A particular account of the commencement and progress of the insurrection of the negroes in St. Domingo, which began in ...


Material Information

A particular account of the commencement and progress of the insurrection of the negroes in St. Domingo, which began in August last. Being a translation of a speech made to the National Assembly, the 3d of November, 1791, by the deputies from the General Assembly of the French part of St. Domingo
Physical Description:
32 p. : ; 8vo.
Saint-Domingue -- Assemblée générale. -- Députés
Printed by order of the National Assembly
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )



Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 316386714
System ID:

Full Text

This volume was donated to LLMC
to enrich its on-line offerings and
for purposes of long-term preservation by

Cornell University Law Library





ly IWO,




fp ly e


tLy inflator o, the I 7170

. . .r C~' *'



the means of information, nor a


wifli to dire& the attention of his feW


zens to the ~true ozerce ~of this nation

9,. tr~ ~. ~. A.


At onceto excite the compafflonateat

of the public to the sufferings &f out

hours and 4o watn the Britifh nation
lb .4t~
1* v~p J
qZi rm. #' it~

similar ruin, oi'igin '0 unlike prine
a 4ft .1

*0 C

practices, is 4. the: cobjeft tif tEe preferr
I Si
.. N ~i.

lwatxon touched by the tor


our vital parts it is to be hoped


found but 'when our ncigbblw s ho4

I A 0 C

re, it cdn ncv r be an~z s~fo~ 'a little z At ya
'V ( w'4C V

C r S


4 ?'~ C
*1I 5

#0~ C.

~ A
~ U



MADE "0 A T qI.L. 0 "- NL A L

We c-onic to 1,*3y be give but an impcrrfea
'Fhe General Aff4en after having been coi hold its fieffiions in the gradually c4fi'cnmibIjncr t
several of theimp. 0 AA *1 a ir "ID rci r, 4F T *10 M.Nf I PA* A,*


This an of a mild and- crent c i
t-60 coin-ifidence t an (i fpicion a e C
coyn and) and, CO unicating 'thLe
0 c d f he munici alit to I- d th
eive ro t p Y)
credit to a plot fo a' ,..rocious and oier
0 0
f1v ed Vit'n one voice they anfw
ideur it.
r 0 9 a
,Of Deygrieuv s drivt a dto-rcable
is is
inviolable attaclirnetit to th,ei*r man.i 9 c
I- 1 -0 -M.- A- 1. am%. -d&- In-oft VLOMW a 00%

'414 ber, hey le *ior ea u.
he had strength to craw lated t h.rb h.orriors he ha'q
was ared an exce t1i
fp p
fu r 9 eons i n 9 eiieral,
reckoned they might fl, or
I he plunaerers p ro
there killed the ro riel
T""l *141 qr Ir TWIL A!Mk rN- d%% Orq% I 4we--t& 1-% low A!nb fq% lip

ri ty 0ot the whites perifhied with him,patclryM9ieot alfo a member of the General Affemby
At t~~~~he ver y ame time Favill' ag(htwihhdf
recently fworn fid-elity to t'ne attorney)amdtefle9 e yokted, entered the apartments ofthwiesanmu ered five of them who refided on the patton h to
pey S wifle on her knees, befioughtthlieohrbdbaa The inexorable negroes afl'affiriated thhubnadtlte

X xptreff(es bcino, ent t( left
401 the line were dispatch wards f the :ff ron(dreft bod part of the but findil
in centu P ie P ro P ol tion
a a 6
nlaintain their lcyround qkti inflorcement, w lch arri M-, de reouzard who, too
1% Ar A P-Ir

and of hi~s mother, burned and deffoethipfiins and obtained, for this aEtion, a promoto ote a4 fg neral.
At Great Riverd, an inhab-itant, M.GrzeuIa w
]natural fion.. Of colour, to whom he(a rvnterlbry
0 0
"and who in their childhood, had been hibet fhstn dereft cares. The y accofted him withapfo thsbef 110 r~f'2dn'x T4 % rp Ijr.I

Again they appl ied toPaladhswfreoce With breaking his promif.H ele, Cta e 1
'C vided this as a p refie ral moeofdat o hth C revolters had p re paredfothunapfmiye
0 0 0
at tis recital with terror ebi aete ( i
they fect off onfoon fe er xet-n~uy forming a journey of onlynelausevrdyeco with dancers, they arrive tPr arow n

typerefurne the narrative of our ialr.A hstm bne hundred thoufand necrtoe%-h.s werinebloadalth buildings and plantations, of moretahlfheNren ]province4;v 2~eared only as onie aeerl( plains and thg mountains were filled ihcrae n ue with blood. The colon'ifts... flupfewiheakwno w h ere to feek Ceua on le there betray) ed b y his n egroes, and iabd:aohrcnie ii tix rom ifes 01 hiLs gang, a reejiglae rasi
-&A-AIMS. ML&& AIL-A, AI& "MMM.Ahft 10

r xd I
Aerencelefs and incapable of fortification, without a delay or feveral days and irntenfe labour. It Was extremely to he fearleft the revolted pegroes fl ould pour down upon the towns and, favoured and feconoed by thofe within, make a general mnaffacre of thxe whole race of the whites. One rcfourct, .herefore, only remained ;- to take poffeffion of the paffes of the hills contiguous tO the town ; to effablifi a Com-fl manding powhich, by the help of the adjoining marthnes, might protel it ; and to defend the road of lar Petite Anfe by a battery of cannon' and boats lathied together. This refolutionl was adopted and executed; thence-forwards the Cape, furtrounded by a folid palifade, by chevaux-de-fiize, and by confiderable polls, might feel its fittiation lefs alarming.
During this interval, not a minute was loftc in fending in-0 formation, by fea, to the parihes which were yet uncontaminated, and in fuggeing to them the proper precautions to be taken. The inhabitants of thofe parifhes formed a league''band eflablifhled camps, more or Iefs confiderable:
thee were &ationed at Trou, J/aliere, Great River, Aruet, Ddn la Marmelade, Port Mvargat, and other places in danger. The revolters followed the fame plan; they flationed camps inall the difirids they had ravaged. Moreover, they forced the camp of the whites at Great River, and killed or put to flight all the inhabitants of that difri&c; the camp at Dondon shared the fame fate1 after a contef* of even hours,
in which more than one hundred~whites fell. The few unfortunate people% who efeaped on that occafion fought refuge

[ xi ]
whence he let them efcane at night, inthe midi of deferts, Sind under advantage of a f orm.
Shalt it be told you, that you may feel the indignation which the conpdut of our neighbours mutt have excited, that depofition~s and the public report frate, that feveral inhabitants of Dondonv, who took refuge among the Spaniards) were driyen 'beyond the limits, and fold to the rebel negro chiefs, i confideration of three Portugal pieces (132 1ivres of France) pgr head, and that they were pin to death.
The dif ricis of R ocou, AMaribaroux, le T~errzer .Routge, Jacc, qu fj Uracole, Quanarninthe, and fort Dauphn,~ forming the. SEaftern part of the Northerna province, were ftill uninjured; their defence 'was an objett of infant neceffity.*
A camp was eftabiiled under the orders of M. de Rouvral, which completely anfwered the purpote for which it was formSedin fpitc of the continual efforts of the banditti. 'While the& alarming tranfatijons were paring .the town of the Cape w refortgd to by the inhabitants o fthe neighbouring hills and plains, efcaping from hefword of the affaflins. It was then that M. Blanchelande t thought it pru4ent to march out two mall bodies of troops, which, join ed by M. de Rouvrai, .attacked apcx carded, in fuccedion, fcveral camps of the revolters, fituated on the plantations of
Chabanqn, hla Ceva//erie, Bullet Du~plat~ Charitte, Denort, Dagout, and Gaiffet; in each of whict many female white prifners were Jet at liberty. It is from -hem, Sirs, that we

From the rebel prifoners, we difcovered that the df e:t
chiefs of the F banditti are at bitter enmity with each other every troop forms a party, and thee parties are always at variance, always ready for mutual deft rucion. Th& authority they have effablifthed is abf ute defpotifrn The chi:efs exercife unheard-i tyranny over thofe they cornmand:th leaft difobedience, the flighteff fign cEf hefitation, is punithaed with dezth ; and it is a notorious truth, that more negroes have been facrificed to their own ignorant rage and fufpicion than we have been compelled to defroy in our defence, although we have obtained over them feveral fignal advantages, Their ads of cruelty fall even on thofe who have voluntarily engaged inthe revolt. But wh~o will not (hudder to hear iq what manner they punifha tlhofe who determine to remain faithful to their matters !--They feize them by force and roaft them at the next fire. They have been feen, with the cruety of cowards,,_nacn, in the front of battle, the aged, the infants, and the women:; and, finding them unfit for action, making ufe of them to parry our Wlows. Have they any wounded, and for want of: furgeons cannot drefs their wounds ?--they confine them in a hut and fet fire~to it. In fhort3 take this for certai;--f the fanguinary dGefigns of 'thefe uncivilized and ferocious men fliould be realized in rc-. fpe~t to the whites ; fThould they accornplifh the extermmaS.ion of the Eur..opeans in the colony ; foon would you fee St. ,Domingo pretenting a picture of all the atrocities of Africa. ucC e, to t21s- ae rirary miers A diraed by~ theav moit

C. 13 3
trlbtg Pet bring back the revolters to their duty.~ The Gee
neral A ffembly, compared of planters perfedly acquainted with the character of the negrpes, reprefented to him the dan'. ger of fiuch a proclamation, and poirvl refufed it their
fandion. Thle week following, M. Blanchelande renewed hispropofal. The fame motives di16{ated the fame refufal. He perfifted, and determined to iffue it in his own name, and he did it, b~ecaufe he learned that the negroes were willing to fubmit themflves. The proclamation was made iAdelivered by twelv e dragoons. What effect was produced by this meafure ? Seven of them were affaffinated in the camp pf the rebels, and the others faved themfelves with the utmofi: diffculty.
It would anfwer no end, Sirs, to defcribe to you all the horrors to which our unfortunate fellow-citizens have been :. prey. Pofterity will be ifiocked at lo many cr'uelties, coma united in the names of philofphy and liberty.
Yet have we only, in this relation, Iketched to you fome fca~tered outlines of the dreadful picture of thofe evils, which
have vifited, probably fiill vifit, a country, but lately lb .p-eaceful, fo flourtfhing, Lb "valuable to the French empire I YouwwilI better judge by a fwmary of the loffes which the colony had experienced at the period of our departure.
They reckoned, in the parties of P/afa2nce, Port AKargot, Limbe. Ml/armelade, A/cul, ha Plaine d/u Nord, Ia Pcjkte .4 ,
7.Zoin Zimonade Sai ote Suanne. 7aoa ~C ,t l77


nid/lions of lives. The afifl ance of the ration, the exertions of commerce, gnd our indudlry, may, perhaps, repair them: but what fh4 l dry the tears that flow for more than one ihotifand tour fellow-citizens flaughtered, the vidirns of
this ~crueI revolt I Can fenfibilily be mute, when we refled, that fifteen thoufand negroes will be deftroyed before order arnd tranqudllity can be re-eftablithed, and that, ifiould they fucceed in theii proje&ts St. Do mingo wvill become the tomb of fifty thaofand1 Frenchmen 1 t
Hitherto we have only Fpoken of the misfortunes of the ~Northern parts.. They are. not all we have tp laet

*The following ate extr~ts from an authentic account of the calamities of th~is unfortunate colony, published, in December la#h, by Mr. Bailjo, a French gentleman, a few da~s after his arrival at Paris frqm St. Domingo, " Several jprashave taken incredible pains to fofccn -h r eprefentation of this mafs of horrors. I can a~nrm that the Gen~eral AIthmbly, whofe meetings : I attended till the z Pt of 04tober* had, at the dofe of the preceding month, 4i received a particular account of the dei~rudion of two hundred and twenty-two "' fir-effates and between eleven and twehre hundred coffee-plantations, and "it CC could not then be known how far the mifchief had extended itfeif among the "'hills, with which the town of the Cape could nq longer maintain any con, " munlication. ,
U The number of white men, women, and children, whof6 throats had been ct, or who had been otberwife butchered, by the negroes, then amounted Sto more than two tiouf'ahd; and not to fix hundred only, as the journaIs of thea pretended philanthrophiffs affert. --. it wol be to 4ri~m a ta-t nmrt h c'so"c omte

E [Is I
Blood was ('pkt in the Weftern province; fire cleft rayed feve.. r al properties there; the gangs of Grdndonds, Charbon~ere,. z..d Fond Ferrier, revolted.
The dete lion of a cord'piracy at Leogane pre erved that difirid from carnage and conflagration, as well as thofe of ZIrchaic, Des J/afes, and le Gui de Sac. Jerernie experienced fome commotions, but a timely arref of the excitexs Qfthem faved that place from the impending evil,
The Southern parts had alfo great caufe of alarm. The precautions taken the :e had, to the time of our departure, maintained their tranquillity ; yet the population there is lb thin, that the meafures employed are more the proofs of timidity than the pledges of fecuxity.
Thus, oirs, you behold on every fide the colony threatens ed ; and, if there be coloniffs who are yet to be faved front fomany complicated dangers, ff111 will they have~ to contend with treachex y and famine, with epidemical difeafes 4caufed by fo many unburied carcafes in a burning climate, with diforders more acute, the effeds of fatigue, terror, and vexaion; in a ward, with every evil that nature engenders for the deftru67ion of mankind. VV'hat juit reafon have we not to dread the total ruin of the colony, a ruin which muff accelerate that of the mother-country! The deifrudion of our plantations will caufe the fragnation of your manufa&ories,
fucceflve bankruptcies will injure public credit, and, even irn Paris, will be felt by the moneyed man and, the tradefrnan; in the inmcof of your provinces it will check the collection of

ScontriVing a catirophe, nwT
Idng been ""!nwteribly con
fpicuous !
We pafe our lies in tranillit1 SI lrs int te moi ouar flames. A paternal government had for many years paff, melidrated thie condition of our negroes; and we daLe affirm, that millions df Europeans, attacked b9eciery want, fffbjedf to every mifety, p offefs fewer 'f~yet ~ hf ~ have been reprefented to youan to the world general, as loaded witha chains and perit'hing by a dilatory death. The situation of the negroes, "in Afrida, without property;" with-; out political or civil exiffencze, continually a pr~y to the weak capricious fury of tyrants; Wh'o divide amon g tbem t "at vaff uncivilized country, is changed in odr colonieg for a c'onuitiox of comfort and enjoyment. They are deprived of nothing; for, liberty, which it istrue, they have not, is a plant that hag" never yet proved fertile in their native foils; and, whatever the spirit, of party may affert, whatever xmaczinatton may invent, well-informed men arg not to he perfuaded that the negroeg in Afrita have the enjoyment of freedom. The vravellcr,*, who has mot recently vififed a part, hitherto altmoft unknown; of that extenfive country, has given us2 i his long and interefling work, a hifto y only of bodadeoatn.The men who inhabit Aby/Jznia, Nfthia, the G7ZZ6Z, and the ]3'ung4from the coat of the Jndian ocean tothe very frontiers of Egypt, feem to rival, in ferocity and barbarity, the h yxna and the tigers which nature has there created. Slavery is, with them a title of honour: and life,, in thofe horrible cli-'

$echimatin, the pi ,ures which a falfe philofophy has been leafed to delineate; Cfar more from a purfuit of popularity than from zeal in the vindication of humanity;) lthim recal the regulations which governed our negroes before they were fed uced and alienated from us;l provided againif every w ant; fupplied with accommodations, unknown inthe greater part of the cottages of Europe; fecure in the enjoyment of their proper ties; (fir, they had property and it was facred) 1nurfed, in times of ficknefs, with an ex pence and an attention .which may be fought in vain in the much-boafted hofpitals ,of England: proteded, refpetled, in the infirmities of old age;at eafe in refpe&t to their children, their famlies, and their affe~hons; fubjetled to a labour calculated according ~othe fire ngth of each individual, becaufe individuals and employments were claffed; and interest .(even fhould humaity fail) enjoined an attention to the prefervation of their numbers; epfranchifed whenever they had merited it by ima portant fervjces.--S uch wsthe juff, unflattered, pidureof the croverpment of our ne groes; and this domestic government had been meliorated (particularly in the hitf ten years) with an anxiety, of which you will find no example in Europe. The fincerefhattachment coirneded the maffer and his flaves. We flept in fecurity in the midif of men that were become our children? an4 many of us had neither locks nor bars to our houses.
Not, Sirs, that we would difguife to you, that there did cxiamong~ the planters~ a very (mnall number of hard and

their flames, might be led, by the impetuofity of their tempersj
into exceffs, provedd byexperience, to be as contrary tq good polcy, as they are, hy increafe of k nowledge and Luinanity', become infamous.
Here IWe appeaI, not to thore who write romnanpes to gain a name as men of fenfibility, to acquirm a momentary popuJarity, foon to be wrefted from them by general ihdignatidn1 but to thofe who have vifited, who know, the colonies. Let Thmfay if the recital we have made-is faithftil, or if .we have coloured it to interest you in. our caufe.
We repeat it, Sirs,. we paffed our lives in this fiate o.f
tranquillity and happnefs, and we returned tu te motherc ountry, the protedrefs of our properties, the entire tribute 0four produce, which was applied in adding to the Wealt1 of the metropolis, to her internal ftrength and to her uei
:th, fuperi"
ority infrexogn commerce.
Meantime, Sirs, a fociety fprings up in the bofom of JFrance l and prepares at a dftance, the deft~ru~tion and convulfions to which we are owa prey. Unobtrufive and too. deft in their 0utfet, they profe ffed only Xdefre to alleviate dtie lot of our flames; but that alleviation, already fo far advanced in the French iflands, muff refult from means which w ere totally nfKflowf to, tis fociety, aithoug hywr jeCs of our Unceafing attention, until oblicred to abandon
them, by thee incompetent meddlers having excited among our laves, a fpirit of mutiny, *and, anlgng .us,. fpirit of diflrufit a

nT o apphaufe in their temPle df triown. Vanity command e~d that mneafures of prudence T'hould be relinquished for fpe.. d~ious declamations, that we fliould be farrounded with terror a.nd alarm, and that calamrities fhd~uld be contrived, th& fame Which we have predicted fince the earlidf proceedings of tho L!is; dts .Nirs, and which have fo lately been realifed.
On a huddenx this fociety demands an ./iblition of the Slave..n Trade; that is to fay, that the profits, which may refuit from it to the French commerce; ifi'ould be transferred to foreigners, for, never will their romantic philofophy perfuade all the EU-. r'opean pbowers, that it is incumbent upon them to abandonl the culture of their colonies, and to leave the natives of Africa a prey to the barbarity of their native tyrants, rather than employ them elfewhere, and under more humane nai-ters, in cultivating a foil, which, without themmf remain Uncultivated, and whofc valuable p rodudions are, to the nation which poffeffes them, a fertile fource of industry and profperity.
Combining itfeif next with the Revolution in France thts fociety confounds its extravagant and irrational fvftem with the plan which the nation had conceived for its enfrancoifement; and, profiting by the univerfal ardour of all Frenchmen in the caufe of liberty, intereffcs them, from the rernem-branice of their fervitude, in its defign to put an end to that of the negroes. Its blind enthufiafwi or its perverfity, for., gets, that thofe savage men are incapable of knowing in what

r 0
praclifed to forward their defigns; ingenioufly mixing cute, ning with audacity, the fociety, at one time, flatters ffs an invitation to ifiake off the yoke of the French merchants affuring us of its fupport if we will unite with it for obtaining a free commerce; at another time, itarms the' rnercantil& body againif us, affirming that we have in view a difgraceful bankruptcy, a chimerical independence, and that, in our career of vanity, we would build up a feparate power on a level with that of France. Thus, after having endeavoured to irritate the planters and the merchants against each other, after having offered us principles incompatible with the interefis of the mother-country, when, in (pite of its infidious counfels, we have declined to adopt them, fill are we accufed, by the-o fociety, of iuch intentions, and' they lay hold of the declara-a tion of the Rights of Man, an immortal work, and benecicial to highly enlightened men~ but inaplicable, and therefore dangerouss. to our colonial. regulations :* they fend itwith proftfion into our colonies; the journals in their pay, 'or under their influence, public this declaration in the midif df our gangs ; the writngs of the/lmis de's Noirs openly announce,. that the freedom of the negroes is proclaimed by the declaration of rights.
The decree of the 8th of March* Teemed calculated to checks thee dfperate plots. But can the Anis des Noirs reve~rence any law but thofe oaths by which they, are Sound to.. gether, and that vow4 which they have formed to carry fire
1n wr Cnt ou hab.atTn If a a be faIra

Jie tianters, merchants, and men enlightened enough not 4 ~ethe dupes of their falfities, are indjfcrminately the objefis of thei"t abufe. It is not enough that they hawe madec themfelves the arbier's of our property and our peace, they q/fume over us a fupremacy of defamation; nor may. we defend ourfelves, andftrive to parry their blows, without undergoing a torrelit of their low fcurrility. Thus, prejudicing againfi us the public opinion, ./butting up from us the channels of defence, they undermine in security the rock on which our poq/ffions are placed; they fur-. round it with fnares, and our ruin mufI follow !
When it was found that they had vainly flattered themselves with obtaining from the National Affembly the emancipatioat of our flaves, they attempted to introduce diffentio'n among us, by perfuading that Affembly to take on itfeif to difcufs the queftion of the People of Colour. We had demanded that we Ihould ourfelves make the laws upon this fubjefi, which re.. quire great delicacy and prudence i their application. W
hfid pledged ourfelves that thofe lawsfthould be juft andhumane
But, that boon, which, then granted by the white planters would have eternally cemented the ties of affe~hon and bee. nevolence exifting between thofe low claffes of men, is pre.fented to them, by the Anis des .Nbirs, as an offering of var&. lty, and a means of avoiding equitable ifipulations.
Other meafures were tried to gain their point : they collet-. eci together at Paris rome people of colour; they extolled their underifandings ; they invited them to unite their caufe
wi-la fte rnegos her e nrc r 1 -R n.


death-bed teftinmony, rta 'had not the fwelling of thie,," vers prevented thel jvunli on of the confpirators; eleven thotifand rebel negroes Were. radly to pour dow upon the Cap& fo early as the month of February, and ta caufe thc devaftation which took pac .onl the 2d vfAgfc He named
the ring-leaders, gave particulars &f the confpiracj, and offerN ed prof. It was .the vyoie of his corifeience which fpok& otat thatomoment~ the laft that remained to him for difco, Veering the truth.
intemidif of this femetain this gnrldiiu
whlethe whites w~ itatd b diftruft and terror, and while the negroes were indulging themfelves in a thoufand fatal dreams, was the difcuffion of the Decree of the 15th of MVay agitated among you.* A fioal of writings, previodls and {ubfequent, ,have been diffeminated among our gangs; There have been read,,an commented uponl, thofe teri'ibl& words thofe words, the ignalt.of blood and conflaaratkon![
It was then that a Minifter of the Gof'pel of Peace, ina letter, addreffed to his ,brethren, the Men of Colour, announced .to. our flaves, that faon Iould the fun /hine on none [Ut freemen o
: This decree wa formed on principle dire~tly oppofite to th~ofr of the decree" ef the 8th of March.


Cu"o. d t4'ie nerrroec omm a d b
IW Or by f4 rkr4an Manceuvres loe 7 to
Written in c lara ers 0
I Lq f bI 00d
'OK read a
bI f heijr C1
in the Midft of a em lies 0 t
OnI dlicoruer afid itlaame Ou
Y 4 b P C Id thl
a w h h tI 4*
i* w ica ie were ilricklen
jr f 'bt
fee to foretell ihe ruin of ih e co nies o t
119 tones, in cun.fequenee of an emancipation of tf,

xeTh if their mailers was erafed from their minds; a desire of povecity was all they felt; they became the apt inifruments of thofe men, inveterately maevolent, who have greedily
-eized, in the writings of the A'mis des 7%/irs and in the interpretation qf dec rees~ fqch arms as yrc7 e bet fuited to lead the way to infurre oin.
I!s our megfure of misfortune fufficjently full, that we may Jiope at laft tohvete truth no more difgifed ? Have we a valid claim to the retribution of the laws, without waiting thofe prpoxs, which muf refult from the proceedings now onl foot at St. Domningo, ndwhich w111 be tranfrnitted to us ? The. fatal influence of the authors of fpo man y calamities, --is it not already evidently proved by the whole of their tranf-? a tions and by their criminal writings ? Can it be doubted, at this time, that our ruin_ is their work? And fhail France fjil! refiainthe ~ y of indignation, due to th guilt- of our e, mies?
Flattered with hopes that misfortunes like ours would find confdlatlon in the bofom of the mother-country, ~.thgt; on our arrival in the capital, where we have at leaft a claim to pity,, the hearts of our felwctzeis would be open to our complaints,-we find ourfelves preceded by calumny! They1 who have made light of 'our properties arid our blood, reckoned upon being obje ts of our bitter reproaches, and have endeavoured to anticipate them. .Skilled in the arts of defa7 nation, which are habitual to them, after havingrrendered us
-h iRiso hi mciaini eandt pnu


ertieS, teir fmjiies, their lives.!Te ae rdt a taat we wifhed to offer ourflelves to GetS13 in return, we will alL of you Sis'wihte odef f
ree.men and df' Frencn Ci tizens, (oatral etoaeA ; enchren an Citizens;) ewllakofyu emittedd to an-y fet of men, of any nto pnerh oIl ult, with fich effronterY, thofe whomte aeijrd What 1 I fie pate fre ad fwod i h ad forfe trd~~~s t trelgt the torch thathadetodouplna
I%4rF %4

.iad-- we beo.,.*1 coun
Affierribly we fliould I
It is affected it is
Off(elm ourfleives to Gr 16 0 0 0
is ver fltiple it is N
y t
cef.sl, Tilicric wic hav
fa fe I y affir the full
1 10
13ut we will go et

L "S
onteint at te ver y oor o t e d f h
i.T.timed a white cockade, flome lou(
)f the -.rngllfh fi m ffi d b
0 e a U c a ac
7je ATiation the aw the IA
lall h fi h
W HC was n4rina ot"
bi d id,
tera te taj wilder r
AY Lo &'
d t
.iear na",4 the 9 ovc .nt at home
,icrer s fwor to t v i, 01 Inct
c had delivered us c



C 28 .1

rounded and threatened us at that moment, WC had F

our country in no other light than as the caufeof our

tunes if we had called in a foreicrn power to (ha
colonifis from their butchers, to fave their property
preserve the very credit of tkt metropolis: Wherc

man, having a confidence, who would have dared to U
4 U.
us? Yet were ~ve fUll Frenchmen! And frail w
U p U
'C, p

this, be reduced to the abje& neceflity U' C justifying 0

from the reproach of havThg aimed at independew
I C.

it them 6. .flCffi exami all our a&s : if there b~ a tingle one th

to loofen us from thofe indiffoluble ties which attac]

the empire; our heads are here t8 tufTer the pun

due to fitch perfidy. We know tint fame attainss C

whofe vanity has been wounded because their inhi
0 a
was made public, have been *t. to join the p 4
.4 I p U
y; but toe groans of dejected in us guiIt( I, U

inerce, feelinir for our calamitz&s and for their contec
I d

Thall teach them their error and that, (hould they ftu

9 4 291
But e!ven, Sirs, bad we called in thrniih. t en vs~ affifad but to govern Us, towo ourtteauimob impnuted Pace, for a moment, inoufiatnhtdert ment of the kincrdom which y6u bleet etemf a
,tuotic., the nioff prou of0 thee appeltoofFncmnIL
fluppo0fie that the flowers of edition hadfre p nisbfi fiervants again~ft mafters bandittiagifupfeorofro y-6erty, that a hundred times thepecalihbtnshd





evidence of our calamities. 7 le ey antidt hid the 9,
'p afetb C ~ 0

9 w
is not an unprejudiced man exiling who can doubt,


their I abours, their d q lamation their writings, heir
0. 'C'! 'II

inous emiffaries, haye been the adive, persevering, c

whivh, for two years paft, has paved the wa

Mt .~ 0 C .4

? *

and which at length has succeeded.


France owes uS pr~e&ion but her flrength will bc
0 1 3, a

fufficiept to give us confidence whi1e~ (he fuff'ers the co.
0 $

vers ofour revolts and maffacres to lurk in her hofom.
p ,1 4
4 p *1 .9,

She owes us prote6iion; but in vain would the rend
*1 4 V *

eff'edive, if fuch attempts are to remain unpunished;

d a. SI.
p a Sc'

wbich ought to disgrace our enemies, affords them mat
0 d
0~ '9 1
I. % at
9 S ".C.


,' d
S '9

She owes US,. protection but to what end her fleets an(


armies, if the permit that feditious writings fliould incefli
a b 4 5 0 0
5 3' e 'I.

matter in our houses the feeds of every troubles ifflie pe

k S

'us to be preffed down to th~ earth with humiliations
I S 9
~b ~ I
B 0 C a a~ a a S a


bYes of the todutry td whom we racfc hfete~a4 &3 glory and to famet
Forgives Sirs, the warmth of ourlaggeS&mncam tamities have aiven us a privilege to fekot re;bt
t rt
lter~grieE, is at our hearts A hundred ie aew oe told the evils of which we. are the vijtm ude ie have we imprecated the public venaeac ntehtflm
a -~

1 'ji de andg,, rom
S1, Iled 0 Bo MI1
g j
;1 31
jo CH,NE

[ 33 1

tkodbles I St. Ddmrngo. No Canddadwllfre mafl czan doubt the fad yet MeSB ooe ftemm
~ers bf that society which. has beenineftlbuednth ruin of the colonies, dare s accuse usofhvwbuelsex izited the 4nurelo of our av foreicr'Dn power to our aid :and piotetin;ad.s ftete fort exkfted1 and was proved, he two dasaomvdta h
General Afl'emnbly of St. Do ?mingdo ihoudb umndbfr the S uPreme NatiolCor.Icmeebytevigtf
t~io~ eiisWhich he hats brought upn hcutyh ek
frail leave neitl;er to the public opinion nor to the sentence of the
a a a aa ~A ~ fl I

f;rom the,.tfddri

F 35

The -contempt, conf.equenit on ic hreolgdte
tofhiOft thei grundN.1- The colonilrgatosrenmcl
*to their levelling fyffem .-m Sworn nmeir hyt l g reat pro pe-r ty :for, thtey fpurn, the]efctete ol annihilate, all wealth -and all auhoiynwhcteyant participate. Their hypocrifv wouldpeev ardtergt, only of that multitude of which theyaete.io'.Tr& fore th pepl ofcluri h clne, eeorte,
r-.".- - -A


Extrae,'7 ronz tiVe ot rii4
op low
Part o

jL HE comM.,q&ttee
frig,*ite reporll,6,.ed, TI

F~It is by the lioht of thefe coniflagainta vr a I urround usz, tha we now uiLerate eaeonpie
I~~~~ fit are an wacfl throughthnit)tokete
'cc enemy from our fanatuary. For a ongtmaforb
foMls have been de preffied by forrow;te xeineti 5* 'ay, for the firif time, th fweet eoin fpefr n*




*0 It C 38 1
U. 4.
9 #1 C,



('C D.


Fxtr~~ frem the of tbe Merchants an4 7+
1 A'



dozenss to the National Aijembly, Dec. i a, i 79 i


1~ THE freedom of the negroes in the Weftaindies, fi

1y deSired by the foc~ety of the .dmis des Noirs, has fal
p p




topublicenqujry, a question of too 0wuch importance

p~. :~,

time, to be regarded with a; This U
I a

clofel onnetted with the commercial intereLls Of

has divided opinions and formed parties. In I ey a
.5 4td

(on, both experience and policy l!nite in didating, t
a 5,



should abide by the customary regu1at~o fls ~ mehoratv
#a1 v ~ *- F F


be y~t poffible me lot of the necrroes.

'p 0
tAx S

The pretended philanthropiffs, not having fuca
a S


effablithing jinarchy by means of an unqualified. enfr


.4% 5

ment of the negroes, have dire&Le4 their attention to i

I jI 7

a a a a U C ~4 C a

4 C 391
The- greter part ot our manut'aoreaenuifd
raw materials imported, and whichwemfpucaero 'foreicrners ;and what have we, Of thepoueforfilr of the fruits of our induifry, to give the]nrtrnBrr the eftablithmen of ourf n manufadIories hc avbpoi
gioflyaugmented the number of confmriia oii
to exoorr41l Corn, bue now fndbexprncgatoje tionis to an tx port Qi that article. ThrIean hn u
r, dip foie fruits a little did%fm ate
cottons.., and millner and) haedfhrg

Similar addreffes wtre prefented from Bourdeaux, Nntes,

Extralto the Spdecl" of M. ROIISTAZN, in the Afatiotial .'ffli
bily, Dec. 10, 1791. (He was deputed, by the Cdonyl of 8t;
Domingo, to aof Sutcours of the Ameritan States.)
BUT, Sirs by wha fatality ar all ou nautes tobe

bur juflification? We, that are the vidims, whilif the chbarges of our enemies, I might fay of our executioners, are 1ooked'upon as indifputable truths! By what right does M. Brj/ft4* ahd thofe other members of the National. Affembly, who are i\4
nbrant of the internal regulation which is fuitab!le to out owri colonies becaufe that regulation depends on localities that can be known only to the inaiatpermit fhemfelves to load us with abufe? Whence comes it that, when we require. them to bring proof of whttey affert,' thg National Affemt. bly1 which has prornifed us justice, Should not com;pel' tem to their own vindication; whilftwe on our parts, off'er proof of all wd have affirmed ?
To what an excels of defpair fhall we not reduce our hapIefs confiituents, when we relate to them, as we muft, aIl that has paffed during the difcuffion of their dreadful lituation-! What confidence will they derive from a Journaliff, member
of the National Affembly, who publifhev, (1 quote his own expreflion,) that thofe celebrated words, "Per/h the Colonies


Soo&o mulaittoes,' and ~oo,&oo negroes, in th~ colony of St.
Domingo 6hIy, rather than have sacrificed what he calls a prin*
c?#14. I ifiould coficeiv& mjfelf to be wounding the delicacy
of th~ National Affembly, ifiould I attempt td prove all the
IVotrors thN'b dreadful words convey!
7 -~
'~1 I .
txtr4s2~ from Speech of Mr.t BERTRAND, Marine AVtY*frlehfFrdhce, in i/id National 4prembly, Dec. I % 1791.
I HAVE explaifled to YOU, Sir4 the measures taken by
t1h~ kink, fdr affording relief to the iribabitahts ot St. Doa
mngo, fo~ foon as their ca1amit~ ahd danger were made
I 1
1~nowp to his niajefty: inadequate, dotzbt1~fs, of themselves, r
ibeir fucc&& depends Wholly on their promptitude, and on
the atThiance that thej flialt be followed bj others more ~flte~1ivt. But, previott~ to thef& bdng determined
it was fitting we fliould know the trub cafes of 66 troiA
ble& which hasie led to' this terribI~ cataifrophe. I have flC~
gk&ed no means of diftovering them, because by fuch difeoveIy atone can' we be dire&ed application of thofe
zh~aifures Whkh are to prevent Et~ icturn.
Some accuft the Coloniffs of waiting to' fuirend& theme
felves di~ EnglIth; &c.
Others, oh th~ contrary, f~e no other caufe of their mitt
tnrtnnec hn ;~ the 4
mnrrnAkru wn4tanno Aiiflsrnnntoa-P ~

ir is eafy to conceive, that a free people, always worthy of being fo, muft: have felt an alloy to its enjoyment of cow
loniat eftablifhrnents from the circumifance of their being founded on flavery.
This fentiment4 of a generous and humane nation (certainly eflirnable, boweverjutl or well founded) was Cure to gain ground, and a milder treatment of our negroes was its natural refult.
SBut the phikofophic fpirit, Co prevalent in France, aimed at farther conquefis, and has been ernplayed in fireogtheuing, with all the force of argument, the~ theory Of a fentiment, which, perhaps, might have been more prudently left to 1ts own operations.
According to its do/lranes, the Colonies, thofe poffeffions for W hich humanity has been wounded and juflice fet atde. have not that value which cupidity has affixed to them,,but are ruinous to the deluded mother-country. The poffibility of replacing them by fettlenients more contiguous, and un-dter a climate more similar to our own ; (that of Africa er the Mediterranean Iflands for inf ance ; the neceflty there muff one day arife of refigning pofteffions f(o drf ant, inhabited by men whodeilzgiatrude-and treachery there is reafbn to forefee, &c. &c. all thee. motives united lead us to re-. gard a voluntary abandonment as no more than an anticipation of events inrevitabje, with th e affvantage ~of a previous preparation 4nd~ a provifion of more durable refources. Our
Si'e ne S~ lr h rI' 9Gmln 4atllnin r9ne t

f 43 J
#ffls was fwcll~ed by all thofe, whofe fenlibilfty, in order to be excited, needed .other flimulacives than thofe of philan
thropy irfeif.
4'This is the fyffem, (f'ay the planters,) which has er-% CC roneoutly and cruelly occafioned thofe bloody (cenes of ~which we are the vidlins. Follow, flep by flep, the proceedings and effets of this profelyte-making zea,
*(which began by preaching an abolition of flavery and un"(*qualified liberty to our negroes ; which then moderating ~its pretenfions, the better to graduate its pt'ogrefs, afked ,only a fuppreffon of the trade ; and which at Uff, with "*a more plaufible and fecure atm, hsfeemed to confine ~its attention to the elevation of the people of colour, the more effe lually to work our deftru lion. 'll/ it not he "' deemed imp ojible, that a fyjhrn, af furnng humanity as its bajTh, "I.hould be capable of ffi'flnge2egs fo cruel? Has not the
0* history of thofe very climates furnithed Us with a fa&, a
**reference to which cannot but do honour to the maRt fcru= 66 putous philanthropiff? It is to the humane and pious Las
*(Cazas that America owes her negroes s touched with the
**evils whtchrhls fellow-citizens infli ted upqn the native (Caribbs, he fought in Africa for men already doomed to 9flavery, who, without aggravation of mifery and by a ,fimpie exchange of fetters, under a climate fimilar to
*'their "own, might fupply the plaqe of the Americans)
*'alike unfit for labour and for chains. If this pious miffio~nary was deceived by his humanity ; if, to fave from la=

overturn the flrongcl pillars, of the national profpeity: nor will they do effedual good to thofe whom they it to ferve. XWithour a concurrence of alt he intereflcd
7* powers, the Colonies have only to choofetheir proteclor, the Hlaves their unaffer. Thefe laft may, indeed, as they have lately too dreadful~ oyattemt to~ tn
CL throats of ourselves, our wives, and child -en, and of al] woare fer over them ; but at will be only that they may ~exchange one fervitude for another. .--Such, Sirs,. are 'the arguments advanced, in their turns, by the planters and their an'tagonifts. In my adrninittrative capacity, folely, have I Snevue odfrmnt the cau,
fes, whatever they maly be, which have led the Way to-the troubles in St. Domihgo, that i might the more efeuly

~As to the iccufanions, ag:ain~rt the Colonifis, of deflgns tp ftbimit theifelves to the Engli i ;to render thaerielves i dependent ; to effed a counter-revolutiorn: --I know noLthing; I have found nothing, in evidence, ofprojc&s, Cocul-. pable, extravagant, or abfiurd I
Asto the accuf'ation brought agzainfi the part /frns qf the liekyt

funded~ But, whatever be the caufe, where* are We toolook
for the remedy of thee difafrers?! How are we toprvn their repetition?
The firft and mofl ufeful ftpis, cdoubtlefs, to becorn& acquainted with our true interefis, and real commercial relntinn ith th c'nln~eq Enp n r,;rrnoranea *1,, .;..-'!,

m ents pf agriculture and indufiry, whether for their firf'oAn .tation,.ru:ntenauce, -or prote ion. Every member of the mother .country is a flock-holder in thIs important fpeculation; to hare the benefits of which, it is enoQLZgh to have beezn itborn in France; and all French citizens, I repeat it, a14, are inutereffed in its fuccefs, th ough in d-ifferet degrees, frme as farmers or proprietors of lands, which, in whole or in part, are cultivated to fupply the wants of thee dijiant con (urners, apd who would be ruined without fo important a nemand for their produce;, fome asembarked in various de partiments of induifry, who Iv or partially" occupied in fup-' plying the Colonies and whore productions without there m would remain on hand ; rome, again; as commercial people, pavigators, coafling traders, &c. forming a third clafs, bu-, .fled in parr ying on with the Colonies the connec~lion of the other two. Whatever be our rank in this firm, whatever be. the fum and nature of our mlares, from the laborious inufbandman to the 1azy money-lender, from the induifrious jnanufa lurer to the ufelefs flock-jobber, from the adventure rous fpequlator tothe cautious annuitant, -- all, yes, all, are znteref~ed in the fate of thefe valuable efiablifhments, by fthofe aid eyen. Cafurn herfeif fells her poifon to a profit3Regulated and governed in whatever manner, there elk7r blifhmenrs fitl keep their primitive character of an enterprife, in which the mother-country has embarked, and of which flie alone ought to reap the profit or the lofs.
"As to calculate ons of the fums thee et'fablifhaments hare

tofetht 46]
* Cane f~ ofe htan obligation to fell their p rodcee
only to the members of the mother-country, and to buy of them alone every article they Want, forms a double fource of riches, of which the meafure is imienfe ? In. hort, the tloies take from us all they want at fuch prices as we pl1eafe tO inpofe; they return us a fufficiency of their valuable produce, not only to ferve the confumption of twenty, five millions of inhabitants, but to form a very great furplu ,which we Tell with profit to the nations~who have no
Colonies of their own. And hall all thee advantages be etliriated by a ferdes of figures, whicn, exprefling oniy the relatiofis of quantity, are applicable to none but to material
and inanimate objeds?
~Obfcervc, Sirs, that the effeS of fuch erroneous calculae tobns, refpe&ing our Colonies, mull neceffarity impofe a retrograde courfe upon the public fortune. It isnot to moalerate the fpeed, but to flop at once the motion, of duls powerful Wheel, that We are invited. In an infant, we are to condemn to ina~tivity thofe millions of arms, which are now employed to move it: in an infant, we are to cut all the threads, which condu&t us to fuch an immenfity of wealth I Eftimate, I befeech you, Sirsj the dreadftd cffc ti
~of fuch a fudden separation![

l~j~h th llowznPo ri tto i.


is among the late]?7 auhi&i 1'1ice

is is
THajISjo inaanr"J thav e rcie etrfrmteM m
cipaliy of ort a Prne f whcftfbon oy
The, truLW&*at-,0 'Moff it conten-%,0 ACts As bee confirmed to me by Mr.







It is the prerogative of this detested traffic to separate from evil its concomitant good, and reconcile discordant mischief's; it robs
war of its generosity, it deprives peace of its security; you have the vices of polished society, without its knowledge or its cornforts: and the evils of barbarism without its simplicity.
WILB ERFORCE.'S Speech, April 2, 1792.

-----,-And how probably those colonies, for, the sake of which we have hugged fondly to our bosoms that deformed mowster the Slave rrrade, after its frightful aspect has been laid bare before the eye of the national conscience, may soon. by a righteotis Providence, be made the sources of, our humiliation and ruin.
The Crisis of the Sugar Colonies, page, 109.