Report of a visit to the People's Republic of China


Material Information

Report of a visit to the People's Republic of China report
Physical Description:
vii, 59 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Meyner, Helen Stevenson, 1929
United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on International Relations
Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Economic conditions -- China -- 1949-   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- China -- 1949-   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


General Note:
At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.
General Note:
Issued Dec. 1976.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Helen S. Meyner of the Delegation of Congresswomen to the People's Republic of China, December 30, 1975-January 9, 1976 pursuant to H. Res. 315, authorizing the Committee on International Relations to conduct thorough studies and investigations of all matters coming within the jurisdiction of the committee.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 026059052
oclc - 02849831
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Letter of transmittal
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Foreign policy priorities of the People's Republic of China
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Domestic achievements and problems
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Appendix 1. Itinerary
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Appendix 2. Joint communique issued by the People's Republic of China and the United States on February 28, 1972, following president Richard Nixon's visit
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Appendix 3. Funeral announcement for Chou En-lai
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Appendix 4. Article entitled "How Taichai Builds up a Socialist Countryside," November 1974
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Map of trip: Map of Chengtu area
        Page 59
    Back Cover
        Page 60
Full Text

Ai /*" ie, Lii ,C1

0 4 t hiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii C o n g r e s s!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .... ... % % %
2d~~ Sesio COXXTE PRIN

i JA 7 iii

.......... O F...............................VI S I T T Oi~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ~iiiiiiiiii T H Eiiii~ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~~~i~~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
R EPU B LIC~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~iiii O Fiii~iiiiiiii~iiiiii~~iiiii C H IN A............................

A .iiiiiiiii iiii i i~ii~ i~ii iiii iii
.,T THE,,,,,HHHH,,HHH PE PL REPUBLIC""H""''H HH" "H OF.......... HI NA "'" 'ii'''''' ''' 'i iiiiH

DE EM E 30,iii 197 -JA UAR 9, 1976iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

W i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiAN T -Tiiiiiiio-~~~i H iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
H R e s .iii 3 1 5ii ii ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii
AU HO JZ N COMMITTEE 6N INTERNATIONALiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
*' T 6 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiTH O R O U G H S T U D I ESiiiiiHHi A NDiiiiii~iiiiH~iiiiii~~ ~~~i~~~~~ii~~~~~~iiiiiiiH~~iiii!!iiiii~i~~~iii!~~i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
INVEST GATION OF ALLiiiiiiiiiiiiiMATTERS ii COMiiiiiiiiii~iiiiii~iiiiiiINGiiii~~~~~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~~ WITHIN i THE

D E C E M B ER.. . .... . .. .. . . ...... . ........ ... . .................. .................................................................................. .........................................................................................................

Printed for the use of the Committee on International Relationsi
.7w w W A S HIN G T O N : 1976iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

....... IU k=. A

L.iiiiiii FOTI N iiirii CarolinaiiEDWARD J.ii iiiEiiiiNiiiiiiiIllinoisi

C R h Li J$ f i ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
DANTEiii B.i AiL L, Fiiii i da PAUL FINDLEYIllinois
C A L C D I G G S Ip M chi J O HN... B U C H A N A N : : : : A l a b a m a
B E N J A M IN. S .= ................................................................... ......O h ioii
iL E E H MI L T O N I i a n ....................................................................................................................... ......B E T R R P n s l a i
L E ST ERiiii~iiiiiiiiiii iii ii" i i iii ii iiLi.............. iii F iiFiiiiii ii~i~i! iiiiiii~iiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiii N e w Y ork iiiii~~~iiiiiiii~~ii L A R W IN Niiiiiiii ., K a sa
GUSiiiii iiiii, Pennsylvan iiiiiiliiiiiiliiiiiiiii i TENNYSON ......... Ohioiii
ROYiilii A. i TAYOR Nrt Croin iBETii LGOAiIN, alfoni
IiiiiiiAiiii HARRINGTON,~iiii Massachusetts iiiii~iii
iiiiLEO J.i RYNCliori
DONALDiiii W. iiiiiiiii Jiii, Michigan.=
iiiiiiii COLIS Illinoisi
STEPHEN J. iiiiiiOiLiAiiRiiiZiiiiii New Yorkliiiiii iiiiiiiiiiii~i
EL E N S iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii N e wiiii J erseyiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiii= iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iii iiiiiiii
D ONi B O K R W a shi li i il iiiiiing t o n iiiiiiiiI iiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiii ii ii iii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiIiii iiii ii iiiliiiiii iiili

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~iiiiiiiM ARIiiiiiANi[ Aiiiiiiiii i i ii C ZA N E K I C hiiiii i ef ofi S taff
iiiiiiiiiiiiii = = = = = = = ==(TIE)

........................................... O Nii I N T E R NiniN A R E A n NI iii~~ii
'Wsintn D.C.,Decemer221976
Thsrpr a ensbitdt h omte nIntrntina
Relationsi byon o tsmebrs te oorbl eln ene, h
atopne h pcildlgto fwmien Mebr fCogest
thePeples epbli o Cina headedi byitheiHinorable Margaret M
Heellei.i Th ogesoeacma i by iii Dr. JoyceKallgren
visited the, People's Republic of China by special invitation of theniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
Viceii' Premier Teng Hsiao-p i'ing, and the trip was designated an official~~i~iiiiiiiiiiii~iiiiiiiiiiiiii
iplomatiiiiiiiici missioniiii by President Ford and Secretary of Statei

............. O F T R A N S M I T T AL~ z ~~~~~~ii~iiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiii~ i i~~iiiiii~i~i~~~~~~iiiiiiiii '' iiiiiiiiiiiiii ,ii ,, ,,i ,iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil
iiiiHD ECE M ER 22 1976.iiiiiiiii iiiiii iiiiiii! iii~Hi
H on Tiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiioxiiiiiiiiis E .M ORGA N ,iiiiiiiiiii~ iiiiiii~ii~ iiii
Vhiiu ,CmmteeonItemonlRai om House of iiiepre-
DFRN[t ~u mw Ia erwt tas iin a rpor onth
Chin trip] take by th women]] M embers of ] Congress during the]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]] last]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]
Chita ees
Webleeta@h eotmyb fuet h ebr fteJn
tentoa eain omte ado h os n eaea


Foreword ----------------------------------------------------------- m
LeUer of transmittal ------------------------------------------------- v
lutroduetion -------------------------------------------------------- 1
Foreign policy priorities of the People's Republic of China --------------- 4
Domestic achievements and problems ---------------------------------- 9
Agriculture is the key link ---------------------------------------- 9
Communes--progress today ------------- ---------------------- 11
Tachai Brigades-models for the future ----------------------- 11
The age-old problem of water --------------------------------- 1.5
The role of industry--dual development ------------------------ 17
Revolutionary education ------------------------------------------ 20
Preschool and primary grades -------------------------------- 21
Middle schools-preparing for the countryside ----------------- 22
-the controversy ----------------------
Higher education ------ 24
May 7th cadre school---continuing education for bureaucrats ---- 26
Organizing people ------------ 29.
The neighborhood association --------------------------------- 30
The Women's Federation-model of a mass organization -------- 32
Social control ---------------------------------------------------- 35
The Chinese solution to social problems--prostitution and drugs-- 36
Disputps and punishment ------------------------------------- 38
The judges and judicial process ------------------------------- 40
Leadership and the Chinese Communist Party ---------------------- 42
L Itinerary ----------------------------------------------------- 45
I Joint communique issued by the People's Republic of China and the
United States on February 28,1972, following President Richard
Nixon's visit ------------------------------------------------ 49
N.. Funeral announcement for Chou En-lai -------------------------- 52
4. Arficle entitled "How Taichai Builds Up a Socialist Countryside,"
November 1974 ---------------------------------------------- 54
5. Map of trip: Map of Chengtu area ----------------------------- 59

-he Int
n 201.


INTRODCI ONi i iiii ii
iw is ai rieporitiiiii of; the co grsio a fc ni m isi toi thei iiiii~iiiiii iiii
................ Republici of China, Decemberi 30i 1"7"i uaryi9, 19 i6. The
iumbes ofthe dlegaion wre RpresetatiesiMagare M. Hckle
YvD .Bre lzbt otmn arcaShodr oin
QiogCrisClis ilcn ewcHlnS enr
a dG a y No nS el ................................... J y eK alrnsre as a iiii
iiiaor o th group.......reeman.. Ca e wasiiiiiiiiii p ici an forii theiii iillli~iil
............................,...............r...d ....... R o e r
Men r ebnSelaMisBlnaHclr r ei ol
linsi r .SaaCr. Aindpndn te

vii crwwa nvte y h Cies o ccman hedleaion
an ids. hyweeMr hma leig M.LynJ inrad

Mr. ame Arold

and likely to increase
bers of the delegation
between our two soeiE
may be slow not only I
ternal foreign policy
these differences, and,
will obviously eontinu

expectation It is

hancet detoc
asnrisJ as mh
among may eventul
Weci b thedC1

formal xhne fs

thie ona Thu, imb
change a vnul



ii i i i i i i i i i ii i iiiii ilii ~ !iiii liii ~ ~liiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil!i i i i i ii ii iii l!iiii iiiii iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii ii iiiiii iiii iiii iiiiiii iiii iiiiiilliiiiiii3iii iiiiiii i i i iiii iiii
muulineet.Teetak er o lmtdtopoleso itra
......................... .................................................-

lemsof egalandsocal eucaion Thee metins wre ery alubein
provdin usthe ppotunty t rase attes o cocernwit repec
toiiiiiiiiiiiiii wiiiimitii weii hadii seen.iiiii

I~ro hoit ou jouney n th Peole'sRepulic f C ina h
thought~~~~iiiii an co p t c iiiii ou hn sinep eesw r iiiiiiiiiiiiii
..............................ex t rein e i m p o r ta n c e. W e a re p lea sed to a ck n o w le d g e th e cen tral


leader, eakdu orpr wa h hns epeaetikn

contemporay internatoa afar.Iasein beepoceso
foreign and securityisusthiasupinabuSoetnetos
form the basic groundupo whihanme fohrotosaebit

discussions witum graeomotnefranA eia seseto

theood nt of pr v oriieof
ofnhd se ui psdei rmtolntydsusos is with iorenm

mintenc wo eter ifh adaeLunmtwihu o egh
parsusonsia wi u, hots ohi ekn n lswee oyfrwt
thounsted o r ese inorbieigittearridere eig
recseio f etein tude nt bu oititnin n h ie
Hodofwa an Wh ey of hnshoiieer itnuihdiem
oftheortand pratie wihimditapctontoA ecnpl-

Chiease the on waring ih rsett oitdvlpet c
renaionsbtentePol'ReulcoCha and th nie


the Poking Review. Indeed, the language used in our meetings mii-
md that pUblished at the time of our visit. Yhe argument runs as
04.: the military development and expansion of one superpower,
plug tT 'Mimased involvement in such areas as Europe (Portugal)
al ric (Angola) is strong evidence of long-rang intentions. This
&.rguwnt they believed is supported b evidence with respect to nu-
cj6ar 'As wellas conventional weapons govelopment.
Fafexample, th argued that since the Partial Nuclear Test Ban,
develolpm6nt 0 military force by the Soviet Union has become
lore pronounced. Whereas the U.,S. S.R. was behind the United States
i 1903, it has since caught up, and by the 1974 Vladivostok meetings,
thetojft6d, States had admitted equilibrium. Beyond nuclear balance,
6ur h6sts observed, the conventional situation was even more perilous.
According to British sources, they said, the Soviet Union exceeded the
tnited Sfates and its Western European allies in conventional weap-
qns,, anc! Soviet naval capabilities are a strong challenge to the United
Sta tea with a; presence in the Pacific, Indian, and Mediterranean.
VVI", theI&A 10 years, Soviet armed forces have grown from 3 mil-
lion to C2million. In most areas there is an increase of military bases.
The Chm*ese asked: "What is the use of so many things? Some day
their hands will &row itchy."
Asfar he region in, which the war is most likely to occur, the Chi-
ewls -that Europe must be seized and therefore the biggest con-
C Dtration of force is there. In addition, the Middle East and the Medi-
t6 ranean 4're danger points. In the light of the seriousness with which
fhe Chinese speak and write of the likelihood of hostilities, Chinese
policips *ith respect to the American presence in Europe and selected
parts m''Asia, and their views with respect to the military forces of
orur XA-TO allies are largely consistent.
I When questions on the Chinese policies toward an American pres-
ehm in 19urope and Asia were raised, the Chinese position was ex-
pmied *II two levels. In theoretical terms, the Chinese call for the
*ithdrawal of foreign troops from all countries. This point was clearly
stated in all discussions. However, in the light of present circum-
stancei, ihere is the need ta take reality into amount. Since one super-
power is well armed and is present in Europe and Asia, the Chinese
said they understood that the United States had reason to maintain
troops in Europe and parts of Asia. Even fuither, the Chinese urgpd
us-to maintain a "truly" equal partnership with European countries
9nd with the Japanese and said they believed that the United States
wotild. do so. The use of the tenn "certain inarts of Asia" was inten-
doriall designed perhaps to exclude Korea. Aei removal of our forces
vras linked t "the aceful reunification of Korea" with no further
elaboration a('s our = indicated this was a complicated problem
with a long history.
Bq6nd supporting a continued military presence, our hosts argued
oat in view of the arms race which resulted partially from Soviet.
&-vedopment, it was desirable that the United States European allies
dAvote more funds to military preparedness, and apparently the Chi-
ifeselave so advised them But they also indicated that in -their view,
rftsea, AL prpriations might be necessary by the United States. The
reawn for lie increased milftary preparedness arises- from their belief

stron posture.ii It is noiuse to fear the Sovietion fwr i iei
abe hysiupeae nplsgif
Gie hssre fsaeetwewr xrml neetdi
Chies pepi on ih epc t hironrle n saeo
prearaionan acri ngyakdtemaotterpoiis P
emphas~iiiz thtthywreapecfl epein ytwrei
thiron eniv aragmnsa sgetdi hesaeet
ChiranMa Te-un:"Dg unel dep toe ran veywe
and never seek hegemony." In explainingi the impiliciiitions of iibis
injunction theiihins notd tsdeeniv carctra oitiha
wa reiiiii i te a e !!i~iii~i!ii~iiiiiii i=i i n aiiiiiiiii=iii variety of ways.iiii T hey said iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~iiii l thati as a developing
conr ther weeanmero xrmlypesn omsi k
m on t e r a o m d r ai on ....................e............
deesv esrsint hiivrl cnmcdvlpetporm
I n a d d itio n th ey b eliev e d th ey w ere. d o in g th eir sh a re biiyliiiil!I........................................................................................................................................
emphasis on% So i t w r p t n i la d t r a s o e h r w t i........... ..........................................
in e n lp e a a ions.ii~= ..........
T ngi b le vid e c ............................................ the; i r d o esti c ...............................
ou tou on Januar 3 foe fte eiginegoo arri
tunneils. Thei deeainvstdteudrrudaradtne.o
TaSaLa .................. I briefing presented toi us by Mr.i Kaiio ........ &i
Dieco othGeraOiceo h epesAi adPeato
Comtte htine thistr n eeomn fti unl
Usn asanihrs r.lorpredta osrutoifW
tune begani~ iin 1969 an aioniudthogitae fdeeomn
and extens= =iion for thieiiiii past year. The areaiervediwas- nialley....
hich thr er ay eatmn toe ndsos ec o hc
had... seaaeoe ig otetne ra.Onnra ved hr
m iiii e a o a .....................................................................h m ore on -S un.................ys
and~ holias The! tunla eeoe ol poiesetrfrsm
10,000 peole al fwo ol eudrrudwt -iu
w a rn in g .. b a s ed o n C h in e se e x p erien ce w ith a ir r a id p r a ctices =i ......................................................................................................................... W e.::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
were told that siiiiii!imiiiiiiila tunnls eistiniohercitis asfarnort &9
A c o r i n t oN ........ ................................................
through theii tune~l, aii nube ofi saeymaue eearayi lc
iiiiiiiiiiiin unl hrewr hns oies unn atr negon
power and acilties for.prify ng.t. ai.................................
,iiiii i~i!ii to iiiii install h opi ta faciii ...............................iiiiiii andi ''ii ot e m n t es a i c
stne emt hr a pc o uhdvlpet
Wewretl ta hetnnl er ageybul bycnriue

labor frmte ,0 hokees fte45soe' ntealeo

m 7
& q ft s t a n d e s a n d p la n s '. I n t h e p a st y e a r t h e y h a d in s t a lle d s o me
enitimi ~~ ~ ~ L-nt an negoidslsfrgansoae hnw iidiiii
it'dii ot ppea tht alarg wok frce as ngaed i th acii..
=c~odingto M. Ka, may tunel wer connect toithertun
lit itin. te popl to;vetualy alkoutto he ububs.Ii
th6es fT a ai wspsi torechteiouhensbub
inAproia~y ous.Wed nt nw o ha egeet is stu

of 'he nderroud tunel inPekig. urprsiigly or C is

kdofm~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ......tpri fli f h nerr .faiiistog
suh-fimswoldsem oleg urhe crrboaion to Chiins ex-
iiiliiiiiiiiiiii i
!] nikgiitonyto he gaphc eidene peseted y te tur a supor
to.01 es sttenens, e fun oter efrenes o he toing i ofiiii
PftkIttvarius isis toagrcultralfaclitis i Szehwa an
ghtahal.: Tereg, hereore sustanialevidnceof omesic rep
Aratft or ar i Chna.It dd nt sem t beconucte onan mei
gmic boss bt itobvousl reresets ome ivesionof esouces
.: I aditio tothe uesion f dmestc plicis, uestonswer
ftibd wih th Chiesewithrespct t ther eeralpoliiesifisupor
f~rnaionalliertin mveens pecfi ywih rspcttoIsraeliiii
Andalo ithrnpet t itees inan ad t mredisan aea
9*hasAfrm hiesereposeswee nteesin, nt nl fo tei
&kgtmt ecpin fntoa neet u loa n ictv

""!i iii iii i i~ ,i~iii 8i ii

den Foda ela terqetosdaigwihAeia-his
reain.Ih igh othraiveymoetamut fateto
paii~iiid] toteeprbes incnrstosmprrcngeinavst,

itisesenitorpcreuly ur i mpesos
In. ouriiiiiliiiiiliii~i~ diiiiiiiiiii is si o s itheiiliiiii iihiiiiiiiie expressedii~ asiii iihieiy have iiib ish
stteens thei eea aisfcinwihtevsifPeidnod
.............. in icae ocner.a ottelako o mu iusyn
that th s e c e of a l p ii p a t m ight...........................................
cmuiqu.Sneortiiolwdreaieycoeyuo hto
Prsdn odsc epos ih av enepctd ehp
les.epecd *in thigh oferircnriinl iis a h ea
tiel sigh ation id oteiseoih sau rftao
Ta iAt timeddteCieecos t ntaedrcics
sion ofii Tai ,]"="''= i wan Theli sole refeenc occurred'= in,=iiiii=iii theirii reqson e to .........
quio abu how ou w onre ih oemr lslo
igeth ieiri In answeri iiiiiii iii i n theyi ment one theiiiiiiiiiiiiiShaniiiiighaii co m muiiniquiieiii iiiii iiiiii i ii iiiiiiii ofii i ii iiiii iiii iiiiiiiii
107 n tene orisipemnain Olihnase ob
speciiiid thyaedtercmmnstirvdi seii eeec

w i

voum wouldii var fromii yea toi yeari but di not ovetl linki itsiii

zii ofCins desen wh ishdt e ingreativs inCia
or whr ri a illnes maea ei isa toteUite ttso
high. o prot i the indcat tha reuaie eain ewe
our two countries would permit more ease in meeting such requests. !~~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ==,,=,
T... did ] agree, iiiiiiiiiiii ho ev r toiiiiiiiii~ reviiiiii~ i ew the Cong essw men' request&iii =iiiiiiiii~N ii=, i


TO travel through China is to see on every side both the tremendous
*c)O 6, stnd problems of the Chinese. Fundamental to suctess
g yie S
.N% uAlitulture., eonsequentlZ, the stabilization of hi h i Id toget er
,0)1 mcmasingr production is an essential component of efforts to raise
VWstandardi6f living of those in the countryside as well as cities,
-Nt t1ofte iolmodernizethe country. It is understandable, therefore,
whylo much, of laur visit focused upon one or another aspect of agri-
IR sh"Id be made clear at this j uncture'that obviously the develop -
Vfeft.OUJAdustry -is alio essential for China's policy of self-reliance.
V% willcomment at varions points on differing aspects of the indus-
tftist,46veloplhent with which we had experience, but the overriding
"Of our trip, largelyoccasioned by the emphasis on agri-
utid units:amd the extensive traveling in Chengtu and its envi-
rowl igthe remaining importance of agriculture, as the key to -future
lChiftimm Achiovements. Whether -or not the Chinese will be successful M_
iheir efforts not only to stabilize agricultural production but also
*y4usdain thb rate of progress, through the means they have chosen,
4moxitA&vAclear. But the nature of their efforts and the paths they
*am likely to-follow appear relatively clear from our trip.
Crucial though agriculture: and industry. are to China's future it
important to keep in mind the additional goal of Chi a
aamel to maintain the revolutionary spirit-and style of
.ad**, It&. w they attribute thtir tuccess in 1949 and which they
4*and4ar assential. for'the maintenshce of a socialist industry. In this
b6,viewed in the context of a now revol-a-
tionmy nuLn under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party.
<)"*UeRtly, an -understanding ofthe Chinese agricultural and in-
4m,4rinI efforts must be ae-companied by a close look at Chinese educa-
,fic6sl- priorities and methods in order to understand theclose inter-
Otpeu&noe of th se activitie&
ad4ion to tbwe two emphases, the delegation intends to report
on the, broader intentions of Chinese leaders reflected their
AooW mechanisms for m*suring enthusiastic support for socially
*Pprove&gioals together with judicious use of sanctions where neces-
Awly. In this tontext efforts to enhance the role of women serves as it
good example of the use of a mass organization to insure support for
pocial goaL Finally, the delegation reports on the use of sametions
-xhen: other means faiL.
Amam=mm Is 111.Ey LiNK:
Much bas een written about the. importance of agrieudture in
06a. Mi4y.who have visited..before us have commented unm do-
velopmetts in China, mdQe 1949. Inde6d %from the earliest Ys of


America~n visitors in the mideofth19hcnuypeleav

sin h 20 century lnis wi~ll iii
known that:l the livelihood of Chll inaadi- oiialsaiiyrse

fortenatin, nd t rvd h easo rnprts htecs
foonsetrof the conrwcudbemdraalblkrpepei
ith frthune eciustme Te deo

in tre 2hcetryi aglsowlnw.I a caindb ait
du ou n Oma ni ae Al
fatois; e ea s these weeheinresngintail

th ociety a rdtoa uhrt aihd h rso fsi n
wte revorcs the cyli tsottonsseslagl ln
wteayim andt ipiov thedqty taocurdui

lowato ner the ledrsi o1heCinesComntPay
countrysiiie aswl sfnaetlytocag h en fpo
dct i o !iiii l Ch i' rua ras l fthscane aeocurdi

i iiiiii iii i i
thenast 27yers iiii aga i the~i bakdopo ariin oplaio owesi

t rel i land, iimprov theii qualiy si l tai liewtr upy
use ofiiii fet~ii z I ni! i~ii addiiion andii of.. eq a m otne 1aebe h
change in Cineesceyta ea it adrfr,14-2

,q ncmeofth inivdul ndth fa il i rra C ina isiiiliiiiii

IE'e d e dby te ttalwor poits f te failytogthe

pro=utivtyofther ffrtsasrefecedin ea otpu. ow
a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ vaual...........einoe ndsanar f i ing of
t indvidul an thefamiy isderivd frm th priate lots
TU s-caledrivae potsconsst f asmal potio of anduse fo
......................................n...................... p roduct iisiii
sedaresol tostae aences nd he rocedskep bythefaiii

_JA sumaxytheefor, te icomeof Chiesefamiy i dei

find th comine wokpoits f al trnslted ntocash Soe o
used or gain urchsessomefor ecesitieisoe lfo
14oestluxrie an soe sved Inaddtio, te icom ma besup
Plemntdby csh o gits fom achil emloye elswher ori h
gommne sallscal facory-whee a monhly alay isrecivd
The urchsingpowe of he incomes rlatiely igh iventhe
t t' ommue -meicalcare sualy coss 1iiiiipriyerifo
Ityforcovrag, tat ousng n acomuneis re- o no iiiiii
ip, co4 andschoo fees. nurery cre animostnecesaryipoduct


aand produce pems It cvere 2 etrs n'diinoV9

++1958 the coiiuii a i d
The histo rv of ehsome tiquit siia otoei teat
in~4 Cian dAfteln eorm, th evloogniain87~cee

phrogh mstua f t~eams a grcutra rouercoprtieo
advnce pruc eercoptvs wasr indvdul eane onyfrm

mush ni rites a d cf

19ou58 the !nw est
u ots~ gah e th eeainavreyofidctr f mrs
inheou ne. Vetabl ror uion wsmr ta 12tmsta

of 194e anhou bleteotu f157(eoeteetblsmn1fti.
commun).o h a riety 1of v5etbe ha1ieero 5i 94 o28

1ahoa~ iiiom
piast(mos of themaprnl yfmle nterpiaepos o

1 0 a e m tha........
mshdros. nmea r iveadwtras hyrasddcsihad

arouheilae s pre ad nemhasizeysthe oealdvlpeto nri

pie chil wat yuatfr frm medical hchae.ratet)ws
use for+++++++ +7++ iriain Machinery repairs wee on i te omun a.
weas+ the++ forging++ of som mahn too
T he+++ re u l o f................w a s to..ise.he.s.n da...o ................................. in
com fo oshl f45pol as100ya $01... a

in++ 1975 all chilre-above++++ the age++ of ..... sho adthtnrs
a n d k+777++7+7++7+!in d er g a rtens++i+ w ere++++ii++)+++7 lo c a te d in+++++++++7+++!++~+7+7+ p ro d u ctionii te a m s o ri b rig a d e s. ', "iiiii~i~++++77+i+~++++++++++iii Hii++i++++ ++i+++ ++++++ +++++++ +++++++++++++++7+ ++++++7+++++++++77++ 777 +77++
W i res ec to h ealth+ care,++ the p rov!7+i ++!++++ +++~i7+ i si ons of iisi~ii co m n w ere+++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
st a rd n a m el u a ++ co m u n h o p t l cli ic at++++++++++++ ............ b rig ade+++++++++++ lev el++++++++++++:+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

.Tho impression deived frmitheiriefing-and tur weresupple

Inetedby isis t seectd hme. Vrios' .'eber ofthedelgainiii
wentij~t'Br~ll nst hmes r aprtmets (n th cas of ew dell
fi~p)whomtheyhad he oportnityto seak ithiimeifithicom
Amininembrs. houghthe peciics djfeiiifrmifamlyit iii
gy7 Awa clearthat te indfvidiiisandifailiesie visied wer
Whil houing as campe, itwas dequte (houg hea
*idwA6g).Theavrag mothlincmevared.In ne ueit wasiiii
_ninth:reletin th Tat hatthefamlyhadfiv ciiiiiii
*ih-A11of hom~ereworingfulltim, ad hnce he oushol
*woaewasrahe hih.Th repodet i te amiy ndcatd ha

:ft ttald aproimaely100yu a ont, lavig tem ih

#bbsariialsavrig andhene tey ad een bleto urcasesuc

Wps s aclok, swin mahineandbiccles Weals leanedtha
#fte6f- he easats cntrbute onedayof wrk pr wekitith
4 6m~-6e (hou~hwe donot kow ho widepreadthislractieima
Trorial:retiemen prgram didnot xis (asindedithyid
iirv-lirl Chna);rathr th wok asignmnts iliieireuce
Wor fo agig prent. Cildrnar expect to ontibut
f6 u ort f thir aed prents(anddidioigldly)
T4 ,ondiionsjustdesribe repesen a odelcasewherith
3i~u*Asfavoraby. lcat.wit repectto arkes ad c it
b~s ~deJ~xium se f it adantaes ogeher ithpoliicaior
jto~ifi~no rase te st~naa oflivig ofits opultionito inac

i;*,f R o~i prfit* te cots f icreaed echnizaionandi
'Ibk46t o- is lndg Oter ommnes moe rmotly ocaed iiii

ii i ~ iiii i~ i~iiiiiiiiiii~~iiiii~ i~~~ii!ii~i~iiiiii1 4 ii~ ~ii~~iiiiiii
ou h n n t e lt su me of 1975, a nationwide conference to dis-
cuss the Tachai experience, was hed and there seems little doubt tha
his oe wl otiu obeetleda heftr frCies g

cutue Intecuseo u rpw iiedoeTca-tp rgd
Sin thusirt of hegt, Secua povice werewesa a
example ofiiii how hi s tyeifirgnzaio wrkd is oae nHit onyqiecoet
th ityo hngu ti cmoe o oe2,00idviul h
........................................................................r! i g a d e s.iii~ iiii iiiiiiii T h r e e~~i~~ii !i o f ti~~~~i~~~iiii h e r~ig a e a r....i y
brigades and! i~iii wevste n f hm hepoucinbigdw
viisie po 86hue
of.................... 97. It i vae oa f2 9 o r3 lsa re a m ui q a
to one- ixth of nacre)
We~ii weetl htefrs ne telaesi fCara a
Tse-tung iilii an mebes fth bigd, mpaszd el-rlane n
ma ing anefr ocryottervluinad"okhrocag
the iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii facei oti s o nty"Inteco reofte rein eler
whttisefr rqiedadwathdbenahevd h pout
so thdis br~id wrice het ap edtbacan oey h
-prducio orin n 99 as20 iospe-ouad y 95ia
-90 kio-ermu By17 tebigd asriin ,53-is.Fo
-240 hi~ii~iiiive of bee teyha gtheed2400 klo ofhoey i ad
Itiiiotgin soe17mlinvgtbesfrtect fCegu
Coule wiiit tempis narclueti rgd a raie
iiidsint other ocuain suha os ear rirc
esig andi aait ofsalseindsre uha haigo

cloths,~ i isiriii hasiakte eea rmti giutrlbs
together withtecuainstebiaehsbenal oepn
prdcinadacmlt aig ufcetfrte ucaeo
trcs i cehretr n iegidr, 0trses eso lc
trcpmigsain swl sfnne ostu h ri n ie
-li prdcio shp.Te ee be hs oseiihnz h


Withresecttohelthcar, asreontl as 965 dotorswer fe
and ealh. fciltiesquie liite. Sice hen meicalstaiona
brigde as ben stalishd ad fve "areootdoctrs"wor
wit tems.Theiniviual pa Iyua pe yer or edial ar
a n d.......................................................................... f u d o t e
Mee vilbe o asstnc f ae usie is necssry
The tigde rpreentaive emhasied he wrk hat demand
Twrpansrefecte th cotinung griultual mphsis.The ha
h iy ac ievigi1tonifigainierianipriyariaiwe l iiiiiiilec-iilii
ri-fcaton y th 190's ThZ, itened o ephasze he lani
of~teesarond he illges Bls radsandcanls.The beieved!
thatAiiIm rtat dvelomen fo thm wuld e te bildng f a
aquouci Wer ephais o th fuurewasreflcte winter sii
tna'y* ssesmen "ou prducton eve is til notver hig an th
fo hechaizaton.stil low we hve lon wayto g ye
*hii equied f usby he yrtyand haiman ao.
-T~edi!uskns aovefocsed pontwoexamlesof he sccesfu
interatin o polticl gols ogeter wth he eonoic raliieso
A4. 4 Aeldment yces.Thestwounis Peg-p an the"Tahai
brig& Tan Yan ommue dmonsratd th ablityof
culf~td unts~t maimie avantgespariall thoug poit

up...... rihlnsi h oe ra f h i n h aitaehm
s e l f .... ..... b e n h n r e y t e h n s ...........................................................................
reubse oa epetsiyntthhiheeminwchhy'
h o ld h im .iiii .................... i~
Sic t einn bu 5 .. h odto fteirgto
sytmhsvre|eedn pnpoiia eeomns u~ot
todu|h ytmhd alnit eeedsearb 99btta
sinceiiiii~i then ~ they )ii'iii had==IH~~ recogn iiied ith t "watr consrvancyis theli fei~iiiiiiiieNN::
ofarclue n otnosefot a endvtdt xadn
and strengthening.the.system
In 1949 w were tod only.2.

'ized in brigade discussions
ir*bliria were -not. p 1 when Chinese leadors
070 hit. tha 669omics:of inechanizatioih even at the low level at
-Akfi they",'were plam W'', mightyequffie the realignme7it of fields
and- asiom6tsin order to maximize the use of equipment. In terms
00161 the watdi bystem such problems were -clearly on the horizon.
Though the TVkiangyen project was managed by a modest force of
,,'feehm'*cian6:t*1*'g some 400 in all, some aspects of related projects
,Wevl massive in aeir labor needs. F6r example, returning from the
visit tb the pil6jedt- itself, we had the opportunity to observe at close
,,hRnd one small portion of the canal chai ges required in theprojeet.
f.l.,* tneountmd's large irrigation force involving 40,000 peo0e en-
Yed in'Oi n, in an old canal and digging a new one. This work
a oin the surrounding nine communal counties-had
upu4take n",to comOete the task in 1 month. When one considers that
Ke work fordesm. the communes we visited averaged approximately
Tercqht..of the total commune population we estimate that the
IMO wlbi. k.'consiituted the total woA force of four communes
*An or'h Me "A fQrce of eight. The work was done by hand, prob-
ih a manner $1111 W to e way the old magistrate built his first
don jroject years qgo
orp4ti t fm for the project was difficult to cret. No
94 fu o ancmg.
i es Oi tpvii eosts were available to us, but the ongoing funcling of
P pro ww praise frora a water tax of one yuan per mou. of land
wa' -1 te-MinRiver Tukiangyen project, providilag
)" Te of loc4
agam an eiamp df-reliance iad financing.
MCAA.16uif, Rifiei-ary sho*,'the opportunities tb visit industrial ites
J:1V6'1r3*1 lim"iW. Vorftfo visits'.by in ffibers of the delegation were 'Made to
it itextile fictory in'Kweilin and an aectri"eal iftchihery factory M
1t:*6uWb6 inisleAffing, however, to'as:s'ume that evideuce
ill r de*406 nt wR limited to these two visits. In lall tte
cultlw4l sites. yisited,,mention was made of the close. relation be-
agried ure It- nd industTy, afid, we J-1aid" "numerous occasions to see
*"JjtJJ 46jilb enftrpr ttses affillkted communes, the brigade, and
i 'hools both middle SAId cblleg4 In addition the tour t1rojaA the
RAibi6o'n.a-ffor&d the,6pportuhity to' kkiscma
..'i ith.; f,"hogts:th'e 'yaaiety of products that'Chinia, now produces for
T Ji mber of staridpoints -the 1a6k of on large scale
fitwo I#au= reNctive of the reality of industrial ftvelopm nt
Min ho, 16r'the future. In oMbr' to place this
ht p Ind ese PAS
ifi: is e'S'Sential to keep m i-hilid certain &axacter-
i ti(,4 dtitrial &xrei th t 6,%ra tofized 19,49.
7 : lineit d a..
_(Iftckli I U' 7e ilitie
gdk to dM op ustrigfca))abi s in the late,19th
1V .7,,..there were 4 antial.handic ,Ps-'-Th difficulties came. riot
6nW f om adffie-AI-6 *Pblems" 1 Por t ation and lack'of 'skilled
]nit ils6. fhe qiiencesbf ie izi qi Th
conse i trefttv -system. e n-
-Awoft _y ihat'did & op to-n&a t6 1* 1 ated olf thib eigiern seac6sf
4toiin& th ,t Ports 10 hi the v6ftiadern
9A: pru7mces OT119
Convesswomau Holftman recalls they were told 111120,OW1 people.
78--097-76 4

i~~iiiiiii iiil iiiii " '" ............. .....8
.............................. W r 1 p e io an de el
oped unde Jap nes control~ i ............. Tii~iiih e capaci~iH~~iiiiiH~i i ti es of plants were limitediiii Hiiii~~ii!
by. ~~~~~ii~~~iii~ii th bombii~iiin is laiono heSn -ap ns W r h dsrc
....!!io that accmpaie the i mnhsofWrl arII s el s h
civil war which followd~~~............rso te hiee omuns
Goverment wiiiit substant! i i al Soviet help, old ndustrial sites wer
repai' i re and! en~i l a g d and...w......e.....i.................... .. .
local development w!!it loa iingfr oalmrkt wslagl
aiiii! cosqec o eiin md fe 95 hntecomnswr

Between 1959-62, the Chinese people endured years of hardshi
causedii~ byi weteifiies h ihrwlo usa ehiin
as a consequenceiii of~ the! in-o tdsueadporlnigad
.... nizaiii ion byiii th hns hmevs nc eoeyfo h rs
ti,,iiii"i~ic agrlictl ifficute a curdteCieeebre pn
carefuliiiiiiii modernzatio prga ht a eine odcntaie
dutr ndpovd frloalpodcs tth am tm ta bsc n
dustrilial caaiy otold ycnrlgvrmetmnsrem

fa c to r iiiieiisi.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i T h e................ i............ha n g h a i e le c tr ic l m a c h in e r y f a c to r y w h ic h s o me
..................................................................h...e x t i l e

facoryin welinwasnotan deervs cos atenton
Te weli slk phnig acor isloatd n he utkitsofon
of hemot amusciie i Cin. raitonll kow a areor

.............................................................................................. ..ud e si ai s u b iiii
statia inustialcapcit whle til reainn aresrt rea Th
factor we viited asone xampl of ths..Th fcoy-cmisiiiiiiii
in ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ '== 198...........l eoltonicldd lo, n
silkpriningmachnery al of hichhadbeenpro~-'ced, mc hiinia n
Ustaled y th staf an worers f th facory.Theievenworkhop

In thefactor togeter produce ongeeiilkiottonaicotin-sil
inix som synheti fiers nd pre slkioriteiioersii q its. iiiiii
th.:,40 taf emer ad orer aprxiatly65pecet er
woenan o te adesinth fctrysoe 0 eren wrewoen
Thefacor ra rundth clckwit treeshftspe da ad wrk
ers~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~.. roaeirmwe owe mngtesit h upto h
factory~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~| ha.....deomul sne17. eddntreev bo
'lut fiure, bu. wre imitd t pecentge ncrases In197 th
140.0ry prduce morethan4 tims th 6utiiiof5iyeas eali
0969. Th caacit toprodce, iffrentprouctshad ncrasedfro
.17 iems i 197 to 4 ites in 975.At th samitimeeffotsiha bee

mion h a d e fae o h o k r .T a e u i n d e e e -0 c n s e

mthe society from th aaisoIh okr.W ee o bet
loeanabout the moiiywihntofactrhaistepo tonf
-eceeingl llptow.) tWheo seteuinladr od u htte

rsale. g t the iciv sytem co mntimsmi-Cnmn
scoletie nned in orether oeais sytmoepnsiivr ag

u indv ves nthiciier.CneunldcaonnCia

theset ofuptos twwotmnt fCaranMoaewot oig

inEducation.i musti v rtara poiisadb.oobndwt

1 21

school, and a college, together with kindergartens and nurser-
fts whdre education begins, plus the constant references in briefings
to,, the educationally revolution in China, which they date from the
441tuMl revolutio14 we have:been able to -observe a fairly broad cross
WC40111 of Caduese evorts.
- It is. eWutiRl to an understanding of education in China that one
"Wgnize the brGadscale setting in which it occurs. Thus, the broad.
Wting stations, the local newspapers, together with study groups: all
are.dAsigned to intezate politics and education. The afterschool activ-
W%.,*mducted in cities and neighborhood associations, the skills
imparted, the social messages implicitly and explicitly conveyed co-n-
sdtute a massive effort to insure the continued participation of Chilia"s
youth in a revolution that most of them, some 27 years after the end
of the civil war, have not directly experienced.
1, 7%ig mp6rt on education includes observations on a discrete series
otbi'stitutions and concludes with some general observations on char-
aWriWies. of the system. The 'need to describe one institution at a
thne should not overshadow the constant emphasis on integrating
9xist., values throughout the system, which is h hallmark of the
Chineso experience.
Beyond- the creches which serve to care for the children of employ ad
pwmts and are available as early as'56 days after birth, the nurseries
sad kindergartens of China begin the indoctrination process as well as
izapartidg skills and knowli8dge nec"ary for life in China. As we ob-
served in the nursery and kindergarten facilities of Peng-pu commune
Aildren are grouped in cla* es by ago with the normal grouping re-
fieddng ea& 6-raonth cohort. The fatilities and equipment in most of
dm* nurwries and kindeo0gartens are rather sparse by American stand-
ar& except for those in large industrial settings. The emphasis when
the! ohildien arie old enough is upon development of cooperative social
pifterns, mutual aid and help, some familiarity with the national lan-
guage (many of the children maysrak the local dialect at home)
and tht learning of songs, dances, an some, simple games designed to
efthance physical well-being and coordination. One of the songs we
heard referred to "our brothers in Taiwan others to Chairman Mao
and the beauty of co6l*ration.
Primary school facilities differ widely. As in the Vnited States,,
-urban schools based upon the neighborhood pattern---often built be-
Nre 1949-are likely to be larger and have more -varied courses. Text-
bwks art nwm sibundant, equipment better and more divmp,. In the
Chengtu brigade we visited, facilities were simple and limited. Cer-
taih p"blems confTont the rural edveation system. One difficulty arises
fr living patterns. VillagL-s on a production team are small-fre-
UftAlY:2b!:30_rf&m1lieS__and therefore the populAti6yi is oft imuffl-
for aschool. Lacking transportation, synall. children may, have a
comiderabld':distance to walk. Duri4,wu*tt@k this; tmd6u1hf4y ian-
encewattendanm In the Shanghai cothriinneg *e learnea that schools
,,V amigned on the basig of the horn lotations without r gmrd to
*1&thel a or tbt the a6hool Was.maliaged t* the commnne in which the
p4m, t sn.lwoflcod. Sfich pattem.: are familiar, t(y,'Amv ricafis. Stm, dis-

is part
It is
-is mad


matical procedures. As in American society, certain values are
implicit in textbook examples. In Chinese sch-ools the politics of the
sw ety are integrated wherever possible into the examples of class-
rppm study. Quotations and writing of Chairman Mao Tse-tung were
standard texts for middle school students in Chinese language and
grammar classes. Depending upon location, middle schools have
developed small factories designed to provide some training for their
students as well as practical evidence of the need to combine education
and productive labor. Nnile participation in productive labor may be
111mited to one period a week for the smaller children in primary
sch6ols,..the requirement is more substantial in middle schools either
M a daily basis or a week or two assiamment in a factory. In addition,
we. saw middle school students in Shanghai preparing to go to the
c : t 'd for short periods of work. Our guides told us that by
oun rysi e i
working in the countryside living in peasant homes, and cookin
their o-wn meals, these stude ts would learn about the reality
importance of labor for China rather than consider it as a remote
fact of economic life.
"In addition to the formal school setting, some urban children have
ae6esg to the'so-called "children's palaces" where they have the oppor-
tunity to participate in extracurricular activities and recreation. In
Shangliai there are 10 such facilities spread about the city. The one
we visited, called Pu-tuo District Children's Palace, was built in 1960
and. provided services to 1,500 children a day between the ages of
7' to .: 12 years. Children were selected by the schools in this district
Oh a rotational basis and were supposed to return to their schools and
teach theil- classmates. We were told that the children were selected
on the basis of politics and talent, but we did not discover the rela-
tive weight of the two fac fors nor how politics is judged for children
under 12. When discussing this matter with one guide, the suggestion
was made that perhaps politics might be reflected in the conduct of
the child in his school.
The children performed for us and told us about their activities.
The,461asses covered such. activities as dance, music, with the develop-
thent, of children's orchestras as well as teaching of piano and accor-
diON. ship and airplane-model building, the construction of radios,
physical education, and theater skits. The quality of performance was
uniformly high and the children showed a consistently high sense
6f self-confidence and comfort in meeting with us. The ovontent of the
performances reflected the values of the society. For example, a ping-
f 'ballot had the theme of "Fr endship First Competition Seconel
iong: and dance performance entitled "3io the Boulder"
showed- individuals along failing in a task butvell they worked
tog ffior succeeding. Another performance of a Taiwan dance was
one of -the few overt references to. the unended civil war. The students
also told us that they were writing'to their big brothers and sisters
who 'were working in the dountryside giving them encouragement
for their rdVolution- ary contribution.
IUS in clawroom, productive labor, andafter school activities,
the edneatioii system of the People's Republic reinforced values
that would prepare studepts for,'work in the countryside and perhaps
it lifetfine, there.

values and edcto isi!s clear andii most cotoeril Thi isi iirn6i
n o t o n ly fo pa.r.........................
thmslve wh r tl nae nrasesetO hne hthv
Supreso h rn tCieehgeedcioplceswl
expantecagso h atdcd ntefloigmne. huh
edou hi uieste n olgshdepne n hne o
out......... Chn u atclrya h ppe eesh&-codj ot
Comns hoy bcm o pcaieetsepaiigol
thoy n eoefo h ci ca ieo h epeo hn.
Stdnswudsed1 o2 er neuainlisiuin n
ye e nbl opricpt nte eea if ftesoit.Ee
mor dneosithviwoChrmn Ma a heeomn
ofasprto ewe etlad hscllbr h as fti
p-rble ineduatin s lid t te,.oorof..........inChies

"cptis od r" ezdp wrpio to196

H iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.25iiiiii
6 o n e s a n f a a gm e in c lu d in g s u c h la ng a s K o r e a n M V1 k
ad Uihur 8) ;an lnguae, tat i, th natonallangage
Chi#; () h;; r--Aehitoryandtraitios o Chna a wel a
vanos ntioal inortie; () at, msic dace nd fne rts an
(,gytadre ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ... triiniiiiitontiteecore o tuyter a
alsoa vriey of1- r 2yearculura cousesforstudntsfro th
ftd~al inbrtie ares t raie teir ultral eve befre heyioul
btaf inothr Chnes unverstie an medcalschols
f~e U K!t St A~n bod wascompisedof 1700 tudetsifimi4
nitinaliiesbordr aras nd rgion. Te ful corsewasiormll
Al~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ f..............1yeran tedacean in at
ibiteorfreuire 4 yers. n addtion in te prviousyeariiome8,00
btudnt;MA artiipaed n shrt-ermcouresgenrall les tan
rM duration..
The ibray atthe nsttutehad nly lbaianVietames an
O ec nwsp pesand th oly ag zie a aiabe w s C ineseiiiiiiiii
imbiesionfradatd ito ariuslanuags. her isa god uplii~
6f~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Wetr.mscl......dar.ok,-icudn n xelet u
verv oljA~ency1 ofiatiofithiworld
We armanof te Ntionl Mioriies nstiuteemphsizeith
chagesin he ductio syte sice he ultralrevluion He...
gummrizd te cangein dmisio andconirmd tat isted o th
b~deams enollentcam frm woker an pesans i th vaiousi
irea wih th reommndaton f th unts nd te aprovl o th
iioe autoriy. I addtio to hangesin amisson herehavebee

betweii'tosewiiiiii t nd tose wo stdied

7th cair oplit
are otiiq litiem

yo hat syste thr ean h col hthv mre~mc

fram pyial ao.Apoutefteclua rvltoteM
th had schoo is eindt enoc n ee omtett

piic idelg oete ihreurn hsia ao frCi,4
care an diitaos h ls ntrigigo oiia td
withpica aorfieteddprid ftiei useecndto'
a w ay... from= o n e's.... fa il ......................................cial
paiipat ise motn qetosohmnrsuceuiiain
Th eeainwspeae ohv teoprtnt ovstsc

Cirma Maoiiil pulihe on Mayi,1968, callig forithe development
of a new typei school. The institutional we visited ...................d he p g
We ititMy7hcdesho.Esalse nOtbr16. tI
no 7yar od Testdet woaten t reapaetl ald"~
fro te CuniWeisburio th cty f ekig.Sine ts niiaton
som 380imniailomniaveco plte thicuriifisud.iii
curn emi oth.I perhwveta h egho
styin a t colmyvr.Intefrtfw-er ,fe

(A: 'Oir hetweld s tat eletionforthetchol ws asomwha
Ownpicawmatt.' I gw"4 eah care, ughtto tim aturnionc
Wy 5yeas, ut te vrios cnstiuen oraniatios mde: thi
an th bui of teir wn neds. he sudentiwitiwho
we pom adallvouneeed utwedonotknw heherorno tisiiiiiiiii
to tre fo all In gnera, weweretold bout50 prcentof te stdent
Comunit Prtymeber ormemersoftheYoug Cln
=nist~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ .............. er o~rt idiiua& hog
meMAW__n~~ft art-tme-mght ell b in ttenance

po Arm personel wei Inc~deiiiW were old tht ther areis
achop-fo te;- mliar, :wiJ prhW dffret: uri!
in t he sboo, heiniviua'spa
*0464 ,S.qse s bm h c, se.VUwokig n isorhe ui
A*" 4"owasno odsip.$orOm~ failisi e wre oldtha
parvorSzatin gvered. hun We. tb~ug th
.Part comi
rty f te shool,,Pestmabl~thir:supeymo wa
in ntur an pehap fousedupo th sustativ toisi
tfa" ~y. Th schol reolutonarycommitee ws re
fjC~ough~t Lthe ch. 4 h
emp SIS a

+ .m+00
+S + + + + '.4@@
Th ily scedl oftesuet aidwt h esn hl

12:00- 1:3 Luchanrst

1:30 5:0Lbran/rsuy
5:30 7:0 Diner. +

7:0 :0 Cneecsuy etno erain
9:0 Sleep

Th schoo we v'iited was sprtn i itsmku.W.vstdsuet
in thi domtois whc als seve as a plc fsud.ewr


May iLwdew" aspects. Their efforts to avoid a large intel.lectuat
el&-that is unemployed have: obvious advantages to the leadershi
PefticiAurly where they seek to raise city and countryside standark
of living together. Clearly middle school graduates can make impor-
tant contributions to their country's development.
The social and economic costs of this program may be high, depend-
In on how thoroughly its policies are carried out. Students we met
not indicate any personal Oreferences 'in response to queries about
lAterests or hopes for future careers. Beyond a few generaliza,
tions, we learned little about the allocation of university students to,

=, ro ams. The system as presently operative does not seek out
a y gifted intellectual who may only be interested in mathe-
matics or science; indeed, such a student would face strong pressure
i _ch nge his viewpoint. Though there are obvious adv :niages to,
r6q*irihg students to spend at least 2 years in the countryside before,
eWn applying for university training, this 2-year winter ission cou-
fA with ene course o mu inevi a y ave some,
c dnsdJd'bxkces for the. quality of training of university and graduate
stu&At who will be needed as China develops. There are very practi-
csl'leon sequence of such a policy in such areas as advanced agricul-
tutal research and the development of high technology capabilities,
.:Wh%.the May 7 cadre schools may be realistic in terms of Chi-
filts 6 rnal p litical priorities, they, too, pose dilemmas. If the.
Oog'ftm is carried out as we saw it at Chung Wen then the yearly
lbas-ofMecial contributions by doctors, engineers, and scientists must
b6lhigh. If these individuals in fact do not participate in the May 7-
f xp rlence, then elitism remains.
It vras readily apparent that social control on a large scale and in
ukkuteparticula" was essential to bring about the modernization of
China along the politioal lifies of the Chinese leaders. Since all o! the
institutions we visited emphasized the need for community self-
stlikrwe, understanding of Marxism-Leninism and the thought of
Chairm= Mao!Tse-tung, and rejected material incentives as a means-
Jor imsuring support, and:enthusiasms for difficult tasks, the emphasis
lact to be uparv education and organization for the acceptance ot
poli6esl FThough material differences do remain between peasants,
and withlActories, our guidns and those who briefed us emphasizect
thM these material differences should eventually be eliminated and
owtinmally, minidnized.]
meams for insuring a high degree of social organization and
su#peat-are through the institutions of the stateand mass organiza-
tions under the leaders]4 of the pa;rty. While the party and the state
wd ardominate the Chinew political system, determine pcfficy
&HrzPg*tives. and. the nu=s::fGr their implementation, the re are a
vafi*., ei, organizations whieh provide links tor the vast number af
Q*W4 Citizens OuWide thwelite. FThesd institutions support and: Pro-
vidw meant -for supplementing the dominamt institutions. Some of
them otgwwatmw are associated with residence patterns and thei
others are called mass organizations, of which the Women's Federa
tion is an example.]


local res
women o
The s(



lBeyond these Programg, the committee was responsible for periodic
arewdeanup and for insuring public health activities to prevent infec-
t -S0a diseases.
In observing these -activities, we found that the women working were
algo middle-aged and older persons who supplemented their income by
wh4t was considered "part-time" employment. It appeared, however,
that the hours spent on their work pproached f ull time. Volunteer
women in the area toooether with medical workers, coordinated family
planning activities'. &r guides told us that the committee and itg
volunteers worked close-ly with the health stations to make certain that
those women in the childbearing ages received full information about
the desirability of small families and the advantage s it offered to the
couple. In addition, birth control pills were dispensed from these same
health 4-ations. While sterilization and abortions were possible, it
s6maA that primary reliance was placed upon the pill. The neighbor-
hood, eommittee also had an office that was responsible for security
and such militia activities as were organizod in ihe area. It appeared
that'while the residence committee had general responsibility, the
Ae* zhborhood association was the governmental unit involved in co-
"leyinating militia activities.
Mdch of the housing in the area revisited was old. We were told
that kovernment committees existed to assign housing, particularly the
iiew facilities beina builtiwith government decisions made on the basis
i6f the'size of the -amily and its particular conditions. But our hosts
told:uS that some 1aformal trading occurred. We learned elsewhere
that in some cities couples who married at the -ages recommended,
nathely, 23-% for women and 25-26 for men, rather than at the legal
Ages of. 18. for wonion and 20 for men, received some priority for hous-
r i3*# assignments.
F We asked about the resolution of differing views within the com-
mittees. Our guides told us that differences did occur f rom. time to time.
In those cases each side could state their case to a higher authority
bui 'we were'told that "the minority is always persuaded."
We asked about the problems the conunittee had confronted over
the history of its development. Initially, there -was reluctance on the
part, of individuals to involve themselves in political study, to partici-
pate in gorroup cleanup efforts and aJso to practim family planning.
er e years the residence committee has stressed these activities.
Orou study sessions were organized to explain the importance of
cleanup efforts,. or the advantages of family planning for the health of
0,e cmiple, and their work. Undoubtedly, as years passed, Chinese
women and men came to understand the expectation of their partici-
pation in political study.
The or *zation. of the neighborhood association together with the
r;esidence committee provides Chinese leadership with the means to
r each. 6ose individuals in Chines6,60e.s not employed in factories and
admi 'strative, u*nits and shops. In addition, it provides a mechanism
f6r: insuring positive',4ocial simpdrffor governmont.policies many of
WIA& ift iiijuil 01y-o6pular. We noted, for example, that the resi&nce
Wminittee-throluorli Xse overseeing of I the co urtyards could ake
el+ain of the safety d'ehildren returnijRg home afier school, or could
insure that health policies were carA Aj out. The committees provided


AU Chinese say that women todsy under th6 leaddrship i of Chair-
3han Mao and the Chinese Communist Party enjoy equality with men
And b&ve risen fronk being slaves to being, masters of their own
country",and playing; an important role in building new China. They had said that when women rose up, the, reva-
11*1M, woulA weeedi. andthey had done so throughout the history of
. the Osrty. In the long march, as members of the historic Eighth Route
A4iv, in the verrifla operations during the Sino-Japanese War and
today in the Chinese People's Liberation Army, women have made a
r;:t# Madown Hsxi, in the old sbeiety Chinese women were
ot 6X4 op-pressed by imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucratic cap-
Ugliso, 4,ut in addition by the authority of politics, of tbe.clan, of re-
Jl ion aW of Uieir lavs1pands. Women were exploited economically, had
xf right jo re&d or to be- educated (90 percent were illiterate), were
dwriinina''ed against in Chinese philosophy (particularly by Con-
Jucius and Mencius).1. had no right to their own nawes nor to chow
Oe UWA th MUMd.
in theYiew of the Chinese women we met, there have been
-Atially as a.result of Chinese I policies
subs antW 6hanges, pa litice
And wUPAY as aresult of social emrhasia withii re country. This
hEts'been"a two-pronged policy, name y specific Cl inese laws coupled
a pe ial measwes for the p ction of the, health, we 1-being a d
tvra =q of C!hin1eSe.w.9Men-.
Tbe, 4-Adai gi a iv al
Ohf4l'k *sl fi e changes that establislwd equ ity in
post 1949 4 'na.were the 1951 marriagre la ws that ineisted on the free
'Iffit f Wduals i c4oose their pouses, established equal rights.
Or in the are of childrenond women's use of theirQwn
1xWeT to e0er with MCOP equil.riglAs to div-
'gamous, marriage.And
qrce R a,5 he Jabor I insurance legislatip4*nd labor protection
pr-Onorip pyovided safegu xds forwonim in terms of matornity leaw,
#spf eW kmOin4'a:ndprovisiQ4 for childoara % &retirp,-
ment b6egts. Togither with these major changes in law aud4he
,4o a! PrOTISIOnf*r, equality f,,qr womezi,,,certa n less
T lessened tl4e problems 0 women-'r4us
6=4, h,
e V qWriwlut, of pp*Mary, ,pd p;iddieqchools plus the increasing
4V 10
ty: pf b,; tageth4pr er 'ith the party's insiotenew oa-the 4iriug
of 'Omen, ha provicNed pportunities for literacy andernployment.
.,T1iimgJx -r, A ese
, Wjof th. -programs existed4 beAore thecultural revo-
jutiQn, aftermath,. Ph sing he
is.lias beeift.,place4 off increa
JQ ; Fqmm wil as doctorp, andAitereasing
lio r of- w9mea ;ja politically:, onsible pos. io
resp it ns
Aca 'have. almAck, begun to:. bear frult. There were anumWr
ipples-cited to Wio* theinqeasing, role th&ttwowen now play in
Vortant political'PosAiOns -ftmber of women has bem
nAng. In the Politburo of the Co iet, r-e now
C,6xggross (NPC)./ one
Aost wieoprwnier xt*4 khreei vioe ehairrodu are women, Theri-, are mote
Rown, on 416 O"ing emmittee:Of the NPO-Of its 141 members, 42
*w4jmznf m In, the-,", C 10elt tl* pereentage of Wanien have.'been
iJ :the.*:F3ntNPC m* Veivdnk1,, Second NPO 14 percdnt,
_1TKrdtX.PG48'pewentO4ud Fmirth NPC, 22Tercent. In the State



.verdty and were still small in number in the party (they did not pro
vj& i figares or percqx tages) We observed furthermore, in. the course
otour. travels, remaining social patterns that affect economic relations
between mem and women. There are sex-typed activities, specifically
child care centers nurseries, and kinder rtens the work groups in
the countryside Uz we saw still were rargely ;eather men or women
withfew mixed groups. Certain factory work is by accident or custoin
.:or preference largely female, for example the textile factory. We do
not. have sufficient evidence to say whether or not the lower paying
!.Positions are largely female, but there may be financial consequences
to th6 differing. work groups, especially in agriculture.
JA this c anging social seene, the role of the women's federation was
an interestmg one and illustrative of mass organizations in general.
Wbm asked how they operated, we learned of the multifunctions. of
the fb&ration. A women's federation under various names has existed
mum the earliest days of the party. It is under the control of the party
and. serves as the link between the party aAd women. Its tasks are first
Of a14 to study the thought of Cliairman Alao Tsetung and in small
groups to raise the political consciousness of women. The task is
universal whether it is practiced in the commune, facto school or
"Belighborhood. This means not only an educative role-ZI-so fffled by
the school&--but also the personal reinforcement of the comm u n icative
an4A&ministrative skills that will be useful in the society at large. The
woman's federation addresses itself to all women in all walks of life,
vbm it popularizes political slogans such as "Learn from Tachai" or
'4JAarn from T& Ching"-the industrial model slogan-and the need
for women to participate in socialist construction under these banners,
buOkIxanslates these slogans into women's needs. The federation may,
therefoM bo ,ome a setting in which to develop confidence for those
wommAn not yet able or willing to speak out or participate in the larger
world. We were told that the federation also plays an important
function in helping to identif nded
y potential leaders to be recomme
for: further training or differing appointments. This latter function
has not -been examimd closely. It may mean identifying young wome.-n
leaders and providing the opportunity for them to enh ance their skills
or..: to move intomore responsible positions of authority.

The emphasis in China, apparent throughout our visit, is upon
.v Y compliance and support. In the communes, the cities, the
, Z tr the neighborhood associations and the !n,.Yriad of small
-.groaps that interface Chinese society, the emphasis, is upon volun-
tarism and cooperation. Whenever the dalegation asked questions about
differmces of viewpoints, the response always indicated that efforts
to resolve. differences focused upon persuasion. As one person in the
of such a delegation query said, "the minority is always per-
suaded." No eloubt this emphasis of Chinese societv-and other nations
as well--owes much to the Chinese tradition as well as, to the leadersbip
iongo 1949. nl ough legal codes did exist in pre-1949 China, they had
t!gwos been minimaJ: in effect largely bemuse of the instability in the
Dociety. in criminal Offenses the traditional Chinese state did intervene
severe sanctions, yet normal life did not require the instru-


.sion of the state, nor seek it. Thus, to discuss the role of sanctions und
the legal system in China we must begin with a frank acknowledge-
ment that informal organizations, mutual discussions, and infi)rjiDal
pressures are an important -and largely effective means for dispute
resolution and for control of social behavior.
Some crime, however limited, does exist in China; evil doers, often
referred to as a "bad element" still exist. Though the f requency may
be limited, occasional antisocial acts still occur. Ordinary crime is a
-contradiction between people." Political crime, is a "contradiction be-
tween the State and the enemy." If convicted, one becomes "a. had
element." In these circumstances how does the system operate?
The delegation had hoped to observe a trial in Chinese courts. When
we arrived, however, we were told that courts were not in session and
,therefore it would not be possible to observe a trial. ln4eaA, our hosts
had arranged for a discussion session in Shanghai on social and legal
problems to afford us the opportunity to raise questions and issues. It
was an. extremely interesting meeting and illustrative of important dif-
ferences in Chinese views of how behavior should be controlled.
The Chinese presentation was in two stages. They provided us with
an extremely detailed description of how they dealt with two social
problems-prostitution and smoking of opium-in Shanghai, shortly
after 1949; then they turned to the legal system itself and: discussed
the judicial process, selection of judges and types of sanctions 1 smging
from neighborhood smpervisimi to prison (prisons are "thought re,
ha')ilitation centers or camps") sentences for adults, and youthf-dI
oflenders. The selection of social prioblems as the -main emphasis with
a secondary discussion of legal proceedings is -probably a fair appraisal
of the ways in which Chinese society seems to operate. Accordin0y,
we report on this topic as the Chinese presented it, in I orporating
where appropriate the important differences 'with our experience.
In many ways, learning about the Chinese solution for prostitution
and drugs in the city of Shamghai was an -appropriate setting. This
large seacoast city had an infamous reputation in pre-1949 days. Asa
center of contact between the Chinese, and the West, Shanghai was
governed partially by Chinese but largely by three Western powers in
specific se etions of the city (the French, English and American sectors
delimited as the outgrowth of the unequal treaty system). The city
was notorious as a center of prosti tution anAdrugs in the 20th c6ntury.
The Chinese account. as was customary in most briefing focused upon
how a specific sm,.tll unit, Ta Ching Lane, dealt with the problem of
Ta Ching Lane is located opposite the largest deT)artment store in
Sbangb ai, one f amiliar to most visitors to the citv. The lane i part, of
the general residential area adjacent to Nanking Road, a section of the
eity covering 0.045 square kilometers, encompassing 14,000 families and
a population of 51,000 people. It is now governed by -nine street ronA-
mittees and is somewhat smaller,6an'the West Changhlan Neighbor-
hood Association we visited in Peking. Its' population is ro-nolly
equivalent to that of alarg commune, but the area is, of course,- an

. 37
u x.A p a on e a n d be w e d e b s e ly s e ttle d I n p re 1 9 1 9 d a y s T a C h in g L a ne
W... .. .. .............. .. .. .. .. .. . ..t...... .... ....... ............ ................................ ............ .. ........... .......................................................
.................... at thattime, aiaxendy was license b the goernmen
iiiiiiiiiiii knehai2iiiilibot el..isinewom n iitit "T er
w**,iiiiliiiiiiiiiiiianiiiiiiiiteila e.iheirot elieep

imuing~~~~ ~ ~~ licnse an asdlw rhbtigbohltgtei
welgrmed.a.d.h.nded.oe. their old licenses others resisted, how
......... R dwe t 1u deg ou d sorrhot s i ,"Th struggle.... wasiiiii~iiiiiii

p i a e an.........acu te." .............. .............i ...............pp aren tly a lso m........... iiiiiiiiibilized iiiiiiiii
Oe -loal population reaizeith!dangesiofipostituionianimor
=Vw~nly ,to: epor insane of postiutio. Ths stuggl con
*U4 oramot eas.I 14 h gvenen saedal rohes
w~lirreted~ll rothl keper an protittes
The pocedres fllowd in ealig wit~hos arretedisiiiiiiia
Uvwo th woessuse thrughut hin fo a vriey o soialpur
WK&-Th govermeiit eld mas rallesiwitinithevariouilanes
00wraing te poulatin to ritiizeanirepuiatetheibothe
IWPW%. Trosttutea ere enouragd to g up onthe stge andaccus
the j~idualbrothe keeprs. Th seveity ofthe ptiishmnt fo
the acused dffereddependng upoihisioiheriatitudeiThosebrothe
kaver who ad dealer andedin teir lcenseiwereassigedit
Prouctve abo. hos ofjeserguit, r wo erhps oreea iiiii
admited heirguil, wee tuned ver o th allyioraniztion-ifo
m*.er upwisim Tosewhower coviced f srios c iiiiiii
Or~h ooninue to en' heirguit, wre sntened tiailngthi15
year rism ernii
-,TW~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~! tepotiue a dfeet rmta
ajM~e to b~othl- iepersProsituts wer givnipolticaiiii
ftfia nd rai!
ng in prou~tiv; laor that wuld permi them to

ing and
artd alif
niame a]
to those
a light
In th(
social p
the eml
cized; i

In year
ilies, ME~
nese saii
,of atter

a small oup designed by the local unit, but the individual is not
Penali we were told, with respect to his employment. We were
tbld that the individual is not specifically assigned more difficult pro-
&4ive labor. The group reports weekly on the progress of the indi-
Tidual, with a 6-month summing up report and a yearly general
summary. The iroup, if :it observes good conduct and proaress in
ideQlogical remo g, can recommend that the title of "bad element"
be removed. Individuals may associate with the "bad element," per-
hapshelp in his remolding, and also report if lie violates the expected
cvae pf conduct.
T6 more serious sanction, for certain crimes or classes of indi-
Idusls, isreform through physical labor. The operation of the system
-of refoini through physical labor was of considerable interest. Al-
though our hosts described the prison system in some detail, they
-be n by noting that, with respect to all acts that run counter to
qexpected behavior, the emphasis is upon 01v ing the individual a "way
,out."'In cams of i reforin through 11 -,cal labor, the Chinese
told us, that these cases were very limited for adults and even more
'for youthful offenders, and that the rate of recidivism was ex-
-t remed' low-7-estimated at, around 1 percent.
I 1witz respect to the sentences meted out, the Chinese distinguished
betwem those whose crimes w ere determined to reflect "contradictions
within the people" and those reflecting "contradictions between the
enemies and the people."The distinction is of some importance because
the, crimes desigmated as reflecting contradictions between the people
wad the enemy carr ied sentences almost twice the length of those re-
lection dic: i within the people. Most political cases are "con-
tradictions between the enemy and the people."- The distinction has
ii application outside of the determination of legal penalties and under-
Puw many of the Chinese views about the way that change can occur.
. Briefiy the difference reflects the Chinese leadership's view that
-some politkal cmffict and styles and interests reflect actual social
condition Thom contradictions within the people exist for various
reLsW, xnging from inadequate education and understanding of
Maoism to human frailty or incomplete development of socialist insti-
tution&.They are to be resolved by discussion, education, and a more
lenient:view of the need for punishment through labor reform. The
antagonistic ones are between the people and their enemies, and, there-
1brO, to be resolved through the exercise of 'dictatorship, force, and
-denial of pohtical rights.
. ..Once,& determination has been made about the sentence, the indi-
-vidual is given work according to his physical capability and its
relationship to ideological reform. The prio ity is first on reform and
second on production. Ile intent, however, is to provide the individual
.with some: capabiflity of supporting himself after the sentence is,
iqe prisoner serves something of an "indeterm*mate" sentence.
Though a term is set, the prison organization can recommend to the
court that the sentence'be reduced or, M" case. of violations of prison
r*lations, can recommend its increase. A large number of the pris-
oners when released also have the title of "bad ele. ent" removed, and
-political rights are restored. (An example cited was two groups of



All trials are to be p0lic except, when private nmtt rs of. state
kerets are involved. In all trials the defendant can demand a person to
ido in his defense, or defend himself. When the court finds it neces-
I C, anappoint. somemie W defendhim.
Chinese told us that their policy is to stress proof and hot reTy
o 'oraltestimon The individual may ask the st te for wit
nes"s Wt cannot compeNheir 1 resence; there may t* written testi-
moli ..Since most trials. today: take place in the unit where the crime
4 thewitnesses are already present and, if one does not wish
t6stify, another may be found. Considerable emphasis is placed
Upowmaterial proof of ihe offeinse.
The Chinese gave us acase example of the current system in opera-
tion. Iley said that in 1975 a theft occurred in the Shanghai railroad
#dministration bureau.. Materials for transport were being stolen in a
freight transportation center, where redirection of freight occurs.
Ibe tbeft.was discovered and reported to the public security bureau.
Repr sentatives were sent to in-vestigate,, and 'discovered the worker
i%4o.ha4,bee-n doing it. The individual was arrested and an extensive
l.. p4gation then occurred by the court. The court came to the work-
tip and "'relied upon the party and the masses there in the work-
Alkop.11 The case, was triedin. the, workshop. In the: course of the trial,
it WAS discovered that Pot only did the worker steal but he also cor-
ruptod, others. Eight youths came to the platform th accuse the man.
T e
*m: iva display of, the materials stolen. In. th face of the
criUcism, testimony and proof the individual admitted his guilt 'in
,,.Jn,.Oiis proalessit should be,,poted that two emphases euwrged. The
Odnepe saidAhat, since the oultural revolution, the court system
had adppted t-wo:slogan*---JIgoing out" and "coming in." The gbing
au zafah*4 to- carrying on, trials in the particular unit where the
Weiit or :crime o(wurred ra;ther than in, some remota courtroom
40COW, Ctrxmn ng M31: meant brin&g the masses and the party di-
iectly into the process rather than keeping them remote from the
judij4aj procew. By bringing the representatives of the workers, and
IRVaeo into the proms, the Chiaese said thequoJity of the work bad
ix-pmved, because the -masses, generally "eking, are COrrect.
TU selecOoo of.judges regected a general emphasia on a revolu,
tionary ba4grotmd I and understanding. TIw Chinese said that Udaes
normally drawn Irom the wcAers, peasants or army poop who
uWerateod: the revolutionary line, the unportance of class st ug
01109h "'Itu e g o ir ca ona
level .. They be@%we judges mly after a period of actual pr ctice. in the
raining sessions in
COWAS.'somo to this work a. r short t law
others were from univemities or specW law. wjx)ols, but all
,w*dea to bays Practice. TbAs was eapecially impoitant because soms
W-beea.edueated, under the bourgeois educational line. IndividuAls
were appointed by the revolutionary committee of the idei3tical level
.of organization.
Decisions'iftVolvw oolkdbve *ludgwnL Wben the trial took place,
the judges, of course, consulate with the masses. Each judge sought
Iho Jew 61 the d"dinie"emmittee of the unit, as, w*11 as the party
emmittee.1, The individually ind a then fdt jned a decision which was
brought to the panel 6 of the eouit for ffiscussion und then
submitted to the court leadership.



.................... 4 3
r iiiih e o ff)))H~iii ii~ici l.....n.n....................................................................
p 6 6 .1 T h e s h o c k a n d g r ie f o f o u r h o s t s m a n y o f w h o m h a d w o r k ed ) "ii ''
w it;4 P r e m ie r C h o u t o g e th e r w ith t h e b e g in n in g s o f th e n a t io n a l p e r i- )))
od~~~~...... mournin mad or dpatue fomGlfaevn addr ha
njij~ hveben hecae.Inredig hetet f hefuerl nnune
mentiiili~~iI~iii ...... sawirefectioniofithe20th cnturyistr of111111%1111 te naioniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii and

.. Th tra ition f ledershp.inany.sciet i adf ic matr Forii~i
.... people of China, the turbulence and human waste that marked the,!!)!
'93-49(ad 16" duin th C ltualRevlu ion) iseemed
p o ndwih heetalihm ntofte eoles ebi c ofii
ay a d t e c n o i a i n o o w r b h o m n s a t .
ThouO ~~~ ~ ~ i thr sapeeiec nteyassnetemc fi
expli~~~ ~ ~ ~................ dsrbdtusbouChnshototecniui-

st~ggls btwen iffren fatins f te ntin aoutappop iateiiii
!p ................................................ l i ci e................................................ha i m a n M a o
T se tun an d th a m n s r t v c p b i it if P i er i ii i i iiii i C hou aff orde& ii~iii!iiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
soue masreofcotiut n hefae f om ein pressures. The.
ao iiii of...... Prme C o'w o l eat adbe el n w, ev=, HHiiiH==HH=ZHiiiiiiiiii

dehftdmm thieoal ieof eain hne
iiiiiiiiiiiieiofiiouiieiiatiiiihiieiihaviiprivide forma meansiiiiii
f o ri~~~iiii~ i .................................. ........ ..........................................................................e ...........................
-of athoit, a reenly s Jnury 975 C is constitutional poi -
sinsw readpedtomkeeplciiheprcduei friucesiniB t
==i=i a siili=iiiiiii elliiwh erieiiiev en tsii iiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiliiiiiikiiiiiiiiiipro -.


A P E N I ...1 H ".. ,i,,,,,H ..... ... Hi.. .. iiii

Saturday Deeme 27o 1975iiii
8:0 *mm1DP~t ndrw$Ai Frc Bse WahigtnD., peiaMiioniiiiiiiiiiiii
A~rcraft, Seeni of yAbsaoia adohrmmeso h
L~~iack @ Offic oft epl' euli fCia ~ ~ ~ ~ ... p.Arv ckmArFreBsOhHwiiii ii
@MVqa-:0iiir~fn b d ira Noe Gayer C m adI n Chii efiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
7.0 ~mRecpin.bldmrlan r. alr
S u n d ayiiiiiii~i~~~~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~~ii~~iiiiiii D e e m e 28, 197
8:0 ,a.m -N ar Haw ii ======l Misoircraft. ===== ======= ======= = ===
2:0 1* r l e G a i o c a e r f e ing s o Cr s ===iiii=i i iiiii===It ai onali=iiiii =i~i=iiiiiiiiii

ii:00lpiiiiiiiiiiiTokyoiiiiiiiiiInternationaliiAirport.iMetiibyiMr. W illiam
Bit fteU..Ebsy
6 3 ,.-eetonb masdridir.HdsnfrCogesoa ee

.. -ald n apms omn"itMebr ndlaes nvrou ils

Ovenigt-Our Hotel.

8:0am-eatTky Hnd nentoa ir ySeilIis

9:30 a.m.-12:
1 :30 p.n.-5:0

10:00 a.m.-12
Mine. L|.

124 ~.2-0pm.Lnha h ratH l ftePole otdb m.L
i iu-iiieiini
2:00~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~i p~.60~.Vstt hn e ititMy7hCdeSho........
iiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiliil J a n u a r y 3 1 9 7 6
-00 Ititute f Niiti es (a college totrai
national minority cadres).
2 :0 eii~ i ii iiiiiiibitioniiiiiiiiiiii~i~
air, defense iinel

... ing" ...........................or Chinese friend at~ iiii Pe in iiiii D uc Res-iii
taurantiii (guestiii list="="= same==i==iiiiiii~i asiii=== p. 45),plusiMme.iiiiiiiii

9:00 a~m.-1 -00-Trip y air fromPeking to hengtu, Szchuan via h nese For
eignMintiy ircaft
12:00--Welcome at Chengtu Airport.i~i~i~i ~iiiiii~iiiiii~i~i

1:8 pn.-:3 pm.:Viitto ie Yun om une"Tch i" g iultural brigadeiiiiiiiii
inldn piaysholrnb h biae istt udhs epei

4:00 p.

j~ti C~rxxqmIsumyTH Popzs rm-uooFG INAD

.......................................................... n x G @ iiixw miiilwT l
Rwzrk= Nimexiis VIM
[]Fmmthe Pag Reiew, o. 9,Mar..,1..2
T~eChnes ad US.8ida eahedageennton jintcomu ique iiiiiii

an Ye&ruar 27 i Shanhai.Pull ext o the ommu ique isiia8 folilow8:

Preidet Rchad ixo oftheUntedStaei f merc visited..... theieople'

Aepohllc ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~.... a hn tth niaio fPeie huE-lio h Pol' e
P0c g. Cin f~i.Ferury21t Fbrar.2, 97.Acomanin -h
Vreidnt wreMr, ixnU.. ecrt~y f tae ilia RgesAs istn

to he reidet r. eny Kssnge, nd thr Aercanoficils
.,VesdetNionmt it haran MoTstugofth omu isPat

on Fbruay 21 Thetwo eades ha a sriou andfran excang
of viwson ino.V.S. elatons ad wold afairs
Durig, te viit, xtesive earest nd fankdiscadon wer hel ibe
tween President Nixon and Premier Chou, Eiin-lal on the normalization of relaiiii
tiiius between the United States of America and the People's Republic ofiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
........ as w 1 a n o h r m t er f i t r s o b t id .I n addiii~ii i tion, Seicre-iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
tair of ,.State.William Rgers and Foreign MinisterChi Peng-fel held talks i

it removes the
vidual freedom
side pressure ox
tensions is serve
ferent ieloi
calculto or


bM returned to the motherland; the liberation of Taiwan is China's internal
affair In which no other country has the right to interfere; and all U.S. forces
and militarY Installations must be withdrawn from Taiwan. The Chinese Govern-
ment firmly opposes any activities which aim at the creation of "one China, one
Taiwan". "one China, two governments", 44two Chinas", an "independent Tai-
waWl or advocate that "the status of Taiwan remains to be determined".
The U.S. aide declared: The United States acknowledges that all Chinese on
Other side of the Taiwan Strait maintain there is but one China and that
Taiwan is a part of CAina. The United $tates Government does not challenge
that position. It r6dhi-ma Its interest in a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan
question by the Chinese themselves. With this prospect in mind, it affirms the
ultimate objective of the withdrawal of all U.S. forces and military installations
from Taiwan. In the meantime, it will progressively reduce its forces and mili-
tarylbibtafttionx an, Taiwan as the tension In the area diminishes.
The two sides agreed that it is desirable to broaden the understanding between
the two peoples. To this end, they discussed specific areas in such fields as science,
U4_,hnalogy, cultwe,'sports and journalism, in which people-to-people contacts
"d excharim would be mutually beneficial. Each side undertakes to facilitate
the further development of such contacts and exchanges.
Bofb sides 06* bilateral trade as another area from which mutual benefit
16" bo Aerftmibd agreed that economic relations based on equality and mutual
-beWle.aft In: the Interest, of the ipeoples of the two countries. They agree to
fteffitate the progressive development of trade between their two countries.
..: 71W two, sides agreed that they will stay in contact -through various channels,
16cludingthe sendlig of a'seulor U.S. representative to Peking from time to
time for concrete consultations to further the normalization of relations between
lh two eouttrieg and emttnue to exchange views on Issues of common interest.
Y Mwtwo sides exprdmed the -hope that the gains achieved during this visit
*6tk 'OPM UP IkeW PrOspOfts for 4he relations between the two countries. They
belirve that the normalization of relations between the two countries is not otfly
49 &V Interest of the Chln se and American Peoples but also contributes to the
I*Adfttloft of tension in Asia and theivorld
,., Tredftnt Ntxon, 3fts. Nix'on and the imerican party expressed their appre-
'MAtion for We gradow hospitality abow h them by the Government and people
'Ot the PeOpWs BWPUbHe of China.


(Obituary Notie I byee,
C o m i t e a n d S t t C o n c l

The CentrC ti
Committee of the Natoa epesCnrs n h tt oni ftePol'
Republic of China a

of the C.P.C. Central Comtte VieCara fteCPC eta omt
tee, Premier of the Sttf onirftePol' Rpbi fCiaadCar
man of the Nati
Conference, died ofcne at 09: 57huso aur ,17,i eiga h

many-sided C b m of try
He per e

illness. Owing o the worsening
rade Chou En-lai, the great figter of the Chinese
us. His death is a gatic loss to our Party, our army andt
country, to the causa of China's at revolution and c
international cause of opposing imperial coloialism an4
well as to the cause of the international comuni mov
Loyal to the Party and the people, Comr Chou I-i
and with utter devotion for the implementat Chi M
revolutionary line and for the victory of the e C
liberation and the cause of communism, to which hi
energies throughout his life. Under the leadeshp of himnMo ord
Chou En-lai made indelible contributions and pe
building and developing the Marxist Communist Party of China, to bu
developing our invincible people's a ,to the v of the new
revolution and the founding of socialist New China, to c o ting
unity of the people of all ties led theworking
alliance of workers and pea and developing the revoin
to the struggle for th e vi of the
tion, the victory of the Great
ment to criticize IUn Piane Confcus, n thecosldtnofheita
torship of the proletariat of our country, to s
international revolutionary force and to the stugeaintmprlssoa-

spect and miratin of ole
The life of Comrade Chou EnJli was
of commu m; it wasalifeof ini

of our people. We st turn
army and the people of the whoecutysol er rmCmaeCo
En-lai's proletarian revolutonry sprtadhsnbereouinr ulte

anudr h edrsi fth at enrlCm ite beaded byCirma
Mauiea ntk ls tugea h e ink deet h at'

Eternal... glr oCmaeCo nlt retpoeainrvltoayo
th hns epe n usadn cmuitfgtr


lichat vias liberated In 1945. The next year the peasants received land In
&#j"dreform. Chairman Mao had caUed on everyone to getorganized and Chen
Ynfig-Kuel and some poor and lower-middle peasants formed a: mutual-aid team.
In 1952 Chen wOut to the county Party committee and applied to form a semi-
-at firming cooperative in which the land would be pooled. But for a year
the committee withheld its approval.
Impatient with the delay, the Tachal Party branch got the poor and lower-
ftWdle peasants together and discussed Chairman Mao's speech, "Get Orga-
z"ed!fs particularly this: "'Among the peasant masses a system of individual
economy has prevailed for thousands of years, with each family or household
forming a productive unit. This scattered, individual form of production is the
ecloAdifile feundation of feudal rule and keeps the peasants in perpetual poverty.
The only way to change it is gradual collectivization, and the only way to bring
About collectivization, according to Lenin, is through cooperatives."
TheY were sure that a cooperative was the right step to take next. What they
did;et Oow was that the Influence of Liu Shao-chi's revisionist line was causing
the eaunty. ParO committee to put off its approval. Liu had been against agri-
16"IturAl cOllectivization since the first mutual-aid teams appeared. He was for
an individual economy and "giving a free hand to hiring labor". He insisted on
"a policy to preserve the rich-peagant economy". He even said, "Exploitation
ihould bewelcomed.19' Later he was to order the agricultural cooperatives dis-
banded on a large scale.
The Tacbsd Pafty branch kept insisting on forming a cooperative. Finally in
19Wthe county Party committee approved-but limited it to 30 households.
Thifty',households!, We already had 49 in mutual-aid teams. The Party branch
OeeWd to Ignore the limit and go ahead with all 49. That year the new co-op
*60ght In a bumper harvest of 1.8tons per hectare-more than twice what the
Individual farmers got. Morehotseholds joined.
I After two years we took: another step forward In collectivization and ad-
*Rneed to:. a fully socialist co-op. Our land became collectively owned, Individuals'
dmught animals and farm tools were bought by the co-op.
11a'108 An even blgffi i and. stronger form of collective economy, the people*s
commune, was formed in China's countryside. Tachai became a production brigade
Jlh 6ite of them. We worked even harder to improve production and that year
1VOO& an average of four tons per hectare, five times more than when we had
farmed lndlviduklly.
Again Un Shao-cht was dead set against the people0s communes. When drought
And fl hit Vwt of the country in 1959411, he used these difficulties as a good break up the communes. With his encouragement,,eapitalist trends
appeared in the countryside that seriously hurt the socialist economy-free mar-
kets the extension of private plots, thelnerease of small enterprises responsible
for theirown profitand loss, and harvest quotas based on Individual households.
VAft Plao Also suppofted fixing quotas an Individual households.
'It was a erfUcal time.'The Tachai Party branch got the brigade members to-
gether -to: disem Chatrinan, Mao's statement, that "Only socialism can save
MUM". They recalled the bitter life of the old society, analyzed the capitalist
trend in1he countryside and talked about thesuperiority of socialist collectiviza-
Dfirlug'these three hard years, the Tachat people kept firmly to the socialist
rOa& iThey, Iftned several dozen tons of their own reserve grain to other brigades
IV ttoublei At the same time they: fought the crippling results of bad weather, won
good harvests and were even able to sell their surplus. grain to the state in all
three Ytars. Tnehal'i stubboi;ndefense of socialism hispired the poor and lower-
raiddle, peasants:: of the other brigades to struggle against capitalist *trends in
their own AXVRIL
In, the 4-atumn of 1962 ChairmRn Mao, it:the Tenth PleniLry'Session of the
Eighth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, sharply criticized
]Uu Shao-chl's riglit opportunist line and warned the. nation, "Never forget class
sbn*640 It 1%4 hd pointed, out,. "'In agricm1tu*,:lea!rA from Tachal."
A-movemient atarted by Cbairmm Maa to educate the pesisants In socialist
tMUMUt WRS.&IrOdY.. tft&W WRY in.: tlid. COUhtrydde. A Liu Shao-cht man in the
Sh"si JPrOVih4M leadersklD gedt a wMk team to Tathal under the pretext of
11 Witb_ socMlist abduction. -Instead, thOr Vied to frame, its leaders on false
eharaK claiming they had reported'bigher bervest figures than the brigade had
440411Y, MPed, ThewOrk teRml, *ent days weighing -both.stored and distributed
grain. The figures were accurate to the kilogram.

than ever that they wereontecretra.Tetodhewktam"Yue
here to wreck our brgde otd revouinr wor. oeadmr slbd
the work team finally quietly withdrew.

campaign in the
the capitalist road." The t
followed. In the cultural revoluto an in h rsn oeett rtcz
Lin Piao and
and their followers,

t e csacot esore cpth lsm


tn. Th It we

own bans.

sa e e fint formred ur coo n15V e-erwtradsi

fdw hruh th a

crops and wkal hutto ofu boiuc v o lu
tun h so s ittercdfedbldilsinthe ravieinnlatteso
th monan.W eels"ta 0 epe-iholy5 bebde e n

woe.W a nhosadsolepoe.Tasomtehrhatrnf

.................. ......................................................................... iiii ii~ ii~ i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiii ~ iiiii5 7ii~ ii iiii~ iii~iiiiiiiiiii
iii u o n g p o l iie w e w o u ld n 't h a v e h a d to g o b e g g in g ." H e t a lk e d a b o ut
the hstor of is fmily nd teiiilage
A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .............. sadteewr ie"ay"i h l ahlmn ie u oln-iiii
lodso rchpasntmay h oeddbt, ay hohd o e, an ore

iosel'hirchlde, an wocomitd uiid.Hi fmiyoffie a nthn
tothirnme To iedou o anlod, hre et egig.On priclal
bid yar te ladlor the wored fr presed o had fo thedebtitheiowe
hi httee a owyou u osllmtesstradbohe.H n iiiii
fahr et nashre abrrs heiiifterwsioiodtobiueulay
r~re te anlod icedhi ot.Hehage hmslf Cen iiighi wasii-iiiiiii
.............. su a stig C e ou gh tl s il,"Go home............ nowiandige

Mime~ re;V
"No," ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ........ wesid Uyo lerpolecn oo wrigs anw.

Weyun e adwme ore wosok em advidfr h eais

w~r --crryn tons ad b ildngwals.iiurboyihaeiion iho liieiiisiii"iiiiihii
older peoplei saidiiiiitiouriigiiiiiareimadeiiofiiionitoo." After that we were calledii
the==ii~i=iiii "Iron==== Gi W teamiiiiiiiiii

We fnishd reuiling ur feldsin yea anda haf. oon heinwihoses
the nesyousee oda-wee aso cmplted The wee mch ore pacoustha
the -nes w had efore

TSma-grouplsm is cual afomonarwidvulissidCe
Yung-kue. "Chairman Mao pointed
care for our own cectv bue loohr olcie.
When Tacha became a
Carrying co ion matei c
back an extra section of roldselChnYn-uisihehudtaetbck
"But the state will never ms uhasalscino oldsel"Ca rud
".The state is big s
for this bigger collective "

The Party branch helped Ch
ing him what revolution ment. o wa

heartedly, and Norman Bethune, the Canadian doco wh gae hslf o h
Chinese revolution in a prto ute deio to oteswtot n Qoih
of self. Trying conscet-
a new-type peasant with a. prleaian w o
In 1972 we had the worst and longest drou~ght in a hunrdyasItlte
17 months, way into the spring of 1l973. Our cornsipybdtbewerdo
it would be lost. We got word ta we cudbigwtrfo h onyrsr
voir through our canal. Chen Yung-Jrue cme to us. and sad"Tewtrith
reservoir is running low too. Shall we let theotherbrigadesha ?"
We agreed. All1 the able-bodeq e n womni u rgd ett e
water from awell 2.5klometer awa.Wtashudrpleccodbin
two. buck~ets per trip, eouhfrjssiplnsWeedd3,0bckt-
a total of 7,500 kilometeso akn-o eeyhcae n hr ee3
hectares. But we dlid it.> Our 17 avs a h igs norhsoy
Every year in the last two decades we yae not onlyfuileorqot gai
to the state but sold largeamonso upurito
Through criticizng in~ PiaoadCofcuThisleeranmmbs
became even more full awar afteiprac fcniun h eouin
We held meetings cr1tczn i loadCnuisdrn okbek n
in the evenings. Mn aiishl hi w ml etns pligCar
man Mao's there ncassrglw a h i lo eaddCnuis
idea of restraiig onslpn etrn h ldodra ai.Tog
the two lived two thousand yas aat hywr lk.Bt aels-ic
efforts to prop up the delnigepotnclssthyrrsned nf&
wanted to restore the ylae system for the slvewigcasLn aoatd
to restore capital for the.lnlr n ougoscass
"We can see in~ -ioadCnuiswr w otnmln ntesm
rotten vine," themebrsad"LnPatretooetrwCi'sictrhp
of the proletariat so thatladodancaiaitcodrdeouhodvrW
again. We'll fight anyone who, tietodausbctoheldwy!
The criticism has made the Tachaibiaembrsoedtrindndoe
enthusiastic about bu~ilding scaim hsyaa ona h pigFsia
was over, we began a new battle to turn silanote ravine- into alvlfed


J .


. ....................


I . .. ............. .