Insects in relation to national defense

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Insects in relation to national defense
Series Title:
Its Circular no. 1-23. Feb. 1941-Jan. 1944
Added title page title:
Insects in relation to national defense, circular
Physical Description:
24 nos. in 1 v. : ill., photos., map, plans, diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Beneficial insects   ( lcsh )
Insect pests   ( lcsh )
Insecticides   ( lcsh )
Fumigation   ( lcsh )
World War, 1939-1945 -- Health aspects   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Reproduced from type-written copy.
General Note:
Includes bibliographical references.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029081698
oclc - 09471812
Classification:
lcc - SB931 .U44
System ID:
AA00022863:00021

Full Text
3~'

I...''


sTuRAR A-
IsAT PLANTsOR


INSECTS


IN

TO 0


NATIONAL


RELATION


DEFENSE


Circular 20





DEVICES FOR INSECT CONTROL


August 1941














INSECTS IN RATION

TO

NATIONAL DEFENSE


Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Table of Contents


Page


g e.. eec.


Introduction ..................
Care of Insect Control Devices
Spraying Equipment ............
Atomizers ...................
Air Bulb Atomizers ........
Hand Pump Atomizers .......
Electric Atomizers ........
Vaporizers ..................
Compressed Air Sprayers .....
Knapsack Sprayers ...........
Bucket Pumps ................
Barrel Pumps ................
Power Sprayers .............
Motorcycle Spraying Equipment
Spraying Accessories ........
Spray Hose ..... ..........
Spray Nozzles .............
Disk Nozzle .............
Vermorel Nozzle .........
Bordeaux Nozzle .........
Spray Rod Extensions ......
Spray Shut-off ............
Nozzle Y ..................
Hose Couplings and Clamps .
Pressure Gauge ............


OO@eeeeC
@ecee...
c@@ee...
0 0 @ 00 *


4
5
6
6
6
7
9
11
13
14
16
18
23
23
24
26
26
27
28
29
29
31
32
32








Circular 20 Devices for Inseot Control


Page
Table of Contents (Continued)

Dusting Equipment ......................... 33
Plunger Type Duster ..................... 34
Bellows or Knapsack Type aDuster ......... 35
Fan or Blower Type Duster ............... 36
Power Dusters ........................... 38
Dust Mixers ............................. 38
Airplane Spraying and Dusting ............. 40
Fumigation Equipment ...................... 42
Fly Traps ............... ....... ......... * 43
Special Eye Gnat Traps .................. 43
Conical Type Fly Trap ................... 43
Wire Cloth for Screening .................. 46
Insect Electrocutors ...................... 47
Respirators ........................... .. ***** 48
Dust Goggles .............................. 48
Tarpaulins, Rubberized.................... 49
Gloves and Aprons ......................... 50
Miscellaneous Devices ..................... 50
Procurement of Devices for Insect Control.. 51
List of Manufacturers and Distributors .. 51
References *......... .... ....... .. . . . 56


INTRODUCTION
In general, there are three different
types of devices by which insecticides are
applied for the control of insects, viz.: (1)
sprays, in which water or oil is the carrier
for the poison, applied by means of equipment
for spraying; (2) dusts, in which some fine
powder is used as a carrier, applied by means
of dusters; and (3) fumigants, of which there
are solid, liquid, and gaseous sources, usually
liberated in enclosed spaces such as warehouses
or specially devised vaults or fumigation
chambers.











Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Spraying, dusting, or fumicating
operations, to be effective, must be timely
and thoroughly done. Improper or inadequate
application will result in waste of time,
effort, and material. When the presence of
insects first becomes evident, is the time to
apply control measures such as spraying, dust
ing, or fumigation, as then it is much easier
to obtain satisfactory results. It should be
remembered at the outset that in applying
stomach poisons the aim is to coat thoroughly
the entire surface of the material or food
upon which the insect is feeding. In the
case of contact poisons only those insects
that are reached and covered by the insecticide
will be killed.

Equipment used should be of sufficient
size and power to do the work quickly and
satisfactorily, and this is especially true
for large scale operations. For spraying and
dusting it is important that adequate provision
be made for agitation of materials so that they
are thoroughly mixed when applied. It is
important that all equipment be well cared for
as this serves to prolong its life.

Caution: Proper safeguards should be
used in the application of all materials and
in disposing of any material that may remain
unused in the device. All insecticides should
be properly labeled, and stored under condi-
tions so they are available only to those
responsible for their use and where animals
will not have access to them. Many of the
insecticides are poisonous to man and animals
and should be handled only by those familiar
with the hazards that may be involved.











Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


CARE OF INSECT CONTROL DEVICES

Proper care of spraying, dusting, and
fumigation equipment is essential to assure
satisfactory performance and longer period
of usefulness. All equipment should be kept
clean, especially when not in use.

Sprayers: Unused spray material should
be drained from spray pumps and hose at the
completion of a job. The tank, hose, valves,
and nozzles should be thoroughly flushed
with clean water and the pump run for a few
minutes to rinse thoroughly and remove all of
the insecticide. Unless this is done, these
parts and connections may corrode or become
stopped up and fail to operate. Spray equip-
ment should be kept in a cool, shady place to
avoid rapid deterioration of gaskets, hose,
and other parts. During cold weather the pump
should be drained of all excess moisture to
avoid freezing and breaking, or it should be
stored in a warm place. All unpainted metal
parts that are subject to rusting should be
well oiled or greased. Wooden tanks should
be stored in a damp place or clean water kept
in them (except where freezing temperatures
occur) to prevent drying out and shrinking.

It is advisable to have extra pump
gaskets, hose connections, and similar working
parts on hand for prompt replacement should a
breakdown in operation occur.

Dusters: Dusters should be kept in a
dry place and, if used irregularly, the excess
dust should be removed after each operation
and returned to the container in which it








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


is stored. The dust will deteriorate less
rapidly in such containers and the mechanism
of the dusting equipment will not be subject
to corrosion.


SPRAYING EQUIINT

The wide range of spraying equipment
that may be purchased will meet the needs of
almost any kind of insect-control operation.
Not all of it is fully satisfactory and care
should be used in selecting, to assure that
the device will meet the need. Size and type
to be used will depend upon the quantity and
kind of work to be done. The apparatus
selected should always be large enough so that
the operation can be quickly and effectively
performed. It should be constructed to main-
tain a pressure sufficient to deliver the in-
secticide as a mist-like spray, a droplet spray,
or a stream that will break into droplets at
some distance, as best to meet the particular
needs.

Sprayers should be strongly built and
of materials, especially all working parts,
that will withstand the mechanical wear and
the chemical action of the insecticides.
Working parts of suitable weight made of brass,
bronze, or stainless steel meet these require-
ments. The apparatus should be designed to
permit easy cleaning, repairing, and replacement
of the working parts that are likely to wear
out quickly.

Among the various types of sprayers suit-
able for use in and around army camps are: (1)
atomizers, (2) vaporizers, (3) compressed air
sprayers, (1) knapsack sprayers, (5) bucket
pumps, (6) barrel pumps, and (7) power sprayers.








Ciroular 20 Devioes for Inieot Control


Atomizers
Air-bulb atomizers: This type of appa-
ratus iS useTu Ior certain purposes where only
a small quantity of material is to be used or
limited application is to be made, suoh as in
the treating of a sorewworm infested wound with
benzol or for applying a fly or mosquito repel-
lent to the exposed portion of the skin. This
type of atomizer consists essentially of an air
bulb, container for holding the liquid, and a
tube and nozzle assembly (fig. 1). The bulb is
usually made
of rubber or a
rubber-fabrio
combination,
.while the liq-
yuid container
is most fre-
quently of
glass. The
capacity of
this type of
Fire l.-Air-bulb atomiser atomizer is
usually about
1 to 2 ounces.
For manufacturers and distributors, see
General Schedule of Supplies of the Procurement
Division Olass 57-A; see also Nos. 2, 27, 45,
48, and 61l of list on pages 51-53 of this ciroulan

Hand P atomizers; This term refers
to the group o atomizers which are most often
used in pest control. These are adapted to
suoh purposes as spraying in rooms to kill
flies and mosquitoes whioh have gained entrance,
applying inseotioides to the hiding places of
roaches and bedbugs, or other uses where a
larger sprayer is not required. They operate
on the same principle as the bulb-type atomizer








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


but the details of construction are different
(fig. 2). This type of sprayer is generally
made in capacities ranging from a few ounces to
over 1 gallon of liquid. Atomizers of brass,
galvanized iron, or tin construction are avail-
able. Brass resists corrosion better than most













Figure 2.--Hand pump atomizer

other metals and is therefore preferable. To
avoid corrosion, screw-top jars or other glass
containers for the insecticide instead of sheet-
metal reservoirs are very desirable. No pro-
vision is made for agitation of the spray but
this is accomplished by shaking the atomizer.

For manufacturers and distributors, see
Nos. 7, 10, 19, 25, 28, 34, 48, 52, 61, 62, and
92 of list on pages 51-55 of this circular.

Electric atomizers: Atomizers of this
type are used in much the same way as the hand
pump atomizers. The spray is atomized by a
stream of air from a blower. In some cases,
the insecticide container and atomizing assem-
bly comprise one unit, while the motor and fan
form another (fig. 3) similar to the so-called









Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


'Figure 3.-.
Blectrio atomizer,
double-unit type












paint-gun type. In other cases both units may
be combined to form a single piece of equipment
(fig. 4). The advantage of the two-unit con-
struction is that the motor and fan can be
carried with one hand or placed nearby, thus



Figure 4.--
Electric
atomizer,
single-
unit
VA45F type








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


reducing the weight and bulk that must be
carried by the hand directing the atomizer.
The one-unit construction, however, eliminates
the necessity of a long air-conducting tube
from blower to atomizing nozzle and reduces
the number of separate units involved in the
operation. The atomizing nozzle may be ad-
justable so as to provide different rates of
application, droplet sizes of spray, or angles
at which the spray leaves the atomizer. The
container for the insecticidal material may be
of either glass or metal construction. Of the
metal containers, those made of brass are
generally considered most satisfactory. The
selection of equipment should be governed by
the type of work to be done as well as by the
design, construction, and cost of the various
kinds.

For manufacturers and distributors of
electric atomizers, see Nos. 8, 9, 22, 28, 29,
32, 52, 60, 68, 72, 92, and 95 of list on
pages 51-55 of this circular.


Vaporizers

Electric vaporizers or diffusors, as
they are sometimes called (fig. 5), are used in
applying certain kinds of liquid insecticides
in the form of a very fine mist or vapor. An
example is the application of an oil-pyrethrum
preparation for. combating cockroaches (Circular
11). Other uses might include the killing of
flies and mosquitoes in offices, clinics, bar-
racks, and other rooms, or for treating kennels,
stables, or basements to kill fleas. This type
of machine consists essentially of a container
for water connected with another for the insec-
ticide and a heating unit. The water is heated








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


0 LFigure 5.--
Ii Electrio
I"- U vaporizer,
diffusor
type








to steam which, when discharged, causes an
atomizing action similar to that of the atomizers
previously discussed. However, the hot steam
produces an exceedingly fine mist or vapor
which pervades the air and penetrates into very
small cracks and crevices.

Some machines of this type are of all-
metal construction, preferably of brass or
other noncorrosive metal, while others have
glass containers for the insecticide or for
both water and insecticide. The capacity of
such vaporizers varies but is usually small,
probably less than a pint of insecticide in
most instances, and a larger quantity of water








Circular 20 -Devices for Insect Control


for vaporizing the material. Obviously, their
use is limited to locations where electric
power is available. The purpose for which the
apparatus is to be used, capacity of apparatus
required, ease of operation, accessibility for
cleaning or repair, and availability of replace-
ment parts as well as cost are factors to
consider when purchasing this kind of equipment.

For manufacturers and distributors of
electric vaporizers, see Nos. 9, 44, 60, and 95
of list on pages 51-55 of this circular.

Compressed Air Sprayers

Compressed air sprayers or pumps are use-
ful for applying oil and other larvicides to
the surface of mosquito breeding places such
as ponds, ditches, and other pools of water to
kill the young larvae or wrigglers. They can
also be employed for spraying cellars frequented
by dogs and cats, or other animal quarters where
fleas are likely to be breeding, and for various
small-scale operations around camps.

Compressed air sprayers (fig. 6) are
usually made of brass or galvanized sheet iron
and have a capacity ranging from 1 to 5 gallons.
The sprayer consists of an airtight tank into
which is clamped a pump. In operation the tank
is filled with spray to about three-fourths of
its capacity and the opening closed by a tight-
fitting cap. Air is then pumped in until the
liquid is under sufficient pressure to force it
out through the hose and nozzle. The hose is
usually fitted with a spray shut-off and a 1-
to 5-foot extension rod with nozzle. Since the
pressure decreases as the spray is forced out,
it is necessary to renew it by further pumping.
It often requires three or four pumping of a








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Figure 6.--
Compressed
]ir sprayer


dozen or more strokes to discharge all of the
liquid. Care must be exercised, however, not
to pump too much pressure or the tank may burst
as a result. The apparatus can be carried by
means of a shoulder strap, and can be operated
satisfactorily by one person. In some types
agitation is provided while pumping by the
injection of air at the bottom of the tank.
Where no agitation is provided the tank must
be shaken frequently to keep the ingredients
well mixed, although the movement of the
operator causes a certain amount of agitation.

For manufacturers and distributors see
Nos. 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 27, 28, 37, 43, 44, 52,
55, 68, 75, 91, 92, 93, and 104 of list on
pages 51-55 of this circular.









Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Knapsack Sprayers


The usefulness of knapsack sprayers
corresponds closely to that of compressed air
sprayers in that they may be used for treating
small areas such as mosquito breeding pools,
flea-infested basements, stables, and dog
kennels, or for applying insecticides in the
control of roaches and other pests where the
use of larger apparatus is not economical. A
knapsack sprayer (fig. 7) consists essentially


Figure 7.--Knapsack sprayer


of a force pump with an air chamber fitted to
a metal tank and so designed that it can be
carried on the back of the operator. It can be
operated by one hand while the other is used to
manipulate the hose, spray rod, and nozzle with








Circular 20 Devices for Indeot Control


which the apparatus is equipped. Knapsack
sprayers have a capacity of about 3 to 5
gallons and a spraying range of about 25 feet
when equipped with a nozzle throwing a compact
stream of spray. An outstanding advantage of
this type over the bucket or barrel type pump
is that the operator Mnay move from place to
place while spraying. It has an advantage over
the compressed air sprayer in that a high and
uniform pressure can be maintained when the
pump is kept in constant operation. Agitation
is provided in some outfits by a brass plate
inside of the tank which moves up and dovmwn with
the pump handle. Some of the disadvantages are
that these sprayers are tiring to operate for
extended periods, because of their weight when
carried on the shoulders. Also, they may cause
discomfort due to the slopping of the spray and
the condensItion of moisture on the outside of
the tank, especially in hot, humid weather.

For manufacturers and distributors of
knapsack sprayers see Nos. 7, 10, 18, 28, 37,
43, 52, 65, 66, 67, 75, 86, 92, and 104 of list
on pages 51-55 of this circular.

Bucket Pumps

Bucket pumps (fig. 8) may be used in
the same manner as are the compressed air or
knapsack sprayers for applying insecticides to
the surface of small bodies of water to control
mosquito larvae, for spraying flea-infested
places such as basements and kennels, and in
various other situations where limited quanti-
ties of insecticide are to be used. However,
they are not so well adapted for general use as
are the knapsack sprayers. Bucket pumps may be
clamped to any bucket or container to make them
steady, or used free in a tub or other vessel









Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


W Figure 8.--Bucket
pump with hose,
extension rod,
shut-off, and
Nozzle




containing the insecticide. They should be of
brass or other noncorrosive metal, should have
a large air chamber and preferably be equipped
with an agitator. In some pumps agitation
is provided by means of a small jet of liquid
which squirts from the bottom of the pump
into the spray tank or container as the pump
is operated. In other models a brass plate
attached to the handle furnishes satisfactory
agitation. Some kinds of bucket pumps are
single-acting, i.e., they force liquid on the










Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


dov'.m stroke only, whereas the double-acting
pumps discharge liquid on both up and down
strokes. They should be equipped with a spray
rod, nozzle, and enough house to facilitate
spraying. Bucket pumps are used with vessels
of varying capacity but usually one of 2 to 5
gallons capacity is quite satisfactory. A
disadvantage of this type of sprayer is that
the operator cannot move about so freely as is
possible with the compressed air and knapsack
types which can be carried around. This is
especially true when bucket pumps are operated
by two persons with one at the pump and the
other at the nozzle. They have the advantage
of greater durability and ease of cleaning.

For manufacturers and distributors see
Nos. 3, 7, 10, 13, 28, 43, 49, 52, 67, 75, 92,
and 104 of list on pages 51-55 of this circular.

Barrel Pumps

The hand operated barrel pump outfit
(fig. 9) is an efficient type of sprayer to
use in certain situations as where the soil
around foundations of buildings is to be
saturated with poisons to kill termites, where
relatively small mosquito breeding areas are
to be treated, or for spraying stables and
storerooms. Barrel pumps may be employed to
advantage where large quantities of liquid
insecticides are to be used and cannot be
applied economically with the smaller types
of hand sprayers. These pumps usually have a
capacity of about 50 gallons and should be so
constructed that an operator can maintain a
pressure ranging from 125 to 175 pounds with
one discharge pipe in use.

















Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


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Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


To maintain a good pressure and uniform
discharge of the spray material, the pump
should be provided with an adequate air chamber
located preferably in the barrel and not pro-
jecting above the top. A pressure gauge nay
be attached to the air chamber so the pressure
that is being developed can be read easily.
The working parts should be of bronze, brass,
or other noncorrosive material and the valves
and plungers should be readily accessible and
easily repaired. The pump should be provided
with an efficient agitator, of either the
paddle or rotary type. The pump may be mounted
either on the head or on the side of the barrel
and the whole outfit placed upon wheels or
skids or upon a wagon, truck, or flat-bottomed
boat. It is preferable to mount the barrel in
a horizontal position with the pump on the side
since this lowers the center of gravity of the
outfit.

For manufacturers and distributors of
barrel pumps, see Nos. 3, 7, 10, 13, 28, 43,
49, 52, 67, 75, 92, and 104 of list on pages
51-55 of this circular.

Power Sprayers

When extensive spraying of stables,
barracks, mess halls, kitchens, or outdoor
meeting places is required, the use of some
kind of power sprayer is recommended. A power
outfit (fig. 10) of suitable size may also
sometimes be effectively used in the treatment
of mosquito breeding areas where conditions
permit. The kind of sprayer to be used will
depend on various factors including extent,
type, and condition of area to be covered, and
time and labor available for application.

iOKJ&lBOASW
STXAEW iiAWf








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Figure 10.--Power sprayer used in large scale mosquito
control operations



The principal parts of a power sprayer are
the power unit, pump, pressure regulator, and tank.
In general, the outfit should combine strength and
durability with minimum weight. It should be sim-
ple and compact in design with all wearing parts
made of the best materials and readily accessible
for adjustment, repair, or replacement.

Power outfits are driven either by a gaso-
line engine or by an electric motor. The former
can be used anywhere the sprayer can be taken,








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


while the latter can be used only where electric
power is available. Some power sprayers are
available with either a gasoline engine or an
electric motor at the choice of the purchaser,
while others may be obtained without a power
supply and a suitable engine or motor attached
later.

The power required to operate a sprayer
will depend on various factors of construction
and operation. For small outfits delivering
about three gallons of spray or less per min-
ute and working at pressures not to exceed 300
pounds per square inch a power supply of 1 to 2
horse power is generally required. Large out-
fits delivering a maximum of 25 gallons per
minute under pressure of about 600 pounds per
square inch are usually furnished with a
gasoline engine of about 14 horsepower.

Spray pumps which form a part of a power
sprayer increase in size and capacity, as a
rule, with the over-all size of the outfit.
Small power rigs are usually fitted with two-
cylinder (duplex) but sometimes only one-
cylinder pumps. When one-cylinder pumps are
used there is always greater danger of insuf-
ficient spraying capacity and a less uniform
pressure. Larger outfits have three-cylinder
(triplex) or four-cylinder (quadruplex) pumps.

Pumps in which the cylinders or plungers
are driven by a crankshaft coupled to the
engine or motor, are widely used. These give
good service when well constructed and are
usually easily accessible for repairing. Some
manufacturers use an eccentric arrangement for
driving the cylinders and others a Scotch yoke.
One- and two-cylinder pumps are sometimes
actuated by a walking beam arrangement.


20










Ci-c,.ilar 20 Devices for Insect Control


A sprayer should not be expected to
perform at its maximum rated capacity. This
would place an undue strain on the working
parts and result in excessive wear and tear
on the machinery. The engine tends to slow
dowun as wear increases on it, with an accom-
panying slow-down of the rate at which the
pump operates. Wear on the pump itself
accounts for further reduction in the rate of
discharge of spray. Worn valves and pistons
or leaky plungers and corroded or dirty,
clogged screens also cause a reduction in
efficiency. Dirt such "s leaves, twigs, or
other materials may also affect the operation
of the sprayer. For these reasons an outfit
of sufficient capacity rating should always
be obtained.

It is essential that some provision be
made to prevent the spray pump from building
up a pressure that would burst the sprayer or
hose connections or stall the engine. The
manufacturer therefore provides a by-pass in
the sprayer by means of which the liquid is
returned to the spray tank when the pressure
reaches a certain level. The most satisfac-
tory arrangement consists of an assembly
called a pressure regulator which is located
between the spray pump and spraying attach-
ments. Relief valves have been used but in
general have not been so satisfactory in
operation and durability as the pressure
regulators. However, the relief valve
arrangement is used in some of the small power
outfits with reasonably satisfactory results.
Relief valves and pressure regulators differ
in several ways in favor of the latter because
of the differences in operating principles.











Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


The tanks on power spray outfits are
usually made of cypress held in place by metal
bands. Metal tanks are not so satisfactory
unless made of some noncorrosive metal.

The framework holding the tank, pump,
and engine should be made of steel, preferably,
so as to give adequate support to the weight
that must be carried.

A mechanically operated agitator is
usually provided in the tank and serves to
keep the insecticide well mixed during spray
application. Some spray outfits are made with
compartment tanks and arranged so that the
mixing of the ingredients is done as the spray
is applied. Other rigs are designed so that
the water may be drawn from a pond or lake and
mixed with the insecticidal agent while spray-
ing. The latter arrangement might be desirable
when spraying on or near bodies of water as for
the control of mosquitoes.

A copy of United States Department of
Agriculture Specification No. A-FPS-g-641
describing heavy duty power sprayers ranging
in capacity from 10 to 60 gallons per minute
may be had upon request.

For manufacturers and distributors of
power sprayers see Nos. 7, 12, 25, 28, 37, 38,
41, 43, 49, 75, 79, 97, and 104 of list on
pages 51-55 of this circular.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Motorcycle Spraying Equipment

A modified-sidecar motorcycle has
a limited range of use but is particularly
economical where this type of equipment is
indicated, as in treating inlets and catch
basins of a sewer system where a large
number of locations require regular treatment
to kill mosquito larvae.

The sidecar is attached on the left
side of the motorcycle and is equipped with
a hinge-covered compartment large enough to
accommodate a welded steel tank 18 inches in
diameter and 32 inches long. A tank of this
size should not be filled with more than 30
gallons of insecticide so as to have suffi-
cient space for air pressure. Two steel
bands welded to the tank and bolted to the
wall of the compartment hold the tank firmly.
It is fitted with an air pressure gauge, an
air release petcock, an air inlet valve, a
1-1/2 inch brass filler plug, and a 3/8 inch
brass outlet pipe with globe valve and hose
connection. A trigger valve extension rod
and spray nozzle are attached to the hose.
The operator drives to each catch basin to
treat the water it contains. The spraying
outfit should be operated at about 50 pounds
pressure.

Spraying Accessories

A spraying outfit is not complete and
efficient unless properly equipped with use-
ful and necessary accessories. Spraying to
be effective must often be done at critical
periods and delays caused by insufficient
or inferior equipment may result in serious










Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


losses. It is necessary, therefore, to pro-
vide spraying devices that will save time and
aid in doing more thorough work. Among the
essential accessories that may be needed for
certain purposes are spray hose, spray rod
extensions, spray nozzles, spray guns, spray
shut-offs, hose couplings and clamps, pressure
regulators, extra parts, and tools. Other
handy devices that should be kept on hand are
suitable scales for weighing the insecticides,
galvanized buckets, and strainers.

Spray hose: Tt is advisable to use
a good grade of high pressure hose for large
scale spraying operations. The durability of
a hose does not depend so much upon the number
of plies as it does on the quality of both the
rubber and the fabric ply or braided cord that
are used in its manufacture. The ply consists
of several layers of fabric incorporated in
the rubber wall to give support against high
pressure and wear. The inner surface should
preferably be made of insecticide-resistant
material. The weight of spray hose increases
rapidly with the increase in diameter. In
general, it is desirable to choose lightness in
weight when it is consistent with durability.

Usually as the size and capacity of the
spray outfit and the length of hose lead in-
creases, the need for a good hose also increases.
The hose pressure of hand outfits does not as
a rule exceed 150 pounds, while that of high
power outfits ranges from 150 to 400 pounds
pressure, with an average of 200 to 300 pounds.
Some heavy duty power sprayers will develop
pressures of 1,000 pounds or more. It is
important to use a hose which will withstand
the pressure developed by the spray apparatus.








Circular 20 Devioes for Inseot Control


For some hand apparatus the cheaper grades will
often be satisfactory if replaced frequently.
The cheaper grades, however, do not meet the
requirements of lightness and durability.

It is advisable to use a hose with the
smallest possible diameter that will meet the
requirements of the duty for which it is in-
tended. For small hand sprayers of the com-
pressed-air type a hose ranging from 1/4 to
3/8 inch in inside diameter is satisfactory.
For the barrel type and somewhat larger
hand-operated spray outfits a 3/8 to 1/2 inch
diameter hose should be used. Power-operated
sprayers usually require a hose that should
have a diameter of 1/2 to 3/4 inch and be of
4- to 7-ply construction. Braided cord hose
is recommended for use with extra heavy duty
sprayers.

Spray hose is usually obtainable in
lengths of 25 and 50 feet, although it can be
purchased in almost any length to suit the need.

With ordinary good care the average
length of life of a hose is from 5 to 8 or more
years, depending upon the quality. After each
spray operation it should be cleansed by flush-
ing with clean water, otherwise the insecticide
will soon ruin a good hose. Insecticides such
as lime sulfur damage the fabric or cord more
than the rubber. Oil-containing sprays, on
the other hand, affect the rubber readily.
Breakage or leaks can be greatly reduced by
not allowing kinks to form and by not driving
the spray rig over the hose. Hose should be
stored in a cool, dark place when not in use,
and hung up on a broad support rather than on
nails. Heavy-grade hose should not be coiled
when stored but stretched out in straight lengths.








Circular 20 Devioes for Insect Control


Spray nozzles: Sprays are usually
applied by means of an extension rod attached
to the end of a spray hose which is equipped
with one or more nozzles depending upon the
extent of the spraying to be done. In some
instances the nozzle may be attached directly
to the spray hose. Various types of nozzle
as described below are available.
Disk nozzle. This is among the more
useful small-capacity nozzles now in use.
This nozzle consists of a metal base contain-
ing an eddy or whorl chamber formed from two
disks separated by a gasket and held in place
by a metal cap (figs. 11 and 12). The spray
material enters the
eddy chamber at an
angle which causes --
the liquid to whirl



^ Figure 12.
I --Disk
nozzle,
"___straight
type, and
elbow
Figure 11.- /
Disk nozzle,
angled type

rapidly. The spray escapes through a small
hole drilled in the center of the thin disk
that covers the outer end of the whorl chamber.
This nozzle produces a hollow, cone-shaped
spray, although some nozzles have been designed








Ciroular 20 Devices for Insect Control


to produce a more or less solid cone. The
disks are removable and can be changed when
they become worn or whenever desirable. Disks
containing holes of various sizes are obtain-
able, thus permitting the use of the size best
suited to a particular spray, or to the capacity
of the apparatus with which it is to be used.
The disks with large holes deliver the larger
quantities of material and should not be used
with pumps of small output and pressure capa-
city such as small hand sprayers. Being small
and compact, this type of nozzle is handy to
operate among vegetation and does not easily
become entangled in the branches of bushes or
undergrowth.

Disk nozzles are usually made either
straight or angled. The angled nozzle (fig.
11) delivers the spray at an angle to the hose
or spray rod and is convenient for most spray
work. An angled-nozzle assembly as shown in
figure 12 can be made b attaching an elbow or
crook to a straight nozzle.

Vermorel nozzle. The original whirl-
pool nozzle is generally known as the vermorel
nozzle (fig. 13). The
modern type is so con-
3structed that it is
9 provided with a degorger
--- for use in cleaning the
---- nozzle when clogged.
This nozzle gives a very
fine, misty spray with
| low pressure and can
Therefore be used to
-advantage with spray
pumps of small capacity.
This type is now available
singly or in clusters of


Figure S13.--Vermorel noszle


27











Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


2, 3, or 4 nozzles. The clusters, however, are
troublesome in that they easily become entangled
in thick vegetation or heavy undergrowth.

Bordeaux nozzle. In this type of nozzle
(fig. 14), the stream is broken by a beveled
internal obstruction which may be adjusted to
give a relatively fine fan-shaped spray or a
solid stream, with all
gradations between.
Bordeaux nozzles do
^ not easily clog and
v ._1 may be quickly freed
from coarse spray
particles or other
sediment by turning
Jthe barrel by means
of a small handle on
| the side of the nozzle.
rThese nozzles deliver a
large quantity of mate-
rial, and in order to
Insure a satisfactory
spray the pump must
have ample capacity to
Figure 14.- maintain a high pres-
Bordeaux nozzle sure. They wear
quickly, however, when
used under high pres-
sure. Since they
deliver the spray with considerable force against
the object being sprayed, they may be used to
advantage when forceful spray is desired.
This type is not used so much as formerly.









Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Spray rod extensions: Extension or
spray rods may be advantageously employed in
applying oil to water pools, in mosquito con-
trol, or in spraying basements to control
fleas, and in other situations that are other-
wise inaccessible or difficult to reach.
Spray rods are made in various lengths, gen-
erally of brass or aluminum construction.
Small hand outfits are usually provided with
extension rods varying from l1 to 3 feet in
length as shown in figure 15. Lengths of










Figure 15.--Spray rod extension with nozzle
and automatic shut-,!ff


from 6 to 12 feet are usually contained within
a bamboo pole to provide added strength.
Ordinary gas piping may be used in an
emergency but the lighter-weight spray rods
are preferred.

Spray shut-off: Large power sprayer
outfits should be provided with a spray shut-
off, of either the single (fig. 16) or the
double type (fig. 17), on the discharge line
at the pump, in order to permit the making



04











Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


of adjustments, repairing of leaks in the hose
or couplings, and unclogging of nozzles. A
shut-off also prevents waste of material when
moving the apparatus from place to place and
permits the running of the engine to provide
agitation for mixing sprays when filling the











Figure 16.--
Spray shut-off,
single type






Figure 17.--Spray shut-
off, double type


tank. It is convenient also to have a shut-
off installed between the spray hose and the
base of the spray'rod. Many of the small
hand outfits as the compressed air sprayers
and the like are equipped with such a shut-off,
as in figure 15.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Factors to consider vdien purchasing a
shut-off are ease, quickness, and completeness
with which the spray liquid can be cut off
under pressure. In general, shut-offs should
be made of noncorrosive metals such as brass,
to withstand the chemical action of the sprays.
Repacking of types that need it should be done
at frequent intervals to avoid unnecessary
wear on the shut-off.

There are various types of shut-off now
available to suit almost any need including
the throttle, plug valve, globe valve, ball
valve, and angle valve types. In the lever
type the liquid is cut off with a quarter turn
in either direction. It operates very easily
and shuts off the spray quickly with no leak-
age if kept well packed. The globe valve is
slow in cutting off the spray since it takes
several turns to close and frequent repacking
is required. The ball valve type opens faster
than the globe valve type in that it requires
less than a full turn. Because of the revolv-
ing ball on the valve it will not leak due to
wear, but sediment collects at times between
the ball and the valve seat. The angle valve
is so constructed as to permit the hose to
hang in its natural position and thus reduces
somewhat the wear on the hose at the coupling.
It shuts off or releases the flow of the spray
quickly and is easy to operate.

Nozzle Y: With spray apparatus of
sufficient capacity and pressure, the spray-
ing operation may be speeded up by using two
nozzles on a rod. These can be attached to
the spray extension or rod by the use of a Y.
The Y's are made straight for angle nozzles
or curved for straight nozzles and should be
made preferably of brass.









Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Hose Couplings and Clamps: Heavy brass
couplings and clamps should be used in prefer-
ence to lightweight ones, for greater security
against breakage. Fittings for various types
of high pressure hose are generally available.
Pressure Gauge: Pressure gauges (fig.
18) are a necessary adjunct in power spray
outfits. The
range used will
depend upon the
90T^' pressure capacity
yo of the sprayer.
12U 0 b 1 Usually pressure
gauges are
6 available in
3'0 capacities rang-
^ ing up to 500
Y0 30 / pounds or more.
Ordinarily a
-power sprayer
Sis supplied with
\the proper
pressure gauge
attached as a
part of the
f equipment.


Figure 16.--Pressure gauge
and cut-off valve


For manufacturers and distributors of
spraying accessories, see Nos. 7, 27, 28, 37,
41, 43, 44, 49, 52, 75, 92, and 104 of list on
pages 51-55 of this circular.
















Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


DUSTING EQUIPMENT

Equipment of various types and styles
and adapted to a wide range of use for apply-
ing insecticidal dusts is available on the
market. As in the case of sprayers, a good
duster should be capable of discharging the
dust material in such a way as to place a
uniform coating over the object or area to be
treated. Dusting apparatus is generally
classed into hand dusters and power dusters.

There are three types of hand dusters
available and their operation is based upon
the manner in which the air force for deliver-
ing the dust is developed, i.e., whether of
the plunger type, the bellows type, or the
rotary fan type. For use in insect control
operations in army establishments any of these
types can be used to advantage depending upon
the nature of the operation for which they
are to be employed.

In general, power dusters are of the
rotary fan type but of larger capacity than
the rotary hand duster, and are powered by a
gasoline engine.

For treating extensive areas of marshes
and streams with paris green to control
malaria mosquito larvae, dusting by means of
airplanes has been found to be a satisfactory
method.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Plunger Type Duster

The plunger type of hand duster (fig.
19) consists of a chamber for the insecticide
and a cylindrical metal chamber provided with
a piston, piston rod, and handle. When the
handle is operated back and forth an air blast
is developed that passes through the second



{={ Figure 19.-
Plunger
type
__of hand
dusterr


chamber containing the insecticidal dust. In
some types the pump and the dust chamber are
made entirely of metal, whereas in others the
dust container is a glass mason jar, which is
threaded so that it can be screwed into the
pump chamber. These usually have a capacity
of about 1 to 2 pounds. They are especially
useful for applying small quantities of dust
to rooms and kitchens as in the control of
roaches, for treating latrines, or for blowing
calcium cyanide into rat holes.

Many cheap types are available which are
not very durable because of weak construction
of the plunger or poor soldering of the plunger
chamber to the compartment holding the insecti-
cide. For this reason it is well to purchase
a sturdier make constructed of heavy metal.

For manufacturers and distributors see
Nos. 2, 10, 15, 28, 35, 36, 43, 51, 52, 61, 65,
66, 67, 79, 80, 86, 87, and 92 of list on pages
51-55 of this circular.










Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Bellows or Knapsack Type Duster


The bellows type duster (fig. 20) can
be used advantageously in treating mosquito
breeding places when it is impractical to use
power equipment or airplane, or around barracks




>Figure 20.-Bellows or
Knapsack type duster



















and stables where larger equipment would be
difficult to operate. Essentially the bellows
type duster consists of a metal container or
hopper for the insecticide, equipped with a
bellows which when operated forces the air
through a discharge chamber and pipe carrying










Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


the insecticide with it. The hopper is usually
provided with a dust-feeding device. The dust
is discharged in puffs with each stroke instead
of in a continuous stream of dust as is the
case with the blower type. This kind of equip-
ment is especially well adapted for so-called
"spot" dusting or where it is necessary to
drive insecticides into cracks and crevices
with slightly more force than is obtained with
a rotary type duster. These dusters are so
constructed that they can be strapped to the
back of the operator like a knapsack. When
in use, one hand operates the bellows lever,
while the other directs the discharge pipe.

For manufacturers and distributors, see
Nos. 43, 51, 65, 66, 80, 86, 94, and 104 of
list on pages 51-55 of this circular.

Fan or Blower Type Duster

The rotary fan or blower type duster
(fig. 21) is a very convenient and easily




?Figure 21.-
Fan or blower
\ An \type duster










Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


operated apparatus for use in situations simi-
lar to those described for the bellows or knap-
sack duster. Since it delivers a continuous
stream of dust while in operation, it is per-
haps even more desirable for treating marshes
where greater uniformity of application is
needed.

In this type of duster the hopper,
which has a capacity of 5 to 10 pounds, depend-
upon the powder used, is usually located over
the air chamber. An enclosed fan operated by
gears from a hand crank forces an even and
continuous flow of air through a small chamber
into which the dust is fed from the hopper.
Most modern types are equipped with an agitator
that will keep the dust stirred within the
hopper and also with an adjustable feeding
device to insure an even feed through the
discharge chamber. The gears should be made
of steel, machine-cut, and should operate in
grease in a dust-proof gear case. Since the
rapidly loving parts wear out quickly, they
should be constructed so they can be removed
easily for repairs and cleaning. The outer
casing of the duster, including the delivery
tubes, should be of as light construction as
possible without sacrificing durability. This
type of duster can be fastened to the operator
by means of a body support, waist and shoulder
strap. The discharge pipes of some are de-
signed so that dusting can be done in front or
to the rear of the body. Elbows, branches,
and adjustable nozzles to meet varying conditions
of application are also procurable.

For manufacturers and distributors
see Nos. 28, 43, 52, 67, 71, 79, 82, 87, 90, 92,
and l4'of list on pages 51-55 of this Circular.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Power Dusters

Large dusters operated by gasoline en-
gines as used for orchard dusting may be adapted
for treatment of mosquito infested areas in
lagoons or lakes where such areas can be reached
with a boat or raft bearing the equipment. Such
equipment is usually operated by a 4 to 10
horse power gasoline engine. The essential
parts are the hopper, feeder, air chamber, fan,
and discharge tube. The dust mixture is carried
in the hopper, from which it is fed into the
air chamber, where it is caught by a strong cur-
rent of air generated by the rapidly revolving
fan and is forcibly expelled through the flexi-
ble discharge pipe. These outfits are provided
with a clutch so that the duster may be discon-
nected from the engine. The apparatus should
have an agitator to keep the dust well stirred
so that it will not cake and clog. A mechanism
should be provided for regulating at a uniform
rate the quantity of dust fed into the discharge
chamber. Some outfits are now equipped with a
self-contained mixing device. Dust materials of
the proper proportions are poured into the hopper
and are thoroughly mixed before being discharged.

For manufacturers and distributors see
Nos. 4, 7, 41, 43, 70, 71, 79, 81, 87, 90, and
104 of list on pages 51-55 of this circular.

Dust Mixers

Some kind of mixer is required for the
preparation of insecticidal dusts. Small quan-
tities may be put in a round can or keg fitted
with a tight lid, and mixed by rolling the con-
tainer on the floor for several minutes. A few
stones about the size of hen eggs or a little
larger placed in the can help to mix the
ingredients thoroughly.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Dust mixers are available in various
sizes of both hand-operated and power-operated
types. They consist essentially of a hopper
equipped with paddles or spiral blades which
revolve. Some have two hoppers (fig. 22),
one provided with a sifter which breaks up
any lumps and a second where the mixing is
completed.


Figure 22.--Dust ui r

For manufacturers and distributors of
dust mixers see list, Nos. 1, 4, 24, 43, 71,
79, and 82 on pages 51-55 of this circular.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


AIRPLANE SPRAYING AND DUSTING

Application of dusts or sprays by
airplane or autogiro for insect control around
military reservations or cantonments would most
frequently be made for controlling mosquitoes.
This method of applying insecticides might be
desirable when extensive mosquito-breeding
areas are to be treated, when it is necessary
to treat a given area in as short a time as
possible, or when it is impossible or very
difficult to apply the insecticide by other
methods.

The airplane used for spraying and dust-
ing operations should be especially constructed
to embody slow flying speed of about 80 to 120
miles per hour, great maneuverability, good
load capacity, and a tight fuselage to protect
the operator from the insecticide. It is
possible to convert a two-seater plane into a
dusting airplane by installing a hopper and
the required attachments.

The essential features of dusting equip-
ment for installation in airplanes are the
dust hopper and dispensing mechanism (fig. 23).
The dust hopper should be of as great capacity
as practicable and located as near the center
of gravity of the plane as possible. To insure
satisfactory feeding of the dust into the dis-
penser, the hopper should be fitted with suit-
able agitators. The dispensing mechanism most
often used is the Venturi tube. It consists
of a rectangular metal tube converging from
each end toward the middle and mounted length-
wise under the fuselage so that the slip stream
from the propeller causes a turbulence in the
rear portion of the Venturi. An adjustable
slot controlled from the pilot's cockpit for
feeding the dust into the tube from the hopper









Circular 20 Devices for Inseot Control


is provided at the constricted place in the
Venturi. The dust is dispersed by the action
of the air turbulence in the tube and the
slip stream of the plane.







| NOPPCM


OSCILLATING
AGITATOR VALVK
AGITATOR / OPERATED
ARM BY PILOT
CONNICTID TM I
POW,. DMVC, 1 / /

II




MOUTH--^.Jl~ --^^
FUNNCL DIS^-CHARGE
/
0I
I





SOr rUNN[L
UNNCL
(VCNTUNI)


Figure 23.--Duat hopper and Venturi funnel
for airplane dusting



Several methods may be used to apply
liquid insecticides, chiefly oils, from air-
planes. The Venturi tube may be used for
the application of liquids. Another method
consists of a simple pipe system leading from








Circular 20 Devices for Inseot Control


the supply tank to lateral pipes at the tail
of the plane. The liquid flows by gravity and
is broken up and distributed by air turbulence
at the rear of the plane. A third type of
mechanism consists of two or more rotary pumps
mounted on the wings of the plane, each driven
by a small wind-actuated propeller. The pumps
throw the liquid into the slip stream which
provides further dispersion. It is important
that feed lines, pumps, valves, and other
fittings be of sufficient size to permit the
delivery if desired of at least 15 gallons of
oil per acre.

The cost of spray and dust application
by airplane to relatively large areas compares
favorably with the cost of hand or power appli-
cation. Under most conditions it would probably
be cheaper and better to contract with estab-
lished concerns for airplane dusting or spraying.

Various commercial companies make a
business of applying insecticides by airplane.
A list of such companies will be supplied on
request. Plans of hopper construction for use
of dusts were developed by the Bureau some years
ago and will be supplied to those concerned
with application of insecticidal dust from the
air. Recent experience has developed improve-
ments for the distribution of certain kinds of
insecticidal materials and such information may
be made available through correspondence or
consultation.

FUMIGATION EQUIPMENT
The equipment required in connection
with fumigation operations is adequately dis-
cussed in Defense Circular 22--"Fumigation,"
which should be consulted for any information
desired on this subject.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


FLY TRAPS
Fly trapping is a supplementary measure
of fly control and affords only partial relief.
Completely satisfactory results are obtained
only when measures to prevent fly breeding
accompany trapping.

For manufacturers and distributors of
fly traps, see Nos. 39, 46, 50, 53, 84, 89, 99,
and 100 of list on pages 51-55 of this circular.

Special Eye Gnat Traps

Traps of a special design for use against
eye gnats (Hippelates) are described and
figured in Circular 8 on "Flies." If further
information on this type of trap is required,
it may be obtained from the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine.

Conical Type Fly Trap

The conical type trap has proved to be
most satisfactory for catching house flies and
blowflies. Of the various kinds of conical
traps, those of all-metal construction are most
desirable, although they can be made of hoops,
laths, and screen, as shown in figure 6 of Cir-
cular 8. The cost of such traps when purchased
ready-made varies from about $2.00 to ,3.00,
but they can be constructed by hand. Details of
construction may be varied but the dimensions
and general features of the trap should not be
changed from those presented in the following
directions and working drawing, (fig. 24).
The bait pan to be placed under the trap
should be 1 inch deep and about 4 inches less in
diameter than the base of the cone. When used
to catch blowflies the legs of the trap should
be blocked up to give about a 2-inch clearance
under the trap.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


Specifications for metal conical fly trap:

Dimensions: As per working drawing
(fig. 24).
Wire: 14-mesh galvanized or prefer-
ably copper screen wire.
Cylinder: Wire gauze, to be soldered
completely around inside of top ring and at
intervals of 2 inches or less in groove of
bottom ring. Vertical seam to be soldered
entire and placed behind one leg. Where ship-
ment of traps is not contemplated, the diameter
of the top of the cylinder may be the same as
that of the bottom.
Top: Wire gauze to be soldered
completely around periphery on inside of top
ring.
Cone: Wire gauze to be soldered
completely around inside of cone ring and
vertically along seam. A 1-inch inlet hole
shall be formed at apex of cone.
Frame: To be made of 24-gauge gal-
vanized iron. This includes top and bottom
rings and legs.
Legs: Galvanized-iron channels made
as per detailed drawing and secured to top and
bottom rings with four rivets, 1/8 inch in
diameter, to each leg. First turned and
drilled as per drawing.
Bottom cylinder ring: J shaped, with
bottom edge of cylinder dropped into J, crimped
and soldered to secure. Ends of ring riveted
to secure.
Cone ring: Galvanized-iron band with
3/16-inch round iron wire rolled into lower
edge, as per cross-section drawing of "cone
ring."
Wing nuts: Four copper wing bolts
and nuts, as per drawing, to hold cone securely
in place.













Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


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Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


WIRE CLOTH FOR SCREENING

Wire cloth is widely used for screen-
ing doors and windows for protection against
insects. It is used in the construction of
many kinds of insect traps, especially fly
traps.

The most satisfactory insect screen
cloth for use in the humid tropics is made 16
or preferably 18 meshes to the inch of cold
drawn copper wire, 0.0113 inch in diameter.
The wire should contain 99.8 percent copper
and have a lead and tin content not to exceed
0.05 percent of each. Wire cloth is also made
of monel metal, which is satisfactory for
screening in the tropics.

The warp and filler wires in galvanized
and painted or japanned wire cloth may be of
slightly different diameters but should aver-
age 0.0110 inch, the measurement to be based
on the wire before coating. Galvanized wire
should be coated by the electrolytic method
with zinc of at least 98 percent purity.
In very dry climates high grade painted or
japanned insect screen cloth is often as
satisfactory as galvanized screening.

The permissible variation in wire
diameter of all screen cloth shall be 0.0005
inch.

The Federal specifications as approved
by the Director of Procurement cover insect
screen cloth of various types. See General
Schedule of Supplies, Class 42-C.

For manufacturers and distributors see
also Nos. 64, 69, 77, 96, and 102 of list on
pages 51-55 of this circular.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


INSECT ELECTROCUTORS
Electrocuting devices are available
which will kill all insects that strike them.
They are especially useful in combating house-
flies. They usually contain a transformer
which changes the ordinary house current to
one of low amperage
and high voltage,
3500 to 4000 volts,
t which passes through
A, the electrocuting
element. When an
insect comes in
contact with the
current conductor
it is immediately
___ y killed. Various
types are available
which are adapted
/to specific uses.
Some are made in the
form of a screen or
grid which is suit-
able for hanging on
screen doors or
windows (fig. 25).
Others in the form
of trapping devices
are suited for use
*outdoors.
-For manufac-
turers and distri-
butors see Nos. 14,
16, 17, 26, 30, 31,
33, 40, 42, 47, 58,
Figure 25.--Electrocutor and 59, 63, 73, 76, 78,
transformer installed on and 101 of list on
screen door to kill flies pages 51-55 of this
and other insects circular.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


RESPIRATORS

Respirators of various kinds are worn
over the face as a protection against inhaling
poison dusts such as paris green and other
dry insecticides. The body of the respirator
is usually made of airproof and waterproof
fabric or rubber, fitted with a respirator
portion directly over the mouth and nose made
of special fabric, which in some cases can be
moistened, so that it will filter the very
finest particles. Extra layers of gauze are
sometimes placed inside of the respirator as
an added precaution against irritating dusts.
The gauze should be replaced twice daily if
the respirator is in continuous use. Some
kinds are fitted with a chin rest to make them
more comfortable to wear. Elastic bands
should be so arranged as to go under the ear,
thus reducing the risk of skin irritation.
There are various types suited for the
different kinds of dusts.

For manufacturers and distributors see
Nos. 6, 11, 20, 23, 45, 54, 56, 57, 74, 85,
88, 103, and 105 of list on pages 51-55 of
this circular.


DUST GOGGLES

Goggles of various types are now avail-
able for the protection of the eyes, and may
be especially useful when applying insecticidal
dusts. For protection against dust and flying
particles, goggles should be constructed to
have snug fitting eye cups, with indirect ven-
tilation to avoid fogging of the inner lens
surfaces, and should be equipped with clear,
protective lenses.













Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


For manufacturers and distributors of
dust goggles, see Nos. 6, 20, 45, 54, 57, 74,
85, 88, 103, and 105 of list on pages 51-55
of this circular.

TARPAULINS, RUBBERIZED

Rubberized tarpaulins are often useful
for such purposes as covering piles of food-
stuffs, supplies, and equipment, especially
in fumigating, spraying, or dusting operations
when it is not convenient or desirable to
treat the entire room or building. They are
also used for covering ricks of manure for
their protection and to prevent fly-breeding
in them. Such tarpaulins are available in a
large number of sizes to meet different needs,
Canvas or duck of from 8 to 25 ounces per
square yard makes a good fabric base for
rubberized and other tarpaulins. The weight
of tarpaulin desirable will depend on the
need. The ruggedness and wearing qualities
of a tarpaulin increase in general with the
weight of material, provided other factors
of construction are equal. Seams and hems
should be double or triple stitched and of
good width. If eyelets are specified, they
should be of brass and set in reinforced
patches. Triangular corner patches, double
sewed, may be a desirable point of
construction.

For manufacturers and distributors see
Nos. 21, 83, and 98 of list on pages 51-55 of
this circular.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


GLOVES AND APRONS

Certain chemicals like orthodichloro-
benzene, coal-tar creosote, and pentachlor-
phenol are likely to burn or otherwise
irritate the skin while being used as for
powder post beetle and termite control.
The body should be adequately protected by
wearing rubberized fabric or neoprene
treated gloves and aprons when working with
such materials.

For manufacturer and distributor of
neoprene-treated gloves and aprons see No. 5
on page 51 of this circular.


MISCELLANEOUS DEVICES

There are many other devices mentioned
in the various Defense Circulars which are
often employed in connection with or supple-
mental to insect control operations. Included
are such items as fly swatters, fly paper and
ribbons, bed nets, fly-tight garbage pails,
electric fans of various types to keep flies
from kitchen work tables, exhaust fans to
remove poisonous or objectionable fumes,
tight containers for food, paint brushes for
applying insecticides, forceps for removing
screwworms and ticks from the body, tarred
paper for covering manure piles, blow torches,
thermometers, syringes for applying medica-
ments to insect bites, wrapping paper and
heavy, tightly woven cotton bags for protect-
ing meats, and paper and glass containers for
poison baits used in ant control. Since all
these are so well known, in common use, and
readily available, they will not be discussed
in this publication.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


PROCUREITENT OF DEVICES FOR INSECT CONTROL

The accompanying list of manufacturers
and distributors of products discussed above
is included for the information of the users
of this circular, without given or inferred
guarantee of the reliability of the firms or
endorsement of their individual products. No
attempt has been made to make the list fully
complete and no discrimination is intended or
implied against firms whose names or products
are not listed. It is possible, in addition,
that many of the items discussed in this
circular can be obtained in local stores.

List of Manufacturers and Distributors

1 Ace Wood Products Co., 1891 West 25th St.,
Cleveland, Ohio
2 Acmeline, Inc., Traverse City, Michigan
3 Aggeler & Musser Seed Co., 652 Matteo St.,
Los Angeles, California
4 Agicide Laboratories, Inc., 4668 North
Teutonia Ave., Milwaukee, Wis.
5 American Anode, Inc., 60 Cherry Street,
Akron, Ohio
6 American Optical Co., Southbridge, Mass.
7 John Bean Mfg. Co., Lansing, Michigan;
San Jose, California
8 Binks Manufacturing Company, 3114 Carroll
Ave., Chicago, Ill.
9 Breuer Electric Mfg. Co., 5100 North
Ravenswood Ave., Chicago, Ill.
10 E. C. Brown Co., Rochester, N. Y.
11 E. D. Bullard Co., 275 Eighth St., San
Francisco, Calif.
12 Campbell & Budling, San Jose, Calif.
13 The Campbell-Hausfeld Co., 600 State Ave.,
Harrison, Ohio
14 Carroll Electric Co., Inc., 714 Twelfth
Street, N. W., Washington, D. C.








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


15 Central Rubber Products Co., 821 Broadway,
New York, N. Y.
16 Champion Electric Products Sales Co.,
Equitable Building, Los Angeles,
California
17 Chicago Electric Scientific Co., 722 South
Summit Ave., Villa Park, Ill.
18 Chipman Chemical Co., Inc., Bound Brook,N.J.
19 Continental Can Co., 100 East 42d Street,
New York, N. Y.
20 H. S. Cover, Station A, South Bend, InMd.
21 Crawford Mfg. Co., Inc., Third and Decatur
Streets, Richmond, Virginia
22 Daisy Company, 507-11 East 116th Street,
Kansas City, Mo.
23 Davis Emiergency Equipment Co., 55 Van Dam
Street, New York, N. Y.
24 The J. H. Day Co., 1144 Harrison Ave.,
Cincinnati, Ohio
25 The Deming Company, Salem, Ohio
26 Detjen Corporation, 303 West 42d Street,
New York, N. Y.
27 DeVilbiss Company, 300 Phillips Ave.,
Toledo, Ohio
28 Dobbins Manufacturing Co., North St. Paul,
Minn.
29 Dula Mfg. Co., Inc., 351 Atlantic Ave.,
Brooklyn, N. Y.
30 Eikco Insect Killer Co., 53 West Jackson
Boulevard, Chicago, Ill.
31 Electric Screen Products Corp., 411 West
Indiana Ave., South Bend, Ind.
32 Electric Sprayit Co., Colfax Street,
South Bend, Ind.
33 Electrified Screen Sales Co., Chicago, Ill.
34 Essick Machinery Co., 1928 Santa Fe Ave.,
Los Angeles, Calif.
"* Exterminating Materials Co., 712 Amsterdam
Avenue, New York, N. Y.
56 Feeny Manufacturing Co., Muncie, Indiana








Circular 20 Devices for Insect Conrtrol


37 Field Force Pump Co., Elmira, N. Y.
38 Fitzhenry-Guptill Co., 135 First Street,
East Cambridge, Mass.
39 The Fly Trap Shop, Richfield Station,
Minneapolis, Minn.
40 Folmer Electracide Corp., 135 vlll St.,
Rochester, N. Y.
41 "Friend" Mfg. Co., Gasport, New York
42 Frost Electric Screen Sales Co., 6 North
Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.
43 Frost Insecticide Co., Arlington, Mass.
44 Fumeral Company, Racine, Wisconsin
45 General Scientific Industries, 2735 No.
Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa.
46 Gilmore Hardware Co., Sonora, Texas
47 Joseph D. Grigsby, Manufacturers' Agent,
5201 Colorado Ave., N. W.,
Washington, D. C.
48 Hackney Chemical Co., Fresno, Calif.
49 The Hardie Mfg. Co., Hudson, Mich.
50 Hirst's Planing Mill, Leesburg, Va.
51 Thomas W. Houchin Corp., 87 Ferry Street,
Jersey City, N. J.
52 H. D. Hudson Mfg. Co., 589 East Illinois
Street, Chicago, Ill.
53 V. H. Humphrey, Humphrey Hardware Co.,
Eldorado, Texas
54 Hygeia Respirator Co., 532 East 82nd St.,
New York, N. Y.
55 Imperial Brass Mfg. Co., 1200 West
Harrison St., Chicago, Ill.
56 Industrial Products Co., 1001 Chestnut
Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
57 Industrial Safety Corp., 104 Franklin
Street, New York, N. Y.
58 Insect Electrocutor Co., Sycamore, Ill.
59 Insect Electrocutor Company, Spokane, Wash.
60 International Verminator Co., Chicago, Ill.
61 Jaeckh Mfg. Co., 3444 Colerain Avenue,
Cincinnati, Ohio










Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


62 Johnson Gear and Machine Works, Fresno,
California
63 The Kawneer Company, Niles, Michigan
64 R. L. Latimer Co., 24 North Front Street,
Philadelphia, Pa.
65 P. E. Lirio, Vineland, N. J.
66 Los Angeles Chemical Co., 1960 Santa Fe
Ave., Los Angeles, Calif.
67 Lowell Manufacturing Co., Lowell, Mich.;
North Pier Terminal, Chicago, Ill.
68 Lowell Sprayer Co., Lowell, Michigan
69 Ludlow Saylor Wire Co., 600 South Newstead
Street, St. Louis, Mo.
70 Master Fan Corporation, 1321-35 Channing
Street, Los Angeles, Calif.
71 Messinger Mfg. Co., Tatamy, Pennsylvania;
7 Water Street, New York, N. Y.
72 Metal Specialties Mfg. Co., 3208 Carroll
Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
73 Middlebury Electric Clock Co., Macomb, Ill.
74 Mine Safety Appliances Co., Braddock Ave.
and Thomas Blvd., Pittsburgh, Pa.
75 F. E. Myers & Bro. Co., Ashland, Ohio
76 National Electric Screen Co., 25-29 North
Peoria St., Chicago, Ill.
77 Newark Wire Cloth Co., 351 Verona Ave.,
Newark, N. J.
78 Newton Insect Light Co., 1915 East Van
Buren St., Phoenix, Arizona
79 Niagara Sprayer & Chemical Co., Inc.,
Middleport, N. Y.
80 Nico Dust Mfg. Co., 2412 E. 57th St.,
Los Angeles, Calif.
81 Olson Bros., Kingsburg, Calif.
82 Peerless Dust Gun Co., 5100 St. Clair Ave.,
Cleveland, Ohio
83 Pioneer Rubber Mills, 353 Sacramento St.,
San Francisco, Calif.
84 Popkins & James, Purcellville, Virginia














Circular 20 Devices for Insect Control


85 Pulmosan Safety Equipment Corp., 174
Johnson St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
86 Paul 0. Roediger, P. 0. Box 383, Prince-
ton, New Jersey
87 The Root Manufacturing Co., 1051 Power
Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio
88 Safety Engineering Co., 15 Park Row,
New York, N. Y.
89 Schandua & Reichenau, Fredericksburg, Texas
90 Shunk Manufacturing Co., Bucyrus, Ohio
91 Simions Paint Spray brush Co., Dayton, 0.
92 D. b. Smith & Co., Inc., 414 Main Street,
Utica, N. Y.
93 Spraco, Inc., 114 Central St., Somerville,
Mass.
94 Stauffer Chemical Co., Inc., 420 Lexington
Avenue, New York, N. Y.
95 The Tanglefoot Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
96 W. S. Tyler Co., 3621 Superior Bldg., N.E.,
Cleveland, Ohio
97 Universal Power Sprayer Co., Inc.,
Plymouth, Michigan
98 Universal Rubber Mfg. Co., 958 Harrison
Street, San Francisco, California
99 Veihl-Crawford Hardware Co., Inc.,
1605 Main St., Fort Worth, Texas
100 Wendland Metal Works, San Angelo, Texas
101 Westinghouse Lamp Co., >loomfield, N. J.
102 Wickwire Spencer Steel Co., 41 East 42nd
Street, New York, N. Y.
103 Willson Products Co., Inc., Reading, Pa.
104 Andrew Wilson, Inc., Springfield, N. J.
105 Woodhouse Mfg. Co., Inc., 156 Chambers St.,
New York, N. Y.








Circular 20 Devices for Inmect Control


REFM RENCES

Anderson, 0. G.,--1923--Insecticides, fungicides and
and Roth, C. F. appliances. Wiley. '3.00.

Bishopp, F. C.----1937--Fly traps and their operation.
U.S.D.A. Farmers' Bull. 734.
Coad, B. R.,
Johnson, E., and--1924--Dusting cotton from airplanes.
Nell, G. L. U.S.D.A. Dept. bull. 1204.

Hamilton, C. C.,--1941--Entoma--A directory of insect
Chairman Edito- pest control, 4th ed. Am.
rial Comamittee Assoc. of Economic Entomolo-
gists, Eastern Branch. Addr.
C. C. Hamilton, c/o New Jersey
Agric. Exp. Station, New
Brunswick, N. J. .l.00.

Herms, W. B., and-1940T-Hosquito control. The Coimion-
Gray, Harold F.-- wealth Fund Co., 41 E. 57th
St., New York, N. Y. p3.50.

King, W. V., ------ 1926--Airplane dusting in the con-
and Bradley, G.H. trol of malarial mosquitoes.
U.S.D.A. Dept. Cir. 367.
Metcalf, C. L.,---1939--Destructive and useful in-
and Flint, W. P. sects, 2d ed. McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Inc. 27.50
quaintance, A.L.--1931--Insecticides, equipment and
methods for controlling
orchard insects. U.S.D.A.
Farmers' Bull. 1666.
War Department,---1940T-Medical field manual.- Field
U.S. sanitation F. M. 8-40.
Superintendent of Documents,
Washington, D. C.
Also catalogues of the various manufacturers of
sprayers, dusters, and other
devices listed in this
circular.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3U 1262 09315 0349II ll
3 1262 09315 0340


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