A history of the Florida vegetable industry and state farmers' markets for vegetables

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A history of the Florida vegetable industry and state farmers' markets for vegetables
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Book
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Rosenberger, Stanley E
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    List of Tables
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
    List of Illustrations
        Page xxiii
    Chapter 1. Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
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    Chapter 2. Trends in vegetable production and marketing in Florida
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    Chapter 3. Conditions preceding the establishment of state farmers' markets in Florida
        Page 74
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    Chapter 4. Establishment and operation of farmers' markets in Florida
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    Chapter 5. Operations of farmers' markets selling vegetables
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    Chapter 6. Characteristics of high- and low-volume vegetable markets
        Page 265
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    Chapter 7. Analysis of selected markets
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    Chapter 8. Criteria and principles for establishment and operation of farmers' markets planned to handle vegetables
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    Chapter 9. Summary and recommendations
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    Appendix
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    Bibliography
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    Biographical sketch
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Full Text










A HISTORY


OF THE


FLORIDA VEGETABLE


INDUSTRY


AND STATE FARMERS'


MARKETS FOR VEGETABLES









By
STANLEY EUGENE ROSENBERGER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1962














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The writer wishes to thank his wife, Marian, and

children, Carol and Jean, for their sacrifice and patience

in making this publication possible, while at the same time

making it necessary. Also, he wishes to express his appreci-

ation for the essential contributions and many hours

devoted to this study and to the graduate program by Dr.

Donald L. Brooke, Chairman of the Supervisory Committee7

and Drs. R. H. L. Greene, E. W. Cake, F. S. Jamison, and

R. H. Blodgett, Committee members. Recognition should be

extended to Wilson Riggan and Margaret Tomlinson for their

interest and assistance in data preparation.

To the many typists and proofreaders who assisted

in rough draft preparation and the final copy, the writer

is very grateful.













ii
<-1/ q 7















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Pace

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 9 . , o . o . . ii

LIST OF TABLES. . . . . . . . . . . X

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . xxiii

Chafiter

I. INTRODUCTION. & . , , . 1

Commercial Vegetable Development
The problems
Purpose of the Study
Method of Study

IX. TRENDS IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
IN FLORIDA. .. . . . . . . . 18

Early History and Shifts in Production Areas

Important Crops and Early Production Areas
Vegetable Production in Florida

Acreage, Production, and Value
Florida Vegetable Farms and Their Size
Vegetable Production Areas in Florida

Shifts in Production Areas for Important
Crops. 1890-1920
Trend in Acreage of Major Vegetables
by Areas

Lima beans
Snap beans
Cabbage
Cantaloupe


iii










Chapter


Carrots and cauliflower
Celery
Sweet corn
Cucumbers
Eggplant
Endive-escarole
Lettuce
Green peas
Peppers
Irish potatoes
Squash
Tomatoes
Watermelons

III. CONDITIONS PRECEDING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF
STATE FARMERS' MARKETS IN FLORIDA . . . 74

Insufficient Standardization

Grading
Packing

Maintenance of Quality in Marketing Channels

Market Preparation
Refrigeration

Improper Pricing

Nonuniformity of Prices to Growers
Lack of Sellers' Knowledge of Supply and
Demand
Monopolistic Practices

Other Factors

Improper Practices of Buyers and Sellers
Selling Practices
Increased Use of Trucks
Lack of Farm Assembly Markets
Florida Growers' Position










Chapter


IV. ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF FARMERS'
MARKETS IN FLORIDA. . * . . . 102

Legislative History and General Provisions

State Agricultural Marketing Board
State Farmers' Markets
Director of State Markets

Type, Date, and Location of Markets
Constructed

State Farmers' Markets by Areas

Fixed Assets in Markets and Equipment
Sales by Product Classification
Amount and Sources of Income
Operating Expenses
Profit and Loss
Seasons of Profit or Loss for Markets
Income, Operating Expenses, and Profit in
Relation to Sales
Returns on Investments in Fixed Assets
Changes in Operation for State Markets

Operational Support and Utilization of
Services
Trading Practices

V. OPERATIONS OF FARMERS' MARKETS SELLING
VEGETABLES, . . . . . . . 145

History of Vegetable Markets

Area 1

Bonifay
Brooker
Gadsden County
Starke
Area 1 summary


Page










Paeg


Area 2

Bushnell
Fort Pierce
Palatka
Palmetto
Plant City
Sanford
Wauchula
Area 2 summary

Area 3

Florida City
Fort Myers
Immokalee
Pahokee
Pompano
Area 3 summary

Summary of All State Vegetable Markets

Vegetable Acreage, Number and Size of Vege-
table Farms, and State Vegetable Markets
Carlot Volume by Areas of All Vegetables
Combined
Principal Products at State Markets
Value of Vegetables Sold at State Markets
by Areas
Summary of the Markets that Closed

VI. CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH- AND LOW-VOLUME
VEGETABLE MARKETS . .* * * 265

Importance of Volume

Operating Results
Carlot Quantities Handled

Length of Operating Season and Daily Volume










Pace


Kind and Quantity of Vegetables in
Market Areas
Number and Size of Farms in Market Areas
Vegetable Production Density in Market
Areas

Importance of Various Market Areas as a
Source for Terminal Market Supplies
Facilities
Management

VII. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED MARKETS, . . . 302

Pompano State Farmers' Market

Vegetable Production in the Pompano Area

Important items
Proportion of area vegetables sold at
state market

Market Facilities
Methods of Operation
Sales, Income, and Expenses
Management Opinions Regarding Market
Operation and Practices

Market advisory committee
Packing houses
Merchandising

Grower Use and Image of Market

Growers surveyed and market use
Grower attitudes toward market
Grower suggestions for improvements

Buyer Image and Opinions of the Pompano
market

Buyers interviewed
Buyer attitudes toward market
Opinions and problems
Buyers' suggestions for improvements


vii










Chapter


Summary and Appraisal of the Pompano
Market

Summary
Appraisal

Starke State Farmers* Market

Market Facilities and Operation
Sales, Income, and Expenses
Management Opinions Regarding Market
Operation and Practices
Grower Use and Image of the State Market

Growers surveyed and market use
Grower attitudes toward market
Grower suggestions for improvement

Buyer Image and Opinions of the Starke
Market

Buyer attitudes and opinions
Buyers' suggestions for improvements

Appraisal of the Starke Market

VIII. CRITERIA AND PRINCIPLES FOR ESTABLISHMENT AND
OPERATION OF FARMERS' MARKETS PLANNED TO
HANDLE VEGETABLES . . . * . # 380

Criteria for Establishing and Operating
Farmers' Produce Markets
Criteria for Establishing and Operating
State Farmers' Markets for Vegetables
Check List for Evaluation of Current
Operations

IX. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . 391

Summary
Recommendations


viii










Pace

APPENDIX. . . . s . . * o . 403

BIBLIOGRAPHY* . o . . . . . . w 435

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . o . . . . 440














LIST OF TABLES


Table Pose

1. Number and kind of State Farmers' Markets,
total sales, and sales of Florida-produced
vegetables, 1935-60. .. . . . . 2

2. Acreage of vegetables harvested and index of
change since 1899, United States and Florida,
by decades, 1899-1959. . . . . . 6

3. Shipping-point value of Florida vegetables
and State Farmers' Market sales of Florida-
produced vegetables, 1938-60 . . . . 11

4. Railway mileage in the United States, by
decades, 1910-60 . . . . . 20

5. Mileage of surfaced rural roads in the United
States, at five-year intervals, 1925-60. . 21

6. Truck registration in the United States, by
decades, 1908-58 . . . . . .. 21

7. Mileage of railroads in Florida, by decades,
1860-1920 and 1925 . . . . . . . 25

8. Acreage, production, and value of major commer-
cial vegetables for fresh market, Florida,
1925-60. . . . . . . . . 34

8a. Acreage, production, and value of minor commer-
cial vegetables for fresh market, Florida,
1952-60o . . . . . . . 37

8b. Acreage, production, and value of major and
minor commercial vegetables for fresh
market, Florida, 1952-60 . . . .* 38










Table Face

9. Number of farms reporting vegetables harvested
for sale and average acreage of vegetables
harvested per vegetable farm, by areas, in
Florida, by decades, 1919-59 . . # . 40

10. Acreage of vegetables harvested in Florida,
in various areas, percentage of total acreage,
and relative change in acreage, by decades,
1899-59.. . 0 0 0 0 42

11. Ranking of three most important counties and
acreage for major vegetable crops in
Florida in 1890, 1900, 1910, and 1920. . . 45

12. Lima bean acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1933-34 to 1959-60... . . . 51

13. Snap bean acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. .. . . . 52

14. Cabbage acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. . .. . 54

15. Cantaloupe acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. . .. . . 55

16. Carrot acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1944-45 to 1948-49. . . . .. 56

17. Cauliflower acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1944-45 to 1959-60. .. . . . 56

18. Celery acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. . . . . 58

19. Sweet corn acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1947-48 to 1959-60. . . . .. 59

20. Cucumber acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. . . . . 60

21. Eggplant acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. . . . .. 62









Table Pae

22. Endive and escarole acreage, by seasons and
areas, Florida, 1028-29 to 1959-60 . . . 63

23. Lettuce acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60 . . . . . . . 64

24. Green pea acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1948-49. . . . . 65

25. Pepper acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. . . . . 67

26. Irish potato acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. . . . 68

27. Squash acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1947-48 to 1959-60. . . .. . 69

28. Strawberry acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. . . . . 71

29* Tomato acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60.... . . . 72

30. Watermelon acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida, 1928-29 to 1959-60. . . . . 73

31. Number of shipping-point fruit and vegetable
markets in operation and volume sold in
the United States at five-year intervals,
1913-48.0. . .0. .0 . .0 . . . 94

32. Wholesale assemblers of fresh fruit and vege-
tables in the United States, 1929, 1939,
and 1948 . . . . . . . . . 98

33. Year of construction and location of all State
Farmers' Markets, type of products handled,
and whether market showed profit or loss . 115

34. Number of State Farmers' Markets operated, total
annual value of fixed assets, and average
value per market,,1935-60. * * . * 122


xii











35. Amount and percentage of sales recorded at
State Farmers' Markets, by type of products,
1935-60. * a . .o . o 124

36. Amount and percentage of total income of
State Farmers' Markets, by sources, 1935-60. 128

37. State Farmers' Markets' operating expenses,
1935-60. * 0 # * * 0 0 0 131

38. Income, operating expenses, and profit or loss
for State Farmers' Markets, 1935-60. . . 133

39. State Farmers' Markets' sales, income, operating
expenses, and profit or loss stated in
dollars and as a percentage of sales, 1935-60 137

40. Operating profit and fixed assets for State
Farmers' Markets, 1935-60. . . .. . 140

41. State Farmers' Markets for vegetables arranged
in order of first sales, showing the location
by areas in Florida. * * ........ 146

42. Bonifay State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures, and
fixed assets valuation, 1958-60. . . 151

43. Bonifay State Farmers' Market for vegetables
Annual sales volume, by items, 1958-60 . . 152

44. Brooker State Farmers' Market for vegetables.
Annual sales, major operational figures, and
fixed assets valuation, 1952-60. . . . 153

45. Brooker State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales volume, by items, 1952-60 . . 155

46. Gadsden County State Farmers' Market for
vegetables. Annual sales, major operational
figures, and fixed assets valuation, 1955-60 157


xiii









Table PaSe

47. Gadsden County State Farmers' Market for
vegetables: Annual sales volume, by items,
1955-60. . . o . . . . 159

48. Starke State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures,
and fixed assets valuation, 1938-60. . . 161

49. Starke State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales volume, by items, 1939-60 . . 163

50. All Florida state vegetable markets in
Area I: Annual major operating figures and
fixed assets valuation of four state vege-
table markets, 1935-60 . . . . . . 168

51. Bushnell State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures, and
fixed assets valuation, 1942-46. . . . 171

52. Bushnell State Farmers*' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales volume, by items, 1942-46 . . 172

53. Fort Pierce State Farmers' Market for vege-
tables: Annual sales, major operational
figures, and fixed assets valuation, 1941-60 173

54. Fort Pierce State Farmers' Market for vege-
tables: Annual sales volume, by items,
1941-60 . . . a . . . . 175

55. Palatka State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures,
and fixed assets valuation, 1938-60. # . . 181

56. Palatka State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales volume, by items, 1939-60 . . 183

57. Palmetto State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures, and
fixed assets valuation, 1938-59. . . .. 188


xiv









Page


58. Palmetto State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales volume, by items, 1939-59 . . 189

59. Plant City State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures, and
fixed assets valuation, 1939-60 . . . 194

60. Plant City State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales volume, by items, 1939-60 . . 196

61. Sanford State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures,
and fixed assets valuation, 1935-60. * . 201

62. Sanford State Farmers' Market for vegetables.
Annual sales volume, by items, 1939-60 . . 203

63. Wauchula State Farmers' Market for vegetables
Annual sales, major operational figures,
and fixed assets valuation, 1937-60. . . 207

64. Wauchula State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales volume, by items, 1939-60 . . 209

65. All Florida state vegetable markets in Area 2:
Annual major operating figures and fixed
assets valuation of seven state vegetable
markets, 1935-60 . . . . . . . 213

66. Florida City State Farmers' Market for vege-
tabless Annual sales, major operational
figures, and fixed assets valuation, 1940-60 216

67. Florida City State Farmers' Market for vege-
tables: Annual sales volume, by items,
1940-60.. # o . . o . . 217

68. Fort Myers State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures, and
fixed assets valuation, 1946-60, . . . 222

69. Fort Myers State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales volume, by items, 1946-60 . . 224










Table Page

70. Immokalee State Farmnners' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures, and
fixed assets valuation, 1952-60. . . . 227

71. Immnokalee State Farmers' Market for vegetables$
Annual sales volume, by items, 1952-60 . . 229

72. Pahokee State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures,
and fixed assets valuation, 1942-60. . . 231

73. Pahokee State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales volume, by items, 1942-60 . . 233

74. Pompano State Farmers' Market for vegetables:
Annual sales, major operational figures,
and fixed assets valuation, 1940-60. . . 238

75. Pompano State Farmers' Market for vegetables
Annual sales volume, by items, 1940-60 . . 240

76. All Florida state vegetable markets in Area 3s
Annual major operating figures and fixed
assets valuation of five state vegetable
markets, 1940-60 . . . . . . . 246

77. All Florida state vegetable markets: Annual
major operating figures and fixed assets
valuation, 1935-60 . . . . . . . 249

78. Florida State Farmers' Markets for vegetables:
Carlot volume of all vegetables combined
shipped from Florida and those reported by
state markets annually, by areas, 1939-60. . 253

79. Vegetable products handled at state vegetable
markets in order of importance on a per
market basis, by areas, 1955-56 to 1959-60
season ... . . . . . . 257


xvi











80. Farm value of all Florida vegetables, state
vegetable market sales, and the proportion
of farm value reported by state markets
annually, by areas, 1939-60. . . 260

81. Average sales and annual income for high-volume
and low-volume state vegetable markets,
1938-60. .. . . . ... . . . . 271

82. Profit or loss annually for high-volume and
low-volume state vegetable markets, 1938-60. 274

83. Fixed assets annually for high-volume and
low-volume state vegetable markets, 1938-60. 276

84. Carlot equivalents of vegetables reported by
high-volume and low-volume state vegetable
markets, and income per carlot, 1939-60. . 278

85. Length of operating season for high-volume and
low-volume state vegetable markets, and the
average annual carlot volume for 1935-36 to
1959-60 seasons. .. .... . ..... 281

86. Kind and quantity of vegetables produced in
market areas for high-volume and low-volume
state markets compared with the kind and
quantity of vegetables handled, 1955-56 to
1959-60 seasons. * *...... .* * * * * 283

87. Number and size of farms and the number and
size of vegetable farms in the market areas
of high-volume and low-volume state vegetable
markets in 1959. . . . . . . . 288

88. Important Florida vegetables, with the propor-
tion of each unloaded in major United States
cities during certain seasons of the year,
and the counties with highest shipping volume,
1958 to 1961 . . . . . . . . 290

89. Sources of income for high-volume and low-volume
state vegetable markets, average per year,
1955-56 to 1959-60 seasons . . . . . 294


xvii










Page


90. Number, acreage, and size of all farms and
vegetable farms, Broward County, by decades,
1919-59. v . . . . . . . 305

91. Acreage and production of vegetables in the
Pompano State Farmers' Market area, by
seasons, 1951-60 . . . . . . 307

92. Vegetable production by items in the Pompano
area and quantities sold at the State
Farmers' Market, average for five seasons,
1955-56 through 1959-60. . . .. . .. 310

93* Important operating figures for the Pompano
State Farmers' Market, average for five
seasons, 1955-56 through 1959-60 . . . 315

94. Vegetable crops grown by 25 growers interviewed
in the Pompano State Farmers' Market area and
the number of growers raising each crop during
the 1959-60 season . . . . . . . 321

95. Use of the Pompano State Farmers' Market by
vegetable growers interviewed 25 growers,
1959-60 season . . . . . . . . 321

96. Vegetable growers in the Pompano area who were
not using the State Farmers' Market at time
of interview, 3 growers out of 25 inter-
viewed, 1959-60 season . . . .* . 323

97. Response to question: "What do you think of
the Pompano State Farmers' Market Operations "f
25 growers, Pompano area, 1959-60 season . 325

98. Opinions of vegetable growers in the Pompano
area concerning a farmers' advisory committee
to work on problems with the manager of the
State Farmers' Market; 25 growers, 1959-60
season . . . *. o * 326


xviii









Table


99. Response to question: "Do you have any ideas
for improving the State Farmers' Market? "j
25 growers, Pompano area, 1959-60 season . 328

100. Response to question: "Would you like to
see some changes made for selling your
vegetables at the State Farmers' Market? "I
22 growers out of 25 interviewed, Pompano
area, 1959-60 season . . . . 329

101. Response to question: "How would you describe
the Pompano State Farmers* Market as a
place to buy produce?"l 15 buyers, 1960-61
season . . . . . . . . . 332

102. Response to question: "Are buyers and growers
treated fairly at the market?"i 15 buyers,
Pompano market, 1960-61 season . . . . 334

103. Response to questions "What are the greatest
problems experienced in this market by:
(a) Buyers? (b) growers?"; 15 buyers,
Pompano market, 1960-61 season . . 336

104. Buyer opinions on preferences for traders and
method of trade- 15 buyers, Pompano market,
1960-61 season.. . . . . . 339

105. Response to questions What is your idea of
an ideal method of buying produce?": 15
buyers, Pompano market, 1960-61 season . . 341

106. Response to questions "If you were to become
manager of this market, for what changes
would you work?"t 15 buyers, Pompano market,
1960-61 season . . . 0 . . 342

107. Response to questions "If you were a grower
in this area, how would you sell your vege-
tables?"; 15 buyers, Pompano market, 1960-61
season . . . . . . . . 343


xix











108. Response to question: "What changes do you
see for vegetable marketing in the future
for this area?"; 15 buyers, Pompano market,
1960-61 season . . . . . . . . 343

109. Number, acreage, and size of all farms and
vegetable farms in the Starke State Farmers'
Market area, by decades, 1919-59 . . . 350

110. Vegetable production by items in the Starke
area and the quantities sold at the State
Farmers' Market, average for five seasons,
1955-56 through 1959-60. . .. *. . 351

111. Important operating figures for the Starke
State Farmers' Market, average for five
seasons, 1955-56 through 1959-60 . . . 355

112. Vegetable crops grown by 26 growers inter-
viewed in the Starke State Farmers' Market
area and the number of growers raising each
crop during the 1959-60 season . . . . 358

113. Use of the Starke State Farmers' Market by
vegetable growers interviewed; 26 growers,
1959-60 season . . . . . . 359

114. Vegetable growers in the Starke area who were
not using the State Farmers' Market at time
of interview 2 growers out of 26 inter-
viewed, 1959-60 season . . . . . . 360

115. Response to questions "What do you think of
the Starke State Farmers' Market operations?";
26 growers, Starke area, 1959-60 season. . 362

116. Opinions of vegetable growers in the Starke
area concerning a farmers' advisory com-
mittee to work on problems with the manager
of the State Farmers' Market; 26 growers,
1959-60 season . . . . . . . . 363









Table Pam

117. Response to question: "Do you have any
ideas for improving the State Farmers'
Market?"1 26 growers, Starke area,
1959-60 season . . . .. . . . 365

118. Response to question: "Would you like to
see some changes made for selling your
vegetables at the State Farmers' Market?"I
24 growers out of 26 interviewed, Starke
area, 1959-60 season ..., . .* 367

119. Response to questions "How would you
describe the Starke State Farmers' Market
as a place to buy produce?"l five buyers,
1960-61 season . . # . . . . 368

120. Response to questions "Are buyers and
growers treated fairly at the market?"p
five buyers, Starke market, 1960-61 season o 371

121. Response to questions "What are the greatest
problems experienced in this market byt
(a) Buyers (b) growers?"p five buyers,
Starke market, 1960-61 season. . . . 372

122. Buyer opinions on preferences for traders
and method of trade, five buyers, Starke
market, 1960-61 se on . . . . 374

123. Response to questions "What is your idea of
an ideal method of buying produce? "I five
buyers, Starke market, 1960-61 season. . . 375

124. Response to questions "If you were to become
manager of this market, for what changes
would you work?"l five buyers, Starke market,
1960-61 season. ... . . * # 376

125. Response to questions "If you were a grower
in this area, how would you sell your vege-
tables?"I five buyers, Starke market,
1960-61 season . . . . . . .. 377


xxi










Paae


126. Response to question: "What changes do you
see for vegetable marketing in the future
for this area?"I five buyers, Starke mar-
ket, 1960-61 season. . . . . . . 377

127. Acreage, production, and value of commercial
vegetables for fresh market, United States,
1925-60. .. . . . . & . 404


xxii














LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


Page


1. Floridas Divisions of the state based on
earliness of vegetable shipping season,
going from south to north. . . .


2. Trend in commercial vegetable production in
Florida and the United States. (1945
100 per cent) (Includes melons, Irish
potatoes, strawberries, and sweet pota-
toeso) . o o . . a # o .

3. Florida. Location of State Farmers* Markets
built by Agricultural Marketing Board and
type of products handled * * .

4. Floridas Location of State Farmers' Markets
selling vegetables. Those circled are no
longer in operation. * * * * 0 0 0

5. Floridas Location of State Farmers' Markets
and market areas of the high-volume and
low-volume vegetable markets o . .


xxiii


S 33



114



149



* 268














CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


State Farmers' Markets were developed in Florida

to alleviate the problem of small growers finding buyers

who would purchase their products. They were planned so

that buyers could concentrate at such markets in the various

production areas and pay cash for all farm products offered

for sale. These markets have proved successful for selling

some items in certain areas, but have not been successful

in all areas or for all products.

Vegetables have become the most important group of

farm products handled at State Farmers' Markets (Table 1).

More markets have been established for vegetables than for

any other group of products. However, all vegetable mar-

kets have not operated with equal success. What causes

sowe vegetable markets to work more effectively than others?

Why do some vegetable markets attract nearly all of the

local production while others get only a small proportion

of the available supplies?

These are two of the many questions which might be








TABLE 1.-Number and kind of State Farmers' Markets,,
total sales, and sales of Florida-produced vegetables,
1935-60


Markets Operating
Season ... . .
Ending Selling Vegetables
June 30 Total -.. .... ....
Number Number Per Cent


1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960


100
100
100
89
60
63
62
54
52
44
45
56
56
58
61
57
55
59
70
74
79
83
83
79
79
78


Sources: Florida, State Agricultural Marketing
Board, Annual Reports; and Office of the Director,
Florida State Markets, Winter Haven, Florida.
aIncludes markets selling combinations of items
and not necessarily specialized vegetable markets.
bSales not classified.










TABLE 1.-Extension


Sales

Markets Selling Vegetablesa
All ......
Markets Amount Per Cent of All Markets


($1,00o0)
b
b
b
715
3,221
5,757
8,683
9,552
15,079
15,984
17,931
24,176
25, 234
22,218
30,819
29,633
34.129
39.634
34,752
33,939
42.,267
43,230
42,622
34.754
39,787
46,358


($1,000)
519
750
800
1,704
4,619
7,224
11,169
13.291
20,141
23,316
24,616
31,211
33,896
28,928
38,354
35.410
44,929
46,910
41,118
39,317
46,886
48,346
48, 210
40,305
46,509
52.141









asked, pertaining to the success of these markets. An

attempt is made in this dissertation to answer some of

these questions. Some light is thrown on other questions

that remain unanswered.



Commercial Vegetable Development


Large-scale commercial vegetable production in

Florida was made possible by the improvement of transpor-

tation, the development of production and marketing tech-

nology, and the adoption of refrigeration and other tech-

niques for quality maintenance. Fast transportation has

put Florida production areas only two to five days away

from the major city markets in the north. Improved hand-

ling, preparation, and refrigeration have permitted highly

perishable items to arrive in the northern cities at the

peak of quality and condition.

It was just before the turn of the century that

vegetables1 were first produced commercially in Florida.


'The term "vegetables," as used in this paper,
includes certain crops not usually referred to as vege-
tables, such as melons, Irish potatoes, strawberries, and
sweet potatoes, unless otherwise indicated. These items
are included in the category of vegetables because of their
similarity in cultural practices, post-harvest handling
requirements, marketing methods, and distribution. Melons








Records indicate that Chase and Company was among the first

to send cars of produce north under ice refrigeration.

These early shipments took place during the 1890-91 season.2

The vegetable industry of Florida has had a con-

tinuous expansion from 1899 to date (Table 2). The decade

of the 1920's brought the greatest increase in acreage.

Nearly 84,000 more acres were harvested in 1929 than in

1919, This was an 80 per cent increase. Vegetable-industry

expansion during this period was so fast that marketing

methods and facilities did not keep pace.

The total number of farms in Florida increased

quite rapidly during the decade of the 1920's. As new

areas of the state were developed for production, more

people came to Florida to find their fortunes.

With most of the population being rural and depend-

tnt upon a relatively nonprofitable agriculture, both

state and federal governments were encouraging and fostering

farmer cooperative associations as a means for farmers to

strengthen their competitive position. In an effort to


and strawberries are sometimes considered as fruits Irish
potatoes and sweet potatoes are sometimes referred to as
field crops.

2W. A. Sherman, Merchandisin Fruits and Vegetables
(New Yorks A, W. Shaw Co., 1928), p. 33.









TABLE 2.--Acreage of vegetables harvested and index of
change since 1899, United States and Florida, by decades,
1899-1959a



Acres of Vegetables Index of Acreage
Harvested (1899 100)

Year
United United
States Florida States Florida


1899 5,904,564 54,620 100 100

1909 5,462,616 89,447 93 164

1919 5,598,801 105,045 95 192

1929 6,648,473 188,919 113 346

1939 6,569,007 230,287 111 422

1949 5,726,699 286,816 97 525

1959 5,006,261 303,624 85 556



SoSrcez U. S., Department of Commerce, Bureau of
Census, United States Census of Agriculture, 1900-60.
aIncludes melons, Irish potatoes, strawberries, and
sweet potatoes.









help Florida farmers find sales outlets and to sell at

established f.o.b. prices rather than ship on consignment,

the State Legislature of Florida created the Agricultural

Marketing Board in its 1929 session.3

The duties of this board, as defined by law, were

tos (1) Assist, aid, and promote agricultural and market-

ing associations (2) give instructions in the operation

of agricultural and marketing associations (3) provide

crop and market information; (4) locate markets and buyersy7

(5) instruct in suitable methods of packing, shipping, and

distribution; (6) carry on research work in marketing and

(7) provide information and assistance necessary for effi-

cient selling of farm products.

Programs of the Agricultural Marketing Board, as

spelled out in the 1929 law, were slow in getting started.

In 1933, while the entire nation was in a serious financial

depression, the State Legislature broadened the authority

of the Agricultural Marketing Board to permit ownership and

operation of State Farmers' Markets.4 By this time, it was

clear that the inwediate need in the principal vegetable-


3Florida, Laws of Florida, 1929 General Laws, Vol-
ume 1. Chapter 13809, No. 245 (Tallahassee, Florida), p. 630.

4Florida, Laws of Florida, 1933 General Laws, Vol-
ume 1, Chapter 15860, No. 5 (Tallahassee, Florida), p. 22.









producing areas was a common meeting place for buyers and

sellers* It was felt that research and educational features

of the law could produce benefits in the long run, but the

State Farmers* Markets could produce needed relief at once.

In the 1934-35 season, the first State Farmers'

Market opened for business at Sanford. By the close of the

season, $518,625 worth of farm produce had been sold. Ten

years later, 29 markets were operated by the Agricultural

Marketing Board. To date, a total of 40 markets has been

built, but only 18 operated during the 1959-60 season. The

high point in sales was reached during the 1959-60 season,

when farm products sold at these markets brought

$52,141,000.5

In January, 1961, as required by the 1959 Legisla-

ture's reorganization plan, the Agricultural Marketing

Board was dissolved and a State Markets' Section was estab-

lished within the Marketing Division of the Florida Depart-

ment of Agriculture.6 This law makes the Commissioner of

Agriculture responsible for the property and operations of

the State Farmers' Markets.


5Records of the Agricultural Marketing Board and the
office of the Director, State Farmers' Markets.

6Florida, Laws of Florida, 1959 General Laws, Vol-
ume 1, Chapter 59-54 (Tallahassee, Florida), p. 74.









The Problems


Florida's State Farmers' Markets have operated for

25 years. An intensive study of the system has not been

made to evaluate, consolidate, or reorganize its operations

or procedures. The success of quite a few markets, as

measured in terms of quantity and values of farm products

handled, has been very impressive. But there are other

measurements of success which should be considered. Florida

pioneered the field of State Farmers' Markets, and there were

no recognized measurements for determining success that were

based on experience elsewhere. Since there was no pattern

or procedure for the Florida program to follow, markets were

developed where they seemed to be needed. Apparently, the

development process was one of "trial and error," with the

workable methods tried again as each new market was estab-

lished.

Although number and composition of buyers, number

and volume handled by sellers, and the techniques of distri-

bution have changed considerably, state markets have changed

but little. In each of the years for which a breakdown of

sales is available, vegetables have been the most important

group of products sold in terms of total sales (Table 1).

During the last 20 years, Florida-grown vegetables accounted









for more than two-thirds of state market sales and in the

last few years totaled nearly 90 per cent.

A sizeable proportion of all Florida vegetables has

been handled by state markets. Comparable information is

available only as far back as the 1937-38 season, when 2.4

per cent of the total shipping-point value7 was credited to

state markets. Since World War II, sales at state markets

have ranged between 23 and 29.5 per cent of the value of

all vegetables sold in this state. The highest proportion

was attained in the 1946-47 season (Table 3).

Very little is known about the influences that

State Farmers' Markets have had on vegetable marketing

practices or of the internal problems of market operations.

Some think that a State Farmers' Market, located in an area,

will automatically cause it to become a successful vegetalle-

producing center. Therefore, requests have been made for

markets to be established in many areas before any marketing

research was carried out to determine their potentiality or

feasibility. Some markets built without prior study and


7Total shipping-point value of Florida vegetables
is the equivalent of f.o.b., value used by some references.
This value includes grower returns and cost of preparation
for sale when such preparation is necessary. Selling
charges are not included.









TABLE 3.-Shipping-point value of Florida vegetables and
State Farmers$ Market sales of Florida-produced vegetables,
1938-60


Season
Ending Total Shipping- Vegetable Sales Per Cent at
June 30 Point Value at State Markets State Markets


($1,000) ($1,000)

1938 29,937 715 2.4
1939 40,385 3,221 8.0
1940 37.253 5,757 15.5
1941 41,290 8,683 21.0
1942 52,131 9,552 18.3
1943 77,496 15,079 19.5
1944 82,522 15,984 19.4
1945 96,792 17,931 18.5
1946 98,383 24,176 24.6
1947 85,405 25,234 29.5
1948 90,977 22,218 24.4
1949 121,557 30,819 25.4
1950 110,010 29,633 26.9
1951 138,248 34,129 24.7
1952 158,997 39,634 24.9
1953 141,614 34,752 24.5
1954 136,405 33,939 24.9
1955 184,086 42,267 23.0
1956 180,732 43,230 23.9
1957 162,663 42,622 26.2
1958 132,181 34,754 26.3
1959 143,933 39,787 27.6
1960 159,082 46,358 29.1


Sources3 U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Veqetable
Crops. Annual Statistical Summaries, 1938-601 and Florida,
State Agricultural Marketing Board, Annual Reports.









investigation have been closed as failures, while others,

though still operating, have never been successful by

normally accepted measurements.



Purpose of the Study


It is the purpose of this study to find out how

well State Farmers' Markets, selling vegetables, serve the

interests of producers and buyers. Also, it is intended

to determine why some state vegetable markets have had long

periods of marginal operation, and still others have ceased

operating.

An attempt will be made to single out the strong

positive factors which are associated with the successful

state markets where vegetables are sold. Conversely, the

strong negative factors which are associated with marginal

or closed state markets will be pointed out. From an

analysis of factors of success and failure, a criterion

will be developed that can be used either for improving

operations of present markets or for helping to assure the

success of future markets. A guide or check list of suc-

cess factors to be used by market managers, as a management

tool, could be quite helpful in improving the operations of









present markets. Such a guide would also help a great deal

in determining the establishment of any future markets.

It is believed that the criteria for vegetable mar-

ket operations could be useful in the management of State

Farmers' Markets handling other products. Also, it is

believed that such criteria could be useful in discouraging

unwise attempts by groups from certain areas of the state

to establish markets where they cannot be economically jus-

tified. The Department of Agriculture's Market Division

Director, and the section chief in charge of State Markets,

need reliable information to assist them in determining

whether a market is economically feasible when a coimimnity

organizes pressure to obtain such a facility from the

state.



Method of Study


The material presented in this report was obtained

from many sources. Authoritative references were used on

such subjects as produce-marketing history, progress, and

procedures. History of economic trends and conditions

influencing the development of the national produce indus-

try,and, more specifically, the Florida vegetable industry,









was utilized. Extensive data were compiled from such

sources as the United States Census of Agriculture, United

States Census of Business, United States Department of

Agriculture, Florida Crop Reporting Service, annual reports

of the Florida Agricultural Marketing Board, and many

others .

With specific reference to State Farmers' Markets,

information was drawn from the legislative records, state

statutes, State Marketing Bureau, files of the Director of

State Farmers' Markets, and other published and unpublished

materials concerning the establishment, financing, and

operation of the markets.

A comprehensive coverage is given to trends of the

Florida vegetable industry and their relation to the

national vegetable industry. The origin and growth of

State Farmers* Markets is covered in detail, with special

emphasis on markets that sell vegetables.

An analysis was made of all state markets as a

group which sell vegetables. Then these vegetable markets

were analyzed for each of three regions within the state.

Information for each individual state vegetable market was

analyzed to a lesser degree. Investments in land and

facilities, area and number of producers served, accounting









procedures and market management controls were all given

extensive treatment along with the length of operating

season, total seasonal volume, average daily volume, and

kinds of commodities best suited for state market sales.

The assignment of state vegetable markets on a

regional basis was accomplished by dividing the state into

three areas along the general lines which separate areas

into shipping seasons for winter, early spring, and mid-

spring vegetables. This was dona to isolate those markets

which operate during periods when the nation's vegetable

shipments are originating in the winter producing areas,

from those which operate when shipments are originating in

early spring areas or in mid-spring areas (Figure 1).8 In

addition to shipping periods, consideration was also given

to climate, soils, crops grown, and availability of census

data for each county in determining the three areas desig-

nated. Availability of census data for the areas was par-

ticularly important in the early part of this century when

numerous changes were made in county lines as new counties

were being formed.


Seasonal breakdowns corresponded with those used
by the United States Department of Agriculture Crop Report-
ing Board (winter January, February, March; spring -
April, Nay, June).



















































Figure l.--Florida: Divisions of the state based
on earliness of vegetable shipping season, going from south
to north.









Two individual markets (Pompano and Starke) were

singled out for detailed study and analysis. These were

selected because of their status in relation to other

operating state vegetable markets. They seem to represent

the extremes of state market operations. In terms of the

usually accepted measurements of success, the Pompano

market has been highly successful, while the Starke market

has always been marginal.














CHAPTER II


TRENDS IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
AND MARKETING IN FLORIDA


Prior to the advent of railroads and refrigeration,

vegetable production for fresh market was concentrated close

to the areas of heavy population. This was a matter of

convenience and necessity, but it meant that fresh vege-

tables were available only during the local season.

After refrigerator cars had been adapted to hauling

fresh vegetables, the next step was the manufacturing of

ice by mechanical means near the point of vegetable produc-

tion. This important development came around 1892 and W. A.

Sherman, former Chief Marketing Specialist with the Bureau

of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of

Agriculture, wrote.

The ice plant brought the whole south within
reach of northern markets at once. It was
not a case of a few additional miles added
each year to the radius from which supplies
could be drawn.
0 C0 W 9 0 S 0
The local manufacture of ice opened a nation-
wide area of supply, and within a relatively
short time, all the larger markets were









supplied with a year-round succession of
fresh vegetables.1

Mileage of railroad tracks in the United States

increased until around 1920 (Table 4). The number of

refrigerator cars jumped from around 10,000 in 1900 to

100,000 20 years later.2 Following the railway expansion

phase, mileage of rural surfaced roads and motor truck

numbers began an increase that continues today (Tables 5

and 6).

More recently, mechanical refrigeration has been

applied to both rail and motor truck transportation for

hauling perishables. Air freight is couxonplace for some

highly perishable items with a relatively high value.

Within the framework of transportation improvements,

refrigeration advancements, instantaneous communications,

expanding national economy and rising personal incomes, and

phenomenal advances in production and handling technology,

vegetable production for fresh market has shifted away from

market garden areas close to cities to intensive production

areas on a specialized basis. The shifts have generally been


1W. A. Sherman, Merchandising Fruits and Vegetables
(New Yorks A. W. Shaw Co., 1928), pp. 35-36.

2Id. ., p. 31.















TABLE 4.-Railway mileage in the United States, by decades,
1910-60



Year Miles


1900 193,346

1910 240,293

1920 252,845

1930 249,052

1940 233,670

1950 223,779

1960 216,999



Source: U. S., Department of Commerce, Bureau of
Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1960.









TABLE 5.--Mileage
States, at


of surfaced rural roads in the United
five-year intervals, 1925-60


Year


Miles


1925
1930
1935
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960


521,000
694,000
1,063,000
1,340,000
1,495,000
1,679,000
1,942,000
2,203,000


Source: U. S., Department of Commerce, Bureau
of Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States,
1960.


TABLE 6.-Truck


registration in the United States, by
decades, 1908-58


Year


Number


1908
1918
1928
1938
1948
1958


4,000
605,496
3,171,542
4,418,859
7,537,911
11,200,000


Sources Automobile Manufacturers Association,
Motor Truck Facts, 1959.









from the north and east to the south and west. Recent

United States Department of Agriculture information lists

California first and Florida second in all three categories

of fresh-market vegetable ratings acreage, production,

and value.3



Early History and Shifts in Pzoduction Areas


One of the earliest centers for development of vege-

table production at a considerable distance from market was

along the shores of the Chesapeake Bay. There fast-sailing

oyster boats were employed for sending the produce to the

neighboring markets of Baltimore and Philadelphia. With the

close of the Civil War and the subsequent opening of direct

north-south railroad lines, commercial vegetable production

gradually extended down the coast from the Del-Mar-Va penin-

sula to Norfolk and then to Charleston, Savannah, Jackson-

ville, and other cities in Florida.4

It was in 1866 that ice was first used to maintain

freshness and quality of fresh produce during rail shipments.


3U. S., Department of Agriculture, Vecetables -
Fresh Market 1959 Annual Summary (Washington: Agricultural
Marketing Service, 1959).
4
U. S., Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of Agri-
cultue, 1900 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office,
1901), p. 439.








In that year, strawberry shipments were made from Illinois

to eastern cities with crates containing 200 quarts of

berries packed in a large chest surrounded by ice. Later,

a "pony" refrigeration box was used to ship Florida straw-

berries north. Refrigerator rail cars were used first in

Florida in 1884 for strawberry shipments to northern mar-

kets. 5

Both water and rail transportation played vital

parts in the early days of the fresh vegetable industry.

For a time, it was first one and then the other that took

the lead in hauling fresh vegetables to market. And for a

long period, it took a combination of both water and rail

transportation to successfully market Florida produce.

The first fresh Florida produce known to have been

sold in major United States eastern cities was in 1873.

The item was oranges, hauled to New York by boat. Early

produce shipments were sent all the way to market by boat

or sent to Jacksonville or Savannah by rail and from there

by boat to seaport cities in the northeast.6

Direct rail shipments were not possible prior to

1886. The railroads were not standardized as to gauge of


5Jik_. ,p. 444.
6
6C. B. Naloney, Marketina FloridaCitru-s Frults
(Gainesville, Floridat University of Florida. 1918), pp. 3
and 39.








track and types of cars, and through traffic was unknown.

Products shipped by rail had to be transferred from one

train to another at various intervals. This was not only

expensive but also injurious to perishable merchandise.

However, on an appointed day in 1886, a change to standard

gauge was made. By 1887, direct rail service between

Florida and New York was commonplace.7 The first rail car-

load of oranges from Florida arrived in New York in 18871

in 1889, the first all-rail refrigerator car of Florida

strawberries arrived there.8

Since railroads provided the initial transportation

for commercial vegetable production in Florida, railroad

development is reviewed briefly. Table 7 gives the rail-

road mileage up through 1925. An article written by E. 0.

Cullen of Washington, D. C., gives some idea of where these

railroads were located.9 In 1860, before the Civil War,

railroads connected Jacksonville with Quincy and Fernandina


7Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station, A Study
of the Cost of Transportation of Florida Citrus Fruits with
Comparative Costs from Other Producing Areas, Bulletin No.
217 (Gainesville, Floridas University of Florida, 1930).
p. 25.

%. S., Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of
Agriculture, 1907 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing
Office, 1908), p. 426.

9Nathan Mayo, Forida (Tallahassee, Floridas Flor-
ida Department of Agriculture, 1928), pp. 97-103.












TABLE 7.-M4ileage of railroads in Florida, by decades,
1860-1920 and 1925


Year


Miles


1860

1870

1880

1890

1900

1910

1920

1925


402

446

518

2,471

3,299

4,432

5,212

5,452


Soures: U. S., Department of Commerce, Bureau
of Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States.
1926.









with Cedar Key. H. B. Plant began building railroads in

1879 to give the Tampa Bay area direct connections with

national railroad systems. By 1890, the Atlantic Coast

Line had provided rail service to the navigable areas of

the St. Johns River and central Florida. During the 1890's,

H. M. Flagler was building railroads on the Florida east

coast. At the turn of the century, Miami could be reached

by rail. In 1902, the Atlantic Coast Line bought the Plant

railroad. Key West was given rail service in 1912. In

1915, the four leading railroad companies in Florida -

Atlantic Coast Line, Florida East Coast, Louisville and

Nashville, and Seaboard Air Line all began a vigorous

building program to conquer the "wilderness of Florida."

As late as 1925, the Seaboard Air Line built tracks from

Coleman to West Palm Beach.


Important Crops and Early Production Areas

Strawberries were the first truck crop shipped from

Florida. (In this study, strawberries and melons have been

included with vegetables.) Strawberries were grown on an

intensive basis at Lawtey in the 1880's. Stephen Powers was

credited with making extensive plantings and perfecting









successful shipping methods. 10 Lawtey is located on the

former Fernandina-Cedar Ke railroad.

About the same time that Lawtey was developing as

the strawberry center of Florida, the Kirkwood-Micanopy

area was becoming a center of production for tender vege-

tables of all kinds. This area had considerable frost pro-

tection from Payne's Prairie, Levy Lake, and Orange Lake,

plus the fact that rail service was available on the north

side of Payne's Prairie. Gainesville was on the Fernandina-

Cedar Key railroad. In the early days, Payne's Prairie was

a large body of water and vegetables were shipped by boat

from the south side to the north shore for rail shipment to

northern markets.

H. L. Rosenberger, the writer's grandfather, came

to work in the citrus industry at Fairbanks in 1882. He

moved to Kirkwood in 1887 in search of a warmer climate when

the citrus trees at Fairbanks were killed by a freeze. H.

L. Rosenberger lived at Kirkwood until his death in 1947.

His son, 2. D, Rosenberger, the writer's father, was born

at Kirkwood in 1889, and still makes his home there. He

10P. H. Rolfs, "Founders of Florida Horticulture,"
Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society
(1935), p. 139.









has vivid recollections of the early vegetable industry at

Kirkwood.

Irish potatoes, another vegetable item grown early

in Florida history, was first produced commercially at

Hastings. Hastings is on the Florida East Coast railroad.

In the 1880's, an agricultural writer had "proved conclusively*

that Irish potatoes could not be grown in Florida, especially

not at Hastings. The potato growers there proved him wrong.11

The freeze of 1894-95 put vegetables, in general, on

a commercial production basis in Florida. Formerly success-

ful citrus growers had their trees frozen to the ground and

many turned to vegetable growing as a means of survival.12

Sanford and Palmetto were two locations where growers

switched from citrus to vegetables in a very short time.

The story of how celery production began at Sanford

on the Atlantic Coast Line railroad is told by Ben Whitner.

Prior to the 1894-95 freeze, celery was grown there only in

home gardens. When the citrus trees were frozen, celery was

planted as a cash crop. Lack of water control, diseases,

and frost plagued production! and, after a crop was made,

marketing problems were just as serious. California had a

tight control on winter and spring celery production and


11Ibid.. p. 138. 12"bd.









distribution outlets. With threats of blacklisting whole-

sale receivers, California shippers tried to hold their

accounts and keep Florida celery out of the markets. Flor-

ida celery supplies in the early years of production were

not dependable and the season was short. Blacklisting

wholesale receivers from regular, dependable California

supplies was a real threat. Chase and Company of Sanford

began breaking market resistance to Florida celery by send-

ing free samples to wholesale receivers, and immediately
13
following up the samples with personal contacts.

The Manatee River area around Palmetto and the off-

shore islands in that area were growing vegetables of many

kinds long before the freezes of 1894-95, but the freeze

intensified the interest in, and culture of, vegetables.

Mrs. Jessie J. Nettles was born in 1884 and lived

most of her life at Palmetto. She remembers how vegetables

were packed and hauled to Tampa by boat for rail shipment

to northern markets, before railroads were built south of

Tampa. Mrs. Nettles also remembers the construction of

railroads in the Manatee River area just before the turn of

the century. The H. B. Plant Railroad system was first to


13M. R. Ensign, "What Price Celery?" (Unpublished
Papery Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida, Vege-
table Crops Department files, 1926.)









reach the Manatee River area, but the Seaboard Air Line

subsequently extended rail service to the Palmetto-Bradenton

area,

Early tomato production in Dade County developed

against the recommendations of soil chemists.14 Just before

1900, as railroad construction reached the area, a soil

chemist reported the soils of Dade County absolutely unsuit-

able for any agricultural purpose. Before the report was

completed, however, a crop of tomatoes had been successfully

grown and profitably marketed.15 (Dade County at that time

included all of the lower east coast of Florida from St.

Lucie County south.)

The late P. H. Rolfs, former director of Florida

Agricultural Experiment Stations, once expressed the belief

that there was no area in Florida where climatic conditions

prohibited profitable vegetable growing. He stated, "The

inhibiting factor is sociological, in this is included

transportation and competent labor during rush season."16

Vegetable growing in the Everglades muck developed

from trappers, hunters, and fishermen planting home gardens.

These home gardens were so productive that the products


14Rolfs, p. 139. 15bid.0 p. 131.

16bW.. p. 138.









could not be consumed locally. The excess vegetables from

the gardens were taken by boat down the North New River

canal to Fort Lauderdale for shipment north by rail. The

Florida East Coast built a railroad into the muck areas in

1925.17

Irish potatoes in Dade County were first grown com-

mercially in the late 1920's when it was found that they
18
could be produced for sale during the early spring.1


Vegetable Production in Florida

Vegetable production for fresh market in Florida

was centered first in northern and central areas where

transportation facilities were more highly developed. As

railroad lines were extended and motor trucks came into use,

the center of vegetable activity moved southward. More

recently, vegetable production has spread throughout the

entire state. The industry has flourished with the develop-

ment of the southernmost part of Florida. Water control

and minor element application to muck soils hastened the


17H. L. Speer, "The Vegetable Deal in the Muck Lands
of Palm Beach County," Proceedings of the Florida State Hor-
ticultural Society (1951). p. 122.

aJ. A. Cox, "Production of Irish Potatoes in Marl
Soils of South Florida," Proceedings of the Florida State
Horticultural Society (1954), p. 115.









development of the Everglades area at the southern edge of

Lake Okeechobee, and made it one of the world's most famous

vegetable-producing centers.

Acreage planted to vegetables in Florida has

increased steadily since 1900 compared to a decrease for

the United States as a whole (Table 2). Between 1899 and

1959, Florida vegetable acreage, as shown in United States

Agricultural Census data, increased 456 per cent,or 249,000

acres, while the United States lost 16 per cent of its

acreage, or 898,303 acres.

In 1899, only .9 per cent of the national vegetable

acreage was in Florida; by 1959, this had increased to 6

per cent. Florida had also gained more in quantity of fresh

vegetables produced than the nation as a whole. In the last

35 years, Florida vegetable production has increased 200 per

cent, compared to an increase of 67 per cent in the total

United States production (Figure 2).



Acreage. Production, and Value


Annual Florida vegetable acreage, production, and

value of record since 1925 are presented in Table 8.19


19While there is no comparable information for the
period before 1925, it is assumed that production and value
expanded with acreage between 1900 and 1925, just as they
have since 1925.























200

180

160 Florida

140

120

100 United -/-. --
States i
80 -- -

60
40 I I III
1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960
Source: Calculated from Tables 8 and 127.

Figure 2.--Trend in commercial vegetable production in
Florida and the United States. (1945 = 100 per cent)
(Includes melons, Irish potatoes, strawberries, and sweet
potatoes.)









TABLE 8.-Acreage, production, and value of major commercial
vegetables for fresh market, Florida. 1925-60



Acreage
Year for Production Value
Harvest


(1,000 Cwt.)


(Acres)

156,010
125,480
165,360
173.280
191.910
206,950
191,900
182,450
196,200
207,700
200,800
208,900
218,400
237,250
226,450
214,800
218,700
212,450
203,050
240.300
253,950
276,900
247,600
255,580
271,850
309,300
309,050
323,100
345,350
351,800
346,550


($1.000)

36,313
37.083
32,583
37,225
38.375
41,964
32,125
25,511
20,570
30,540
29.367
30.605
35,159
30,572
43,646
37,833
45,494
54,442
80.211
77,580
99,797
102.109
82,007
92,098
120,444
107,473
139,333
154,803
135,294
137,089
180,512


1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955


10,943
9,500
10,867
11,347
12,511
11,596
12.973
9,380
11,196
12,221
10,918
10.220
11,954
15.748
14,061
14,896
13,684
12,943
12,926
15.941
18,931
19,475
15,692
19,988
22,753
27,119
29,107
30,488
32. 881
35,476
38,562









TABLE 8 .-Continu.ed


Acreage
Year for Production Value
Harvest


(Acres) (1,000 Cwt.) ($1,000)

1956 353,300 37,971 173,706
1957 369,600 34,657 1570309
1958 343,100 32,105 125,028
1959 317,200 29,165 1350120
1960 300,550 33,342 151,196



Sources: Calculated from U. S., Department of
Agriculture, Commercial Vegetables, Statistical Bulletin
No. 1261 U. 8., Department of Agriculture, Vegetables for
Fresh Market, Statistical Bulletin No. 2121 U. 8.. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Sweetpotatoes, Statistical Bulletin
No. 237j U. S., Department of Agriculture, VeYetables --
Fresh Market,. Annual Summaries, 1957-601 U. 8., Department
of Agriculture, Agricultural Statistics, 1936-611 U. 8.,
Department of Agriculture, Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable Crops, Annual Statis-
tical Summary, 19451 and U. S., Department of Agriculture,
Commercial Truck CrOsM Estimltes of Acrea, .Production
an Valued, 1918-41.









Acreage, as shown by United States Department of Agricul-

ture Commercial Vegetables reports, increased from 156,010

in 1925 to 369,600 in 1957 and declined to 300,550 in 1960.

Production in 1925 was around 10,900,000 hundredweights.

Peak production of the major commercial vegetable crops

included in Table 8 was attained in 1955 when 38,500,000

hundred weights were harvested. Only 33,300,000 hundred-

weights were produced in 1960. Value was $36,300,000 in

1925. It declined to $20,500,000 in 1933 and reached

$180,500,000 in 1955. Value in 1960 was $151,200,000.

Acreage, production, and value data for minor vege-

tables have been published annually since 1952 by another

agency. This information is presented in Table 8a. Major

and minor Florida vegetable data are summarized in Table 8b.

The largest acreage was 399,760,000, recorded in 1957.

Highest production was 39,569,000 hundredweights, reported

in 1955, the same year that value was greatest. The

greatest value reported for major and minor Florida vege-

tables was $186,125,000.

Using the total figures for major and minor crops

in later years when available, the average rate of growth

per year from 1925 to 1960 was 3.2 per cent for acreage,

6.2 per cent for production, and 9.8 per cent for value.





37



TABLB 8a.-Acreage, production, and value of minor commer-
cial vegetables for fresh market, Florida, 1952-60



Acreage
Year for Production Value
Harvest


(Acres) (1,000 Cwt.) ($1,000)

1952 38,730 1,681 7,111

1953 36,925 1,612 7,278

1954 36,925 1,613 7,528

1955 35,500 1,007 5.631

1956 26,900 1,045 6,315

1957 30,160 1,400 8,733

1958 27,270 1,347 12,590

1959 28,420 1,348 0,955

1960 31,410 1,438 9,800



Sources Florida, State Marketing Bureau, Agl
Agricultural Statistical Summarv, 1952-60.









'':.ALE 8b.--Acreage, production, and value of major and
minor commercial vegetables for fresh market, Florida,
1952-60



Acreage
Year for Production Value
Harvest


(Acres) (1,000 Cwt.) ($1.000)

1952 361,830 32,169 161.914

1953 382,275 34,493 142.572

1954 388,725 37,089 144,617

1955 382,050 39,569 186,143

1956 380,200 39,016 180,021

1957 399,760 36,057 166,042

1958 370,370 33,452 137,618

1959 345,620 30,513 144,075

1960 331,960 34,780 160,996


Source: Totals
and Table 8a.


for corresponding years on Table 8









Increased yields per acre and price inflation caused pro-

duction and value to increase faster than acreage. Figures

for the last three years indicate a leveling off in addi-

tional vegetable acreage expansion in Florida. This was

the first time three consecutive annual decreases had been

recorded. Figures for 1961 show some further contraction

of vegetable acreage and production in Florida.



Florida Vecetable Farms and Their Size


The number of farms harvesting vegetables for sale

was taken from the decennial agricultural census from 1919

to 1959. Census enumeration methods divide the term "vege-

table" used in this thesis into four separate parts. There-

fore, in order to prevent duplication of farms reporting,

as well as the acreage reported, it was necessary to exclude

Irish potatoes, strawberries, and sweet potatoes.

In the decade of the 1920's, when vegetable acreage

in Florida made its greatest increase, the number of farms

harvesting vegetables for sale increased from 9,297 in 1919

to 16,358 in 1929 (Table 9). This was a 76 per cent increase

in the ten-year period. However, since 1929, there has been

a continuous decrease in vegetable farm numbers. There were

only 4,727 vegetable farms in 1959. Acres of vegetables per

farm increased from 6.5 in 1919 to 57.9 in 1959.









TABLE 9--MNimber of farms reporting, vegetables harvested
for sale and average acreage of vegetables harvested per
vegetable farm, by areas, in Florida, by decades, 1919-59a



Item 1919 1929 1939 1949 1959


Number of Farms


Florida

Area 1

Area 2

Area 3


9,297

b

b

b


Florida

Area 1

Area 2

Area 3


6.5

b

b

b


16,358 12,716 10,942 4,727

6,502 4,174 4,825 2,041

7,380 6,569 4,931 2,062

2,476 1,973 1,186 624

Average Acreage of Vegetables Harvested
per Vegetable Farm


8.5

6.5

8.0

16.0


14.6

7.3

8.3

50.8


23.4

10.9

17.2

100.0


57.9

18.6

41.5

240.4


Source: U. S., Department of Commerce, Bureau of
Census, United States Census of Agriculture, 1920-60.

aExcludes Irish potatoes, strawberries, and sweet
potatoes,


bNot available.









The increase in average acres of vegetables per farm

and yields per acre has caused state vegetable production to

increase despite fewer farms. Larger vegetable farms and

better yields have resulted from specialization, improved

technology, mechanization, higher labor productivity, and

improved vegetable varieties. Table 8 shows that produc-

tion has tripled since 1925 but acreage has failed to double

during the same period. Calculations reveal that average

yield increased from around 70 hundredweights in 1925 to

over 110 in 1960, or an increase of over 57 per cent.



Vegetable Production Areas in Florida


It has been pointed out that the vegetable industry

in Florida moved southward as it expanded. It was this

southward movement and development that caused most of the

increase in production and greatly lengthened the shipping

season. A study of some of the intrastate shifts of vege-

table production helps to understand why the State Farmers'

Markets were built where they are. Relative shifts in

vegetable acreage between areas and shifts in acreage of

vegetables harvested are shown in Table 10.

Area 1, comprising mainly the northern counties,

was the earliest to develop commercial vegetable production.









TABLE 10.--Acreage of vegetables harvested in Florida, in
various areas, percentage of total acreage, and relative
change in acreage, by decades, 1899-59a


Year Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Total

Acres of Vegetables Harvested


1899
1909
1919
1929
1939
1949
1959


29,825
36,952
33,299
64,246
48,447
60,178
40,358


22,208
43,674
56,501
82,747
74,914
98,619
104,898


2,587
8,821
15,245
41,926
106,926
128,019
158,376


54,620
89,447
105,045
188,919
230,287
286,816
303,632


Per Cent in Various Areas


1899
1909
1919
1929
1939
1949
1959


100
100
100
100
100
100
100


Index of Change


1899
1909
1919
1929
1939
1949
1959


100
124
112
215
162
202
135


100
197
254
373
337
444
472


100
341
589
1,621
4,133
4,949
6,122


100
164
192
346
422
525
556


source: Calculated from U. S., Department of Com-
merce, Bureau of Census, United States Census of Aqricul-,
ture, 1900-60.

aIncludes melons, Irish potatoes, strawberries, and
sweet potatoes.









In 1899, it had 55 per cent of the state commercial vege-

table acreage. As the industry moved south, Area 1 decreased

in relative importance. It harvested only 13 per cent of

the state vegetable acreage in 1959. However, this does not

indicate that Area 1 has not shared in the state vegetable

industry growth. Acreage in this area doubled by 1929 and

fell to a level one-third above the 1899 acreage in 1959.

Area 1 had nearly 30,000 acres of vegetables harvested in

1899, 64,000 in 1929, and 40,000 in 1959.

Area 2 includes most of the mid- and north-peninsula

counties. It contained 40 per cent of the state's commer-

cial vegetable acreage in 1899, increased its share to 54

per cent in 1919, and then dropped to only 35 per cent by

1959. In spite of a small decrease in relative importance,

Area 2 has experienced a marked increase in acreage. It had

104,898 acres in 1959, nearly five times the amount in 1899.

Area 3 comprises the southern tip of Florida's penin-

sula. In 1899, it accounted for only 5 per cent of the

state's commercial vegetable acreage. However, its growth

has been rapi3. In 1959, 52 per cent of the state's vege-

tables were grown there. The acreage increased from 2,587

acres in 1899 to 158,376 in 1959. The greatest expansion

came during the decade of the 1930's when State Farmers'








Markets were being opened at a rapid rate, and when each of

the other areas showed a decrease in commercial vegetable

acreage,

During the 19404s, each of the three areas continued

to expand in acreage. In the 1950's, acreage in Area 3

expanded greatly in Area 2, expansion was slight and in

Area 1, there was a 33 per cent drop in acreage. Areas 1

and 3 had exchanged their respective positions of 1899 by

1959. Area 2 was still second in importance. As the vege-

table industry has shifted, each of the three areas, at

one time or another, has had more than one-half of the

state's vegetable acreage.


Shifts in Production Areas for
Important Crops, 1890-1920

Table 11 shows the three most important Florida

vegetable counties and acreage of each major vegetable crop

in these counties in 1890, 1900, 1910, and 1920. They por-

tray the steady but slow shift of the production areas

southward. In 1890, the three most important counties for

each vegetable were divided about equally between Areas 1

and 2. No Area 3 county was among the important counties

for any vegetable.

In 1900, Area 2 had nearly one-half of the important









TABLE 11.-Ranking of three most important counties and
acreage for major vegetable crops in Florida in 1890, 1900,
1910, and 1920


Rank of Counties according to Acres
Y e a r a n d C r o p ... . ............. .. -l... .. .
First Second Third


Beans
Cabbage
Cucumbers
Eggplant
Peas, English
Potatoes, Irish
Potatoes, sweet
Squash
Strawberries
Tomatoes
Watermelons

1900
Beans
Cabbage
Cucumbers
Eggplant
Peas, English
Potatoes, Irish
Potatoes, sweet
Squash
Strawberries
Tomatoes
Watermelons

1910
Beans
Cabbage
Cantaloupes
Celery
Cucumbers
Eggplant
Lettuce
Onions
Peas, English
Peppers


Alachua
Alachua
Alachua
Hillsborough
Lake
Marion
Leon
Alachua
Bradford
Lake
Sumter


Brevard
Citrus
Alachua
Putnam
Pasco
Leon
Leon
Marion
Putnam
Lee
Putnam


Marion
Alachua
Marion
Orange
Alachua
Marion
Orange
Duval
Alachua
Dade


Brevard
Sumter
Sumter
De Soto
Alachua
Alachua
Jefferson
Sumter
Alachua
Alachua
Putnam


Alachua
Marion
Marion
Pasco
Leon
Marion
Jefferson
Leon
Polk
Manatee
Columbia


Dade
Lake
Alachua
Manatee
Levy
Dade
Marion
Marion
Lake
Palm Beach


Lake
Marion
Marion
Hernando
Columbia
Duval
Alachua
Jefferson
Duval
Manatee
De Soto


De Soto
Leon
Sumter
Leon
Marion
Citrus
Gadsden
Pasco
Pasco
Polk
Alachua


St& Lucie
Duval
Levy
Hillsborough
Orange
Duval
Manatee
Lee
Santa Rosa
Duval










TABLE 1 .-N-xtension


Acres Grown in County as Ranked
... .... ..... I ..... im. ...Total Acres in State
First Second Third


393
1,101
194
24
5
151
1,168
54
109
808
312


524
240
158
172
181
308
5,260
130
251
521
1,066


1,393
566
3.979
571
475
150
786
324
139
268


194
267
184
12
5
106
903
54
97
673
259


410
104
85
74
86
295
1,396
53
148
348
746


1,162
427
170
208
457
95
630
70
53
221


157
156
64
9
5
49
901
50
73
214
177


279
101
52
28
30
193
1,387
24
92
330
716


786
284
162
73
422
66
433
32
15
192


1,167
2,372
612
99
41
651
15,578
250
490
2,934
2,308


2,199
1,047
460
344
378
1,490
24,642
265
709
3,257
4,770


6,297
2,307
4,444
932
2,081
438
2,598
624
261
1,062









TABLE 11 .--Continued


Rank of Counties according to Acres
Year and Crop
First Second Third


Potatoes, Irish St. Johns Putnam Duval
Potatoes sweet Duval Leon Gadsden
Squash Dade Lee Palm Beach
Strawberries Bradford Hillsborough Polk
Tomatoes Dade Marion Manatee
Watermelons Marion Lake Alachua

1120
Beans, Lima Hillsborough De Soto Volusia
Beans, snap Marion Hillsborough Palm Beach
Cabbage Polk Broward Palm Beach
Cantaloupes Marion Alachua Santa Rosa
Celeryb Manatee Hillsborough Polk
Cucumbers Orange Levy Alachua
Eggplant Palm Beach Manatee De Soto
Lettuce Manatee Orange Marion
Onions Palm Beach De Soto Volusia
Peas, English De Soto Marion Polk
Peppers Palm Beach Lee De Soto
Potatoes, Irish St. Johns Putnam De Soto
Potatoes, sweet Leon St. Johns Alachua
Squash Hillsborough Manatee Lake
Strawberries Hillsborough Polk Bradford
Tomatoes Broward Palm Beach Manatee
Watermelons Suwannee Polk Lake


Sources: Florida, Acricultural Statistics. 18905
Florida, Department of Agriculture, Report of the CommUis-
sioner of Acriculture, 1901; Florida, Department of Agri-
culture, Report of the Commissioner of Agricultureo. 1911
and 19121 Florida, Deprtment of Agriculture, Report of the
Commissioner of A&riculture. 1920.

aSanford was in Orange County at this time.


bSeminole not reported.












Acres Growi in County as Ranked
S-...-....---- ~Total Acres in State
First Second Third


5,504
2,787
140
10446
8.197
7,043


20
1.057
1,200
896
208
1,491
244
652
168
26
707
14,591
2,117
90
448
1,432
2,526


1,176
1,891
66
158
1,163
2,460


8
576
796
75
45
1,386
150
345
86
24
682
2,729
1,668
39
350
1,042
2,000


945
1,563
60
81
1,034
1,179


4
456
752
13
25
605
110
138
23
10
311
2,554
1,655
31
205
807
1,453


10.647
24,747
547
1.785
13,213
15,724


41
3,398
6,390
1,041
312
4,654
711
1,497
376
99
2,195
23,481
25,311
284
1,087
5,578
15,352


TAILE ll.--Extension









counties, and Area 3 had only one. Lee County had first

place for tomato acreage. By 1900, counties in Area 2 had

replaced the three in Area 1 which were the most important

for strawberry production in 1890. The first three water-

melon-acreage counties were all in Area 2 in 1890. In 1900,

two important watermelon-acreage counties, contrary to the

general trend southward, were found in Area 1.

In 1910, five additional vegetable crops (canta-

loupes, celery, lettuce, onions, and peppers) were added to

the major-item list. Counties from Area 3 appeared fre-

quently in 1910. Counties in Area 1 made up one-third of

those listed as being important for major vegetable crops.

Strawberries again had an important county in Area 1, the

other two strawberry counties were in Area 2. Squash had all

three important counties in Area 3. Onions had one county in

each of the three areas.

By 1920, Lima beans had been added to the list of

major items. Two of the three important cabbage counties

were in Area 3. This was the first time any southern county

had been among the top three in cabbage acreage. Area 1 had

lost its claim on at least one of the top three Irish-potato-

growing counties. All three important counties in squash

acreage had been changed from Area 3 in 1910 to Area 2 in









1920. Area 3 counties appeared more frequently in the 1920

list than in the 1910 list. The southern counties, having

less danger from frost, produced during periods when com-

petition from other states was at a minimum,


Trend in Acreage of Major Vegetables
by Areas

Tables 12 through 30 give the annual acreage of major

vegetable crops, as published by the Florida Crop and Live-

stock Reporting Service. Annual acreages are summarized

for the three areas of the state for each crop. Shifts in
<
acres of individual crops and trends in the state can readily

be seen. Only a few of the more important changes are dis-

cussed.


ima beanu.-There were 1,500 acres of Lima beans grown in

the 1933-34 season. Acreage increased to 7,600 for the

1945-46 season and then decreased to 1,650 acres in 1959-60

(Table 12). Area 3 started out with the largest acreage,

which it held most of the time until the 1951-52 season.

Since then, Area 2 has led in Lima bean production.


Sna beas.-Acreage of this crop is shown for the 1928-29

to the 1959-60 season (Table 13). Snap bean acreage

increased from 27,000 in 1928-29 to 98,000 in the 1943-44












TABLE 12.--Lima bean acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1933-34 to 1959-60

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60


1.500
1,500
1,800
2,400
4.500
4,800
4,800
7,000
5,000
5,400
4,500
4,800
7,600
5,900
5,500
4,550
4,150
4,600
3.200
3,300
2,900
2,900
2,500
2,400
2,050
1,700
1,650


233
233
550
1,333
2,067
1.700
1,733
1,883
1,667
1,733
1,283
1,283
2,053
1,783
1,425
1,542
1,542
1.625
1,167
1,008
925
942
658
810
640
558
365


233
233
300
33
467
300
633
783
767
833
783
833
1,763
1,683
1,025
982
592
825
1,192
1,233
1,125
1,092
958
1.075
1,030
608
730


1,034
1,034
950
1,034
1,966
2,800
2,434
4,334
2,566
2,834
2,434
2,684
3,784
2,434
3.050
2,026
2,016
2,150
841
1,059
850
866
884
515
380
534
555


Sources U. S., Department of
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
Annual Statistical Summaries, 1934-60.


Agriculture, Florida,
Florida Vegetable Crops,










TABLE 13.--Snap bean acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 27.000 2.050 10.175 14,775
1929-30 35.800 3,078 13.567 19,154
1930-31 40,000 2,596 13,306 24,098
1931-32 41,500 2,916 10,142 28,442
1932-33 50,800 1,884 8,732 40,184
1933-34 61,300 1,366 7,268 52,666
1934-35 67,300 1,200 7,100 59,000
1935-36 59.340 1.275 6.050 52.015
1936-37 59,150 1,354 7.329 50.467
1937-38 61.050 1,633 7,583 51.834
1938-39 64,300 1.867 6,167 56,266
1939-40 52,300 2,033 7.083 43,184
1940-41 64,000 2.167 7,217 54.616
1941-42 68,000 2,533 7,433 58,034
1942-43 70.700 2,017 7.267 61.416
1943-44 98,000 1,883 6.083 90.034
1944-45 80,500 1.425 3.325 75.750
1945-46 80,200 2.857 4,507 72.836
1946-47 80,400 2,050 6,150 72,200
1947-48 74.500 2,250 5.200 67,050
1948-49 78,000 2.892 6,842 68.266
1949-50 77,600 3,050 6.750 67,800
1950-51 74,300 2,592 6,067 65,641
1951-52 73,600 2,400 5,850 65,350
1952-53 63.300 2,350 5,675 55,275
1953-54 68,200 3,783 6,683 57.734
1954-55 67.500 3,100 6,150 58,250
1955-56 62,300 2,517 4,517 55,266
1956-57 56.500 2,920 4,035 49,545
1957-58 53,100 3.230 4.065 45,805
1958-59 53,100 2.938 3,323 47,539
1959-60 55,800 2,930 4,110 48,760


Sources U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.









season and declined to 55,800 acres in 1959-60, All of the

increase was in Area 3. Area 1 acreage is about the same

now as it was in 1929-30 and Area 2 acreage is down to about

one-third of what it was in 1929-30.


Cabbage.--Acreage of cabbage is also shown for the seasons

1928-29 through 1959-60 (Table 14).* Acreage of cabbage

increased from 6,500 at the beginning of the period to

23,500 in 1943-44 and declined to 17.900 in 1960. Area 2

has consistently maintained the largest cabbage acreage.

Area 3 increased from 1,000 to 6,000 acres. Area 1 acreage

has remained fairly constant.


Cantaloue.-Cantaloupe acreage has never been large com-

pared to that of some other crops, but acreage increases

have occurred and Area 3 has shared in these increases

(Table 15). Cantaloupe has been reported in Area 3 for

less than ten years.


Carrots and cauliflower.--These crops have had relatively

small acreages and the Crop Reporting Service has annual

data for only a limited number of years (Tables 16 and 17).

Area 2 harvested most of the acreage reported for each of

these crops.










TABLE 14.--Cabbage acreage, by seasons and areas,
1928-29 to 1959-60


Florida,


Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60


6,500
3,700
6,500
5,500
6,200
10.700
5,600
9,000
8,500
9,400
10,000
16,000
10,000
18,000
10,000
23,500
17.200
12,000
12,200
16,700
16,000
17,700
19,000
15,600
19,900
15,700
14,400
16,700
13,900
15,500
17.500
17,900


580
658
742
783
700
1,033
617
750
783
475
550
900
167
517
283
1,983
1,767
845
533
1,158
900
1,383
767
903
1,125
892
725
842
610
992
1,007
910


4,840
2,583
4#067
3,583
4,300
7,233
3,067
5,150
5,283
6,325
6,700
8,950
6,467
10,817
5,683
13,883
10,567
7,870
8,133
11,533
11,450
11,583
11,292
9,520
12,125
10,292
9.425
10,592
9,345
9,667
10. 577
10,905


1,080
459
1,691
1,134
1,200
2,434
1,916
3,100
2,434
2,600
2.750
6,150
3,366
6,666
4,034
7,634
4,866
3,285
3,534
4,009
3,650
3,734
6,941
5,177
6,650
4,516
4,250
5,266
3,945
4,841
5,916
6,085


Sources U. S., Department of Agricul
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.


ture, Florida,
Vegetable










TABLE 15.-Cantaloupe acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60


Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 600 50 550
1929-30 600 50 550
1930-31 250 50 200 .
1931-32 200 . 200
1932-33 400 50 350
1933-34 300 . 300
1934-35 200 200
1935-36 200 200
1936-37 300 100 200 .
1937-38 700 500 200 .
1938-39 500 300 200 .
1939-40 500 300 200 .
1940-41 500 300 200 .
1941-42 500 300 200 .
1942-43 400 300 100 .
1943-44 550 250 300 .
1944-45 500 300 200 .
1945-46 800 500 300 .
1946-47 800 575 225 .
1947-48 1,200 700 500 .
1948-49 1.200 663 537 .
1949-50 1.400 825 575 .
1950-51 1,300 738 562 .
1951-52 1,500 838 662 .
1952-53 1,800 905 605 290
1953-54 2,000 758 558 584
1954-55 1,900 750 475 675
1955-56 2,400 668 763 969
1956-57 1,600 541 591 468
1957-58 1,600 541 591 468
1958-59 1,800 438 698 664
1959-60 1.800 415 690 695


Source: U. S.. Department of Agriculture, Florida.
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries., 1929-60.









TABLE 16.--Carrot acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1944-45 to 1948-49

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1944-45 750 . 640 110
1945-46 900 830 70
1946-47 500 450 50
1947-48 400 . 350 50
1948-49 500 . 345 155


Soucs U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries, 1945-49.



TABLE 17.--Cauliflower acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1944-45 to 1959-60

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3

1944-45 500 . 500 .
1945-46 500 . 500
1946-47 600 600 .
1947-48 400 . 400
1948-49 600 . 600
1949-50 800 . 750 50
1950-51 1,100 975 125
1951-52 1,300 . 1,175 125
1952-53 1.400 1,250 150
1953-54 1,100 . 1.000 100
1954-55 1,100 1.025 75
1955-56 1.200 1,100 100
1956-57 900 825 75
1957-58 450 . 400 50
1958-59 400 375 25
1959-60 300 238 62


Source. U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable Crops,
Annual Statistical Summaries, 1945-60.









Celey.--Celery acreage is shown for the seasons 1928-29

through 1959-60 (Table 18). The state acreage increased

from 6,600 to 11,300. Most of the acreage was in Area 2

prior to the 1954-55 season but, since then, most of it

has been in Area 3.


Sweet corn.-This is a relatively new crop in Florida.

Acreage figures are available only for the seasons 1947-48

through 1959-60 (Table 19). Acreage increased from 6,000

in 1947-48 to nearly 49,000 in 1958-59. Area 2 had most of

the acreage in the earlier years, but Area 3 has had the

largest amount since 1950-51. Acreage in Area 3 increased

from 1,468 in 1947-48 to over 34,000 in 1959-60.


Cucumbers.-Acreage of cucumbers is shown for the seasons

1928-29 through 1959-60 (Table 20). Acreage variations

have not been large for cucumbers. They began with 11,340

in 1928-29, declined to 5,000 during the depression years,

and again reached 11,200 by 1945-46. The 1959-60 acreage

was 16,600. Areas 1, 2, and 3 shared a better distribution

of acreage for cucumbers than for most other vegetable

crops. Area 2 began with the largest acreage, but Area 3

moved into first place in 1952-53.










TABLE 18.-Celery acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60


Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 6,620 . 6,620 .
1929-30 6,650 . 6,650 .
1930-31 6,150 . 6,050 100
1931-32 6,850 . 6,850 .
1932-33 6,650 . 6,650 .
1933-34 6,000 . 6,000 .
1934-35 6,000 . 6,000 .
1935-36 6,500 . 6,500 .
1936-37 7,500 . 7.355 145
1937-38 7,200 . 6.800 400
1938-39 6,700 . 6,100 600
1939-40 7,100 . 6,040 1,060
1940-41 8,700 100 6,600 2,000
1941-42 9.350 135 6,815 2.300
1942-43 8,750 100 6,280 2,370
1943-44 9,900 100 6,300 3,500
1944-45 11,050 150 6.775 4,125
1945-46 13,500 150 8,175 5,175
1946-47 11,400 100 7,000 4,300
1947-48 11,600 200 7,400 4,000
1948-49 9,400 200 6,125 3,075
1949-50 9,700 250 5,950 3,500
1950-51 10,400 250 6,050 4,100
1951-52 10,400 250 5,940 4,210
1952-53 10,000 250 5,700 4,050
1953-54 10.600 300 5.555 4,745
1954-55 9,100 250 4.405 4,445
1955-56 10,100 200 4.250 5,650
1956-57 10,300 200 4,240 5,860
1957-58 11.400 150 3,990 7,260
1958-59 13,300 150 3,615 9,535
1959-60 11,300 150 2,670 8,480


Source: U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Sunmaries, 1929-60.


















TABLE 19.--Sweet corn acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1947-48 to 1959-60

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1947-48 6.000 1,253 3.279 1.468
1948-49 14,700 2.008 7,609 5.083
1949-50 28.500 2.617 13,216 12.667
1950-51 25.700 1,983 8,184 15,533
1951-52 32.900 2,675 7.350 22,875
1952-53 30.400 1.417 5,841 23.142
1953-54 36.800 1,118 6.069 29,613
1954-55 33.000 728 5,829 26,443
1955-56 37.500 683 4.951 31.863
1956-57 42.700 838 5.564 36.298
1957-58 39.200 781 5,083 33.336
1958-59 48,900 510 6,515 41.875
1959-60 41,900 684 6,608 34,608


oures U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida.
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries, 1948-60.










TABLE 20.--Cucumber acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 11,340 3,627 6,876 837
1929-30 12.100 3,960 7,493 647
1930-31 9,650 3,343 5,589 718
1931-32 7,300 2,467 4.254 579
1932-33 5,600 1,700 3.175 725
1933-34 5,000 1,250 2.675 1.075
1934-35 5,100 1.033 3,034 1,033
1935-36 5.700 940 3.310 1,450
1936-37 5,600 1,625 2.950 1,025
1937-38 7,000 1,050 5.050 900
1938-39 7.600 1,667 5,066 867
1939-40 8,200 2.017 5,016 1.167
1940-41 8,800 1,533 6,084 1,183
1941-42 9,700 1,417 6,766 1,517
1942-43 6,500 1,133 4,009 1,358
1943-44 6,300 1,650 3,200 1,450
1944-45 7,700 3,525 2,900 1,275
1945-46 11,200 3,947 5,251 2,002
1946-47 14.750 3,433 7.159 4.158
1947-48 14,600 3.692 6.841 4,067
1948-49 12,850 3,900 5,975 2,975
1949-50 14,300 3,108 7,559 3,633
1950-51 14,300 2,823 6,424 5,053
1951-52 15,600 4.083 6,149 5,368
1952-53 18,500 3,600 6,030 8,870
1953-54 18,700 4,650 5,595 8,455
1954-55 16,100 3,125 5,090 7.895
1955-56 16,000 2,457 5,191 8,352
1956-57 18,850 3,412 5,811 9,627
1957-58 18,150 3,130 5,310 9.710
1958-59 15,050 2,148 5,244 7,658
1959-60 16,600 2,405 4,995 9,220


Source. U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.








Eqplant.--Acreage of eggplant has more than doubled since

1928-29 (Table 21). Area 1 had little acreage change.

Area 2 had a sizeable acreage increase, but the maximum

acreage reached was not maintained. Area 3 had an acreage

increase that has kept it in first place since the 1949-50

season.


Endive-escarole.--Acreage of these items is shown in

Table 22. Areas 2 and 3 share the acreage, and Area 1 has

none. Area 3 had no reported acreage until 1935-36, but

ended with over 70 per cent of the state total in 1959-60.


&ettuce.-Florida has difficulty in growing the varieties

of lettuce in greatest demand. This crop has never been

very important in Florida, but acreage has increased

(Table 23). Area 1 no longer produces lettuce. Area 2 has

produced consistently with relatively little variation.

Area 3 had no acreage as late as 1936-37, but has planted

amounts equal to that of Area 2 in recent years.


Green peas .--Green pea acreage was reported from 1928-29

until the 1948-49 season (Table 24). The demand for fresh-

market green peas fell when improved processed peas, especi-

ally frozen ones, were introduced. (With reduced acreages,

the Crop Reporting Service discontinued annual reports on










TABLE 21.--Eggplant acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60


Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 1,320 366 438 516
1929-30 1,680 321 788 571
1930-31 1,800 383 934 483
1931-32 1,950 284 832 834
1932-33 2.450 282 1.136 1,032
1933-34 2.050 241 1,018 791
1934-35 1,500 206 788 506
1935-36 1,100 236 328 536
1936-37 1,450 195 785 470
1937-38 1,800 298 949 553
1938-39 2,100 167 1,191 742
1939-40 1,450 75 795 580
1940-41 1,900 278 744 878
1941-42 2,350 267 1,166 917
1942-43 1,950 150 650 1.150
1943-44 3,500 175 1.800 1,525
1944-45 3,250 300 1.250 1,700
1945-46 3,900 240 1,680 1,980
1946-47 3,500 317 1,541 1,642
1947-48 3,330 160 1,470 1,700
1948-49 3,300 191 1,668 1,441
1949-50 2,600 158 1,009 1,433
1950-51 2,200 212 926 1,062
1951-52 2,550 216 893 1,441
1952-53 2,800 263 1,049 1.488
1953-54 2,400 217 941 1,242
1954-55 2,550 255 940 1,355
1955-56 2,950 358 929 1,663
1956-57 2,700 367 691 1,642
1957-58 2,900 376 973 1,551
1958-59 2,900 320 840 1,740
1959-60 3,200 350 995 1.855


Sources U. S.. Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Veqetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.










TABLE 22.--Endive and escarole acreage, by seasons and areas,
Florida. 1928-29 to 1959-60

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 500 . 500 .
1929-30 460 460
1930-31 850 . 850
1931-32 700 . 700
1932-33 700 . 700 .
1933-34 700 . 700
1934-35 650 . 650
1935-36 700 . 600 100
1936-37 900 . 900
1937-38 1,000 . 925 75
1938-39 1.000 . 910 90
1939-40 1,350 . 1,200 150
1940-41 1,000 700 300
1941-42 1,200 . 900 300
1942-43 1.450 9 1,200 250
1943-44 2,350 . 1.350 1,000
1944-45 2,800 e 1,200 1,600
1945-46 2.500 . 1,050 1,450
1946-47 2.700 . 1,000 1,700
1947-48 3.100 . 1,100 2,000
1948-49 3,000 1,050 1,950
1949-50 3.600 . 10100 2,000
1950-51 4.700 . 1.050 3,650
1951-52 4,800 . 1,500 3,300
1952-53 4,000 1,600 2.400
1953-54 4,500 . 1,550 2,950
1954-55 4.600 . 1,450 3,150
1955-56 4,800 . 1,500 3,300
1956-57 5,700 1,500 4,200
1957-58 5,500 1,600 3,900
1958-59 6,400 1,700 4,700
1959-60 6,200 1,750 4,450


Sources U. S" Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.










TABLE 23.--Lettuce acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 1,500 100 1,400 .
1929-30 1,100 100 1,000
1930-31 1,600 150 1,350 100
1931-32 1,000 100 900 .
1932-33 950 . 950 .
1933-34 1.100 . 1,000 100
1934-35 900 . 900
1935-36 550 550
1936-37 800 125 675 .
1937-38 900 125 700 75
1938-39 1,000 125 775 100
1939-40 2,000 100 1,645 355
1940-41 2,500 50 1,450 1.000
1941-42 3,500 75 2,775 650
1942-43 2,500 50 2.075 375
1943-44 2,450 . 1.850 600
1944-45 1,400 . 1,050 350
1945-46 1,800 40 2,110 350
1946-47 2,200 50 1,425 725
1947-48 1,700 50 1,210 440
1948-49 1.800 40 1,240 600
1949-50 2.400 50 1.225 1,125
1950-51 2,600 25 1.475 1.100
1951-52 2.200 50 1.275 875
1952-53 3.300 . 1,600 1,700
1953-54 3,300 . 1.800 1,500
1954-55 4.100 . 2,340 1,760
1955-56 4,300 . 2,525 1.775
1956-57 3,700 25 1.700 1,975
1957-58 3.700 . 2.200 1,500
1958-59 3,200 . 1.550 1,650
1959-60 3,300 . 1,415 1,885


Sources U. 8., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.
















TABLE 24.-Green pea acreage, by seasons
1928-29 to 1948-49


and areas, Florida,


Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 1.350 100 950 300
1929-30 700 . 400 300
1930-31 2.000 . 700 1.300
1931-32 3.800 . 800 3.000
1932-33 3.600 . 1,000 2.600
1933-34 4.800 . 700 4,100
1934-35 5.000 400 4.600
1935-36 8,200 400 7.800
1936-37 6,200 300 5.900
1937-38 6,200 * 200 6.000
1938-39 5.000 . 200 4.800
1939-40 5,000 200 4,800
1940-41 3.000 200 300 2.500
1941-42 3.500 300 400 2,800
1942-43 1.500 100 200 1,200
1943-44 2.500 100 400 2.000
1944-45 2.600 200 600 1.,800
1945-46 1,600 150 800 650
1946-47 1,350 100 450 800
1947-48 600 75 325 200
1948-49 400 20 180 200


Source: U. S.. Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops# Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-49.









English peas.) Area 3 had most of the acreage during most

of the time the crop was reported.


Pepr. The acreage of peppers shows an increasing trend

(Table 25). It is a crop that has been grown regularly in

all three areas. Area 1 has always had the smallest acreage,

but the amount has increased. Area 2 pepper acreage

increased from 1946 through 1955, but has since declined.

Area 3 acreage, fairly uniform until about 1950, has

increased in recent years.


Irish otatoes.--Irish potato acreage was 22,000 in 1928-29,

reached 54,300 in 1956-57, but dropped off to 37,400 by

1959-60 (Table 26). Areas 1 and 3 each started with less

than 3,000 acres, but Area 3 increased to 23,560 and ended

with 10,830. Area 1 acreage remained around 3,000 or less.

Area 2 has had the largest acreage of Irish potatoes most

of the time.


Squash.-This is a crop for which acreage has been reported

only since about the time English peas were deleted from

the reports. It was first reported in 1947-48, with 7,900

z. res, and by 1959-60 there were 12,600 acres (Table 27).

Area 3 has had the largest squash acreage and it has

increased steadily in that area.










TABLE 25.--Pepper acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60


Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 5,650 300 2,225 3.125
1929-30 6,550 417 2,704 3,429
1930-31 8,200 450 3,567 4,183
1931-32 8,050 333 3,647 4,070
1932-33 8,300 292 3,781 4,227
1933-34 6,000 408 2,859 2,733
1934-35 7,700 400 4,225 3,075
1935-36 6,500 400 2,425 3,675
1936-37 7,200 333 2,959 3,908
1937-38 7,400 325 3,950 3,125
1938-39 7,300 217 4,041 3,042
1939-40 6,200 300 3,425 2,475
1940-41 7,200 367 3,266 3,567
1941-42 6,500 383 3,394 2,723
1942-43 7,100 375 2,850 3.875
1943-44 8,950 453 3,544 4,753
1944-45 9,350 657 3,666 5.027
1945-46 11,100 507 5.486 5,107
1946-47 10,600 508 5,459 4,633
1947-48 11.250 690 6,320 4,240
1948-49 10,750 1,058 5,309 4,383
1949-50 14,300 1,258 6,459 6,583
1950-51 11.200 1,400 4,875 4,925
1951-52 10,700 1,283 4,159 5.258
1952-53 12,800 1,367 5.191 6,242
1953-54 13,850 1,598 6,049 6,203
1954-55 13.800 1.465 5,455 6,880
1955-56 13.400 913 4.889 7.598
1956-57 14,600 1,223 4,544 8,833
1957-58 11,500 1,192 3,116 7,192
1958-59 14,100 748 3,904 9,448
1959-60 13,400 1.410 3,200 8,790


Sources V. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.










TABLE 26.-Irish potato acreage, by seasons and
1928-29 to 1959-60


areas, Florida,


Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60


22,000
31,000
27,000
21,500
17,000
23,500
24,800
24,500
31,300
31,400
26,700
25,600
26,800
25,000
26,600
28,600
31,100
35,300
23,100
20,700
20,600
23,600
23,500
29,800
41,500
32,800
38,000
41,700
54,300
44,400
37,100
37,400


2,613
5,600
5,237
3,700
2,400
2,800
2,750
2,400
3,800
2,867
2,767
2,500
3,050
3,150
3,200
3,200
3,400
3,623
2,533
2,325
1,033
1,578
1,433
1.792
3,098
2,668
2,868
2,975
3,475
3,311
1,927
2.310


17,032
22,800
18,988
15,700
12,825
16,115
16,275
15.700
17,550
16,266
13,816
13,300
13,950
13,150
13,750
14,450
13,650
14,064
9.934
10,500
10,334
11,779
13,284
16,416
20,854
18,069
22,094
22,950
27.265
26,288
22,576
24,260


2,355
2,600
2,775
2,100
1.775
4,585
5.775
6,400
9.950
12,267
10,117
9,800
9,800
8,700
9,650
10,950
14,050
17,613
10,633
7,875
9,233
10,243
8,783
11,592
17,548
12,063
13,038
15,775
23,560
14,801
12.597
10,830


Sources U. S., Department of Agricul
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida
Cr--s. Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.


ture, Florida,
Vegetable


















TABLE 27.--Squash acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida.
1947-48 to 1959-60

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1947-48 7,900 433 3,134 4,333
1948-49 9,000 850 3,425 4,725
1949-50 10,800 900 4,050 5.850
1950-51 10,800 850 3,800 6,150
1951-52 10,600 817 3,191 6,592
1952-53 10,100 1.058 3,334 5,708
1953-54 9.800 1,147 3,231 5,422
1954-55 10.700 1,200 2,975 6,525
1955-56 11.400 1.100 3,225 7.,075
1956-57 10,900 1,275 2,775 6,850
1957-58 10,600 1,040 3,055 6,505
1958-59 11,000 858 2,809 7,333
1959-60 12,600 785 3,040 8,775


Sources U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops Annual Statistical Summunaries, 1948-60.









Strawberries -Acreage of strawberries has been erratic by

areas and has been declining in the state as a whole (Table

28). Area 1 acreage has decreased a great deal from

nearly 3,000 acres to less than 200. Area 2 acreage in-

creased until 1936-37 and then decreased from over 7,000

to less than 1,000. Area 3 acreage has been very unsteady,

but has shown a marked increase during the past two seasons.


To oe.-.-Tomato acreages are shown for the seasons 1928-29

through 1959-60 (Table 29), Tomato acreage was 38,700 in

1928-29, increased to 61,600 in 1955-56, and declined to

38,300 by 1959-60. Area 1 has never been important in

tomato production. Area 2 had 12,866 acres in 1928-29,

increased to 25,067 by 1952-53, and decreased to 14,338 in

1959-60. Area 3 acreage was as high as 43,846 in 1955-56

and was down to 23,794 in 1959-60.


Waterme1ons.-Acreage of this crop from 1928-29 to 1959-60

is shown in Table 30. Acreage of watermelons was 35,900 in

1928-29, increased to 98,000 in 1953-54, and was down to

73,000 in 1959-60. Area 1 had the largest watermelon

acreage each season up to 1950-51. Area 2 has had the larg-

est acreage in six of the past ten years. Area 3 had only

817 acres in 1928-29, increased to over 8,000 by 1955-56,

and had 7,325 acres in 1959-60. It has had the largest per-

centage increase in acreage.










TABLE 28.--Strawberry acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60


Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 6,300 1,608 4,534 158
1929-30 8.800 2,638 6,074 88
1930-31 9,100 1,308 7.584 208
1931-32 7,800 892 6,766 142
1932-33 10.600 2,835 7,610 155
1933-34 8,400 1,275 6,950 175
1934-35 8.000 958 6,884 158
1935-36 8,900 958 7,784 158
1936-37 8,800 1,042 7,566 192
1937-38 7,500 1,008 6,384 108
1938-39 9,000 1,567 7,266 167
1939-40 7,200 1,118 5,914 168
1940-41 5,500 1,250 3,850 400
1941-42 5,000 633 #,284 83
1942-43 2,600 350 2,200 50
1943-44 1,400 167 1,091 142
1944-45 2,050 242 1,666 142
1945-46 2,800 267 2,341 192
1946-47 4,800 467 4,116 217
1947-48 4,200 208 3,984 8
1948-49 4,000 417 3,516 67
1949-50 5,400 525 4,800 75
1950-51 6.000 417 5.516 67
1951-52 4,500 383 4.034 83
1952-53 3,700 250 3,375 75
1953-54 2,600 142 2,391 67
1954-55 3,400 108 3,159 133
1955-56 3,700 175 3.400 125
1956-57 3,500 220 3,170 110
1957-58 2,000 200 1,690 110
1958-59 1,500 162 1,101 237
1959-60 1,400 175 825 400


Source: U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Sumaries, 1929-60.










TABLE 29.--Tomato acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60

Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 38,700 217 12,866 25,617
1929-30 31,260 150 16,405 14,705
1930-31 26.800 143 12,307 14,350
1931-32 23,700 67 10,216 13,417
1932-33 24,900 167 7,744 16,989
1933-34 30,500 250 10.700 19,550
1934-35 32.500 42 9,666 22,792
1935-36 32.600 233 9,384 22,983
1936-37 35.700 67 9,916 25,717
1937-38 41,300 . 16,900 24,400
1938-39 38,400 100 13,900 24,400
1939-40 33,500 217 18,370 14,913
1940-41 27.000 350 14,150 12,500
1941-42 43,000 275 19.075 8,150
1942-43 24.800 375 16,275 8,150
1943-44 34,900 392 13,767 20,741
1944-45 32.500 225 10,250 22.025
1945-46 30,400 103 14,343 15.954
1946-47 30.650 108 14.033 16,509
1947-48 28,350 233 15,383 12,734
1948-49 38,800 125 22.175 16,500
1949-50 42,200 133 21,933 20,134
1950-51 50.200 67 24,867 25,266
1951-52 53,500 100 23,675 29,725
1952-53 57,400 167 25,067 32,166
1953-54 57.400 517 22,667 34,216
1954-55 56,500 417 19,342 36,741
1955-56 61.600 172 17,582 43,846
1956-57 60,200 227 18,072 41,901
1957-58 52.400 587 18,787 33,026
1958-59 46,300 282 16,592 29.426
1959-60 38,300 168 14,338 23,794


Sources U. S.# Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Veqetable
Crops. Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.










TABLE 30.--Watermelon acreage, by seasons and areas, Florida,
1928-29 to 1959-60


Season Florida Area 1 Area 2 Area 3


1928-29 35,900 20,652 14,431 817
1929-30 34,700 20,442 13,831 427
1930-31 31,000 16,552 14.211 237
1931-32 28,500 13.767 14,316 417
1932-33 22,500 10,447 11,756 297
1933-34 23,400 14.550 8,700 150
1934-35 20,000 12,050 7,450 500
1935-36 16.000 8,767 6.966 267
1936-37 19.500 11,833 7,434 233
1937-38 22,500 13,600 8,500 400
1938-39 22,600 15,933 6,534 133
1939-40 23.500 18,217 5,116 167
1940-41 25.500 19.167 6,166 167
1941-42 22.000 15,900 5.800 300
1942-43 12,500 8,017 4,216 267
1943-44 25,500 15,983 9,334 183
1944-45 39,000 26,467 12,066 467
1945-46 47,000 29.925 16,475 600
1946-47 47,000 25,883 20,684 433
1947-48 45,000 23,709 20,733 558
1948-49 59,000 34,534 24.083 383
1949-50 68,000 39,450 27,900 650
1950-51 57,000 26.050 29,650 1,300
1951-52 72,000 33.100 36,400 2,500
1952-53 93,000 44,977 41.856 6,167
1953-54 98,000 47,642 45,066 5,292
1954-55 88,000 41,827 39,606 6,567
1955-56 91,000 38.867 43.466 8,667
1956-57 95,000 38,942 48.041 8.017
1957-58 95,000 42,825 46,000 6.175
1958-59 72,000 32,655 33,170 6,175
1959-60 73,000 34,325 31.350 7,325


Source: U. S., Department of Agriculture, Florida,
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable
Crops, Annual Statistical Summaries, 1929-60.














CHAPTER III


CONDITIONS PRECEDING THE ESTABLISHMENT
OF STATE FARMERS* MARKETS IN FLORIDA


Most authors writing on the subject of fresh-produce

marketing and its early development describe conditions and

practices, which, when compared with today's methods, make

it apparent that chaos and confusion prevailed. Suspicion,

distrust, and unfair adwintage were described as producers'

attitudes toward middlemen. Disorganized, stupid, and

deceitful were expressed as dealers' feelings for producers

and shippers,

Many of the methods of sales, types of middlemen,

and distribution patterns which were prevalent years ago are

relatively unimportant today. Several phases of handling

operations have been eliminated as distribution processes

have become more streamlined and integrated.

The major changes between fresh-produce marketing

of old and that of today should be pointed out before going

into the details of why farmers' markets were established

in Florida. The most pronounced and fundamental changes









were centered around improved information on available sup-

plies and the tendency toward removing the price determina-

tion center from central wholesale markets to the various

production or storage areas.1 These changes were closely

associated with buying f.o.b. shipping point, reduced risks,

and one-owner distribution.

Very little history of specific vegetable-marketing

methods and problems in Florida has been recorded. Some of

the available history of produce marketing in this state

has been incorporated in this report. Much of the reference

material used applied to the national vegetable-marketing

situations and not to any particular state, but Florida

growers were shipping and selling vegetables under the same

conditions. It is assumed that many of the national condi-

tions and practices also prevailed in Florida.

It is difficult today to visualize conditions as

they existed in the produce industry years ago; but, with

numerous quotations from authorities of the period con-

cerned, an attempt is made here to present some of the past

history of the industry.

Reference should be made to the fact that most


1G. S. Shepherd, Marketing Farm Products (Ames.
Iowas Iowa College Press, 1946), p. 40.









available literature vigorously defends the grower and his

position. Only an occasional defense of dealers or handlers

can be found. Numerous selections from available material

have been included to present the mood, thinking, and senti-

ment of growers as they strove to achieve a stronger posi-

tion in produce marketing.



Insufficient Standardization


Uniformity and standardization concepts for fresh

fruits and vegetables, including improved quality mainten-

ance, are the greatest accomplishments for industry progress

since development of long-distance transportation and

refrigeration. Many students of marketing attribute the

handling of produce by fewer middlemen on its way to con-

sumers, and the direct purchase distribution2 of today, to

standardization and market news.3 The need for standard-


2"Chain Stores Shortening Farm-to-Mart Channels,"
Tampa Tribune, Jamnuary 30, 1960, p. 4-A. This was a report
of a news release issued by the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, Agricultural Marketing Service.
3
"3Commission dealing as carried on by Commission
men . is almost always found when marketing is crude
and undeveloped, when shipments vary greatly in quality,
variety, and methods of packing, when transportation facili-
ties are slow and not dependable, and when market news is
inadequate. UTinder such conditions, dealers are usually








ization was recognized early and growers were encouraged

to pay close attention to the appearance of their products.

In Farmers' Bulletin No. 707, published in 1916, appears

the following statement: . any fruit or vegetable

of desirable variety, well grown, carefully harvested,

properly graded, packed and shipped is more than half sold."4

Some of the early writers, when discussing the

deplorable practices of growers sending to market "the good

with the bad," "this variety with that variety," "this size

with that size," etc., went so far as to predict that grade


unwilling to undertake the risk of buying the product out-
right." F. R. Clark and C. P. Clark, Principles of Market-
-ig (3rd ed.o New York: The Macmillan Co., 1942), p. 99y
"Improper grading and preparation for market are undoubtedly
the most serious weaknesses of marketing at country points
# . The principal reasons hy dealers handled on com-
mission rather than buying outright from country points
were as follows. Goods as shipped from the country were of
much more heterogeneous character as to quality, variety,
and method packing than they are today; transportation
facilities had not been developed so as to carry perish-
ables without frequent deterioration and decayl and trade
methods and facilities for gathering and disseminating mar-
ket information in wholesale markets were not sufficiently
developed to allow wholesale traders to measure or fore-
cast market conditions. For these reasons, the outright
purchase of commodities in large lots by dealers in cities
involved too great a risk, and the risk had to be shifted
back to the grower or country shipper." L. D. H. Weld,
The Marketing of Farm Products (New York: The Macmillan
Co., 1916), p. 82.
4
U. S., Department of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulle-
tin No. 707 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office,
1916), pp. 1-2.