Materials relating to the Resource conservation and recovery act of 1976

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Title:
Materials relating to the Resource conservation and recovery act of 1976
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Book
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English
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United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Interstateand Foreign Commerce. -- Subcommittee on Transportation and Commerce
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U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    I. Discarded materials problem
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    II. Materials recovery
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    III. Energy recovery
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    IV. Materials and energy recovery projects
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    V. Federal legislative action
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Glossary
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Back Cover
        Page 87
        Page 88
Full Text
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ERIALS RELATING TO T RESO CE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT OF 1976




PMWAJM BY I 'Flu WA"
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SUBCO ma B ON TRANSPORTATION AND 003MRM
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C03MTTEE ON INTERSTATE AND
FOREIGN COMMERCE
U.S, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES


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RIHADRNLRE ER, Nort CAGGERS, OetVriiaJh
TOAMERT W. YMNGTONA, SAMELL.DoINrhi
JOHAREMSS CalfrniY, OAME W.BOHIL.orhC RALH D. DINEL, iloiaTMLECR RKtuk
GOOLO BYGRO, lrlaoCAECA. RWOi

JAMEN M. MUCHYTE, New York LUSFEJ. lrd
RAIAD TTRIERD1, erwi ONY.orkLSER eba
BERY ADA. WashntoOMAN, F.aLNforalYor

PHS.IL S.TUEARP, Indiana HJHNHIZ I, enylai
WILLICAM.BRODD,, Michigan R ADGA, i
W.IG.A(BILL HEYER, North CarolanCRO .MORED atd
JAMES SLOINGOMsor ATE .RNLO, New Jerse
CATHON TOBARNY OhETT W.amNON OtE, ont

JAME HATII NCEvadaNwor RADL AGUING, New r HEWRY A. WaMA,






ROBERT(BOB) RUEGEReTexa

TIMOTHYErraIRTH. oloraz PHIIP .AME M, InGERr IWIL P. BRAD a







W.~~~~~~~ BERY (BL)HFNRiothCrln
JAMJ. P1. MoOLOY, Associrse
ANTHONYSBCOMMITTEE ConetRANSP


JIM SANTINI, Nevada JAMDEW J.AFLOR, New Jersey
HARLEY~W O. STAGGERS, WesVrgni

(Exehm Offcio
LEE ~ WLL~ T. DaEvaINm. OU

JAMESWzza L.MNZJ. Koncenczz
Lawi BzyMrt Cono11
J.PV omy mcit iwiyCne

iiiiiiio~ RASOTAIN N OMEC

FRD .RONYPnnylaiaiui
iiiiiii AD M ,Wshntnii K BTZ 1a

RALPH H. METCALFE, 111inots EDWARD R. MADIGAN, Illinois @
W. G. (BILL) HEFNER, North Carolina SAMUEL L. DEVINE, Ohio (Ex 021010)
JIM SA N T IN I, N evada JAE 1 LOI, o Jre HALE TGGR, et igii
(E X O ffi cio)
Wn T R H m ~ D ir e c tor
W an L K A M C hief C m md
L z D a y C o m s sd














CONTENTS



I.D sad materials problem.... ------------------ --------- 3
C ooition of nohaarNm I atril stream.-- 3
.Coleetion of discarded ma - -------------------- 11
C.Dien m at ds redmateria'------------------------- 11
D. aZ~n/disposal cost-.. ------------------7-* 12
IL Hasadous diseaded mateil ..<---.-.-------- 1------ i
F. State ation in dianarded Mat.eri... it------- 2
Gasemetfrom imrprln asoal --------,. S9
II. Msae ---------- - - ----- .-- ---.. --- 43
F 1~. Existing Fedka policies -oern vignand '& e66 'a
m aterial use.. . --- -- --- ---- --- -- ----- -- --- -- -- 48
I, atrasrecovery. . .. .. -- - -- --- - -- - -- - -- - 55
A ,, Pape .. ----- ---- ----- ---- ----- ---- ----- ---- ---- 55
B Steel ---an-- -- -- -- -- -- I. .---.------.-.. 56
C. Alumin m .------ ---- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- 58
D ----------------------. --- - -- -- 59s
E Plasti s ------ ----------- ----- ------ ----- 59
F. Tabulation of recycling of p- -----me discarded materials,
1973 --p ---- --- --- --- --- ---- --- --- --- --- --- 59
G. Amount mf Ateii potentaldeevml ------- -------- 60
M L En recovery. . .. -- - -- - -- -- -- - -- - -- - 6
AFour aprahsto consrv -nrythog

C. Tabulation of energy savings fo mbnation approaches- 64 D. Benefits of energy recovery fro dicred meial ----- 65 E. Energy conervation through reduction": --------- 65
F Energy recovery from dise Mara ----------- 67
vG. Energy recovery from recy--ing 69 H. Energy recovery through am~r -ooect-ion 70
V.Mtrasand energ recovery proeU ------------------- 70
A. Sytmconstructed or op=-dn__.. ------------------ 70
B. Sytmunder construction-__u o a.. 71
C. emotion of implementatin W neg recoverysytm
by 1980.. . ---- --- -- --- --- -- --- --- -- --- --- -- 71
Pounds of proceened waste pe cait el aected countries- 74
1k. Tonnage capacity for refuse-ie tei generators in selected
V. Federal lelative actio ------------------- 75
A. Sfe olid Waste Disat Act .- ----------------- 75
B. Tabulation of Federal a disIeardedu. 1 materials




-1 -Eistimated industial weas of --...... 4
a- Beadw 6t ta Auetia -A... .. ... 5
I- uMntatpa sold wasteb gamat b e and so171-. 7
1-4 -Material ow esimte atd -- opostrmm ste sobd waste di b rnd of mnatqda and
I-6 M Ienaque set& MItf er111 Alb and produch
sours comeal~o far1971--.----.-----. 9








IiiIV
TabeiP
1-i- rjetdiialsoiiw seiu nttis-- ---i- -- -- -- 1
1- asliiesim teiadprjetinsoiiiiiiim rsoidwat
generation...iiii~i reouc reoeyaddipsl,17-9 ----1-8........... -T et et/'soa cot IogncCh mclinutri---- 13
1-i- azriuiw stiir am daai- -- ---i- -- ---i--i --1
I -1 -S mmr daafrnnaiatv atesra s-------1-i1-U.S in utilwsegneain(95dt)-- -------- 2
iiiiiad u w seq an iis 1 7 d t)- -- - -- - -- - 2

iiiiiietd rwt f obie wst uattisfo ou epe
settv nutis(nrai hmclppr teadnn
fe r u m lt n )- - -- - - -- - - -- - -2
iiiiiiiiiiiatiini sttso aadusw sem ng mntlgsain 2
I-1-radw fifraino h tt aadu icre
................. ......................................iiii-iiiii
iiiiiefiinr esiaeo h eainhi ewe ipslmto
an damag mechanismiiii -- -- -- -- - -- -- --- 4
: i ............... ........... ......................................- - - - - - 4
iii8-iriiiiie growthiificiorsifiriiiiiiiiirsoiiilconsumer expieiiiiii
iiiiiiii, andiii raw materials con ump io -- -- -- -- --- 44
.......... iii im poriisieiceediiipoiiiiofiriwiaiiiiprociiiiiiiaterialsiiiiiiiii iiiiiicenag of U.S.imineralirequirementsiimported duringi1972-i-l4 iiiii -The role of minerals in the U .S.- economy---, ----------------- 48
iiiiiiiiii== Fe ea procurementiiiiixpenditureiiiiaiiiaiiiiiiiit of domesticNH outputiiiiilii ofiiii thatiiiii =~i~i= co m d t ,1 7 - -- - - 4i
H iiiiiiiiiiioireccledfibrsirquirdiiiGenraliervcesii;i
isrto poue ens ica er192------------ 5
Iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ar=i s n of. vigi ma eilt xb n ft n rcs- - - -5




andi_ recycle: Dealdpoutsuc aeois 93__'_1 1 -4i,, ........................................................ s u m e
solidiwastithroughisurce separtionibyitpeiof papei1973-i6
11-5 .......................m te ia re yce.pot ntal
reaiet .. osmto ndpouto orslce ae
ril,19 1-------------------i-------- 6
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INTRODUCTION
"Disrde maerils"is a term that encompasses a variety of matestate faquenutly labeled as "Solid Waste": gare refuse, waste ashlwat plant sludge as well as residuals from inustrial, commereM,0 zatin and agrsealtural operations, and community activities. IWOa agfae indicate that towa materials discarded annually to be
Milon onsdry weight, 185 million tons being post-consumer
disan aterials
Th*ost of collecting and disposing of these discarded materials n in the astronomical figures of $4to $6 billion annually.
rimary mtOf ds Osnof discarded materials is through
Iin adition to the fact that the cost of landfilling discarded
taserilsis rapidly incraig 46 of the larger cities in the United State will run out of available landfill within 5 years, and some cities Mfe Jeresy City Kansas City and Botnaready have exhausted teir Present la capacity.
Onfronted with the gro rbe of how to dispose of billions
of take per year of discard materials within a linuted amount of
teSubeommittsenie the contents of such discarded
V010ral for alternative uses The enclosed materias lustrate that Alg ststn dsare material can be utilized, dependent on how it is p"gre and separated, to produce steam., oil, gas or to recover valuablwad scarce metals and paper. FurtherI the residues in many
rocesses can be used in caemt or asphalt, or at the very least, to produce a sanitary landfill.
Thl ecvr of eneryo materials from discarded material is
-at approachU thtcan help the nation achieve energyidpedne
consrvenatural resources, lower our balance of paments lessen Our dependence on foreign materials, remove the garbage from our city treets in a sanitary manner and protect our surface andunegod
drmang 'water from leachate.
The follwing pages present the facts of the problem and the fascinatin poetal uses of what is presently discarded material.
It is hoped that this Subcommittee can transform what is presently a problm into a lasting benef it
Fame B. Roowar,











MATENRIAIB RELATING TO RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT OF 1976
I. DIscARDE MATERMLBT~ PROBLEM
A. co20Marrox Or xow-JUzARDOUS DISCARDED MATERIALS STREAM
1. Environmental Protection Agey estimates that the "disposal easat of discarded materials produced each year is 3--4 billion tons. 2. Accord 'n to Environmental Protection Agency statistics submitted upon 'Subcommittee request, the total discarded material gaborated- from 1970 to 1974 averaged 2.8 billion tons, per year (d ry wdght. Tables I-1, and I-2, on pages 4 &5, indicate the following breiown of the Stream:
e. 1.783 billion is mining
-----6.-W-million is-agriculturaL.
c. 135 million is muncpl d. 260 million is inutal s. 7.3 million is sewae
Minng rocsem' rsidals thughconsiderably large in siz, are not 0onederd intepeetdsuso of discarded materials, for
the "materials discarded" are primarily rock and soil which do not enter the discarded materials stream, require a disposal process much
dl~bantfrom that discussed herein for discarded materials, and
renaantno source of anarm recovery.








i4

ESTIMATED [INDUSTRIAL
VERSUS MOTHER RESIDUALS
(DRY WEIGHTi IN IVIILLION TOTNS PER YEAR)







AGRICULTURAL
687 million
(618)

INDUSTRIAL 260 mill
(234)
i U NIC IPA L
(22) 135**e. mil ion.


SEWAGE

-INING (6.6)
1783 al$o millie4











'*DATA REPRESENTS VALUES FROM 1970-1974.
**REPRESENTS VALUE "AS GENERATED" L.E.WITH MOISTURE. ) FTRC TCNS
-Source : EPA statistics submitted uoon subcommittee reqnest. 1975.




Yr

4 4 TABU 1-b-9FIAIMM OF TOTAL INDUSTEAL IWOUALS




short V= MWk *a

i 1 1 ------------------------------------------------------ LG L4
.... ........ 0 - -------- ----------- &S &6
--------------------------------- W -------- .2
---- ------ - --------------- i ------------- L2 LI
- ----------------- w --------------------- w --- w-..- ILS IL I
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---- --------------------------------------- .4 .4
------------------------------------------------------- It 2 12
----------- ----------------------------------------- I ?
-------- O -------------------------------------- 4 .4
----------------------------------------- W: 0 4L 5
- --- ------------------------------------------- 27.5 24.8
---------------- 0 --------------------------- I I
--------------------------- 0 ------ z ------- ILO IV
------------------- ------------------------ LS 1.4
------------------------------------------------- .4 .4
------------- W ....... ------------------------------ 1 7
------ w ----------------------------------------- ILS 1IL4
----------------------------------------------- L 3
----------------------------------------- .6
OWL ---------------------------------- 7.7 L 9
--------------------------------------------------- 4.0 & 6
-------------------------------------------------- & 0 & 6
- - -------------------------------------------------- L 0 1.8
---------------- --------------------------- LI L6
-------------------------------------------------------- 4&0 W7
- - --------------------------------------------------------- 26L 0 W.0


ftow WA sUddin oWnWed am 1 IN i atook L97L

to the Environmental Wotection Agency's Second X"wt to Oongrm which focused strictly on InUnIcapal or tow postr.
materials, in 1971 the total t-conslimer disftrded amounted to 125 miffion tons AXin 1973 there was
136 nw'w*zt tons. This shows an increase of 8 percent.
a. Material oomposition of the 1971 discarded material streamL 80 percent is Tganic (this includes synthetics).
H. 20 percent is inorganic: (a) 9.7 percent glass; (b) 9.5 percent
metal; and (q) 1.4 parent misceRaneous.
6. Of the materials recoverable as reqyda ble materials, only the
and ferrous fractions each Coutprise. more than 8 percent
iotal diiicarded materials sU eam. Other individual recyclable
ea& comprise less than 3 to 4 percent of the total.
Product composition of the 1971 &iscarded matadWs streami. 80 percent of discarded materials is derived from market
sourcm as opposed to yard and garden type discarded

00 food materia disc arded market
inatmials account for 60 percent of the discarded materials
all"m which is approximately 70-M mil1ion tons.
it is 70-80 nalfion ton fiiketion to which waste and recycling a are prindp&Uy

Am culn
imd rently CIOMprm
OWUM of the tow P 0*40 Ammer diwArded gjrg 'son A* vuqm +
0) am of diwb ed
ag -dkmwr&d Don4ood
POUCM& of






6

(ii) container and packaging makes ibout 72
perc nt of the total mineral (combined glass an als)
fraction.
in terms of individual materials the contai er
and packaging 'industry contributes over: 90 percent of glass in Ge chscarded materials stream; 75 percent of aluminum in the discarded materials stream; 45-50 percent each of ferrous metal, paper and plastic fractions
in the discaxded materials stream.
ii. Consumer durable goods, include household appliances,
furniture, recreational equipment and Ve like account for about 10-12 percent of the total discarded materials stream.
iii. Newspapers, books, and magazines account for about 8 percent. 1-4 and 1-5 at pages 7,8, and 9 for a material
iv. See tables 1-3,
and product source category breakdown of the 1971 and 1973 discarded materials stream, respectively.









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1ET 80tJDW WAST DISOSL MATERAL AND PADUtCT-80URCE COMPOSITON FOR 197 AND 1973




alllon awlo MilinW Peen
anthsesemsint on t o. IM ....


wo..o.* --- .-- .-.------.---- .-----381 1 44.2 L I 13.
V......-----.---.------...-------- ------ Ito ll L 2 10.0O
-W.-.----------.------------------.-.--- 11. 8 12. 5 7 5.9
... .--.-------.----------------- (10.t (IL 0) (.&.S
-. --. ----------------.---- .--- .-(.-4) (.L 0

-g0i-a--r--------------......,.-.-.----- S L 6 3 9.o
--.----.-------.--.-------.------.-- L S8 L 9 1 5. 5
--------.-------- .. -----. -----.--. ----- 4. 6 4. 9 3 L S5
ON"ge pred ests....-.-...-..-.- ..---76.9I8 4 & 5 ILI1
-------------....---------------.--22.0 22.4 4 LS8

Pled" A mode.-----------...----.....--98. 9 10. 8 L 9 9. 0
-. ----- .- ..-.. .. .. .. 24.- 1-- 25. 0 9 3. 7
le-rgaies--.--------.-.-----.- 1. 8 Le .1 5.6
Tft ft, --b-i ----------..--. .. f.........-..-.- 124. 8 134.S 10. 0 LO0

agao -ies. -----...--.- 10. 3 1L 3 LO 0&.7
-----...----.----..--- 4L 7 46. 9 L 2 12. 5
-. ------------. ---. 2 I 1 1 0 0
and ........----------- .---- ----- 3. 2 3. 4 2 6.3
-eat ---r-. -----------.---------..1L2 1. 3 .& 8 3
------------- ----------.Il ---------- It 4 20L 5 2. 1 II.4
agafed---ducs. ------.-.-...-.--- 9 85.4 L 5 ILI1
11'................ 221 22.dw LW 4 4 L 8

p IIetwdI WRAP ------------------.-98.9 107.8 L&9 A.0
*7$ an sgeaesstogais...... 2 26,9 L 0 3.9
-g------------------------------.-.. --.. 124 134 8 10.0 L O0

FakA. and Fred L Smith. Asis R ovr Division 0Wic of Solid Wat ManagementProrm
Protetis AmaV, r evised Decembe, 1974
asWeadsosldlm as set resiea matril fte acsoostn for reycled materias divertd from wast
li% sedate deement tb "Seced Aspot to Comass.

d. Combustion and heat characteristics of the discarded materials

i. 80 perent of the weight of typical raw municipal refuse is
composed of combustible materials.
ii. ash content of raw refuse is approxiately 20 percent by
weight, with non-combustible metaland glass fractions,ap
Pronimal 5 percent exclu meta and glass. Total weigh tednection t burning is therafre approxitmatel 80 percent.
TWh hat vues are apprxmatly 4600 BTU's Writish thermal units) per pudfor tMotlraw refuse and 5500 BTU's per pound
for refs ecudn metal and lass.





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Pdisorded materiate(residentia and commercial wastes)
4 pg'I suveyby the International City Managemen t Association
''MO over 10,000 population indicated :that '61 percent of the
tda reitial collection system and 39 percet operated
dbanedalcollection system.
k in elie which do not operate a collection sytem or in cities where
graX7cipa system does not collect all of the discarded materials,
Asulers prorm this service, either under contract to the
a wor ing ctly for the homeowner or business estalshet.
1970 survey showed that private haulers collect 50 percent
Ae total residential discarded materials and 90 percent of the
dicared materials.
eollection techniques:
L. commercial collection isgeerll conducted with a driver
had a truck which is capable of mehncally litn In emptying the large bulk containers used by commrcal establishments.
Hi. residential collection usually involves manually emptyn
discarded materias into the collection vehicle. The number of
crw members on a track can rnge from one to five.
so trequency of collection:
ifor relatively etfien sse ,23t33prnt fewer vehicles
are required for. once-ae-week, compared with twice-ao-week,
ollec tion.
I1 fool consumption is about 30 percet less, and the reduction
in tracks, manpower, and miles driven can cut costs by as much
"as 50 percent.
i. m 1974 approxma~ half the cities of over 10,000 populaetio collected twice a w .

,.almost exclusive collection by private discarded materials con(qstors although in some cases a manufacturer may collect and haul las own discarded materials to the disposal site.
6. because of the lrevolumes of discarded materials involved at
indstialfailties, cle tio wehniques are almost fully automated. ,4L DISPOSAL OF ICREVAEIL

S. anitary landiln is an engineered method of disposing of discarded materials on land in a manner that minimize environental bolAds and nuisances. At a site that is carefully selected, designed, old "e, the wastee are spread in thin layers, compacted to the
pracica Polme and, at least at the end of each operating
covered with cm cted earth.
L In asurvey by Wast Age, January, 1975, it was etmedthat &the approximately 18,500 known land disposal sites, only about ;AMO wer recognized as m' in coamplac with state stions.
o. A 1972 server ot 70 UntdSa cities,code b th






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hte 1974,oeletn curet ractces in which a majority of
W dO not povide environmentally adequate disposal
o~ooioncosts vary between $10-30 dependn on local cir0 o iand level of services.; actual disposal costs rag from
$1 per ton to uncontrolled land dumping up to as high as $15son for incineration (with air pollution controls) and landresidue.
Iis to be noted these. figures are representative of direct costs
and do not include any imputed economic value for the "external"
tally related social costs of discarded materials disposal.
able I--8 is a summary of the treatment and dispoa costs for
plutralinorganic chemicals industry. The proper management
M11 i ni A tifis categry can cost 50 to 100 times more than simple daing or ponding of discarded materials.
TO thLS5-.-AATMENF/DISPOSM, COST, INGRGANIC CHEMICALS INDUSTRY
I~etho: 0os (01 to (1974 esd.)
----- ---------- ---------------------- 01

on --------- ---- ------- ------- ------- 2-6.
disda in landi l... -. ----- --- -- --- -- -- 15-25.
DgAn disposa (varies with quantity). ------------- 4-16.
ea diposa (eontractor). ------------------- 1-1.50.
-u---.---- 0-- ------ ------------ 27-40.
D rum e. -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - lo .
Ogted fixation --------------------- ----------- --- 4-10.1
IS Web atut -net fremoving SA waste it it cannot be landale on site.

Pature collection and dis a costs are difficult to accurately pedle.te Environmental -rtection Agency states a reasonable aspctaionis that the average community will face a 20 to 30-percent 4-Mras in1 its direct real costs of discardd materials disposal by 1985, st without addn on the effects general inflation. This implies oAtoa average cost by 1985 of $8 to $12 per ton for disposal
(inlutog tanserstations and processing) and pehaps $30 to $35 parton for collection and disposal combined. Add on an average 4 t per year inflation rate, for example, wour imply a 1985
tinand disposal cost for the average city of $50 per ton. W asAxpIoUs mcARDDMARII
1.Nsear Of haeardous discrded materials
4. Defrution.-Accordn to the Environmental Protection Agency's "Imrt to Coges ipslof Hazardous Wastes, 1974," the term
'Itearoeswaste" means any waste or combination of wastes which
a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or
orgamm because such discarded materials are lethal; nondegrdabl, or persistant in nature; may be bioloially ONmagnified; Wotherwise cause or tend to cause detrimental cumultive effets.
to En inental Protection Aecy informatiotmabmitted
see rast, the Environmental Protection Agency












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d. Institutionsiisuchiias hospitalsiandiilaboratories.
S .iiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiii i tieiiiiiilI=iiiiiiiiiiilIIIIIImiikiII
a. Discarded materials streams containing hazardous compoundsii H a i dentifiiii ied and quantified..y.in.u.tr....so..................pap

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i.iTheidecisionimodelisediforithese tablesioriselecting iiiidis carded materials streams was rather unsophisticated and the hazardous copud n icre mtrassrasctd hudb osiee
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b. The Environmental Protection Agenc. now estimates total
industrial discarded materials generation to te 260 million tons per year (vs. 110 million in 1972). The Environmental Protection.Agency's Hazardous Waste Management Division has selected 13 indusbW categories for detailed studies of hazardous waste practices enera- t",1
tion, treatment, disposal). Results from eight of the 13 stles an 'highlighted in Tables I-11 and 1-12, below.
i. Discarded materials quantities are listed on both a dry basis
(dewatered) and a wet basis (as they axe in real situations).
n. For only the eight industries for which detailed 1975 results are available to date, the total industrial discarded materials generation, is 144 million tons per year (dry). This compares to the original estimate (1972 data) for all industry of 110 million tons, and the 1974 estimate for 26 *industries of 260 million tons.
iii. Potentially hazardous discarded materials generated anniially by the eight industries reported to date total 23 million tons (dry) and 37 million tons (wet-real world). These figures already exceed the Environmental Protection Ag6ncy's 1972 estimate of 10 million tons for all industry categories by a factor of two, at least-.' Amounts from five more industries are yet to be added. And as water and air pollution control systems come on line, these figures will increase in the future.
iv. It can be concluded that the total industrial discarded materials generation rates, and the hazardous discarded materials fraction of that total, are both substantially larger than earlier EPA estimates would indicate.
TABLE I-11.-U.S. INDUSTRIAL WASTE GENERATION (1975 DATA) 14
[Million metric tons annuallyl

Total, Wastes
Industry category dry V"t

1. Batteries --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. norganic chemicals ----------------------------------------------------------- 40.000 68.00
3. )rganic chemicals, pesticides, explosives ---------------------------------------- 2.200 7.000
4. --lectroplating ---------------------------------------------------------------- .909 .,5.276
5. 3aints ----------------------------------------------------------------------- .370 .396
6 Petroleum refining ------------------------------------------------------------ .600 1,300
7. Pharmaceuticals -------------------------------------------------------------- .244 1.119
8. Primary metals --------------------------------------------------------------- 100.165 117. M
Total (to date) ------------------------------------------------------------ 144.488 200. 3#3

Source: EPA statistics submitted upon subcommittee request, 1976.
TABLE I-12.-HAZARDOUS WASTE QUANTITIES (1975,DATA)
4
[Million metric tons annually]

Industry Dry basis Wet basis
0
1. Batteries --------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.005 ou
2. Inorganic chemicals ----------------------------------------------------------- 2. OOD U
4Sq,
3. Organic chemicals, pesticides, explosives ----------------------------------------- 2.150 L 366
4. Electroplating ---------------------------------------------------------------- .909 6.27
5. Paints ----------------------------------------------------------------------- o75 W
6. Petroleum refining ------------------------------------------------------------ .60 1.300
7. Pharmaceuticals -------------------------------------------------------------- .062 .0,65
8. Primary metals --------------------------------------------------------------- 117.398 1 2dD. 356
Total (to date) ------------------------------------------------------------ 23.194 37.363

I This figure excludes primary metals industry slag and foundary sand. These wastes also contain potentially hazardous g small amounts of these constituents. A final decision regarding whether thus constituents, but were found to leach ve
wastes are hazardous or nonhazardous as not yet been maAe. Source: EPA statistics submitted upon subcommittee request, 1976.





-28
14 1 at p p 2 O s r t s t e e t m t d .g o th i
U t'erwt h cmie oa i.
an h AOUMe, ada fato frfu
asUi oamklPwSeladNneru
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'aIM
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#m sumkkbe








40




tII





24
t is to bewm bon* mind that the disarded materia in :ale1s will be competing with all discarded materials for dispoa apot.




....Table I-13


2 PROCESGRESIDiU

FOUR POLLUTION CONTROL RESDU~-E
ii1ii..... I i
















(orc : P J. aitCs sumite upon% sucmmte rC0 gust 1976. a 1 viSo* gag th imac of theDN0 FeRali0 Water 7 ,1 Polltion )


discrde maerils mouts fom 974to 977and1983 i s
r iibe
PROCESSRESIDU
POLUIO CONTROLRESIDU ii1977




iiii1971
cc
iicii




0iiii

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-siiiiiimateralsiamunts fomi197ito 197 and 983, wen bes
prcialiehooyadba vial ehooylvl r ob








laeted.Athuh ,Mae in hasardous discardedmaeil
'varis frmidsroidustry, dependming- onth esiv
wat proemct waste water pollution contrlrqie
teovers rdcini hardous discared materialsgot
over et deae. This figure compares with arisronProtection Agny's e er estimated growth of 5 to 10peemb


I-14, beoMsrts the international status of hazardous
mate 'aame

TAKE 1-14.-a-O -AOO HAZAROUS WAST MANAGEMENT LEGISLATION


ous
11a4ard- tre1s StatonQI wast t Iran GoveNWakbrre trao- (aI- Treot- Land meat
-- part fastF mt dipoa impte
ontolo -4A safety require@ oto cnrl metto

----. --------.... x x x

-....------------ X X ..... XX
-------.-. X XN X X------------- xX
R------ X---------- X X
--...---- ------- X -------- X -------......- ---------------- ---- -g X x X
......... x195---- ---- ---------------- X ---------... ... X X X----- X X---------.0 ------ X ------------------- ------ x

--. ------- -------- ---------- X X



WMTS AMTON I ICl3D TRRIALB MANAGEMENT

toid comd oa iw~ materiale management program
1Published sttwd icre materials management 44Aas 4 teons an h district ofCouba I Saofste discarded materials mangeen
tn fe as aaeetstaff to 100,000

# Ma


Stobuta fosicaddmterials manaeetpornIFdet fotateO programs-W8,000,000.
tutio of sat mtras -management budget to 100,000

Madiu=$2
%#I -A#ers'






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.27

T" 1-15P at Pago 28,, for a breakdown of information on fflWWmm'mAft
AW6 haxardous &ncirdod matmialis m 'WW a
man I rograw t the country, by state and by En L gtwtion
"gional, ignation,


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*,,Nmber of States with1 Agrant or loan program for resource recovery= 9.
fi. Tflanig and/or regulation for resource recovery= 12.
1H. Operstang authorities for resource recovery= 5.
iV. Energy recovery systems by 1980= 15: (estunate).
-AMAGa Assasexmr
hwip of land disposl methods and damge mechaseim
I-16 at page 40 represents a preliminary estimate of the Wsbetween the various land disposal methods and commonly damage miechanisms. The table is based on .311 cases studied
daein an ozd effort by the Environmental Protection
O~ceOf S d aste Mfanagement Programs to assess the imagess caused by industrial waste land disposal practies.
be noted that the data summarized in the table are not
Representative since 57 out of the 311 case studies were
'from an incomplete survey of Pennsylvaia, a state that 46ooyhas a. permit system for landfills and surface impoundments.
most flagrant environmental offenses generally occur in those
that-unike Pennsylvania-do not have a regulatory program
Indstralwaste disposal.

earl 50pqrcent of the nation is dependent on ground water eqpph'es, anpteercentage IS growing.
.Grudwater con tamin-ation is the mnost prevalent damage 3Matsm -nearly twice as frequent as surfacd water contamination. We'Th category of "other land disposal" (e.g. Aisposingr on farm,spray irrigation, haphazard disposal on vacant lands, etc.)
67te major, contributor in nearly all of the identified damage
A signi eant number of water supply well contamination cases v W percent) originated from "ohrland disposal" and surface
Macasefrom landfls and dumps contributed only to about 4a~oxthof the well contamination cases.














............................,

goo ae ufc m adfls teln tr mn


studied pounments dumps disposal 3 o wastes talking Unknow

i~mi23 26 42ii 6 6i 4iiiim
D a m a g e====== ..............................
( p e rc e n ta g ei ........................................
sie)
Groundiwateri(64)---i18ii4 26 1 3 3
.............. .........................1 ii 1




U n k n oni(i) - --- -- I...........................................
""= W el afetd ---106 5

Note Th aapeetdi hstbehv endrvdsoeyfo aese soitdwt addsmio
i n tiiiiii iiiiiiiiiii
I Allnum ersrefeitoperentifi31 csesituded hus ar.iiitota pecenagesiniheiatriiadiuptoim re fia iiii becusei1)ieverlidmageincdentiinolveimoeithniIdispsalmethdindi()isveraida ageincient
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii oiiiiiiihiiiiii Iiiiaeiic an sm
2 Disposing on farmland, spray irrigation, haphazard disposal on vacant lands, etc. Nti ncludediiiiiasiiaiidamageiiiimechanism.HH"=
SouceiEAisatstissubitedupnisbcmmtteiiii 176
2.iiiiiiiiiiiiSiix rot8o nvrnetltrnpr hruhwihs'poe
iiiiiiiiiiiiihaza dousiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiires ltiiidam ge
Informatio based ioni 195EvromnamoetonAec
"Sum aryif DaageincidntsfromImprperiand ispoal"
a. Grondwatr ontmiatin y wy f lacat
i.i Approxmatelyi5ipercentofithe ntion'sidmestic wterisup
piiiiiiiiiiiiiiliesiredeivdiroiuderrondaqifrsiaditeiuaitioites
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii isclseyreatdtoladiipoalpacics
iii.iTiiiiiiiiperisiinereniinigrundiiieriintamnatioiire
(a)iteieisiieiiturianiiheilngiiuatiiiofiteiprblem (biiiiiiiiii) ams l f h aesuie eotdt dt eed&
coverediaftritheidamaeitoitheigoindiwateriadiilread
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiidii.'
(i)iteisusurfce mgratonioipolltantiis verisloipro
ieiiithusimosiofitheidamagecausedibyitheiisposal of hug



iiiiiiiiiiii ea e a es u is





41
il w"ali 111 by VW of rwwff
'IbdustrW whd fiecarded materials that as dumped on land
r find their way into surf#A* waters through natural runoff.
---- 11
=jr Is-gooned Hquid discarded materials of factories,
to e4ass. bry ovV "ow or amp tlu-o gh dikes.
sirfaci stres %P ez,
IWM -WVL Ow a (a) &UMS Of indus= d= Ted
pywales, 83 ic, c*d um, clu IM, Pet.roleum
and 0 other c and corrosme I,&
-4umped on farmland in Illinois. Three cattle died of cyanide
two Years lation and it was discovered that surface water a mammum, cyanide concentration of 365 ppIn. UA Public Health Savice, dAnlemy water standard for eyifiide

rautiim by wy of Opm.:' i4v'etlq 4
vhadav*ion
Harmful effects of discarded mataWs::dumped an land are brans,
uad to the environment through the me&ujn of
#
dumps have emitted uimitafipg and toxic fumes i'6 )h=naleo caused automobile accidents by creating poor
sha sublimation of volatile toxic industrW and damage to public
discarded materials am CRUM ;r4*AW*th and the envkonment.
(e) Vind erosion of hum" dust hvm land discarded
##4 iis, occ pational hazard to Ian I operators and a
4 #
to re"ents.
&es:
(a) the land of hexachlorobenzene, a toxic solid by
in the ture Of perchloroethylene, dumped on a
landfill in Loubiana, was atisorbed from the air into the body
6f cattle. Up to 20,000 head of cattle were.quarantined
the ranchers an economic loss Appro...-a- tel $3.9
Sampling and testing: alone cost state Vederal
O ke.... ....
-overnments over $150 000
(b) large quantities i Qatile organic liqu!d diwarded materials
i-were dumped into a sand and gravel quarry in Maryland resulting
p7 Ot ij -wi Leapiesd 4nmj lsinta by residents of fuines.
discarded industrial asbestos matexials are uently land
without a soil cover to prevent wind erosion of the harmwhoee inhilation, caji cause wbestoais, lum., cancer, 10060 and plan am
-al lesions in-hunums. In *te of AMPIP local publicity about the'potential hazardm we a
491' ad& playground in that is located dy
jacent, to an insictive 1,61 cubic yard pidle discarded
LOL,
W of dired coMset
-of usually oocurs when, ts a surplus of
"'M-77% -- -.- -1- F.- 'kil -1
own w pa --- tb&t aft not disposed of
raw,
1AhAL bVA
vuaw"ik" PatMD
aa WNW
Ilk on city
Fps a i av *?z a






412
property in Arkansas. The residents were urged to use a drum ttoao expedite trash collection. A 2% yeax old child after playing among the drums, was admitted to the hospital suie7nng from symptoms orgranophosphate poiso Enough concentrate was in evidenewee
oCto intoxicate anyone in contact with it.
(b) Empty bags of pesticides were left in a field in Idaho after
the contents had been dumped. The bags blew into a cow pasture
and fourteen cattle died after licking the bags.
(c) In California, at least 18 persons were hospitalized and two
firemen suffered permanently disabling lung damage after inhaling a nematocide emanating from an undej)leted 300 und, pressurized canister that had been improperly disposed of by the manufacturer. The canister had been picked up by a man to 111"
as 99a nice stand-up fireplace."
e. Poisoning by way of the food chain
i, This is a hazard that is difficult- to identify and confurm because there is not enough scientific evidence.
ii. Related case study: (a) Grain that was treated with methyl mercury type seed dressing was fed to some hogs in New Mexico. Three children suffered serious alkyl mercury poisoning after eatirw pork from these hogs. A pregnant woman who ate the pork gave birth to a baby with co e tal. mercury poiso The relation of this incident to hiaproper7anmd disposal is that some5'of the grain was dumped at a local dump and scavenged for f eed. f. Fire and explosion
i. Numerous injuries to landfill operating personnel have been caused by fires and explosions due to improper safety precautions, n 6xample of which is the mixing of chemically reactive and mutuall y incompati-, ble materials, or landfilling of unidentified discarded chemical materials.
ii. Related case study: (a) A bulldozer operator in New Jersey was killed by an explosion at an industrial landfill while burying drums of an unidentified chemical. The victim died of burns which cove ft-d 85 percent of his body.
3. Discarded materials storage,
The improper storage of discarded materials is the greatest single source of fires in the inner city. Since fires result in a loss of life and in injuries as well as property loss, the improper storage of discarded materials is an indirect safety hazard. (The follow n.# examples are from a 1975 Environmental Protection Agency publication, "'Relationship of Solid Waste Storage practices in the Inner City to the incidence of rat infestation and fires.")
a. In New York City, 34 percent of 0 fires in 1972 were attributed to hnproper discarded materials storage.
b. In Washington, D.C., the condition was even worse that year with 47 percent of all fires being attributed to improper discarded materials storage.
4. Future environmental damage is expected to grow due to
pressures for land dis osal
a. Environmental Protection Ag ncy and state authorities are expan the degree of control on air emissions and water effluents
and pesticide use and disposal.







disposal permit ondtions are beoigiceasingly
pressre for land disposal can be expeted to escalate
No98's when all these regulations take full effect.
MSHOUTAGE

farc coseration and the future adequacy of the resource
eataindesired rates of economic growth
he increasinglyg dependency on foreign a urces of crude raw
and the consequent adverse imph'cations for international
,of payments, strategic sl-ufciency, and international
A onnAary of the historical pattern of U.S. material consumptor broadly defined raw materiial. commodity categories is shown
1l -17.
TABLE1-17.--US*COSUMPTION OF RAW MATERIALS, 1900-49

agricuturalOther
WAll raw Food and forstr Eneg Metalli MNonfe
MAeia Maeral prdcs aeil mineals miners

........ ........ ------------- 17358 1044 347 2, 447 594 499
-----------.,,... 9U9 I 834 686, 506 1063 1, 179
------... --..-..-----35 279 017 10 167 648 1,618
--------------------.. 757 411 6:987 13-295 3;212 3046
--------------------. 5K 32 75 7,431 19170 4, 046 4,338
---.---------------- 43 SI 27 94 71 136
------------.. -... 30. 32 25 56 a 37
--. --------- ------. 21 19 0 31 21 88
... ------------ .-- 28 22 6 44 26 42
---------- 7 --------- $5 45 6 89 53 168
.-.-.-.-.--------- 295 209 120 683 581 769
sed nad as fueL,
maeli la the United Saeecnmy:10-1989. Workin Pape 35. Washto, U.S. Bureau of
Value Oa averaged hee to aides the f at thM99 recesson Year lftenc on onmption
184EPA Sead Repot to Coess
7e annual value of all raw materials consumed has virtuly
since 1900. The greater part of this increase is accounted and energy raw materials, which together tend to dominate
use value magnitudes.<
he mineral groups have exhibited the most rapid rates of in;the *slowest growth has been in the forestry products and
a. ot oy are the absolute quantities growing rapidly for most
'aeofcrude raw materials, but there is also some evidence vnthe, percent growth rates .have been increasn over the
tpast.t Go
4 coprenOf, Mrude raw maeilconsumption witX rs
4rdc (GN4P) .ows that crude add semi-processed raw contibute Ia relatively smal proportion to the agapalaii *t, amJ ontribution hsbeenderasn






44

rapid growth in raw material consumption, the Gross National Product, has expanded at an even more rapid pace.
3. Table 1-18 below summ es the results of extrapolatm'g his.
torical growth trends to the years 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2000. Tvm alternative projections are made for each yeax, a "high" value, based on the individual category's 1959-69 growth rate expelnenim, and a "low" value, based on its longer term 1929-69 growth rate.
TABLE 1-18.-PROJECTED GROWTH FACTORS FOR GNP, PERSONAL CONSUMER EXPENDITURES, AND RAW KATER11iL tip CONSUMPTION
Growth factor I
1980 1985 1990
Item High LOW High Low High LOW fligh LOW
GNP ----------------------- 1.40 1.29 1.73 1.51 2.13 1.76 3.25 71 Q
Personal consumer expenditures:
Durable goods -- ------- 1.72 1.39 2.41 1.71 3.39 2.10 6.65
Nondurable goods ------- 1.29 1.24 1.51 1.41 1.76 1.62 2.42
Total ---------------- 1.41 1.28 1.75 1.49 2.21 1.73 3.34 L 36
Material consumption:
All raw material -------- 1.22 1.16 1.38 1.28 1.56 1.40 2.00 1 $11
Metallic minerals -------- 1. 20 1.19 1.34 1.33 1.51 1.48 1.98 [$4
Nonfuel, nonmetallic M
minerals ------------- 1.33 1.30 1.58 1.53 1.89 1.79 2.69
Energy material --------- 1.34 1.24 1.60 1.41 1.92 1.62 2.77
Nonfood agricultural and
forestry products ------ 1.05 1.06 1.08 1.09 1.11 1.13 1.18 1. 22
Food material ----------- 1.17 1.14 1.29 1.23 1.43 1.33 1.74 1.%
Population2 ---------------- 1.07 1.13 1.18 1.27
1 The projected ratio of the future year value to the 1972 (base year) value.
2 Based on the most recent U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of the Census Series E population prolaffloft Source: 1974 EPA Second Report to Congress.
a. Gross National Product is expected to reach 3,25 times ints 1972 level (or an increase of 225 percent) in real terms by the year 200O under the high growth rate assumption or 2.42 times its 19-72 level (an increase of 142 percent) under the low growth rate assumption.
b. The projections for consumer or household sector total personal consumption closely follow those for theGross National Product 'With durable goods growing substantially faster and nondurable good somewhat less rapidly.
c. On the basis of past performance, raw material consum ion should ;-row proportionately less rapidly than either the gross National Product or the household final demand component of Gross National Product.
d. Annual consumption of raw materials would double b y the end
of the century under the high growth assumption, or increase by about tt 70 percent under the low growth pro*ection.
e. In summary, this rate of economic growth implies, by the year, 2000, an increase in overall U.S. demands on the so-called "renewable" agricultural and forestry resources of 50 percent or more and on mineral de osits of about 2.5 times our present consumption rate.
4. Today Vnited States dependence on foreign minerals is already high and translates into a large outflow of gold ($8 billion mi 1970). By 1985, according to Depaxtment of the Interior estimates, the," mineral deficit will have reached $32 billion, 1.8 percent of the Gross National Product, up from 0.8 percent in 1970.





II5







IIN
pUnited States does not Possess known commercial-ecale of some raW materials: (such as tin and nickel) and that for
pe ohers(such as iron ore) most of U.S. higher grade and more ea deposits: have already been laqely depleted.
/$b Tale -19 beow, for an indication of the impact of mineral on the Umted ,States balance of payments (source:I "Final of National Comiso on Mateials Policy," p. 2-26).
TAssa I10-..Imports exceed exports of raw and processd minerals

itWORTOOF ALL OTHER MiWA.. RAW MATERIALS IN ,PROCESSD MATERIALS OW MINERAL ORIGIN

$.7 BILLION
IN 1972 THE ESTIMATED U. S. DEFICIT IN THE BALANCE OF TRADE FOR MINERALS AND CHEMICALS PROCESSED MATERIALS OF.
MINERAL ORIGIN WAS
1.6 BILLION
IIL
.3 BI LIQ
I tON$6 B ILLION

IL
4-1 t
EXPORTS OF ALL OTHER MINERAL RAW MATERIALS AND PROCESSED MATERIALS OF MINERAL ORIGIN 18RON AND STEEL $1.4 BILLION
$3.0 BILLION:
CHEMICALS
$2.7 BILLION

REFINED
PETROLEUM PLASTICS $0.7 BILLION
COPPER METAL $0.3 BILLION $1.0 B ILLION IRON ANO STEEL SCRAP $0.3 BIL.
PRON AND STEEL$1". BILL CARUD0E OIL
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS $0.5 BtWR BILLIONO
COAL $1.0 B I LLON

IMPORTS EXPORTS
($i1 BILLION) ($8 BILLION
TRM IMPACT OF AINBBAL IMPORTS ON TE U.S. BALANCE OF PATHENTO
abe1-19. Stuies by the U.S. DepMartment of the Interior indlotiethat if pres*m) redontinue, the vale ofA U rimar mineral urmnsIn exess
voloUV.S. miaeral :94n increased to ut$100 bilon by
I00 in 1 dlalA1;4, of this estimated deficit will be for
and tefor ote8ieas ource: Bureau of Mines,
Oftsxbfkf 93
meaoI 9 uS eota ainl-a solbple











c. See Table 1-20, below, for an illustration of percentage of ]Unite States mineral requirements imported during 1972 ("Final Report?', p. 2-25.) 1

TABLE I-20.-Persentage of U7.S. mineral requirements imported during 1072


PERONTAMIMERMAJR PERCNTAG IMPRTEDFOREIGN SOURCES





MICAg tass, soDIA. IAC. 1WLtAttV



TANTALUMsas~ann.zm ALUMAUM 4... AfmaIca.ssonsuM.cassAss.A%6avenu
MANGANESE Mazes. O.caonSOUTHnAMAezAn
FLUORINE ascXXo. sWAmN. ITALY. SOUTH AMMA
TITANIUMA meal ^^^Aua





SMAZIL MGZAIA. MALAGAsI THAILAND
ANT IM soursN s c. nr ce AFIA U S1ounse

GOLD canaeA. swersustAssO. esI
POTASIMI CAN
MERCURY c---e-. net~WAsco
ZINC cno~ason



GYPSUMcaeamcease StLENIUM C"AnAn.Own.. "IesC.coK

VANADIU1M **- M srnAssaIca.cuMeess
IPTF4OLEMBA rws~. ssero cja CIA sor SOUeTH c AN .caneaGA.e r
IRON CAAA causesvernme.wJAnAceMaNSAnner45112
LEAD casenow AUSTRALu.essu.ese
CADMIUM hasco. AsynauA. eases smmaos.omae
CDPPAR X... casenAssnt.cueLe
ITAM on...^As aCANADA. matSrAUs
RARE WlTag usaHsmrsaes
PUMICEW GrEfecE.ITALY

CEMEAT 177 .. N04 casemon.* NRWAseowY
MAAGNVEMUM 6asseww..ss 60461 wa MLeesANO
NATURAL OAS CANAD

STNE CAtADA. ..Mycnaxi.yL.mnce G

11.% 76 sh sh 2% in

THE INTERNATIONAL SCOPE OF THE MATERIALS SYSTEM

Table I-20. The United States imported varying amounts of metal, n omealic, and fuel minerals from more than 40 countries or areas of the world in 1972. No major nation of the world ia completely self-sufficient in all the minerals required to sustain an industrialized economy. Bource: Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1978.
Source : 1973 Final Report of National Commission on Materials Policy.


5. Two viewpoints regardn the future adequacy of the natural
resource supplies:
a. Economic catastrophe must inevitably overtake us at some fuur time ~vs rr as v high wrad mi*neal deoststrbrecoremed rsukadddce'ridh1





47

4and the upper limits of sustained-yield resources are
highPer caLpita growth rates of material consumpM y on human euity. Present knowledge of
Of mnrldeposits is i* 'tesimal coDmpared with the
,reaches of the panet. Imi ts are, those imposed by human decononne orgammation.
& sal material may be limited, the functional
heateletesfor Iwhich any iven material is employed is regarded
le as potentially available in other materials.
Dnmi system is seen as capable of devising entirely different I sdets to serve traditional demands or uses.
8. 'en these facts, Environmental Protection Agency states it t~laltto identify any specific natural resource commodity that is
or critical i any absolute -sense or to identify any nonabb resources that are exhaustible.
Thourrent shortages of energyv and materials should serve to gatatethat even if the resource base is adequate, acquisition of stalecan'be accompaniedby severe short-term dislocations and
AL 4,number of areas of'-considerable uncertainty and risk rep inlongterm futurevirgin resource supplies:
I.Th extent of future mineral discoveries and the cost of exthnthem. Continued hig and growing rates of resource consupus culdwell force use of lower grade ores or energy material at g extraction costs. PuFture growth rates of world market demands, especially of the p~nlyunderdeveloped nations of the world, and increasing comiion for many ermmoditie on world markets. .'Geopolitical events that could sigificantly afet the United agsposition-in international markets for partcular commodities eOMMs unusual demands on United-States exports. ft It must be borne in mind that there are community and reanldisruption costs associated With industry relocation due to rasicchange in raw material types and sources. These are seldom evrfactored into the private market picin calculus as future stlcosts of natural resource supply. S.The exploitation of low-grade resources (e.g., shale oil versus deoil) is generally acopanied by extral environmental costs Whas bul shale olresidues, which require large land area for
A ~summary directives from the "111973 Final Rprt of the bnl ommission on Materials Policy," which the Cmonsi eswill move the nation toward meeting th echallehges...of s&
a sffcintsupl of materials while managing and conerin
p clbai Of U edStates national life, are: cnrM
* a balance between the 'need to produce good-* and the edto Protect the environment' by mod0ifying the materials system ha al resonurces, icungenvionumental, ire paid for by users.
"Slrvefor an eulbimbetween the suppl of Mtera and
fo s bvpBny aei pouto

zeteddswddmteil






48

e. "Aanage materials policy more effectively by recognisng -h complex interrelationships of the materials --energy--evicesan system so that laws, executive orders, and administrative patem reinforce policy and not counteract it." ("Final Report," p. 1-4).
14. In addition the (Commission "considers resource recovery amon the highest national priorities and encourages the Congress andtw Executive Branch to establish recycling as an explicit national goal" ("Final Rep-ort," p. 1-7).
15. See Table I-21, below for a scale drawing of the relative U11 portance of domestic mineral raw materials, imports, exports, --d processed and recycled materials to the Gross National Produc for 1972 ("Final Report," p. 2-2).

TAnLE I-21
THE IROLE OF MINERALS IIW HE US CONOMY



WA MNATURAZ PeDUtemategsIG.IFINN
RESOURCES: 598.- TOO wA R.NSISON~
aCKS
COAL gVER GROSS NATIONAL VADMIOF
33 ........qi......S......ku O











WATERAI
iiaisiiaiiiyi ....v .Is. a cen asea








.11 IR A DAre aGAS. OWN Oes.

ENERGY, SeU11 StANl. GRAEL l nstteais mrangcz&v~Es:mataat: ou
ST ~ ~ eta "a mTC.Os Aanese RIGIe FELS VAUEvaMLLONtECIAWpesesMALLAdeiWNUacetsMstn.
senteessetyruaotkates oreANDvsem
iiiiiIiiiiiiiiig a ...ii,,i,,, wan ..............








&04NOF mOFWA RAW igatIAh
iiiiiTOiiii64iiiiiiiTES:










AMAU RAL LS r** CRA - .-- ** -cS A NDWASS
SCSORCE 06.GAS.ADSEEL MN UM.asOnecs
algFaMUINEA Ata 1101
a g g g gI ........--.........*.
=scan








r ons usmmcess ONTO e o, Nff*s cAre STE. aosoue


SOaCE US.o orDEP~. AZALTMNT BOF THE U.S1401.63.1 C wOOIC YSTE


Table I-21 Basic mineral materials, including metals, nonmetallic, and fes constitute only about 8 percent of the Gross National Product. As these maeil are processed, their value la multiplied nearly 5-fold by inputs of labor, atpts productivity, and enterprise. The areas of the squares, drawn to dollar fk put into focus the respective segments of the economy. Source: Bureau of iii-i data, U.S Department of the Interior, 1978. Reference (1).

I. EXISTING FEDERAL POLICIES CONCERNING VIRGIN AND SECONDARY MATERIAL USE
1. There are three major Federal policies that afect material me
a. Freight rate regulations for Virgin and secondary commoditis
b. Feeralprocurement specifications for products cont recycled materials.
cTax benefits for various vrinmaterial industries.








',tbe current controversy concerning freight rates for secondary 0OW owtRAs around the issue of discrimin ation.
o deonstate discrimination agams't secondary material, it shownthat the rate relationshiltween virm' and secondary as the source of actual injury to shippers of secondary mateA.Ths esential requires demonstration that current rates for pg~ar*material are too high relative to the rates for virgin mate*0 "ht, as a reut, there is a decrease in recycling. U9 Imon 204 entitled "Investigation of discriminatory freight t o the transportation of recyclable or recycled materials'r is stanedin the Rilroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act IM7 (PL 94-210) signed into law February 5, 1976.
F~dralprocurement Of products containing recycled materials A Te potential for Federal procurement to develop. market demand
Weivred resources.
i. Of the $e6 billion in direct Federal procurement in 1970 WA3. billion was defense and $12.6 billion was nondefense-relate (Environmental Protection Agency "Second Report to Congress") fi. Federal expenditures that represent a large percent of the dometicmarket for, a commodity fall mainly m defense-related ares: ordnance, 76 percent;. explosives, 48 percent; aircraft 41 tcommunication equipment, 31 percent;.ships trains
3, and cycles, 10 percent; nonferrous ore mining 19 per.en;and industrial organic chemicals, 11 percent.
ii. Many defense-related commodities represent special pourpoeequipment for which secondary material utilization would
otbe suitable,
IV. Table 1-22 below illustrates direct Federal procurement exedtures as a percent of domestic output of that com;;oityin 1970.
O-atrt FEMaA PRCRMNTB HfUES AS A PERCENT OF DOMESTI OUTPUT Of
THAT COMMODITY, 1970


-4..r.. .... ..------------.... .-- -.--- ----.---- 55L 63 1M 39 M OR0
---..- .. .. .. ..I. . . . . -- - - - -- - - - -- - - -- 4L 45 52 2-32 47.84
------.-------. .. ... .. ...--. U. 3 .26 5. 26 40& 52
------- .... --.---...-- .-.-.-- 27. 47 3.M 98L 43
ad systes.-..-.--....-...-...-.-.---.-..----- 14. 84 4. 06 14 90
-------...-- ------- -..-- -------.-. 18 S 14M 41
M e as - - ------------.-.. --.. --. -----.. -. -.. -. 7 04 L 26 9.32
------.-----.---.--.---.---.---------------- 7.65 L 17 L U
--. ---......--.-.....-..-.-.-..--.-. 4.U 8 & 7 7. AS

assoea~u sacins.................. .RL$87 L 03
at aet--s..---------------.. -------..-.--. 4.8 .U 1
.................. ........ A.48 L 96 L39
an..... ... ... ......... 4. .ft 41V5







50

TABLE 1-22.-DIRECT FEDERAL PROCUREMENT OWMITURES AS A PUCENT OF DOMMIC *LqM (W THAT COMMODITY, 1970--ContinuW

Commodity Odense Nondefenset Tow

Household textiles and upholstery ----------------------------------- 1.96 .23
Machine shops and miscellaneous machinery ------- ----------------- 2.00 .06
Office furniture --------------------------------------------------- .67 1.26
Pharmaceutical p!eparations ---------------------------------------- .98 .88
Commercial printing ----------------------------------------------- 2.69 85 1.14
Motor vehicles and parts ------------------------------------------- 1.57 1.73
Coal minino ------------------------------------------------------ 1.42 .24 L
Metalworking machinery and equipment ----------------------------- 1.22 .40 IL
Chemical preparations --------------------------------------------- 1.40 '10, L 50
Tire and inner tubes ----------------------------------------------- 1.42 .08 1-50
Cellulosic man-made fibers -------------------------------------- 1.38 -------------- L 38
Dairy products ---------------------------------------------------- .69 .67 L 36'
Agricultural fores", and fhhery products --------------------------- 1.31 .01 1.32 K.X i
Polishes ana sanitation gwds ------------------------------- ------- .87 .40 1.27
Service industry machines ------------------------------------------ 1.08 .09 L 17
R
Fertilizers -------------------------------------------------------- .03 1.09.. L
Fiber cans -------------------------------------------------------- 1.12 -------------- 1.1
Wooden containers ------------------------------------------------ 1.09 .01 L 09
Grain mill products ------------------------------------------------ .08 .87 .95 A
Inorganic pigments ------------------------------------------------ .92 -------- .92
Iran and ferro alloy ore mining ---------------------------------- 1.70 79) .91
Sanitary paper products ----------------------------------------------- U :56 ago
Agricultura I chemicals --------------------------------------------- 34 .39 .73
Primary and seconoiry aluminum ----------------------------------- :63 03 .66
Wood preserving and miscellaneous products ------------------------- .42 :21 .65
Miscellaneous plastic products ------------------------------------ .53 .09 .62
Structural metal products ----------------------------- ------------ .51 .09 .60
Medicloals and botanicals ------------------------------------------ .58 --------------- .53
Nonceflulosic organic fibers ----------------------------------------- .58 -------------- .58
Stampings, screws, machine products, and bolts ---------------------- .44 .13 .57
Meat packing ----------------------------------------------------- .42 .14 .56
Hardware plating, wire products, and valves -------------------------- .38 .17 .55
Special industrial machinery ---------------------------------------- .2s .27 .55
Coated and converted paper ---------------------------------------- .32 .21 v 53
Papermill products ------------------------------------------------ .13 .40 .53
Plastics materials and reos --------------------------------------- .51 -------------- .51
Soap and other detergents ------------------------------------------ .42 .09 .51
Household furniture ----------------------------------------------- .23 .150
Glass and glass products ------------------------------------------- .28 .21 .49
Rubber footwear -------------------------------------------------- .46 -------------- .46
Apparel --------------------------------------------------------- .26 .17 .43..
Farm machinery and equipment ----------------------------- .36 .04 .40
Electric lighting and wiring equipment ------------------------------- .37 .02 .39
Primary and secondary copper ------------------------------------- .08 .30 .36
Cyclic intermediates and crudes ------------------------------------ .35 -------------- .35
Miscellaneous food products --------------------------------------- .05 .30 .35
Cardboard boxes -------------------------------------------------- .23 .09 .32
Rugs, tire cord, and miscellaneous textiles --------------------------- .21 .11 .32
Book printing and publishing --------------------------------------- 1.19 (-.88) .31
Synthetic rubber -------------------------------------------------- .31 -------------- .31
Fabrics and yarn -------------------------------------------------- 29 -------------- .29
Metal containers -------------------------------------------------- :29 -------------- .29
Canned and frozen goods ------------------------------------------ .17 .10 .27
Stone and clay products ------------------------------------------- .34 (-.07) .27
Primary and secondary iron and steel ------------------------------- .20 .01 .21.
Bakery products -------------------------------------------------- .13 .07 Zo
Household appliances --------------------------------------------- .16 .04" :20
Corrugated and solid fiber boxes ------------------------------------ 12 .0
Shoes and other leather products ----------------------------------- .11 .02 13
Sugar ----------------------------------------------------------- .09 .04 .13
Beverages ------------------------------------------------------- .09 .03 .12,
Paints and allied products ----------------------------------------- .09 .04 A
Paperboard mill products ------- 7 ---------------------------------- .09 .03 12
Stone and clay mining and quarrying -------------------------------- .42 (::.31)
Miscellaneous manufactured products ------------------------------- .12 .02)
Leather tanning -------------------------------------------------- .06 .02
Chemical and fertilize mineral mining ------------------------------- .05 .01
Confectionary and related products --------------------------------- .03 .02
Livestock ------------------------------------------------------------------- 6i- .02
Newspapers ------------------------------------------------------ .01
Periodicals ------------------------------------------------------- .01 -------------Sawmill and planning mill products ------------------------- 7 ----------------------------------Toilet preparations -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------t Negligible.
Source: 1974 EPA Second Report to Congress.






43 mdte.ta aea oeta o eodr
ootn:ppran ae rdcsio n ti
mes= pout, lsie n rbe rdcs
Alhuhteeea oenen salreagecnu

-aitrsrpeetasal roto fcmie
Um emeaadaroa xedtre nteeaes
Feea ueaeso atbwdpout ol



ExctieOde 11 9
Feea gnie oiuIIemaue eee odrc liis n n rgIm o&-ome ainlevin
Wgols
JL Gn lSrie diitainrcce ae rcr
pae rcreetseiictoswr: dutdt
Ul aiu t o eyldfbrintoprs- h
pat s te eqiedpecnto rc d i
scre aeil ofre es
pae aa etadalfbosmtra6rccdfo


Mnicpldsuemaeil)adteseodprspcfs
ho uhmyb eie rm ovrigadfbiain diwe uiil eg neoect'nrr
M P a m l
ia te aemHadtxieml icre aeil) (b h eea evcsAdiitainuiie. A









iiiiiiiiliiiub is in ap rs
(aiiiiiiili Th on omte nPitn srsosbefrseii catiiiiiiion o l ttoey rntnadppprue byitheFederl Govenment
(b)ThiEvionmntiiroectonAgncihaiben-uin
recycledi fieso.a..eimna.ais rgami e
evaluated.'iiiii
c.iiiiiiiiiito expandediuseiof recycled.materials.in.Federal.-.pur chases:iiiiiii iiiiii~ i Unetiny..... h tcnca efrm neopout


iiiiiiii ii i.B deayiosritsaiefom tefc ta o productsiiiiii~i iti is m reepesvit sescodx ta vri
mateialiintheGiiialSiricesidmnisratoniipeiiiq@m howeverii'i!! higher............... prcsw r o fee frp o u t o t m
hiiiiii i ghe pece tso.rc.ld.ibr
do The Environmental Protection Agency concludes 'in itsi"Siiund ReporttoiCogressithatiediialproiuementianiiiiliiivluabl functiiiiiiiiiii!I=~ "iio in hepn oetbihtetcnia n cn mcfcoso
recyciiiliiiiiiiilediii materialuse
4. Tax benefits for virgin matierialsiiiiiii iiiiii a. Dpleioiialiinniiiiiideletonialownceisiataxiedutio based oiiiiiiii~i~iiinthdeltoofamnrldpstThraxtwmtos
foriciliuatingideletioiialowanie:iheiperceiageiiethdiand.th costi mthod.Eachiiaiiteiietodiirvidiiitheiargeideducionii use.iTouhiteicstdeietin roiie fo thircovryif he in vetetieurdioepoiiiierldpsiteta eeiti h
exes f heprcntg dpltonaloane bvethiosidpeto
allowaiiii n ce.
b.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiip rov sioniiio wsith costsiiiiiiii ofdeelpm nt.ip.ve en,.r.thr.nc.aesin.h.vlu.o miiiiiiineal aniibeiobiddcedfo ncmin h er hya
incrediseaiiieniaddtoteiotofteaseiadrcoee
ovrtm hog ereito rdpein
iiiaptaiiiiiretmnt. Iniidifibinitxeiatorinry
incmetxiielitiiitmeo-sl (pto4%)th ncm rcivd
froiteiiiiiiiiiiii ubec in te d o aptaiginitxiiitl
iiiiiThsisecilialownceforthesal oftimer edues heiali iliiiiiiiiliiiiiiii% raeiilteiiiiap ta!ganstax ra e.
Initeiasioicolinddoestciroloeif ftriisosig ofa om
moiya cnmcitrs srtindadrylisaerciesc
royalt"'=iesaeas lgbefrcptlgmstetet doFregitxaiixne.-hriae eerlspcaltxirviin avilbl t .S frm wt fregnbae oertins ecus mn
US. i rmsinihe vi mteialbusnes on fregn oldng, tes provii~iision ................viii i d b en efit............................nd ar
meialfrm.Furfreg axbnfishaebenieniiid h






tax credit, the exclusion for l0epveod country corporatheexlusonfor controlled foreign subsidiaries, and the Western
trade corpoation deduction.
uxig t awk*.-Firms operating outside the United States dotforeign taxes directly from their U.S. tax liability. The txcredit a available to U.S. timber and mining fims operating
nations.
*for lesedeelpe coms-r corporatione.-For virgi
firms operating in countries defined by the President as eveope", there ms an alternative methodallowed for deterthe amount of foreign tax credits available to offset U.S.
increases the value of the tax credit to the U.S. firm.sauo .for controlled foreign subsidiarie.-For certain firms
anot repatriate foreign earning, a deferral of U.S. taxes is
estrs enssphreTrade Corporion.-Forfim oprtg
,teWestern Hemiisphere, there is a method of calculating Ui.
edtht rednees the taxes payable by about one-third..
&.Se Table 1-24 at page 54 for comparisn of virgin material
1* f
4% odRpr o ogm 17)














00% OW14 9-1 in
S ". S-8 as a

+ *410





106



06
06

S.: pop ci

Xct
00
CL C= W'&

E
LA li a 71
'0 a E E ISO



0610 a
CVn 06
Ln
"!: 10 P-0 v
&was M"Pl a
0 ^--% 06 0
1= c" co
Ln cqcq" cQ Co ui C;
ciO
06 GM
cn
000

ScM
*OW Mr%


z
"F,O
ui
M S C)
ui 2 bow

X im's 0,
t1o a
C

to 2,= E,
CL rr.. C C 5 E cL
=.W CO- Sn 9 E c
E m E
04- a 0
0 of =
0 C6 C-i
E 0 CL.W x to
CLW OR 0
3: -* cl CDO CL
> 0 V-00"
LL- M.M CL
CL

ZZ
=Cl
oo =
9:L W M
4" U) E 8
x SM
r= O.SO 00 6i= CY
0 4 -4
E 4 cc.
= "- 0 V CL =g
0 CL M CL CL 'E
E t; =CM OB 00 S
c 11 U"P Cj M M.-2
CD c;_;c; aa cr
LU &%.GO3- 69-dowboll, = ti.Eam a c
0
C3 "Is
C
=Mo 40 W
so
00

eel
4= CL
0 -4 0000 06 1.. A! C) Oo.= -S
bo E! iv-jo Ma
b-,- ECO a &CL C6 06 CL 06 CL 06 so MCM W = I= E 0 crecDo.,
go allC3" 40"W" 211, E to-C 2 a
a M&OCM TM qr a Mgm ME CA
X0 ORCBIR C21p-vlq E.Mar o
b- 04 1: a a 49
C",rc a C, a 0 CL

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dos
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CL GO .4 R*
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r- 2 E Q.- I ui
F = N
CLO
-0 In
OT;
,5E 9 = a 920 CL
0
0-3 -M-=<04
CL

106 Z P z







Table I--25 below for comparison of vignmaterial tax
wit virgin and secondary material product cost differential.

Of11MNMATEWM TAX SENFIT WT WOMN AND SECONARY MATEMAL PROUCT OWT DIFFERNTAL

Prdese Tax twei
Uslag11 MIesia of vigead
tiglg t famr o second

........~~~~r .fs sess~ a..o.o e-s



It .. -......... 79-------------4. 50 82. 005 1 9 7



---- ---------------- 1L 14 50 22. 00 8-07
#nd"pape vbal Noneig------- IMO peras ....... t0 00 7.00 26

It ~q wher and secomisr matedals are eauivlen lapts Midwest Reseach lastte
supor ofonregere evw y, UspMishedreport totheConcilonEnvirementa
EA Amsoe which is require steardecud

........... w4, (a....a ta b"r in- cis,. *wrqie t po msK a


II1. MRsm n ncvmar


In 1973 61.4 million tons of paper and board (excludmg'C cntugraes)were consumed in the U.S. 44.2 million tons ofit entered
mil dicaredmaterials stream and were disposed of (See Table 'for illutration of paper flow estimated for 1973).




12 'to OaWAs .2venED an Da1rge



MIA StI 4i2 To Dcsrosm
seems cnvents wt coMBson




LI *awta
aW sawcse

so naOM Or TOM

'llain ~ ~ *0 sion lol I Iar ,ma sep a ll ed Agnant Oeath so 0&9 ames W"mPs uge
t'Aaemn ataietmeagmetrMadetassntpr esaat


49aadsekegns








2. 14 million tons of paper were recycled Mi 1973:
a. 8.7 million tons-post-consumer municipal solid diSOW48d
materials (recovery rate of 16.4 percent).
b. 5 million tons-wastepaper recovered from the 6 million tow
generated in industrial converting operations (recovery rate of ovw
80 percent).
3. See Table 11-2 below for illustration of domestic &per re
pycling rate from 1944 to 1973. This table indicates a stedy decline
in the recycag rate.
TABLE 11-2.-DOMESTIC PAPER RECYCLING RATE: 1944-73
Total paper Was"paper consumption Recyding rate besed onco= (thousand tons)
Year tons) Census data I Industry data 3 Census data lnds*y dab

1944 --------------------------------- 19,445 6,859 -------------- 36.3 --------1945 --------------------------------- 19,665 6, 8DO -------------- 34.6
1946 --------------------------------- 22,510 7,278 -------------- 32-3
1947 --------------------------------- 24,749 8,009 -------------- 32.4 -------------1948 --------------------------------- 26,0 7,585 -------------- 29.1 ---------1949 --------------------------------- 24,695 6,600 -------------- 26.7 ---------1950 ---------------------------------- 29,012 7,956 -------------- 27.4 ----------1951 --------------------------------- 30,561 9, 70 -------------- 29.7 ...... -------1952 --------------------------------- 29,017 7,881 -------------- 27.2 ---------------1953 --------------------------------- 31,360 8,531 -------------- 27.2 9.. ---1954 --------------------------------- 31,379 7,857 -------------- a a --------------1955 --------------------------------- 34,719 041 -------------- 26.0 -------1956 --------------------------------- 36,495 06 -------------- 24.2 --1957 --------------------------------- 35,270 493 -------------- 24.1
1958 --------------------------------- 35,119 8,671 -------------- 24.7 -------1959 --------------------------------- 38,725 9, 414 -------------- 24.3 --------1960 --------------------------------- 39,1 9,031 -------------- .23.1 -------------1961 --------------------------------- 40,312 9,018 -------------- 22.4 -------------1962 --------------------------------- 42,216 075 -------------- 21. s -------------1963 --------------------------------- 43,715 9,613 -------------- M 0 -------------1964 ----------------- --------------- 46,385 9,843 -------------- 21.2 -------------1965 --------------------------------- 49,102 10,231 -------------- 2o.s -------------1966 --------------------------------- 52,680 10,564 -------------- 2D. I -------------1967 --------------------------------- 51,944 9, sm -------------- 19.0 -------------1968 --------------------------------- 55,664 0 222 -------------- 1&4
1969 --------------------------------- 58,915 10:939 11,969 M6 -------- 20.-31970 --------------------------------- 57,940 11,800 1& 3 214
1971 --------------------------------- 59 557 11,000 12,100 18.6 20.3
1972 --------------------------------- 6i,386 11,703 12,915 1& 2 20.1
1973 --------------------------------- 67,240 12,374 13,880 1&4 20m. it

I U.S. Bureau of the Census. Pulp, er and board: 1973. "Current I ndustrial Reports Series M26A(?3)-13,'1' Wasmaxton, U.S. Department of Commerce, Nall.5. H pp.
2 American Paper Institute, statistics of paper and paperboard, 1974.
Source: 1975 EPA "Third Report to Congress."

4. A positive sign for the future of domestic wastepaper usW is
the fact that medium production and linerboard production are using
increasing quantities of old corrugated as a fiber supplement.
5. A negative sign for the future of domestic wastepaper usage lis.
a decline in using wastepaper for construction paper, board sector,
and combination lolding boxboard production.
B. STEEL CANS
1. Ferrous materials constitute approximately 7 ercent of munici0 1 es). tout 50 percent of
pal discarded materials (excluding autom. A
the ferrous fraction is steel cans.
2. It is estimated that, in 1973, approximately 5.6 million tons of
cans entered the discaxded materials stream. About 70 percent, 4.0
million tons, were generated 'in Standard Metropolitan Sta i cal,
Areas (SMSA), where recovery is more Uely to be economicay
feasible.






3, 1973 reovery rate: Approximately 7000 tone of cans were
less than 2 percent of discards.
Ferrosmrp is extracted from mxddiscarded materials
yAccording to a 1974 repot byAmerican Iron and
lattute on discarded materials procnom facilities, only 25
are presntly separating such scrap mageally, with at least tThe steele" can is in reality a compi can consisting ftn
steel (thus, the term "tm"nt can) n =ossibly lead, organic
and &luInm
.* some cans, the Percentage of non-ferru materials is relatively and thus da gm to the scra iron mustry. However, the errous Matas. may be valuable also for example, the small
tyof tin in 3.5 million tons 'is worth aproximately 60 million
haf the value of the total value of testeel cans.
4. at for Post-Consumer Cans:
There are three maj or potential market for old cans: the steel
,, the detinning idsradt e precipi tation industy
tmning industry is1ealY an intermedat processor, extracting from the cans and selling the detinned sap to the steel industry). 6.,UAcording tolinvirnmental Protection Akncy's "Second Report
Georee,"the copper precipitation induvr is the single largest 'of sorap cans, accounting for 65 percn of all cans recovered 1972. Two other industries, the steel i.du.ty and the detinning Istr, have the most potential for grwt in the consumption
c. .~ Steel .Induistry:
i. Steel cans recovered from mun i discardedd materials
can be used in both the blast furnae .eeore is reduced to
ro)and also the basic oxygen. and eleti furnaces (where iron
is r~nedinto-steel).
ii. In 1972, about 34 million tons ofio and steel scrap were
purchased-,by the industry for use in selmanufacture. The 4
pilon tons of post-consumer cans geneatd in Standard Metropolita Statistacal Areas are equivalen t about 12 percent of
thi amount.
Uii The American Iron and Steel Intiut's Commnite of Tin ..ill Products Producers has estimated tht5 percent of the scrap charge to the basic oxygen stealll g) furnace could be
earatcn. This: would be equivalent to1. percent of the total
telproduced or a potential demand of 3ilhion tons a yea.
IV& The Committee has also stated thtscrap ca ns could pos,"by replace about 5 percent of the I op in the blast furnace.
Tus, the blast furnaces and basic oxge fmrnaces alone could is- "Mme more scrap cans than prsetl exist in municIa
dancarded materials.
v. The lead, tin. and aluInu presn can $sp can ps
maJor barriers to the use of can scrap in tee manufacture. Undeearable contaminants can be reduce oa acceptable level by
detam' '. heresultant steel is3 a redvma-ketable material,






d.ili Th....nd sty
ii i Moto.te300..softnslvgdanuly.t m K
casisetaceiroicrpgneaei anmniaui
iilaniii
iii i i.Srpcnioriiii hul o ebledo tews


ii i iii .. Inieae asaeu acpal eas i i rtr
caniii~iiiii ca sete.........xi eso..e..pltes rfcet atw
dH i i ficu itoiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.ii
iiiiv.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiidiiiieiiiiiiiiiiiiitirisiiiiiiiiiii
tin plants whereveriii30,000itonsiof can scrap....e.guara.teed
yeariiiiii i~ii l y
v.iTe 194 maketvalu forcanicra forde rmge
fromiiiiiii $30iii to $10 perto............Of herh teia
iiiiiiieoiiiiaiiical' location.
viiiiii4 ii~ii i Tr diio aly.............a ba ch r th r ha
continuous, ...............
e. Coper Pecipiation
iiii.hs saveydffrn fr f a rccin.Te te i o
acull ecvre uti ue i ceicldipacmntrwto
toprecpitatecopper
iiiii.Cpe rc tto cone o 000o h 000tn
ofiiiiii reyldcn n17.Odcnsrpeetdapoiaey1 iiiiiiiiiii0tnso srp o su e y h id styi
i1ii9iiiiiiiiii iiii
T.iSpplyofiost-onsmer ans
a.i AciringtiiieiE viinmetalPioeitiniAenci"Scon


aniiisiz facility
b.Rfuesredn i fenjsifehoee, yvrteo dnI
iaii nfr mroeianiilficecyo nceseirigtaXod
whr rase sain aeivovd I hs isae emmetlcstiffrru aeraixrato hol e-esl ovrdb
thei revenues.
c. Anecletopruiyfrfrosmtra xrcini ob
foud in enryreoey.rohe.yeso..mrhnsv.ecvr
fiitiesta x mrig nalistnesrdigo icre
mateial isrequred an in ostof he eerg reove
I y acilties
orai ut esprtd rmmogaist aimz unn

e~ciency
C. ALMINU







SAbout 34,000 tons of aluminum, or 3.5 percent of the amount
dboaded were recovered in 197-3.
4,. The AlmnmAssociation reports that about 17 percent of the
'cans produced in 1974 were recovered.
4-4 Roughlyr 154 a pound is paid for auinum cans brought to
17 coletion centers.
'About 78 percent of the aluminmcn are concentrated in five
:New York, California, Texas, Florida, and Washington.
1.A Gaaacutfoaprxmtely 9 percent by weight of total
inaicialdiscarded materials.
2. In 1973, over 13 million tons of glass products were discarded,
les than 3 percent, or 350,000 tons, were recovered and recycled.
8.The future of glass recovery depends ini part on the expansion of ovluntary collection centers and new developments either in source
tron and collection of glass or in new mechanical separation
4. Deand for clean cullet exists at price comparable to those for
materials.
e.Color-mixed cullet is currently valued at $20 per ton.
6. Golor-sorted cullet may sell for more, depending on the market
iL There are at least twice as many markets for this material
as for color-mised glss
ii.Alostal glssfurnaces can utilize color-sorted glass, while
only furnaces making colored gass can use color-nuxed cullet.
5.Potential markets exist for coormied glass in construction
teil, such as foamed glass insuatio or bricks, but these have
yet been develped to a significant degree. a
.Glass cullet is in some ways preerable to virgin raw materials
seits use reduces fuel consumption and refractory wear.
7. Tegass industry generally 1m' ts the use of glass cullet in the
frula to approximately 20 percent by weight, although 80
00Q percent cullet formulations have been used.

1. Plastics presently constitute approximately 3.8 percent of
wcpal discarded materials, but plastic consumption is growing
Stialy. no recovery of plastics as a material from mixed
edmateil now takes place, for they are extremely difficult
8 mI~ have the hIghet British thermal unit (Btu) content may of the materials in mixed discarded materials and thus make vauble contribution to the heat value of the discarded material.
heat content of plastics is about 11,000 Brtish thermal unite
pound, approximately the equivalent of coal.
T RBUATION OF RECTCLINqG OFPOBTOONSUMEB DISCARDIEDMATEIRIAL8,
1973







60

TABLE 11-&- POSTCONSUMER RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND RE CYCLU: DETAILED PRODUCT-SOURCE CATEGORIES, 1973
[Thousand tons, as generated wet weight basis]

Material retycled Net waste disp"
Percent Percent por"M
Gross Of total norhad
Product-source categories discards Quantity discards Quantity wasto pf"dat

Durable goods ---------------- 14,700 300 2 14,400 11 17
Major appliances ---------- 2,200 100 4 2 100 2 2
Furniture and 3,400 0 0 3:400 3 4
Rubber tires ------------------------ 2,000 200 10 1 Boo 1 2
Miscellaneous durables -------------- 7,100 0 0 7:100
Nondurable goods, excluding
food ----------------------- 27,930 3,770 13 24,160 Is 2#
Newspapers ---------------- 10,400 2,450 24 7 950 6
Books and 3,720 330 9 3:390 3 4
Office paper--, --------------------- 6 390 990 15 5,400 .4 6
Tissue paper, including towels -------- 2:320 0 0 2,320 2 3
Paper plates and.cups --------------- 600 0 0 600 4 .1
Other nonpackaging paper ----------- 300 .0 0 1,300 1 1
Clothing and footwear --------------- 1:300 0 0 1,300 1 1
Other miscellaneous nondurables ----- 1,900 0 0 1,900 1 12
Containers and packaging ------------ 52,270 5,330 10 46,940 35 Ss
Glass containers -------------- 12,400 275 2 12,125 14
Beer and soft drink -------- 6 100 .190 3 5,910 4 7
Wine and 1:970 25 1 1. 945 1 2
Food and other --------------------- 4,330 60 1 4,270 3 6
Steelcans -------------------- 5,650 60 1 5,590 4 7
Beer and soft drink ----------------- 1,550 15 1 1 636 1 2
Food ----------------- 6 ------------ 3,140 35 1 3:105 2 4
Other nonfood ---------------------- 960 10 1 950 1 1
Alum i nurn -------------------- 820, 35 4 785 1
Beer and soft drink I ---------------- 440 30 7 410
Other cans ------------------------- 50 1 2 45
Aluminum foils --------------------- 330 4 1 330
Paper and paperboard ---------- 28,230 4,960 18 23,270 17
Corrugated ------------------------ 15,100 3 290 22 11,810 9 14
Other paperboard -------------------- 6,925 1:045 15 5,880 4 1:
Paper packaging -------------------- 6,205 625 10 5,580 4 1
Plastics ---------------------- 3,090 0 0 3,090 2
Plastic containers ------------------- 510 0 0 510
Other plastics packaging ------------- 2 580 0 0 2 580
Wood packaging -------------------- 1:900 0 0 1:900 1
Other miscellaneous packaging ------- 180 0 0 ISO (3)"",
Total nonfood product waste---- 94,9DO 9,400 10 85,500 63 100
Add:
Food waste --------------------- 22,400 0 0 22,401) 17 26
Yard waste --------------------- 25,000 0 0 25,000 19
Miscellaneous inorganic wastes--- 1,900 0 0 1,900 1
Grand total ------------------- 144#200 9,400 7 ..134,800 100 Ise

Includes all-aluminum cans and aluminum ends for nonaluminum containers.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
Source: EPA update document to "Second Report to Congress, 1974" Frank A. Smith, Resource Recovery DIVISkN4 Office of Solid Waste Management Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, November 1974.

G. AMOUNT OF MATERIALS POTENTIALLY 3RBCOV36RABLB
1. Table H-4 at page 61 evaluates the potential for further pan 9 r recovery. The first three product groups are primary ca gone or additional recovery because of their degree of concen ation at tho point of generation and the relative ease of separating them from other discarded materials.







o~- TI, FR ADDITIONAL COVER OF PAPE FROM P0TCONUMER 30UD WAST THROUeN
SOURS SEPARATION, BY TYPE OF PAPER, 1931 (in nmnOW orIon)
Pape dsposd of Potentist recvey
of asepaerTota Urban area Percet Amost
........-......-..-- .........-. LD 0 L2 55&534-4.0
..................................... 11.1 8&9 2 55-8 5.14.0
............................. -.... 9. 7 7. 6 30-0 340.
.......................... 14.--- 7 11. 5 5-10 6-1. 2
............................... 44.-- K 2 34.5 .............. 11. 4-14. 2
le his arebasd o sttisiespuVste by the Aauricsa Paper testitut In ther annual pfllton
and bord, 197. The methoolog lae Is derbed In: Smith F L, Jr. A soud Waste A10"10 1f4= Oprobtcio publicaton 47W. IWashingtoni, U.S.
Wn EA ar1atd asprt to conrss.
Table 11-5 at page 62 illustrates the'recyclinpotentials for hodmaterial in post-consumer municipal dliscarde materials
nationn to ert ain measures of U.S. material consumption. A. hee figures are based on the following assumptions:
196 perent of the discarded materials generated is collected
*er dirough mixed discarded materials collection of specialized
oquree-separated collection systems.
70irr70 t of the -collected, discarded materials is processed
r 0 ficmdterial and energy values. preto
WWith respect to paper, it is assumed that only 40 preto
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area is processed for fiber
trespect to the material actually processed for recycling,
Al material recovery eficiency is assumed to be 80 percent.
Jhq ntonal recovery ratios in Table II-5 at page 53 percent
tis recover y of minerals and the 21 percent from paper-are al maxima from a technical standpoint. They only represent soaki 'conceivably be achieved with current or near-future
founder a very vigorous implementation program.
a1971, the percent of U.S. consumption of materials that could been supplied from post-consumer discarded materials: ranges








TABLE 11-5.-4"MIDONSUMER WASTE AND MAXIMUM MATERIAL RECYCLE POTENTIALS RELATIVE TO UA CM
SUMPTION AND PRODUCTION FOR SELECTED MATERIALS, 1971

P"w "d
Item Iron Aluminum Copper Lead Tin MFOINURIN

Material quantity (HP tons):
Postconsumer waste* ------------------------ 10,600 $DO 250 175
U.S. consumption --------------------------- 283,500 25,074 22,823 31,431 373 $5t)%
U.S. primary production: Domestic raw material 254,500 2377 21,411 1585 ..........
Tota ------------------------------------ 281,400 23,925 21,592 2666 ---------- 42
Percent ratio of post-consumer waste to:
U.S. consumption --------------------------- 12.7 15.8 8.9 5.2 35.8 66.5
U.S. primary production: Domestic raw material- 19.4 212.2 17.7 12.8 ---------- 102.6
total ------------------------------------- 13.0 20.4 15.7 11.3 -------- 93.0
Estimated maximum recovery potential: As percent
of waste material ----------------------------- 53 53 53 53 53 21
Total recovered (103 tons) ------------------------- 5,618 400 133 40 10 81200
Percent ratio of potential recovery toU.S. consumption --------------------------- 6.7 8.4 4.7 2-3 1& 9 14,0
U.S. primary production: Domestic raw material 10.3 112.5 9.4 6.8 ---------- 21.5
Total ------------------------------------ 6.9 10.8 & 3 0 ---------- 5

*Based on EPA calculations.
I Tin can fraction only.
2 U.S. Bureau of Mines. 1971 Minerals yearbook. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972.
3 The statistics of paper. Washington, American Paper Institute, 1972. Source: 1974 EPA "Second Report to Congress".

d. The potential reductions in primary production from. virgin
domestic resources could have amounted to:
10.3 percent for iron
9.4 percent for copper
6.8 percent for lead
21.5 percent for paper
100 percent for aluminum
100 percent for tin
e. Conclusions:
i. Recycling post-consumer discarded materials is not a anacea
in the sense that it cannot be expected to supply the m ority of
the nation's raw material demands.
ii. The substitution possibilities, both with regard t,6:,total
consumption and domestic virgin material supply, are not
insignificant.
iii. In addition to direct material resource savings, there will
also accrue further net indirect savings in the form of reduced capital equipment and other material input requirements in the mining, ore reduction and beneficiation, and smelting sectors of the virgin mineral industries, as well as similar reductions in the tree harvesting, wood preparation, and wood pulping segments of the pulp and paper industry. There will be, of course, sorne offsetting new capital goods requirements for processing the discarded materials, but these generally appear to be substantially less than those for virgin material. No quantitative evaluation on
this issue has yet been made.
3. Table 11-6 at page 63 illustrates an estimate of practical m
impact of an assumed possible recycling increase on annual muni'mipal discarded materials disposal and virgin material demand.








K-85TIMATE OF PRACTICAL MAXIMUM IMPACT OF INCREASED MATERIAL RECYCLING ON ANNUAL
MUMtCIPAL WASTE DISPOSAL AND VIAGIN MATERIAL DEMAND


weaste disposal viralo
Assumed Possile as a resoft materdai Pn Peren Anul U.S. recycling increase of increased demand as
as wit colopto recycling a resut Of
of I= of v;%In Percnt of (peent) incresed
Il macia materla material Weight -- -- eyln
agtt) (1 tea) waste 196 (M0 tOWs In wvest (10 tons) Dry Wet (percent)

Lattgd.. 40 40.0O 44 15 6.0O 6.0O 6.0 13.6
-----12 L 0 93 20 2. 4 2Z 4 1. 6 2. 6
)F2 L 3 3 80o1 6 1. 6 1. 1 53. 3
......... if 8. O 12 50 6 0 6& O 4.0O 50.o0
-.----.-- 34 44.0 ...... .... O 0 0 0 0

Wi .... 150 100. 0 ...... .... W- .......... ....................... 117 ----.--.-pee1$1 EPA "Secod Repor to Congress.

III. E"ao REcovzry

VOUR OPPORTUNITIES TO CONSERVE ENERGY THROUGH BETTER


&ourc reduction.-reducm~g' consumption of product or refusing uhot, resultin in the use of less energy and materials and in the Ition in discarded materials generation. )Abergyrcovery.-using discarded materials as a fuel in place coa, ilor gas.
[,beyclin.-usin recycled materials that consume less energy
'U atril in manufacturing ,processes.
I= wdioe in.--using waste colletion trucks more
reducingg fuel consumption.

TABLE III-1 BELOW IS AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE MAXIMUM
O881BLE ENERGY SAVINGS FROM SOURCE REDUCTION, ENERGY 4f ~ ~ "banR RECCLNG AN MRVDCOLLTIONr. IT SHOwLD
DR BORNE IN MIND IN THE CONSIDERATION OF TABLE III-1 THAT TUN ENERGY SAVED IN ONE AREA MAY REDUCE THE POTENTIAL FOR SAV1NGB IN ANOTHER (E.G., RECYCLING COMBUSTIBLE
MATERIALS LIKE PAPER WILL REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF DISCARDED MATRIL8 AVAILABLE FOR ENERGY RECOVERY).

$tt .-MAXIMtJM POSSIBLE ENERGYSAVINGS FROM SOME REDUCTION ENERGY RECOVERY, RECYCLING AND IMPROVED COLLECTION



----- --t-on--- ----.---- -----.-...-.-..--..-....--.. ..15 42 244
--------.. ----. -------. --.- -.. -------.- - t0 30 172
------ I..a . ... .'.................. .. ...--- 318

er day el all equivaleaL

blee m~sa Caesargaoe Thsaug leassud Sali Wash Managemen EPA 19L4









Ii1i4
C.EN RYiiSEVTINiiiiiiDSUSEiiPiCUL ID0,U. ...
iiiiNA AIT O AS FRZAPLEEGYRCVR
CAiIPOViiiECNMISiFMAERAS EYCININA
ENRYRCVRiYTM HENNUBSIL ZTLi
MATRILSARiTPIALYiEPRAiDFRMiHEM= D
CADDiAERASiADTHRFOEAVIALEFi@EYCIG EVNI HYAENTNON OB EYLE.TEADTOA
COTiFREOIiiiERCYLBLiMTRiLiAPARiO S
LESTAmHmDITOAmEEVSFOMTESL FTO
MATERIALS.
1.Tbe11-ieowpeetite"aimmfaibemnr
cosevainienfisfrmiheesaiisenris
2.Teioenilieefti2,00iiiiieidyofol qivln
iiiiiiiiiiiiii3iiiibli1 1- s e ua t : a.Sveieretifalihefelcnsmdiyutltisin170(. iionbresprdyofoleuvln) biiiiiiiiiii 14 p ren.......c a -c n u ed b tiiis n 1 70 (.
ii oniirrsiiiiayifioie uiiien ).i
c.3 ecn fteolpoetdtoh eiee hog h lsa

ipeLie(15iilin aresifoiiirdaieuvaen)
d.5 ecn ftecrd i motddretyfo h fdl


East inSete be.173.10milin.arel....lpe.dy...vaen)
e. 1.5 percent of all energy consumed in the U.S. in 1970 (32.5 = ===
mln breso i erdyeuvln)

TALi i-ri OBNE NRYSVNSFRM3"AIU OSIL" NRYCNERAINSE4RO

FORi19i

iiii
[Tosn arl e dyo i qiaet


iiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiN
iiiiiiliEmma
Scwo2
Enrg P
ScnroI- rcvry mtdl
Enry@cyolt
reovry I
reiiiigai cal nC9
re an=or
s@aai' adci
Enery rcovry -------------------------------------- M 357135








of dfiscrded materials as an energy source povides the f ol.: a. Replacement of the use of foesloues b. Production oxide eisosbecause discarded materials has a low tent e. edntion of the amount of land needed for disposal
M y availabily inceaing rather than depleting the
searc of energy
abWTCONSBATION THROUOR SOUCS RDUCrlON $%urgenepral approaches: a. Product rouse (e.g., returnable in;6. reduce resource mnsiveness (eg., saler autos); c. tadproduct lifetime '(e.g., longer lasting hoseod appliances); deeeaed product consumptao (e.g., reduced pakgn
W sflowing tabes are from the 1974 Environmental Protection 'Report on "Energy Conservation through Improved Solid
belowis an illustration of the energy potentially
guale romwastes, for 1971, based on a Mitre -Rep~ort, 1975.
A"E IIN-UEEA6 POTENTIAL RECOVERABLE FROM WASTES 197 SUMMARY




-------------- -------------- 44 1 2 s8 11 0
--. ---.----.----- ----- --. 200 26.0 338 58.
----- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---. .. .. .3 0 3 313 54.
-..------------ -. ------------ 55 A 60 10. 0
"wpom,%es s "here Oefuan Wakt UMNaa~e Asseaar -dnk m Doeoe Pla Under Ceoa III-4 beow is an illustration of the energy potentially
from wastes for 1980, based on. a Mitre Report, 1975. F.TAM. W&GIR POTENMMY RC0OVERA FRM WASTES=I=UMR



.... ............. a0 aL 6 o m
... ................ asn&0 a
...... ............. US see


hta TT.. I= "Mea adt~k in b a Hidsta &t"Ed a s anm n dcatk
M4- 6i Uofta0w o

-wadwt 7k 1k~l M







66

TABLE Ill-5,-ENERGY SAVINGS OF SOURCE REDUCTION PROGRAM-REUSABLE BEER AND SOFT DRINK CONTAINERS (1972)

Beverage delivered (million Energy Energy consumed
ounces required (trillion Stu 's) Vh1g, 70V4
per million retarub
Present All returnable ounces Present All returnable "I"
Container type system system (million Btu's) 9 system system (WHIM -stills)

Returnable glass bottle_ 26903,,554 1,007,654 194 54 196
1-way glass bottle ------- 2 989 -------------- 550 144 -------------- (113424)
Aluminum can ---------- 104 336 -------------- 747 78 ----------- 74
Bi-metal (steel) can----- 348:775 -------------- 443 154 -------------- 154
Total ------------ 1,007,654 1,007,654 -------------- 430 186 244

Midwest Research Institute, Draft Report, Base Line Forecasts of Resource Recovery.
3 Midwest Research Institute, Draft Report, Profile Analysis of 9 Beverage Container Alternatives. Source: 1974 EPA Report on Energy Conservation through Improved Solid Waste Management.

d. Table 111-6 below is an illustration of energy savings of source
reduction program for reusable beer and soft drink cont for 1980. 0

TABLE 111-6.-ENERGYSAVINGS OFSOURCE REDUCTION PROGRAM-REUSABLE BEER AND SOFT DRINK CONTAINERS
am)

Beverage delivered Energy Energy consumed
(million ounces 1) required (trillion Btu's) Eno
Ws
per million
All ounces All returnable
Projected returnable (million Projected returnable Is"tern
Container type system system Btu's) 2 system system (trillim

Returnable glass bottle 295,673 1,406,980 184 54 259 (2 ffi
ff
1-way glass bottle ------- 385 253 -------------- 550 212 -------------- 21
Aluminum can ---------- 301:998 -------------- 747 226 -------------- 226
Bi-metal (steel) can 424,056 -------------- 443 188 -------------- 188
Total ----------- 1,406,980 1,406,890 -------------- 680 259 421

I Midwest Research Institute, Draft Report, Base Line Forecasts of Resource Recovery.
2 Midwest Research Institute, Draft Report, Profile Analysis of 9 Beverage Container Alternatives.
Source: 1974 EPA Report an Energy Conservation through Improved Solid Waste Management

e. Table 111-7 below is an illustration of the energy savinp of
source reduction programs, decreased packaging materials (excluding
beverage containers, 1971 and 1980).

TABLE 111-7.-ENERGY SAVINGS OF SOURCE REDUCTION PROGRAM-DECREASED PACKAGING MATERIALS (EXCLUDING BEVERAGE CONTAINERS) (1971 AND 1980)

Energy
Consumption at require1958 per capital Potential material ment Potential away Total consumption levels (thousand savings per ton savings
(thousand tons) I tons) 3 (thousand tons) (thou- (trillion Btu's)
Packaginv sand
material 1958 1971 1980 1971 1980 1971 1980 Btu 13) 3 1971 1910

Paper ------------ 16 552 27,700 39,086 21 137 25 043 6 563 14,043 440,800 267.8 573.0
Glass ------------ 5:063 4,900 6,608 6:465 7:660 (1: 565) (1,052) 15,256 23, 9 0
) 29,590 Mj 0.
Steel ------------ 5,340 5,235 6,168 6,819 8f 079 (11584) (1,911 756"_'R
Aluminum -------- 97 212 507 124 147 88 360 196,632 17.3
Plastics ---------- 368 2,900 5,607 470 557 2,430 5,050 36,000 87. 5 181.11'.
Total -------- 27,420 40,947 57,976 35,015 41,486 5,932 16,490 --------- 322.5 753.1

I Office of Solid Waste Management Programs. 2d report to Congress; resource recovery and source reduction:. Environmental Protection Agency, Publication SW-122. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974. 112 p.,
2 Assumes a return to an equivalent 1958 packaging materials mix (i.e., the percentage of each material used in packaging is assumed to be constant). Economic growth, and increased standards of living, Is allowed for by increasing total packaging required by a growth factor (the rate of increase in nondurable goods purchased).
3 Gordian Associates, Energy Consumption for 6 Basic Materials Industries, EPA Draft Report.
d Approximateiy 40 percent of this energy value is derived from the Btu's contained in the raw material (wood), nat f rom purchased fuels.
Source: 1974 EPA Report on Energy Conservation through Improved Solid Waste Management.






-8below is an illustration of the energy savings of source
programs, decreased pakgn consumption.


(A)(8 (A) + (8)
aggednv f"n keleap la A othe Tota e"rg saved so
Z maw s,00stem pakagigters
T11llelmBDOs Trum W/DOI TIoNk 8/DOE1
BlaS (theasages) ONu'S (thouands 8ft's (thousands)

....... 244 115 322 152 566 267
...-....-- 421 ISt 75 356 1, 174 555


Wg VAM NI ase Energ Consrvtinu houghimpoe Solid Wats Manment4

YRWOOVERY FROM DISCARDED MATERIALS
)Table III--0 below is an ilustration of -the energy potentially overblein thoyfrom residential and conunerial discarded
rto te1975 Environmental Protection Agency's


lie.-NEG POTNALLY RECOVERAB9LE FROM RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL SOLID WASTE


Sts2 lDO* BlOE* ts /DOE B{YOE
(Ir#ona o uad (ig) (tiliN) (thousand) (milon)

-----1, %194 584 206 1,440 680 24
----- 424 154 1, 0M 512 18
---gagg- -- --ery-.- -- -- --------... .. ... .. . s4 15

agA1late as a Seeoe of ()*(2) tihaae amun of re*sdnta and cmmecia sold wast
and 0"D nes of tedst (4,500~b ptr Tiheth vmin alu of 4,500 a
Wt prisgpe for ""asreie,46 was-- ona delivere by a cl i

perdayat 6 auivlen. Assmin 5,00,00 taper barsl of oil and 365 days per year)


agatm igsp sme eergyby r Med mhev combustible frth fee fraction, whie hishWMk NO cl -t asslatoWedeg far less potal eners. However. no aadtent Was soct passsig r erWcongwe Mascs(f say steam or electriciy)# becus as prejeds
shade~~~ as6 towicNWrg ecvr beho w ald in e iay aft situatin
0% VPA -"r Aport t Congress.

'Not all discarded materials are available for energy recovery.
recovery systems require large quantities of discarded mate(tleast 200 to 250 tons per day) delivered for processig at one isorder to' achieve economies of scale. For tis reason, .energy
appea feasible only in more densely populated areas, such
Stadard Metro litan Statistical Areas.
"Ifenegyrecovery adbeen paticed in all Standard MetroAla SattidalAreas in 1973,flms 900 trillion ]British thermal Ra uldhae been reovrd.Tis is equal to more than 424,000 Ogn r f all9 sunvalt (Rint'IM o 1t4 YMilim hnbami ner






b.B 90 h nryptnilyrcvrbefo h:Sadr
MerpltnSaitcl radsaddmtral temi rjce
tob bu ,8 rlinBiihthraint e er h qia
letoimriha 1,i0brelieidyoiileuvaet o 8
onbrrl erya o ileuviet c. ,, Th......frisalaino eeg eovr lns sH ie
bytepplto ierqie o uotpat feooia ae
Thuhsale lns r esi1,Evromna Poeto
Agency'siii "Scn.... oCnres siatsa50to-e-a

plantiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ tob esn bepa tsae al 1 -0blw i ilut
iio ofth.pt.til...suh.eovryplntintalaios TAL iiii-OETALFRRSURERCVRYPATISTLAIN
Item1117 19151I
Pgiiiiq ofteU ie ttmI----------- -%22 1,5,0 3 ,96 5,2
Si wi thsufcinipplainioieert 50tos
iiiiofiiiiise:i
amei- - -- --i- -- ---i-- ---i2518i6
Perentofiopuaton ivigiiiteseiMA'si-----62i3 6 i iti wi thiiiiiiiii ufici enopltintig nrae5i on/a
ofiiiiiiiii iii usei 1
Numbe- 5661 B
Pe r"entW P -l -- -i----n the-- D2 32

1 ore P siae aeda aai ..Bra fth ess 90Cnu fPouain .Wii$ .
Government Pritig.ffce..72
2iii Bae nagot aeo 2 ecn e er
ii .SCmmrc urauo teiesu' eie Eppuatoipojcios
4iniiiiiiliiiiiiiaptlwse eeato o eret e ea asasu ebeinigwth4pim
pesnprd i 90 bulto nras sasmdiob!%prcn e er Anan nras npe apt asegneaio f3 ecntpryerwa sumd egnin ih ond e person pe...n170..uaininraei sumdt eIprcn e er Soucei17iEPA"iiodiiprtioionres.
3.Tcnlgcldvlpet ha aebe newyoe h
pasi fwieasiaeiretliexaninioporuntisiorinegyre coeyfrmmxeiicaddmaeilsihsemjr ytmsae a.Shededdscrdd atral a aful I tissytm efsei sheddadseaae.no..i.ih adhayfacin. h
ighi rcio a heiiuedai ue usitt nutlt n
indutralfunaes
b.Pupd icadd aeras sa ul.Tisetal wtpupngo refusei folwe.y..ascspaaio.f....cad nrg-c r



tin.Te nieoraefacincn hn e undorapriono







s USAy~t$of Q enery Iorms:
Steamand electricity are salable and usable without sinificant
to the user, but neither are storable and steam can be
only short distance.
and iqui fuels derived from discarded materials can be
adtem 0 stored but they required the user to
eornt ndflr facilities.
fuel derived rom discarded materials require less
handlin but those currently produced cannot economically M4*preseed for extended storage and shipment (best shipment
-Tbble III-11 below is an illustration of the energy efficiency of discarded materials to energy projeers (for illustration of the
imleetations of energy recovery systems by 1980, see
I-1,v at page 72). ..
Insil il-I-NMBYEF109CY VALUES, WST TO ENERGY PROJECTSer

Of


p l (northwest incinerator).. -------(--------Pa. (in inera r) --- --- ---- --- ---- --- ---- -(,M s -- ---- -- ------------------ ------------ (
SE A demonstration -- -- ------ -- -- -- -- 70
EPA demonstraton. ---------------------- 51
Purox Test Pacity --- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- --- -- 67
Diego EPA demonstration ------------------------- 30
dum Torraz Faollity ---- 7 ---------------)WPA ~ aitlsautualaed upon Subommue request, 1M
NWR=GY CONBERVATION THROUGH RaCYCLING A production System u recycled or secondary materials #often consumes less energy tan a system using virgmn materials,
vsof materials acquisition, procesn n transportation

I.- Tble II-12 beow is an illustration of the national energy
from m iumpossible r eycling of alumnm ferrous and
'Of post-consumer discarded materials.

MWo aum eacTsoM OF PMITSONSUMER SOUD WAST

pa USes 1t age 4

peseent to Wpesl. 815its i24
passnt o W asst..... t W 5 I It
pesgatsqaga.I..I. M V4 3a la I










i~iii .. HH~70

iiiH. EERY ONSRVTINiHROGHIMROED OLECIO

1. Accordig t..the.974.Envirnmental.Prtection.Aency.repw
"Eiiiiiiiii~i ~lii M VP...............................................
,TrgCosevtin hrug mpovd oldWateMaagM
Iiii ii i o giiiiii of..................lion.g.l.ns.o.di.s.......a
usedii annuallyiiior iiiiiiieiiimateriilsicollectioniiandilandiiiisposal.
2. H= H=HHH Var==iou esueioreegycnerain
a. collection once instead of twice a week could save 29 percent of, ======
"collection fuel." On national basis, 18.2 illion gallons of ==aw iiiiiiiiiiiiiil an.....lo aln o aoie wo l a eb en s v d b iiiiiiiiiiiiiiini 17 n 9 3h dcleto b e h n e r m t ieaw e toiiiiiiiiiii onea we.T isi...aetto300bres e a~ fol
b.cleto fald*iaddmteil toetm ol aefg
thuhtefe otfr eaaecleto f esae n te a
tiasfrrsucreoeyiouwihdbthenrysvd41te recy clin ...............
.impovdrotngculiaviipren n cllcio ue.

IV.iATERALSAiiiiRGYiiiiiiR PROECT
A.SSEMiOSTUTDORiEATNiiHSLSINiOS O N
CLUDE LOCATIONSii WHERE ONLYiii ONE MATERIAL IS RECOVERED.)H ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-FUNDED DEMONSTRATIONi iiiiiiiiiiiiAREiiMARKED.i
1.it.iiu siiiiiiiiii30iiiieriayiiiiic pa ityp! thatiiiiicoinvrsmncpldsaddmtrasitasheddefe

dive|ul(D)frsplmna iig'nUinEeti o
utlt olr.Frosmtl r lorcvrd
2.Frnkiniiio*- 10ionpriaycaactyplntthtisei
weiiiiircestipleizincasiydicredmtfil o
recovery H,, = ofpprfbe.Fros...s lasadaumnma e
coveredHH= inasb-ytm
3.BatioeMaylni*-A1,0itnierdyilat ht:tae
muiiicipa icre mtras yrziietrciedsilaini lo xgnamopee tinoalwBits hra ui a n
bun h a nst opouesta o s nadwtw ta
loo.Frru etl n agasyagegtixias ecvrd
4.Smrile asahstsi*Mncia icaddmteil r
seaae notresget nth oe 1 ae,()cerg]
an asad()no-eylbedscreiaeil.io-eylbe ar olce narglrpce rc.Alrccals'r olce
wekyin pcalybitcoprmntlzdvhilirm h ub
5.MrleediMaiiuits*MuiiaJdsade aerasa
segenediio ou cteoresinth hme ()iapr,(2iceaigas an an,(3 ronad renasinicnani4)nn-eycal







ad~tr. Ti's type operation is normally referred to as a waterwall .The steam is used by an industrial manufacturer located
'ance from the pl ant. Ferrus metal is also recovered.
ensewsee-A 760 ton per day waterwall incnerator
tssteam used in a downtown loop. The steam is also
prdce chilled water for cooling the downtown buidns
A SeA Arlesto, West Virinia-The Union Carbide Company $4 W# ten per day test facility that takes municipal discarde
and pyrolse it into a medium British thermal unit gas
tablee as a, 'biler fuel.
.&adIe, Massahusete-A 240 ton per day waterwall in.The steam is now used b a manufacturing plant.
Francisco, California-Gas recovery from an existing landga-s is collected from the old, landfill and used to generate (2.LosAnele, alsorna-notermethane recovery project
to San Francisco.
ST MSMS UNDER CONSTRUCTON
&n Dego Caiornia**-A 200 ton Per day plant that converts
discaded materials: into an oil like liquid fuel by pyrysi.
idfuel produced wit be used as a supplemental fuel by
Gas and Electric Company. Ferrous, glass and aluminum
recovered.
llnoi-s-A 1,00 ton per day second generation St.
inconn--A 1,200 ton per day second generation
e aclty. Ferrous metal,. alummnum, paper and a glassy
also recovered.
Orleas,l Louisias-AI66 ton per day plant that will
glaea, ferrus metals,:non-ferrous metals and paper. The
traction, approximately 80% by weight of the mocoming
materials wdll be disposead of, on the land.
At Bridgewater, Massachut-A.600 ton per day incinerator
aerate processing line for converting a portion of municipal materials into a dust like fuel supplement. This pant will
FEco-Fuel II for use in an indusra'lie and for testing in
Defeare-A 600 ton per day project to prepare disared materials as a supplementary fuel to be used in
utility boiler.
OW OF IMPLEMENTATIONS OF ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS

eeTabl IV-1 at page 72 for an illustration of the projected im' ofenergy, recovery systems by 1980.W






TAL iiiJCE MLEETTOSO NRYREOEYSSESB "

Loainadt=prdyDaio
aifonaia ig onyi yoyis ..EAi pnoigpoett
20.deosraeteiaretRserhan e
veop etiite -oiipoucdw!b
aceteiySaiigo a adEecrc
prjetiiininernidsinihae Co netiutiB ideirtiiiiiiiiisiue;iiae-idiiso rciiov r 420.auhoit i rviwngprpoal; orhes
Utiltieiwil aciptihe uel
iti ctoiiiiii0 old w se s fel itic f Cou ba
FarfxConyAligtnConyihtct




iiiii~in iniiii the studies.
iis:
i Ciiii i cao 200----- oi ate a ul osrcin s td i
ealy Marc;iComonwalthEiisn i
iiiiiiiiiiicept the........

terminei th feaiiiit ofipeenigsb
iiiimentiiifuelisystems.
Iow:iiiiiiii- -- --- Soi w st s ue;co stuiinio bein b



gasl wilb o bse o-iet nrt
sta frslet Blior asadEcrc I!! nt wilb.oeain..nexl 95


Coutyiiiicl adioutyixeutieiav
appoveiteipan
Massachusetts: =
iiiiiiiiiiiiii- atrwalinin rtin pa t asb eno m!t
i n sinei972iCotrctiiidealy 974fo
'83e ofsemioiiiu~~r ethr o
Eastiiiiiiiii Brdgwae (naioiiateaiul o buto qimn
Brockton)iliii -1 0.Ascae n thr;piaey fnne
proesiniiciltyiiiihaserisacepin
theiiiii fulfrteridsrilsembies
Sags(erBso) ae alicnrto;patudrcn
iiiiitrctoniseaipod ctiilieiol t
GeerlElcri C.fo roes tem
iiiice 1,00---i-- Soid wate as ful;La rece wil eih
firtimpeinttiniu deiieitae-id
solidiii wsemseplnapoeinr
1974;ii matrpa al o upeetlN

prdcio o seman tameeti




IZS

TWa O fIM UUMTMO M WM YUSB 9-"n
(Nwr oi asea ul e o r ssi
--- bigprprd ta u ob
"7L~~t.O b ulccnGa n eti
or sem om

Medw oi aoa sful ealdpooasa
ournl ben eiwd;I natc
-ittefe ilbeacpe r bi
Sevm Gs n 2crco
sta oes
Omt Ew %i atia ul odiiyo rdcn
A"ilfelfrP M & ie a
(NWAu- ifkel sbin sesd
00
Soi at nfe*faiiiyo rdcn
RUP emetlfe o i sra ta olr
---Im e eaig lno n
elcrcu,-iy sbn sesd
Deae aibenrcie o
prpsl
deinsw osmeb feeg n
reoeysses
(R6.Si at t ul esbli td opdc
aIu~eetlfte o e a n
EhfkcmlteRqetFo rpsl
biipeprd
IlSt





TABL IV1-RJCE MLMNAIN FEEG ErEYSSESB 9- w
Locatiiiiiiiiiiiiii i on nd owier a
Tensse
Knxile50i----iiirlss;TnnseiVleiAtoiti suy iniiiiiigii thefesiilty.f.mpemntig...~i
g a s p y o y i ..................................
metlfulfr najaetTV taz- ~
boiler
iiiiiii------Sld at sful eaie rpoashv
iiiiiiiiiiiiiWi~been == requested to implement. a e roesn
sytmt rduesplmntlfe o
TennesseeValley Auhority stam-decii
iiiiiiiiiiiiiib oiler.i
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii w ll in ine aton;co strcionisiom
plete; public authorityihasibeeniformedit

iconstructiandioperateitieiiiiiiiiiiiiiea
prdc wl eusdfrdononP etn
a n d a ir c o n d itio n in g.
Source: "Energy Conservation Through Improved Solid Waste Management," EPA, 1974.
D.iiiiiiW i POND.F........SEPE.CPTAI.SLETD ONT
.................................................................................................fiii iia siiii
p r o c e ss e d i~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ i i n r e fu se...........................................
dayiii~~~~iiiiiii~~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i sel ct d ou tr es
TABLE I -2.-POUNDS OF WASTE PER PERSON PER DAY
SELCTE COUNTRIES
Pounds of waste processedinirefuse firedisteami(stam or hotiwaterigenerator
toiii steam........ pe aiaprdyi eetdcutis(ae ntle aaiy hr
are 300 diiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuin haiiisytesinienariadi03inth tni4Ed taes
iii(iiiiiiiiiitiieiiii leiiii Stu y,......1 76
i 2ii J.iiiiiiii ii iiiiiii iiiii

2 .0-iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil








0 ,0iiii ...............iiiiiiiiiii=ii= iiiiii







NWAGE CAPACITY POR REPUBZD-PIBD SBAM GENERATORS IN

Table IV--3 for an mlustration of the capacity tnage of
steam generators installed or under construction in selected

-CPAITMOMG Of RWM FRED STEM GEATORS INSALLE OR UNDE CONSTUCTON
Hagalr of Teta sembe
aiUt whereo of refs fird
tSne Nar e Tenes per -stam
TeasO"a know d a nt aertr
-- -- --.-.-.-..-- .. .. .. ----s-- 2 so ----------------. ....- ...--- ...-.-.- ..-- ....-.- .. 5, 670 36 158 .---.-.-.-....
................... ......... 0 ----- 3N as 39 ------.......--..--.-----.---....----...--- 41 ---,-u------.-..---------.----- ------------------. 40 1 400 --.-.-....-----. --.. -----.-...------------ .------ so 48o -------------.
------------. ---. ------. ...0.9. .s1 242 1 23
-. --------------.-.-. -------------.-.. 170 21 246 -------...--..
.. -... --....- ....-------- ..-.-- 140 6 857 I10



V.. FEDRAL ACTION
A. THE OLID WASTE. DISOSAL ACT OF 1965
initia Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 emhszdthe health
af munkicipal disposal practices and envisioned a
2pm re-evaluated its position. on the manageent of discarded
'and in 1970 passed the Resource Recovery Act which broadaglthe emphasis of the Solid Waste Disposal Act to include.mtra
and conservation objectives and the special impacts of
wastes. The Resource Recovery Act of 1970 included: (1)
for demonstration grants for new resource recovery
;(2) requirement of study and investigation of various
resource recovery and waste reduction and an -annual report reuts; (3) authorization for setting up a. National Commission
MateialsPolicy. (This Commission recommenaded a strong propaein the are of resource recover and conservation. More ref., ongrees established a Natioa Commission on Shortages and
*to further this work Thus, to a considerable degree, the ed 11 mae i me is now seen as part of the broader national
uee imae); and (4) requirement for "a comiprehenaire report a~ylanfor the metika of a syste of national disposal site for the
and dipslof haserous wastee, including radioactive, toic
Idologica, and other wast 4 eh~may enagrpublic lmdat*wlkn*




V W

TABLx V-1
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ACT
[Pui3Lxc LAw 89-272-89TH CoxGRzsst S. 306; APPROVED OCTOBES 201, INQ
AN ACT To authorize a research and development program with respect to @oU4.W*0* disposal, amd for other purposes.

TITLE 11-SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
SHORT TITLE
Sicc. 201. This title (hereinafter referred to as "this Act") may be cited as the "Solid Waste Disposal Act".
FINDINGS AND PURPOSES
SEc. 202. (a) The Congress finds(1) that the continuing technological progress and improvement in meibxjs
of manufacture, packaging, and marketing of consumer products has.rwulted in an ever-mounting increase, and in a change in the characteristics., of the
mass of material discarded by the purchaser of such products;
(2) that the economic and population growth of our Nation, and the improvements in the standard of living enjoyed by our population, have required increased industrial production to meet our needs, and have ma&*
necessary the demolition of old buildings' the construction of new
and the provision of highways and other avenues of transportation, ; &16N together with related industrial, commercial, and agricultural operations,
have resulted in a rising tide of scrap, discarded, and waste materials-, "
(3) that the continuing concentration of L our population in expanding
metropolitan and other urban areas has presented these communities with serious financial. management, intergovernmental, and technical problems in the disposal of solid wastes resulting from the industrial, commereW,
domestic, and other activities carried on in such areas;
(4) that inefficient and improper methods of disposal of solid wastes result
in scenic blights, create serious hazards to the public health, including pollution of air and water resources, accident hazards, and increase in rodent and insect vectors of disease, have an adverse effect on land values create public
nuisances, otherwise interfere with community life and development;
(5) that the failure or inability to salv4e and reuse such materials economically results in the unnecessary waste and depletion of our natural resources,
and
(6) that while the collection and disposal of solid wastes should contiAlle to be primarily the function of State, regional, and local agencies, the problem Ins of waste disposal as set forth above have become a matter national Mi scope and in concern and necessitate Federal action through financial and tech:nimd assistance and leadership in the development, demonstration, and application of new and improved methods and processes to reduce the amount of waste and unsalvageable materials and to provide for proper and economical
solid-waste disposal practices.
(b) 2 The purposes of this Act therefore are(1) to promote the demonstration'L construction, and -application of solid
waste management and resource recovery systems which preserve and enhance the quality of air, water, and land resources
(2) to provide technical and financial assistance to States and local govemments and interstate agencies in the planning and development of resouree
recovery and solid waste disposal programs
(3) to promote a national research and development program for improved management techniques, more effective organizational arrangements, and new and improved methods of collection, separation, recovery, and recycling of solid wastes, and the environmentally safe disposal of noft.*
recoverable residues;
(4) to provide for the promulgation of guidelines for solid waste collection,
transport, separation, recovery, and disposal systems; and
(5) to provide for training grants in occupations involving the: desip,
operation, and maintenance of solid waste disposal systems.

Title I of RL 89--272 amended the Clean Air Act (P-I& 88--206).
See. 202(b) amended by sec. 101, PJA 91-412.






m oea|mm eOmmryo H*Umin n



oruiiiiufefiyo
anhOtIi eaunof=h ooy reooyo h
0 W -- tef
ftt I kSae teDIit fWub h Inn
th hIGaadAeia ms
ayl men naIto too w uii
,o naec salsi ytoo oeSaewt
PV 0fr dsoalo oi atsadsrigtoo o
loM edI iam t
IW at"mw bgrfseadohrdswe oi
sildwse=m= rsligfrmidsraomeca,
|DMOR n rm .antlyatvtebtde o nld
mae nIon rIte infcn oltnsi
Ilha it isle rmpaddsld nidsra at
!i~e nIrto eur lw rohrcmo
NO-mt imi"mas h cletosaatetet
ofsli ase
repcIoaypoeto osrcin ne
th aw o uligo e srcue n Iiiino
orte#qiiiarpaeet xaso eoeig
exeso feistn tutrs ad()teaqm
I ............. ....i..l... .............o f ....o .. ...................................... ........ .




institutions, and individuals in the conduct of, and promote the- coordination of research, investigations, experiments, training, demonstrations surveys,, studies relating to(1) any adverse health and welfare effects of the release into the envhvament of material present in solid waste, and methods to eliminate such effeets;
(2) the operation and financing of solid waste dispowd programs;
(3) the reduction of the amount of such waste and unga"'vageable wwte (4) the development and application of new and improved methods Of
and disposing of solid waste and processing and recovering materials aAd ebergy from solid wastes; and
(5) the identification of solid waste co m-ponents and potential w4aftlo and energy recoverable from such waste components.
(b) In carrying out the provisions of the preceding subsection, the &Wetwy is authorized to(1) collect and make available, through publications and other &ypropriate
means the results of, and other -information pertaining to, Such resew-ch and other activities, including appropriate recommendations in connection
therewith;
(2) cooperate with public and private agencies, institutions, and orgenhimtions, and with any industries involved, in the preparation and the tibaduct
of such research and other activities; and
(3) make grants-in-aid to publ4c or private agencies and institutions "d
to individuals for research raining projects, surveys, and demonstrations (including construction of facilities), and provide for the conduct of research, training, surveys, and demonstrations by contract with public or private agenices and institutions and with individuals; and such contracts for research or demonstrations or both (including contracts for construction) may be made in accordance with and subject to the limitations provided with reopect to research contracts of the military departments in title 10, United Stateo Code, section 2353, except that the determination, approval, and certificstion required thereby shall be made by the Secretary.
(c) Any grant, agreement, or contract made or entered into under this section shall contain provisions effective to insure that all information, uses, processes, patents and other developments resulting from any activity undertaken pursuant to such grant, agreement, or contract will be made readily available on: fair and equitable terms to industries utilizing methods of solid-waste disposal and industries engaging in furnishing devices, facilities, equipment, and supplies to be used in connection with solid-waste disposal. In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Secretary and each department, agency, and officer of the Federal Government having functions or duties under this Act shall make use of and adhere to the Statement of Government Patent Policy which was promulgated by, the President in his memorandum of October 10, 1063. (3 CFR, 1963 Supp., p. 238;)
SPECIAL STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS ON RECOVERY OF USEFUL ENIMOY AND MATERIALS
SEC. 205.5 (a) The Secretary shall carry out an investigation and study to determine(1) means of recovering materials and energy from Solid waste, reebmmended uses of such materials and energy for national or international welfare, including identification of potential markets for such recovered resources, and the impact of distribution of such resources on existing mArkeU;
(2) changes in current product characteristics and production and packaging practices which would reduce the amount of solid waste;
(3) methods of collection, separation, and containerization which will
encourage efficient utilization of facilities and contribute to more offective
programs of reduction, reuse, or disposal of wastes
(4) the use of Federal procurement to develop market demand for recovered
resources;
(5) recommended incentives (including Federal grants, loans, and other
assistance) and disincentives to accelerate the reclamation or recycling of materials from solid wastes, with special emphasis on motor vehicle hulks;
(6) the effect of existing public policies, including subsidies and economic
incentives and disincentives, percentage depletion allowances, capital gidn
treatment and other tax incentives and disincentives, upon the recycling
and reuse of materials, and the likely effect of the modification or

s Sec. W5 added by Bee. 104 (a) Of P.L6 91-&2-








Whetie ad disinoontives upon the res, recycling and consevavdbmaterias; and
neesity and method of Imposing disposal or other a wes on
aIne# vehicles, and other manufactured goods, which carges Wh cost otf nal disposl, the value of recoverable component&and any soola costs amoitdwith nonrecycling or uncontrolled
Of such itans
shal from time to time, but not less frequenty than annually
6 ssutsof such investigation and study to the President andth
Seee~ry iis als authorized to carry out demonstration projects to test
to ml methods and techniques develop pursuantto subscin()
204 (b) and (e)0 shall be applicableto investigatipns, studies, and
earledout under this section.
INTBBSTATE AND INTRLOCAL COOPEBATION
OS. Te Secretary shal encourage cooperative activities by the States governments in connection with so~d-waste disposal programs; enheepraecticable, interstate, interlocal, and regional planning for, and
interstate, interlocal, and regional solid-waste disposal program
aggagetheenactment of improved and, so far as practicable, uniform
ad los a governing solidwaste disposal.
ORANTs POR BTATE, INTxRsTATE, AND LOCAL PLANNING
?(a) The Secretary may from Uime to time, upon such term and
epaient with this section as he finds appropriate to carry out the
this Act, make grant' to State, interstate municipal, and interagecisand organizations compose of public officials which are ,asletnceunder setion 701(g) ofte Housing Act of 1954, of not to
per centum of the cot in the case of an application with respect to glaingony one mudolpality, and not, to exceed 75 per centum of the
otherones 6f-makbi eareys of solid waste disposal practices and problems within
ettnalareas of such agencies and
devlopngand revising sohid waste disposal plans as part of regional
protection systems for such areas, providing for recycling or
of materials from waste whenever possible and including plannIn
Mee of solid waste disposal areas and studies of the effect and relaof sol#waste disposal practices on areas adjacent to waste disposal
"ei~iq poposals for projects to be carried out pursuant to secfor the removal and processing of abandoned
pursuant to this section may be made upon application therefor
(or establishes a single agency (which may be an interde0 agency) as the sole agency for carrying out the purposes of this
the area involved;
andicates the manner In which provision will be made, to assure full
A-on of all aspects of planning essential to arewide planning for ad effective sold waste osal conal~tent with the protection of putehealt-h and welfare ine g such factoni as population growth, and metropolitan development, land use planning water pollution
Oir pollution control, and the feaibility of regional disposal and aaroe neovery program;
(3) sets forth plans for evniueof anch grant, which plans provide eroasa assuraneof arysout the purposes of tis section;
I40 for sub fao suc reports of the activities of the agey
t~ ~ UO ea Vtepupet of thi seton in each form and containing
g$oa as the Setay may from time to time find nesay erFla te purposes of this season and for keeping suchreod mada~odin seek aseetesm thereto as he may find necessary; andX -414- o"l0e
1W1 6 IMa A9








of "010 1






9D

(5) provides for such fiscal-control and fund-accounting prooedureo as
may be necessary to assure proper disbursement of and accounting for funds
paid to the agency under this section.
(c) The Secretary shall make a grant under this section only if he fi that there is satisfactory assurance that the planning of solid waste disposal Wffl be coordinated, so far as practicable, with and not duplicate other related State, interstate, regional, and local planning activities, including those fin in
part with funds pursuant to section 701 of the Housing Act Of 195C
GRANTS FOR RESOURCE RECOVERY SYSTEMS AND IMPROVED SOLID WASTE Dl"O"L FACILITIES
SEC. 208.8 (a) The Secretary is authorized to make grants pursuant to Wis section to any State, municipal, or interstate or intermunicipal agency for the demonstration of resource recovery systems or for the construction of hew or improved solid waste disposal facilities. i
(b) (1) Any grant under this section for the demonstration of a resource recovery system may be made only if it (A) is.consistent with any plans which meet the requirements 'of section 207(b)(2) of this Act; (B) is consistent with the guidelines recommended pursuant to section 209 of this Act; (C) is designed to provide areawide resource recovery systems consistent with the purposes of thW Act, as determined by the Secretary, pursuant to regulations promulgated under under subsection (d) of this section; and (D) provides an equitable system for distributing the costs associated with construction, operation, and maintenance of any resource recovery system among the users of such system.
(2) The Federal share for any project to which paragraph (1) applies shall not be more than 75 percent.
(c)(1) A grant under this section for the construction of a new or improved solid waste disposal facility may be made only if(A) a State or interstate plan for solid waste disposal has been adolDted
which applies to the area involved, and the facility to be constructed Ci) is consistent with such plan, (H) is included in a comprehensive plan for the area involved which is satisfacto* to the Secretary for the purposes of this Act, and (iii) is consistent with the guidelines recommended under section
209, and
(B) the project advances the state of the art by applying new and improved
techniques in reducing the environmental impact of Solid waste disposal, in achieving recovery of energy or resources, or in rec clin useful materials y 11) applies sW b
(2) The Federal share for any project to which paragraph
not more than 50 percent in the case of a project serving an area which includes only one municipality, and not more than 75 percent in any other case.
(d) (1) The Secretary, within ninety days after the date of enactment of the Resource Recovery Act of 1970, shall promulgate regulations establishing a procedure for awarding grants under this section which(A) provides that projects will be carried out in communities of varying
sizes, under such conditions as will assist in solving the community waste problems of urban-industrial centers, metropolitan regions, and rural meas,
under representative geographic and environmental conditions; and
(B) provides deadlines for Submission of, and action on, grant requests.
(2) In taking action on applications for grants under this section, consideration shall be given by the Secretary (A) to the public benefits to be derived by the construction and the propriety of Federal aid in making such grant; (B) to the extent applicable, to the economic and commercial viability of the project (including contractual arrangements with the private sector to market any resources recovered); (C) to the potential of such project for general application to community solid waste disposal problems; and (D) to the use by the applicant of comprehensive regional or metropolitan area planning.
(e) A grant under this section(1) may be n-wAe only in the amount of the Federal share of (A) the
estimated total design and construction costs, plus (B) in the case of a grgmt to which subsection (b) (1) applies, the first-year operation and maintenance
costs;
(2) may not be provided for land acquisition or (except DA Otherwise
provided in paragraph (1) (B)) for operating or maintenance Costs.,*

8 8w. 208 Wed by w 1"(b) RU 91-512.








may sot be made untBl the li~aat has Made provision satisfactory
themoetary for proper and recent operation and maintenance of the
(subject to nm (1) (B)); and *6
may be ad to SUch conditions and requirements, in addition
provokedd Iuin sooton, as the ertaymyrequire to Properly
outi functions pursuant to this Act.
of paragraph (1), the non-Federal share may be in any form, innot Inted to, lands or interests therein needed for the proect or gepety or service, the value of which shall be determined by the
sAme than 16 pecn of the total of funds authorized to be appo
sbercetion 216(a) (8) for any Ascal year to carry out this sectinal
ndrthis aeotion for projects In any one State.
) shall prescribe by regulation the manner in which this ag~eashall to a grant under this section for a Project in an arawhich
a ar p*a more than one 8tate.


,*()The Goreary shall, in cooperation with appropriate 8tate,
xaItertatte, regoal,4 and local agencies, allowing for public omn by ? partis as econ aspracticable after the enactment of the RemW Act ofa 17 ec med to appropriate a Mece land publish
guidehne Mo solid waste recovery,cleto, eaain
systeM ending system for private use), which shall be consistent helhand wefran dr and water quality abandards and adaPbe
landuseplas. uch uidlins sall apply to such systems whether
water and sal be revised from time to time.
ecretary shall, as soon as practicable, recommend model codes,
anid-stattes which are designed to ipentthis section and the Se Aar shall issue to appropriate Federal interstate, regional, and
!I~fafkormation on techically feasible solid waste collection, separaerweling. and reoeymethods, ncIn data446 on the cost of
oprtoand matnneof such methods.
GUAM"a on cowrSaCrs FOn Taumme raLoJZare
g,$0.1# (a) The Secretary iauhrsdto mak grants to, and contracts
6 e~le organisation. For Purposes of this section the term"eibl
means 6 State or inesaeaecamnteipality, dctoa
,and any other orgnsto wichIUSey Is cpable of ectvely carrying b which may be fuddby grant under subeecton (b) of thi section.
Jetto the provisions of paragraph (2) grants or cnrcsmay be
p o llor a patof the coots, as may be deter -mined by the Seretary, of
oprtdor to be operated by an eligible orgaisai, which is
to develop, expand, or carry out a propam (which- may combine
educatlan and employment) for traiiag Persons for occupations the mnagem ent supervision, defal, operation, or mane ac
oli waste dipsland resources recovery eip ntand felte;o
lfto train lastructure and suever' pronlto tratn or supervice
in occupations involving tedesgoeta, and mitnneo
oldwaste dfisposal and resoure recovery eqpetand faciities.
)A t or contract authorised by paarp 1 this subectio may be
uponn application to the Sceayat such time or times and cnann
M~afemelanas he may prescr*i, exotthat no each feation shall bec lee as It povida for the "e prcdue and (anwd soees to
VIports. and to othe secords) as is mhdby seOt 207(b) (4) and (5)
to apaain Ands under afhseatson
abaBisk a 6eas0 laMvesti"ation and study to determauen(1) the~ -A t Nraiia Sta, te Ma" lee peronnel to arry out
44t00s *a te MAW thi Ae and othe solid wMastU n resour recovery





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andiiiiiii
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suchi field.,
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iiiiiii i on ote rsdniadteCngesnt ae hn n e ftreat meniit' oft...ct

APIAI LIYOFSDiiiiDSOALGIELNSTOEEUTViiZCE

iiiiiiiiiii c .iiii~iii 1..................
(A)iaiiiiiiiiieigencii(sideiineliiisictonii05ifititleiliUniie
States..................... Co e asjrsicino era yr rp ryirfcliyteop rto
oriiiiiiiii~iiiiii ad iitr to.......v lv s s c a e c i oid w se ip ......................... i viti e s o
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(B)iiiiii whci odce yapro te hnsc gny ol eur
aieriiiilce sefimsuhig ncii odriolis oeifiucioldiise
sinsr opinewt uc udlnsadteprpsso hsA ncn
ciiigiii ..................y .
(3 ahEeuie gnywihprmt h s fFeea wt o
purossif isoslifioldiaseihaliiiie omlinciwthsuh idXM
an h proe o hsAc nth ipsa fschwse
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ani h uroe f hsAt
NATIONALiili DIPOALSIESSTD
Spc 1.2Te ertrihllsbi oteCogesn aertaiw er
aftriteidtiofiiacietioithiR souieiic veriiciiii9 0,iiiiiiien iv reportiii an.lnfr.h..ain..assemo ainl ipslsie o h
strg n ipslo aadu ats nldn aiatv oi hnc


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reoticue 1 itofmtraswihsol e ujc odsoii ~

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mehd frdcin etaiain ecvro ipslo uhmtras
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and mananniitsicuigiosdrtonoieniordsrbtngtesot




0I
ITMAMOMNTAWS
TW s hl o ecntudasspret o htn h u
an ohrpoiin o tte1-rtw
YM&Iay tOmI rayoh
GZZLPVTM
4x mtsudrtbAt a em (fs e&W
at" w fmd nepyet roepyet)I
1Ii tadi uhiado uhcn
smewy"Yie
$Mtwyb ae nAttoa rvW!oimkn
(a 1 1r e WVIw oth sIeayO
an|eaefrcr u h pvso fti c n
no xo.28,ntt xee 4,000frtefn
30s 1
auhde.t eaporae t hAmnsrtro h
IWR Aec u h rviin fti c te
zm oece MO frteficlya 4%wJ 7 0 toww$6."0 wlya nig W 93 o
0000frt H edn ue3,174 o oece
. "
|i a e nn Jn
M H-a11tbea roiedioteAml rtroth
1r~inAvc ocryotscin28o hsAtntt
foIhIiMya nf ue 0 92 n o oece
th tWya nigJn 0 17Isdntt xed$4,







!!!!iii~iiiiiiiiTOTALi FUNDINGii
iIlaiiiiiiiiofiii@a s]

i scl er otdrqit poiiie ~ gk

iiiiliiiiiliiiiliiiiili-- -- -- -- -- -- -- $1 86$2 ,5 1 A
19 72i---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----- ---- ---- ---- ---i78i3 ,37814,0
1 9 73i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 M X A 7 3
1 97i --ii- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --i5 60ii, M 1ii
19 75i ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----1 68919 .52 2 3 0
1976 ---- --- ---- ---- --- ---- --- ---- ---- --- ---- ----1iii0ii ,-i
To al- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --.0..6.2 ,31.1 4
$15^ 00 ddiionliwsidiplaediniEA'sbudgtibtitisiasiianiii oag~iiuri

Departmeiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin fA gr utrfo nm lwatiw= ads i asedso l
siiiiiiiii.i
simaebsdo poraino 1,2 ntebde ius
SPEDIN FO..... RCVEYDMOSRAIN

Oneiii~ii! seto o h SldWst ipoa c, saeneh

iinctiathoriationiandapproriatinsiwileill oter setion axe .um...to.th...Th.tabl..el..dipl.y.the........tota
spein(aoethtadessScin28othAc:Gatfr
ResourceiiRecovery Systems.
!!!%ii~iiiiSECTION M i
[inthouid ofdolaM
Fiiiii i a yerBde eust Aporaln
19 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -0
19 2 -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - $ 9 11 5 3$
19 3- - -- - - - -- - - - -- - - - --01 0 k
19 4- -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - --00s
1975iiii~i, ---------------------------- 2
19 6 -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -To al- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --4, 9 2 M 4
simate.
ALLOCTION F REOURCEiWITHNiEP
ThetalebeowinicteiEAiiusioifndiierth psttw
yer.ihseaeiloatosiffudiiihiapopitinilvl
iiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiii iiiiiw 4
alo IU
Reerh n w opet(OD -----Reiiiiiir-- -- -- -- --i-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0
iiiido sw & ---- -- ---- ---- -- ----- --- ------3i
Laddsoa n aemiaevn -------------------Z 0
iiiiiiiiier atolii- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---i- -- ---i- -- --3 20ii0
Sttir g a s-- - - - -- - - - -- - - - -- - - -Mk
Prgrmmaaemniadiupot-------------------------1440 :
To al-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --...
iiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii












GLOWAILY
way of sublimation-tir pollution g teda by the ft"t
a z mterial into a paeoum pAuUnt.
a 046*0 fifflImSti I WOUD of formsuons,' or part of a formatim bUka(lielding a amount of water to a well or spring, a
of P 0% eakA. rock, sand or gravel,
Marv of tj a tional tranaiLatione of a ocnmtry
tims, including commodity and sw-vice U*mactions,, cqAtal
and gold movetumtL
I unit, (Mu)-quantity of tpat rkuirW to rain the temperature
of wata one degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.20 F.
allow" for the recovery of the Investment required
depoisit. peroentage of the oosts acquirin i a deposit ean be eq"l to the peromtage of mij6e deposit extracted lo'r that year.
or refuse gbm, usually added to now material to facilitate
=&Uxtixls- zwbane, refuse, wade troatment plant sludge, and
Mariol, ndiiftfi" liquid, semisolid, or contained paeus SIMerew emWAIng ftm Industrialf min n and agrieultural op
-IMM..Ity activities, but dow not inciude atolid or dissolved c wwage or M rrigation return Some or
fted- h a rges which are t sourow subject to 177ederal Water Pollu.
Ae-k-or iourpe, nuclear, or by product material an defined
Atat OA
ct of
to Weqp m wurement after mofature content of discarded material
very-* recovery of energy values either dhwAly by burning
44%*Mw M in, a boiler to i;;Lce steam or hot water, or
by Arot-Voomoing theOrMlkie fractitix of the to
**QK 114w-d or gowus iiel
of W, or con n, e.g,.hm,:jYtw1 and related alloy&
awd to heat or power by burning,
living 10 e-90 oil and natural Sm.
eA Product-the tal value of the goods and servioes produced
6wing a specified period (as a year).
within The earth that supnfies wells and sprinsL
that has peroolated thw;Wib--&: w% wUd waste, or oUm
it removes soluble mmPonents.
Wa on-the utilissuan for ani e0onomically Val purpose
for which the, matariel was origimAy us4 eg. rwo or
or road oouxtrucUon
a ct reprocemd
w1ach inaludim both direet:"Veling an
IN
and owbon dioxide we produeed when PKMO in an (oxygen4ree environment.
refuse or other = we disposed of, in
unwiered and inend[osed.
itory ARM
VAN- ammunition, combat veWalm
III Jill I
eentir&Uon of a pollutant or addilAvee ripr mom finparUper
n a wdgU b#Ao. -I- m
=:Vo'r rdMed to cc tWived froan U'V
11 1 N Iftee, AL-1-f- a -- FOX of tbi Income
ia W'""W"M
130 1 n%*Wi*& rded by the And
&- -A --- --aA bY row =a*wW F--k-man md M"WAMUMM& Tba" WOW&
0" a=4A 111124680 "Pkay Sonefted in refuse, as






86

well as similar materials from co mermal and governmental office buildiagm wholesale and retail trade establishments, and other general business and wrvibe sectors of the economy.
Pyrolysis-thermal decomposition of materials in the absence or near-absence of oxygen. This process results in: (1) a gm consisting primarily of hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide; (2) a liquid fuel that includes organic cbemicWs; and (3) a char consisting of almost pure carbon, plus any metal, glass or rock that may have been processed.
Recycling-Le., direct recycling, the recovery of a material for an economically valued purpose similar to that for which the material was originally used, e.g. new paper products from wastepaper.
Resource recovery-a general term encompassing a wide vaziety of technied approaches for retrieving or creating economic values from discarded materials. This includes materials recovery, energy recovery and materials converam.
Runoff-the portion of the precipitation on the land that ultimately resehas streams, especially the water from rain or melted snow that flows over the surface.
Sanitary landfill-engineered method -of disposing of discarded materials in a manner that minimizes environmental hazards and nuisances. After a site is carefully selected, designed and prepared, the discarded materials are spread in thin layers, compacted to the smallest practical volume, and, at least at the end of each operating day, covered with compacted earth.
Sludge-a muddy or slushy mass, deposit or sediment as precipitaUd solid matter produced by water and sewage treatment processes.
Source reduction (or "waste reduction")-the prevention of disewded mataink at their source, either by redesigning products or by otherwise changing societal patterns of consumption and generation of discarded materials.
Source separation-segregation of discarded materials at the point of discard for concentrated collection.
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA)-a reporting unit defined by the Bureau of Census, used to aggregate and report domestic socio-ooonomic data.
Surface waters-that portion of water that appears on the land surface, including oceans, lakes, and rivers.
Toxic chemical-a poisonous substance obtained by a chemical proem.
Virgin material-means a raw material, including previously unused copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, iron, or other metal or metal ore, any undeveloped resource that is, or with new technology will become, a source of raw materials.
Waste-water effluent-a, waste liquid discharge from a manufacturing or treatment process, in its natural state, or partially or completely treated, awt discharges into the environment.
Waterwall incinerator-furnace walls con.81*st' f vertically arranged metal tubes joined side-to-side with metal braces. R t energy from the burning
of discarded materials is absorbed by water passing through the tubes. Addi boiler packages, located in the flue, control the conversion of this water to steam of aSDe.%,ified temperature and pressure.
"Wet" ton-or "as generated" ton, amumes typical moisture content of the material prior to discard or collection.

0







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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