Insects in relation to national defense

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Insects in relation to national defense
Series Title:
Its Circular no. 1-23. Feb. 1941-Jan. 1944
Added title page title:
Insects in relation to national defense, circular
Physical Description:
24 nos. in 1 v. : ill., photos., map, plans, diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Beneficial insects   ( lcsh )
Insect pests   ( lcsh )
Insecticides   ( lcsh )
Fumigation   ( lcsh )
World War, 1939-1945 -- Health aspects   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Reproduced from type-written copy.
General Note:
Includes bibliographical references.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029081698
oclc - 09471812
Classification:
lcc - SB931 .U44
System ID:
AA00022863:00022

Full Text



LIBRARY
BrATS PLANT BOARD


INSECTS


IN RELATION


T 0


NATIONAL


DEFENSE


Circular 21





INSECTICIDES AND SUBSIDIARY MATERIALS


November 1941















Ciroular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


INSECTS IN RELATION

TO

NATIONAL DEFENSE


Circular 21 Insecticides and Sibsidiary Materials
0


Table of Contents


Page


Foreword .......
Alcohol ........
Aresket ........
Asbestos .......
Benzene .......
Borax ..........
Calcium Chloride
Camphor ........
Carbolic Acid ..
Carbon Dioxide .
Carbon Disulfide


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Carbon Tetrachloride
Caustic Soda ........
Cedar (or Cedarwood)
Chloroform ..........
Chloropicrin ........


Coal Tar Pitch .
Coal Tar Plastic
Coconut Oil Soap
Collodion c....
Cottonseed Oil .
Creosote Oil ...
Cresols ........


Cube Powder


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24










Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Table of Contents (Continued)


Page


Derris Powder .....
Diatomaceous Earth


Diphenylamine
Duponol W. A.
Ether ........
Ethylene Dichl
Ethylene Oxide


Fly Sprays .........
Formalin ...........
Fuel Oil .... ... ...
Gardinol W. A. ...
Gasoline ...........
Hydrocyanic Acid Gas
Hydrogen Peroxide ..
Iodine ..... .. .. . .
lodoform ...........
Kerosene ........ ..
Lamp Black .........
Larkspur ...........
Lime .... .... ........
Lime Sulfur (Dry) ..
Linseed Oil, boiled
Lubricating Oil ....
Menthol ........ ...
Mercuric Chloride ..
Methyl Bromide .....
Mineral Oil ........
lIolasses lackak Stra
Moth Proofing Materii
Naphthalene ........
Nicotine' Sulfate ...
Oil of titronella ..
Olive Oil ..........
Orthodichlorobenzene
Orvus W. A. ...o....
Paradichlorobenzene
Paris Green ........
Pentachlorophenol .


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........... 60











Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Table of Contents (Continued)


Page


Petrolatum ..........
Petroleum (Crude Oil)
Phosphorus Paste ....
Pine Oil ............
Pine Tar Oil ........
Pyrethrum ...........
Sassafras Oil .......
Silver Nitrate ......
Sodium Arsenite ...
Sodium Benzoate .....
Sodiumn Bicarbonate ..
Sodiumn Fluoride .....
Spearmint Oil .......
Sta-'7Jay .. . . ......
Sulfonated Castor Oil
Sulfur ..............
Sulfuric Acid .......
Talc or Talcum ......
Tartar i'*netic ......
Tartaric Acid .......
Thallium Sulfate ....
Turpentine ..........
Vinegar ........... .
Wasnhing Soda........
Procurement of Insect:


materials


References .. . . .......... ......... . .


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Subsidiary


61
62
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68
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70
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80
81


82
86


FOR. .'ORD

Chemicals in various forms when e:iuloyed
to kill or repel insects, mites, and related
pests are knolin as insecticides. cr convenience
insecticides are classified as stozac:: ?oiscns,
contact poisons, and furaiigants. Stomach poisons
are used to combat many insects that feed by
chewing and gnawing. The insecticides are applied
to the material used as food by the insects and


a000000000000 000 0a00 ..000











Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


the poison is taken into the insect's stomach
with the food. Some examples of stomach poisons
are Paris green, calcium arsenate, lead arsenate,
and cryolite. Contact insecticides are developed
primarily to kill insects that obtain their food
by sucking, or extracting the juices from plants
or the blood of aniLaals upon which they feed.
Such insects are not affected by stomach poisons
and must be combatted with contact insecticides.
These maaterials kill the insects by their caustic
action, by suffocation, or corrosion of the in-
sect's body. Certain species of chewing insects
may be killed by contact insecticides, whether
applied directly to their bodies or indirectly
through the material which they are damaging.
Some examples of contact poisons are pyrethrum,
nicotine, and derris.

Insecticides are applied in several ways:
as liquid sprays or dips, dusts, or fumigants,
depending on the insect probleri. In the case
of wood products certain chemicals of a preser-
vative nature may be applied by impregnation
rather than by superficial treatment as just
mentioned.

Insecticidal sprays consist of a liquid
such as water or oil to which is added one or
more active insecticidal ingredients in defi-
nite quantities where they remain in suspension
or solution so that they can be applied to
plant, man, or animal, or their habitations to
destroy insects thereon or therein. Such mix-
tures are usually applied with a mechanical
device called sprayer or atomizer (See Circular
20) and under considerable pressure or mixed
with air so that they can be broken into very
fine particles or droplets.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Spreaders and wetters are materials that
are added to insecticidal sprays or dusts to
make them spread over and wet the surfaces of
the insects or materials to which they are
applied and thus increase their effectiveness.
Many wetting and spreading agents used in the
dyeing industry have been found during recent
years to be valuable when used with such con-
tact insecticides as nicotine, pyrethrum, and
derris. These materials are usually harmless
to plants, generally available, and are sold
under various' trade names.

Spray emulsions are mechanical mixtures
of two liquids. One of the liquids is kept
finely divided, at least until applied, in
small droplets in the other by the use of a
third substance. This third substance is
called an emulsifier. Commonly used emulsifi-
ers include soaps, casein, sulfated alcohols,
sulfonated oils, blood albumnin, and vegetable
gums. The emulsions most commonly encountered
in insect control are of the oil-in-water type.
The oil droplets are prevented from uniting
through the action of the emulsifier. Emul-
sions may be prepared by stirring or by both
heating and agitation, depending on the kind
of ingredients and quantities used, method of
mixing, and other factors.

Insecticidal dusts are prepared in three
ways. In one type, the active insecticidal
agent is used in the undiluted form. The second
type is prepared by mixing the undiluted insec-
ticidal powder with some inert dust such as
talc, clay, or similar material which serves to
dilute the powder and act as a carrier for the
active ingredient. The third type is prepared
by mixing a liquid concentrated toxic agent,
with a powder such as clay or talc and is known
as an impregnated dust. Dusts are generally








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


applied with mechanical devices called dusters
(See Circular 20), of which several efficient
types are available.

Fumigants are materials which give off
poisonous gases, fumes, or vapors and for this
reason are used chiefly to fumigate enclosures
such as rooms, houses, vaults, storage ware-
houses and the like where the gas can be con-
fined with the insects and the products.
Fumigants are also employed to kill soil and
wood-boring insects.

Frequently, because of their pronounced
odor, taste, or other qualities, certain sub-
stances are useful in repelling the attack of
insects, or relieving the effects of their
stings or bites. These include certain essen-
tial oils and their constituents. They are
generally derived from plants and usually have
a very pungent odor characteristic of the plant.
Common examples are camphor, cedar oil, oil of
citronella, menthol, oil of peppermint, and oil
of wintergreen.

In the several Defense Circulars dealing
with the various insects and pests that may be
encountered in military camps or posts, defi-
nite recommendations are given for the control
of each insect or pest under consideration.
Specific information is given also on the kind
of insecticide to employ, the dilution to use,
and the manner and time of application.

This circular deals with the nature of
the chemicals or insecticides that are used in
the control of insects discussed therein.
Since the uses of these materials are given
only in a generalized way, the circulars aeal-
ing with specific pests should be consulted
before treatment is attempted.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


It also contains a list of manufacturers
and firiis from whom such materials may be ob-
tained, although many of them can be procured
under Government contract, and also from local
stores. Prices given herein were obtained
largely from the 1939-40 Chemical Industries
Buyers Guide Book, also from the 1941 August
issue of Oil Paint and Drug Reporter. These
prices apply only to open market purchases and
not to those quoted on the General Schedule of
Supplies. In view of the unsettled conditions,
prices are continually changing and are likely
to be higher.


ALCOHOL

Alcohol (Ethyl) at a concentration of
70 percent in water is used as a preservative
for insect specimens, such as the larvae or
wrigglers of mosquitoes, for identification
purposes in connection with mosquito control
operations. The ordinary rubbing alcohol also
will suffice for this purpose.

Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) is a colorless,
volatile, inflammable liquid ivhich is a product
of fer-ientation. In its pure state it is ob-
tained chiefly from potatoes and various grains
by a process of brewing followed by fractional
distillation.

The price of alcohol in drums in carload
lots varies from ;6.021 to $6.44 per gallon.
In barrels it is 2 cents higher than in drums.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


ARESKET

Aresket is useful as an emulsifier in
place of soap in preparing certain spray emul-
sions when it is necessary to use hard or sea
water which would precipitate the soap. Like
other similar wetting and spreading agents,
it is useful for incorporation in pyrethrum
sprays intended to kill mosquito larvae when
applied to pools, marshes, or other bodies of
water having a salt content higher than 5
percent.

Aresket is a proprietary product known.
chemically as the sodium rmonosulfonate of
monobutyl diphenyl. It is a fine, tan-colored
powder soluble in water and alcohol but not
in acetone. It is available at most seed and
insecticide stores at about 50 cents a pound.

For manufacturers and distributors see
number 76 of list at end of this circular.


ASBESTOS

Asbestos is not an insecticide but it
is sometimes employed in the powdered form in
combination with calcium chloride to make a
paste for sealing large cracks and crevices
in connection with insect control operations
such as the fumigation of buildings. It is
used also in connection with termite control
operations for enclosing water and heating
pipes under buildings in place of wooden
encasements, especially for pipes running
vertically. In this way termites are
prevented from reaching the superstructures.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Chemically, asbestos is a soft and fi-
brous silicate mineral which resists fire and
most solvents. It is employed in the building
industry for insulation or fireproofing in a
great variety of forms.

Asbestos fibre can be purchased for
from $15.00 to $42.50 per ton in carload lots.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 13, 31, 34, 40, 48, 60, 62, and 74 of
list at end of this circular.


BE:.SNE2E

This liquid is also called benzol, C6H6,
and is used to kill the larvae of the human
botfly and screv.-vorm infesting the wounds of
animals, i.e., cows, horses, and other live-
stock. The benzene is applied preferably as a
spray, after which the larvae are removed.

Benzene is a clear, colorless, highly
inflAmmable liquid, lighter than w-ater, and
has a characteristic odor sugesting that of
coal gas. In addition to medicinal uses, it
is employed in the manufacture of medicinal
chemicals, dyes, linoleuw, oilcloth, varnishes,
lacquers, and airplane dopes. It is a good
solvent for waxes, resins, oils, and rubber.
Benzene should not be confused with oenzine
which is derived from petroleum oil.

Caution: Since benzene is highly in-
flwam-Lable, it must be kept in w;ell-closed
containers in a cool place and away front fire.
The vapor is poisonous.

Benzene or benzol is obtainable in tank
cars and drums, the price ranging froia 14 to
19 cents per gallon.












Circular 21 Insecoticides and Subsiaiary Materials


Benzene is available on contract: See
Class 51, General Schedule of Supplies,
Procurement Division, Treasury Department.

BORAX

Borax as sold commercially is used to
kill housefly and stablefly larvae in manure,
feces, garbage, sludge beds, and other refuse,
either as a powder or dissolved in water.
Treatment is made by dusting or sprinkling the
surface of the refuse piles. A 5 percent borax
solution is used for immersion of lumber to
protect it from attack by Lyctus powder-post
beetles. Water kept in open containers such
as fire buckets or barrels and which is not to
be used for drinking purposes or watering
plants is protected from infestation by mos-
quito larvae by using borax at the rate of 2
ounces per gallon of water. Borax powder may
be dusted about similarly to the use of sodium
fluoride for controlling cockroaches but is
not so effective as the latter.

Borax, or sodium borate (Na2B4O71OH2O)
may be white granules, colorless crystals,
or crystalline powder. Commercially it is
cheap and readily obtained as a white powder.
In medicine it is used as an antiseptic and
industrially in soldering metals, in cleansing
compounds, for fireproofing fabrics and wood,
for manufacturing enamels, and as a preservative
for wood and hides.

It is generally considered free from
health hazards when used externally.











Circular 21 Inseoticides and ubsidiary Materials


Borax is marketed in carload lots of
300-pound bags and in barrels of 300 to 370
pounds, also in 100-pound kegs and in small
lots in bottles. In carload lots it runs from
$48 to $74 a ton.

Available on contract: See Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


CALCIUM CHLORIDE

Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is used in
combination with asbestos to make a paste to
seal cracks and crevices in connection with
the fumigation of rooms and buildings. A
technical or commercial grade is sufficiently
pure for this purpose and considerably cheaper
than the chemically pure reagent. This salt
is white, usually granular, very soluble in
water, and is very hygroscopic, i.e., absorbs
water readily. Since it combines with moisture
in the air very readily, calcium chloride must
be kept in airtight containers.

Among the many industrial uses for this
material may be mentioned its importance in the
manufacture of antifreeze, fire extinguisher
solutions, cotton fabrics, and rubber.

Calcium chloride may be purchased in
paper bags at $20 to $35 per ton in carload
lots.

Available on contract: See Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.











Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


CAMPHOR

Camphor is used for local external
applications to alleviate flea and mosquito
bites. Spirits of camphor which is used for
this purpose is a liquid containing the cam-
phor in solution in alcohol. Mixed with cedar
oil, and oil of citronella, it serves as a
repellent against mosquitoes.

Camphor is a gumlike, crystalline com-
pound, CioHI60, often called camphor ;gum, which
is a fragrant substance slowly volatilizing on
exposure to air. It is obtained fro:i the bark
and wood of the camphor tree, chiefly from
Japan and Formosa, and is used in medicine, in
celluloid manufacture, and in pyrotechny. A
synthetic camphor is also manufactured from
certain terpenes.

Camphor is marketed in 100 pound cases
containing 2 pound slabs, tablets in 1 pound
tins or in powder form at a cost range of from
$1.15 to $1.20 per pound. In larger quantities
it is cheaper.

Available on contract: See Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Prccurenent
Division, Treasury Department.


CARBOLIC ACID

Carbolic acid is often used to disinfect
skin wounds caused by attaclnaent of various
species of ticks, also as a spray for animal
pens in the control of scab mite and as a
larvicide for no-sce-uin larvae.








Circular 21 Inseotioides and Subsidiary Materials


Carbolic acid is obtained from coal tar,
and the commercial form contains at least 98
percent phenol (C6H5OH). It is a white, crys-
talline mass which-reddens on exposure to air
and has a characteristic coal-tar odor. It is
very soluble in alcohol, chloroform, carbon
disulfide, and petroleum. Carbolic acid has
many.uses in medicine and industrially, also
as a general disinfectant.

Caution: Since carbolic acid is poison-
ous and very caustic, great care should be used
in handling it. Do not handle with bare hands.
It should be kept well closed and protected
from light.

This chemical is obtainable in 100-pound
carboys, in 850-pound drums, at 12 to 14 cents
per pound.

Available on contract: See Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.

CARBON DIOXIDE

Carbon dioxide as a liquid is used in
combination with ethylene oxide for the fuiiga-
tion of cured meats, cheese, grain, and house-
hold furnishings. As a solid, dry ice, it is
used to chill cans of hydrocyanic acid discoids
before fumigation to retard the evolution of
the gas and thus increase the safety of their
use.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless
liquid condensed froa a heavy gas called
carbonic acid gas v.hich is produced by the
action of acids on carbonates, by the









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


fermentation of liquors or by the combustion
and decomposition of organic substances. The
liquid when cooled forms a solid called "dry
ice" which vaporizes without melting (at
ordinary pressures) and is used as a refrigenmt.

Liquid carbon dioxide is sold in 20 to
25 pound cylinders at 6 to 8 cents per pound.
Dry ice is also sold in 50-pound blocks.

Available on contract: See Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department..


CARBON DISULFIDE

The commercial grade of carbon disul-ide,
also called carbon bisulfide, is used to des roy
ants by pouring a small quantity into the open-
ing of the nests. It has been used in the past
in the fumigation of grains, cereals, and other
coiwaodities but, owing to its inflammability,
it is now used to a lesser decree and often in
combination with carbon tetrachloride to reduce
the fire hazard. It is also used as a fumigant
to aelouse clothing, and to control horse bot
larvae.

Chemically, carbon disulfide (CS2) is a
heavy, colorless, or faintly yellowish liquid
which boils at 1150 F. It has a disagreeable
odor and is quite volatile. The vapors are
poisonous and very explosive when mixed with
air in certain proportions. It will sometimes
ignite from contact with hot steam pipes. It
is only slightly soluble in water, but is a
good solvent for many substances, including
rubber, gums, waxes, varnishes, and oils.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Caution: Because of its inflammnability
and. poisonous nature, the greatest caution
should be used in handling it. It should be
kept in tightly closed containers, in a cool
place and away from fire. Because of the fire
hazard this chemical cannot be shipped by mail
or express. Inhaling the gas causes dizziness
and nausea and if inhaled in large amounts it
is deadly.

Carbon disulfide is obtainable in small
quantities in bottles or cans and in large
quantities in steel drums. It ranges in cost
from 6 cents a pound in 500-pound lots to 30
cents or more in 1-pound lots. Firms dealing
in chemicals and insecticides usually sell it
in 5-gallon cans for about 95 cents per gallon.

available on contract at $1.08 in gallon
cans: See Class 51, General Schedule of
Supplies, Procureaent Division, Treasury
Department.


CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

Coalniercially available carbon tetra-
chloride, (0214), is useful as a fumigant in
the control of insects attacking certain stored
products such as food stuffs, grains, seeds,
and fabrics. It may be used alone or in com-
bination with carbon disulfide or ethylene
dichloride to reduce the fire hazard of the
latter two. Clothing may be freed from ticks
after wearing by fumigating then with carbon
tetrachloride.

Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless,
noninflammable liquid heavier than water. It
has a characteristic pungent but not disagreeable









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


odor. Medicinally it is used to destroy intes-
tinal parasites, especially hookworms. Indus-
trial uses included are as a fire extinguisher,
as a dry-cleaning agent, and as a solvent for
oils, waxes, rubber, and varnishes.

Caution: Carbon tetrachloride is toxic
and similar to chloroform in its action on the
human system. Exposure to it in enclosed
places should be avoided.

This chemical may be purchased in tank
cars and drums at from 5 to 6 cents per pound.
Small quantities are obtainable in bottles of
various size. For prices of a mixture with
ethylene dichloride see information given under
latter material, page 29.

Available on contract: See Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


CAUSTIC SODA

Caustic soda is used to wash garbage
pails in connection with sanitary measures that
are employed in the control of flies around
ar-ly camps.

Caustic-soda, NaOH, also known as sodium
hydroxide, is available as white flakes, lumps,
or rods. It is very caustic to tissue. It is
soluble in water, alcohol, and glycerine.
Industrially it is used extensively in various
manufactures and processes.

Caution: Since this material is very
caustic it should be kept in tightly closed
containers. Do not handle with bare hands.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Caustic soda is marketed in barrels and
drums from p2.70 to ;?2.95 per 100 pounds.

Available on contract: See Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


CEDAR (OR CEDARVOOD) OIL

This volatile oil is useful in the
preparation of certain mosquito repellents.
Application of the repellents is made locally
to the afflicted portions of the skin.

Cedar oil or cedarwood oil is a color-
less or slightly yellow, somewhat viscid liquid.
It is one of the volatile or essential oils and
is characterized by a distinct cedar-like aroim.
The oil is extracted f'ro.i viood of the red and
other species of cedar. The uses of this sub-
stance are not extensive but it is an ingredient
in some perfumes, soaps, and toilet preparations.
This material should be kept well closed, cool,
and protected from light.

Cedar oil may be purchased in cans and
drums at a cost of 28 to 34 cents per pound.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 1, 25, 34, 38, 50, and 74 of list at
end of this circular.


CHLOROFOPRMJ

This liquid may be used in the same way
as benzene benzoll) for treating wounds infested
with screwworm larvae especially when such
infestations occur in the nose of man. The










Circular 21 Insecticides and Sub6idiary Materials


larvae are carefully picked out after the
chloroform has been applied, preferably as a
spray. Chloroform i- also used in making
killing tubes for c:l'lcti:-v au.lt mosquitoes
for identification purp's-s.

Chlorofor-, h113, i a heavy, clear,
colorless, sweet-ta ti:L.:" liquid. Although
noninflammable, it is very volatile and has a
characteristic odor. It is not very soluble
in water but mixes readily .ith most other
solvents, and is employed industrially as a
general solvent.

Caution: Keep a,.vay from flame when
using. Even though noninflammable, the vapors
are decomposed by fire and there is involved
very irritating and possibly poisonous gas.
Care should be us' i t' uvci u:-.necessary
inhalation.

Chloroform is .:rretet in 50 to o50
pound drums at co.t of .0 to 33 cents per
pound and is available loc:ly in smaller
containers at relatively higher j-ices.

Available on contract: See Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, iPrcurement
Division, Treaciry Deyvrt :e.it.
C-i, O:. l'-.-ll


Chloropicrin ma; be used to delouse
clothing in a tight contaLi er aid will kill
both the lice and their e-o. It may also be
employed as a fumigant for large enclosures,
for the treatment of grain in bins and other
bulk commodities in vaults,










Circular 21 Insectioides and Subsidiary Materials


The liquid is noninflammable, heavy,
colorless, and pungent, having the formula
CClINO2, obtained by subjecting picric acid
to the action of chlorine. Chloropicrin was
used in the world war as a lethal, tear and
vomiting gas. It has been used for killing
rats in ships and as a soil disinfectant.

Chloropicrin may be purchased in 1-
pound glass bottles or in cylinders from 1
to 100 pounds capacity at a cost of .l.20
per pound for 1-pound cylinders down to 85
cents per pound in 100-pound lots.

For manufacturers and distributors
see numbers 8, 9, 36, and 58 of list at end
of this circular.

COAL TAR PITCH

In insect control operations coal tar
pitch is used to fill voids in concrete,
cracking of walls or expansion joints, and
where pipes or steel columns penetrate ground
slabs of concrete, to block termites from
entering a building.

Coal tar pitch is a dark-colored,
viscous substance obtained as a residue in
distilling coal tar. It is used in the manu-
facture of varnishes, roofing paper, calking
seams, as a preservative coating, and for
insulating purposes.

The material is shipped in barrels at
$8.25 to $8.50 per barrel in less than carload
lots, and at $19 to $22 for a single ton or
in 50-pound containers for $1.50.










Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


\Available on contract: See Class 59,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.

COAL TAR PLASTIC CENT

One of the procedures in the control of
termites is the sealing of expansion Joints in
floors and spaces around pipes or steel pene-
trating floors and walls with coal tar plastic
cement.

This material is composed of refined
coal tar fluxed to the proper consistency with
mineral fillers such as asbestos fibre and
slate flour. In construction work it is used
for sealing flashings and Joints in roofing and
in general roofing repairs.

Coal tar plastic cement is procurable at
a cost of $3.25 in 5 gallon cans.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 63, 86, 94, 95, and 106 of list at end
of this circular.


COCONUT OIL SOAP (LIQUID)

Liquid coconut oil soap (40 percent) is
useful as an emulsifier in preparing a pyrethrum-
oil emulsion for use on fresh water or water
of less than 5 percent salinity as a larvicide
for killing mosquito larvae. This soap is
diluted with water and the pyrethrum extract
added. The emulsion is sprayed on the surface
of mosquito breeding areas such as ponds, marshes,
and pools of water.





LIARY











Circular 21 Insecticides and Sbsidiary Materials


Coconut oil soap (liquid) is a potash
soap made from coconut oil and, as explained
above, is useful in the preparation of emul-
sions and as a spreader or wetter in spray
combinations. Most soaps, including coconut
oil soap, have value as contact insecticides
against various soft-bodied insects when used
at sufficient strengths. Other uses for coco-
nut oil soap are for the preparation of
shampoos, toilet soaps, and shaving soaps.

For manufacturers and distributors see
number 30 of list at end of this circular.

COLLODION

The application of collodion (new.skin)
to chigger bites is soothing.

Collodion is a viscous solution of pyroxy-
lin in a mixture of alcohol and ether, or a
similar solution of pyroxylin in some other
solvent such as acetone. It is used as a coat-
ing for wounds, for photographic films, small
balloons and membranes.

The material is sold in 325 pound drums
at 15 cents per pound, or in 25 pound cans at
19 to 20 cents per pound.

Available on contract: See Class 51,.
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


COTTONSEED OIL

This oil is used in combination with
orthodichlorobenzene for killing powder-post
beetles in infested wood. Treatment consists
in applying it to the surface or by immersion
of the wood in vats, depending on the quantity
of wood requiring treatment and facilities
available. When combined with pine tar oil it
is used to kill ticks in the ears of animals.

Cottonseed oil is a pale yellow, practi-
cally odorless liquid. It is used in the manu-
facture of soaps, butter and lard substitutes,
salad and cooking oils, leather dressings, and
lubricants.

Cottonseed oil is sold in tank cars,
barrels, 5-gallon cans, and small bottles, at a
price range of 14-1/2 to 14-3/4 cents per pound.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.

CREOSOTE OIL

Impregnation of wood with coal-tar creo-
sote oil by standard pressure processes renders
it resistant to attack by termites and other
wood-boring insects such as Lyctus powder-post
beetles. Creosote oil is also used effectively,
as a spray, in controlling fleas and ticks in
basements, dog-kennels, warehouses, outbuild-
ings, or other places in which staining is not
objectionable. It is used to spray dead animal
carcasses, to rot holes in trees to kill sand-
flies, and in combination with fuel oil may be
sprayed into windows of bay grasses for the











Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


control of the stable fly. When coal-tar creo-
sote oil is used for termite control as a soil
poison-about the foundations of buildings,
American Wood Preservers Association or Federal
Specifications grade should be obtained. An
effective soil poison is prepared by mixing
1 part of creosote oil with 3 parts of light
fuel .oil.

Chemically, coal-tar creosote oil is a
mixture of phenols from coal tar. It is avail-
able commercially us a dark-colored, oily liquid
possessing a strong, tar-like odor. It is used
extensively as a wood preservative, as a disin-
fectant, and in various other ways industrially.

Caution: Great care should be used when
handling creosote oil, since the liquid and
also the fumes from it are irritating to the
skin when allowed to remain in contact with it
for any length of time. Coating the hands and
face with petrolatum or cup grease helps to
prevent creosote burns.

Coal-tar creosote similar to that de-
scribed in Federal Specification TT-W-556 is
recommended. Dealers in coal-tar creosote are
usually fa.ailiar with these specifications.
If not, a copy of them may be obtained from
the Superintendent of Documents, Washington,
D. C., price 5 cents.

Creosote oil may be purchased in tanks
at a cost of 13' to 14 cents per gallon.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 17, 27, 28, 47, 57, 65, 76, and 115
of list at end of this circular.










Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


CRESOLS

In the control of body lice by chemicals,
cresol solutions have been recommended for
infested articles which may be damaged by other
materials and for spraying into cracks in floors
and walls.

Commercial cresol contains three sub-
stances, CHC6HLOH resembling phenol, which
are distinguished as orthocresol, metacresol,
and paracresol. It is obtained from coal tar,
wood tar, and petroleum, as a colorless liquid
or oily solid, and is used in disinfectants,
fumigants, medicines, and many other products.

The cost of cresol in 450 to 850 pound
drums ranges from 10-1/4 to 10-3/4 cents per
pound. In smaller lots it may be obtained in
bottles at the rate of one pound for 40 cents,
five pounds at 33 cents per pound, and 40
pounds at 22 cents per pound.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 4, 19, 23, 30, 70, 73, 75, and 76 of
list at end of this circular.

CUBE POWDER
This material may be used in the same
way as derris powder to kill fleas infesting
oats, dogs, and other animals. The cube pow-
der may be applied pure or mixed with talc as
in the case of derris (page 25). A similar
method of application is prescribed. Cube
powder may be used to kill human body and
pubic lice, also lice and ticks infesting
domestic animals and livestock.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


The toxic ingredients of cube and derris
are similar, and of them rotenone (C23H2206)
is probably the most important. The rotenone
content of pure cube powder should be 4 to 5
percent with about 31 to 4 times as much total
extractives. Other toxic ingredients which
help. make up the total extractives are similar
to those of derris. The roots of the tropical
plants from which cube is made are ground to a
fineness equal to the derris powder.

Caution: The same precautions as given
for derris powder apply to cube.

In barrel lots, cube powder (containing
5 percent rotenone) is obtainable for 27 to 28
cents per pound, New York City.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 24, 35, 72, 79, 91, and 113 of list at
end of this circular.

DERRIS POWDER

Derris powder is used to kill fleas when
found infesting cats, dogs, and other animals.
It may be used also to control ants in and
around buildings. The pure derris powder as
manufactured as an insecticide is used for this
purpose or it may be mixed with talc or other
inert materials. The dust is applied directly
to the skin of the infested animal. This mate-
rial is also effective in killing body lice and
ticks when dusted behind baseboards or similar
places where they may be hiding in infested
buildings. A wash made of derris powder,
neutral soap and water is effective against
human head and pubic lice and as a dip against
wood ticks on dogs. The undiluted powder may
be applied directly on the scalp for head lice.












Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Derris powder, and a similar material,
cube powder, are prepared by grinding finely
the roots of certain tropical plants which
contain several toxic ingredients of which
rotenone is the most important. Good grades
of derris powder contain from 4 to 5 percent
of rotenone and about 3' times that quantity
of total extractives. It is usually ground
sufficiently fine that most of it will pass
a 200 mesh screen.

Caution: Dusts and powders made from
derris and cube are not considered poisonous
to man, but when inhaled the dust causes mild
irritation and a slight paralytic effect in
the tongue and throat. They are also somewhat
irritating to the pubic regions.

Derris powder containing 5 percent
rotenone may be purchased in barrel lots at
prices ranging from 28 to 30 cents per pound
f.o.b. New York City.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 3, 35, 72, 79, and 113 of list at end
of this circular.

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH

Diatomaceous earth (infusorial earth)
may be used as a carrier in various insecti-
cidal dusts, especially for paris green in
the control of mosquito larvae which carry
malaria. The dust is usually mixed at the
rate of 4 or 5 parts of the earth to 1 of
paris green.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Diatomaceous earth is comprised chiefly
of the siliceous remains and fragments of
small marine animals known as diatoms. It is
obtained as a white or light gray to pale buff
powder insoluble in water. Industrially it is
important in the manufacture of insulating
materials, as a clarifying agent in making
oils, varnishes, and drugs, and as an absorbing
agent.

The price of diatomaceous earth ranges
from #22 to $55 per ton in bags of 42, 90,
and 120 pounds.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 4, 32, 64, 78, and 111 of list at end
of this circular.

D IPHENYLAMINE

Diphenylamine (C12HllN) is applied
directly to the wounds or animals to kill
young screwworm larvae.

Chemically, diphenylamine is an organic,
colorless or white, crystalline compound of
rather pleasant aromatic odor. It is insolu-
ble in water but readily so in benzene. It
is of importance in the manufacture of many
dyes and in stabilizing explosives.

Caution: It should be protected from
light, as it discolors rapidly.

Diphenylamine is merchandised in 350
pound barrels at 25 cents per pound.

?or manufacturers and distributors see
numbers,36, 37, 39, and 66 of list at end of
this circular.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


DUPONOL W. A.

Duponol W. A., like Gardinol W. A. and
Orvus W. A., is a proprietary wetting and
spreading agent that is used as an emulsifier
in place of soap, because it does not form a
precipitate as does soap when hard water must
be used. It is especially useful in the
preparation of pyrethrum larvicidal sprays
with salt or hard water for application to
the surface of mosquito infested pools,
streams, and other breeding places.

Duponol W. A. is a proprietary product
prepared as a paste or in flakes, known
chemically cs sodium sulfate of technical
lauryl alcohol (sodium lauryl sulfate).
Like Gardinol WV. A. and Orvus W. A., Aresket,
and similar products, Duponol W. A. is used
in the dyeing industry.

For manufacturers and distributors see
number 37 of list at end of this circular.


ETHiER

In the control of screwworms, human
nasal infestations may be treated by the use
of ether to anesthetize the larvae before
removal from the nose.

Ether, (C2H5)gu or ethyl oxide, is a
light, volatile, mobile, highly inflammable
liquid with a characteristic aromatic odor.
It is obtained by the distillation of alcohol
with sulfuric acid, hence is called also
sulfuric ether. Ether is a powerful solvent
of many organic substances, is important in
making rayon and Fmokeless powders. In
medicine it is an important anesthetic.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


The price of ether ranges from 11 cents
per pound in 310 pound drums to 16 cents per
pound in 27 pound drums. It may also be
obtained in 5 pound and 1 pound containers at
36 cents and 45 cents per pound respectively.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE

A mixture of 3 volumes of ethylene di-
chloride to 1 volume of carbon tetrachloride
is a very useful fumigant for the control of
stored food, grain and seed insects as well
as for fabric pests such as clothes moths and
carpet beetles. The addition of the carbon
tetrachloride makes the mixture free from
fire hazard, while ethylene dichloride if
used alone has a slight fire hazard. The
mixture is generally used at the rate of 5
quarts per 1000 cubic feet of space fumigated.

Ethylene dicnioride, C2H C12, is a
colorless, heavy liquid. It his a pleasant
ether-like odor and a sweetish taste, but the
vapors are somewhat irritating. The liquid
will keep indefinitely but is volatile and
must be kept tightly stoppered. Ethylene
dichloride is aL solvent for fats, wvaxes,
resins, and rubber, and is used in the
manufacture of acetyl cellulose.

Caution: Keep in tight containers in
a cool place. Avoid exposure to the vapors
and inhaling of the gas, especially since it
may be dangerous to man in cases of long
exposure or high concentrations.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Ethylene dichloride in admixture with
carbon tetrachloride can be purchased in 55
gallon drums for about 6 to 7 cents per pound.
In smaller quantities it can be purchased for
about 75 cents per gallon.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 14, 16, 21, 36, 37, 68, and 116 of
list at end of this circular.

ETHYLEI2 OXIDE

Ethylene oxide, in admixture with
carbon dioxide, may be used to fumigate small
quantities of cured meats or cheeses in atmos-
pheric vaults to control mites, ham beetles,
and skippers that infest these commodities.
It is also used to control the various pests
affecting furs and fabrics in storage rooms.
It does not inrjure fabrics or furs or leave
any obnoxious odor or poisonous "oidue on
foodstuff.

Ethylene oxide (C2HLO) is a colorless
liquid which boils at 51.85 F. The concen-
trated vapor of this material is inflammable.
It is a product of the natural gas chemical
industry. The material has been used in rather ,
large quantities in atmospheric vault and
vacuum fumigation. Although ethylene oxide
may be used alone for some purposes, it is
safer to use it in admixtures with carbon
dioxide to make it noninflammable. See
Circular No. 22.

Caution: As ordinarily used the danger
from breathing the vapors of ethylene oxide
are not considered to be great. However,
precautions taken against breathing the vapors
should be the same as with other poisonous gases.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


The cost of ethylene oxide in steel
cylinders ranges from 50 to 55 cents per pound.
The mixture of 1 part of ethylene oxide and
9 parts of carbon dioxide by weight is sold in
30 to 60 pound cylinders under high pressure
at prices ranging from 14.5 to 16 cents per
pound, f.o.b. factory.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 21 and 36 of list at end of this
circular.


FLY SPRAYS

Fly sprays are used to kill house flies
or flies affecting livestock, mosquitoes,
fleas, and certain other insects. A great
number of conuercial fly sprays or household
insecticides of the liquid spray type are now
available. For the most part these consist
of certain combinations of highly refined
petroleum oils with pyrethrum extracts, derris
extracts, or organic thiocyanates added as
the active insecticidal ingredient. They may
vary considerably as to the nature or quanti-
ties of ingredients used. As a result of the
need for some standard by which sprays of
this type could be evaluated, the National
Association of Insecticide and Disinfectant
Manufacturers, Inc., The National bureau of
Standards, and other interested organizations
and individuals have cooperated in establish-
ing specifications for the liquid spray type
of household insecticides. The establishment
of the -standard was announced June 10, 1938.
The specifications agreed upon and discussion
are contained in the publication, "Commercial
Standards CS 72-38," by the National Bureau
of Standards, Department of Co:merce,
Washington, D. C.












Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials 34



To be acceptable for use, a fly spray
of this type should meet the requirements set
forth in the publication referred to above.
Briefly, these requirements specify that the
killing power of the liquid spray shall be
determined by the Official Peet-Grady Method
in conjunction with the Official Test Insec-
ticide of the National Association of Insec-
ticide and Disinfectant Manufacturers, Inc.
In 1940 the Official Test Insecticide (O.T.I.)
was an oil pyrethrum spray containing 0.113
percent pyrethrins. Insecticides are rated
according to their killing power as follows:


Grade Percent kill after 24 hours
...... as compared to the 0. T. I.

AA 16 (or more) greater
A 5 to 15 greater
B 5 less to 5 greater

In addition, when used in the customary manner
the spray shall be harmless to man and warm-
blooded household animals, shall not stain
fabrics, wallpaper, and general household
furnishings, shall not contaminate closed
packages of commonly found food materials,
shall not corrode metals, shall have no
objectionable odor, and shall have a flash
point of not less than 125 F. when tested
in the Tagliabue closed cup. Certain com-
binations of highly refined petroleum
distillates with pyrethrum extracts, derris
extracts, or organic thiocyanates meet these
standards and form the basis for numerous
commercial fly sprays.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


When a commercial fly spray is to be
purchased, it would be advisable to specify
clearly that the requirements of the Commer-
cial Standards CS 72-38 of the National Bureau
of Standards are to be met. For general use
Grade B is quite satisfactory. Sprays of this
grade designation may be procured from most
local oil companies and filling stations or
from the firms that are listed in the Bureau
of Standards Publication No. CS 72-38 referred
to above. Orders may be placed through local
representatives of these firms.

A satisfactory fly spray may also be
obtained under Class 51 of the General
Schedule of Supplies, Procurement Division,
Treasury Department.


FORMALIN
Commercial formalin diluted in milk or
milk and water with a small quantity of brown
sugar added, is a safe and effective poison
for killing house flies that may occasionally
gain entrance to mess halls, barracks, and
other buildings. The poison is conveniently
exposed to the flies by inverting a partially
filled drinking glass of it as a reservoir on
a saucer or plate lined with blotting paper.
A match stick should be placed under the
edge of the glass.

Formalin as ordinarily obtained is an
iqueous solution of formaldehyde gas (CH20).
The commercial solution contains 40 percent
of formaldehyde and is colorless, but on
standing it may become cloudy. The odor of
this substance is sharp, choking, irritating
to the eyes, and penetrating. It is miscible








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


with water, alcohol, and acetone. Its chief
uses are in the manufacture of dyestuffs, as
a food preservative, and as a disinfectant.

Caution: Because of its poisonous na-
ture, care should be exercised in handling it
and inhaling of the fumes should be avoided.
It should be stored in a moderately warm place
and kept tightly closed. Rubber gloves should
be worn while handling it, as it will corrode
the skin.

Formalin may be obtained in barrels,
drums, carboys, and kegs at prices ranging
from 5.4 cents in drums to 9.5 cents in kegs.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


FUEL OIL

Fuel oil or light petroleum oil has
been recommended in the control of powder-
post beetles, termites, and surface-breathing
species of mosquito larvae. Seasoned wood
may be protected from Lyctus powder-post
beetles by soaking with a solution of penta-
chlorophenol in light fuel oil. Light petro-
leum oil may be used to dilute orthodichloro-
benzene to double its volume for surface
application to wood to kill all stages of
powder-post beetles. Light fuel oil combined
with coal-tar creosote makes an effective soil
poison for killing termites. A film of light
fuel oil (grade No. 2) on water will prevent
mosquito larvae from obtaining air at the
water surface, which results in the death of
the surface-breathing larvae. It is also used
with creosote oil in controlling stableflies.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Fuel oils ordinarily have a somewhat
higher boiling point than kerosene. The
lighter fuel oils are somewhat kerosene-like
in character. In color they may be clear or
yellowish to somewhat brownish, depending on
the type of crude petroleum from which they
are derived. The chief use of fuel oil is
for oil burners, to provide heat for houses,
commercial establishments, or industrial
processes.

Caution: Fuel oil is inflammable.
Spontaneous combustion of oil-soaked rags left
in poorly ventilated places may occur.

Fuel oil is obtainable at most oil refin-
eries and from local distributors. Available
on contract: see Class 14, General Schedule
of Supplies, Procurement Division, Treasury
Department.


GARDIfOL W. A.

Gardinol W. A. is used as a substitute
for soap and as an emulsifying agent in the
preparation of mosquito larvicides such as
emulsions of pyrethrum extract in kerosene oil.
This or a siu.ilar emulsifier is an essential
component where larvicides are to be used on
water having a salt content higher than 5 per-
cent. Larvicides containing soap cannot be
used in such situations because the salt water
would precipitate the soap. The spray emulsion
is diluted for use at the rate of 1 part to 10
parts of water and then sprayed over the surface
of mosquito breeding areas such as pools,
ditches, streams, and the like. It is used
also as a wetting and spreading agent in the.
preparation of various other horticultural
sprays.











Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Gardinol W. A. is a proprietary product
knovwnm chemically as sodium sulfate of oleyl
alcohol. It comes prepared in the form of
paste and flakes.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 37 and 92 of list at end of this
circular.


GASOLINE

This liquid has a very limited use for
killing insects. Torches made of gasoline-
soaked burlap or other fabric are sometimes
used to destroy pests such as ticks in fire-
proof buildings.

Gasoline is a volatile, lov.;-boiling-
fraction of crude oil and is so well known
as to require no further description. Certain
other substances such as tetraethyl lead may
be added in the refining process to improve
its efficiency as a motor fliel. Pure gasoline
is colorless but most of the commercial brands
are tinted different colors.

Caution: Gasoline is inflammable and,
when mixed with air in certain proportions,
it is explosive.

Available on contract: see Class 14,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department. Also may be
obtained from all local oil companies and'
distributors.








Circulear 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS

,Hydrocyanic acid gas (HCN) is a widely
used fumigant for the control of fabric pests
such as clothes moths and carpet beetles;
flour and grain beetles; flour, grain and meal
moths; granary, bean, and pea weevils; and
similar food insects infesting grains, dried
fruit, meats, cheese, and other stored foods.
In certain situations where this fumigant can
be used it provides an effective means of
eradicating fleas, lice, bedbugs, and
cockroaches.

A detailed discussion of fumigation
procedure is given in Circular No. 22. As
explained therein, hydrocyanic acid gas may
be obtained in several ways. The chief ways
are by evaporation of hydrocyanic acid in
liquid form or from discoids impregnated with
the liquid, by the action of dilute sulfuric
acid on sodium cyanide, and exposure of calcium
cyanide to moist air.

The gas, from whatever source derived,
is extremely poisonous to all animals and
plants. It is colorless, lighter than air,
and has an odor resembling that of peach
kernels or crushed almonds.

Liquid hydrocyanic acid is a colorless
liquid, boiling at 70 F. (26.1 C.), which
gives off the gas having the characteristics
described above when the material is exposed
to the atmosphere. The liquid may be obtained
in 30 or 75 pound cylinders which are more
conveniently used for fumigating large ware-
houses than the barrel or pot method. It
should be used only by a professional fumigator
equipped with suitable masks.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Hydrocyanic acid discoids are conven-
ient and useful for the fumigation of houses,
barracks, small warehouses, or storage rooms.
As with the liquid form their use is not
recommended for any but professional fumiga-
tors with masks, as the as is a deadly poison.

This fumigant consists of wafer-like
discoids of an inert material, each containing
approximately one-half ounce of absorbed
liquid hydrocyanic acid, packed in sealed
metal cans of various sizes, and sold on the
basis of the net content of hydrocyanic acid.

When sodium cyanide (NaCN) and dilute
sulfuric acid (H2SO,4) are mixed, a reaction
takes place in which the deadly cyanide gas
is liberated. Sodium cyanide is a white,
deliquescent, poisonous salt. For fumigation
purposes it should be practically free from
chloride and contain not less than 51 percent
of cyanogen. This salt may be purchased in
the form of eggs weighing or 1 ounce, which
provides an easy method of calculating dosages
by counting out the number of eggs required
for a certain weight of sodium cyanide. Sul-
furic acid is described under that heading on
page 75 of this circular.

Calcium cyanide (Ca(CN)2) on exposure
to the air reacts with the moisture in the
atmosphere and gives off the poisonous HCN
gas. When the reaction is completed, the
residue remaining consists chiefly of calcium
hydroxide or hydrated lime. This form of
cyanide is obtainable in granules, dust, or
flakes. The granular form, which is dark gray
in color, is most frequently used for fumiga-
tion. It can be purchased in 1, 5, 25 pound,
or larger sized containers.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Caution: Because of their extremely
poisonous nature, all forms of cyanide should
be handled with the greatest of care and only
by competent persons thoroughly familiar with
the hazards involved. It is always necessary
to wear a gas mask provided with the proper
canister for absorbing hydrocyanic acid gas
when working with the fumigant. The materials
should be kept in tight containers, labeled
plainly, and kept in a safe place. While the
gas burns freely in air, it is not considered
dangerously inflammable or explosive at the
concentration normally employed in fumigation.
For complete safety, however, all fires should
be extinguished when fumigating. Also the
draft or currents of air caused by a fire will
exhaust the gas from a building and thereby
reduce its effectiveness. The liquid hydro-
cyanic acid deteriorates slowly and under no
conditions should cylinders of liquid be
stored for more than five months.

In the fumigation of food products, the
liquid hydrocyanic acid should not be used in
such a way that the liquid will come into con-
tact with the product; otherwise undue absorp-
tion may occur and render the food dangerous
for consumption.

Liquid hydrocyanic acid is sold for $1
per pound. Discoids sell for $1.20 per pound
in 1-pound cans. Sodiuma cyanide can be pur-
chased in 100 pound lots for about 16 cents
per pound. Calcium cyanide dust containing
50 percent available hydrocyanic acid ranges
in price from $1.60 per pound in 1-pound cans,
to $1.20 per pound in 25-pound cans.
Sodium cyanide is available on contract:
see Class 51, General Schedule of Supplies,
Procurement Division, Treasury Department.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


For manufacturers and distributors of
hydrocyanic acid discoids, liquid hydrocyanic
acid (HCN), and calcium cyanide, see number
4 of list at end of this circular.


HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

Hydrogen peroxide solution (USP) may be
applied locally to the affected areas of the
skin to relieve irritation caused by the bites
of fleas and various other insects. For this
purpose the common medicinal peroxide of the
druggist is used, which is a water solution
containing, 3 percent by weight of the peroxide.

Hydrogen peroxide (H202) as a pure com-
pound is a colorless liquid and, like water,
is composed of hydrogen and oxygen, but in a
different proportion. It is a conmmuon article
of commerce, being available in a 3 percent
and a 30 percent solution. It has many
medicinal and industrial uses.

Caution: Hydrogen peroxide solution
must be protected from the light, as in a brown
glass container, to prevent decomposition of
the compound, and should also be kept in a
cool place.

This material is available in barrels
of 375 pound capacity, 8 pound jugs, 120 pound
carboys, ranging in price from 3-3/4 cents in
barrel lots and 16 to 18" cents in carboys.
It is also available in small sized packages
at local drug firms.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


IODINE

Iodine is often used as a mild tincture
to disinfect skin wounds caused by attachment
of ticks to the body of man or animals. It is
most effective when applied to the point of
attachment after the tick has been removed.

Iodine from which a tincture is ma de
consists of bluish-black scales, having a
metallic lustre, characteristic odor, and a
sharp, acrid taste. It attacks metals in the
presence of moisture and acts slowly on
organic tissue. It is used in the manufacture
of iodine compounds, germicides, antiseptics,
in engraving, and in chemistry.
f
Caution: It is poisonous and should be
kept tightly closed and plainly marked.

The price of iodine ranges from $2.00
per pound in 50-pound jars to 2.10 in 5-pound
bottles. It is also available in smaller
containers at a slightly higher price.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Depart7.,ent.


IODOFORM

Amongc the uses of this material is the
preparation of certain louse powders for kill-
ing lice attacking human beings. The prepara-
tion and use of some of these poviders is
described in the circular on lice.

lodoform or tri-iodomethane (CHI3)
consists of a yellow po.-.der or crystals








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subaidiary Materials


possessing a characteristic, somewhat dis-
agreeable odor suggestive of iodine. It melts
at about 120 C. (248 F.) and is only slightly
soluble in water. Its chief uses are medicinal.

lodoform is sold at a price of $3.95
to $4.10 in 100-pound drums and in jars at
$4.20 per pound.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


KEROSENE

Of the many petroleum products, kero-
sene (kerosene oil) probably has been used
more extensively than any other in connection-
with the control of insect pests. Kerosene
may be applied to the shoes and outer clothing
in place of sulfur to repel chiggers and if
applied to the body before bathing it facili-
tates their removal. It may be used alone or
in combination with turpentine for controlling
powderpost beetles by dippDing the infested
wood. Bedbugs can be killed with kerosene or
a similar light petroleum oil or they may be
prevented from infesting beds by placing the
legs of the bed in shallow dishes of kerosene.
when combined with an oil extract of pyrethrum
(containing 2 percent pyrethrins) at the rate
of 1 gallon of pyrethrum extract to 19 gallons
of kerosene or similar oil, a contact spray is
made which is useful in killing flies, mosqui-
toes, ticks, cockroaches, and other insects.
An emulsion of kerosene, soap (or other emul-
sifier), pyrethrum extract, and -.:ater is an
effective mosquito larvicide when applied to
the surface of water pools or other breeding









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


areas. This spray is also useful against
chiggers on the body. Ticks or other pests
when removed from the clothing or body of man
or skin of animals may be killed by dropping
them into kerosene. Equal parts of kerosene
and either olive oil or vinegar may be applied
to the hair and scalp to control human head
lice. An emulsion of kerosene, soap and water
is also used to kill body lice.

Kerosene is a mixture of hydrocarbons,
lighter than cater, and boiling between about
400 and 575 F. Ordinarily it is colorless
but may be colored as sold commercially. The
chief source of kerosene is from crude oil but
some is obtained from oil shale. It is also
known as coal oil or laiiip oil and is used in
some internal coiabusion engines, in oil stoves
and oil lights.

The price of kerosene in tank cars at
the refineries is 4-5/8 to 11-1/2 cents per
gallon depending upon the location in the
United States.

Available on contract: see Class 14,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


LJUI 3LACK
LA:.ap MVrK


Lamp black is one of" the in-redients of
Formula No. 62 of the Bureau of Dnto.dology and
Plant "uarantine, which h is a combination of
screwworm killer and wound protector in the
form of an ointment or smlear for ani-naals.

The fine, bulky, black soot deposited
by the smoke fro:ii burning oil, tar, or rosin
















Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


is called lamp black. It has a blue undertone
and varying amounts of oily matter, and is
used in paints, varnishes, and printers ink
and as a filler for rubber, etc.

The cost of lamp black is from 2.7 to
3.8 cents per pound in carload lots of 12
pound paper bags.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 44, 71, and 112 of list at end of
this circular.


LARKSPUR

A solution of larkspur is used as one
treatment for human hair in the control of
the head louse.

The principal alkaloid, Delphinine
(probably C31HLO7N), a white, crystalline,
poisonous substance, soluble in ether and
alcohol, is extracted from the larkspur herb.
It is used as an ointment or lotion to destroy
lice and to relieve neuralgia.

This material may be bought in pint
bottles for $1.75.

For manufacturers and distributors
see number 85 of list at end of this circular.
















Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


LIME

Lime (hydrated, Ca(OH) ) may be used as
a diluent for paris green to iake a dust for
the control of malaria-carrying mosquito
larvae. One part of paris green is usually
mixed with 4 or 5 parts of lime. It is also
used in reducing the acidity of other arseni-
cals for spray purposes. The ordinary hydrated
mason's lime as commercially marketed is
satisfactory for this purpose.

Hydrated lime is a white, soft powder
which has a slightly bitter, alkaline taste.
It absorbs carbon dioxide (C02) from the air,
thus changing to calcium carbonate (CaCO ).
The hydrate is used extensively industrially
in mortars, plasters, and pastes, for dehairing
hides, in water paints, and for an agricultural
lime for reducing the acidity of soils.

Caution: The dust if inhaled is some-
what irritating to the respiratory passages.
Keep containers well closed.

Hydrated lime is obtainable in ton lots
packed in paper bags at $8.50 to $13.00 per
ton depending upon location.

Available on contract: see Class 59,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Sibsidiary Materials


LIME SULFUR (DRY)

Lime-sulfur is used as a dip or surface
treatment for protecting rough and green as
well as seasoned woods against powder-post
beetles. The material acts as a repellent to
the insects.

This material consists of lime and sul-
fur boiled together to form a series of salts.
The* dry form is prepared by adding a stabilizer
such as cane sugar and then evaporating to
dryness. Lime-sulfur is used as a summer
fungicide and insecticide for fruit trees and
is of special value for the control of scale
insects. It is frequently used in connection
with other insecticides for the simultaneous
control of chewing and sucking insects as well
as certain fungus diseases.

The cost of lime-sulfur in bags and
drums in carload lots varies in different parts
of the United States but ranges from 7 to 12
cents per pound.

For manufacturers and distributors
see numbers 2, 7, 19, 22, 69, 90, and 101 of
list at end of this circular.


LINSEED OIL, BOILED

Linseed oil is used to prepare certain
insecticides and to treat seasoned wood prod-
ucts in the control of Lyctus powder-post
beetles. The boiled linSeed oil, while still
hot, is preferable for use on wood products
since it penetrates and dries more rapidly
than the raw linseed oil. It stains wood
slightly yellow.












Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Linseed oil is a yellowish drying oil
expressed or extracted from flaxseed. It is
used extensively in paints, also in making
printer's ink, linoleum, soap, and in medicine
as a laxative.

This oil is available in 8,000 gallon
tanks, 375 to 400 pound barrels, and in 1 and
5 gallon cans ranging in price from 10 to 12
cents per pound.

Available on contract: see Class 52,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


LUBRICATING OIL

Lubricating oil has limited use as an
insecticide. A mixture of 20 parts lubricating
oil (SAE 10) and 1 part of kerosene-pyrethrum
concentrate lightly painted on window screens
will keep out the flies known as eye gnats for
several hours then these are troublesome.

Lubricating oil is one of the higher
boiling fractions of crude oil. The color
varies considerably from one brand to another
but is usually some shade of yellowish-brown
or amber. It is obtainable in various degrees
of viscosity. The SA3 10 mentioned is a very
thin grade while increasingly heavy grades are
SA2 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60.

Caution: Lubricating oil will burn and
oil-soaked rags left in poorly ventilated
places may ignite by spontaneous combustion.












Circular'21 Insecticides and Sabsidiary Materials


The price of lubricating oil varies
from 7 to 33 cents per gallon in tanks at the
refinery depending upon the location.

Available on contract: see Class 14,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


MENTHOL

A solution of menthol in alcohol or
other solvent is often helpful in reducing
irritation caused by flea and chigger bites
suffered by susceptible persons. The appli-
cation of the solution is made locally to
the affected area of the skin.

Chemically, menthol is a white or color-
less, crystalline solid having the formula
C10H10H. It is also called mint camphor or
peppe mint camphor, has the cooling taste and
odor of peppermint, and is the principal
constituent of oil of peppermint.

Menthol is used externally as a lotion
or ointment to relieve aches and pains, and
respiratory troubles, as well as industrially
in liqueurs, confectionery, perfumery, and
tobacco.

Menthol is sold in cases of tins at
$7.00 to ?7.50 per pound.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.












Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


MERCURIC CHLORIDE

Mercuric chloride, also known as corro-
sive sublimate, is used in the control of
plant diseases and certain insects. In mili-
tary camps where ants become a serious nuisance
mercuric chloride is useful when incorporated
in a specially prepared cloth tape which is
tied around the legs of tables, refrigerators,
and other objects frequented by ants. Mercu-
rial ointment is used to control pubic lice.

Chemically, mercuric chloride (HgCl2)
is a white solid, soluble in water. It is
obtainable commercially as a white powder or
in the form of tablets (each containing 7.5
grains HgCl ). It is also widely used as a
disinfectan? and in dilute solution is used
as an antiseptic in dressing wounds.

Caution: Since mercuric chloride is
extremely poisonous, it should be stored in
ti,:htly sealed containers and plainly marked.
It corrodes metals, and solutions should be
prepared in wooden, glass, or earthenware
containers. It is advisable to wear rubber
gloves when working with this poison.

Mercuric chloride is sold in 250 pound
kegs and drums of 50 or more pounds at prices
varying from ,32.24 to p2.39 per pound. It is
also procurable in 1, 5, and 25 pound packages.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of SupD2lies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


METHYL BROMIIDE

Methyl bromide is used as a fumigant
for the control of storage pests in modern
concrete or brick warehouses of tight con-
struction because of its ability to penetrate
closely-packed products. Excellent results
can be obtained even if a warehouse is loaded
with food supplies, whole grains, or feeds.
It should not be used, however, to fumigate
flour or other milled cereals, or products
high in fat content, since these products may
retain harmful quantities of residual bromides.
The method of application is discussed in
Circular 22, pp. 20-23 and 37.

Methyl bromide is also used extensively
for the fumigation of plants and plant products
in connection with the enforcement of insect
quarantine regulations. It may also be em-
ployed as a fwmigant in the control of fleas
in situations here it is necessary to kill
rats, nice, and other rodents which harbor
these pests.

:.:ethyl bro iiide, CHBr, is a gas at
su rier temperatures, aud fs about 3z times
heavier than air. It has a boiling point.of
40.1 F. and belov. this teLiperature is a
heavy, colorless, liquid vdihich is but slightly
soluble in water. It is freely soluble,
hoviever, in alcohol, chloroform, ether, and
carbon disulfide. It v,:as originally used as
a fire extin[auishler and has been used in
refrigera.tion. The gas is non-inflai.i:k.ble,
very penetrating, and is poisonous, U.nich
makes it of. value as a fuwiCant. As comner-
cially produced it is of :a purity of 99-
percent or better.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Caution: When working with methyl
bromide it is necessary to use a gas mniask
provided with a canister that will absorb
this gas. The chemical is toxic and there-
fore should not be allowed to come into
contact with the skin. Containers of this
gas should be stored in a cool, well-venti-
lated place outside of inhabited buildings.

Methyl bromide is obtainable in small
1-pound cans or in cylinders containing 10,
50, or 150 pounds net. In 50-pound cylinders
it sells for 70 cents per pound.

For manufacturers and distributors
see numbers 36, 37, and 67 of list at end of
this circular.

MIIERAIL OIL

Sprays for the control of bedbugs
generally consist very largely of a light
mineral oil with small additions of pyrethrum
extract.

Mineral oil is derived fro.i any oil of
mineral origin, such as petroleum or shale
oil, by refining. It is a mixture of liquid
hydrocarbon which is colorless, oily, non-
fluorescent, transparent, becoming thicker
with cold. Mineral oil is used in medicine,
insecticidal sprays, paints, varnishes,
lacquers,and as a solvent.

The containers in which mineral oil is
shipped are various sized drums,ranging from
34 to 75 cents per gallon depending on the
viscosity.
Available on contract: see Class 14,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procure e% ARY
Division, Treasury Department. AT paNT BOARD











Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


MOLASSES (Black Strap)

Black strap molasses is used as an
attractive bait for house flies and blow-
flies, in connection with fly traps. It
is a thick, sticky, brown or dark colored,
viscid sirup and contains impurities.
Black strap is the final mother liquid
remaining after the crystallization of sugar
from the juice of sugar cane or beet sugar,
more particularly the third molasses. It
is also a by-product of raw sugar. Molasses
is extensively used as a constituent of many
mixed cattle feeds and as a raw material for
the manufacture of industrial alcohol.

Black strap molasses is obtainable in
tanks at a cost of 9 to 11 cents per gallon,
the price varying in different parts of the
country.

Available on contract: see Class 56,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


MOTH PROOFING CLATTRIALS

These are solutions that are used for
making fabrics and furs resistant to such
insect pests as webbing clothes :ioths and
related forms, also carpet beetles and buffalo
moths. They are best applied in the hot dye
bath while the clothes or fabrics are being
manufactured. Most of these materials are
patented and the process is described in the
patents. Fabrics, if properly treated, remain
resistant to insect attack for a long time.











Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Two well known commercial products are
Demotex, manufactured in America, and Eulan
C. N., a foreign product.

For manufacturers and distributors
see numbers 3, 4, 15, 33, 37, 46, 70, 74,
75, and 109 of list at end of this circular.


NAPHTHALS3

Naphthalene is used extensively in
preventing injury by and for killing such
fabric pests as the various kinds of clothes
moths, and carpet beetles which attack woolen
fabrics used for making uniforms, blankets,
wool- and fur-lined helmets, boots, also furs,
and various other items. The flakes are
ordinarily used for this purpose and are
about as effective as paradichlorobenzene.

When fabrics become saturated with the
fumes they kill the insects and prevent them
from attacking the materials. Naphthalene
is applied directly to the fabrics in enclosed
containers at the rate of 2 to 4 pounds per
100 cubic feet of space. It is also used to
kill fleas in living quarters and in the
preparation of certain louse powders.

Chemically, naphthalene, CIOH is a
white, crystalline, flaky material and is
the chief constituent of moth balls. It
vaporizes very slowly and forms a noninflam-
mable gas having a pungent, tarry odor. It
is used in various industries such as in the
manufacture of dyes, resins, and in disinfec-
tants.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


The strong odor of naphthalene may be
disagreeable but is not considered dangerous
and presents no fire hazard.

Caution: It should not be used as a
fumigant for grains, cereals, and other food
products because it imparts very persistent
odors and flavors.

Naphthalene flakes or balls may be
obtained in 180- or 200-pound barrels, 50-
pound cases, and smaller containers with the
cases, at a price of 84 cents, and 16-ounce
packages at 8 cents per pound.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


NICOTINE SULFATE

Commercially available nicotine sulfate
(a solution containing the equivalent of 40
percent of nicotine) is mixed with water and
used as a spray for killing .-ood ticks on
vegetation.

A comiinercial solution of nicotine sul-
fate,((C10HiN2) .H2SOL), is a dark brown or
blackish, poisonous liquid with
a strong penetration tobacco-like odor. it
is somewhat heavier than water and will
readily mix with it. Nicotine sulfate is
used extensively as a contact insecticide
for spraying aphids and other soft-bodied
sucking insects on plants. Bl3cz Leaf 40
is the trade name of a widely distributed
commercially prepared nicotine sulfate.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials 55


Caution: Nicotine sulfate is very
poisonous and should be kept in a safe place
in tight containers plainly labeled and
marked 'Poison." Avoid wetting the skin
with the spray.

This material may be purchased in
drums at the factory at 70.3 cents per pound
and in 10-pound tins at 86.5 cents per pound.

For manufacturers bind distributors
see numbers 19, 24, 30, 37, 45, 79, 81, 82,
and 108 of list at end of this circular.


OIL OF Cl'ROlQ LA

Oil of citronella is often used alone
or in combination with othlier materials, such
as camphor, to repel mosquitoes. Application
of the repellent is made to the exposed por-
tions of the skin.

This oil is derived from citronella
grass, chiefly from Ceylon iand Java. It is a
volatile, almost colorless to pale yellow or
reddish liquid having a pleasant, pungent
aromaa. Citronella oil is used in liniment
for rheumatism and in perfumes.

The material should be kept in a cool
place, well closed, and protected from light.

Oil of citronella is marketed in drums
at 90 cents per pound, and in 1-pound cans at
95 cents (Ceylon) and drums and cans at 85 to
90 cents per pound (Java).

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


OLIVE OIL

The use of kerosene oil and olive oil
is recommended in the control of head lice.

Olive oil is a pale-yellow or yellowish-
green non-drying oil expressed from olives.
It is used as a salad oil, in cooking, as a
lubricant and illuminant, and in toilet soaps.

The commercial containers for olive oil
are barrels weighing 375 and 500 pounds, and
cans containing 1/4, 1, 5, and 10 gallons.
In drums the oil is priced from $3.85 to
$5.50 per gallon.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies", Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


ORTIi0DIC!I0OROB0I: 1T.

Orthodichlorobenzene (C6H4Cl2) in the
crude form is used for checkin- the activity
of Lyctus and other powider-post beetles
working in seasoned wood, and for poisoning
the soil about the foundations of buildings
for termite control. For the latter purpose
it can be used alone or diluted with coal-tar
creosote, or lifht fuel oils.

Chemically, orthodichlorobenzene is a
colorless, stainless liquid, soluble in
alcohol or ether, which nixes readily with
various oils. The commercial product ordi-
narily sold is a crude chlorinated benzene
product. It is somewhat expensive but very
effective. It is very penetrating and may
mar the finish on wood, which can, however,
be refinished without difficulty. Orthodi-
cblorobenzene is noninflammable but is









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


slightly poisonous. It possesses a strong,
nauseating odor resemblin; that of moth balls
which may persist for several days after appli-
cation.

Caution: The odor might cause headache
to one confined with it in an enclosed space
for an hour or so. In treating infested wood
overhead, care should be taken to keep the
liquid from dripping on the body as it might
burn the skin slightly and would be especially
painful if it came in contact with the eyes.
Goggles should be wvorn and the hands and body
protected by rubberized fabric or neoprene-
treated -loves and apron. Although orthodi-
chlorobenzene is practically noninfllu'.1able,
as a matter of: precaution it should not be
ato:-iized in the air by spraying near a furnace
while the latter is in operation. It sho-,ld
not be used in the !,round near wells or springs
which serve as a source of drinking water. It
should be kept a:way lroi:i exposed food materials.

Orthodichlorobenzene :a.ay be obtained in
tanks, 1000-pound drums, and 50- and 100-pound
tins at a price ranging fromii 5 to 10 cents
per pound.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 20, 36, 37, 55, 70, 76, and 104 of
list at end of this circular.


ORVUS .'. A.

Orvus 7. A. is a wetting and spreading
agent which is used as an e:ulsifier in place
of soap to prepare insecticides, because it
does not form a precipitate as soap does when
hard water must be used. Like other similar
wvetters and spreaders, Orvus ?i. A. is especi-
ally useful when under certain conditions a









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


pyrethrum spray has to be prepared with hard
or salt water or when the finished spray is
applied to the surface of water pools and
marshes having a salt content higher than 5
percent, to kill mosquito larvae.

Orvus W. A. is a proprietary product
known chemically as sodium lauryl sulfate.
It comes prepared in the form of paste or
flakes in 25-pound cartons, the paste costing
30 cents per pound and the flakes 53 cents
per pound.

For manufacturer and distributor
see number 92 of list at end of this circular.


PARADICHnOROBENZENE

Paradichlorobenzene is used as a soil
fumigant to kill various insect pests, and as
a repellent and fumigant for such fabrics
pests as clothes moths and carpet beetles.
Recent results indicate that it is not always
effective as a soil poison for termite con-
trol, hence it is not recommended for this use.

Chemically, this material (C6H C12C) is
a white, crystalline compound which vola-
tilizes slowly. The vapor form.led is nonin-
fl aiaable, penetration and has a somewhat
ether-like odor. It is not explosive nor
dangerous to handle. It is marketed in the
form of crystals or in cakes, and is obtain-
able in any quantity desired.

Paradichlorobenzene should be stored
in air-tight containers to avoid loss by
evaporation.








Circular 21 Inseotioides and Subsidiary Materials


Caution: Food substances, including
grains, exposed to the fumes of the chemical
may retain residues that render them unfit
for consumption. Therefore it should never
be used to fumigate such materials.

This chemical is shipped in carload
lots at 11 to 12 cents per pound, in less
than carload lots at 122 to 13' cents per
pound, in 25- to 200-pound barrels, 150-pound
drums, and 1- to 5-pound cans.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.

PARIS GREEN

This bright green arsenical compound
is used to kill malaria-carrying mosquito
larvae when applied as a dust to the surface
of the water. The dust is prepared by mixing
the poison with a carrier like talc,
diatomaceous earth, or lime.

Paris green, which is chemically
acetoarsenite of copper (3Cu(AsO2)2*Cu(C2H302)2,
was one of the first stomach poisons used in
America to destroy insects. It is a very
poisonous, heavy, emerald-green powder and
when used as a spray requires constant agita-
tion to keep it in suspension. Commercial
paris green should be ground finely, should
contain not less than 50 percent of total
arsenious oxide, and not more than 32 percent
water soluble arsenic oxide.

Caution: Paris screen is extremely
poisonous and therefore should be kept in a








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


safe place away from foods. Tight containers
plainly labeled and marked poisonous should
be used for storing the material. The dust
should not be inhaled and the skin, especially
open wounds, should be protected from the
material or serious poisoning may result.

This insecticide may be purchased in
500-pound barrels, drums, 100-pound kegs,
bottles, and tins. The price in drums and
kegs varies from 24 to 27 cents per pound.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


PINTACHLOROPHENOL

Pentachlorophenol (C6Cl OH) is one of
the most effective chemicals f6r use as a dip
in preventing and checking Lyctus powder-post
beetle infestations in seasoned wood. It is
a valuable chemical for preserving wood and
other products and for the control of slime
and algae.

Pure pentachlorophenol is a white,
needle-like, crystalline material which when
hot has a very pungent odor. It is almost
insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol,
ether, benzene, and oil. The crystals are
available commercially and should be dissolved
in a light fuel oil. It is also available in
liquid form already mixed by the manufacturer.

Caution: Care should be taken to
observe the precautions mentioned by the
manufacturer in handling it, otherwise it is
likely to irritate the skin. Rubberized









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials 61


fabric or neoprene-treated gloves and aprons
should be used to protect the body. Its dust
causes sneezing.

Pentachlorophenol may be bought in
drums at 20 to 25 cents per pound.

For manufacturers and distributors
see numbers 36 and 76 of list at end of this
circular,


PETROLATUM

In the semisolid form of carbolated
petrolatum or carbolated vaseline this material
is useful for the relief of flea and chigger
bites when applied to the affected area of the
skin. The liquid petrolatum designated as
white mineral oil or liquid vaseline is used to
prepare a mosquito repellent by mixing with
pyrethrum extract.
I
Petrolatum is a neutral, practically
odorless and colorless, grease-like, oily sub-
stance which is derived from petroleum by dis-
tilling off the lighter portions and purifying
the residue. Several forms of petrolatum are
available commercially, the semisolid, yellow
form, and a colorless or faintly yellow liquid
known as liquid petrolatum, liquid paraffin,
white mineral oil or paraffin oil. The semi-
solid form is used as a carrier for medicants,
the liquid as a lubricant for the intestinal
tract, in sprays for the nose and throat, and
in hair dressing. Petrolatum preparations of
many kinds are sold under the trade name of
vaseline.

Petrolatum is marketed in 400-pound drums,
1- to 50-pound cases of cans, the drums costing











Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


32 to 4-3/4 cents per pound for the yellow,
and 5 to 8 cents per pound for the white form.

Available on contract: For Yellow see
Class 29, for Liquid see Class 51, General
Schedule of Supplies, Procurement Division,
Treasury Department.

PETROLEUM (CRUDE OIL)

Petroleum or crude oil is sometimes
used to kill fly larvae which develop in
manure piles, garbage, feces, or other refuse.
For this purpose, application is made by
sprinkling the surfaces of such breeding
places so as to form a protective oil covering.

Crude petroleum is obtained from the
ground as an oily, inflammable liquid ranging
from almost colorless to nearly black, but
usually of a dark greenish or brownish hue.
The specific gravity varies considerably,
depending on the source, but crude oil is
usually lighter than water. It is a complex
mixture of hydrocarbons in which small quan-
tities of other materials such as sulfur,
nitrogen compounds, water, and silica are
also present. Crude oil is refined by a
process of distillation which yields gasoline,
kerosene, fuel oil, lubricating oil, and other
petroleum products. The chief oil-producing
regions of the United States at present are
California, Oklahoma, and Texas.

Caution: 'Crude oil is inflammable.
Oily rags in poorly ventilated places often
cause fire by spontaneous combustion.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Petroleum in crude form may be bought
at the wells for 43 cents to V2.19 per barrel
depending upon the location.

Available on contract: see Class 14,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Departmient.



PHOSPHORUS PASTE

Phosphorus paste is useful in the con-
trol of cockroaches in tropical and damp cli-
mates. Its use is advisable in cases where
roaches are present but not especially numerous.
It is particularly effective against the
American cockroach.

Phosphorus paste is prepared commer-
cially from yellow phosphorus. Essentially
these pastes are made by grinding the yellow
phosphorus in the presence of water and then
mixing with flour in the proper proportion.
Glycerine is sometimes used as an ingredient.
Commercial preparations usually contain from
1 to 2 percent of phosphorus.

Yellow phosphorus is a white to yellow-
ish, translucent, waxy solid, which turns more
yellow as it ages. ?hen exposed to air it
takes fire at 340 C. (93.20 F.) and burns with
a yellowish flame.

Caution: Phosphorus paste, because of
its very poisonous nature, should be handled
with the greatest of care. Since the yellow
phosphorus is so inflammable and poisonous,
it is safer to purchase the commercial paste
rather than attempt to prepare it.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsi-diary Materials


For manufacturers and distributors of
phosphorus paste see numbers 26, 29, 83, 88,
93, 99, 105, and 110 of list at end of this
circular.


Pfl2 OIL

Pine oil is used to aid in dissolving
pentachlorophenol in liCht fuel oil for the
treatment of seasoned wood to protect it from
attack by Lyctus beetles. Pine oils alone
have been used to treat wood infested vwith
powder-post beetles.

Pine oil is a colorless to pale yellow,
oily liquid insoluble in water and has a
turpentine-like odor. It is obtained by
steam- distillation from certain species of
pine trees. The oil is used as a solvent,
in the manufacture of textiles and paints,
and for the flotation of lead and zinc ores.

Pine oil is sold in tanks, 55-gallon
drums, at a price ranging froa 54 to 65 cents
per gallon.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 5, 14., 27, 42, 52, and 113 of list
at end of this circular.


PIf.l TAR OIL

This substance is used in combination
with cottonseed oil to kill ticks in the ears
of domestic animals. Pine tar oil is also used
to protect wounds on animals from screwworm
attack, in which use it should have a specific









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


gravity of 1.025. Pine tar oil is also
employed in sprays designed to kill and to
repel flies.

Pine tar oil is a dark brown or black-
ish, heavy, viscous liquid obtained by the
destructive distillation of wood of several
species of pine trees. It has a sharp taste
and a somev.hat pronounced burnt or tarry odor,
definitely pine-like in character. Pine tar
is heavier than, and only slightly soluble
in, water. Among the principal constituents
of this substance are turpentine, resin,
creosol, phenol, xylene, and other hydrocarbons.

In medicine, pine tar oils are chiefly
used for the treatment of skin diseases and
respiratory disorders. Industrially, it has
many uses including the manufacture of
automobile tires.

This oil sells at 20 to 55 cents per
gallon in 600-pound barrels.

2-or manufacturers and distributors
see numbers 5 and 12 of list at end of this
circular.


PTIETHRUM

Pyrethrum consists of dried flowers or
buds of plants of any one of three particular
species of the genus Chrysanther:iui (P1yrethrwu).
These contain compounds knov.m as pyrethrins I
and II that are very toxic to insects. Flowers
are now available from Kenya Colony which will
average about 1.3 percent pyrethrins. Insect
powders may be prepared by grinding the flowers,
and used pure or diluted with some inert carrier.










Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


The undiluted ground flowers may be dusted
into clothing as a repellent against fleas,
or scattered around infested areas to control
roaches. A good diluted dust may be prepared
from pure fresh powder and from 2 to 5 parts
of some inert carrier such as talc or diatoma-
ceous earth. In this form it may be applied
directly to infested animals to control fleas
and lice or dusted behind baseboards and
similar locations to destroy fleas, bedbugs,
or roaches in buildings.

The pyrethrins are also extracted from
the flowers with various solvents such as ace-
tone, alcohol, ethylene dichloride or mineral
oil, according to the purpose for which they
are to be used. Those prepared with alcohol
and acetone are cormonly used agriculturally;
the oil sprays find application against insects
affecting man, animals, and stored commodities.
Such oil sprays are frequently prepared in the
form known as 20-to-l concentrates which con-
tain 2 grams pyrethrins per 100 cc. For many
purposes these are diluted about 20 times with
kerosene or other light petroleum oil to make
sprays containing about 0.10 to 0.12 grams
pyrethrins per 100 cc. The oil used should
be readily volatile and leave no stain on the
sprayed objects. A perfume is often added to
mask the odor.

The diluted oil-pyrethrum extract may
be used against house flies, stable flies,
mosquitoes, eye gnats, sand flies, chiggers,
fleas, cockroaches, bedbugs, ticks, clothes
mioths, silverfish and ants in and around
'.Litary establishments.

Wfhen pyrethrum is used in livestock or
cattle sprays to kill and repel flies, the oil
solution must be of such a nature as not to be










Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


injurious to the animals, not to stain the coat,
and in the case of cows not to taint the milk.
They are made up with a less volatile oil than
household sprays but to about the same pyre-
thrin content plus 5 percent pine oil, oil of
camphor, cloves, safrol, or other aromatic.

A special pyrethrum oil emulsion is
prepared from kerosene and pyrethrum extract
as explained in the circular on mosquitoes.
This larvicide is useful in killing the larvae
of both malaria-carrying mosquitoes and buf-
falo gnats in infested water. The extract
used with petrolatum or liquid vaseline may
be applied to the skin to repel mosquitoes.

The extracts of pyrethrum may also be
mixed with fine talcs, powdered charcoal,
tobacco dust, sulfur, or various inert earths
to make insecticides to be applied as dusts.
These should not be confused with the dusts
prepared from powdered flowers discussed above.

As previously stated, pyrethrum is very
toxic to insects but is generally considered
nonpoisonous to man. Certain individuals may
be allergic to -it and experience an irritation
to the respiratory passages.

Pyrethrum is packed in barrels in the
form of ground flowers and fine powders for
sale at 21 to 22 cents per pound. The liquid
extract, 20 to 1, may be purchased in drums at
$4.40 to 64.60 per gallon. Smaller lots are
also obtainable at a slightly higher rate.

For manufacturers end distributors
see numbers 6, 11, 19, 43, 54, 80, 98, 102,
and 107 of list at end of this circular.















Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


SASSXRAS OIL

Oil of sassafras is of some value as
a repellent to protect the human body from
sand-fly attack.

This material is a volatile oil dis-
tilled from the roots of Sassafras, and its
chief use is in the manufacture of perfume.
It is a yellow or reddish-yellow liquid,
having the characteristic odor and taste of
sassafras.

Natural sassafras oil comes in cans
and drums at el.05 to Cl.20 per pound.

For manufacturers and distributors
see numbers 1, 25, 34, 38, 50, and 74 of
list at end of this circular.


SILV'I NITRATE

Silver nitrate is used as a disinfec-
tant for skin wounds caused by ticks. It is
applied locally to the skin after the tick
has been removed.

Commercial silver nitrate, AgNO3, is
practically 100 percent pure. It is a poison-
ous, colorless, odorless, crystalline powder.
It is widely used in medicine, especially as
an antiseptic, germicide, also in photography,
silverplating, manufacture of inks, hair
dyeing, and other industries.

Caution: This material is very poison-
ous and should be plainly labeled and kept
out of reach of children and others unfamiliar
with it.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Silver nitrate may be obtained in 100-
and 200-ounce bottles at 24 cents per ounce.
It is packed also in 1-, 4-, and 16-ounce
bottles.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


SODIUM ARSE.ITE

Sodium arsenite is used in the prepara-
tion of poison baits for ants, grasshoppers,
and in livestock dips. A 10 percent solution
is used for controlling termites in the soil
about the foundations of buildings.

Chemically, sodium arsenite (NaAs02)
is a white powder and very s-oluble. It
is more generally available in liquid form
containing about 32 percent Aso 3, although
it can also be purchased as a powder. It
is used also as a weed killer, as an anti-
septic, and for dyeing purposes.

Caution: Like all other materials
containing arsenic, sodium arsenite is poison-
ous and care must be exercised in handling it.
Care must be taken not to use it in locations
near wells or springs used for drinking pur-
poses. Children should not be allowed to play
in soil treated with this cheiLical. Sodium
arsenite in solution is very caustic to the
skin and rubberized gloves should be vworn
while handling it.

In the powder form sodium arsenite may
be obtained in drums in carload lots at a cost
of 7-3/4 to 9-1/2 cents per pound.












Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


For manufacturers and distributors of
sodium arsenite see nuabers 2, 18, 24, 59,
61, and 79 of list at end of this circular.

SODIlUMl BEIZOATE

Benzoate of soda (CH5 0 Na) or sodium
benzoate as coimniercially 7 2 obtained, is
used in the preparation of some insect baits
and poisons. For example, a combination of
granulated sugar, crystallized tartaric acid,
benzoate of soda, sodium arsenite, strained
honey, and water is especially recommended as
a poison bait for the Argentine ant. The ben-
zoate of soda is added as a preservative to
keep the solution from putrefying.

Sodium benzoate is a metallo-organic
compound obtained commercially in the forL of
white, odorless granules or crystalline pow-
der, possessing a s',eetish astringent taste.
It is used in medicine as a mild external
antiseptic. Industrially, it is important as
a food preservative.

Benzoate of soda is available in
barrels at a cost of 39 to 43 cents per pound.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 36, 37, 56, 75, 76, 89, and 97 of'
list at end of this circular.










Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


'SODILUI. BICARBONATE

Sodium bicarbonate has no direct
entomological uses but it is employed as a 2
percent solution in an eye wash to relieve eyes
affected by chloropicrin if the latter chemical
accidentally reaches the eyes as in fumigation
operations.

It is a white, crystalline salt, NaHC03,
found in many mineral springs, and produced
artificially by treating the normal carbonate
with carbon dioxide, and, in the Solvay pro-
cess, as an intermediate product. It is used
in cookery, in baking powders, and in medicine.

This material may be obtained at any
drug or grocery store. It is available on
contract: see Class 51, General Schedule of
Supplies, Procurement Division, Treasury
Department.


SODIMI FLUORIDE

This poisonous powder is considered as
one of the best all-round cockroach remedies.
Sodium fluoride when dusted in their runways
will sometimes drive them away. The commer-
cially available product and commonly employed
grade of the powder contains 94.to 97 percent
sodium fluoride.

Sodium fluoride, NaF, is a white, very
poisonous powder soluble in water but insol-
uble in alcohol. It is sometimes used medi-
cinally and for the preparation of pastes,
and for disinfecting fermentation apparatus
in breweries and distilleries.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials 72



Caution: Since sodium fluoride is
poisonous if taken internally it should be put
in tight containers, plainly marked "Poison,"
and kept in a dry, safe place away from foods.
It is somewhat irritating to the respiratory
passages if the dust is inhaled.

In New York City all sodium fluoride
must be colored blue and the National Asso-.
ciation of Insecticide and Disinfectant Man-
ufacturers Inc. has gone on record favoring
this practice throughout the United States.

Sodium fluoride may be purchased in
small containers up to large 350 to 375 pound
barrels. The barrels in carload lots cost
from 8- to 9, cents per pound.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


SPE.PTITT OIL

In the case of sandfly attack on the
human body, spearmint oil is of some value
as a repellent.

Oil of spearmint is distilled from the
fresh parts of the flowering plant :Jentha
spicata Linne. It is a colorless, yellow or
greenish-yellow liquid, having the character-
istic odor and taste of speariuint. The price
of oil of spearmint in drums is $2.55 to 32.80
per gallon.

For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 1, 25, 34, 38, 50, and 74 of list at
end of this circular.









Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


STA-WAY

This is a proprietary compound contain-
ing the active ingredients known chemically
as diethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate
and diethylene-glycol monoethyl ether. It is
used as a temporary but very effective repel-
lent against mosquitoes by applying to the
skin as with other preparations of this kind.

It is manufactured by the National
Carbon Company of Cleveland, Ohio, and sells
for about 25 cents per 6-ounce bottle. See
number 77 of list at end of this circular.


SULFONATED CASTOR OIL

Sulfonated castor oil is one of the
constituents of an ointment or smear contain-
ing diphenylamine, benzene, and lamp black
(known as Forimula f62 recently developed by
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine)
which is employed on animals as a screwworm
killer and wound protector.

Sulfonated castor oil, known also as
turkey red oil, is one of the wetting and
emulsifying agents used in the preparation of
various insecticides. It is a viscous, trans-
parent liquid, and light yellow in color.
Industrially, it is widely used in the dye
industry.

The oil comes in drums in carload lots
with prices ranging from 7-3/4 cents per pound
to 12 cents per pound depending upon the
percentage of fat.
For manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 4, 10, 51, 53, and 100 of list at end
of this circular.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


SULFUR

Sulfur is used to protect man from
chiggers or red bugs. It is dusted on the
body, especially the lower limbs or parts
where the clothing f its tightly, to prevent
chiggers from attacking the skin, when it is
necessary to work in or travel through grassy
or wooded areas. It may also be dusted on
vegetation to control chiggers. Very finely
divided sulfur made up as a suspension in
water is used to protect green lumber and other
rough lumber products while in the process of
seasoning against attack by Lyctus powder-post
beetles, by a dipping process as outlined in
Circular 6. Several proprietary products
including "Sulfocide" and "Microfine sulfur"
are sold for this purpose. Sulfur dioxide
may be used to fumigate empty buildings or
houses.

Commercial sulfur is a yellow powder and
is obtainable in several forms: flowers of
sulfur, and dusting or flour sulfur. Either of
these forms may be used against chiggers.

Ordinary sulfur (S) is a yellow, brittle,
crystalline solid, which is practically insolu-
ble in water. It has only a faint odor and
taste. Commercially, sulfur is used in making
sulfuric acid, other sulfur compounds, fire-
works and matches, in medicine, for the control
of various other insects, and as a fungicide
against certain plant diseases.

Caution: Sulfur when used as a dust is
often very irritating to some people, especi-
ally to the eyes and nose. In such cases it
is advisable to wear goggles or respirators of
which several efficient types are available.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


One hundred pounds of sulfur in carload
lots is priced at $2.80. In less than carload
lots the same amount costs $3.25.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


SULFURIC ACID
This acid, H2SO,, is not an insecticide
but is used in the # generation of hydro-
cyanic acid gas from sodium (or potassium)
cyanide as discussed in Circular 22 on fumiga-
tion. For this purpose the technical grade
having a specific gravity of 1.83 is satisfac-
tory. (For a further description of hydro-
cyanic acid gas, see the discussion under that
heading.)

Sulfuric acid is a colorless liquid when
pure but the commercial grades are yellowish or
brownish due to the presence of certain impuri-
ties. It is a heavy, oily-like, very corrosive
liquid which has a great affinity for water.
Industrially, sulfuric acid has probably imore
numerous uses than that for any other chemical.

Caution: Sulfuric acid is highly corro-
sive and will burn the skin, clothing, and many
materials. *d'hen diluting, always pour the acid
slowly into th- water, never attempt to pour
the water into the acid. Keep in a safe place,
itighnt glass -ontainers, plainly labeled and
marked "Poison."

It can be purchased in 11-gallon glass
carboys (184 poimds) at 6 to 8 cents per pound.
In 9-pound bottles the price ranges from 15 to
17 cents per pound.












Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Sulfuric acid is available on contract:
see Class 51, General Schedule of Supplies,
Procurement Division, Treasury Department.

TALC OR TALCUM

Talc or talcum is a suitable material
for mixing with derris powder for the control
of fleas on cats. For limited use of this
kind, ordinary cheap talcum powder is satis-
factory, while if large quantities are required,
talc as manufactured for preparing insecticidal
dusts should be employed. Talc of insecticidal
dust grade is used to make a paris green dust
for the control of mosquito larvae.

Talcum, talc, or soapstone occurs in
the native mineral state as a magnesium sili-
cate, H2Mg3(SiO). It has a soft, soapy feel
and occurs in lyers, granules, or fibrous
masses usually of a grayish, or greenish collar.
In addition to its usefulness in preparing
insecticidal dusts, it is employed in making
soap, paper, paints, insulating materials,
textiles, and toilet powders.

The material (325 mesh) is obtainable
in 100, 200, and 220 pound bags in carload
lots at $14 to $20 per ton.

Available on contract: See ulass 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.












Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


TARTAR METIO

One of the insecticidal uses of tartar
emetic is in ant poisons, especially for such
species as prefer grease and meat to sweetened
baits. A small quantity of it is worked into
grease or bacon rind and placed in locations
where ants will feed upon it. For this pur-
pose tartar emetic, technical grade, is suit-
able and is available commercially in the form
of a white powder.

Tartar emetic, K(SbO)COH O.MH2 0, is a
white, crystalline salt known cemic ally as
potassium antimonyi1 tartrate. It has a
sweetish, metallic taste and is poisonous.
This substance is used in the dyeing industry,
in medicine, and as an insecticide in the
control of certain species of thrips.

Caution: Since tartar emetic is
poisonous, care should be used in handling it,
and it should be kept in plainly labeled con-
tainers marked "Poison."

This chemical is packed in 200- to 700-
pound barrels, 100-pound kegs, 25- to 50-pound
boxes and in bottles. The barrels cost from
44-3/4 to 50 cents per pound.

For manufacturers and distributors
see numbers 10, 49, 89, and 96 of list at end
of this circular.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


TARTARIC ACID

Tartaric acid is used as one of the
constituents of some of the poison ant syrups
that are used to kill the worker ants, also
the young and queen ants within their nests.
It is especially useful 'against sweets-eating
ants when it is impossible to locate and
destroy their nests by direct means. The
method of feeding these baits to ants is
discussed in Circular 15.

Chemically, tartaric acid, C H 06, is
a white, odorless powder with a strong acid
taste, which is soluble in water and alcohol.
It is used in the dyeing and baking indus-
tries, also in medicine and chemistry.

Caution: Although tartaric acid in
small quantities is considered harmless,
death has resulted from accidental adminis-
tration of one ounce or more.

Tartaric acid may be purchased in 250-
pound barrels, 25-, 50 and 112-pound kegs,
at a price range of 63. to 64 cents per pound.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


THiALLIUTI SULFATE

This compound is used with sugar, honey
and water in the preparation of a poison bait
for the control of ants.

Thallium sulfate, T12SO, is a white,
crystalline, extremely poisonous compound.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Its uses are somewhat limited. In addition to
its employment-as an insect poison, it can be
used as a rat poison and as a reagent in
chemistry.

Caution: Thallium sulfate even in
small dosages is a dangerous poison and must
be handled with great care. It should be kept
in tight, labeled containers and marked
"'Poison." The vapors which are given off when
the material is heated, either alone or in
solution, are poisonous and should not be
inhaled.

This compound is shipped In 1/4, 1,
and 5-pound bottles at $5 to $7 per pound.

For'manufacturers and distributors see
numbers 18, 41, 84, 87, and 103 of list at
end of this circular.

TURPENTM INE

Turpentine when combined with kerosene
is used to control povider-post beetles. It
can be applied to infested flooring at the
rate of 9 parts of turpentine to 1 part of
kerosene, to kill Lyctus beetles without
marring the finish on the wood. When removed
from the clothing or from animals, ticks may
be dropped into turpentine to insure their
death.

Turpentine is a colorless or slightly
yellowish, inflammable liquid with a charac-
teristic odor and pungent, biting taste. It
consists of terpenes (CloHl6) and is widely
used in medicine and in making paints and
varnishes. It is obtained from various pine










Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidtary Materials


and other resinous woods, by steam or other
distillation methods, or by extraction with
solvents. It is known also under the names
of oil of turpentine, wood turpentine, wood
spirits of turpentine, and gum spirit.

Caution: Turpentine is very inflamma-
ble and clothes saturated with it are a
frequent source of fire in buildings.

Steam distilled turpentine is marketed
in tanks, 30- to 50-gallon drums, 1- and 5-
gallon cans. In tanks it sells for 66 cents
per gallon; in drums the material costs from
58 to 71 cents per gallon in carload lots.
In less than carload lots the price is 74
cents per gallon.

Available on contract: see Class 52,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.


VINEGAR

In the treatment of head lice a mixture
of equal parts of vinegar and kerosene may be
applied directly to the infested hair. Hot
vinegar alone is also used to kill the eggs.

Vinegar is dilute impure acetic acid
(C9H402), a sour liquid used as a condiment
or as a preservative. It is obtained by the
acetic acid fermentation of dilute alcoholic
liquids. Cider and malt are very coupon
sources but it may be made from the fermented
juice of nearly any fruits. Vinegar is so
well known that it needs no further discussion
here.












Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


Vinegar is obtained at all grocery
stores in almost any quantity desired.

Available on contract: see Class 56,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.

WASHING SODA

Washing soda finds useful application
in connection with large-scale fumigation
operations, where generators are set in a wash-
tub of water containing a few handfuls of the
material. This precaution provides for catch-
ing and neutralizing small quantities of the
acid-water mixture that may leak out of the
generator or barrel. It is also used for
cleaning garbage of grease and fats to prevent
breeding of flies.

Washing soda, sal soda, or alkali
(Na Co .10H20), known chemically as sodium
carbonate, is a white, crystalline powder
which is very soluble in water. It is also
used as a cleaning and bleaching agent for
laundry purposes, in the glass and soap
industries, and in medicine.

This soda is marketed in 200- to 400-
pound slack barrels, 1 to 400 pound burlap
bags and 100-pound paper bags. In carload lots
of 100-pound bags the price varies from l.10
to $3.25 per 100 pounds, depending upon the zone.

Available on contract: see Class 51,
General Schedule of Supplies, Procurement
Division, Treasury Department.








Circular 21- Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials 82



PROCUREMENT OF INSECTICIDES
AND MB DIARY MATERIALS

The accompanying list of concerns and
their products is included for the information
of the users of this circular, without given
or inferred guarantee of the reliability of
the firm or endorsement of their individual
products. No attempt has been made to make
the list fully complete and no discrimination
is intended or implied against firms whose
names or products are not listed.

It is possible, in addition, that many
of the materials herein mentioned may often
be obtained from local drug firms and certain
of the insecticides may be procured from local
stores handling seeds and agricultural supplies.

Many of the materials can also be pro-
cured under Government Contract. In such
instances the Class is given under which they
are listed in the General Schedule of Supplies
by the Procurement Division, United States
Treasury Department.


List of Manufacturers and Distributors

1. J. C. Ackerman, Pittsburgh, Pa.
2. Acme White Lead and Color Works, Detroit,
Mich.
3. Agicide Laboratories, Milwaukee, Wis.
4. American Cyanamid & Chemical Corp., New
York City, N. Y.; Kansas City, Mo.;
Azusa, Calif.
5. American Turpentine & Tar Co., New Orleans,
La.
6. An-Fo Manufacturing Co., Oakland, Calif.
7. Ansbacher-Siegle Corp., Brooklyn, N. Y.
8. Ansul Chemical Co., Marinette, Wis.
9. Ansul Chemical Co. of California, Modesto,
Calif.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


10. Apex Chemical Co., Inc., New York, N. Y.
11. Associated Chemists, Inc., Chicago, Ill.
12. Atlantic Turpentine and Pine Tar Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
13. Atlas Asbestos Co., N. Wales, Pa.
14. Barada & Page, Inc., Kansas City, Mo.
15. Barber Laboratories, New Orleans, La.
16. Bartlett Chemicals, Inc., New Orleans, La.
17. J. H. Baxter & Co., Los Angeles, Calif.
18. Braun-Xnecht-Heimann Co., San Francisco,Cal.
19. California Spray-Chemical Corp., Richmond,
Calif.
20. Capitol Chemical Co., Washington, D. C.
21. Carbide & Carbon Chemical Corp., New York
City, N. Y.
22. Central Chemical Corp., Hagerstown, Md.
23. Chicago Sanitary Products Co., Chicago, Ill.
24. Chipman Chemical Co., Inc., Bound Brook, N.J.
25. Harry Cohen, Atlanta, Ga.
26. Common Sense Mfg. Co., Buffalo, N. Y.
27. Wf. Cooper & Nephews, Chicago, Ill.
28. Creosote Sales Corp., Baltimore, Md.
29. Creo-tox Chemical Products Co., Memphis,
Tenn.
30. Crystal Soap and Chemical Co., Inc.,
Philadelphia, Pa.
31. Cunningham & Co., Seattle, Wash.
32. Daigger & Co., Chicago, Ill.
33. Demotex Inc., New York City, N. Y.
34. Denver Fire & Clay Co., Denver, Colorado
35. Derris, Inc., New York City, N. Y.
36. Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich.
37. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.,
Wilmington, Del.
38. Eastern Color & Chemical Co., New York, N.Y.
39. Eastman Kodak Company, Chemical Sales
Division, Rochester, N. Y.
40. Ehret Magnesia Mfg. Co., Valley Forge, Pa.
41. Foot Mineral Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
42. Fritzsche Bros., Inc., New York City, N. Y.
43. Fuld Bros., Baltimore, Md.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


44. General Carbon Company, Los Angeles, Calif.
45. General Chemical Co., New York City, N. Y.
46. General Dyestuff Corp., New York City, N.Y.
47. James Good, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa.
48. Goris & Arnstein, Inc., Chicago, Ill.
49. Griffin Chemical Co., San Francisco, Calif.
50. John J. Grote & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio
51. Hart & Harrington, Inc., Chicago, Ill.
52. Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del.
53. Arnold Hoffman & Co., Inc., Providence, R.I.
54. J. I. Hopkins & Co., New York City, N. Y.
55. Hughes Chemical Co., Baltimore, Md.
56. Ideal Chemical & Supply Co., Memphis, Tenn.
57. Inland Tar Co., Chicago, Ill.
58. Innis, Speiden & Co., New York City, N. Y.
59. Insecticide Corp. of America, Medina, N. Y.
60. Johns-Manville Corp., New York City, N. Y.;
Washington, D. C.; Boston, Mass.;
Philadelphia, Pa.; Atlanta, Ga.; New
Orleans, La.; St. Louis, Mo.; Los
Angeles, Calif.; Chicago, Illinois
61. Jungmann & Co., Inc., New York City, N. Y.
62. Keasbey & Mattison Co., Ambler, Pa.
63. Kentucky Color & Chemical Co., Louisville,Ky.
64. Kittitas Diatomite Co., Ellensburg, Wash.
65. Koppers Company (Tar & Chemical Division)
Pittsburgh, Pa.
66. Lederle Laboratories, Inc., New York, N. Y.
67. Liquid Carbonic Corp., Chicago, Ill.
68. Los Angeles Chemical Co., Los Angeles, Calif.
69. Lucas Kil-Tonie Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
70. Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Louis, Mo.
71. The L. Martin Company (Germantown Eagle or
Velvet Brand), Tacony, Pa.
72. McCormick Sales Co., Inc., Baltimore, Md.
73. McLaughlin Gorrmley King Co., Minneapolis,Minn.
74. Mefford Chemical Co., Los Angeles, Calif.
75. Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, N. J.
76. Monsanto Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.
77. National Carbon Co., New York City, N. Y.
78. New England Minerals, Inc., Boston, Mass.









Circular 21 Insectioides and Subsidiary Materials


79. Niagara Sprayer & Chemical Co., Inc.,
Middleport, N. Y.
80. Nico-Dust Mfg. Co., Los Angeles, Calif.
81. Nicotine Manufacturing Co., St.Louis, Mo.
82. Nicotine Production Co., Inc.,
Clark sville, Tenn.
83. John Opitz, Inc., Long Island City, N. Y.
84. Ore & Chemical Corporation, New York, N.Y.
85. Oregon Forest Products, Gold Beach, Oregon
86. Paraffine Companies, San Francisco, Calif.
87. Pfaltz & Bauer, Inc., New York City, N. Y.
88. Pfeiffer Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.
89. Charles Pfizer & Co., 81 Maiden lane,
New York City, N. Y.
90. Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., Milwaukee,Wis.
91. John Powell & Co.,Inc., New York City, N.Y.
92. Proctor & Gamble Co., New York City, N. Y.
93. Rat-Biscuit Co., Springfield, Ohio
94. Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp., Indianapolis,
Indiana
95. Republic Chemical Co., New York, N. Y.
96. Rhom & Haas Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
97. Rogers Chenlical Company, Dallas, Texas
98. Sea Coast Laboratories, Inc., New York,N.Y.
99. Sennewald Drug Co., St. Louis, Mo.
100. John Shaw & Co., Inc., Boston, Mass.
101. Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland, Ohio
102. Sherwood Petroleum Co., Inc., Englewood,N.J.
103. Soilicide Laboratories, Montclair, N. J.
104. Solvay Sales Corporation, New York, N. Y.
105. Steamrn's Electric Paste Co., Chicago, Ill.
106. The Sullivan Co., I'.Lemphis, Tenn.
107. Thomlpson-Haywvard Cheilical Co.,Kansas City,Mo.
108. Tobacco By-Products & Chetical Corp.,
Louisville,' Ky.
109. United States Rubber Co., General Develop-
ment Division, Passaic, N. J.
110. Walgreen Co., Chicago, Ill.
111. Western Talc Co., Los Angeles, Calif.
112. Whittaciker, Clark & Daniels, Inc., New
York, N. Y.








Circular 21 Insecticides and Subsidiary Materials


113. Andrew*Wilson, Inc., Springfield, N. J.
114. T. C. Wilson Co., San Francisco, Calif.
115. C. A. Wood, Preserver Co., St. Louis, Mo.
116. J. W. Woolfolk Co., Fort Valley, Ga.


REFERENCES

Anderson, 0. G., and --Insecticides, fungicides
Roth, C. F. -- 1923. and appliances. Wiley

Cupples, H. L.--1940.--A list of commercially
available detergents, wetting,
dispersing and emulsifying agents.
U. S. D. A. Entomology and Plant
Quarantine E-504.

Gregory, T. C.--1938.--Uses and application of
chemicals and related materials.
Reinhold Publishing Co., N. Y.

Hamilton, C. C.-1941.--Entoma--A directory of
insect pest control, 4th ed.,
Amer. Assoc. of Economic Ento-
mologists, Eastern Branch.
Address C. C. Hamilton, c/o
New Jersey Agric. Exp. Station,
New Brunswick, N. J.
Hodgman, Chas.D. 1937-38.--Handbook of chemistry
and physics, 22nd ed. Chemical
Ruboer Publ. Co., Cleveland, 0.
Lange, N. A.-- 1939.--Handbook of chemistry.
Hand Book Publisher, Inc.,
Sandusky, Ohio

Metcalf, C. L.--1939.--Destructive and useful
and Flint,W.P. insects, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill
Book Co., Inc., New York, N. Y.
















Circular 21 Iseoticoides and Subsidiary Materials


Murphy, Walter J.--1939.--Chemical industries--
Buyers' guide-book number.
15th Ann. Rev. Vol. 45, #5,
October. New York. Edited
by Walter J. Murphy
Quaintance, A.L.---1931.--Insecticides, equip-
ment and methods for con-
trolling orchard insects.
U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bull.
1666.
Schnell Publishing Co. Inc.
1941.--Oil, Paint and Drug
Reporter. Vol. 140, #8,
August 25. Schnell Publ.
Co., Inc., New York.

Also all references cited in the series of -
Defense Circulars.




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