80.-Sarcophagid B: HIead, above .........................
V. Fig. 81.-Epochra canadensis: Anterior sp)iracle ..................
82.-Epochra canadensis: Stigmal plate ......................
83.-Rhagoletis pomonella: Anterior spiracle ................
84.-Rhagoletis pomonella: Stigmal plate ....................
85.-Anastrepha ludens: Tip of body, side view. .............
86.-Anastrepha ludens: Anterior spiracle .....................
87.-Ceratitis capitata: Anal tubercle ......................
88.-Ceratitis capitata: Anterior spiracle ...................
89.-Ceratitis capitata: Ridges on ventral segments ...........
90.-Dacusferrugineus: Tip of body, side view ..............
91.-Acidiafratria: Tip of body, side view ...................
92.-Acidiafratria: Stigmal plate .........................
93.--Acidia fratria: Anterior spiracle .........................
94.-Rhagoletis suavis: Tip of body, side view ................
95.-Rhagoletis suavis: Anterior spiracle ......................
96.-Rhagoletis suavis: Stigmal plate ........................
10039-No. 22-12-2


:38


38


38
38
38
38



:38
38
:38

38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
:38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
:38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38






ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATE \V. Fig.


97.- R ha gol tis cingulata: Stigmal plate ...............
98.-Rhagolet is cingulata: Anterior spiracle ...................


99.-A astrepha ludens: Stigmal plates .....................
100.-(Crutitis capitata: Stigmal plate .........................
101.--Dacus c'c'urbita: Head, side view ..................
102.--Dacus ciueurbitx: Anterior spiracle .....................
103.-Dacus ferrugineus: Anterior spiracle .....................
104.- Ducus cucuebitw: Stigmal plates. ..... .............
10. -Icusferrugi eus: Stigmal plate ......................
V1. I Fig. 10(i.--tonalom yia sp.: Dorsal view ...........................
107.- Iygomy brassicw: Anterior spiracle .....................
108.- Phorb ia floccosa: Anterior spiracle .......................
109. -'horbia floccosa: End of body ..........................
1O.-Iegomya bicolor: Anterior spiracle ......................
1 1. --Ptgoiya fusciceps: Stigmal plate ........................
S12.-Itegomya brolor: Stigmal plate ..........................
1 13.-IPegomya brassicx: Margin of stigmal field ...............
114.-Pegomya brass ic.': Stigmal plate .....................


Muscina stabu la ns: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton ..........
Icgomiya fsciceps: Head, side view ....................
Anthomyia sp.: Tip of body, side view ..................


VII. ih.








VII I. Fi.


118.-Pegomya brassic j: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton ..........
1M9.-Pegomya cepetorum: Stigmal plate and anterior spiracle.
1 20.-IMusca dorestica: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton ...........
121. .Euxesta notata: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton ...........
122.-Piophila casei: Tip of body, below .....................
123.-Iiop/iila casci: Tip of body, above ....................
124.- -Iioph i/a casei: Anterior spiracle ........................
'125.- Phgoletis pomon ella: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton ......
126.-CC aliliphora erythrocephala: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton.
127. Ilomalomyia sp.: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton ........


128.
129.
130.-
131 .
132.-
133.-
131.-
i35.-

137.-


-t'rotocalliJ)hora: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton ............
J)rosophiia ampelophila: Dorsal view ....................
-Drosop/i l/ta amielophila: Stigmal plate ...................
- Lcilwa scricat(a: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton ............
Daueis cuca rbila': Cephalopharyngeal skeleton ...........
-Drosophila ai Jelophila: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton .
Sarcophaga incerta: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton .........
Drosophila ampj)elophila" Ti) of l)ody, side view .........
Drosophila ape/ophii/a: oea1 of pupa ...............
I)rosoph i/a a n pc/ophiila: Anterior spiracle ...............


TEXT FIGURE.
FIL,. I ,arva of a D)u (cid ..................................................


115.
116.
117.-













THE STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVIE
WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THOSE IN
HUMAN FOODS.

INTRODUCTORY.
There is a considerable number of flies whose larvae either regu-
larly or occasionally live in substances used by man as food. The
great majority pass through the intestinal tract without our knowl-
edge, for most of them cause little or no trouble. But sometimes
with patients in hospitals or asylums, or in private practice, the
physician discovers these maggots, and often suspects them of causing
the malady or weakness of his patient.
Many such specimens have been sent to entomologists, but owing
to the fact that no one had studied these forms, their characters were
little understood, and the identifications have not been of much
value. Most of these larvea belong to a few closely related families of
flies that were formerly covered by the name Muscidee. The arrange-
ment of the flies has been the subject of much diverse opinion, while
the knowledge of the larva is very fragmentary.
For these reasons Dr. Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology,
suggested that the writer make a study of larva, belonging to these
groups in the collections of the Bureau of Entomology and the
National Museum, so that in the future a more correct determination
might be made of the larvm that are quite frequently sent to this
bureau.
OCCURRENCE.
When we consider that these dipterous larvae occur in decaying
fruits and vegetables and on fresh and cooked meats; that the blowfly,
for example, will deposit on meats in a pantry; that other maggots
occur in cheese, oleomargarine, etc., and that pies and puddings in
restaurants are accessible and suitable to them, it can readily be seen
that a great number of' these maggots must be swallowed by persons
each year, and mostly without any serious consequences.' Besides
( "Taking everything into consideration, we doubt whether, out of ten thousand cases, where the larva-
of two-winged flies have existed in considerable numbers in the human intestines, more than one single
case has been recorded in print for the edification of the world by competent entomological authority."
Walsh, Amer. Ent., vol. 2, p. 141, 1870.





STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVA].


these there are the fruit-flies, whose larvve live in apples, cherries,
gooseberries, and oranges, and the pomace-flies that hover around
grapes, pears, and other fruits.
There are also other Diptera which do not occur in the intesti-
nal canal, but which may deposit eggs in wounds, or in the nose
or ears. The screw-worm is a notable insect of this class, and each
year one or more cases reach the bureau of this species affecting
the nose or ears. The larva of the ox warble or bot-fly (Hypoderma
lircata Villers) also sometimes occurs in man. The eggs of this
species are (eposited upon the hairs of cattle and licked off by the
animal, develop in the stomach, and the larvv bore upward to the
back, there to cause the "warble." If some of these eggs drop into
the milk pail there is a chance that they will be swallowed by a per-
son. So there are various cases recorded, mostly of children, where,
in the winter time, a larva is observed under the skin, usually in the
neck or shoulders, and upon removal proves to be the larva of the
bot-fly in its second stage.
Many of the muscid and sarcophagid larvv deposit eggs or larvo
upon ea(l animals. Although these animals are usually too far along
in decomposition to serve as food, yet in some cases these eggs are
deposited in time to be taken when the flesh is eaten. In most cases,
however, such flesh is cooked enough to kill the contained maggots.
The larvw of the Muscidi often occur in manure as well as on decay-
ing vegetable and animal matter. Prof. Portchinski, of Russia, has
stu(die(l a number of Russian species of these coprophagous and
necrophagous Diptera, and his several papers are the most valuable
heretofore produced upon them. Unfortunately for us these papers
are published in the Russian language. The late Baron von Osten
Sacken gave a summary of one of them in English; an(l of another,
most valuable from the systematic point, the writer has been able to
secure a translation of several portions. In this paper he gives
(escriptions of the larva, as well as their habits, and tells how to dis-
tinguish the allied forms. lie has used several of the characters
which will be used in this paper, especially the posterior stigmata and
the anal tubercle. le has not touched on the fruit-flies, however,
nor has he given any generalizations for the separation of the larvo
of the various families.
Several other naturalists have stu(lied individual species of the
Musci(de' or Sarco)liagidw, and in some cases published extremely
valua!)le 1)apers$ upon them. Thus Lowne has worked up the blowfly,
hewitt the house fly, Blanchard the screw-worm, Portchinski the
SarcoJ~I(l 'wohifalrti, and Newstead the stable fly. In the Annales

l iologi ,ld miouches coprophagtes et nvurophagues.

10






OCCUR FN C.1


de la Soci6t6 Entomologique de France there are goo)d Vigiir s 1y
Laboulb'ne of Ticjhlomyz!a and some ()ilIer s)cOies.
Interest in the larva and the life history of these species of flies
arises also from their medical and sanitary inI)ortance. TIhe famous
tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) of Africa are related to the stable fly. O(ne
of these flies distributes the Nagana disease of cattle, while another
species disseminates the sleeping sickness of manl. rhe Congo floor-
maggot is also related; this species inhabits the huts of the natives,
and at night crawls from the cracks to attack and suck blood from
sleeping persons. The Bengalia fly is also related; it deposits eggs
or larvae on the skin of man and dogs in Africa. But the house lyN
is by far the most injurious species, since its habits are such that the
germs taken up by its proboscis from sputum and dejecta are scat-
tered over food about to be eaten by man.
There are also various species of these flies injurious to domestic
animals; notably the horn fly, which is a serious pest to cattle. The
stable fly annoys cattle, and the sheep maggot (Lucilia sericata)
injures both the sheep and the wool. The screw-worm, or heel fly, is
a serious pest of cattle, and also attacks man.
The occurrence of dipterous larva in man is known as "mwiasis."
Various divisions are given; as "myiasis externa" or "myiasis der-
matosa," for those in the skin or wounds; "myiasis itestinalis ,"
for those in the alimentary canal; "myiasis narium," for larv the nose; etc. The occurrence of larvoe in the nose in this country is
rather accidental, and usually due to the screw-worm. In tropical
countries such cases are much commoner, and in the East Indies a
disease known as "Peenash" is due to larvae in the nose.
A great number of papers has been published on the medical side
of myiasis, often with some description of the maggot, but it is not
necessary to list them here.
These maggots, as previously stated, usually do not cause any
trouble, but Alessandrini has shown in a study of the cheese skipper
that these larvae may cause intestinal lesions in a dog. The vitality
of these larve is such that they are not readily affected by the diges-
tive fluids, and in fact are resistant to many chemical substances that
one would suppose fatal to them. It is therefore perfectly possible
for these larvae to continue their development in the intestine,
especially in cases of constipation.
No other group of insects affects human health and human interests
more seriously or directly than the flies of the Muscidae and Sarcoph-
agi&e. It is therefore of the greatest importance that the larvTx
of these flies should be studied in order that it may be possible to
distinguish them with accuracy.


11





SThUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVR.


LIFE HISTORY.

The life history of these flies presents many remarkable and
peculiar phenomena. The females of a number of them deposit eggs
which hatch, and the larva pursues the normal line of development.
With other species the larva hatches within the body of the parent
and is deposited in the first stage or sometimes in the second or even
third stage. In Mesembrina the larva is deposited in the second
stage, in Dasyphora in the third stage. Upon what food the larva
develops within the body of the parent is not yet known; Port-
chinski thought that they might feed on undeveloped eggs which he
observed near the larvve. It seems difficult, however, to believe this
possible. In the allied tsetse flies the larva, when deposited, is fully
grown. The various stages of larval development at deposition serve
to lessen the differences between the Pupipara and other Diptera.
In the number of eggs deposited these flies vary greatly, some
species, like Musca corvina, Myospila meditabunda, and Mesembrina
mystaeea, deposit only 24 eggs or less; these, however, are quite
large. Pyrellia and Graphomyia lay about 50 *eggs; Musca domestic
and Cynomyia deposit between 100 and 200 smaller eggs, while aN-
phora erythrocephala lays from 400 to 600 eggs, all extremely small.
Similarily those larvae deposited alive vary in number and size.
Ilylemyia strigosa deposits but one or two large larvm in the first stage,
while Sarcophaga hwmatodes deposits 40 to 60 smaller larvv.
After deposition there is sometimes a variance in development. In
Mu sea domestic there are the usual three larval stages; the first with
a heart-shaped aperture to the'posterior spiracles, the second with
two slits, and the third with three winding slits. In the allied
Myospila meditabunda, according to Portchinski, the eggs are much
larger and fewer in number than in the house fly, the larva upon
hatching has the usual simple heart-shaped aperture to the posterior
spiracles, but from this first stage the larva transforms directly to
the third stage with three slits in each stigmal plate, thus omitting
the second stage. This enables the fly to pass through all stages
quickly, and to breed during hot weather and in small patches of
manure that are apt to dry up too quickly for use by some other flies.
Portchinski has shown that the coprophagous habit induces
vivparit y. Mesem briia m eriana is coprophagous and viviparous;
the other species, Mesewbrua resJ)lendens, lays eggs and is not
co)projhagous. Ti coprophagous Dasyphora pratomm is vivip-
arous, while D. ltsiophth(ilra lays eggs; Ilyleinyia strigosa is coproph-
agous and viviparous, while most other species of the genus deposit
eggs.
Portchinski also claims that the same species may vary in these
habits, according to him Mitsa corria in northern Russia lays


12





GENERAL CIIARACTEIS.


13


about 24 rather large eggs, while in southern lussia tlhis fli 1e!p,,its
a large larva in the first stage, which passes into t ie t 1 ird stage
omitting the second stage. It may be that he has male a wrong
identification, but he claims to have been particularly carefhil in this
matter.
With the fruit-flies the eggs are deposited on o*r ill the iinmature
fruit, the larvo feeding on the pulpy substance till full grow and
then crawling from the fallen fruit into the soil for I)uIatio)l.

CLASSIFICATION.
The dipterous larvea that may be swallowed by man elnong to
several families included in the old group of Muscida'. Tllese families
are the true Muscidw, Sarcophagido, Anthomyiidee, and TITPetid -.
Other groups, as Drosophilida, Sepsido, and Ortalidw, are of much
rarer occurrence. The flies of the Ortalidw, Trypetide, and Sepsia(lm
are quite different from those of the other groups, but the adults of
the three other families are very similar in structure, and the limits
of the groups or the number of groups is not constant with different
specialists in Diptera. Some would separate a group known as the
Calliphorino from the Muscidm; others make a special family for the
biting Muscide (Stomoxyidme). It is not the writer's purpose to
make any choice of the different plans, nor does he consider that
families should be defined by larval characters, but after the descrip-
tions of the several species a few words will indicate what sort of a
classification would result from a study of these larva-. The groups
used in the tabulation of the larvee are used only for the larvm and
do not indicate any opinions about the arrangement of the flies.
There are other flies whose larvwe are sometimes reported as swal-
lowed by persons, particularly the rat-tailed larve of Eristalis, which
sometimes get into drinking water.
GENERAL CHARACTERS.
(See fig. 1.)
The larvw, of all these forms are broadest near the tip of the body,
and taper forward, more so in the true Muscide than in the other
groups. The surface of the body may be smooth or scabrous, pro-
vided with minute, acute granules or teeth, or with short, stiff hairs.
With many forms there is on the anterior border of most of the seg-
ments a swollen ring or girdle; sometimes only on the ventral side.
In some cases there are other swollen areas, or pads, usually fusiform
in shape.
The first segment, or head, commonly appears bilobed when viewed
from above, and each lobe bears a minute, cylindrical tubercle or
papilla (fig. 1, a). Below is the mouth aperture; at one side amd






STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVE.


above it is the pair of mandibles or great hooks (fig. 1, b), sometimes
fused into one. At the base and to one side of the mouth orifice is a
striated semicircular flap or lobe, called the stomal disk. These are
more or less distinct according to the amount of distension. and
varying with the. species. Below the mouth is a short transverse
piece, the labium. Behind the head segment there is another seg-
ment which is only clearly seen when the head is greatly protruded;
this hidden segment is known as "Newport's segment," and the writer
has not counted it in treating of the number of segments, since it was
not considered by Portchinski and others in describing these larva;
The second (apparent) segment bears on each side, in the full-grown
larvte, a short fan-shaped process, the anterior spiracle (fig. 1, c);
each spiracle shows at its tip a number of lobes, varying, with the
species, from four or five to forty or more. Some of the segments
show fusiform areas on the venter and on the sides; those on the
venter are called ventral fusiform areas (fig. 1, d) and those on the
sides, lateral fusiform areas (fig. 1, e). The last segment of the body
has a large area (fig. 1, h) on the end containing two chitinized sub-
circular plates, the posterior stigmata. These, in the adult, have







FIG. 1.-Larva of a muscid: a, Papilla of head; b, great hooks; r, anterior spiracles;
d, ventral fusiform area; e, lateral fusiform area; f, anal tubercle; i, apical spines;
h, stigmal field (containing posterior stigmal plates). Enlarged. (Original.)
each three slits or sinuous apertures and sometimes a rounded mark,
or button, at their base. In some forms the area or field around the
stigmal plates is sunken, forming a deep cavity, with the plates at the
bottom. The margin or lips of the cavity often bear conical proc-
esses (fig. 1, g), normally 12 in number. At the lower base of the
last segment is the anal field. Each side of the anus is a smooth,
convex area or lobe, whose size (Iep i(ls upon the extent of protrusion,
and above is a transverse" swollen area, often spinulate, and some-
times with a cone at each corner (fi.1, .
Within the head or, rather, anterior part of the body is a chitinous
framework, consisting of several articulated parts, called the o-ep++++++
pharyngeal skeleton. The outer part is the hypostomal sclerite, to
which are articulated the man(ibles or great hooks; behind the
hypiostomals is a Pair of large sclerites, nearly divided to their base;
one branch is very thin an(d broader an( longer than the other, which
is nIore chitilize(d, and rounded at tip; they have been called the






SARCOP II AGIDJ'.


15


lateral plates. From their base, near the origin of the 1IJ)ostlls,
there projects forward and upward a pair of slei)(Ier pieces, the
parastomal selerites. The shape and proportion of these parts vaty
with the different species and are quite different in the newly-hatched
larva than in the full-grown maggot.

The anterior spiracles (1 not appear on the larva while in its first
stage, but usually appear in the second stage, although som''tI"CS
deferred till the third or full-grown stage.
The posterior stigmal plates in the larvee of the first stage are quite
small and generally have a simple heart-shaped aperture; in the
second stage, the plates become more elongate and each has two shot
slits. In the third stage, there are always three slits of varying shapes
according to the species.
The number of segments in the body of a larva is a dispute(1 ques-
tion. Apparently there are 12; with the hidden Newport's segment,
this Would make 13, a number accepted by several investigators.
Others, however, claim there are really 14 or 15 segments.

SYNOPSIS OF THE GROUPS.

1. Body with lateral and dorsal spinose processes ------------------I- fonalomyia.
Body without such processes -------------------------------------------
2. Body ending in two fleshy processes; rather small species ------------------- 3
Body truncate or broadly rounded at end .................................... 4
3. Processes bearing the stigmal plates; body about 5 mm. long ---------- Drosophila
Processes not bearing the stigmal plates; body 10 mm. in length or longer. Piophila.
4. But one great hook; posterior stigmal plates with winding slits; no distinct lateral
fusiform areas; tip of body with few if any conical processes ........ Muscine.
With two great hooks; slits in the stigmal plate not sinuous .................... 5
5. No tubercles above anal area; no distinct processes around stigmal field ------- 6
Distinct tubercles above anal area; often processes around stigmal field; lateral
fusiform areas usually distinct ............................................ 7
6. Stigmal plates on black tubercles; lateral fusiform areas distinct ...... Ortalide.
Stigmal plates barely if at all elevated; lateral fusiform areas indistinct; stigmal
plates often contiguous or nearly so, slits long and subparallel ...... Trypetidh.
7. Slits in stigma plates rather short, and arranged radiately .................... 8
Slits slender, and subparallel to each other -------------------------------- 9
8. Two tubercles above anal area; stigmal field with distinct processes around it.
Anthomviidw.
Four or more tubercles above anal area; slits of stigmal plates usually pointed at
one end -----------------------------------------------------------j MsuIna.
9. A button to each stigmal plate; slits rather transverse to body.....( alliphorin -,,.
No button to stigmal plates, slits of one plate subparallel to those in opposite plate;
plates at bottom Of a pit ...................................... Sarcophagid a.

SARCOPHAGIDE.

In the Sarcophagidp the hooks are two in number and the posterior
stigmal plates have three straight slits as in the Calliphorina-. How-
ever, these slits are not directed. toward those of the opposite plate
10039-No. 22-12-3






STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVrE.


but are subparallel to them. Moreover, the stigmal field is strongly
depressed to form a deep stigmal pit, at the bottom of which are
situated the stigmal plates. The segments of the body bear complete
rings of spinose areas, and often supplementary pads on the sides.
Sarcoplw g( larva prefer animal matter, and have been found in
cheese, oleomargarine, pickled herring, dead insects, and human
feces.
Sarcophaga Theerta Walk.
(Plate IV, fig. 75.)
Body mostly scabrous, each little wrinkle or stria giving rise to a
very short, al)ppressed, stout, spinelike bristle. Head deeply bilobed,
each lobe tipped with a very short papilla; mandibles two, well
se)arated. About seven lobes in the anterior spiracle. The basal
two-thirds of segments 3 and 4 is scabrous; beginning with segment
5 there is a scabrous fusiform pad each side, and the ventral area of
the scabrous basal ring is much broadened and transversely divided
by a furrow. Behind this is another longer transverse furrow rather
behind the middle of the segment. The dorsum of these segments
shows four transverse areas, the posterior one rather broader than
the others. The last segment is short, scabrous; the anal area not
very proimlwnt, scabrous, and with a small conical tubercle at each
outer corner. Stigmal pit about one and one-half times as long as
broad, its upper lip with three large, scabrous tubercles each side, the
intermediate one rather smaller than the others, the lower lip with
two large tubercles, and a median pair of smaller ones slightly back
from the margin. Stigmal pllates about one-half their diameter apart,
each with three slits, subparallel to those in the opposite plate; no
button.
Sarcophagid A.
(Plate IV, fig s. 73, 74, 78.)
Body broad and rather flattened. Iead small, bilobed, and a
minute antenna on each lobe; two well-separated nandibles. Apex
of second segment roughened; the anterior spiracles heiispherical,
and occupying a depression at base (f the second segment, provided
with a number of small tuberles; third segment at base with swollen
ring, showing strnE and punctures; surface of the following segments
Tfinutely, transversely striate ald piuctate. Each segment trans-
versely divided, both above and below, into three regions, as shown
in the figures; all more or less swollen, and a swollen area on each side;
last segment striate and )unIfctate as other segment; anal area hardly
Pr)IMinifl(e1t, with a rounded spin lose t uberclo at each upper corner;
stigniul l)it.,ne and one-half times broader than long, rather deep, its
lipJ) Ia(II wit 11 three minute cones or tubercles each side; the stigmaal


16






17


plates hardly their dialmetecr aiart, ea'lch withi Itire stragt"slit.
rather divergent fromi those of the opp)osit e plate.
Fro m Sarrac(nia( flavai front Flori(I.a
Sarco)hagid B.
(Plate IV, figs. 72, 76, 79, 80.)
Body moderately stout. Head small, seen from above truncate
and slightly emarginate in middle; two approximate mandibles.
Anterior spiracles of about 12 lobes anterior margin of segment 3 and
following with a spinulose, elevated ring, widest on the ventral part
also on the posterior margin of segment 4, and following segments, on
each side of venter, a short fusiform, elevated, spinulose area pressing
against the basal ring of the next segment; much of the general surface
of segments also minutely sl)inulate, but on the venter are some
transverse, slightly elevated smooth spots; on segments 3 and 4 are
tio each side, on segment 5 and following is a transverse elongate
area, each side of which bears three more elevated spots, two at the
median end, approximate, the other at the lateral end; outside of
this is still another, less distinct, smooth, elevated spot; on the median
line before these is another elevated area, transversely striate. On
the pleuron of each segment, about where one might expect spiracles.
there is a smooth, rounded, elevated spot, faintly double on some of
the posterior segments. On the dorsum of segments 3, 4, 5, and 6
there is a transverse, anterior row of small, smooth tubercles. From
the fifth the following segments, from above, appear divided trans-
versely into three subequal rings, all spinulose. At tip the anal area
is prominent, spinulose, and bears at each outer corner an outwardly
directed spinulose cone. The stigmal pit is elliptical, one and two-
thirds times as long as broad, its upper lip with three subequal,
spinulose cones each side; its lower lip with two similar cones each
side, and a median pair smaller, and situated more toward the anal
area. The stigmal plates, as usual, have three elongate, simple slits;
those of one plate subparallel to those of the other.
These larv' were taken from Limburger cheese oni two occasions,
and an extremely similar form was received as having been passed in
feces.
Sarcophaga sarracenix ? (so labelled).
Body pitted over almost the entire surface, and from each pit
arises a tiny stiff bristle; sometimes the surface is minutely wrin-
kled, and near the tip more spinulose. The anterior spiracles show
about 12 lobes. The posterior ventral half of segments 3 and 4 is
smooth, but the posterior ventral area of the others is crossed by a
broad band of these pits and bristles. Around each segment is the
usual basal ring, and on the posterior sides is the usual fusiform area


SARC01()Pt IAGID, E.






18 STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVR.


pressing against the ring of the following segment, all with pits and
bristles. On the pleuron of each segment, about where one might
expect spiracles, is a minute tubercle, on the penultimate segment
rather large. Above, the segments from 5 on are transversely
divided into four parts; the second part from in front is narrower
than the others. At the tip the anal area is prominent, with the
two outwardly projecting spinulose cones rather larger than in the
Sarco]haga from Limburger cheese; the upper lip of the stigmal pit
has three spinulose cones each side, the outer one the largest, the
intermediate one the smallest; the lower lip shows two cones each
side as large as the inner of the upper lip, and a median pair smaller
and situated back from edge of lip; the stigmal plates have the
usual six simple subparallel slits. The penultimate segment shows
above a subapical transverse row of small tubercles.
Sarcophagid 0.
(Plate IV. figs. 70, 77.)
Head rather deeply emarginate from above. Anterior spiracles
with about twelve lobes. Each segment has the usual basal ele-
vated, spinulose ring, which is very prominent; from the fifth seg-
ment on there is on each side the usual apical fusiform, swollen,
spinulose area pressing against the ring of the next segment; the
rest of the surface of the segments, both above and below, is smooth,
or faintly striate; on the venter of each segment are two small indis-
tinct, smooth tubercles each side. The anal area is prominent,
spinulose, and with the usual two outer spinllose cones; beneath
there is a smooth, blackish area, crossed by a furrow, perhaps ordi-
narily covered )y the anal tubercle. The stigmal pit is about once
an(l a half loni th:an broa(d; its upper lip with three very small
cones each sile, the interniediate so very minute as to be almost
absent; the lower lit) has two) small cones each side, and a median
pair below, andl away from the margin.
Reared from (lecaying vg ( talh .
Sarcophagld D. (From grashlop)pe, 3franoplus.)
(Pae IV, figs. (i4-A6.)
Body rather stout; second segment seen from above broad,
silo(Otll ; anterior spiracles short, of about eight lobes. Other seg-
meilets with a basal, swl leii ring, which is covered, but not ry
closely with sIort, acute s1)inIlfs, stouter than those in some of the
ot er sj)(l(.... Begiinitig with segmilienlt 5 there is the usual fusl-
f(orii area l)1'~(,(l aga~II't tlle rJg oftle nlext segmilent, also with
the st'lot slinules; the general surface of all the segments (except )


18





19


is also provided with these si)inules, but not so abundantly. Arou(Il
the middle of each segment, from 4 on, there is a row of about 22
tubercles, mostly smooth; on eacht side of the veitral line are three
of these on a slightly swollen area, like that seen in the Sarco)Iaga0
from Limburger cheese. On most of the ventral segments is a tranis-
verse area in front and one behind the row of tuibercles 'which does
not have the spinules, but is transversely striated. On the (orsui
the segments from 5 on appear to be (livide(l into three traisverse
portions, the middle one bearing the row of smooth tubercles. Anal
tubercles not very prominent, with a short, stout cone at each corner,
all spinulose. The stigmal pit is small, nearly egg-shaped, about
one and one-fourth times as long as broad; its upper lip with the
usual three cones each side, all short, the intermediate one very
small; the lower lip has also the usual two cones each side, small, an(
'a median pair still smaller, and remote from edge of lip. The stig-
mal plates and slits are as usual in the genus.
C(grysomyi, m acdlaria Fab.
(Plate IV, figs. 67, 68, 69, 7l.)
The head from above is distinctly bilobed: there are two distinct
mandibles; the anterior spiracles are very short, and contain only
7 lobes. The posterior upper part of segment 1 is swollen and spinu-
lose. Each of the following segments (except 2) has a basal, swollen
ring, armed with reclinate teeth, the teeth of the anterior row always
the larger. Beginning with segment 6 the ventral part of each ring is
much broadened and divided transversely by a narrow smooth space.
On segments 5 to 10 there is each side behind a fusiform swollen
area pressing against the swollen ring of the next segment; this area
is also spinulose. The tip of the body shows on the dorsal part a
great cavity, in the bottom of which are the stignal plates, each
with three straight slits, those of one subparallel to those of the
other; no button. Behind the cavity is a high, transverse, spinulose
crest; and the ventral part of tip shows a spinulose area bearing
two rather widely separated, prominent, smooth tubercles. The
dorsal edge of the tip shows four small conical tubercles.
The "screw-worm", as the larva of this insect is called, occurs in
sores and wounds of domestic animals, and also in man. There are
various records of its presence in the ears and nose, or nasal cavities,
of people, from swelling near the nose, from a boil under the arm,
under the skin of a child, and in the navel of a child. It is there-
fore hardly a possible factor in internal myiasis, and most of such
recorded cases probably belonged to some species of Sarcoplhaga
whose larva are very similar in appearance to those of the screw-
worm.


SAELC ()P It AGI ME.





STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVA.


Chrysoyia (?)
(Plate III, figs. 39, 47, 52.)
Head showing a lobe each side, each tipped by a distinct antenna;
mandibles two, well separated; base of second segment a swollen
ring, finely obliquely striated; each of the following segments with a
basal swollen ring, and furnished with spinules; beginning with the
fifth segment there is an apical, fusiform, spinulose area each side,
pressing against the ring of the next segment; elsewhere the sur-
face is smooth and shining, each segment with two faint grooves
around its middle; anterior spiracle with about 10 lobes. The last
segment shows below at base a transverse spinulose area; the anal
area is not very prominent, spinulose, and with a prominent conical
tubercle at each outer corner; the posterior stigmal area occupies
the dorso-caudal surface, but hardly forms a pit, with six small
tubercles on each lip, those on upper lip rather larger; the stigmal
plates are rather close together, have no button, and each shows
three straight slits, subparallel to those in the other plates.
Various specimens taken from fish, at the Barbados, West Indies.

CALLIPHORINtE.
In the Calliphorinve there are two hooks or mandibles, and the
)osterior stigmal plates have each three straight slits directed more
or less toward those of the opposite plate. The stigmal field is
usually outlined by conical tubercles, but not especially depressed.
The anal tubercles are usually spinose, and the prothoracic spiracles
rarely, if ever, have more than 15 lobes. The segments usually
show a more or less complete ring or spinose area on the segments
beyond the fifth. This group is very close to the Sarcophagidt, and
some species of Lucilia are nearly as well placed there as here.
Callipkora erythrocephala Meig.
(Plate 111, figs. 62, 63.)
Head distinctly bilobed from above, each lobe with a minute
papilla; two well-separated mandibles; anterior spiracles with from
nine to twelve lobes. Beginning with the third, each segment shows
an al)ical swollen ring or girdle, whose surface is scabrous; these rings
are broader below than above, and are here emarginate on the poster-
ior middle. Each ventral segment, beginning with the fifth, is
divided y a transverse groove near the idldle. The anal area shows
a smooth median process, divi(led( in middle, and (t each outer corner
is a cone. The stigmal ield is rallher concave, the upper lip with three
smldl tUl)e:rcls each sidte, the Jowei lip with two larger tubercles
caCh si(IQ, an(l a medical pair smaller dl lower down; the stigma|l


20





CALLIPHORINIE.


plates are about once and a fourth their diameter apart, eacad1 withl
three simple, straight slits, directed slightly (lownward, but in s1ly
toward those of the opposite plate; the button is distinct.
The blow-fly deposits eggs on dead animals, and also oi fresh and
cooked meat. As such meats are often accessible to tlem in pantries,
it is readily seen that many larvw are swallowed by people each year;
we have, however, comparatively few records, probably because the
food causes no trouble.
Protocalliphora chrysorrhma A.\Meig.
(Plate 111, figs. 56-58.)
Body rather short, thicker than usual belin(d. Iead plainly
bilobed from above, each lobe bearing a distinct papilla, two separate
bifid mandibles; posterior margin of first segment with a broad
reflexed margin, bearing a fringe of black hair. Surface of body
closely, minutely scabrous; beginning with the third segment there is
below a median, transverse, apical, elevated, smooth lobe; on seg-
mejIts 4 and 5 there is a lateral lobe at each side; each segment from
below also shows a transverse, median furrow, and above most of the
segments show a broad, transverse depression. The anal area is
smooth, and shows an oblique lobe at each side; a median depression,
partly covered by a median lobe from above. Stigmal plates small,
about two to three diameters apart; each with three straight slits
directed obliquely downward and slightly toward those of the other
plate.
Pawnee on Delaware, Pa., attached to young bluebirds in nest,
July; Wellesley Hills, Mass., on nestling bluebirds, June. It also
occurs in Europe, and is there known to feed on young birds.
Lucilia sericata Meig.
(Plate III, figs. 54, 55, 60, 61.)
Body rather stout, not slender in front. Head very distinctly
bilobed, with distinct antenna; mandibles two, well-separated.
Anterior spiracle with about eight lobes. Surface of body mostly
smooth; pleura of segments 3, 4, and 5 bilobed; beginning with seg-
ment 6 there is a basal ring or girdle, roughened; these girdles on
segments 6 to 9 are widened on middle of venter; these )leura are
also swollen, but not plainly bilobed, except those near tip. The
ventral segments are transversely divided by a line or furrow in the
middle. Last segments short, stigmal field occupying most of the
tip, slightly depressed, upper lip with three sharp tubercles each side,
the intermediate one hardly smaller than the others; lower lip with
two large, sharp tubercles each side, and a median pair more remote
from the margin. Anal area rather sunken, with a small rounded






STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARV.%


tubercle at each outer corner. Stignial plates about one-half their
diameter apart, each with three straight slits, directed somewhat
toward each other, but also downward.
Tlis species has been recorded in Holland and other parts of
Europe as very injurious to sheep. The larvo, feeding in matted
(rts of the wool, start sores on the skin, which they invade and feed
on the matter, producing ugly, ulcerated patches.
Mr. W. W. Froggatt has recorded a species of Calliphora (oceanica)
as causing similar sores on sheep in New South Wales.
Meinert has reared another Lucilia (L. nobilis) from larva taken
from the ears of a sailor.
Lucilia s!?lvarum Meig.
(Plate 111, figs. 48-51.)
In general similar to L. sericata. A bilobed head, two mandibles,
about eight lobes to the anterior spiracle, surface of body mostly smooth.
A roughened ring around each segment; beginning with the sixth
segment this ring is broadened below, and traversed by a narrowN-
smooth space; the dorsal part of these rings for the last few segments
is very weak and obscure. The last segment is rather short, with the
stigmal field hardly concave; the upper lip with three small, subequal
tubercles each side, smaller than in L. sericata, lower lip with two
tubercles each side, and a median pair, removed from edge of lip.
Anal area rather proIminent, roughened, with two small, rounded,
approximate, smooth tubercles below, and one pointed and roughened
at each ()ter corner. Stigmal plates about one-half their diameter
apart, each with three straight slits, pointing somewhat toward etch
other, bit not so much as in (alliphora; an approach to the condition
of Cflwi o ia. ....
Mibospila aI(1 A nclIrnerom" i/w.

Portchinski has figured Myqospila, showing that it goes in the
(alliminwl aid Newstead has figured the (Con1go floor-maggot
A iclmerom ia luteola Walk., which also belongs here.
Gedoelst has figured larval of Cord'ylobia, whlichI is considered to
)e a (callip)horille, but thwse larva' appear to be much nearer to the
(Estrida'.
MUSCINIE.

Acco)rdiig to tle larval clIraoters the Muscina form a very sharply
rest ri(ted( gro). There is 1)ut one great hook, ani the posterior
stig l lates lve three sinuous slits; chI'acters not found (as far
as kiiowii) in. any of tle allied forms. Ii anterior l)art of the body
is I Ie sl()1,ler than iM (/0lipliorai and Sarcophga. The spinose
parts of t ie sgIlnents are coiintled to tle ventral surface; the anal...


22





MUSC'IN.L.


23


tubercles are smooth, and tlere are no prominent tuber(hle:S o)tilitillg
the stigmal field. The prollioracic spiracles have only a few lobes.
Musca dom estica. L.

(Plate I, figs. 1,-, 16.
The larva of the house fly has been describe(1 by several aulhors,
and very fully by Dr. Hewitt. The body is slenler andl tapering in
front; large and truncate behind. The head htas a tiny papilla each
side and there is but one great hook, apparently tte union of the pair
seen in other forms. The prothoracic spiracles show six or seven
lobes; on the ventral base of the sixth and following segments there
is a transverse, fusiform, swollen area provided witl minute .4th.
The anal area is but slightly t)roiinent and shows two approximate
processes. The stigmal area is barely if at all concave arIt not out-
lined by tubercles; the spiracles are prominent, iS tian their
diameter apart, each with three sinuous slits, aniJ a button at the
base. In some cases two of the winding slits are apparently con-
nected. The second stage has but two straight slits in each stigmal
plate, while in the first larval stage there are two smaller slits on a
tubercle each side of the middle, and in this stage there are no pro-
thoracic spiracles.
The larva of the house fly is rarely swallowed, but tlere are rec-
ords to that effect, and it sometimes breeds in decaying fruits and
vegetables.
Pseudopq.rdlia cornicirta Fab.
(Plate 1. fiogs.1 -1 .

Body rather slender in front, broad and truncate behind. Head
from above distinctly bilobed, each with a distinct papilla; one large
mandible or hook. Anterior spiracle six or seven lobed. Surface
generally smooth at junction of segments; there are on sides usually a
few short, longitudinal tubercles or strive. Beginning with the sixth
segment each has on the ventral base a transverse, swollen, fusiform
area or pad which is provided with two rows of tubercles or longitu-
dinal teeth. Each ventral segment also shows a transverse groove
before the middle. The penultimate segment has a fusiforin area
at apex below with tubercles upon it. The last segment has the anal
area not very protuberant, above is a slender median process, and
at each side a larger, slender, lateral process; from them a row of
small teeth extends upward and toward base. The posterior stigmal
plates are large, close together, and each has the three winding slits
characteristic of the true Muscidwe.
The specimens were taken from cow dung, which ha'rbored lavv
of Lyperosia irritans L.





STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARV2E.


Muscid B.
(Plate III, figs. 40-43.)
This larva is plainly larger than that of the house fly, and less
tapering in front; the head is blunt and rounded, and the papilloe
aI not distinct; there is but one mandible; the anterior spiracles are
six-lobed. The fifth segment has below on base a slightly swollen
area which is transversely striate; the sixth and following segments
h~ave on the ventral base the usual fusiform area, but little swollen,
faintly divided on the median line, and with many longitudinal teeth
or short ridges; the dorsum is smooth. The anal area is sunken, but
the upper margin shows a median lobe with three smaller lobes each
si(le; surface of last segment smooth; stigmal plates small, deep
black, about their diameter apart and each with three sinuous slits,
similar to those of Musca.
Several specimens sent from New York that were passed by an
epileptic patient in December and January. This species is closely re-
lated to the house fly, but to what genus it belongs is yet uncertain-
perliaps to Graphomyia.
Lqperosia irritans L.
(Plate I, figs. 5-7.)
The body of the horn fly larva is very slender, especially in front.
Iead bilobed, each lobe with a tiny papilla; one mandible, not very
large. The anterior spiracles have six lobes. The general surface
of the body is smooth or very minutely striate; the fourth ventral
segment at base shows an area with tubercles or small teeth; begin-
ning with the sixth, each segment has on the ventral base the trans-
verse, fusiform, swollen area, with two rows of longitudinal teeth or
tubercles, and also each ventral segment shows a transverse groove
before the middle, and the penultimate segment has at base beneath
a spinulose fusiform area. The last segment is rather evenly rounded
above, the stigmal plates close together, and each with three winding
slits, as in allied forms. The anal area is moderately protuberant,
mostly black, and shows below a smooth submedian lobe each side,
and1 laterad of this a larger snootl lobe; above is a pair of more promi-
nenit, smooth, black tubercles; each side of these is a smaller cone and
above is a transverse row of teeth.
Siwc'imeis cane from cow manure containing also the larvi of
I~~ 10sJMl//rl a' corlicina.
Sto#moxis (alcstra s L.

Tile larva has leen describedd an figured by Newstead and later by
flewilt. Jt is similar in SlhI)e to that of the house fly, with a single
great Il L ()I r mIndible; the anterior spiracles have live lobes; the


24





MUS(INA GO()UP.


sixth and following segments have eacl a veibral basal fusit' WI nrla
provided with tu)ercles; the anal area, has tw() su)1I1Ie(liatl tii)rcIes
and three lobes each side of these; above tInie is a r',w of miii ife
granules, ending each side in a larger granulate tiber.le; helre are
no tubercles outlining the stigmal area; the stigmal plates are sub-
triangular, about one and one-half times their diameter apar, black,
and each with three pale areas containing a sinuous or S-Shapfed slit
but these slits are not near each other at the end as in Mutsc, nd
there is no apparent button.
It commonly breeds in manure of various kinds, but also in decavinlg
matter, and is not often passed by people, but there is one record.
It is recorded that in parts of Africa Stomoxys attacks dogs so
viciously that the ears are often seen raw and bleeding from t heir
bites.
Jhtsend i b r a n D asypit ora.
Portchinski has described and figured the larva, of Ifesembrina and
Dasyphora.' His figures how the posterior spiracles wit, the win(-
ing slits as in Musca, and in Mesembrina he figures the single great
hook, so that these genera also belong in the Museinve as here re-
stricted. Both genera have the posterior spiracular plates send-
circular, but in Mesembrina they are very faintly trilobed; in both
genera the plates are very close together.
(;lossina.
The tsetse fly normally deposits a full grown larva, although
specimens in captivity have sometimes de)osite(d partly grown larva' T.
This larva is short, subcylindrical, of a yellowish-white color, and at
the truncate posterior end are two large, rounded, black processes,
which have finely granulated surfaces. At the ventral base of each
of the segments 4 to 10 is a narrow, transverse, fusiform ridge. Aus-
ten, in his account (Brit. Med. Journ., 1904, pt. 2, p. 659) says that
"in the larger larve the tips of the mouth hooks can be seen, slightly
protruding from the cephalic end." It would therefore appear
that they had two separate mouth-hooks, and not one as in Stomoxys
and Musca. If this be the case Glossina is not closely related to
Stomoxys.
MUSCINA GROUP.
The larvax of the Muscina group are in general related to the true
Muscidoe, but differ at once in the simple, short, pointed slits in the
posterior stigmal plates. The great hooks lie close together so that
they approach the azygos condition seen in Musca. Most of the
classifications keep Muscina in the true Muscida but from the larval
standpoint it must be separated.
1 Hor. Ent. Soc. Ross., vol. 26, pp. 91, 118, 1891.


25





STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVAE.


These fo1srms infe-t overripe fruit, and since such fruit is apt to
cd use sickness, these larvN are frequently reported by physicians.

JMhcusin stabuluns Fall.
(Plate II, figs. 17, 18. 19, 27, 28, 36.)
I lea 1bilbed from above, no distinct antenna; two closely ap-
w()xiiiate mandibles; anterior spiracles of about six lobes. Surface
of seg-ntielts mostly smooth; beginning with fifth segment there is on
tie venter a long, basal, transverse, fusiform swollen area, fur-
ished Oh the crest with rows of teeth; each of these areas is divided
oi the median line. On the l)enultimate segment there is a similar
area at tip, but not divide(; the segments below also show a trans-
verse line before the middle. The last segment has the anal basal
area 51)illulose, but not very prominent, and with a median and three
lt eral spinuhose tu)ercles in a nearly transverse row; the rounded
tip of the segment shows, across the middle, faint traces of four low
cones. The stignial plates are scarcely elevated, black, less than their
diameter apart, and ealh with three very short slits pointing toward
those of the opposite plate.
Tlw larva of this species is colon in decaying vegetable matter;
and it has 1)eenl reare(d from rotten apples, pears, squash, mushrooms,
and dead insect larval. In one case a considerable number was
)assed ) a llild suffering from summer complaint.
Il )ulbe~ile records larvae of this species vomited by a person suffer-
ing from bronchitis.
MUsCi(fla (Issl;i1hs Fall.
(Plat(, figs. 20-22.)
I lead( bi)be(t, each lobe witlt a protinlent papilla; mandibles two,
el-se)arat eI. Anterior s pirachs with a bout nine lobes. Surface
ootfh; tme rings or girdles. to segrmeits distinctlyy outline(, but
liit(e swollen; th ev are faintly scal)rous, and on tie ventral surface
broadened and ta svr se (livi(ed by a furrow; there is also on
almost of ille ventrll segments a short, median, transverse line; the
a'al area a)Iears ext rule(I as a broad, rat her flat tene(d lobe, tra-
v(ersed by" mnedlia and transverse grooves; the tuber(:le above has a
sinall conle at ea(ch outer corner. The st igmal lield is margined on
each llp jwer ,side by three ve sia11 con IIieal uberhcles, and behind by a
trI'iIsv ()rse row of four large (oical t ubercihs close together, an(
lh ,rad of t liem)i is a minute tubercle. Ti stigumal ilates are rather
1mo(re 1han their (liatiele(r apar(, 11( each shows three short, straight
slii(. (lireote(I towar(l t ose of the o)posite plate; the button is

lar\-aj ill ro)ts of a ueloll 1ie.


26






27


Near Musc, ,ti.
(Plate IT, figs. 23-26.)
Body slender, especially so in the anterior part; segments 3, 4, and 5
with a ridge around near tip, and faintly spinitlate. Beginning witli
the fifth segment the ventral area is swollen, and with tw() bans of
spinules. At the ventral base of the last segment there is a row of
seven rounded tubercles, all nearly sin(ootli, the median smaller flian
the others; the middle one of each side is at tle end of a curved
swollen area which extends under the submedian tubercle. The lip
of body is truncate, and with four tubercles on the upper edge aml(1
four below; those above are rather prominent, but those below are
small, and the outer ones scarcely visible. Tt stigmal plates are
elevated, and each has three straight slits, directed toward those of
the opposite plate; the button is distinct. Tlie anterior s)iracles
have six long lobes. The head, seen front above, shows a trimnca e
lobe each side.
This has been sent in two cases as )asse(l in. feces, 1)o1hi localities
in the South.
Mus(id A.
(Plate II, figs. 3:3, :7, :))8.)
Head from above bilobed; two closely a)pro)ximate mandibles:
anterior spiracles short, with four lobes. Segments generally sinot i:
beginning with the fifth each has a transverse line on middle of
venter; beginning with the sixth each has a basal, transverse, fusi-
form, spinulose area on the venter; on the penultimate segment
there is one at tip, and on last segment one at base surrounding the
anal area, which is not prominent, )ut shows two smooth brown
areas on the middle, and each side a small tubercle. The fourth
segment shows above and on sides a ralse(d line near the posterior
edge, also a finer line on basal part of last segment; the segments at
their juncture are usually contracted. Time last segment is rather
flat on top, but evenly rounded below, anol without tulbercles; the
stigmal plates elevatedl, scarcely one-I alf th eir diameterr a part, e'l<'(
with a button and three short straight slits pointing toward ttlose of
the opposite plate.
Sent in from the South as passed in 'eces.
Muscid C.
(Plate II, figs. 29-32.)
The bilobed head has a papilla each side; two separate great
hooks; the anterior spiracles are semicir(ular and with many aboutt
20) lobes; segment 5 and those beyond lave each a swollen, fusiformn
area on the ventral base, each with transverse ridges; lateral fusi-


MUSCIINA GROUP.






28


STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVE.


form areas nt prominent, a transverse line on ventral middle of
most segments et anal area shows four hispid tubercles in a trans-
verse roV; stigimal plates black, a little elevated, each -with three
short pointed slits, and a button; a pair of cones above and a pair of
Sl~dler, (,nces below stigm al plates.
IZ orange from Mexico, with Trypeta ludes, No. 4242.
Muscid D.
(Plate II. figs. 34, 35)
Body long and slender, the bilobed head with small papilla; two
great hooks; anterior spiracles with about six lobes; a narrow,
fusiform, swollen area on the ventral base of the segments beyond 4,
each with transverse ridges; a transverse line on ventral middle of
these segments; lateral fusiform areas distinct; tip of body large and
truncate, no distinct tubercles but two low humps above and less
dis tinct ones below the stigmal plates; latter small, about their
diameter apart, each with three rather short, subparallel slits, and
directed toward those of opposite plate, the button distinct. Anal
area with three smooth, rounded tubercles each side, and a less
distinct median one, each tubercle with a few fine grooves on tip;
a transverse granulated ridge in front of the anal tubercles.
From Alaska, probably taken on cabbage.
HOMALOMYIA GROUP.
Tle larva of Ilomalonyia has long been known because of its
j)eculiar appearance, and( the frequency with -which it is associated
withI human food. These larvm are flat and fusiform, each segment
l)rovi(1(( with lowg bristlly processes.. The mouth parts are obscure,
an(l the stigm al plates occupy a dorsal position on the last segment of
tIle )ody.
S very (lifrellt are these larva from the or(linary anthomiid
larval that they should st and ill a group by themselves.


(Plate VI, fig. W6.)
The larva of t ie genus liomalomya is (Iltirely different in general
alpiwearance fromll any o() t ie other forms (nsi(ered in this paper.
91iw I(oly is flat teed, ai bears above a pair ()f long sl)in1s processes
4d) ("clt segment, formnig two su)nmdian rows; there is a row of
siilar processes on each l upper and lower side, making six rows of
thse ]romesses on t1e 1)ly; on the la(l is a pair of anteriorly-
tlire (Ilprocesses, ali([ tie last seo,(,t, whose posterior surface is
apiprently turned U1)ward, has two of these processes on each side,






ANT IOAYIJID.E.


and a pair of longer ones on t6e hinl margin. TFlie(s processes, ,
the general surface of the body, are usually scal)rous. Neaur ilie
upper base of the last segment is ( small triobd irocess each side;
these are the posterior sl)iracles, and each has three short, straight
slits. Each ventral segment is transversely divi(led by a narrow
furrow or line which terminates each si(le in a slight tubercle. The
last segment has behind the usual transverse line another much
curved, and with a double median forward extension.
There is a number of species of Honailomyia, differing in the
proportions of the processes, and Walsh describedd three species from
the larval stage. There are many records of the passage of Ilomalo-
myia larvae, and we have others in the office. Since they feedon
fruit and vegetables that are just beginning to decay one can readily
see that they are often swallowed by people. They also breed, at
least some species, in human feces, and as the flies occur in houses
they are, in a lesser way than the oluse fly, the possible conveyors
of disease.
ANTHOlYIIDR.
(Plate VI, in part.)
The larvwe of Anthomviidat are of the general shape of the larva of
the house fly, but hardly so slender in front; the head shows distinctly
a pair of papille; there are two separate great hooks; the anterior
spiracles have not many lobes, often but 6 to 10 (13 are figured
for one species); segment 5 and others beyond have each a swollen
fusiform area on the ventral base, which is provided with roughened
ridges; the lateral fusiform areas are well developed. The caudal
end is truncate, but barely if at all sunken, and margined with a
number of short, fleshy tubercles, about eight to fourteen in number,
according to the species, some rather larger than others, and often
with four of them in a transverse row; there are, usually at least,
two tubercles above the anal area; the stigmal plates are not far
apart, and each has three short slits arranged more radiately than
in the other groups; sometimes the button is absent.
A few notes on some of the common species occurring on foods
and elsewhere will serve to show the range of form in the family.
In Pegomya fusciceps Zett. (figs. !11, 116) there are four simple,
conical tubercle in a transverse row below the stigmal plates; the
stigmal plates do not show a button; and the anterior spiracles have
about six lobes.
In Pegomya cepetorum Meade (fig. 119) there are four simple
slender tubercles if a row and the stigmal plates are similar to
those of P.fusciceps, but the anterior spiracles are larger and have
about ten lobes.


29






30 STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVE.
In Pegortn'a brassicx Bouch6 (figs. 107, 113, 114) and P. plani-
palpis Stein the median tubercles of the four in a row are broader
than the others and bifid at tip, more deeply so in P. brassic- than in
P. plarupaljis, and the stigmal plates show a distinct button; the
anteIor -piracles have about 10 lobes. In a Pegowya from Alaska,
taken fr(m cauliflower, the median tubercles of the four in a row
are very broad and trifid at tip.
In Pfgoula i rlficeps Stein the body is shorter and stouter, and
with many swollen areas and transverse lines; the anterior spiracles
h1ave ai)out 12 lobes; the median tubercles of the four in a row are
nmicl smaller than the others; the stigmal plates are slightly ele-
vateil, each with the three radiating slits, but no distinct button.
The larva of Pegomya bicolor le(I. (figs. 110, 112) has all the
tubeicles at tip of body small; the four in a row are all equally small;
tle stigmal plates as shown in figure 112; the anterior spiracles rather
lar(re, and with about 12 small lobes; there is a swollen area of ridges
all around each segment from the fourth backward. A larva, sup-
po)sedlv an anthomviid, on roots of roses, shows at tip (fig. 117)
fotur laIre processes; the stignal plates being on the inner base of
the smaller processes.
Carpenter has figured in Pgomwya bit, Curtis two prominent
teeth on the great hooks; the anterior spiracles with eight lobes,
a(l the stigmal plates far apart.
Ifewitt lhas published a fine account of Aihom'yia radicum L.; no
teeth on the great hooks; anterior spiracles with 13 lobes; stigmal
plates near' each other, and with three rather long slits; the median
tulercles ()f the four in a row are smaller than others and situated
a little nearer tile stignal plates; each is bifid at tip; no button is
sliv oh. thle stigmlal 1)lates."
In Pliorbia floccosa Mlac(q. (figs. 108, 109) the stigmal field is
margined ( by 1 2 conical recesseses, 'md the anal tubercle is in the
folnI (of two similar ('0lica presses : the anteri* spiracle has but
six lobes.
TRYPETIDIE.
In the few forms of 'Itr-ypetidhe examined, those that feed in
fruits ai1l soqft tissue, te1re two manleiIdes or hooks, tie tip of the
b,,,y is lest it ute (f p)intcd tiubercles, ah1(d ther is one pair of
ruiiiedI a1i1,1 tiul)er-cles. lle l))trItoI spiracles are similar to
tlose of flie ( 1aliplio'rina- three simple slits, those of one plate
di ct ('(l toward tl(se (of td e tlier. The T rothoeacic spiracles have
JilIJHTrIIs lobes, often ()ver twelnt always more numerous than in
lio Miuscite or Sarcophiagilda. There are no complete bands
ll sliMies around tle )d )l, o)Ily fuiform al(les on the ventral
segments; t~ie siigiial area is l )t heit ieniy (tel)ressed.






TRYPET1ID.E.


Oeratitis capitata ied.
(Plate V, figs. 87, 88, 89, 100.)
Body moderately tapering in front, not particularly slender;
two distant mandibles; head from above bilobed; anterior spiracles
long, with about 15 lobes. The segments show on the vetiter the
usual transverse, fusiform, spinulose areas, and between them on
the middle of each segment are two low ridges, which in the median
area are connected as in the figure, one of them being broken in the
middle. On the posterior border of each segment where it joins
the next is a row of pits, and also less distinct a longitudinal row,
or two of them, on the side of each segment; oi some segments
these are more like a line or groove. Elsewhere on the segments
there are a few longitudinal grooves and ridges. At apex of body the
stignial area is slightly elevated, the plates long, and each has
three short, straight slits. Above them on the upper edge is a pair
of distant, conical tubercles; below the plates is a transverse, ele-
vated crest, and on the lower slope is an elliptical, medial area,
spinulose around the edge, and containing the two anal tubercles,
elongate, and pear-shaped, but not much elevated.
This is the peach maggot of tropical countries.
Acidia fratria Loew.
(Plate V, figs. 91-93.)
Body very pale; not very slender; two approximate mandibles;
head from above rounded at tip; anterior spiracles long, with con-
cave upper edge, and about 24 lobes. No part of body spinulose; the
swollen parts of segments not very prominent, and striate or
wrinkled, not spinulose. At the tip there are below two smooth,
approximate tubercles on the anal area, which is not prominent.
At dorsal tip is a large process, apparently bilobed from the side,
and also from above, bearing i-i its middle the flat-topped stigmal
eminence; the stigmal plates are fully their diameter part, each
with three short slits directed t(.wal-d those of opposite plate, no
apparent button, and no other tubercles.
This species mines the leaves of the parsnip.
Dacus ferrugineus Fab.
(Plate V, figs. 90, 103, 105.)
Body rather thick, anterior part not slender; two widely separated
mandibles; anterior spiracles long and of about 38 lobes. Anterior
margins of segments 3, 4, and 5 minutely transversely striated
above. The ventral region, beginning with segment 4, shows the
scabrous elevated areas. The last segment shows beneath a large


31





STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVAE.


scabrous flattened elevation bearing two approximate smooth
tubercles. The tip has a faint conelike process each side below the
stigmata; the latter are slightly elevated, each showing three straight
slits, wide apart and directed toward those of the opposite plate.
Dacus curcurbitw Coq.
(Plate V, figs. 101, 102, 104.)
Head bilobed from above, each lobe bearing a distinct antenna;
mandibles two, distant; anterior spiracles long, with about 20 lobes.
Ventral segments 6 to 12 with swollen spinulose areas. The last seg-
ment shows below a transversely elliptical spinulose area, rather
depressed, and containing two approximate, flat, rounded tubercles;
til) of body rounded, with a low, broad swelling at each lower corner;
the stigmal plates are approximate, each with three short slits, point-
ill toward those of the opposite plate.
From melons in Hawaii; No. 8478.
Rhagoletis suavis Loew.
(Plate V, figs. 94-96.)
Body much the largest near the tip; head small, bilobed, each lobe
with minute antenna; two stout, blunt mandibles, and laterad of
them is a horny crest; anterior spiracles hemispherical, with about 25
lobes; surface of body smooth; beginning with the fifth segment
there is a basal, fusiform, much swollen area on the venter of each
segment, each transversely ridged and punctate; on the middle of
these segments is a transverse line extending down on the sides;
dorsum of segments indistinctly divided into three transverse areas;
last segment witl the anal area near the tip, not very prominent, but
with two prominent, approximate, smooth lobes; above the anal
area are two minute depressions; the stigmal field is slightly depressed,
the plates close together, each with three narrow, straight slits
directe.1 toward those of the opposite plate.
From shuck of a butternut, Plummers Island, Md.
Rhagoletis pom onella Walsh.
(Plate V, figs. 83, 84.)
Body rather stout, tapering but little in front; head broad, papilla
ver snai!; two great hooks; anterior spiracles broad, with about 15
lobes' each dorsal segment from the third has a basal area of ridges;
each ventral segment from the fifth has a broad, basal, fuiform,
swollen area, which s very minutes ridged; a transverse line on
middle of each ventral segment, and the apex of each segment with
an are f several transverse ridges; the lateral fusiform areas are
fairly distinct; the anal tubercle is moderately l)romilent, ,and


32





T1RYPETIDX.


strongly bilobed; the stigmal plates are fully their diameter apart,
each with three straight, parallel slits; between the stiginal l)ates an(l
the anal tubercle are two pairs of distinct, roun(led, fleshy tubercles;
the two nearer the anal tubercle tire closer to each other than are the
other two.
Locally common in northern apples.

Rhagoletis cingulata Loew.
(Plate V, figs. 97, 98.)
Head broad, papilla barely visible, two prominent great hooks;
anterior spiracles broad, concave above, with about fourteen lobes.
Ventral segments from 5 onward each with a broad, basal, fusiform,
swollen area, with many transverse ridges; each ventral segment has
also in the middle a transverse line or furrow; the lateral fusiform
areas indistinct; on the dorsal base of segments 3, 4, and 5 is an area
of transverse ridges, barely distinct on the following segment; anal
tubercle small, slightly roughened, divided by a longitudinal line;
stigmal plates not their diameter apart, each with three short, barely
curved slits; between the stigmal plates and the anal tubercle, at the
extreme tip of the body, are two low elevations or swellings each side,
each with a minute central tubercle, the four forming a curved line.
Common in cherries.

Epochra canadensis Loew.
(Plate V, figs. 81, 82.)

Body subeylindrical, tapering only a little in front; papilla of head
very minute; two well-separated great hooks; anterior spiracles broad,
broadly emarginate in the middle, with about eighteen to twenty lobes.
Ventral segments from the fifth backward with a very narrow, basal,
fusiform area, only slightly protuberant, and finely ridged; each of
these segments with a ventral, median, transverse line; no lines or
furrows on dorsum; no lateral fusiform areas. Apex of body evenly
rounded, smooth, no tubercles; the stigmal plates without a button,
each with three short, nearly straight slits; anal tubercle distinct, but
small, more yellow than the surrounding surface, slightly convex, and
divided by a longitudinal line.
From currants; more common in the North.
Anastrepha ludens Loew.
(Plate V, figs. 85, 86, 99.)
Head small, short, bilobed from above; two distinct mandibles;
anterior spiracles long, with twentyor more lobes; on the fifth and
the following segments is the usual ventral, basal, fusiform area, with


33






STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARV2E.


transverse striae, the area on fifth segment smaller than the others;
the anal area shows two large, smooth, prominent, submedian
tubercles; there are no tubercles outhining the stigma field; the stig-
mal plates are contiguous, each with three short, straight slits
directed toward those of opposite plate; these slits are much shorter
and broader than in Rhagoletis.
This species, the orange maggot, is sometimes found in Mexican
oranges.
ORTALIDI.
The larve of the ortalid flies are rather more slender than those of
Musca; the two great hooks are distinct; the anterior spiracles have
about ten lobes; the ventral fusiform areas are distinct, but the
lateral rather weak; the tip of body ends in two slight processes
bearing the posterior stigmal plates, each with three short slits.
Most of the species occur in places where they are not apt to be
swallowed by man, but the onion maggot, and a few other forms, may
occasionally be taken in food.
Euxesta thom Loew.
(Plate III, figs. 53, 59.)
Body smooth, slender; two great hooks; two distinct papille on
the bilobed head; segments from 5 on each with distinct fusiform,
swollen area on ventral base, each area with several transverse
ridges; lateral fusiform areas fairly distinct; anal area not swollen,
and no tubercles; tip of body rounded and smooth, without tubercles;
each stigmal plate on an elevated black base, each plate with three
short slits and a button, but indistinct; nine lobes in the anterior
spiracles.
In ear of corn from Texas.
A similar ortalid from tomatoes in Florida has but five lobes in the
anterior s)iracles, and the slits on the posterior spiracles are more
nearly on the outer edge.

Tlitoxa flexa WXie(l (?)
(Plate I1, figs. 44-46.)
Slender; hea(l truncate, with two small papillv; two great hooks;
anterior spiracles with ten lobes; segment 5 and beyond each with a
swollen, fusiforin area on ventral base, each area with several ridges
in front an(d behind, leaving a smooth space in the middle; a faint
transverse line oii middle of ventral segments; lateral fusiform areas
visible, but not )romlinent; anal area with a low swollen lobe each
side, no tubercles; a few fine ri(lges above and below anal area; last
segment" rounded, smooth, no tubercles; stigmnal plates on low ee-





DROSOP lLIl 115.


nations, about their diameter apart, each with three radiatel slits,
and a button, incomplete on inner si(Ie.
From onions, in Pennsylvania. It is probal)ly tlis species or Us
close ally, T. incurva Loew.
SEPSIDE.
The larvT of the Sepside are of the muscid shape; the fusiform
areas are not prominent except on the venter; the anal tubercle is
rather inconspicuous; the spiracles are situated on projections at
the tip of the body, and also in the pupae. Each spiracle has three
straight slits.
They breed mostly in manures, but sometimes in decaying fruit;
one species, the cheese skipper, has long been known because of its
occurrence on old cheeses.
Piophila case L.
(Plate VII, figs. 122-124.)
The body is of the usual shape, tapering in front. The head is
emarginate from above, each corner projecting in a papilla; there are
two well-separated great hooks. The anterior spiracles are rather
prominent and divided into about ten lobes. The sixth and follow-
ing segments have on the ventral base a narrow, transverse, fusiform
area in which the ridges are broken into minute teeth. The last seg-
ment has at tip two processes, each about three times as long as
broad at base, and rather more than their length apart; this last
segment also has a prominent outer angle each side near the base.
The posterior spiracles are situated on the inner tip of a slight pro-
tuberance, and each has three straight slits. Each main tracheal
tube is black for a short distance from the tip.
The cheese skipper not only occurs in cheese, but also in hams,
especially the fatty parts, and in oleomargarine; there are several
records of its occurrence in people, and we have one such case.
Alessandrini has recently made experiments with this species on
dogs and finds that it passes through uninjured, while it may cause
intestinal lesions in the dog. He also found that the larva was
remarkably resistant to many chemical substances, supposedly destruc-
tive to life.
DROSOPHILIDA.

Drosophila.
(Plate VIII, figs. 133, 135-137.)
Body rather slender in front; head with distinct papille, two well-
separated great hooks; anterior spiracles obscure, not much ex-
truded, with eight to ten long branches or lobes; each segment of


135






STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVa..


the body is slightly constricted in the middle, with a basal roughened
area encircling each segment; anal tubercle broad, dark colored,
bilobed, but not very prominent; around tip of body are several
pairs of tubercles; five pairs are described for D. ampelophila Loew,
four pairs for D. amoena Loew; the stigmal plates are on the tips of
two approximate cylindrical processes which rest on an elevated
part of the tip of the body.
The pupma are rather barrel-shaped, with a slender projection at
each anterior corner of the body, the process varying in size and
tubercles with the species; the posterior end of the body is provided
with tubercles similar to those of the larv, and stigmal plates at
the tip of a pair of truncate projections. The pupm are usually
found in the same lot as the larvo, as evidently but a few days are
required for them to develop from the eggs.
Drosophila larva- and pupa are quite common in overripe fruit,
especially grapes, pears, and apples; they also occur in jellies, jams,
vinegar, pickles, etc., and so are frequently swallowed by people.

THE CEPHALOPHARYNGEAL SKELETON.
The structure of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton varies with the
species. It is not always feasible to use this structure in identifying
material, since it usually necessitates the destruction of the anterior
part of the larva, which one does not care to do in unique specimens.
Figures have been given of this skeleton as seen in several species;
but it can not be used as a diagnostic character for groups until one
has examined a larger number of species. In the first larval stage
this skeleton is formed of very slender pieces, only narrowly con-
nected, but in the second and third stages the parts broaden, espe-
cially the lateral plates.
In the Trypetide (figs. 125, 132) the lateral plates are only weakly
chitinized, and not black; they are deeply indented from behind, so
that the upper and lower limbs are connected only for a short dis-
tance. The great hooks have a very prominent spur above at base.
In the Ortalida (Euxesta, fig. 121) the skeleton is very similar
to that of the Trypetidoe.
In the three species of Sarcophaga examined the lateral plates are
not so deeply indented from behind, and the upper limb shows a
slender appendage along its lower edge; the great hooks have a spur
atove at 1)ase (fig. 134).
In tie Muscid (figs. 115, 120) the lateral plates are still less
indented from behind, the lower limb being much larger than the
tipper limb; the hypostomnal sclerites are short and heavy; the great
hook (for there is but one) has a rather small spur above at base.
In the Callipliorina (figs. 126, 1'28, 131) the lateral plates are
deeply indented from behind, and here it is the upper limb that is


36






BEARING OF LA RV.X ON CLASSIFICATION.


the larger. The hypostomal sclerites have a limll) or swellillg
beneath; the great hooks have hardly any spur above at l)ase. ltj
some of the genera, Calliphora and Protocalliphora, only part of the
upper limb of the lateral plates is strongly chitinized.
In Homalomyia (fig. 127) there is an approach to the form of
Musca, the lateral plates only slightly indented, the lower limit) tlie
larger, and a basal spur above on the great hooks. In the up)er
anterior part of the lateral plates, where they unite, is a number of
perforations, some round, some elongate; these are not seen in the
other families examined, but appear in Drosophila (fig. 133).
BEARING OF LARVjE ON CLASSIFICATION.

The value of larval characters in classification will always be
variously estimated by different entomologists, and tle writer is far
from claiming that any group should be delimited by larval char-
acters. But in view of the diversity of opinion among dipterists
as to the divisions of the old family Muscidoe, the bearing of these
larval structures may be of interest. Some authors have taken
Stomoxys and Glossina from the Muscide and put them in a separate
family, the Stomoxyido. From the standpoint of the larvve there is
no warrant for this separation, Stomoxys being much nearer in struc-
ture to Musca than is either to the Calliphorinoe. Looking at these
groups from the structure of the larvT, one will notice that, both the
Muscido and the Anthomyiido possess two styles of larval structure,
and it is very difficult to see why these striking differences in the
larvoe should not find some corresponding difference in the flies up6n
which to found a better classification. The larva of Homalomyia
differs so greatly from that of Anthomyia that one can not but think
- that this difference should be reflected in the adult. Likewise when
one considers the peculiarities of the larva of Musca, Stomoxys,
Lyperosia, and Pseudopyrellia, differing from other muscids by impor-
tant characters at each end.of the body, one can hardly believe that
there is not some structure of the flies to distinguish them as a group.
The classifications of the Muscidme by Pandelle and by Girschner
agree much better with the larvo than the classifications seen in the
catalogues. These authors have put the Calliphorinmv remote from
the true Muscido and near the Sarcophagidm; Pandelle also has a
distinct group in the Anthomyiidm for Homalomyia, and the true
Muscidw are included in his Anthomyiares. However, the larve of
the true Muscidm are so different from Anthomyia that one would
suppose the flies should have a group at least equal in value to that
of the Anthomyiidw or Tachinide. This would indicate three
families, Muscidae in the restricted sense-Tachinidoe, to include
Calliphorinw and SarcophagidT; and the Anthomyiida-, to include
Muscina and Homalomyia, the latter to have subfamily rank.


37






38


STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVIa.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

ALESSANDRINI, G.-Studi ed esperienze sulli larve della Piophila casc.KArch. Para-
sitol., vol. 13, pp. 337-387, 33 figs., 1910.
BLANCHARD, R.-Contribution l'6tude des Dipteres parasites.
I, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1893, pp. cxx-cxxxvi.
II, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1894, pp. 142-160.
III, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1896, pp. 641-676.
BOUCH P. FR.-Naturgeschichte der Insekten, besonders ihrer ersten Zustdnde
als Larven und Puppen. Berlin, 1834.
(1OMSTOCK, J. H.-Report on miscellaneous insects. 1882 (1882), pp. 195-208, pis. xiv-xvii. (Rhagoletis and Drosophila.)
GIIRSCHNER, E.-Beitrag zur Systematik der Musciden. Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 38,
tP. 297-312, 1893.
HEWITT, C. G.-On the life history of the root-maggot, Anthomyja radicui Meigen.
HEWITT, (". G.-The structure, development and bionomics of the house fly, Musca
domestic Linn. Part I.KQuart. Journ. Micr. Sci., vol. 51, pp. 395-448, 1907; Part
II, ibid, vol. 52, pp. 495-545, 1908; Part III, ibid, vol. 54, pp. 347-414, 1909. Re-
printed as a separate volume in 1910.
HOWARD, L. O.-A contribution to the study of the insect fauna of human excre-
ment. LALLIER, P.-Etude sur la myase du tube digestif chez l'homme. Me'decin de Paris, 1897, pp. 120, 1 pl.
LINTNER, J. A.-Injurious dipterous insects. figs. 45-67, 1882 (Anthomyiidse).
LOWNE, B. T.-The anatomy, physiology, morphology, and development of the blow-
fly ((Calliphora erythrocephala). 2 vols., London, 1892, 1895, 778 pp., 52 pls., 108 figs.
NEWSTEAD, R.-On the life history of Stomoxys calcitrans.KJourn. Econ. Biol., vol. 1,
pp. 157-166, 1906.
N EWSTEAD, R.-Preliminary report on the habits, life-cycle, and breeding places of
the commnion house fly (Musca domestic) as observed in the city of Liverpool, with
suggestions as to the best means of checking its increase. Liverpool, 23 pp., 14 figs.,
1907.
NEWSTEAD, R.-First interim report on the expedition to the Congo. Medicine, Liverpool, vol. 1, pp. 3-112, 1907. (Auchmeromyia luteola.)
OSTEN SACKEN, (". I.-On Mr. Portchinski's publications on the larvv of Muscidw.
PACKARD, A. S.--On the transformations of the common house fly, with notes on allied
forms. PEREZ, C Recherches histologiques sur la metamorphose des muscides ((alliphora
erythrocephala).-KArch. Zool. Exp., 1910, 274 pp., 16 pls.
l'ORTCIlNSKI, J.-Sarcophila wohlfahrti monographia. pp. 247-314, 33 figs., 1884.
PORTCHINSKI, J. Muscarutii cadaverinarum stercorariarumque biologia comiparata.
<'Ilor. Soc. Eit. Ross., vol. 19, pp. 210-244, 1885.
PO(I'UHINSKI, J. -Biologie des imouches coprophagucs et n6crophagues. Kilor. Soc.
n. iRoss., vol. 26, pp. 63-131, 1891.
)ORTCHINSKI, J. Recherches biologiques sur le Stomoxys calcdrams L. et biologic
C(tmI)are des touches coprophagues. St. Petersburg, 1910, 90 pp., 97 figs.
N'(;LER, C'?. 11.-Weitere Beitr ge zur Kenntnis von (ipteren Larven.<.l lus. Zeitschr.
Svol. 5, pp. 273 -276, 289- 291, 1900. (Ito nalomyia scalaris.)
\WALSHkj 1). Latav in human bowels.KAmer. Ent., vol. 2, pp. 137-139, 1870.
(JHonalomyu.) I







Tech. Series 22, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture


-j


STRUCTURE OF DIPTEROUS LARV.*.
Fig. 1.- Musca domestic: Side view. Fig. 2.- Mifusca domestica: Posterior stigmal plates. Fig. 3.- lusca
domestica: Tip of body. Fig. 4.-Musca domestica: Itead from above. Fig. 5.-Lyperosia irritans: Tip
of body. Fig. 6.-Lyperosia irritans: Head, side view. Fig. 7.-Lyperosia irritans: Posterior stigmal
plates. Fig. 8.--Stomoxys calcitrans: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 9.-Stomoxys calcitrans: Posterior stigma
late. ig. O.-Stomoxys alcitrans: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Fig. 1.-PveudopyrlIia cornicina:
ip of body. Fig. 12.-Pseudopyrellia cornina: Anterior spiracle. Fig. ]3.-Pseudopyrellia cornicina:
Head, side view. Fig. 14.-Pseudopyrellia cornicina: headtop view. Fig. 15.-Pseudopyrelia cornicina-:
StigIal area. Fig. I I.-tMsca doWstica: Anteriorspiracle. Enlarged. (Original.)


PLATE 1.








Tech. Series 22, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture


20


/
/
33


3
37


STRUCTURE OF DIPTEROUS LARVA.
Fig. 17.-Muscina stabulans: Stigmal plates. Fig. 18.-Muscina stabulans: Tip of body, si(le view.
Fig. 19.-Muscina stahulans: End of body. Fig. 20.-Muscina assiniiis: Iip of body, side view.
Fig. 21.- Muscina assimilis: Stigmal plates. Fig. 22.-Muscina assiniiiis: End of body. Fig. 23.-Near
Muscina: Last two segments. Fig. 24.-Near Xi]uscina: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 25.-Near MAuscina:
Head, above. Fig. 2(.-Near Mluscina: Stigwal plate. Fig. 27.-Mu scina stabulans: Head, side view.
Fig. 28.-Muscina stabulans: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 29.-Muscid C: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 30.-
Muscid C: Stigmal plates. Fig. 31.-Muscid C. Anterior spiracle. Fig. 32.-Muscid C." End of body.
Fig. 3".-Muscid A: rip of body, side view. Fig. 34.-Muscid D: End of body. Fig. 35.-Muscid ):
Anterior spiracle. Fig. 3(6.-Muscina stabulans: head, above. Fig. 37.-Muscid A: Stigmal plate.
Fig. 38.-Muscid A: Anterior spiracle. Enlarged. (Original.)


PLATE Ih.


26-1







Tech. Series 22, Bureau of Entomology. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


40


~, ~,>


43


50


-(Y~ Y}Y)~h

52~ 9I


S4


0li


STRUCTURE OF DIPTEROUS LARVAE.
Fig. 39.- Chrysomyia (?): Tip of body, side view. Fig. 40.-Muscid B: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 41.-Muscid
B: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 42.-Muscid B: Stigmal plates. Fig. 43.-Muscid B: End of body.
Fig. 44.- Tritoxafleza: Stigmal plate. Fig. 45.- Tritoxaflexa: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 46.-Tritoxaflexa:
Tip of body, side view. Fig. 47.-Chrysomyia (?): Stigmal plate. Fig. 4S.-Lucilia sylvarum: Head, side
view. Fig. 49.-Luciliasylvarum: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 50.-Lucilia stlvarum: Anterior spiracle.
Fig. 51.-Luciliasylvarum: Stigmalplates. Fig. 52.- Chrysomyia (?): Anterior spiracle. Fig. 53.-Euxesta
thoma.: Stigmal plate. Fig. 54.-Lucilia sericata: End of body. Fig. 55.-Lucilia sericata: Head, top
view. Fig. 56.-Protocalliphora chrysorrhoxa: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 57.-Protocalliphorachrysorrh(ra:
Read, side view. Fig. 58.-Protocalliphora chr isorrha a: Stigmal plates. Fig. 5.-Eursta thomx: Tip
of body, above. Fig. 60.-Luciliasericata: Head, side view. Fig. 61.-Lucilia sericata: Tip of body, side
view. Fig. 62.- Calliphora erythrocephala: Head, side view. Fig. (1.- Calliphora erythrocephala: Stigmal
plates. Enlarged. (Original.)


PLATE 111.


r"111







Tech. Series 22, Bureau of Entomology U, S. Dept of Agriculture.


/


66


67


69


76


77


78~


(-~ 'I-wi--'


r~Q{Y Y7~
C>
K
79


6'0


STRUCTURE OF DIPTEROUS LARVI'E.
Fig. 64.-Sareophagid D: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 65.-Sarcophagid D: Head, above. Fig. 66.-
Sareophagid D: Head, side view. Fig. 67.-Chrysomyia lmac llaria: Head, side -\iew. Fig. 68.- Chry-
somy a macellaria: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 69.- Chrysomyia maaria: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 70.-
Sareophagid C. Head, above. Fig. 71.-Ch Crysow yia macedlai a: End of body. Fig. 72.-Sarcophagid B:
Stignal plates. Fig. 73.-Sarcophagid A: Two segments, venter. Fig. 74.--Sarcophagid A: Two seg-
ments, dorsun. Fig. 75.-Sareophaqa incrta: Segment, venter. Fig. 7(6.-Sarcophagid B: Tip of body,
side view. Fig. 77.-Sarcophagid C.: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 78.-Sareophagid A: Anterior spiracle.
Fig. 79.-Sarcophagid B: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 80.-Sarcophagid B: Head, above. Enlarged.
(Original.)


PLATE IV.







Tech. Series 22, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agrcu turP


87


1.9


845


C' -~/
88






89~


S49/


94


r9


4961


/02


/05"


STRUCTURE OF DIPTEROUS LARVaE.
Fig. 81.-Epochra carudensis: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 82.-Epochra camadai: Stigmal plate. Fig. M.
Rhagoletis pornonella: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 84.-Jhaqoletis pomonella: Stigmal plate. Fig. 85.-
Anastrtepka ludenw: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 86.-Anastrepha ludcns.: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 87.-
Ceratitis cap'tara: Anal tubercle. Fig. 88.- Ceratitis capitata: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 89.- Cratit
captta.a Ridges on ventral segments. Fig. 90.-Dacus ferruqineus: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 91.-
Acidia fratria: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 92.-Acidia fratria: Stigmal plate. Fig. 93.-Aridia fraria:
Anterior spiracle. Fig. 94.-Rlagoletis suaris: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 95.-Rhagohttis suaris:
Anterior spiracle. Fig. 96.-Rhagoltis suavis: Stigmal plate. Fig. 97.-Rhagoltis cingulata: Stigmal
plate. Fig. 98.-Rhagoletis cinqlulata.: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 99.-Anastrepha ludcns: Stiginal plates.
Fig. 10.-Ceratitis capitata: Stignial plate. Fig. 101.-Dacus cucurbite: head, side view. Fig. 102.-
Dacus cucurbit: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 103.- Dacus ferruyinus: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 104.-Dacus
cucurbitx: Stigmal plates. Fig. 105.-Dacus ferruqincus: Stignal plate. Enlarged. (Original.)


/0/


/00


103


\/04


PLATE V.


86


\9







Tech. Series 22, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of A,


PLATE VI.


/08


CI/A*


/k?


'/20


STRUCTURE OF DIPTEROUS LARVAE.
Fig. 106.-Homalomyia sp.: Dorsal view. Fig. 107.-Pcgomt!a brassic'. Anterior spiraele. Fig. 108.-
Phorbia floccosa: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 109.--Phorbia floccosa: End of body. Fig. 110.-Peoomya
bicolor: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 1ll.-Pcgomya usciceps: Stigmal plate. Fig. 112.--Pegoinya bicolor:
Stigmal plate. Fig. 113.-Pegomya brassice: Margin of stigmal field. Fig. 11.-Pegomya brassicx
Stigmal plate. Fig. 115.-Muscina stabulans: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Fig. 11(;.-Pegornyafisciucps."
Head, side view. Fig. 117.-Anthomyia sp.: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 1I8.-Pegomya brassicx:
Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Fig. 119.-Pegomya ccpetorum: Stigmal plate and anterior spiracle.
Fig. 120.-Musca domestica: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Enlarged. (Original.)


112






Tech. Series 22, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.


/2/


/22


/24


STRUCTURE OF DIPTEROUS LARVAE.
Fig. 121.-Euxesta notata: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Fig. 122.-Piophila casti: Tip of body, below.
Fig. 123.-Piophila case Tifp of body, above. Fig. 124.-Piophila case: Anterior spiracle. Fig. 125.-
Rhagoictis, pomonella: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Fig. 126.- Calliphora erythrocephala: Cephalopharyn-
geal skeleton. Fig. 127.-Homalomyia sp.: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Fig. 12S.-Protocalliphra:
epbalopharyngeal skeleton. Enlarged. (Original.)


PLATE VII.







Tech. Series 22, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept of Agriculture.


A


/35


136 \3
\137


STRUCTURE OF DIPTEROUS LARVAE.
Fig. 129.-Drosophila ampelophila: Dorsal view. Fig. 130.-I)rozophila ampdlophila: Stigmal plate.
Fig. 131.-Luciliasericata: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Fig. 132.-Dacusccurbit:(: Cephalopharyngeal
skeleton. Fig. 133.-Drosophila ampdlophila." Cephalopharyngeal skeleton. Fig. 134.-Sarcophau' i nrTa:
Cephaiopharyngeal skeleton. Fig. 135.-Drosophilaampdophila: Tip of body, side view. Fig. 136.-
Drosophila ampelophila: Head of pupa. Fig. 13.-Drosophila ampelophila: Auterior spiracle. Enlarged.
(Original.)


PLATE Vill.


~~131 J














INDEX.


Page.
Acidiafratria, larva, description and occurrence 31
Anal tubercle of dipterous larva ............................................ 1
Anastrepha ludens, larva, description and occurrence ........................33-34
Animals, dead, food of Calliphora erythrocephala ............................. 21
domestic, hosts of Chrysomyia macellaria ........................... 19
Anthomyia radicumn, bibliographic reference ................................ 38
structure of larva ....................................... 30
systematic position from larval standpoint ........................ 37
Anthomyfida, structure of larv...................................- 29-30
Anthomyiid (?) larva on roots of roses, structure ........................... 30
Apples, food of fruit-flies .................................................. 10
Rhagoletis pomonella.................... ................33
overripe, food of Drosophila ....................................... 36
rotten, food of Muscina stabulans .................................. 26
Auchmeromyia luteola (see also Floor maggot, Congo).
bibliographic reference ................................ 38
larva, systematic position. ..........................22
Bengalia fly, parasite of man and dogs ...................................... 11
Birds, young, hosts of Protocalliphora chrysorrhoea .............................. 21
Blowfly (see also Calliphora erythrocephala).
food, occurrence in man....................................... 9
Bluebirds, young, host of Protocalliphora chrysorrhea ........................21
Botfly, ox. (See Hypodermz lineata.)
Butternut shuck, food of Rhagoletis suavlis...- ............................ 32
Cabbage, probable food of Muscid D ........................................ 28
Calliphora, cephalopharyngeal skeleton .................................. 37
erythrocephala (see also Blowfly).
bibliographic references ........................... 38
larva, description and occurrence ------------------- 20-21
number of eggs deposited .......................... 12
oceanica, parasite of sheep ....................................... 22
Calliphorinae, cephalopharyngeal skeleton .................................. 36-37
structure of larvae ......................................... 20-22
Cattle, hosts of horn fly .................................................... 11
screw-worm ................................................ 11
stable fly ................................................... 11
tsetse fly .................................................. 11
Cephalopharyngeal skeleton in dipterous larvae .......................... 14.36-37
Ceratitis capitata, larva, description and occurrence. .......................31
Cheese, food of Piophila case ............................................... 35
Sarcophaga ................................................ 16
limburger, food of Sarcophagid B ................................17
skipper (see also Piophila casei).
causing intestinal lesions in dog .............................. 11, 35
39







40 STRTJCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARV2E.

Page.
Cherries, food of fruit-flies ----------------------------------------------- ... 10
Rhagoletis cingulata ......................................... 33
Chrysomyia (?), larva, description and host: .................................. 20
macellar a, (see also Screw-worm).
larva, description, hosts ............................... 19
Cordylobia, larva, systematic position -------------------------------------- 22
Corn, food of Euxesta thomw .............................-................... 34
Cow dung (see also Manure and Feces).
food of Lyperosia irritans ......................................... 23
Pseudopyrellia cornicina ................................... 23
Currants, food of Epochra canadensis ....................................... 33
Cynornyia, number of eggs deposited --------------------------------------- 12
Dacus cucurbitx, larva, description and occurrence ------------------------- 32
ferrugineus, larva, description ........................................ 31-32
Dasyphora, larva deposited in third stage .................................. 12
lasiophthalma, habits .......................................... 12
pratorum, habits ...............-............................... 12
structure of larve --------------------------------------------- 25
Dipterous larvoe, bearing on classification ................................... 37
occurring in human foods, classification. ------------------13
general characters --------------13-15
life history ..................... 12-13
structure ---------------------- 1-38
bibliography ............ 38
synopsis of groups ................ 15
m an ........................................ 9-11
Dog, host of Bengalia fly ............................................ 11
Stomoxys calcitrans ........................................... 25
intestinal lesions caused by cheese skipper ............................ 11, 35
Drosophila anarw, structure of larva ....................................... 36
ampelophila, structure of larva --------------------------------36
bibliographic reference.....,........---------------.... 38
cep alo harnge l s eleon..................................... 37
cephalopharyngeal skeleton--------------------3
Drosophilidte, structure and occurrence of larv ............................. 35-36
Epochra canadensis, larva, description and occurrence ........................ 33
Eristalis, internal myiasis thereof ------------------------------------------ 13
Euxesta, cephalopharyngeal skeleton ...................................... 36
thora, larva, description and occurrence .......................... 34
Feces (see also Manure and Cow dung).
human, food of Sareophaga ........................................... 16
Fish, host of Chrysomyia (?) ............................................... 20
Floor magot, Congo (see also Auchmeromyia luteola).
parasite of man ........................................ 11
Fruit, decaying, food of Musca domesti(a ................................... 23
Sepsidw ........................................... 35
flies, food, occurrence in man ........................................ 10
food of Muscina group ............................................... 26
overripe, food of Drosophila .......................................... 36
Fusiform areas of dipTerous larva .......................................... 14
Glossi1,a (sIe also Tsetse flies).
structure of larvw- ................................................. 25
syst eimatic position from larval standpoint .......................... 37
Goo eberries, food of fruit-flies--------------------.----------------- 10







+INTDEX.


Grapes, food of pomace-flies .............................
overripe, food of Drosophila
Graphomyia, number of eggs deposited ...................
Grasshopper (Melanoplus), host of Sarcophagid D.
Great hooks of dipterous larva ..........................
Hams, food of Piophila casei ............................
Heel fly. (See Screw-worm and ( 'hrysornyia macel/ari.)
Herring, pickled, food of $arcophaga.................
Homalomyia, bibliographic reference ....................
cephalopharyngeal skeleton ...............
group, structure of larva .................
scalaris, bibliographic reference ...........
sp., larva, description and occurrence -------
systematic position from larval standpoint
Horn fly (see also Lyperosia irritans).
pest to cattle .................................
House fly, transmission of disease thereby ..............
Hylemyia strigosa, habits ..................---.........
number of larva deposited ...........
Btypoderma lineata, occurrence in man ..................
Hypostomal sclerite of dipterous larva .................
Insect larvx, dead, food of Muscina stabulans ...........
Insects, dead, food of Sarcophaga ......................
Jams, food of Drosophila ............................
Jellies, food of Drosophila ..........................
Labium of dipterous larva ...........................


10


.......... 16
.......... 38
--. - - - 3 7
. .......... 2829
---------- 38
.......... 28-29
.......... 3 7


Lateral plates of cephalopharyngeal skeleton .............................
Lucilia nobilis, parasite of man ............................................
sericata, larva, description and host ................................
parasite of sheep: ........................................
sylvarum, larva, description ............. --........................
Lyperosia irritans (see also Horn fly).
larva, description and occurrence ........................
occurrence ........................................
systematic position from larval standpoint .....................
Man, host of Bengalia fly ................................................
Chrysomyia macellaria .......................................
Congo floor maggot ..........................................
Hypoderma lineata ......................-....................
Lucilia nobilis ...............................................
screw-worm .................................................
Manure (see also Cow dung and Feces).
food of Sepsidae ...................................................
Stomoxys calcitrans .........................................
Meat, food of Calliphora erythrocephala ....................................
Melanoplus, host of Sarcophagid D ...................................
Melon roots, habitat of Muscina assimilis ...................................
Melons, food of Dacus cucurbitx ...........................................
Mesembrina, larva deposited in second stage ................................
meridiana, habits ..............................................
mystacea, number of eggs deposited .............................
resplendens, habits .............................................
structure of larvae ............................................


12
10
14
26
16
36
36
14
14
22
21-22
- 11
22

24
23
37'
11
19
11
10
22
10

35
2)
21
18
26
32
12
12
12
12


- - - - - -
- - - - - -
.. . . ....







42 STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARV-E.

Page.
Musca, cephalopharyngeal skeleton......................................... 37
corvina, habits ..................................................... 12-13
number of eggs deposited .................................12
domestic, bibliographic references .......................... ...... 38
larva, description and occurrence .........................23
number of eggs deposited ................................. 12
larval stages ................................... 12
systematic position from larval standpoint ........................... 37
Muscid A, larva, description and occurrence ................................ 27
B, larva, description and occurrence. ............................24
C, larva, description and occurrence ............................. 27-28
D, larva, description and occurrence ..............................28
Muscidoe, cephalopharyngeal skeleton ...................................... 36
Muscina assimilis, larva, description and occurrence ........................ 26
group, structure of larvo, occurrence .............................. 25-28
(near), larva, description and occurrence ........................... 27
stabulans, larva, description and occurrence........................ 26
systematic position from larval standpoint ......................... 37
Muscin?, structure of larvw ............................................... 22-25
Mushrooms, rotten, food of Muscina stabulans ................................ 26
Myiasis, terms used for various forms ....................................... 11
Myospila, larva, systematic position ........................................ 22
meditabunda, life history ......................................... 12
number of eggs deposited ...........................12
Nagana diseasee of cattle, transmission by tsetse fly .......................... 11
"Newport's segment" of dipterous larva .................................... 14,15
Oleomargarine, food of Piophila casei.................................... 35
Sarcophaga .......................................... 16
Onion, food of Tritoxaflexa (?) ............................................. 35
Oranges, food of Anastrepha ludens .......................................... 34
fruit-flies ................................................... 10
Muscid C ................................................. 28
Trypeta ludens ............................................ 28
Ortalidw, cephalopharyngeal skeleton ...................................... 36
structure and occurrence of larva ................................. 34-35
Ortalid from tomatoes, structure ............................................. 34
Ox bot-fly. (See Iypoderma lina(ta.)
warble, (See THipoderma lnat a.)
Papilla of head of dipterous larva .......................................... 13
Parastomal sclerites of dipterous larva ....................................... 15
Parsiips, food plaint of Acidiafratria ........................................ 31
Peach maggot of tropics. (See Ceratitis capitata.)
Pears, food of poI a e-flies .................................................. 10
overripe, food of Drosophila...................................... 36
rotten, food of Musc*na stabulans ..................................... 26
"Penh,"' disease due to dipterous larva? in the nose 11
Pcgomya bex, ,iructure of larva ........................................30
bicolor, structure of larva .................................... ... 30
brassicw, structure of larva ......................................... 30
cepetorum, structure of larva 29
from Alaska from cauliflower, structure of larva ...................... 30
fUscwieps, structure of larv a ....................................... 29
planipalpis, structure of larva .................................. 30
ruficeps, structure of larva .......................................... 30






I N DEX.


Phorbia floccosa, structure of larva ...........................................
Pickles, food of Drosophila ..................................................
Piophila casei (see also Cheese skipper).
bibliographic reference .......................................
larva, description and occ urreiice ..........................
Pomace-flies, food, occurrence in man-......................................
Protocalliphora, cephalopharyngeal skeleton ...............................
chrqsorrhtva, larva, description and hots-..................
Pseudopyrellia cornicina, larva, description aid occturrem(ce ....................
systematic position from larval staiidpoin .------------------
Pyrellia, num ber of eggs deposited ------------------------------------------
Rhagoletis, bibliographic reference -..................................
cingulata, larva, description and occurrence .....................
pomonella, larva, description anid occurrence--...................
suavis, larva, description and occurrence .........................
Roses, anthomyiid (?) larva on roots ........................................
Sarcophaga, cephalopharyngeal skeleton ........-.............................
food ..........................................................
h.Tmatodes, number of larva deposited .........................
incerta, larva, description .......................................
sarracenix?, larva, description ...................................
Sarcophagid A, larva, description and occurrences .........................
B, larva, description and occurrence .........................
C, larva, description and occurrence--.........................
D, larva, description and host .................................
Sarcophagidve, structure of larve ..........................................


43


30
36

318
35
10
37
21
23
37
12

33
32-33
32
30
16
16
12
16
17-18
16- 17
17
18
18-19
15-20


Sarcophila wohlfahrti, bibliographic reference ................................ 38
Sarracenia flava, habitat of larva of Sarcophagid A ........................... 17
Screw-worm (see also Chrysomyia macellaria).
occurrence in man ........................................10
parasite of cattle and man ............ ........................1- t


Segments, number in dipterous larva ..........................
Sepsidw, structure and occurrence of larvae ...................
Sheep, host of Calliphora oceanica .............................
Lucilia sericata .................................
maggot. (See Lucilia sericata.)
Spiracles, anterior, of dipterous larva ..........................
Squash, rotten, food of Muscina stabulans .....................
Stable fly (see also Stomoxys calcitrans).
pest to cattle .......................................
Stigmal plates, posterior, of dipterous larva ..................
Stomal disk of dipterous larva .................................
Stomoxyido .................................................
Stomoxys calcitrans (see also Stable fly).
bibliographic references ....................


larva, description and occurrence .........................
systematic position from larval standpoint .........................
Tomatoes, food of ortalid ..................................................
Tritoxaflexa (?), larva, description and occurrence .....................
incurva ............................................................
Trypeta ludens, occurrence ................................................
Trypetid.T, cephalopharyngeal skeleton .....................................
structure of larva ----------.------------------------------------


15
35
22
11, 22

14 15
26

11
14, 15
14
37

38
24-25
37
34
34-35
35
28
36
30-34






44 STRUCTURE OF CERTAIN DIPTEROUS LARVa,.


Tsetse flies (see also Glossina).
diseases transm itted thereby .................................... 11
Vegetable matter, decaying, food of Mus(cina stabulans ........................ 26
Vegetables, decaying, food of Musca domiestica ............................. 23
Sarcophagid C .............................. 18
Vinegar, food of Drosophila .................................................. 36
wr-rble, ox. (See Hypoderma lineata.)

0









4




























































































































































































*

I








~A
5































I



















































4, V A-,















At'













A 'V

At





At





4< .y-





~y



















A




S





4<

'At

'S




I
At'




'A
















44




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

11111 111111II 11111111111111111111Ill l11111111111111111
3 1262 09229 6465