Appointments to the regulatory agencies


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Appointments to the regulatory agencies
Physical Description:
Graham, James M
Kramer, Victor H
United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Commerce
U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 025783334
oclc - 02228931
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
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        Page ix
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        Page xiii
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        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
    Table of Contents
        Page xix
        Page xx
    Part I. The Eisenhower years (January 20, 1953-January 20, 1961)
        Page xxi
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    Part II. The Kennedy years (January 20, 1961-November 22, 1963)
        Page 151
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    Part III. The Johnson years (November 22, 1963-January 20, 1969)
        Page 227
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    Part IV. The Nixon years (January 20, 1969-August 9, 1974)
        Page 289
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    Part V. Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
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    Statistical information
        Page 422
    Biographical note on the authors
        Page 423
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    Appendixes to the introduction
        Page 425
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    Index by name
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
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Ile alw i itv, t,) i Vilr t 4tIlv rel niiiendat ions iut0 legislative action
wlicre tl.> ZmIiate ,lhdidli'' it 1s IroJ)r1iate antd Ieled.
l'iiwuant Ii) that ahll l itV. te (IOVenm0t 111 ()perations Commit-
tee has created .~ sclt tas k forces dealing with various aspects of Fed-
era I rgl It i 'lvk I.or|c1- es have beena or are beinIgI set up on adminis-
t rat ive d1,!av. 1 ,i' rti i ptton iII agen c )roeeedings, congressional
MvArTi- 11t, ae; wtv i lcl[etndene and overlap of functions and the need
for Icaiihtion. The sevvent task force, which is well into its work,
is coil:ernoed with the quality of regulatory appointmnents. As such, it is
ap1)rdl)riate and tinielv thiat the (4rahaln-Kranir study be published
now It: ',i i rove to) be a valuable resollrce ill Our (Ollmilttees' in-

Let if e noted that the -assivity which too often marked the Senate's
atctias ()ln 01miliees in the past l:is changed maiarkedly.
II t lie (otumn(oce (,onittee, our determination to stiffen the spirit
of tlie f tI", I 'l P's > perhaps best characterized by Chair-
11 (iMa ,liSOn in I earks made May t, 1973, to the Consumer Fed-
rat ioln of .mricwa
A!I A(dmiInistrai lfl l, 11 st roger nhan1 the stature. cainpetence and above
S i integrity. of I lie men anid women who people its high offices. The Senate
C( +1'mmitte' has the responsibility for reviewing the candidates noumi-
11aied for mol4 of the regulatory agencies and high offices in the Department of
uid Traiisprtation. We have always believed that the President,
leted l) ilandate of ie people, is entitled to have serve him the men and
wm 1 0e chooses--mnless they are clearly lisqualitie(l. But I must tell you that
\(e hIav swaEowed nicninees . .who have left a bitter aftertaste and our toler-
:lite f1)r no aid lack of independence from economic interests is rapidly
(I1,IIto Lill 'I1(.
'te Commerce Committee has progressively tightened and made
oe sumtantive the(' (ollfirnlation process. As a part of this process,

(1) Ie( Ie t lie first to plaee the financial statements of nominees
Oil t lie l)l) liC record.
2) 1)'oa-r(ssively t i hteed requirements for disclosing potential
C01'li 1i of interest. beginning" with the requirement that members of
l11 \'tv, law hfims al))oited to regulatory agencies disclose the names
(to hi, .v: clIent, Wli~itilg with the adoption of a standard ex-
]iau1t ive financial ('lMlosure form (a copy of which appears as ap-
11(,,+l1:. A,.o }!). assigned> )
1:-) 4 ) 1,azl'(1 a sirall Lut exix-)'t inve ti-"ation staff and assigned
t0I i) Il ttors Ilie resii; si}) i itv of reviewing financial statements
a III I )Ip'ai)i. ies of H ,)litleO ro0utinely to identify potential conflicts of

1) A( flai c1 il ral ice of providing at least 7 (lays, and usually
iore. ol1tice o lin r' uI atorv nominees, to provide greater
f6,1 t)it11 l' 1)8it io n. the hearing process by interested

( ) Ii .i-Iitlll,(lt ie l )rac! ic' oV qubuii ittinc" (lotailed written inter-
,"O~:ii out S (ovl'iuIO I 1)1 rad ranre of nialor policy decisions fac-
I(8L Vto eal rlory nonee, requig that these be
dilW(,:.1 Ph Wilt w iVi a li,:i>t tS ]ours )r0ior to the scheduled hear-
1iti (le(. tIhis eaha tl Chuairnian and Committee members to
rrxI oiii ile cii t ( 1i .r.s ii en .- the regulatory statutes
w','it 1hiw: l~ii- j,i,!ictioii d :tol 1()1 e focu ed lines of questioning at the


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w-riim'ilt, S that eah'] P (eidelt ca have before hit the riclest
lpos+si lie assert ieft of talent lroimi which to choose.
We do not nee(I polls to tell us that the citizens of this country Iack
coIIi denI( in ti I r government. I)erhaps no single effort can accom-
j)li limore to restore faith in government than the single-minded pur-
suit of regulatory nominees meeting the very highest standards of
ul)l it -ervice. Ve are deeply committed to tlat pursuit.


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o ndil h process QalV acsu'e sound al)I)oinltments, but saying that
is ]IO lmlore than syI i g that fine medical care camlliot assure file hlealfl.
.A sounIld a)IOld 111('111rocess will substantially change th mix of
1)eopl who vill ) ( 1 si(ldere(1. will ellmflge some ultimate choices, and
will lwiilitei'tll a -pointees' sense of their public accountability. Im-
proviw th :Ippoitifleilt process is only one of numerous necessary
s teps 1MVr(l i11lproed :regui!ation, but it is an un-sually easy one.
TlIe towi1)lry respojileility for the quality of appointments, of
course, lies with the )ower to appoint, rather than with the lesser
power to confirni. Presidents differ in the importance they attach
to tl reo'ulatory asenciles, and the only way to prevent patterns
or o()lSlels (v w-eak a)poinltnienits is for people concerned with partic-
ular re.,ruhatorv pfro'ra is to vork at Presidential responsiveness. A
loll" record of S>hcll work by the regulated "idhStries, operating in a
clos('(l svstem and wil, a submisive Senate, has given poor results. The
onlv llo,) for 1)C,,,iai,,t. substantial ii))rov-ement lies in opening" up
thi 1(cess of a rim Presidential (dre,)onsveness, aid that means
re i v i a( a t in0 o11r,ional in vol,,emnt. Th; tlalth;ugh the primary
aj)m)(Niiient 1Ces!)Olltiiility is in tlhe Presdileniv the primary means
for 1,1l)ro,01H it-and respolsibility for doing so-lie in Congress,
eS1)OCialiv t1,he o ,elt.
(,n'Pistent with recent vears' con regional rejuvenation, the book
peirf,s a arWti lar Sevv-,i e in ievea ,if how coivressional "clear-
a('ICe 11:'5 o, ,rateO., a] how that o )e )eatlon ldillites the Senate's con-
stitutional respovlsil)iHity to advise and consent. Work on this book
he5Z'an after a :.nw student had found that over several decades, the
ave ra e duration of Senate confirmation hearings on ICC nominees
was al)ollt I 7 M.mvteT. All the rece-.-t and understandable bemoamni(
of tli I( "..( 1> ifOril)11Hditv has iclu. (ed" too little recomition that the
Preseidency 'd th(!!+resS re 110s remore responisible for that miasma
tUn the o mlssioll itself.
That the Senate is changing in this regard is shown by the decision
to publish this study. In particular, the Commerce Committee's will-
in(giess to draw attention to the need for improving the appointment
iroces s is part of a striiiing improvement of its own crucial perform-
'ice. in exe .ci Si ir its Dri mary advice-and-consent responsibility over
1iiatis, l Power, and Trade Commissions as well as the
Civil Aeronautics Board, Interstate Commerce Commission, Maritime
Administration, Consumer Product Safety Commission, and other
The Government Operations Commiittee, which has no confirmation
responsibilitv over any regulatory agency appointee, has undertaken a
major. overall re-examination of Federal reoulation. The Commerce
(oumiitte is an eonal partner in that effort. The details of the concrete
ste)s tile Commerce Committee has taken to "breathe life into the con-
sfitutional mandate'" to advise and consent are described in the intro-
du(t ion ai)ove. But no committee is an island, and almost all other cur-
rent practice counties as before, proving the need for institutionalized
il I P ro vet inc i tz.
Somemiiiilit i)c surprised liat although the White house and Con-
,U'e5s are ider different parties, and there is such current concern
about deregillation and improved regulatory practice, and also such
de.teriinatiion to increase accountability to Congress, nevertheless the

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whether necessary steps are taken at all. For example, this exchange
oCCurred early in 197. in e'onfirniat ion hearings on a number of un-
usually sign itwant nolminationis:
1NA'Ii, 1. There is idle question I just want to raise here. That is the FBI
check. We are a little c11fusod. Who) is responsible for it?
SENAtTOI 2. 'lhe stahe tells me there is an FBI investigation under way.
S1\A, ,\TO1,. 1111w many of the nioniniiees] ?
SR1NAT o2. l'r- l'a ly just
In short. tlhe liilelle'eS of recent Coniu'erce Cominmittee improve-
iiiuts makes (,lear tlat one of 'the most important reforms for the
rerlllatlo l'l appoitiiieiit process is to a(opt, as rules of the Senate
rat lier thlln t ranisitory l)ractice of any single committee, appropriate
a lra-1" IIC(.s that tlie confirmation process will rise above the closed and
perfunctCry. ('hairman Magiiiison and his colleaoiies and staff are to
)e raised for showing the way. Only the adoption of new rules can
as-iire t hat all chair ien and all cominittees, during all administra-
t ovis sim111a ilv 1et ~lvlie life" into this constitutional responsibility.
a(o'ress is a key element but not the whole, so too is the
tjualitv of appointments only one key element. The authors present
their 'recoIiiiiienidat ions full aware of how large is the challenge of
imn )roVing regulation. Recent rhetoric al)out deregulation sounds
largely as if. were the right switch found and flipped, great change
would follow at once. But improving regulatory performance is
Ilee)lv difficult. Ttlis is so not only because of the complexity of many
of the su)stantive prol)lemis and of the administrative processes; nor
l)eealbe of the further (lifficulty of dislodging affected interests (from
a i'limes an( truckers th rongh )ankers. broker-dealers, and recipients
of gralits anld welfare) w!hic l)enefit from existing systems, or think
i evy do, or which at least feel familiar with those systems; nor even
frol tle silarp disa'reelliellt as to the direction for any move from the
status (pi. T!iose asJ)ets aire inevitable, but some of our difficulty
;urise.- from simple conftision or ignorance.
The lea(ti('( lon fsion (aflectinm our expectations and our blueprint
10, Iil)rV, l(,Ilet Ls lie notion that regulators often stray from con-
L; (,s~,)1 11 1iltelit alld !)rotet ioll of tlie l)u1Jlic interest, indeed become
-Ts fl tlie rW1i'led Hiteres-s. We would do better to admit
Ili:i i'-ivilatois (aiiot stray far or Congress would pull them in.
t U 1 ,r, xwil Id swoii1 people (irit icize as "straying" is in fact right on
I lilo rm'c i 1) political consensus as to what is wanted. The fact that
,.' it i, ri)o'es-zes are o(i, en iise 1 more effectively by highly or-
,,dI/,iz:,(1 i t crst5,, amit t l"It nuich "reform" legislation is enacted by
I'c hvh canno,-or simply do not-sustain their
t .,,, Itl f, 1'm th~e n('t'essarv c tamit followthrough, are commentaries
,, ,, ,),,iI \. ,(',)Ii( ipl, a i td 1)1 iics nore than on regulatory per-
t', ,r: m .. Wijl i rm c r ixl n' anres or (,en tinkering in regulation are
xvw1l ,,Wi r: I oi' ki, m 1, it is I Iil)Oi talit to have realistic expectations

I\T 'iat*i r' -. ,'' ii if luf omed p e ,pIl, are oflet so unrealis tic or parochial as to pro-
i ,,, ft -.t~tinn r ithI r t ha n fruitful ato~neet ad accompll-,lment. For example, one
]l* v iwi*.t 'aft -ildy this Iiat aulltul examining 120 regulators appointed to q
Zi friit 1 !,*; 75. explor'ei whether the appointees were "sensitive to consumer inter-
I" *n, te, l thlit r t 1 r i not a sing l such person had been appointed to the
l't' 51(, B I(,, am! FI'~('. While, 1 dubt Ihat con(lusion even as to the ICC and FPC, I am
rii it I a mci rate, a nil in an import ant sense other-worldly, to conclude that SEC
Men h r m',,ioIk and Innik, SIC ('hairm'n Cary and Cohen. and FCC Member Nicholas
.MTh j1n:_ only the vlarest eases, an11 tting aside any other aspects of the per-
!. i ei I are t senslitol 'I i kIve to C()l lS'i er Interests.''


"i+ i t' i. "- \v li t III Itlk, If M Vl+, ,'4,i1"iId c l':t i<,l I ( W a I \ ll i t i iw c i, i
()I* > 11tw,, \,(Ill (1 fI< l sl~t zll t,11 ()I* \, i'--to'tl :l r ', l d,' i l l < + l ili r+l
h l v '3 I)< rtiill o>r 1 v(Ily, ,(hil~ t, otme. ,W oi( \V lavc,, sitffe(red l+,+l ' \\hhk+ l,,li..r"l't.' ,,' >, I w ns In re ib i dchlt, It( the 1( "
,ITe lw w h c (4 ,d ,,I t l'F :111di 1111 reil l lt"l Iv I+ t t illilti ',+
t~ i liill dlt~p I, it e F l'1*(' l tW t \ -ls :-(), .n+l l w('! )I it isc ( m at~ l+ I iwlti.,i't
i':i~lrch, 1 4 III( : It is t r vwv t< ,'>ldie< likii |lte "lk i 'ck-4tlice I II< ,"+
<+ ;ltildrmvi l \iiliw ,' : 't': l -itte ( I I Ive~tilist iti t ltilislt < Iitow )a c~l't]+ i r
ttIIile "Illch wt Pennil ( cw(litl-il W T. ( irailtl Imi, ',liecd.t Ilea Fl:1 I~II

i oa ll Ia. k :id lw 1, Iwcl d. "mll senlatt1,[1'1ti l z: i it W ,11tcl ll5 il< ,l Pill-
the tl rl iliv of fi-Iii.11- t li t the pol'\+ iti cal s'c ti eiilil ils ll.t' |il W +'{
ll'++< '; it sh m< ildt Ilev,,. Iw w ort f)i12 it I((!l I t I, ,c cII r sr l i n )rrit I': l '+,"t ;l '+ v,' -+':t i +
+lil<' t'; I~ +(: tl+ ( \\ It'-; l~t l a(llt !( lII ti:t ill ivi'c.ttilt t ed ,'tivitv in1
Ilt 1):t+tl lclil i l'I i it hadli p ri' listedt or1 l ili'('t l ;llidt t'svoi l t:l i tcrl
111k il p' t liid w< iiili'r '-Ai i ll t '~ i t !t1v, fi'd d ii)\ til< t ,:(+i.+ + :!Iild 1 11111Q,

t I tI i l t I o -I I-IIx w it t' s l l i t w o IIIII1 \ t i ,
I i ,,+ I t i I l it ll !, ++- tr n Il \ (11*l 11 ''t I t Illt I i 'it e tll i. d i t, i x ,+c
t~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ it\ l t ti *" l -:la l'~ +tit ll wll-
1, + v lIc l df tj wIw rII< It~ Ws )v I I, i t .- l 6 l l It I it It c1v. t I I(
till't'i+,'litI.l~ nir t ( w iill III e l h e tto o-i)tl' .-- l t -l
{,t ,i!'i.'. t it 1 c l wiitsi, wi sit h llo~w 4, liiillth 'i..
1-ms ld l o l ,-ri lt+ -ttI: ldl *I)! Ille \v,:/v' o fl 11111~'rov+ill,,- l,,it~l. i' I'li~ il + l~ll t t' l lo o h i t c l 4 (lt,+liit, t l t t Ii | I t ll 'i ItI i. t

"~ 'ilk '+ +... l l;l it t I t I l ,111 t c (Ii t !t.' lit + o-:> o rt t l Ihtl l' Ilt l i tl

Il'I It lI ',I so J-It lilfi I i:1 Ii Iti ~ It it hnsst : "d II III 1 f)
lI \vs I >', tI I I II I ( tol ) 1 11 !l w il \v I ir'tl, IK I I ( ,'it 11 ,mif~.. I In s.*" ood I W i >t o ril [-i+t'f t I t,t i c I. l l t i Illcl ItI(r t r', ,.l,i sI I ( t I* w (Al <+ ilil .
i 114 a+rli'ii i l eit 1 :. t'+i ;l l' ..... ai iI If ) i iior' \vi I~ t N\!lt I va\\ +'i

) It C( ii t'l ;' i l .i :il111,(ii i it dlid .ll, tii al loit \\ito ild Il l ut wii it t ,-
F ri l\+ :til :II llm t iiit ~ t 1 1,+l ilt lo wV ltif ll'ii il t. l s lc t l2,'t, (illt t I\,(
lIt 'it I I II i t ],t r I' il ,2 Iii vei ii t i n1t;_ (I l ii' -t(t'IIf I s ,tit tla<

befor lie |.litc r'il 'i l i ir i lilt e ess n t ilise l it t ie s was so s-I I'e r :l:lt: l e ll r
th aI IIIsp ices f) ii Itc el l|t, c I II II I t ( >I t ( )lII IIlelrc 0.
r~ l 'l~ i i I/,' l!,il ,t+ .\ ++ici+ to rhf*i' id vlt E l ctf," Set ll li fftee oil I 1w,
+"l'h,'~~~~~~~~~~~~~ IG +a Nfiilllr~\+. +i+v +T e+d f Ir I~ te It iil 1+ 11 na rd +
75) lIh rv. + ,v 1_k.. 17sl,!_



c'e. T'I1:11 wa-l P172. lu li ,a liitiit c ilin e wis ti ;tl :im-
)I I', ( Ii III ,l\"w :i4 a~ll )](, .( ni,,' llll.. lm (110 ,'! I(If 1*v T o) fv i .A i -10 IJ '
it i, r 1 fi .1 i' A) I I1 t '' I III I I I t I I I v I I I I1) I he'4I lit a-

,,+liit ',t ilielii I at iIP'. ii IS Iii >'to i f ) ii 481k! 4) ii liimi'i s t l' 1 i I t t)i'v
P, hil s 4 'li' It )I aIll I ii' v i1t lil (w (di,14 iIii. \\ ie i't'I'\"at I 0 !1
4 )iI,4!I1411R tI1!l ~ll!' !lii;l ~lrti'l. \Xiinli natliillii 1 ti Xl 'Pl'\ \ II IIio'
is If~' IX I' IIIP '. t Iio 11 I 't I I I I I I( H I W IiIi I44 n1 a ve w I
11 't I pa1 .t iNN1. lil I )I II I t 11,-" iii111ii( l I l W I 1.

l'! !litli!!< t:ol~in"' 1ii t1'Ir18l5. l1) .:ido':i,,tl iw. liit'i .iii '. \v+tii,'i Lti-
ii lai( I Xi t I I Is' i I' I I I I I (

1, 1'i 11 we4 wI I I SaIe' Io I1 t I'~jt8 IF mc It h al L A t )III I 1111)0I'I
I ~ ti ~a' t't II t'it ) 11 % i ( It ii t' 111 )' :Is I )ltir Ill, a ) i t t I l k'llv
1!I' in I !, lI i .i1S. il it wil'tti fii ii te I ta'ti i l hei I" It. Ih lw i I I

''II'v lo' i, fi'ii~I iu X oilolIh''t'>t i rl 1 1 t r v 1)42 rIl e I I SeiAN IX
!ilil 'I iit V 14 )I 'i'wr e. o 'tI e il .v.l I lit tll, li e )I il a ( I* p ifi tl dIt l.
F (Il w select\X, t 1 li Il(d a1 r' h l l t w i s, (fter -A ], a ]I(),i ver- IsP )1-
l li:) !1 0 I t M I ti I ( ,)era iL12t 1,1iIllw4to iii1 20(,( ati tI II() It l- a i Il
1 'i'. >i t 1 it i. e i.'1 lrllixze fr'l t t -S 14) I Oil-. e p *hI i.. :ii'x -
1'>VIIL Oll" ili''l Ii t ( 1, i 8114 IXX* :11i v4l)' ti' o Iit' lthel' itli n \I a w1
',N 1 fil Nie N e "'t':1t, t' iLl' I\i'l \X i at p oiwe Ii ,ess (d,) :iimil-illieli-.
i mx evei. \w ,t',( l i \\e (rill 8 ilh lilitrvicw ()Illi'atir l 1 I iSni o
p'It l dlie tl -t li. i o' i l ixl t I, I n iiill in 'tilw Q ls]" i \VII

I i4Il"~ 14) 4111:cc ii t he f~X'.1 V ij~iles1 to)* Ow- O i nIIIItee t)if (81 111t lec
I I iili rvv~ic,v I] i '!l w I iW(Iiz i10 1 iW ( Ili T ( )(t (' N i I"" '
A Ives I'M (It aI i m t Icr w c l-lllf I I It rect( 1 ':t he

SPn"u -.:1'I1. in Ine ji'tir l if.I io ilx I h i xc iI lt i t i l1'4 (,t 1
'(Ii"l~ Ic 'm t ellldi l:ll T e i l, i'lil~ (?ll .I:lldi K(eliliedV
t'r< i~ 1A l I I wl'i') i(- e re 1 e l rii llii .- i i ,, :. ~:1l t iw I 1-. ,ll'. I )1v W\
%41! oI Ie I I h zl v XX i i1I 1 a \ I\ I I I I'I41- )V( t I 14 1 Ill x 1 1iid ),}1lw l'

N l\' IS i V 1 oiTil I l tx'l' IIl t'tl'l 1tXl :i I ilt1 "l I I )t'- l 1420 III
w elx' l! i >t' \: l~i '.1 to' p lv lwfil \-If A.lll) ie t Iii I Ili r c \ z Ifill+< tto,- I 11iie ,r1 1i11mlw .

.11- .l v lA( !l. v tl Il~ I~ r~', t' v l\ I W \V 0 11 11 v :111d ')( tp-! noi' l~l--
tI 111 H'>i ; I ll ''' c l i di i :11 t l lvcttl p.i I-I l lii i t il ;I li l I I viA
i It' i i > d i
I it r i\\ I :ll ~ I, I I il'h l 'V f-c l lt Ivv i ffitd I t' 1wt t lilt l ;v iVOO )!(<,I *


l mll~licat ion. I.;ver'v efflrt xva> Ii uhle I o doul)lecllQccl in formation givenJ
tomj t-0 (ItttMiNlk tllf,.'1i11t(+t1 \ icws.

I lallpilv. "9of r -11 1 ivin F("( and FTC (Ontissioners who
sr\II I It Owee I I I I I I.\- 1:,5) aIli ,I aII a rv 1971)T agreed to be inter-
v iewe+!. We aI() s.)(oke "witl l residhltial a;lvisers 011 apl)ointllents in
(v,(ry ;tIun11t rat' -[tro I lrtiuiia tlfrongll ,Johln1Ison. A imnber of
(Pt her 1)le'M()l>s w h() were diree(tlI. or inlirectl v involved in the process,
were co,"tacted r fill fr(lItioll.
From tite outset, we knew we would never get the whole story of any
al )1)ilt IIt ... ('e a6i sensitive illfOrmlatiOn, suchI as input from the
rerulate(d t "i difficult to obtain In addition, Commissioners
rarely kn()w the full cure1nmstances of their own selection; much occurs
witIt their knowleg(Ie in the inner circles of the White House and
elsewhere. AIso, a )l)ointlllnt decisions usually involve a large number
(of i-,iiividlals, onw of wlom we were unable to identify-others
re fuvld to talk to ius. Filially, it issimply impossible to state with anv-
ttlilo d< (lse to crtaint thre precise IPreiidential motivation for
"\ii iti t itoe ackowle(dged Iitiiitations, we believe that we have
r teough of the e\ets and details of 51 appointments to
Jive a il U)0rtanit and heret-ofore unavailable analysis of how regula-
tory p!~.uei- made.
lle re nrcit 111av to tllank.
ii hoo.'k wa re,,arced a'nd written at the Institute for Public
I nterest- I(21 i,.tatloll of the Georgetown University Law Center in
Wasli(tngonl, D.C. The institute and, in turn, this book was funded
1,N thfle Frt Foundation.
V 1)-art icuilar note of appreciation is due the directors and staff of
tlie 1re-id(etial libraries holding the papers of Harry S. Truman,
I )wiirlit l)avid Eisenhower. and John F. Kennedy. [Attributions to
I ioe (oIIectioIIS are (ited in the text as: IISTL DDEL, and JFKL.]
We (o tcte(l a nuill}r of smaller collections, and we appreciate the
ellLts ;la(le Lv the research staff at each of those libraries. In par-
t iuutilaIr. 1t-seul written information was obtained from: Broadcasters
PIioneer Library. National Association of Broadcasters; Felix Frank-
lii ii r I' lX,1i'en> Lii )l, vI "yof Cog(rress: Oren iarris Papers, University
of L s K,,anver Collection, University of Tennessee; Na-
jouta I AAru ill Sm lmir librl(aIry; and the Fried. iennock
-iniuioii's ('o11,tiers. I'Radcliffe College.
a+'+( :it'(. i ,t el to t }io+( ( ()uittniisionrs of the FCC and FTC who
1 11%.iiI ii ilite'vi',s Of, (i1t ile case of five of them) answered our
,llest ioi in writill,. or onl ta pe.2 Their names follow in alphabetical
,'iler lv ,oiwv. to(!(tlral ('oinimications Comiii-issioners: Deall
I ~ rt I' i el h(i ( 'ox. ,1oh Ii| S. (ross. Jolin C. I)oerfer. Frederick W.
Von E. I;. Wil hiti Il(enlry. Benjamin t-ooks. Thonas J. House, Rosel
I f. 1 Ihe. N it _0la. o k-1 I. ('ha 'les t King, II. Rex Lee, Robert E.
I+. I, L Loe,,-i *, New,-ton1 Minow. Chtarlotte Reid, George
IC. S(+vien, ,Jai1es J. Wa(dsworth, Edward Al. Webster, Robert

u: i r~.r, J1x yv T(Ti d Robert T. Iartlev (FCC) declined to be interviewed. Ten
I 4 ;i d VI ( l' il ie x +' e+r+ d'+eeasv T. A. M. (raven, John W. Gwynne, Frieda B. Hen-
I,, k. \Viljijm 41' KI. i rd A. Mack, (eorge C. McConnaughey, James M. Mead, Eu-
++ ++ I M +r il! I~ v, rd K M ill -, :ild P all A WV alker.
lI'f nro diofl received in other than interviews is cited in the text as, for example:
Mli ~i.+~x T~'I 4 1 l on~es or


AVOI to \ I iii'l ,J )t'i I\ I;l't tl 1i 1.J 1lV-A II I iV

l Itjiil MrIA ~ v It~it I ( PIIS 1 ~ . a( 1 ) Iv IItI Li li) I'tI24I I I
I. li' 1 ll o-li t ll ] ., i r[ i X ().l. I I .I i t ,. I

lAlii'."_ii t',)tiare at Iil 'ii V ( t) helitl i! Iv >oiiie- l' t w ';\ lIe ,' ilio. t, t ,-

1 6il III I I I I I I I )18l)rIt I w \r QI 4., -; I-1k NV e1ulfit 1wriL \ I ,I
1"'],t i. \ ; Ix w .'1 L it. *, I o + .-lt I l "' it l wiet 1ur

EIjldwlt t > t l ti l T 1 l' i ot" l1 it l 1litl I ilt of (Jil')1t \\14 1,Il il e .

lla !(t 1 r t i\\e iti,," enT 1V wi t oitl t ii lll .' l tlI ilt,I \ ti .

IN i Il o: ) w- .~1 ( 1 1:-( ). *-I Ict I-11 l a II A ( eII c l ',It 1i *1 fll(r ).I t 1( 11ii
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il)uied with reactioiarv sentiment and so partisan in their make-up
that tlhey would not see a wrong committed by a big trust or monopoly,
even tll(trh it woNld appear as 'liug(e as high OIlps' * What
(rood aft( r all, does it (to to )ass laws if the President is goinr to ap-
1lilit 1!wl **wlo have no sympathy with them'?" That trend(
was rein forced during the Coolidge administration, and the agency
took an aigrIe-sivelvy pro-business posture in the late 1920's. Coopera-
tion 1With'l 1)1151siess hecallie a part iersliIp witli tle selection of WilIliam
1. 1hi1ll)ll rev for tlle I( in 192.5. Reflecting the prevailn iew-
)oilit that 1)1i' 11siness was not only respectable but admirable, the
FT( l1lder I Illlfl)ll'eV S l(adl's li) pursued a. regulatory policy which
slr)lied tl lh Wilsonian notion of pitiless pliclicity" of business Nwrong-
do1in tll- Irough lprosecut ion. Instead, the Commission discouraged ern-
I1r)in ecooi ic investigation, negotiated privately with busi-
nesses 11 s 'Cl of unlawful practices and emphasized the development
of the tnde practice conference whereby the FTC clarified for busi-
nessmven the meaning of unfair competitive practices.5 It was under
( 'ooli(e( that the (1oimlission lost its political independence and be-
SliHe closely identified with the philosophy of a particular administra-
lion. Pro?:essive legislation had, in effect, been nullified by conserva-
tive administration.
Franklin i )elano Roosevelt was initially determined to alter that
011d one of his first acts in that regard was to request the
resi irat ion o Commissioner Humphrey. The Commissioner flatly
i'e f~sd to resin ince his term liad 5 years remaining. F. D. R. then
tired him, but Humphrey continued to attend Commission meetings
eVQi, tt ioii ti lis colleagues voted to recofnriize the President's removal
orler. W ien the Comptroller General ruled that he was no longer
entitled to draw any salary, Humphrey took the dispute to the courts.
A year later, a umainmous Supreme Court held that firing was unlaw-
iIl lbecal'l e the President hiad not made any showing of cause.6 After
tiat decision was rendered, Roosevelt, by all accounts, lost interest
i tfI o Trade( Connission other than as a patronage vehicle. In 1936,
I l 'i., Wi ( Week delared that the F. 1). R. appointments to the FTC
were "political doles" and that none of tle Commissioners were
(p ied))(t to han(lle siuch complicated statutes as tle Robinson-Patman
Ac't !erau-e tllev did not lhave "any firm foundation in law, economics,
(' I1 *l ~ v thle .late 192)'s. the FTC 8 appeared to l)e a fiefdom of a
>! ,1'h', inip)ortait )eiDocratic Senator, Kenneth McKellar, of Ten-
i)''- (,e. w:o-evei'vone thouclit-selected FTC members and staff with
lie s", I, e'ise 115 le al)l)ointe(l a postnmaster in Meniphis. Commissioner
I'0w1 I)vis o tle same State was McKellar's man at the FTC and
tIho )(,,,5Ofl to Tee ior a staff appointment. A story has been told that
(1ie day a "voun lawyer from Jennessee named Fletcher Cohn was
i'e Ieir'ed to Co ommissioer Davis by the State party machine. While
1)ivis was reflecting on what might be the riglit position:
\ .mototl in F. 'endleton Ilerrin1,.-, "The Federal Trade Co n missioners," 9 Geo. Wash.
L,. P,,v. ( (1). ,9 0).
L. 1U.Iiudllton 1Terring, "Polities, Personalities. and the Federal Trade Comnmtns1ion,'
I t Sbirfman. "The Intersta te Commere Commission", v. I. p. 45, fn. 209 (19619).
'IT brrin.". 'The 1efl.r Tr dlo Cowmis'1oners," op. cit.. p. :",57. President Tlooseve!t, by
on, :,:,nt. had actual proof of misconduct in office against Humphrey and he later re-
.-',rt ,,d the decision not to file such charges against him. Iarold L. Ickes, "The Secret
4I:' V of IHarold Ick 'ps." 1 1958-).
Business Week, Oct. 3, 197: 17.

tha t h I er. FIl c'heF ( (l Ion, lie s J v i ,- ii. N J J ,\,'. it ;I t ;u< i
I( I I "' f, ) I Ilo F T,' I I I )tv i< il tI i I ,'(I t raf[i i ; !,t Ij , ,
I, jIdI) I1, wuu l ) i ult I I 1 11 ilie ( '"(,i u ) i- A I I
to)I Ul t I' I hwi gllr :1,1(1. j i h 11,1 h .111 iYUI'1 I JI', df" i ii i n r 1-
t ions of A I (-, i( I i I lr 3 .. 1"ut1, I (- ll e 11 I r()ln Tell it ( :,i I1,"

State. Years later, lit the 19, s, Ii( alpoiii ed-' "T(- ".riul>i:, "
vwer' astollis]hed to i: d s:o 111"tiv Atff ::, :>,' f ',olll th:e I< : o f

lowe e,. lV 19 1. tlm, major J)l'uI>,,vill tile FTC,:V 1ot Jl 1t I'( -
age but. intea(l, tile a "(valced i e(1of tihe cOll 4 1 i is 1:in i lw(v(' \Xv-
serious questiOll whetl er the '. I). Rl. c 'nittisso0II(,rs 1(f tiv ,ilA I l
to operate ,1io at1 ,ny in 'an1V fasil :ini at all. Fbr exa:Iilpwle, n a a i
Iliei 1i of t}Ie ()piii ,' wcat M I n ils(,( l of act iallv I ii III U I
(lw I1 l .- .. ... 1 1"I l -
01fl711s510n. the' StU ier r'euI i(1 "Wei 50: :ilo Iv 1 1:, x 'If r -
matrk was not far froni the truth. T C k f four I e
ComlnlssioI)ers was 69,) nd they hiad ('upulat:velv served (11 v, a
l lIlclI-e's of 1 I-1 FT(. There hiad1 },eeil InI) M' i11 1 1 ::a: u.,
(o InIlssLi'l s7il, le .,,o tILI, 'W, illtci4ced ll2,1.
sleepy town" of AWashing-ton.
hIarry S Truman inherited an iibred and inorib,,:mI FTC. and fol-
more than 3 vears be (!id evervt-J. }1 he could to naint it"( I I
quo. In three separate mii-stanes.- President Triiinni waived t I 1'*1j1I; I v-
ment that commissioners retire t te atre Of 70 In ordlei tor'
Rloosevelt holdovers. (onmis-io(T1h2r William A. Av' es was y 3 Yea-is ()I*
'a( e whlen Truman r enomiated him in" 14.. ..S~nt 1ahe

'heCoin-ns'-qoi is about to dry' iii an(! l dw away. '71 lreeo it-s flfi~i, 2' a
almost ,icapi! of Ioirn, a reasonable (la""s wor I 0 ,n1eow thatiI i-
lanything our (iofniiittee (-,,n (1o about it as long as tili T~res>I ent Cornlintuc
r.-oiinate peole of tlis1 kind."
But Trum-an persl.sted, Avres was confirmi-ed a~nd (lied in of.Tce( at the
oto of 8- in 15. In -1948., reuo e annated },-vear-old ( r
Iwrgruson, who had initially been sel(oeted by P~resident, t.3)i(V ll
1927T. despite tie fact th rebat it Was well known that the heI !on 1
(lrinkiflQ habits rendered him "of little value after n00o1 of almost t. any
ori von day. 11i This tie, tile Sdr lap h1,ad l1',h d o e
taken and the 7-ntmationl (lied wit tesesoi Evenll. the I~t2
(le"t allowed commissionerr FerTson to reMain in OfliCe for -.tltw
year before re)lainc rems )nal lie had rkalp)ointe( the :evi
holdovers, irulilanl stoodl lv tlieiii a41 lt c rit lcilIlt. Ini June 1 ii'
when(,I Representative, Wrii-t iPatin ie to~ I( Tr,111an1 tilhat Il
replace three of the Co miioners. t he Presidlett eoan-piv i isae,
"I oas intri12.ed witn your s194g. tTlr about edisear in-cz'nr thli(; mn1-
)ers of the Commhdission, all of whoma have, beeu appointed by Me si elf l
I have beeni President. s ho know, it is 1lo1 a. )oicy of 11mst 0 111
tile rucr out front under my appointments." 12 However, three F. D),1Z.
Milton Viorst. "The Dim Light of Paul Rand Dixon, l Washingtonian, June i 9G6, r f.
t InL Interviiw with Lowell B. Mason.
Senator Clyde M. vd senator Wallace 11. White, July 3, 194 7. Natl(,onal Ai'
'Renomination of Aorsso. file Sr1B -A: ".
11 Carson to ( .irlp-s Ro-s Truntn'S press secretary). liIv. 4. 194 1 ,IIST, 1' A,1
12 atnan to Tru ian, June 23 V 149 ;artrnala to Pttia... Ji 27, r
1 () 0A.

apint{s died. one rei'nedt an(l t1e fifth was compelled to retire bV
t lie Senate t liere)v f)rring PresideI.t Irumar to replace them with
( )Iifllit~V'-)|e'~ I iiS L'W!I c1 )I)-u.m

I v ti"( ti~l ,ii I :i ,nho er's' inaururation. all five members of the
TraCe (,mi 1s hal been iitiallv see(ted by Harry Truman.
Winile n)t t lie ":.}tv -2 i a t' le of the ,count rvs business knowledge or
talent." tile V :e I iiie(t it 'i '. regulator.-a decided improvement
V'er e -tr ,1 e ) i lo1w awv ( 'omullisioners of a few years before.
I : ru n, 118 ,ye I ( iwo additional striking (charactersties : the
"i I i itl in vol veent in the appointive proc-
(>5, :111 tel ii .e 8 t'8 '|i ")Sel' (f anYv co}crent, overall strategy for the
.a _n(e V ti }t i 11 Ic liie ()i IIIe )ipo: lt me-t power.
Vi'i ':t, ti rm qrlTr' ,-, } () (picAion- 1)ut that President Truman was
I~e iv ov 1-,'.d iI t le S!lt(,cion recess ; he (id more than make
tt (101 tl v' i C- ) Jo his involvement was greater than
a } ,bn''wrv I r(-leltia iterview of the nominee, which only ooca-
} 11 lv woi! oi,', in sul ,ec!q iet administrations. ITarry Truman,
e1, :t xt iii I util th(e Johnson Presidency, ,layecd a role
"e t( lv iiV, io,,5 of many regulatory vacancies. Truman, like
TAJ, ha :a spe)ia iterest in patronage, but his involvement was
:i) 1 v (i, tated(t bneeesiIy" the White House had yet to develop
ii :, :r ,i:li~t ( pat ronae which would mark later administra-
wi, I ,e',i.- t 0m, did. however, appoint the first staff member
TY(, ,','i; "1 l)i)w as to screen can(idates for Federal o fFc,. All
I} <, U,. 1'emlIatoFV. { y a,,,,'o-intmeIts were still considered to be
I i'll(,r f'-' the Iei mal attention of the President and his closest
:iivisers. an,! iiut: from miidde-level staff on patronage matters was
c K i' ll 8tiv hel co1(''l.,quential in the Truman White Tiouse. Truman
,v >t only involved. he ws alsohe e last President to appoint a large
,ii iiil:. of lif(r j: 1 (IVs whom lie kne-"w personally. Truman did not have
l,) !l. ex,.5iYV~civ on t]he 1110'ment of pilvers: he was able to draw his
,uWv :' ".' of a i,,oten i Commissioners fitness for office. When
1 o'.. ip 191, lt)52 IImt Truman rvrote three of the FTC met-
n 1...1. first names-a familiarity which is
1L21:eI ~ ( ir III, ( e ci1 a 14'
'171m W' R'W involved ii patr-o7age, 1)ut did his patronage reflect a 1
,.! ot I, (--v to iml)emelt the m,-n1date of the Trade Conmission I
)t her tlhav the fact that Truman did appoint a balanced Commision
("' I Ie~..1 ]i)( and a cons i'vative), the question
,,'i, -1,1 :t, 'V I. in <,'+ t' v( ...... Te President did keel) his distance
p,'m tie \n'r,,,v after he had m ade his appointments. One Cmmi
.Y,, .1,' 11 v7ti lv (l lPr!ln S reniarks in this regard after the
I nm o- on for the FTC:
S I wav on t~e TC hie wolt never tell me what to do and he wouh!i
IeK'(,r ,} 1 hi w dis t,) me AI iifrI]iiIg "ny mtter pending before the Conm-
1If:- i,:. I Tii it( sidleiir I said that a1 lvi' ,oild expect of we was to make dcci-
-11 it l >rsant o i he sl 'tttu{( administered by the Federal Trade
('I. n~i:i, I 11iil it iiiado ]ie i if,', ( mi t v hi i \ hther or not I agreed at all times
v. iit e t iiT t '11 irix:tn 7.:

V '1 1 'a, F 195w p. 10,
ir I u '%im"' \,'a .I t,. 1 52 Trmn to "Lowell" Mason, Jan. 16, 19,52
ir i, _. ItTL. (I i-100.
NT, hu', ,'an ium tihiy Alla rt ( ri v': I :K2. Mr. (, rretta hia's given us permission to q'iote
,,ri, tian fi zi fotv h' inad' Ahw ly after his interview with the President.

Of ~o~~.this statemien, I keep*i~ X i th 11 1)"lwiI+ etl"i
of 011 r~ (fil Uato 0v (o!!n:1i>'-->IWIS 11 1 1 ti .r !ehi8 joi'-Ii I p) N\Alii1w \ I
J louse; but, thle pat4tern(', 1 I II it I i ( aj~0l~ pzti po* ~A~l8
ilIliliel-'eno to the a a iv wtir' xva!. .pvui u;i l-v itwi'c bN 1) 1 v,
llilrellil{'l ". n ,, ]o s t f :I v r Iv ( T

l~i'esnie il loject ivc<. In >Iiovt, l{' II( waI Alft thi,,i itiei Iv i i-
talized I~v Tr.iuiiai!is 81)1)oiltee5. Like o"Itier 1lvu-{t(i1 1- I4w'f v' ]in11.
Ininau 5(eileto f )I itv aI 1 wloil I'' FTC i'K tiIiI I ~e ii- 't,
coIive1llet 1 )at rlil:1 vehicle for iInell the 1n-'sitdelit coli- iv(ih
and deserving. Iar) t:al 1,I ti jt" 'l I u;.i ti l,. 1ou;iIt cl2 wila !};:v r0:
(1lIiQIvIllent of a Il (lic'l i of w'ol pi I 1 lli'c( { TV i I ,,, -'i i W" : I-e c 1' I)ItI
11or thlie FT( As stclh, te vae-a:1eies were l !et I pr I iitl lrtly l I I(I

Iii Soilie txaS hierefore, the' Ii'iiiiiail "T Iii PSvQIII1 the (h
{ {.
Crelalted byV ta coilhII tt ee : vItell it \vorkew. it- td 4s bY > o I Ic t~n 1, 11!WIitQ
tlvItI. (1eS'mr!. "Ille FTCI dliuini thle TFrunman 1Prc:-i'1'acv Nv:.;-5 al (.()]-
gronmerate, reth ctin iettmil p !atrlianae MeIs which. ex";i .I, I(tll
t2ii,'. Thii. 1patteril (lira }ccur td r wi h lIe F"'1(. "Ind II wol(, 1
CClU Al'ill i the future. M~oreorver, thle riuuw > n l- :i h v:1Ii h I!-

!)0o1i Iti,-ts can sill e w roi, !rhIv cat(" TizOi ijIto t ) Ir owil l .
As sitl. the pll'poSus oli t Iis St unl a re > {,d ii the Tru i
aippoinitees are t :katd( ill cl( r1n(ologieal Nrler w lt aii (ii i )I uu is
t1e essentia details which will be found to reo'ciir iI i SI zi ,
a ( iIhllistla tio11s.
Lr p : A F17(j? 1 of ,hc Ii'(8C/t7Cft
In 19 1lav T s riman used his fi'st FTC appoIt1nf opp'Tt' I ,tv
to ap)oillt a friend of his to the (mIflll110f11. LoNwl 5 1,,," .'i es i
Vp er'sonaa, ii ti 2 ate la IAlt ionsli I' P i : id l,.t v I" T un \,1
xhich bad ]iot]ing to (o with )olitiS. 16 (tIics.,1(Il e',o.'h. t {",(, ..
cf I zsebal i ex plains 1\! ason's selection as much as :nnvyit-1,11- el (n.
Senator Tar lrunman of Mi oui, like m:oiy o ,tlh \
di('litarieS.l had often been Ma,-0fns '"iic""t in his s51l(!-111 1,x ii, tl -
opening lay of the basJe0all season. r It was a t I t I idIoni st u( t II i, 1}_rt
into the midthirties. aid reportedly a lost del ilt ful one for all hvhe
a Itnded. Tbe (-,,we ,,n,,. Lowell Mason ap)preei:lldt( 1, and h ;*
inent fr'iiis ,dIel i lted in niis breezy e o lcanioIlI1).
MiaS)sL Nvio 11ad canIlJaignd(,( iTor t he last. 021.
the FTC imI 1(1' ., knew r silentt T iiw- well t:, npi tol)aIl',k
1 ilil dile ctlV (I ,,11 i n g ll S ,lilik t 1015,/to{ ,' ., t) t ,, (
Trummn and saviu
Mr. Tresjdrnl, I v ih you'd a ploinlt me (In the tIT. lwertuse it'S a verve 1. r,
(QOI'Iler 11(11 it's vei'V .i- l1 SiltS tiK ni:1vbe I caln o te :ile l rigliuel i t .'
ihat corller of il e adhilistration little bit_
Tru.,an," reportedly resonde l. TONwell, volI're a damn fool. ill
'1"* 1" "* {V {
if voII want to tPv it, why. mll a!poillt \,.., N-u'i er r to believe that it wals al) it th118 t SiIiple. AVI" 1 (4 t~k fi \.1-
M iSTL Intorviow vith Lowell B. Mason.
Mar.-aret Truman, "tlarry S. Truman'', I'P. 93-94, 200.
s IISTL Interview with Ma-on.

(a lcx' > reat i I .)wel Mason I Tme an I I nIissioner at
> ,It Iq a ea :,,' () _i( )ess lhad not increased tle salary since tl FT(

l,.owvll 7'!:i,)) iii w:l-> :i elf-al, e 18111o 1ha ile benefit of a very
a() )1 >1:1 P1 Iil Ii I ()rii 1 ~1t) 8 1)()0111 l ea~llWi V. I \aS)IIs lather s-eved
11 l >. >,'21e :1- a lTe'lulieai1 froiii IIliiiuis at 1e ur of the
1 fl1 V. W(i, 1- 'Ii wIs c Vears ol"I l1t)wC, cv'r. his latlwr was iot
I'lle('((l '10 1 1 11ri.,c Li lil V(11104 ( li). After t hat, ha er
I fIQ1,ml lnwr8,,, : I ?\lrs-)oi ",v8' l()h'l 1()wur. Is wy through NoIt h-
W,,,-,TI, IHv S1hool gra(1a tii, in 1914. Tli(,reaher. lie built upj) a
r~ ilit8 I: \V ) l,)r io' a11d >(e 'Ve I as a I ielillia meIl)er of the llli-
)i ,), fr I' a r> 1 iil th leejressi()i wiped him out. Ifis friend-
shiIp wit I1 iiicriiilinal lwve,. (,arice )arrow. ledl to Mason s
~~~~~~~~~ 1n! P ilt: Qf(P1r~i'c ltleNtjnhld~ria 1 1 e ve
lBi:rrd iii1P I ;! ila-,)) (l(','ide(d) t() r'etiain o) il nV .Xaslingi)ou when th)e
en W4i ,l!t,, a e r a \ er. Ila I mi les ra, sin re ( urne I A1n Mason later
1*m* I l I Ie (I i !'t e r, In tlie ( ait:1 "I lived in a hall bedroom, ate
tifr-lewONs aild pli"'e41 up a few dollars ghost writing speeches * *
I .1 av(,(l for 4 vemer:. Mostly. I )orrowe(l noiev from mv friends." '
?>Iawii) 1frie ,Nls were rei(" vv o 1 lp). ()!w of lis new ashington friends
,,,,-{ V I )t (1w!1,. 0 I>il AV : i 1,'i Seiat(rs Imsel)all team. and it was
I i'( ii 1 11 a 5[: i)i i Fijilv 8 i'N tved, acV(esi s to a b~ox at the stadium.
114)11,(,r v i(, (! ld I s,)i iwithI a lent -free office where he set up
lii law Ipra()(Ie with a kit t able and tw (iiaVS for fuI ttuAe.
.A -~ f:,,)i ('*j' ("0 (I' .; 1I'w. his 1) ar(e as well and he
\V:i-A (.iiilflo' 1i ted bv the tlinie of 1his F T C 1l)ointm ent.
1 Itdoes n t l~a)eii often. bit on occasion a President does Select a
r~,'I or() a b 'l Iv f(r 'a ieg iil)1!v a',)wint)ie t : te principal qialifi-
WI(> iS :1 ulose P!)lpo iot withI tlie o)jc, i. For a recent examIle,
1,,)ibloll ,kJoht,)i iiaii(e( a fT'ievnil le known for years to the ICC
11'ie I( 19{s i ",a-C the s1!0ie faerO who 118(1 1)P',ei-ieffted the President
e e ather fmou pa ir of beaszile. named Him and
I Ter. Tii it Slet 1011 p)rom I)te 1 one siigtoil lawyer to quip, "If he'd
eL a pir of .orses. maybe le would have got a seat on the
S upre ('( >irt." : Low-el',i 1hI Son is n,- equally excellent example of an
a ntiVi1111 e h )(10kIIu-1, of frien(Isllip. Of coui'se, there
-,v I, ,01 ( (n iaii S l)(,r )onri v( )1i w "i11 wI ere Ils() ilivol(ved in the
,le, sio. F r4. Iis law'})'act ic, ]ad taken lim !)efore the Conisdon
,T) Vaiol,. ili:ti (,)+ f VNi ii : 'P11eV. S>e c m. he was (illi/r 1 seat wilich ()oul(l not I)v law
o) t): I)cue:it. ii\ason wI5 n ot a l)emocrat : ]li family: hnd
,I 'I lI I uel)lj1'81 'I)1 hte la(l repr'eseIled that partN in tile 1llinois

A li, V (, i)' New I)eal Vi:) !l.1ng(on. lie was nlot st)i'it iv speak-
ii 2a a ,I ~e ~ 11)1 lii e iil- r5 l ) [- was a s< f-stviel int('let II'll witli a
t',)-WT)'V:0 Ive st- ,:ik w!:i,'),. aft 21 lee re .i Comm) sione), became
)rais formited into a : O l)io-i ess l)! ilo-~ol)!l. 3i~ason-wlio would later
lel*d ,of I lwe led 1)ulelln,)uela in the odd city of W-as!1ii-
5tsOli Iilade ,it;e a r-plitation f(). !inis)el f. lls phi losoplYv. h is
\' "-4,,w York TIimeg, Jlly '11, 19 4, -10.
: Ibid.
I: WSt) tr"t .ToimrTam1 Oo 25. 1 974. !". 1.

I: (Ior Iir l81h i11 c 111lI1o4) Il-: ) 1;tiiark'4(iii 2 111W 1C'
It Iiii li Ia aw 1i~n e ( )II I>),Il .' Il~ v1 f I \\- I I
cI al c it ati lls lii t, is rl itr rl. "")ii t 1 ,iv ', it ( i .I :-+

1e1tI a t ,,! ith l;, o It Iv I I tl 2h -1 I, l e alZ I.-I-i OW \ i I (" I 1II

leso nbt lis Siil-s 1) h 'or liIjIi loo themI 111),' ,11( him on the ( 'o i 1 onI.
aini the FQi:'"i !,toot)' 1V 1 i (hit(,. 1,' n;els ,'l.(ohi; i :-y-to m '! ---,

i~aoi V~- tili~1( iihS ))SiHilluli >ttlhilY' I9
JO/f (~S~P i/ 1 /'Id OP1(ll!/,- IUvb(II

Tri1ian s second oIt litv to uiame atn PT( (Olhisio1eV
vilauets il 14) an l. like ttle l (irK." " a "a
1)euiocrat eould iiot !be aplpoiied. At thite sHuresi i of Ipelsons wittlii
'fIich > lilel Uj'alQ a nler, Colldeitil lected an I1*'_' I\At e}ecll, a 'I Iv I

to recalt erbala ll the conservat ilel ason. a Iilheral. (o A lil 7. 111
Trup in noni ated Joln (arson t t e FT(C. ( a rsoi- ay not ha VI
I een either I)emocrat or Ieublh1an. ut he most certainly felt stoII
attaclNMent and support for the Trumn administration. a' s
attended the 144 IDemocratic conventionn 1111 had been involve I
in eetings to secret the vice presidential nomination for Truoal.
whom he greatly ai&,iired.- While his "in nti' wa")mtero
tone loubt, ( arson had written the 1President" "VWiet ier I aCS0 M'I'-
pointed or not . I shall be in your service .. at any tine dlay
or night, and to (1o any ](l) I can (10." 27 Carson w as also unqt lo i)1-
ably left-of-center as far as his political Iplhlosolh. After 1: ,ear>
as secretary to ]{elpubhieami Senator James ('ouzens of Miei(i~aui, lie
became the Wasliinoton lotbyist1 of the cooperative e Leagite otf le
7.S.b. at a salary several thousand dollars less thaI I I at of a I IV -
flliOiie. ( arsoi i ad l eeil inl alld about W aSlilit(ii)O !))iti(rs fh) U (
30 years at the timle of his FT( nomination. Larg.ely sel f-edtzeale, I.
Darson was one of the last nonlawvers to l)e aI)1oited to tle vT('
There was one further unique aspect to th e ('arson nonti atio)n" I!n
th~e period of this studyv, he is tile only FT( or V( '( )iioniie wxl
ha(1 a C lear i(lentheati on wih nsumer interestss rior t 7is ap)-
l)ointlmnnt.o('atrsoes Jo-onsulier sy pathies wCre well-kinowt :aid
Ueneolt Iaeieted.
lTe iln)aet of the regorlated industries on agency appom tmeIts is
prilil)aly native itn 1944 mcaracte. Industry spokesmen nake it tici

ill l, 1, I to s cur. "vTie pIrne dnagea f IDiss-ent" p. 1 0.
"F',rt u.2 JV Fh 11152 1 (i11.
po Irte rade New ,ept. 5, 149, p. 114 IIn Tu Interview with i M-i m..
Od i Ntl rvoew with (27 ars.nw
a,- I STI,. as fa 1a )p)y

business to find ot who is being considered by the White House
apitIulit. an',.d t hen ways are found to iuifluence that decision
so ihat a I)pers)1 wil() is totally 1u"acei-,table to industry is not Seleted.
It is iml)ssil)Ie to v:lculate the iiunber of 1ioulinatiols which have
been scuttled over the years due to industry oplplosition. As far as
President Tr'u ma is second FTC nominee, John Carson, there had
either l~eeul no om ortunity for inlput from the regulated interests
prior 1t ) tle ((1(i.ioul to nominate, or Tirman and his staff chose to
uanore it. Wit bin days after his nominationn was announced, certain
iidustNes witlI an interest in the FTC began a, deterlmined campaign
to b~loek ('arson 's iiolination on the grounds of his regulatory philos-
Op)Iv. Il t Iit eflrt they were greatly assisted by the fact that a
I r, k i it" ]bad been named to a seat which arguably should have
gonc to a Ipel-)l)1ieaH.
A i :iiost ili~i~d ate lv, tle Carson nomination was bottled up in the
(o "e ( oimiittee due to the efforts of such groups as the
N at oi:I Assoeiution of Manufaetrers, National Retail Dry, Goods
A~ssi:it ion, and lie National Association of Retail Gasoline Dealers.2
T11( National Tix 'E(jutality Association led the fight against Carson,
it t the tiIli ial ,S.i5{alle of 1.5 power and light companies.9 Every
ara m iwt was nsed u,iils the iominelle he was neither a lawyer nor
:, e(,011~0,11 sI: lie had no luminess exposure to speak of; as then con-
st itute(, the comniission was ideolog'ically split 2 to 2, and he'd swing
tle balance; lie was pro-labor, pro-fa rmier, and pro-consumer-no one
w1111 sili ~>*etf. views" should bo appointed. A highly unusual and
11101*0110*11 hioIlg l1(i(lpjenjt jveStigtion was conducted into Carson's back-
,2TCiQ11 1)v coiiservative memberss of the Senate; his past testimony
l)efore (oi,iess was ,ombe(l. stateneits were found, ripped from con-
text. uiee ,g,11 aped, and un iled across the country to demonstrate
thlat ( arsoli was opposed to the profit systeii"1 (arson, like any ideal-
1 t W New% Dealer. hJad doubts ab"ut free enterprise" as it then existed
a1d tt v .lol i of" t' t)f llie depressioii clearly bad had an effect on his
l)Iil): Opl~h u. i arsonoi was no radical. Eventually, the most potent
,.f )i,1ie afa ii' ( ar on was 1) olitical: lie was filling a seat which
lie I mbli1 h ievcd they hiad every ri zht to expect. As Senator
] ri'lcker exclainieid i (lurnrii the debate on contirniation, Truman should
]iat vye ,ek',t el a btmia-fille, liojivst-to-( iod Reiubljl an." ,, 3
Wiieii i, li( 'a rilg ws sehieltIled ol his noji.inatioi, Carson and his
l~ppl, r:rew' .eas-. Ilis i niination had been suggested by per-
s' )ls, >ii'li as Ma,, Loveultlial. wo were close, to the President. Those
It':':eils 1') i~,~~t ol galiize s11l)ort for the nominee since the Wlite
I Ib, use ehi(>e to 1ia:11ke l little effort on ( a rsoii s behalf.02 Traditionally
]lb"o il have Iot! (lisl)layed 1lilell interest in regulatory agency
)!)OiliMI hlws i. ui Alil interv*ent on on Carson's behalf probably
tilppe I t e hmla Iie ion It ei- vIonii (laton. 4il lia S ( feen, president of

|I ie A ii .e 1:1 Fe(&iratiol of 1 Lalboi, pIressed for favorable comnmiiittee
a( ,iol, a l(1 tIe seretarv of tlhe (oinress of Industrial Organizations
lrui ,isedl t ha t lie ( I( ) was "'iit g,,oing,' to forget tifs fight" and dle-

C; ( 'yni vl, for the letters pro and con, see National Archives, Executive Nominations-
('ar',,n. wlIi A:;.
a ( 'irs 'a Senl:ito h leari n g, p. 178.
, IB 4.. p. 4.
:" I 'on ~re-ssionn1 I~eeord. Sept. 16, 1 949, p. 1 2976.
ea Interim ie v with ('arson.

( 'ar~ons11~1or ol I 't kjl Iiul 0Ict1 I h olw il>t (01.
fae( II~l(Il ul~~'~~~'in.I IX I~ 1-c 11 111 1 joIl I t la

a 1c1 r OC t ri( s i'.l l a I I I I I t ia c ( I-t11 Ii Ii ', li ,,,:
('0l71f1,11"It 1011N >1 I-e ol-e f1 \ vo l ie 11 l l ei1'x t W i V 111.
ctonilintio n, wa :1 rl~ fav l,. hr~lle co tlil:ic r" twi. ,, ,l +

'rit evr. B tii oii ,, o 1( 1irii,, u} I k ) i ') ,i'. \,, 111w N I, 2
tI ieReub.a.- appeall~i~ti ll)1('1i12 to -:mithl'i1)Ihlr1 to !dW k I iMii
latio."( II September 19419, somue 3:1 llotitS 1v('we spntI', )Iht l (w',
co'Il rnl l t1ll i t I () tll l- oN\-

iliist aicei t lve had~ic~1S11. thle vote". I lie'; hold t I o I:
an !d ( 'a.rso; was c )11liiiillt I l1 5 2-7). fo I, a tcl':m x,]i w \I t I t N>v ,"
June 3,){ 152.
Several iiioiitlh,, be fU m th e ] re'idl{,t jul elect ion il 1 ",. ( 'a m:
tepta expiredt. Iole 11:t taken an intereWt in is owii ';IpJ}iili ,{ ii ::i
had written a seri { f let el s to Presil i ent l As"11 talt I )o 11 ,,-
SOn7G InI tI1 ({ VtteV5S ('arson ha l eferen liallv su_1,!2e-ve{ t I t]- O', ii
rea pointli1e t I tle en(I. Ilveiitl 8n8 Ii' H ( ,
1rn' omIilllt ma11 f) te I I nto. 181, it wam- 01IvIoiVlIv t 111v I toI, I 1 1 ,!l
a priority foi. the (alin iili trI'at i. The \Viite I Imlse wnv hot
ii (evotinL SeI'ioii1s (II'Wy to this iaiTer' aw tI ( i t -. V' >IW',
the Presinlential {lelet io il wals too (lo5: to coil jl I ndle eli !t it
t 7-lIr terll. ei ,. }-r'ul sll)I)O1'U whic, (C:Iii 118(1 (11 t ..
1949 did tot i(" :IterializCi in 1 ,..'. ainl the 1lo::iilt On (10251 1 1 1 ,
session. Ieav~n, ( :i'i i fate to t:eC (Iteriinel hv ti {lli0t()iilne ()I, 1o1"
Noveiiber elections .

For 2 yeaIs l)I('Xvio to 19-!9. fi'ie(is o, Ji;tjlw- 11. ,tll ("it'
York la( 1)eeln atteiliptin/to INA 11hu1l an aP:1iwitie -! i<
Felertal (ovCeI Il"t which lie wNoulld aceAept. Vai, 0il P- 11,ilij i'- I :'I
been illent ione(! il Pi}r{('3 reports. iiidc l11 in 1181 01o I c VV f I 'll, '
a seat on tleio ({ and (reegi'zi,. I sIIl ;1 +e'l's- ) il I t I celii-
Ini'A0101 I":7 Fltr n, it/asouor tnoth<'. flev ,i 'ti; A
IIliSS1Ofl0 ."~ io()I l(0 1'etSOliI0810 hIerl{t], 't he 18.ltwokI l
'. (1, through vcI' ative )olitically, was 11) 1!1 )3o t 1i4 )1 12.
Lxcept for Ilis early years of s. tr.e. in" iP, (('il:i v. v:,.v cii.
Mead1 had always beell la public Servant an 11i,., t I v:IX h (lI pu1(,'
olfice. In 1913. ite ,oIl elect ion to til countV 1)iII 'i >diperx iof1 I 1
beczan a career of public service, whiciht woildt be tili ii i I wilu i'
1916. Fromt the coulntv i)OaI'r(. th I velt-]like(1 :111k 1 1-llalt ret i I.2t
went to the State AsseIiibly 1in1 {l then to ( 'onre-i.>,,s, 10" 10 I*I!i,-. Ill
1931, lie lecalile (118l-il'll'n of the )OweI'flv l I lmQ l-oe t ()tliee ( 'on illIl-
tee and-Wi h tile election o!! IooM lve- -N'2 Zt1 "',;,, 1i
the 0xpStan(in,! ('onents of Ille N(ew i)1'a' lu 1 ,.>, ie -iue.1
front the H~ouse to accept appointment to 8t Vac:lllV. Wi t 1
served for 8 years with faithful distinction. MI ead Ill.v l Wa',i,"," ;i
W'William Green to Senator Edwin C. Johnson, April 21, 1949: Jmi- ],. ('a rov ti)
Senator Johnson, May 11, 1949. lExecutiv'e Noninatiois, ('ar--, 11 A 2; N ii. I
4 Drug Tramde News, Sept. 5. 1949. p. 114.
3G New York Times, Sept. 20, 1949. p. 12 ; Conzressional Record, Sept.. 19, 1949,
"Carson to Donald S. Dawson, May 7, 1952, June 12, 1952 and AuL. 195"2.. I11S1,
OF -100.
3- Broadcasting, Mar. 10, 1947, p. 16; New York Times, Mar. 16, 1964. p. 1.

bIiit lie ,va k. Iel vw I )l: v to be ( overlior of his own State. and resI ned
f),le t S elle iii 1. t+ to I1un for tie govenorshil of New York
a:iIH tlie illwui titTll o mIllnas l)ee. 1),w\t won and for the
tirl i i111e sillce 1. \Ileau1 hleldl no tlli' e What does a vi '(ous
-v,i '-od -min xv it h :,3 years of offiee-lhmlding do once all that
I'"lat was the d ilelllla which lie and his friends faced
tJ~o i~iiH in, 1917.
II : l1ry lriiiia ii, rhhit ircdi Tu na as eiairiiai of the Senate Special Con-
li~i[ce t0 ii ve ti Hie i national defense prograni when Truman
I .,i;5~1It tlwc tUoml'e Vice P)resi(lent. President Trliumn, as well as
iaI0 I(n IS. li a lerso.ial interest in this nIatter. It was pr-obably
O sial li iia I ll icliJ I't1ar of Federal ap)pointmen1ts, Donald S. Dawson,
w]vh) r'a !!i *l l vitI liet i flea o) appoilt ijg MeAd to an opening on the
l'i' .. Two yen r's 1i efore. Senator Mead probably would have scoffed
at the idea oi I e,'oniwg,0 a m0ere Federal Trade ( omnissioner. But the
latter, W was fillyv settled and Mead indicated his willingness. The
iwxt (l:1v, Mead Nv;15 m1iniiated an(d xvithin 'i hours of his nomination
r. a,'hin t lie Seuint e. lie was colililIlled uanilnously. The requirement
Of a tie i1 was p'oinptlv waived by his fohrier Collea(ICges. A dili-
,,rciii anid dci i I)el ocrat, was no longer out of a job, and as one
'r Iiu intiniate })itt it, the President "hit the center of the bull's-eye"
ot Ihlis skclect ion.14
Witiii1 a very few mnontls of Mead's confirmation, President Tru-
llllll)ot (sed ( ald (;1(gress did not veto) Reorganization Plan 8
Of 19') which provided that thereafter the Chairman of the FTC and
oilieV reriilat oi'v ageMICies would be appointed by the President and
serve at h~is 1easre. ()f all the regulatory agencies affected, only the
14(R said tliat it btad ]Io objections and that the plan would produce
101I icalilt ClIaiire front the old system of annually rotating the
claiil '! isllI).'' Witii dayis of the approval of the new process, Tru-
111,11 (lesignate0 tre b,-vea-old Mead as the first presidentially
apl)OImited (lihuman of t be FTC. Senator Mead served as FTC Chair-
1an for the remlailder of the Truman P~residenev. Eisenhower would
ej)I lace Mead as(h,1 irnan. but tle New Yorker remained on as a com-
niiissioner sinICe his terni wotld not expire until September 1955.
J,',J nk ,J. %nudfau: .The Rehcwtcant Aomiee
Il tweei tie a ppoitment of Mead. in October 1949, and the selec-
I ti ()f Sepll Spilnl"a I'll a (e*I Air later, tIarry Trinman tried without
s10(*,.e t() )la('e Ia 'till A. IIil('hinsoll on the FT( to fill a vacancy
create(l by tlte death, of an I)R holdover. The story of Hutchinson
111A lii le teat il l ie SelIate las leien adleqiiately recounted elsewhere,
a,1ii ,eed 011 t e Iriell v t reatel( lhire.-h Martin Ilutchinson, the tic-
klmxlve (tgel lenic' of ll, eral wN-inc of the I)emocratic 1arty in Vir-
filii a. wV'i alt iis1 I rgelil \vi l () h ia(l ctalleired Senator iarry Byrd in
ie 9 W) 1; ilItries. Two yeanVs later. in keel)ing vith their reformer
sl)i-itoo I iltcliisoi allotl ]]is lroi>op liaid wrked hard for t!ie election of
T111111 N1ia vhie tihe official part iniahmerv was doing nothing. The
Pi :i o d ia in f 'irmatiin iS t a kt from the Senator's obituary. Ibid.
Now York TI lnes. ( 2t. V)0 1 9, s.
4Fr. I1'. Mu rpih t ', Trman. (),ft. 19 19W,). ISTL. OF 100.
4 M;irver I. Bernstin, 'legulating Business by Independent Commi-mions" (19)55).
1:1,,: Sttw, n K BAl l a N % ard I). Samuel, "(' ngres at Work," pp. 116-14T
I rris -Thew Adv ie (,'114 (' n en I 1,1 f IthII SeInIIaito"," pq I 2 22

iliii t Ho iltiii i tht't 1i the li H i' i ili ii i .ii l i llt,
ill v ,Ii (1 1'V (il I I I i, I \Ii I iii I I I :ll ( \ I I i I I I I'll ,Il I l t Il" InI .

Fl 1)i I l til iiiil t IItIII I u,( 1 w I't I lie 111 'II( iil "-II Iilin !wt i o
vSi 'al tl lvIlie ie u1i ll ,1 7 i llii l/ote fl'-l titii i

t U ( a( I I ( ) I I *' \
l "i i n ir luI I i I ill ci I. l iIi I )ig ri1it I li ikiii. lI lil l I t II
she tIe I t i' Ie ( )i I I al i tl h1 t \iv iic( ir f It Itchi1) i niii. i wI as.i
Silit a 1 ]li li, 1)il m1! I' -v I l tt Is lvi'k as o II- I I il I 'It I"Ti t

Ia s. si, I. I I ii I t "l, i l, aii ls Ii s I 2 li i. I "I' I i ile
i~l Ilat nel IV Ielil. r cIla wil I Y l1 ,lIil' ,i- 1t t n I ait 0a l a \01{. it ll

likd11s 11i' at, ti0e Wh -wit l oii:"Ye 11 to11ht that i ea illation.Nvi
1 tcliltC } I o I l a (a'edile tcI) il h! i o cm Ias ot d ta-I l lle If 111 lt iv. !
hI s wIor I ft I o, .eI. li I ellaet c )evti .11 w h ele waI

desith e AV I I ti ( t lie ite I i- le la d v t lIioli it Ic i ,<11'. -s
mini vat el l1' I iv l1 ('itH i 'i 11is \o I The i's- ] iN te ll e o-
l itehllS Irn in W'i'l d Wai I I l I Is w wh I\ 'ii iI an-,'. It (in f!i'
I O l thte ti'ea 1'10 1 197i)v. i e re t\\-i)n 11 a itdixe wit er. i ) ii VaI'a
T n olitliA ''el v e;t ill 'nllri Jlo. atv W no'111l1 n1i ilied 14)

tie Isiv()rlTr a te 2 tiJiteI Horu e mll iofl ittlne 10t It w A v(laoiQ];.
wilte ad e it apl lye(o tiLI Il ,' a\-u o f ra fit h lie ltio n

I Ie' ii e lia ]II S1_. tv1 111, rel ii -ia iI ne O I th Ie A I i t, (,. i I m c I I I.-; et Iiw
th ti01c w(1,.lc lr c,,l3" t,111 vi ll e ( Ilen e'an in 19! q c ofi, young'a

workwiafe r 110v Ila til'V t'vol t oi e II se a l oue f tise nom l \ itoi fli
t t jTI~t(, )I' 1 vel' ,all e ill. iOlblrtlet rv I S lie v4 t i njll ralq

iliteliec ~ V>l~ sfr and adiiiworis--,atiive .s--A ant tote Ueseir > ~ eaIl a 1
looked hf ora the Whie llrze inked to isaii jIo)it 'r
lJfe xv'V I a or t i 'fned' ai t 1" wi l atill
quit Oie fl reit le r ived I 'a i ii ous Tall Iruis li l'iit'i'
afo> atreovr v si es t ,' Whlie ioiv llie t o ('11 o c re wo hi ohle 1) i on. >In a1-'i e p tile hiiosur rt~t aiixtle Ge e i l
ier. loie tl e illical (1 t v plier xvI -i tas;ile i' iley IAl ll '\1 i th o ia
worl, waslit~wlnai'll0 evot dI( t W loyty o rllte. 11i I 'iutio k,

t ion th iichlliileai a assistn ht tii Is iid slalta'v. Ipin4i'_-0

loould la' a'e a '.e'tnesadn~o' htclI le~OL>p
allihei' a1.op iaer-%), lie Seciatlo 'o in kel t t lle Ii'e fw1-1t ( 'hi:t, g
w hie lii(,i mitaie d i n- th soiioie 1'.' I "Ic -- it t e rch-tioci
v erlield (las,, le ri a .Tiailld rli r he ,Sta ll o ,fil the I'rn Trea' ve t, p
N -ok

c ioih'i 1 () TvI -1dt 4, 195 i Feb ua. 19))1) he f(til.
to11,e tl l Isti aI 1Zitajl t o l e P1 ;,d t i~ l,'r l at -12
loo(!, ft< rti l ll( i<': lo a, llt c l ie \11IIc{ I lli toiC w 1,, r tlll'il po t h't.!1i
l sI* fe l AN-h i'} liiothol-l /l'cr ll c i (I i wol]il e r ]i avo he ]lvitel ll .1 -st-ll.l ().111 lt t c al l w leli, f(I e '
lo,ll F a 1, lv l 5llI, 1f ll-)t i (,!~ie 11 1*r l 1*1 ie to '.i~ e~ 1(( III <
to[urliy)~t ;t i11file 1 al ,11,'puzzleIllore i thll ny tl~lt wl 4llc i,!lv
alt rolite v Indctl,"Ied ta t hiTs e Nv t,- iC cl -id r lllrs. jv IrI1t' ', to II
poiItt(,ion wich SIlialA rncil o h InS.J l n 'p l--l1
NA-111 l ai t r cIt( sI,\h (tvt a, better I II ,.r t nd lc ofI+ th t t l. wh l (
t(' -(1 21 19.. ..S e~ l C l -zl t h r ,'d I) la j

wished to nominate hiim to the Federal Trade Commission. Spingarn
was stunned hbvolid belief.4"
So stiu ned tl)at the next day he stayed behind after the regular
morning staff meeting with the 1President to talk with Truman directly.
Spigarni l'ga to relate two episodes which he thought might have
some bearing on1 tils decision to "pl'ornote" him out of the job he
loved. Trinian li stened, expressionless, and then b egan to tap his
desk with hiis fingers. Spingarn withdrew. In the 10 minutes or so,
Tran1an salid not a word.47
Lat' er. SpIin an would learn that initially the President had called
the Treasury. and siiagested that they now "reclaim" their man, and
it was only tlironirl the intervention of certain of his friends on the
staff that the FTC nomination was proferred. It was a side-ways
prioliotion, Or delnotion back to the Treasury; he could have his pick,
l)llt he would leave the staff of the White House.8 He decided on the
Commission. but the motivation for the promotion continued to
1)otlher him. On October 7. a few days after he was nominated, he
w~ote a M0111o s-,eSting that maybe he had slighted the Vice Presi-
(lent in some minor matter. He recalled various other seemingly minor
problems with a few Senators which occurred during his work on
legislation.49 To this day, he cannot say just what the reason was. One
fact ,as cert a iM Stephen J. Spingarn, whether he welcomed it or not,
would be the next Truman appointee to the FTC.
Tie Senate recessed for the elections the day after the Spingarn
nomination was presented. He continued with his work on the White
House staff until he received a recess appointment in mid-October.
Five days later he was sworn in. But he was still less than enthusiastic
about his duties, and for some weeks appeared only occasionally at
the agency. Congress reconvened in late November and again his name
was subImitted and a hearing scheduled. No problems were anticipated
in the Senate and the members' of the committee expected a short,
perfunctory hearing. Spingarn could have gotten by with simple
answers to simnl)le oiiestions such as: Are you a Democrat? Do you
agree that the FTC is an arm of Congress? Do you promise vigorous
enforcement of the antitrust laws?
The.-:e were ceremonial questions requiring ceremonial responses.
Instead, "the nominee began displaying his education"; in a word, he
began to expound, and an hour passed on a hearing that ordinarily
would have lasted perhaps 10 minutes. Finally, Senator Capehart-
who had made a fortune selling music boxes-exclaimed pa rnally:
Mr. Spingarn, one of the fundamentals of salesmanship is that when you have
the customer sold, the contract before him, and the pen in hand, you shut 11p.50
S1)in (lrn li(, tle committee reported favorably, and he was con-
firmed within a fortnight. Perhaps the advise and consent process and
thle l :ss(e of time lhad reoriented Spiniarn's attitude toward the
I Y C. TV I'. I IIt el I lie was confi 1 rIed. he w, rote I'rmn a: I Iw I "t I
,tl bIna fil'eder:i Tr ade ( oInIiiissioner, I shall try to iv e job
. .Ve. t" 1h I e )uv1 that he as "ial amd that
SPi nra I eI idi ri a results "-s well as anybody I know." ,"
IntervIe'w with .jdiTarn.
,u Nt\rvlew with iwi! arn.
r i t nter v 1 w wvi th! i i ii Lrn.
.\ 1opy of this ieiuurandim, dated Oct. 7, 1950, was provided by Mr. Spingarn to
t he a iiihors.
X Washington TiTlns-TIerald, Deobnhr 21, 1950.
ri 5,,ngarn to Truman, Dec. 2,21 1950; Truman to Splngarn, Dec. 28, 1950. H9STL,

1 /h( ri (f,: ,(jf+f 7i/u ,'. ',...j, ,,f ( :mIi //f/uI
Sp)1il!aII1.(1 hadIot, NvaliteI t li job -1( trot it. A lile ( afiutt a
thc recrse" Ili a Ieriol of 2 y\ars, the i,i'.fa :iI+ ('art++c+: tia Iw
1 1I'(e i 'I(aS IO i 1'T(? alqlolies fo1i,1; ii x x w;,= ,l :,111t ,I i .I ra l ai iji: .tJd f
aIt elle'<+t-iftiiwl+ l])oaf, va a.:nc,. bl,mv :++r++f !,, c.+lvc:+l ',,r lt I:"tC( +
J llie 1. L+ l ke l++,st, (,+l+lllwi+.++<+ t p ll ,t++ (++'a ta Ill!,,I Nvm,,rk( d
1a v-l im<,r I lie jolI.
I!is fist ;.,r II ai tri fol. il I'It ,r , '1111181i 110111i1i81 (d I ,?\lai! u IliiI III il'- (,l (0 fill. A-, aL IJr~r 1)ezIMrit
III | 1 I,~. rv iI
woIIit iI ac, ( ive nilQlis jIi11i I-t, 1vn III L ne tt V ,'Iit;'
kI IviI I't l Iii I ul. him I v 1l1ti. aA' lie it il' oe :I Il a t i k I'

f Iloll we1e d I' lIIa ('II" IIo 1 ,1 Sim I o I'oz' I at '(1-d+fl. it i cl l, I I1I

wviethler (Caf.-Imtt I xaas scl-iuml v ,oiisidcre l, 1.I olee II Ii t+'}ii w-
P jecte(l bv tlie Senlate. (arretta xx as iII tlle WI ings a"l i Iv Seoke,(! I I
cati paii.. Within( a week of Olie rejection ('arreatt wrote 't ni:'ino
ranlluIH to IPieiihlential assistalit I)onald ID):I\Voii amll I)etio<,,r'ati, Na -
tional Committee Chairman Williain M. Boyle. Jr.5 In thfatt nieio.
Carretta suggested that a "unique solution" to the IIutchinson prob-
lem would he to name himself (an administration Democrat) to the
FTC. The 11peful Carretta continued :
A t first glance, this recommendations may appear "u!oekjin" iijt ,n careful
analysis, it \vill be observed that by this procedire, te t'resi det mia y t ,I\veI
the defeat received at the hands of Senator Byrd into a victory for the admiri&-
ti'ationl. Were the President now to nominate a nian fromn soine State ot her Ham
Virginia, Ile public at la-,ge would undoubtedly conclude that Senator B0yrd had
added an1 d her "scalpi" to the growing number of Presidential nominations Io:lk('d
by him. IIow-ever. if the President nominates another 1)etlocrat frmn Virgiii a
and si1cceeds in havingI such nomination confirmed by the Senate, the Iulic at
large would conclulde but one thing-that although the Virginia Senators had
won the first romnd * the President had won the last round and tihe inal
decision in the matter.
Carretta then reached the "big question" lie had ,heckel wit Ii Con-
gressilian Howard AV. Smith of VirgOinia who had clicked with Sena-
tor Byrd who had promIised that he would 'llot oppose" tie ( arretta
nomination. Carretta had been hard at work. but the idea did not
inpress the adninistI'ation and the appointment went to Spnigrarn.
The 4'2-year-ol1 (arretta continued his private practice of law and
his political activities in Arlington, Va. lie h-ad beemi in private Ir-
tice for only ?3 years. Prior to that, lie had extensive experience ill tle
Federal agencies : lie had been on the staff of the Seurit es an I Ex-
change Comiimii sion for 9 years and hadI also served I at t he Oilie )t I
Price Alniliistrat io and at titie Sales Ileliegotiat Navy. lIe had also beena lecture' at' law at five lniversi ies jichI1*hiH
Catholic T-iiversity Law Sclool.,"' Albert ('arrettia til wa lit 't I a
Iedera1 tappoitiment'. lIn thle Suif rl of, P11. with tit(e act ix t S11I)lt
of Congressiliaii IIxvcArd W1. Smith o Vriiiia. lie a!liStk la a)-
)oiite1 to the F .o. t I oll I ai I Imt I I hl I le
elllorsenient of e(naI tmI' IHarry F. IByrdl. p,,rhnps die to the e,'ts (I
2 IIst of Sl ns'or f 199 50I T T, IIT L. OF- 1, 0A.
:' ,lr(+i~ vl !2 l U : .M. 1;,,Sie, ,lr. ;ai|( Ih,,ni Id 10 w~I):iv< \+A 1; I:; 1'q uN 11I
OF 1 00,

t1w very ) ,IIserI at iv,, Cn2rcrshnlan Siliith. At t haIt I he, there was
lit1!e ,r lu l)siilitV that a11 otlier v:1aNIcV wo'u)tI l materialize on the
l i K n i1 t 1h 8(ll illisl 1 ,It loll.
.il U I i 1 1!),-)2. )) lio itlis h fol're his ,.'tiit l irtliday,
(WI111ij-1i,,1e1 Willialli Avres tied ill his WIsligtoi apartent. 8
Av's wi- i lie, l 1i' I"( iieilierto (lie ill ()JIC (,elurilg the Trumn
a~ n i~st r:11i; M ,'re than -2 years reilainied of Avres' term. and the
( :lI'et Ia ,':11118 211 !,h_,'i a iresh., IIis support w's vigorous this time
airoitl I ~lip I'at rirk ,1. Mh,( 'orminwl --w1o knew Caetta from his
1 ea'l In2 ll-, It i l I at ( ':at 110 ili ve'rsilty-Co It if ed influential friends
l ()t I' it Natjolla1 (onmlttee an(d ill the 1White IJ1oise and played
(11 1(el{era v at(.l e role. Aiso, I[IltchiliSOns foil(P 5il"Iportes in A i-
gIliil nw ,,a ye ( arrestt a tsior I asking witiin the Jeniocrtic Party
st flrt Ilre. >e iiitor l'obertson of Viriinia end(orsed hui and, eventu-
aliv. ,:eilat l Bvrd wriote that lie had i("no objection."' Even for that
lack1mlrdekl elhdorseiient, Byrd had first conducted his own independ-
vilt iltluiries in Arlington Comity. For the first time in three. tries.
(,l'aret'ta was interviewed at the White House by DawsonY His old
tiles frii 1)rexi(ms caii(lilacies for the FTC and the Renegotiation
Board were pulled alid examined. It was the final months of the Triu-
mr(a PresiNiey--vl tell not as Inmay were anxious to serve-and this
t i ie. tlere was 110 Ilutclniisoni and no Spingarn.
A.s was Iils (114tom with lnominees, President Truman personally
in1formed (arretta of his selection (lurin(" a 13-minute. interview on
May 2;. 19.) Aiterwards a Iresi(ential ai le oice again received as-
sI r~anres tlat tlere would be no problemm with the Virginia senators."
('ar"ett,', nomination was sent to the Senate 2 days later and, after a
cordial hearing. lie was confirmed. Caretta's term had only 2 years
reinainin. and most of his service would occur when Eisenhower was
Pr(sideit anid the Republicans dominated the FTC.
Tlhlis then was the FTC which Eisenhower inherited from Truman:
Seiiator Mead. cliairmaln ; Mason, Carson, Spingarn, and most re-
cent lv. Carretta. Ideologically, there was a loose, admittedly very
loos(,, liberal working majority of three, with Mason continuing his
dissentS. Tlle newest Conimssioner. Carretta, had been there too short
ai11-, nmint-his-to determine his p1hilosophical direction. Political-
Iv. they had their (illerences. but tlev also had much in common. The
"T'ru1ia (() I n -ssioners all were basically WVashinionans. John
( a s )n had 1)een raised in Indiana. claimed Michigan residency but
had lb(teeni in tile District of Columbia continually since 1924. Neither
Lowell Ma-on nor Steplhen Spingarn had lived outside of the Wash-
int ii area for 20) vearcs, altliouihli they declared themselves residents
of Ill (, 811(1 Nev Yo rk. respeCtively. To Albert Ca rretta. Virginia-
whlerev l1e atuallv lived-1 l1d really been bit a siliii!) of where he
w(Wiketl, v.-iil was \asliington. M\ea(ls New York constituency had
ee er since 1918. The careers of ill five centered
in Wasi ist omi in ttle Federal Government:; all shared in the mixed
ide(,s-i~so f that environment.

InI l~ rx w with ('drupt H
: ~ astilgI~| I~sl l''b.19, 1 !)- )2 .. it. P2.'
i !!i if io'mniol curr4 i n iltg t lit 1952 campIagn Is from the interview with Carretta.
g' Iii r Ivw with Carr tta

( )f t l'rIlr ml~u lu (' ,iiiit i>-i t (he Turill a t I .1Ie l )111111 r1,1t M\lead .
-III elected R' I lial. ,illi t lw. )I) 8:11 :i l il r l VJctt, 1(m-l i!:lI W

1i'lr ( tllw ;it li1eh- al] I :ile8\ 11 \ur 1 l\tr 1 H il lI:-e t \\l I i J ,'fIe ,&

I) 'vi[01 the ll l Wa Iiin Liin Itit, [(II '1l.l2 Iii I\t'1' tie'l I I I

] I
"( ofllb t 1); it It a lix &' lit 1- ac 11I11 (. I i h l I I ," I 1
Itll I ~ i'' I d h tf N- tI- .I\ c I jenre I)( lit-'\('I'i11\vh If ilid exVII) 'V' '!l
e>w it -11 1 &111iI' t f Iit'iv I l \ho Maere hadN !Imli~tiiuh.1 ()\i' I Li I
rI)~e i~iilsi1 xiIi Ic Iu'' I i aI tii r~ e_,I I:11 1 1er o I Ii1114 It

m'11 ire I I. itt.oI h(i l It -{,I't akw 1f,'Vell-l n iI) f t 1i tl.Il
A IvI,, all V11 \Iustii lall l 'li ll-a! New IIale,' t',ii tlle early fituit he

eait'l cealll Loie "I e Stalill) of tihe \viite I Iou-u apti its (omr "1)iit.
h ir.,:- ith tin., ,'cri' ,)I I .(il)VIll'( <1,, t, 1"-a9 I (
\]tIS lIUet l~ie i'i-ie~ whie~\ eii~tt IItit('lil 1aiveil- t i..'S () IllIn| MV"
cVad i t- e vhe lia iiipslt ll e lotil: otaead o lh ir fitll ()n't ll At-ile I "l.';

.IO1(H 'S linil. lI Uk i'e-i. () here wa-s U strong" tI'U(Iiti il lllat M I e ( olii' ii-

I)kil eI'> "ot 1e I' i ,i v t I Il-.. M et 1nia4) lerat ohv er l ie ()1 i t l i onl i'
tll'litl thle F ( wd- abe of live i"ep nllit (o thI" '1l
\\'hiet l'i' it wa.- irt',ill~i'-lliiii" a/l'ii tl'. xv:I- all~'i"lioriiatteV'.
iAll-i\ ta l I)l jit it Afa- i hi Iwite' I( t eI wa.-l ('r)t i:!mint e --'-1]'e!' i l
_) f'ral FD>Rtint. 1K."I i lt'r. IiiQ t tlie ]etE])llfv jn't-teii
ltIlt it~O C( llp r iv 1!., -':. itl IWO Of (lll cmlv Io l Inpuciit ) "t the ,ll : ~ (n lilt

\' thie iie iii lai imi Iilv 'eilo l tl'pl vatI h) 19' ..i ... FTa
Ihtil1) r'- t beiatif)I I l! tIi1i1'aiu')I Iie-l ali a r'll ( ) I )t'i'i lt ii .

a .iseI' "t the l' -e i -e lert. ill thM e d le ;I t it ii I IIIt I I a 11 i11 m.
i r ,.s tt hre aiii Ai I il ') l tr 't H il i t l- \
d!idl n)ot dlli l i 111 ]i1 t. V kep"ilit 1;- 4 (1ll4:11. m I; dotnlw l' 't; 1)(]i-, N
lla tlt:-:ll ta $'il t'le "P Avn a-l- () fiv t ll iideeltk.'1, C ({l lIli l *' ; I"\\ AVZ t hol. !' i t \val-:'i acl it I'l'lin o.t++'' :" al/\ l ;ll.ll.0 1 11t* itt11, ter ln" IlcrI

t al l y I m u a : ( I.111 1m e ft1( (.a. ( w I!III -i")It

I I I) .I-; "t S t I, I'< t J [II l im 1 (* III I -(, i ; r Il I. 1 (I'7 ) II I e ;'l"'I 1\ 1. ,' 1):)2

As to his fellow staI' members, Kintner stated, "The staff, as a whole,
has become permeated with either hack lawyers who had not done an
honest day's work in years and regard the Commission as a glorified
country club, or starry eyed visionaries." Kintner contended that there
were "thousa iids- of real violations which "were either not investigated
or were allowed to die through years of slow motion litigation." Kint-
her s first recomen(lation for "A Republican program" was to "dras-
tically shake up the beads of bureaus, divisions and assistant division
chiefs." This could not be done, Kintuer continued, by simply re-
s huf1ling the o1( faces, but could only be accomplished "by ulizing
republican staidr Miembers and by bringing in other Republicans."
Telre wa110s 1o u(l1t 1in Kintner's mind that the only solution to tile
problem was change in the top positions; for "otherwise, the top policy
people onI the stall [would] capture the new Commissioners, as they
[had] for the past 20 years." '0
l' Kintner to Herbert Brownell, Jr., Dec. 10, 1952, enclosing memorandum, DDEL, GF-
4511. Box )92.

(19,1 -,)
-The out st nii I I a tt rilIute ()f tIle I F',eerai (')i o n IIIiieat ionI ] ( ]CIHIi1Si(1lI io )-
day is its 1a(,{ of .1 c mpr)llellsive lmrelll1toy '' r o ai' III."--lu 11w I ni ( lnisf'i,,t
l'isk Forco (m. It*( gla tore ('onin ns ion N, p. 94, January 19t9.
'Fl FM(" celebratedd its 20h1 1hirtl(ay in 1981. tHie etrai ('101e1(--
(rehted ti le I4((. i'rior Io that (late esp)ollsibiI it 3 foF tlhe Tefill at ion of
C0oniiiuiiiica1tioiis NVIaS (lispl~ese l al11ioliL sevrl G( iiiiieut ej1rt
nments: wire selr-i\es, such as telegralp)l ald 1eIelphioe. werl re,,rilllIt,,
by the I(.( : tile lFed(eral Radio ( 'om ii is ion ( created ii1 192 7 ) ta;([
tf1e 1)epartmeiuoIt, (f Coliiierce Shared the respollsiility fo' Ite regi'-
lion of radio. 'I'tl, (CoiiniiicatioBs Act of ]9.31- was 1)11tclide ( ct fl-
tra1lize all of these re.rulatorv functions in a single arel1(cy wh1icj w,#tl(I
r-eplace the R'adio (omnission. But, in addition, iiiich of tile (at'laj,-It
for the chianie was ,t 1lIblic demaiid for closer 1'Qulatltio of li(e tele-
pho)W industry. aiid tile act was adopted over the object ioils of tile
American r} 1)11al & Telephone Co.61 For )othi reasons, the cre(A-
tion of the F(( Was esseiitially a refol-'i) easu ye. Yet, as tite > evulte
sponsor of the co( (')mlented, there was ''notlhini revo lit ionar'y in
tie law ". It all (lele(lS ,poll tile new commissionn." 2
What. course tie new a(rencv woul(l take dee (1de etirely l
Fi-anikln I)elano Roosevelt. for. it was lie who would Select tile first
seven coinm issioiies ofltle FCC. T1w aggiressiye refo ob)jectiVes (,) f
the New I)eal were not reflecte(l, however. ill Ioosevel(t's first al,-
lpointees. Althollh I-roadcastimr classed hiee of thle i)olineves as
(ltvig 1 l"personial frienlshi p" with tile IPIresilent. two of the new
eouimissioners were holdover reappointments from the old Radio
Commission and the most New Deal oriented of the appointees proved
t) )e a I)ro(r'eSsi ye hli )Rlbliean>.: The Sl 'it of tile ew I l11
con to the F(C( iin force until the desionlatioll of .James lawrenc'
Fl v as (hai i-ilai inl th lahit e 130s. Yet. Roosevelt woulhl n(ot ha (e t h
problems with (hl, F(CCi that. he had expe'enced with t!lie FT(' the
('oil ) ct is ( ll'-, ilission was R)oseVelt's aev fro tle b)e(.r'-
iiiV. Vinlike W ilsoi's still-born "". D "
i,~~~ (r N< Il -'a, tile FC(C I()I~
if Sonlme~vat c'a11tiol s leadershliI) wIcli (rjil*.rided t lle a/eilcv ill it' ir-'
Veil I'S.
John 11nI H II (1 a 1rait I has si qro'este( lt Iiat re i(a,"V a cies.
like ilie pcIuple who ruin them, have a mar-ke(l lii fe cycle
III yoitlh, they arv vi-)rous. oiien ilitoer'-ti
l.-itr I l'r w Illei m\' : (I it t)ltl az e a. ttei a Iinat r i ,) W or 15 yo',Irs -the(,y 114,-
(v)11(,. wiill s()ml, excj ltiii's.e. vit lier a n ()n 1 wl ililiustry ti ey are r(,ZtIlaii:r
or 4eilile.
New York Tlimes..Mar. 14. 19."4, p, 217 ,May 12, 19 1
N.w Y,)rk Time,. July 1. 1 #)24. p). 17.
I/rn)ait('isti i ,l. lv 1, 1 :194. p. 5: Erlk ITirnnuw. "Tho Go!ide wV,1 i IWioh : q
]'r,, Il diiIsinii th e S 1V*53,' vol. I1 1). _"'; 1W),
.144111 KeIi1n0eth (1a ri~ faith, "The (reat Cra.t p. 171 I 1955).

Till:(. li;)H.X i) t NI(c.Aio.N 11( M s1 I |().\ LI .S

T here are 1,ro1 }eiiis wit (allraitl's fre(liewlt Iv qlloted general-
izat i ( 1Fr ex1111)e tle FT(" nimsedl a period of vigorous Vot II
altogether. aIIl Na\ >uignificaIIt Iv revitalized w en the agency was
well into it.> lilt i decade of existiice.) Yet. I v the time Truman
wa elected il his oNAn rirllt in 191s. tile ('ontillunications Comiiinis-
siou al 1li1tikia I lv lnellowed after 13 years of existence. In the
iarei ylrv> >I.t hoveve. ha +++,+ i id severall liLIl V distiiguished1 individuals
Spm'ii (I it lH- ll I)erlil). suchll(u as timess Laxwrence Fly, Clilford
I)urr. a111 ].atli A. l-orter. Like the FT(_'. the F( 'C had its former
V 1 0 11 1 ais1d defeated ( on leSuien. But FDI'Is first appointees
served longer periods, addingstalility to the new agency; five of the
Ii i >\ Qiic+ :llp),i0t1eP served tit least .5 years, and three of them served
,)\(I* 1W vear's.
7+ I i p'(l,,+vtalti tie 1( ( had ttle attelition of the President. the
( ii lr1-Q< ia~xl :t1 Xv i 'iIa 1 et of rellated ililstrie-. It also htad
11M ir ac'oN101li-I111c i1> iits pst. chief an1oni theni the chain-broad-
Cast I I Ii \11 41 i2at lol1 of tie late 19'Os and the comprehensive investi-
othe A e'ican ielegral)h and Teleplhone Co.. conducted 'i
w lie, I + i".' 11s. "I'le t elephoii ilives;t igat(ion aT >i l) e p lii klimoletLe about tile worokiiins of the American telephone
ilir V ,Mnti it rv>lllted ill a. i!ifi<,lat reduction of long-distance
i ,le'lli u ie r:tte for the conl:lller.' Like all Governiient agencies, the
F'( I lel! i bel i Iveri(l 1)v tie war effort. After the war, the agency
iiuiait li( lalved lillt) Intosluiler i:i it nolot )eell for the growth and
~~ ~ ol a hut t I IlLeNlIS of coiiniiicnlatioi-television --
dh'vclopl )(+'+t t a fa lta:t" "eii" o
Vi i+l;h w Ml ii and of itelIf. revitalize the eoinnission. The advent of
C1nTs nw A\ilerica ii it !tstrv p>eunted. a m-aj(or challenge to the F CC
avid ']I- rc- moii.' and the political effect of television was first felt (lur-
tl 4 year> of the I ruan adlinit atrion.
A'- far a- lhi> al, 1z olit lt-. IHarr Tru auri had an identifiable strat-
c,,*v tw', i tlh F( xV('C. tl essence of which would be adopted by every
s14l Psc1(Iuete adluiiinistration : the key to the FCC was its Presidentially
tlQ1+ iriatcd chairmann" The Truman strategy contained three impor-
t aIit ,.- e>-cntial to have anl energetic chairman
wvho lhad! -trom," >Vu latllie> with broad adiinitration ob ectives and
the }ol it ical ai)itv to tial 'y t hei olit. Second. since the chairman
,11]It I ot opelcrate lefcctivelyv with olot a majority in the (oisslliioIM,
("Itlil I>SSiOI)QV" were >+le ,',erati ,+e. wINi'ch Iuea ut Ilie azericv claiuIiai wa> (ontlllte l o the
lP,'+isio!. FIi:1i I-. whle pIir iamillis) was allowed to doninate the se-
-i ,,ti,>l ,of t11,, 'Iaillrman. itieit Tn'm1an deeil plia-ized thlis factor
IH Ii- ,lecti( !f a unajolity of the cmlli i,1on h: that. in itself, was an
atri !, (i, I, I u u ve whic i filrt lieret tle 1rvci lent*s ol jectives witli-
,tt) ; 1 Illa IfZ ,,i'+ I ie Rep ill)i+ ica lea teri-J,11).
i'olwii 1)17 1tt iis iuxpectetl revimnllatioll Fel;u'rv 1952, Trii-
11!h 11 -t I'WIJ 111a1, a :t I lie F(CC wa-l ( Chairv I-1111 1avile ( ov. The crof
t ieQ (O+ll+gi1~~l Whillch was 1'ulwrallv lpIrtive of ( hairiiiaii Coy was
o'iiu+l,-+e Il t'>>ioir-+. eachl of ,\ holhad I eiuztle y car-eer's 1
u111:!l1 i it,1 il t i'l ,11 d. "lI W, l'e e(Tl)Qrt > ill their hieldl. TirIee of
I l,,-fl fouil. c,'in 1.-ii er+ hat I, + ,,llHi*ll aliv >clect-d by lresident Trii-
\V:++>+ r lm+ry. P + ++ VVaiks'r+.''piA 57-9, C2 -#,4 (1!;5.
v linIte t11 I+". 1,v h a'.r; I i r It:ttl, I i a ]i h rijamiiih i til 1950, the FCC chair-
It~~fillJ itI~ ilv I +r ++ at th IIq~ l~ of iI I lr id nt.

l()') itedf a) :l)iliv (ia i l l)ar i i -.,, I;i 1'iI).''i

l)l 1 i&'\X ,) it i l I I i lil i i l l'i-- ,. :l ) i lit iii Ii,,)i Ii '-- i l It 1I

( ) .w11101 i !, I, 11- iltil 1i' i'0I'-t ) 11-:. )i- t 1 1
Us It5) its i] l) i) i ii 11. i il -vearoli 1*, iiJ At and parllti i: I Ii-. i
ti i i *'vnJl I I ,'I I lie ( h Si .i II I ) I Ii i Iii It I ( t I:, I n Iil l

I1'ied i V f I~e Ite I I s IeII elt i 191 It Ia~ I Io i I so 'r I;o II I I i
li(Iiele tlhe famo Piiivest(d)al k)11 of Ai'&i' -inli 192ilkt. r),i.irii 1
Co(1i( tn r, lie a s t l e i s i\ 11 ic ( i()l tlil t]!v :I llll and 'lIh

juvt ial v pr: of(NN 1P lwili rolep 1111 le played o bll fII oF dlie Io I1111111111-1 I l-
t 0l o (ll it"1if hV li i i er I.l t l ers lite ri l ('-i 1"(1 F lte to expilre- I'.
henlId'es i .viit Tnniin : in ho e liiWVi 11( 'k.ii i'iv 1.t rel1I t lie

Wheichr ii& W a e (o .( B 11that It 1.11ie Illo er. l 1 thet 1,111 1 Wl'1 d id,
notivr-osss Inheri edr~ I 11111 vijorlie owre had a II I lae reie vlIeaxI'i I oI
c.o)illd w()rlk Ill ai co()le,-I'll etw ill,.,'
I vIE e I I I I I :0, t I o e Iw f

Alliolli ie listed.' l);iiii( aI 1)( !| ll1)l itifl (ei[Vl U +)1 of a 1114ill{ l)

I I ,. I k e elh r Iw I I I P' 114 v Io II 11 1~in r ( 1(tw o 1e 1-' X, I t ~ i I r III e
froli li2 de oo( se l i I ii i l N' L 1V('11 '-()lt )s IIll .\ lli A :la i wore Il

WUV upI" li lslho ise) llti takiwzl an a1tive ntrs of, 1I'I 41)lit h it'.

Jeea use I Y pollII (d 1-1ewa aole mat e I wd Iil eon tHI of, le d(1w o 4 o nat i
1 Watker" teI (ile poleriod of is studxy.iA iillli i'.
\I 'i ii T I'lli Iit :1, 1 n 1 ,a Pt e l l R It IiI re iI, ,'v t.Ie
dIl w I n ( wile ivi 1 vIne tat IIsnle I I ovItl loed )r I k, I. Ie

bat(e(r eh'iili 'te i e ie~ oi te avs a' 1(1) ( ) 1 reo i()' i ls (t l ') 11) oilo. Vie r 2
noioiifti.); lSrie); t h elve ioae ie h or n e (a111(1 ihi while( iil ioi-

Ilo- aic p(I1latieilltt 1)o,;it 11. iil f vde af da rl t f olpti vee.i
fl t o ll he ist'edl as11'.e a tn1)iat iii li i Se'1vo( wzo il(ssiof a :tri
( ieo(rii ialciT illi m l ni.em'str. wnh Ni'l (' ie l :1 1 yel i V ol v ai!-
lii'enl Lik i ., i -elill T )f l innit 'ioel 1a i(( ( 4nti ii liI i (ii r lir(,
4)1 a 1)8V0lI I hat\ l ae ( t()o. ] I5 (lnt 1iLo, ]ii >r te nI i t1niiored 4!i

i .( t i:()s(D (ut'r'iin,; 4,l(lo f ili lint h t o 94 u r (' O' li "i nt'rl u rn .,l'i,.( ]ia l ()I
way 1(1) tll ( tfif,'l n ithit lr,3)I4'[. Il (f11 ti iit t Il l a r
Iriijii toi il4'] i e '1iI li tK I dni 1], 'i' con
for mr' tiu)is'lj 4iiohrs- irvdl as a Tuin I l-ioweru r rei I2. !e oi' i Nva-

t~~'''iiIi itia i4'i14Ti4'~tI~'t4'4, ~'I" i h~ i"~ Ii' l' 4 t ic (u~i(') (
t(,rliil .~b thre lpwn w '.l00' 'V,?'idjl0st ]Iv \' xill -esi( prillentr'ly ll
nl"e FCC c(htil ieet- l] ry 1(lt(

Vilulill0l u('( (Stin, .Thle4,19;n ])v th oe 1 Bo'itli'tt, N .22 | iffl'' I 1 )iP illiv i
thle ]Istol.N- of thle FCC'( (uriri7" the( per'liod of, this stildv. ks ,slli ]i
background l iei'it", partiular -attelition ]ilr,
It was 1924l A\N-ien Ifv~e :md h]li ew b~ride o i;ved fromn D)()vinev.
lIaho. to iVa ll n ri o)n. \N(-. itlolit al sIlille job plrci ,-e(,t. IIN-d 1 o ld~
]i"ter chlli'acterize the( mnov\e ais a "k1id of r'e'ckle'-z thiil to, do(". Fo'(r
mioiitlis, 1we too(k wh veio (r !)nl-t-tilii( w()rk fie cold( fill(| while 111iil1111 _
I'm)r n pe(1-111:1 Ile] it i)m- i t iol.' I, 1l1n:111,v ., v: 1 ol (f a co ()ilpe)0 I( tv ('I A 1MI -
11:it toll. fie lvni ]itIr(( as a/ tylvp .< Ill I Ile C ('vIl ] '' i''((lliis( ;Itl l
.1ln ()I ,rlv I pl)e) \'r ve I.. [ e. l li It I.-, (eVell Ill ; S idl ( ;(,()1" rtO' 1 -11li l')t( l l i x\Oe s it\y. ( ) If il l l v 2) 1 9 2" l )s ,1Nl -ld o i
liir(,e 1 as ofs!)i'i l ()tt ((I. at, tliw l e :('''ll l~adlio ('() illili ioli ( i ll _.. '
of* ;I pa)yro)] ll ha wais two lcr S o (r) Ill l,92'_. the( *-)()(,' l o(vee,'.4)t,

I t is i itt or I v ln t 4) 11i4it( 41 tht t. tI i 19 7 .41. 0 F ( 1;1( TO ( )llli i t or c',wit tl(') o aI l!it 7ll,, i
4( ( l.' ll () f I i >,i (I, fI v itIt bii- I asti i r (h (t (l i 1 li i, t i t Iit ihtt ; i~ ))l 't i l!tihor, 1'" -
Fo" Al ilir n\il i c'( i w()lilill ) t i m l 0, r So loc y ;t' I li (I b en 11,1rll I v nI, i ri 11 t I ,v I l'r, f
T11! i 'lt t i h ilil l{(lt ni li ,')'l' 11t 4rli Sof Iv i+ w\:i ftr i ,, 1t< 11 7-1r-
Mlr. llvdo!,.
t I* \ t' ilI t(l tI ,. J1ilne 4, 1967l I) (L) C2(l~l'llle v. L22 1.1 1t ) fi '


the Radio (oI11*i. ",I wer 1 part of a. very pe )rsonal, .' operation. Appli-
ants fr -1 prINaa privIleges ]ad direct and i1mmediate contact with
(iIIs1OsiQP-ne: li.rar iIIIS wereI rat leu simple N60lairs with a commission
opinions li- llI Iv i>st"d witlll i a week. In lis extra time, Hyde did
\ olilltltt't wor itli ti1e legal delIIrtflent.
Ih, th, I ra cI tI tlat division after I i inr admitted to the bar in
19Qs. Wlitii Fral, liii l)elano Roosevelt was elce('td, Rosel Hyde was an
attrny Xa iI0 ncr 1kiing S*4.G0() a yea(r. But Ilvde was a Repuihcan,
al( ]i i -was ill' ),tHed t!hat Ilis services were no longer needed. It was
oilv after a pro est thiat Ilyde was demoted ratlr than dismissed. Ile
,ti rloi ml t 'o vrrale>, took a k.4 )0 rut in sal ary, it he (lid not quit.
I le r'l w1 d t) work, and .slowy be-ran to rise ayain. Within I year
and a bAalf. Ae was l bark at hiis old grade. By 1942, he was Assistant
enci-al (omisel of* the FCC responsible for new station applications,
lirl(ISe( ill power. and supervision of all legal recommendations to
he( ( (oi~nii i ()oIt 1hroadcasti mg iiatters. His reputation for fairness,
i1 st w. #,'Ii I(rlial i N s)u'ead. In 1945, Hyde-a Repiublican-became
( cner(il ( Cluvc (ifthe fiFCC.
B'yirk in I911. 1ivde had mde his first attempt at securing a Com.-
nn ill-;ked 1 )is a )i l ions when a Relul lb iCan-sittin Commilssioner sought
r(al)l,)ilit Tie]t wit lmout success. But within S months the new Commis-
sioer died. Events then moved very quickly Within a week of the
(fm Miscliers sudden death. Riol)ert E. Ilannegan, Trnman's Post-
luster ('heral (then principally in charge of such appointments) was
reonmIenin, Ilvde for the vaca ncv. Iannean had already secured
tle re(,mmendation of former FCC Cl-rman Porter and Acting
( iairmnan I )ennv. who 1)oth felt that Hvdes at)pointment "would be
Well received by t](, wol( iindiuStr. 7 The Idal.o Senators added
their enthsias1 't ir endorsement. die to his extensive knowledge and
ability -- Hvde's Congressman noted that his appointment would bring
imicih needeld rel)resentat ion to the Commission from the Northwest
and Tilter-'Mouitaimi region.
T was albo no secret that his family were Mormon pioneers in
Idalm and t1at the lIvId(s were "well-known and much respected" by
tle people of Idaho mnd lUtal. I de had the customary meeting with
TrmnIan who proudly stated that he favored career service appoint-
nients. Following a ctrdial hearing in the Senate. where he sat at
tie samiwe t :me as the committee members. Hyde was confirmed on
Ap ril 1-2. 19it16. for a term which hiad 6 years emaini.ii"r". AVhIen his
lirdte lerm was a)oit to expire in 1952. II-vde was called to the White
I louse where Presidlent Truman personally oflere(l yIde. reappoint-
11i,1t to a *r(,oWI( 7-yeair term. IHlyde was reappoint ed 1weau,& at that
I "i(. lhe cold notV ble replaced: hle knew as nmich as any man about
t 1)rese, t state of television lil (Cations. lime elitee coi]imed him
witumt i 'cid(en. wlich meant that IILvde woull serve throughout
IIost t)fC t fI Eisenolvwer adn IIinist rat in {Iefore lis second term expired.
Tt -e sii*: i (,si t)(rii e(n the re
Tilt' i aihct weeli t1le fiilialilig two seasonedl Commission-
r i, 'Vte(Ir a ld Sterling, were strik,:ing. Both were completely non-
1p)11itjcal 11 y training a 11(1 ld iminatiou, amid )oth were appointed in
> R( tbrt I. ltai ri In tt, Truman Mar. 1:1. 194A. II STL. OF 112A.
WiS-,it'r Oil{n II. Tavl,-r t- II n n, Mar. 1'2, I e- "t'r (iarie C. Gossett to
Ilaiavan. Mar. 11. !IW. W IISTI. OF' 112 .
va'Ol!t (C ilpi I. White o li lll(.gall', Mar. 11. 1. 946. Ibid.


(i cI). ph I t I..I. t lit.-~ t I ~ I()I at e le li ""I )A c1 11 11f, () lc- + W l, ,,, I t i,-

I iaVe Ile \I*ero, t. I have e' r registerd.' \cIIelI-ter Nv a -Z a iii to -
p~elicle t. -te li l XIt, 'V allI a .liII- I )e tljo )frai x\ It h ) 1.1 w I II'Il to v foI'
Ie ,i'lliii. ster'lill all,-eitce Ie ballot fri, i lI.ill iii I )rez- i1( i1I1 j~
l lertioins w iS I ve extelt f I :trt isalil. poIIt icII al i, Iviit (l_._
(ieohr.e lt'l'liiif *}li i \ olx l 'ii li', -lIoo'' lI9ir-- I lietr le liiilt IJi- fir -t
:11,11111 l'11 ,1(1io ci e tr, at I I( Jl d I I I cl )11, 11 it T,(I i it I ().17 s it I I L.
L-b l* oI .l~l tV I ll last ( Th ii ii r oI ie 1'( w, o o +,ILI I ;i a 1 1 1t
apart ail Iut it Itl. t)a,,i't iie, ) kii" Lei%,,\,lo',l !+ ,i' i(ot)f, adlt1,lb,(
vI ItI e Nv ItI I t 1e A 11 v I x ilal ( r s iII \- il e In're l'ice. Nvi 11, :1-
2J-itoI ili fettii2 ill, 1 'it)o, hhifl t iili re >o'\ ire. +lteuO A fterlo \VANir 1.
lIt' l,(,i( It I a alolI o oI)ei:t ) w i' lie lerrjha lit M]i-1'1- a d ilr I i f
lisLt< Ow~Ir f(r It( '\. I') lli 19.' to tie r'c al i, i ()f' I lie 1..'( i1 ; 1. i
ti*., 1111d S t(-i-lin*'14) v. (1 w it t11 Tho -,n ill. Illm wlrU NvIit'liw vk r tI t t ii ,.-
NNere C I tn ert'I t l I>tll reiit Iv. I w I eral i e a cliai'ter stall lit lill tel
wit ti tie iew ( '( There. lie had I lielol r'-spoihibilit i-) lor t 1(e (,ito(wc(-
lient of rado rel.tialt ions."
In 19n 7. 1e wa7 1)l'oilo td t l()t titi ,io -f -tst 11t ( 'lio'f I i,' t'
ill Ite 1iiiain ulli'e'+ inl Va1II lrtoin. With tile ent valce Into Woirld Ir
1I. Sterliil ]ild te st itive 1,ositioIn ,of ('hiiof of tile Rauio I'ttll,-
"'clei0 I)iviimii I I I)) of the F(C(. IJI) was i'ej-Ipiilble for hli0!itfli'-
lliK ;tl~l Iel!,l'tli7 I lIjINV Itteflil W, to "'filter- ]Iwoono.i 'ai11a iPtf), Ille
I'2ied State t 1ir 1ii t lie ue of radi)' A> ( lie f of 1-111). l1
wi ''l UV\ il l'eate" exposure' to Tilitary ('odlllllliat 11 !ee'ls. ]By 1917. 1ie
hadi i't'"IC1ieot wllAt lie tlionl&it was the 1)illlaclQ of hi- iareer as-, (h icf
I'+tiile('' of tile F(C. lie had beeli involved ili tie rel,rilatiun of rad*i)
si('Q 19 23.
Edwa 'l V\el)SIor alI) was \Vell 111iaetl ill tecliliica! lii itei'S. I I i
terilnical kmowlel'e, like Sterling%. had been at' ely self -tatugift. Iffl-
b )wi1i7 ii 2'I'adtual 1(i fi'( uii t he 17.5. Coast ( i ia rd Araden iv in 191l d.
W"e1 ster serve 20 vcV,1 oI active duty vithI t le ( 'oast ( i ta i As ri11 le f
(iMitlllli itltiIIS olIiiirer, ( ,ollil(lore Weblster liai o(loe~lope'1 teie ('o>t
c("dll't s radio sV;It lil ill I tle war aa inlst, tle rInli-rtl'iiers in tilte late
19)0". Whenliei ile retired froii the ( Coflt (iua 'd in 198 4 to 0 ii te
~l~i~ineeringrleI iartiilelit (If tile FRC. Webster "Was a ret,'onlize(I exp ert
In maritinle c liiti 'itioilliS. lIe had attended his first internal io:,l
( (TIlflerelce on Safetv of Life at Sea ill 190. Prior to ilis (U iimi i'
aj~I/oilitilleit. lie would attenil :1 (o~ehi iiol'&'. ll,,\ ihi2 I'e'irl lli -
b", iIe left t e I((' alnt retired to active dill3v. A, ,Pallt of the niar11
effort. W'lJSe w,' involved ill the oranization and 'xi,:ilisloI 0
Iinai'iti safet :L(nd liti'e> colliitiiii 0tio lietovk,'-;. :In(l tIC lie tIper-
1v*io. i ald rhiI(II'Ol oif 'omliievial sho'rei I'adio which c+hihltlliii'll'ate
v Ith s1ipI> at -ea After t ie val'. t he Nationial Feo hIra tio of' Aieri -
,,aii >ll ,il i ......... to i W ebster'- words+-'et itli a joI for him a-. tc! +
: i,+li! i a ii tr ntl, -;jI1t. WVcbstcr _NoltIatiili, N;tio+nal .\r,+l+ :1i it, +%, .
7+ S +'4 riit" writ ,Ii n r t ipiu .
+ Vlra ++iti, .J ly to. 1 12. 1p. 49.
==}'r+ad ++ il ,]il z l 12, 1), -19.
'R' rli<... Sesiatta lit :if-ili Jan. 21i, 194", J. 2 5
B+truado'ao'-iii, io+

(,IIll l ltDicat 104 Iire 01o'r. Bv eai1v 1947. he was beginning to feel a bit
'tilna al) t t le )osition. Increasinigly, lie was uneornfortable about
SM iItI of t liew sI I (estel assigInIeiIts vhich ran counter to is pri nciples.
fIe was th1iIIking al-It (Iuitt iII_ wl(q the first discuIsiois concerning
FC ap)l)iIIt iiinit (lir'red in Febriiary 1947."
Presidelit l'.1it11 Itoinitated the indel)en(Ient Webster to a seat
whic could tiot, b)y law. be filled by a Denocrat. Sterling a Republi-
Can. as nIaMe1 it a vacanicv that legally could have gone to a Demo-
(tat'el w ice)MMl For the seat We)ster received, there were a field of
alliiates w() llad been callpaigniug ever since Chairman Paul
Po]rtcr l1a(1 resigned a vealr bfore. Unlike so many of the others,
el-(,Ir lad 1lw)t -olilt tie seat, and was surprised when FCC Chair-
1lau1 l)Deliv sj)01.: witli him ai)otit it. Within a few days of that coiver-
sat iV, ( eb4ter i tad seen President Trtiiuaii, who eIl*)iasize(d the need
to IiaJ e So' lie1m,01 (1 Il is calil)er at the upconng World Telecommuni-
(",It i ( (o()[ ferellie it Atlaintic Citv in Mar.'
Tle -tock of a fhock of candi(lates crashed when W vbster's nomlna-
t!(Il was aiinoiuice(l on Mar(h 7. 191,. BT)t who could object to the
alppolinttlnt of 411(1 t recognized communications expert? 82 Webster
wa. ,onfirmed withoutt opposition. n e~iing in May 1947, Webster
-\ ()iltl 51)eld 5 montlis on the U.S. delegation to the World Telecom-
ijiiu)liat ,otiS ('on ferenee.
Sterlit cr also was draftedd froin tile stalf ranks by the Chairman of
the ..( (oniinussioner Webster who had known Sterling for years,
strongly recomnende(l him and was present when Sterling was first
informed of the offer. Sterling, concerned about his family's welfare.
)i, eitate( to accept an appointment which would last only a year and
a half. -No assurances of reappointment were given. After full discus-
:iol wit li his family, Sterling accepted. Confirmation followed with-
o(it incident in .anuary 1948.
Sterling's appointnient, like Webster's, was a deft political move;
194-' was a Presidential election year, told a Republican controlled Sen-
ate was crowing more ol)stiniate about ap)}roving the nominees of a
lresidlent who, it was felt. would soon )e replaced. When still another
RV '(vacanev ()(ccurred later that vear, it was clear that it would be no
easy eat to fill. Conffident of victory in Nov-ember, Senate Republicans
were in no mood to confirm a Truman nominee for a. 7-year term, what-
cer Iis credentials. As it turned out" the Ilmilnee was a Wolmlan 11d
lictr recentnt ials were excellenlt. In an election year, harry Truman
('lo' to lame a female I)emocratic corporate Lawyver of the ,ewish
faith i to I)ecoimi, the first woman member of the FCC. The nomination
of I4rie(la B. 1Ienuiock was a formidable cliallenge to a reluctant Sen-
ate: lnresideit lrtunanl had made "n "obvious political' move and
la~iied eat ly on Ils partisan feet." 83 An active Demnocrat, Hennock
was t Ile olly feiiale partner in the 140-year-old New York law firm of
('lio(ate,. Mitcliell & lv. Still, the Senate was reluctant until a friend of
I Ini rvi. \v with WIibster ilroadcasting. Mar. 10, 1947, pp. 16, 96.
Juler v lew with \ ebster Broa(asting, Mar. 11), 1947, p. 16
~ Tho alq oijn menIl of Webster was well recwiveId :Th reaction from the eommunica-
1 Ions iI u's1 y mrh i i 't' remnely favorable. Vebst er is known throughout the industry
anda sTr h~ lia'~ ; high r digurl for inm.--Charlhs I. Ienny to Truman, Feb. 7. 1947,
IISTI, 1. 111'2. "E vn t ho g h Mr. W ebst or I i:i had no direct connect ion with broadcast-
ta wr vi we lprofdict it wou't be lonwg before he's thoromily conversant with them * *
WrMi r. 17, 147, p. 50.
SBri.ada'ting, May 8:1, 1948, 1). 44.


t lie Violiiiiee"' S JiIlli *I- e ('*t I )l", I( to daS t I I natlI i nil cw ft1:1lkI klu
1Jcx N11t \a r 1 fetI ) *ititielo e liIl.ll'~ ,n Ii- IliI-
I I I 1 bvey c. r i 1IIv eI ,Il ~I ItI tol' Ilxst I I 1i 1 \ v -e ~ I I
t bus. of t hoe iiii III f i t (,* wt t I vo t o)II I I I *j iIIIl I~k* 11l 11k
ti tlsOll ''to the 2e11e1I i l uile tLf ll- tolil l i2t Ioll-(teril1 o1lJpi tl] !itwl:'-
a I t I Iis t I I.I" o.
K leiII wvelt t I I I i -s f 'i. II I d u1 I't *I' 't. I lI )I li ,c ,Ii I If.: Ik lr ()f It(-
St'llate+. A\tlmtl" other ilii'gS Iwt nl)l, :lte, I, TI: 1 "- ( Jl+ ch+ ,+ ofIrv\.
lKiit was alIr totilt interview vitl h '':T fu for I Ioii iock. lel-
II(W(k m u~st, h~avet lhtoont cithctr Iill l or fol s'-i ,' i(r tht,. 4++t,
latt( t prl t eiv dochi nod **It isl :i r H, i n l:t 11,(ol ni im l ll II VVrl ,
mit of tltat ilt (I'VIeW. A lle"tn ,ViIr finally hieli. whire I Ielih(Mk
canidl lil tt~ ed hetr varti(ll< fm. l+tii 11w"(i Itsl I IIl'(illgh1t I li '-' ()l l:ttiio. A dL~v 1(,1ire te 1Repttiili'an ('"oIvetilltioll
si0t ,Ie ctiI81e.l 1 (i'e ".vItIt th \t rt o i'eI ie! lim t )Ii(li t", It i(' I II 8(j1 i
o f! |t + Siltte. ,'o4t1m ic tl%(l' '((, IvtIll't t t o l( lflilll (ovc'I aI (ptltl-
liedl w(nltttt 1%'I' tIils o- )Oi iotn. ()1T( of tlm-<,s'. 'onl r ]li'ev,&Icr. tooLk
"',olidVIalQ tl islllfa ltlwl III her nir)lilitl iat.l, but also iial Th''YZ--
si()ltl ('(ll( t -4 it o I II( lit o('nlstq lic(,s t<> lm-(+> who rchc upol 'l llI m)lr. l(oad-
trsllilp if the or\ .riivl itsi tests ap)lie(I to womntl iIIh 1i2,l o)fli,'(' shtm,,k1
reveal any tla se? .' iat or Brewster renliu(ted generall Klein t Iat a
very great eil iarras-nent, would he occas ioniedl to all con('erllo(I if
oulr colidem(,e In l.t jltdlnient, should befouj~~ n rispIlaeej.*" 67 (ont-
Illtissiol'r Iiie l, 0011 assua(Ved "111 aII doutts cofliel1tl n her al)ilitv
t) he mo epellok ht ."" UI Y.til slle was den ied reap)loiltillelt ill
I lenInoclk was alt .r'ri'e .V outspoken Mid liard-working (OlllrS-
MioMer, particularly on issues relation to educational, television-a
czttlist' she would ( ll pion during her (R. '( 7 tenure.
IeleVisloll was not mentioned (dul'incr lFrie(la I Iennokls Senate
hearing. 111 ltie 1 1>S. when ste was (ontIilel, tle Illiaj 0r (,oncl'lie s of
tNl FC ( w t stlli te-r Ilat ion of ral io. telephone. anI t(oletrLat-
there wr oil alpprxilately tIhree dozeii operating television stat
tiolls ill the c( lltryv. "Ili',ere !had bven considerable dIevelojIlents fPl-
lowinlg Worldt War iI and, een before tie wal, extelnsive teolr11o dog'i-
C(a advances adl oc'tired ill the )orti0 of tie broadcast ill -g spetdlilll
known as very Ii t1 frequency (VILF) where there was roml for onilv
12 channels (2 -1) to service tle colilniet'cial t)1'(adst needs of at :1
,j Senator Oren 1 rowstr tc, Julius Klein, Jueiic 29, 1!4# It was al :i, a k ',, ] _- -, tat
Klein "'as involve e ill the initial ret'cunn tn'llationi of Ilcitmw k to tin Pr i t S,
Albert iawkes tt Kl in, July ;. 1, 1. 1nNth i th1 -4irit, t IIIntoll Si i t'c > tIti,Io
Sch I r, i gt'fr I ,iI r, Iry l iad, i ff ,t It- No. A- 1 1,
N' 5 et tIr t ,rt '1"Wft t+i Kliin, uly 1ii. 191 Po Ibid.
l r Pw l' "ars'I[, ViAhit;tout 1'0st, .line 2', 191-. 1). l1B.
7 SenaItor Bte\wst 0 r, to Klein 1i 19 1. S !uii-iiun u clIt 1i- N ':
(19 ).
.. lh~r nw st a i t s [l ,,t r I;,,w + l ,, w 1;1, too all n~ w i h_ ir t To) I, ArI+ + +
tin' of lIi'itn'u'k' 1Jtl inttttt'I tin' +aentr~il'' lIFLothnlr htd .t lib +ns .t!j'li, ti. l++ [ i
lmfure the J"' :Ii.I1 Knl eKtin t' i,(lla t I Ititui'k flht('l It2ii ii. +ViteII tin+ lit iti+l+ I' +: +;."+
a v\)ti', I',miit it ,,I'~it r Iieiti 'k (iet hut l);trtii'iJ~te. Lvu+'nt thiuutlt the i++lib zti)i .. ..s +
j~ru)v(iI w j ilhuut hii r xiii''. tl l in was +'' s i lly x t'ry iiut'h d 1r.l i T .I'(" i Ii. l!k
i !) ~ 3 )tt IIeVE'r xxF o \ ) id hi~i xx+It a1 htt rii l I te t + I('(ilvl ittwi + I I
h i'( xx iiii i+ hu+li'a bt ore, thle nulttt ('iuuttttit Ii i. a lud ) \} o)lt jexer ut lld RL.+( r +! i d
3 our 'u,!t rutatio+t. i+br x. hi,'ih I f ltuu tiu i .' tlihai ,leul.
'11t( l\Nttr 1 I1 li '' I 1 l ri'iall the tuturuy pr,+nis and ;t iI.- v( i' ry II
fot 3outr von)lJirma i Liii o f our1 itt 'r('s' t i X I llt i' ) o +l l ..i oT' r It ,; "+ +
v ,uui' u l uff 'r I..wx,,xer. I I it i I I i. j. f .t-Ix', I. t.i I
it I+,' f'or yx t o it. i'iiint a interuliir ofl tha:t ('+l.Iiutuu i- "i,. .I,{itnr' I lii a+ I, lr+ It+ ,
There is n, u',,r( of 1~l* ln'- ttr ex, r 1 ax in h .n ar--1x1er. 1.I


i00-mile radius. Tle iilt ra high fre"i ency (which blad a much larger
p)otenltial for (x)ltsl-nI1 thian VIF) lay largely undeveloped because
t he patent s, ilvst\lels aid e(uiPlneit were (olllIttedtoXYIF. After
the var. when tcievi-io| (coi l1ercializat 1o( b,ran in eariist, the broid-
Caster's 110 sl)isi1l, ilized the existin teclieiial knowledge and
develol)ed iiviilwr+iiI stations in tle VI1F band. U]p until 1948, tele-
vision statiOi]s wve l 'ensed b1y tle F('( On a somewhat less than svs-
temntl >:s1 "nl |'ciouIi tech!i ica' I pr()l1elis )e gan to arise as a result.
First. F! rai ..... ich until 19P8 ocupied channel 1 of the VHF
l,:rnil w= cai -1iurl i(,erfei'ence with new television stations; rather
than niovii televisioii to the uncrowded TIlF. FCC booted FM11 there
instead a ,ti assuize(l channel 1 to emergency services. More important,
SOl,, (of ie stations were placed too close together and interference
resIlted. Il an lrt to remiiedy the situation. the FCC conducted hear-
ii s and then called aII iidllstr wi(le confeence.9 It seemed asthough
thie )est -olutiov would be to oIen up and develop the UrHF band
whe''e thIe stat ios could be farther apart. To do this, however, would
render the exist iin VIF stations obsolete as well as all television sets
1!hen in use. Fa(cd with a mathe matical limitation as to the number
of channels and coirnizant of the need for a single set of engineering
standards the FCC called a moratorium on all allocations.
On September 30. 1948, just 3 months after Hennock took her seat,
television's fast start came to a fast halt. WVith 303 new applications
before it, the FCC declared that all applications for new licenses would
lbe held pendlin until a comprehensive study of allocations could be
completely. It was anticipated that the freeze would last 6 or perhaps
, months."0 Instead. fully 43 months would pass before the thaw came.
In t he meantirne. commercial development of television all but ceased
except for those few stations which were broadcasting or about to be
omi;tructed. For the next 231 .ear, the Commission labored for a Sol-
omnon s decision on television.
Once the processing wheels stopped and the dust settled, the FCC
found itself faced with a monumental task of unprecedented technical
C(ml)lexitv. In addition to (levisin g nationwide allocation plans for
thousands of cOlh imiities. tle FCC also would have to confront the
problems of color TV, interference, h17F, and the development of a
'oml)lete and niufoi-n set of engineering standards. All of that would
lave to be ae dliitrv aiid the Cong(ress. not to mention the public which was be-
.1i,,,inc to enjoy thi m11'arvelous invention.
As tile iont Its passed without resolution of the various problems,
t e Senate ,sed its advise and consent powers to inquire, not only into
he fitness f the noilinee, lut also into the substantive policies of the
V(' on tle (develo})ll(,nt of television. From 1949 on. television would
Iw d/ I e Inor 1)01 It of d isclsion in ever Senate confirmation hearing
on an FCC nominee, and it can be assumed that the topic played an
liIal lv sign ifica ut role in President Truman's appointment decisions.
The President kept the FCC's membership stable and, in 1949-50,
he renominated Commissioners Webster and Sterling to new terms.
1 ge'nerally, Lawrence P. Lessing, "The Television Freeze", Fortune, Nov. 17, 1949.
pll 12:ff.
r', Broadasting, Feb. 6, 1950, p. 5 ; Lessdng, op. cit.,
Til. 1 4 I 7.

1,1v I V ( --. ( alk~ll low,! lvt,!',',: I. : \Vm l -t,.". I', ,II C w ,, ,,.
wor I"(kc nl( I' ai I t-! eri- Ii44 ~ : t 1(i~ I It Ii ( 1h _11 iI-Iilv t

,"tg I at xr l v (I' New I I v r i I li l1i '111Y It4:( -II ii ,, ai v rt
sIoI hIIt I w i I(I l I c I IuI"' I t I I I, !)Ij I 1',\ 11,
lIl t t I: I( i t ln o 1 *,0 Y11 i I m t I I til 1 v a, 1, t-o, I I 11
"iIlls\ iVl( :
FOr I dlays, ( iI I11I I O1 s 14 Ic W eh tI I, rt I, I4 t a1' vr te itiu

, xr nmt l -:Iaer O lIi:. feiat Ioht, '\-s iji ,r- l01 1 ,,,1"1 &'.' ." I lijI,1 tl ,
I l s n ei i I) I Vh, I ) t ilize I IIJ) 1 W i,,lII I I (liev l severely 1111e-
inized (Mlpetidiveless 111 the itliis tr1. F)IJ 2 Illl (la vs >eiiatol'
StIC tat te~ ois i'i' Iin tlevoefv eiii

lwetel h Nvi s Ii vat i \ e ease.
c y float tith an W d10Iterlii '1! is t eol1i ra1 1l.. li 1 t 'l \ i-i l18oI
th>11e a li-, thJ'e )llttwi t toli iiil t h !'(.1 \%I> peliherg 1oIv cw'it( IIlVd

to tli et o ates o ( IillvsslOner I ie I la I miwk. N()t i)I,-ter t w itl
vla-i, regt ilat (wV en it was 11 ('Ii e e'1l14) orvadiiemI lI ('(".- Oiilt
'(ISl deIiI" t' (llit t itiIV aI 'oizlI tIe I >>lte F.S0Ih beserve o' l v IS11 '
SII at iZed 1' I0 Se11 ( 11111 i i a IrO i. leastO e 1 '(w i I' ll tda ys at Ii at() r
(ol( ever raise tle a(ital to inane a television t 1-iou a 1 ec
ii tley didl. they wou1l never be aisle to lnrovrai' to ail va't a stiflirieiit
,F 1 A wlv e If ci ewers. 1lIte f0re. V e ',r,.t,. . ,1 1,r !E e" ,,v ; l ie1
to llv r.)m~hwrIial -1ation5 to assite tlat res-4)Olsi!)ility rather t h(a1
i' 'eser" ,," ~ a iv st at li is for a i i i~wrtiai i mt trye ed~ti al uia we. It
Bev t'tllie tl o le noiuuiiicaii Loio Irvli lri(' m
;1ft'Iiil' atU1 p1(v i -ll il m itom the 'F( '(i "Siii dcl1'/, IiL 111le l) l- I v-~

tril the e o l)101Blirdo wa1i0l!.1 ilvailoIil1. -Ntie 0P2lll Nith a
(li aII aigll t i e likes of lid' the (o i resevii .- il l .',.r el tm.
S( ild eoev)5dl li coiiithv aroiming so plo't ifn tlie elnstationand, en
nit". television Therk forelued, was the electronic blaelboa rd of
the futureI Yr
(Groups 11)r 1)etter tliii organ0izedi/ and supIport Itnounted
fo, tI eiiork's l rpo-it ion that 25 1errelt of all stat ioimi sl1e.11 be
reserved as a 1,1!,li, resoirue antd alorated to eduratinal television.
IIlil i c l l l '( l t O ll ;t { ;t 1 l 'l l )], IZ]':11.r\\ t l

tie freeze \,,I-: i(11)o'4e er- ll)eeondiie h lliap) is-lie. I l ,i:'.a- li hohat I

pulttic I t\ )lril4:- 't the (it. of' le. \yoeith ala:fi l atl,'t had lie )11, 2 li--
Ste. i (cilv t sia r .- o l it Itl~eiit Il w ere atc, t lie a i (l0i1 l 1i ,l

nilty. Televinra Henn uo teclrdwa t11' ve' l cll~ic tb lackoard of
hlarIoriips vbete teaxleiion1 Ner orgned nd supporitl mounvte-
for t'Ie 1)loli*s pol ..,iiiioi eete ofm~i)1Tt alliShovldabl
lc-sere w0 n:9. plhioIC the yII~ea l(eh11d -Im-tdo ukaonatelevisioi enesadjlll.

\l Of ieal IIcariiig Transript. Wqvtsler a ven tnai i o :. J l 1,III. NCM I ,,1at \ih(in r l
"aSt rliz Se alt IIari z. .Iii I ) 15l I l5t, p. rz.l- tIw .1 1:'. 1W 17i t I
jttln at'tl theluiii y lwill l adt, I iseilt'e ( 1(1r.r- .l,,rnial l[,1t ,ini k H,,*Iai T 1
.u1 di,'iary, Nat it nal Arcthioes, S n a t air y I0dall 4r to it t ',N i


from 8.7 million in 1948 to $105.8 million by 1950." It took little
iniuat ion to realize what it. niiht be like with 2000 stations in-
sta(d of the exist inig 1(0. But there was only o1e ticket into TV
1b)roadlcast iI. alnIi that was a pernllit from the F((. In early 1952,
a her well over a 8-yeai freeze, the F( FCC still wasn't givnr out a single
iew ticket. ( ,icrel'l "rew as Mionths -assed without a sign of thav.
Congressional 1 resures -goaded by television-hungry constitu-
elicies" ( l Iel ((.
In February .-)2 j lst wleN it seeme(l as though the thaw was in
Fi(t. U '( '( (Wi'u:iln V'ayne (1ov alrlll)tlyV PesigZIle(l to become a tele-
v I -11l I I t1S i at to Tile, IliC. In a(Mition to the fuiirther delays which
were feared as a result. of his departure, Coy's resignation also cre-
ated a major political probleii. There were-, only two I )emorats oI
tihe F( '(. l:tl Wa lker aind Frie(la I Henock. Ilemnock was far too
(*(II loversi. l t( 1e coilsideIred seriouisl ou the chairmanship, but
tiwre were >trioiis quest ions whether the 71-year-old Walker had the
111 VsiC I1)i lity vt() lead the F('C in the final weeks of the allocations
,- unIv. There was. of course, the vacant Coy seat and the President
(1I 1hi \,e byl)Sse( Walker and named a strong chairman from out-
si(le t l (l til i1 i;s-Ils meInblershil). But partisan political considera-
timiis ilite reie(" Sam Ravbrn wanted his nephew on the FCC.
Speaker Rkayburn of the House of Representatives had sought an
F( Ceat for Ikol)ert Bartley before. In the fall of 1951, when it ap-
feare(d as though iHennock would be elevated to a Federal judgeship,
Raybuirn had seen to it that Bartley was "about set" for appointment
as her successor."' But Bartley's hopes were dashed when the Senate
declined to act on the nomination of Hennock and the President with-
(rew it. Moreover, Bartley was not interested in just any Federal ap-
pointment; his background and interest pointed to the FCC. After
dropping out of Southern Methodist University and spending several
-years in various businesses, Bartlev came to Washington in 1932 to
serve a executive secretary to a special committee of the Senate Com-
merc, Conmllittee invest gating public utility holding companies. From
1934 to 19)9, Bartley hop-scotched from one Federal agency to another,
serving brief periods with the ICC, FCC, and SEC. His ability to do
tlat was not at all hanipered by the fact that his uncle. Sam Rayburn,
was chairman of the House Commerce Committee during that period.
All three agencies where. Bartlev worked were under the jurisdiction of
Rayburn's committee. From 1939 to 1948. Robert Bartley's career was
strictlyv radio"; lie, was employed as a )roadcast executive specializing
in Government relations with Yaankee Network, Inc., which had pio-
IIeered 'AL radio. From 1918 to 1952, Bartley served as admi nist native
aissist :nti to Slpeaker' IRa:,,!urn.9
~artlev was ready and waiting when the Coy seat suldenlv mate-
ri'alized in Fe)ruary 19152. So was Speaker Rayburn. who took Bart-
les case (lirectlv to the White iTouse. It was mde clear that Bartley
1;(1 11 j a')il 1e to ]' ihei e irmnansl!iip ; all lie wanted was the vacant seat.9
Bi tle alpIilnient of l Iart1ev to that vacancy foreclosed a Pre iden-
I'tii,' W"o. I P F N...T 1.52, ip. 21-22.
ur. tk.~tini-. lVb .. VP2, p 2
r:r, ::l~tll iincr. 1 *. 25,,,95,l '. 1 ;). .
ll f th~ I): 1 lill I i0)rn'i n oP Thtrtley i< laefn from ": Broadcastin, Dee. 10,
1!'45 1" 51 nil l.,ieM1 S| :t ni. AMar. J,. In''5,, Sam I~aymrn Library.
:*~1 IracsillZ.FeIb. '275, 1!.'o,, p. 24.


t jaf oJl)po 1 1 t : iv I () sclet4 a I 'la iii iui n! nV Iw ( f)IIII -Ii I
was.I 1 l ily ss ( Io',hti Iilat I11 Imvi(1d I Iw hIc,:alla' jol ) o*f W tI

w111 i laii I tc .s tali te a ille to tlie lllweiil c a i l.( i11.t ('
lIna a p W lit Io hj5 11 t he) It' 1i C the,1 Il' I I/.t : I lI )IL 4 F( t h I ; II I 1 .2.

ANAi I clieI ai ds lwelI: a a I i 't dI (. 1,( 1. 1o 1 t 1 Int IX Ii' I( iiit'IitIA

i ie ''ri 1 rk oeI I liti V oX I 5 tc twI )I I 1114)1e1r I i lgav I 1 Ie I~

hi-ofs Iee 'iI l a'fl' \vn t, I het I ihi2 >t* reeiz I I Y( XtlI I. 21118,1 11('1

lilaViOl tlel I I' ia t Ifli(jlelv1t" witl (17 Bar, tl8v*'}Ia, a ti wtll._Ii 1. I1''
II'ItF clirst iellaOs vwid I also 11 alocaie1. I:iiv 1rtnriW.ati's liat oitlv

('oI1IHWV(al ( liicat jooial st at ions. a lustyx 8( are VtlF v: b: *' 'I I{ r, 1-
(8ltt juh 1 1 i'ei it was 5i 1 3" ")se!11-ott 11 e( e irl tt01 WtIo were,
hardly aw,:a,'e o TVl s1\ ew xiste in 1 I1]h imt pill ye.
tlef"illale (lelay. anl( thae work of Frietla I lellfo,1 wiie JerIewaittetl
a 1(1 1t i Tl e m of cons iousiess on le 11art of eIi;s III:II. Al-
t2.W',3 only 11.> Ier ent of the total, it was a clear vit( !rv f,I
I Ieneov,!. arubit t!1o I osantls of citizelns wo had caIpaig let ( f1r edI,'a -
t onal reserve tion.
Now ioH F((m o ldl 1e~in the ta-k of actiall v allhadtinl t )eIe o n i
21 )O() ti at it ns u cager a I ica u"ts. "I effect. [ lie F('] ha- to ta i
i,1 a (Olm1(aP wit Il a it iatlv ]iiaited niiml)eV of 11e lion d lar i1- in itV
lhand1. awae (,Vt,) 1V wofT' wants one to 1" It h--al tblen tdecile WIo
(Tets one and1 wh:o doxsilt." '0 After the freze was lilt eli, t hre weE,,
iany standin" il ie ld "tthe l)iofet land iisli for fa white s plie tlie
adVent of electric, Of1 cons)l1 ns1ieati s."'I il ( stopr of tIt- "( i;. rA
( iiye-away ]begran un JIuly 95 whle Truiu u- l ~r-tei. 11
it hlad a long way 1o 'o wvheti 'Il'iiiaf .ft tle Vhite a clue. i';eI-

But 1,nfdwe lo lect ttle WI!iti ([1 e. reid al ii a or
6011,11IVV < IV 1
a m fial,,pr 111 VC (--ol bewien he ta(4 of(11 acer liv a iI:iI it fl j u-4

weeks be t,f>c ie to presidential ele ion11 lfder tile ,'ir 1iu'i t. llfi,
ail>loiu -l]elt va li'otistl elial x('XeIbe :f ;iil illidt lari lf ltw
t)1lVd Iarlis all v)ie ( e)ect ions atre. i': 'oent up1\,1eil a'ualv xwlo
gtalied fr at Fi( w ( seat" n ('103 A eerf tv )r iede--i. er vrill }:Il
ov l,4(c t (Jl f)I llt l i e ltl/ 24" Iiyea rs in t lile terlitij'al a- te t of silioT t-

...,\ldve fi T\'-il etrr. i le2, snior. oIfr w:v< tl, ,t
"21 1 ''hr.; :'fi' rt I i< Ji;!'i t' :IN reip r1 4 t uT I1 4',i4n1 ib' A,, .\ nvri-i Aa,* \t] !' 1 L
t'-nii*1 Il ri 'iii i' Nv,- t' be a i nl-lwi fIxu : IvNNl', nill illtlin- i- r XX i Ik' .1
XV \Ic0 t lt I"'r ThI i I :t I \ l ur r l l t It tIli N a~ ~ I\ .... A
B ef 'lr, m, '''r. 1i 'I n II-12
i, hadr (a Inci r wa y Ar. w 1-. p. 2le
ti- r'I atie ye ; vil) d 1N. tile. I. 5.'
lit me-4 Wc 'l. Mlr t22 1 Whit ; "1-
'* ir,, l 1 > in,.., A. I 19 .. ...
(I ~ ~ 1 7'; I)'dv I)m1itl 4" ( I(lIIII) v i e lIn

Ilk, 1a1:, I)Vel (,Xti' Ilv involved in te t ransfoInlation of the Ge ma
,'iini'liIca 1i)l'i -v-,.'ln and he was serving :s dirCe).tor of the Mate-
rials Bra ]1(1, () 1 th e N a iti'ilmal Prodiition Authority at the time of his
a I)Pointnment to the F(C.";, But Merrill's background was not the
ri-nci ll lloti vatil f i I his selection: the til) i tlienlt of M errill
-:,s a o! I iaI 11 V lI, toward Vtahl and the M4\ormon establishment,
wvlichl ''out ri1 dozens of television and radio stations in the west-
"I'i' pui lt. Iva e111)11asized by the fact that Presi(lent Truman an-
i1O.1 (IM t1 seler.t ji, 1 -i1rin.r a camnpaicn speech at Brigham Yo.ung
I iii vcrsit v j u:t :;) Ia ys before tle election. Truman was campaigi-
il i r A',l-6+i Steven ,)ui. when li, declared: "This morning, I signed
a pa II~er : Ippoint i ii to the FCC a distinoiiished resident of your
'-lat. lu_, 1e II. Merrll. I tliour'ht you might be interested in that,
1e.aie I in(lert and that. Mr. Aerrill's father was a member of the
bar41id of tlis un iversity. Of course, that was a good recommendation
for biin as far as I was concerned * *1 1o; Shortly thereafter, the
iiev F("'C ciuenber confined his allegiance in a public statement:
Those who ]told governmentt positions should devote all their energies to what
i- for ole benefit of the people. The Democratic Party in Utah and the United
states is sympathetic to the welfare of the people * T am an admirer and
S l"lp)rter of President Truman, the Administration and Governor Stevenson."
'I'1e partisan implications of the appointment had been carefully
C, ihervd 11efore Presidential assistant Donald Dawson had recoin-
mm((led M[errill for the vacancy. Dawson first had spoken with several
Congressmen who advised that Merrill's "appointment would be of
2reat benefit this year." It was a Democratic national committeeman
who had recommen(led that the announcement he made during the trip
to "tah.08 Merrill himself had prepared a biographical statement
which care fully 1)oiited out that the names of his forefathers were
"legend" in the Mormon Church, which in fact they were.09 Merrill's
father, aside from serving on the board of Brigham Young Uni-
versity, was also a member of the Quorum of the 12 Apostles of
the Chmrch of the Latter-day Saints. His great-grandfather, one of
tie foInders,, of tle church, had made the tortuous trip to Utah in
tl,,e 1,2-t0s. The new nominee was very well known in the church
c(-t;I)li],1--1Iet, and that must be taken as the principal reason for his
M'elect ion.
Fxe-pt for the political advantage gained by the Democrats, no
on( wa,-: (1 i conerned. VWhen Merrill was appointed, the Senate was
ini r,-:- fo~r Olbe 1Presideniial election. If Stevenson won, perhaps his
utaiu\ V011ld 1 e resii!)mitted for confirmation. If General Eisenhower
was the vict or. Elugene M[errill would be out of a job. The fate of the
v(,w coiuiw-ioiiner. as well as the agency as a whole, would be decided

Bi4'ira?,hi(;al I~nformatifin is tnken from Merrill's "Brief Resume of Training and Ex-
.... II TI OF- 112 annI Broad'asting, Oct. 13. 1952, pp. 60, 63.
rco'd(,attiig, Oct. 18, 1.952 p. 45.
;I .vs, T t1f TrtTma. O T 4. 1952. 0ISTL. OF-112.
SM rri l to* I 'a w'n S.'t d80, 1952, lSTI, 0 FI- 112.

( 1... at)j

'Ihe r ( t N, B u priivipal vaiidi(ates w ho a, thelii ,lVe's -,,,liig ilhe jo I w : I'li
has d l(' opv d ;t i'essli'e }to SllJp l'to Ill- (.IiiI'K >ItU 111 ;iiuapp ow t,
lihli(' s(rvi lposifi,}n Vidlates ,'('Iry iljstinct I have. 'loo I wi a 1wO' ,,
1t III4 (Hear ('vidhenlc ()f olijstitalilit v.
"My extierieliwe ill this case has generate( in me tle profolin(l hope that I \'vill
be (mIpelled I to have little to (b), (luring ti ie next -1 p a rs, N\ t ih I t, distrilit iou n "
Federal pat rull i ce."--l'resident-(vt I) wight I;'iscI holl W r ill l h diary, .1a ll1i-a 5.

I~*tII c Fi21 I 1 1 >~ c I e 'r,~n 1IeI I w c k. I lvl t
IlaIViIiiJ) ol tl r l ( t ) I)liIv I!('-gI 1 e ek a ftei' elt ieoi t'e'-.eve

S- i l)( )(ehS 'ro(l" sil cl(C l lide1-(1'(,t EL-cii Oe as e
It C0ol-erVl"I ve'" ... ( armed tlal 'the lo(ri(a, I 1 111" I 'm. the i jol Ava:-
11 vd. TIhe( F(V,. wih wit ws jll ni ii- tlie 1>1tiX'eI matter ,,f
television station allocat ions, ieleded stalbilitv. Itvde was comp)eteit.
honest, and expe(rienlce. The (late of tle ediiorial was Noven uer 1,).

TI,+ I eroa( aAer- haIad struck before( tle iron waas e'ven e('t 1,I).
TIio (Illettio1 (of -wlo Ilolls the shadow and,1 wholt 1o]l'- tle si)statl'(v
of power- : on a I resildeiit's staff is never So uIIIIleari as it is iinmve ,i-
ately followil all elec tion. Thien, is 1I perio(o l0 lz1 I 1,lt)v( what w:i
Ca(nll)aiQi is trali-fo-Ited into p1reiliatlrilal 4a111, all cl~itet. Ill th ,t
first we(k or' >() al-ter alt election power Is jitt 1ezijin4 toe lft e
8B11 take iioti'o'ealdle I'orm. On Novcel'her 101, ne o oi1
near thIe Ilre'i-deI t wa> 1)avi n any thou Iilt to -who -would 1e tle next
cha il rlian of onie of the i'ritllat 01W a-el ies. (C'erta inl v it (,aIll l, s: fr ,
as5lllrtv hat I lie Pr'e-itdeif. -el;cIif .al(l far ,ore ir biishie, s on ii-
Sbr- v(+"r h detol
li:11d. (,( It. Llw lt+ l-v. l I-
lo seat 1 ;,, 1 sr'ee:l11i1.," + ,llahifiedl )e'l 4)ls 1,- o Nit iv ,
tiowjs, sizr'i :,- the (';thenet.' W-e-., tlwi hlt' 11t,1 (1'a ;Cti, l 1:,I ( 'i -jw-
I(,ted wll:( d l 4i Nv4' It,+l,' 21. 11'2, 1:' idi(,\V( ,"s +. ii 'r, II:I li',-V,1.
}e +: A ++h)'Tw4+, rellI t~t t v a+c, t ](" lpw)t of, tilt too t} w
I ,ro','itle'io" l h'. V ie 11 xt (; Veails. th f1 n111' (1 OWVrNIr of Nw
1 1 11) 1sl I '4 >irv(d :as (lie f I' th11- AWi I oi I-Vil t vitIt I\,a I\
rI'' i i- '12 1j li }(: i1 (l ;I( 's i('5 ,1' 2 I l)2)I]i! ira n, l t) I 1''1++.

+S q11'+,,t+ Di )wI:zl I)ivIld Eiscvith, er. "+Mandat'' for h'I ,_o. 1 '' p 'K
+ lr nd(,a tin, Nov. 10, 1952. p. 60.
TIh New York Times Magazine, Jan. 5, 195R, p. 6.
4 i-+'v.iwor. op. cit., p. 122.
ILdd. p. 12 6.

( li\lq T wo\)'


A ltlIhI tIle vtlV elected Presidten1t wa Is dIIU. of shedding his
i( lenti at io n as 1 It11Mlita I leader. a vertc kal sta f system was a nat-
Itral pa'rt of Ills IllelItal ve ilui wllt. Also, Liseliower believed that
tole greatest t'Ielit l ossi"le, tlie Iresidency sN"lloild be separated
fu %.()I)rat i Ila I1 P it i," as to be free to deal wit Ii IIiatters of great
11 ttia I l) I i'y: (I en rlal to attallr that roal was a staff chief who
would Olesi l,.ll of tlhe necessary thoughl chl)arat ively npimrt-
alt t k-Ih e rally woll, class patronagee in this cate-
', ry. Thl l',. tt a &!. kree 1ii ( t)(lid!1es adilist fIati (", l iseillower tleceltralize(d an(1 delegate(d
a.1t hinit Much (1d+i' th is (tRlegatcl resl0o1lsil)ilit f 'ell directly to Sher-
Ill H At!( ams. W ltliiii a sliort t iw, Adams becaiiie the Presi(leitts
"'(Ira whrid/e" { ( ii litical matters.
Firmu NOV(ei.r 2I on, it, was the "tight jawed New Englander who
(i'l &1 wi inlv d )-s)rlbed dozens of stocks. csentiments, interrup-
t 1t s a iuud iLIl)O}siiB" wliicli otherwise iiiight Iave reached the Presi-
&lhit. .' ( cn1,n n Adimils drove iiiself and the staff furiously. In
l() tnt)r w atl lie 'lw i a scheduled', Atlams "developed a sort of human
i'latt ls VI'rSi>l ('A' -I coliipletely stripped down racing car, from
witt eV+ii'V nolilliction'al ornaiiint had been ruthlessly torn." '
Avluieiitivs -11(1 a- -lello" and "goodby" were considered by him to
be -1x2es lxe. 1
Assulninl power for the first time in two decades would be a par-
ticuilarlv difficult task for the Republicans, and nowhere would this
bmore pronounced than in the area of patronage.
Initially, a system for the clearance and recruitment of political
ap)ointees had to be devised. Liaison channels were established with
tie Republican National Committee and with Congress, which had
tei narrowest of Republican majorities. By December, the need for
such a sstmeatic approach had become apparent after several of
E isenhower's Cabiniet appointments had aroused the furor of Senators
Robert, Ift and Styles Bridges, as well as others.13
In tke n1ew, Ce(ongress not a single Republican Senator had ever
S 1{' witli a i epublican President. Moreover, a delicate patronage
balance w,,-uld ha ve to be struck between the "Old Guard" and "Eisen-
Iiiwcr" wvii-gs of the party. An early "suggested procedure" for dis-
hliremeit of patronage was not prepared until December 20. The pro-
l))sd1 l}O;(llV outline(1 .t system which would "promote the closest co-
01erat i !n betweel tie execlit ne and the legislative branches of Gov-
tim il'iieii aiid would iisure (wlieiiever possible) that the approval of
a c:ndldates Senator be obtained prior to selection.
The I)rhPoposil eiided with a statement that Eisenhower wanted
la rtictlarlv L to] emIplasize that no attention should be paid to any
I~e~oni approaching any Cabinet of-icer of head of any agency
,ro seeks appointment or favor because they are personal friends of
tie I resi lent-elect." Such persons, the memorandum continued,
i n1mul+! be excluded frolm consideration [and] from business relations
Th,, N w York Times Magazine, Feb. 3, 1957, p. 8.
( 11:arl .. V. Murphy, "Ei'enhower's White Iouse," Fortune, p. 76.
SIbid.. I'.7 .
f lerW' rt S. Parinet, Ekrenhower and the American Crusade," p. 192.
r.\ ri h 1,Irsn, -Isenho\\c r: The President Nobody Knew," p. 27.
ii' I' r~ 4, p. cit., p. 17 2.
l']ttmh{} 4)10.i cit., I). 128.


Nvit1 the G(OVer1,1111eIt.' III -;leletil )11 1 h e 41,, ii it tlMled ti,
Syst 'tii that beoll lw tlo'llodwel. Is'll (lays it'1r, fli rs welj, I IIe h i
bet W('('1i thle 1reidl'iell r :11kct ll t Ilie 1Ri'i ,iilicra I ( l et: 1 1m i (4 4 1 Ii
.''i 1 11ii alIIc eIo )II t) \N- ik Iu a Y sII II l t2:i,-;I1 at*\ e I *a )I-.o I )11
1) "t ro I ag(e.
AX. V01,1i1" I'isciihiomvti emtIl;isia ( 'Ilarles 1. W illi-.. Jr., v,:- 1 ,, It

Ile t I Ilit' llii' h l Y 1 1illi I I 1 l''i,' IIIl IIt le 81 u c' O 1 *l It I IX I IX'u

ill o a l a he it lIei w alil. ad '!I !II,
tI m I Ile' ,um,-- l',,I hi ll Lik i i R-t (d ItII l- e I ,il, I I I 1i 1 111 11i e

8$ ',v Il' d. 1 It l"'e (,;vlIemv'l" V i \,'Ii I l. I() t184 I li i i .- \ II I -0 ,
1('I dlmc )I Ii vva -l ( J4 IF I W IC W\. l i> li o ie lat m l tv1:3lal N,' ci> I )1e-1 I I ir

la.s lluwur It ee t le la~'sjdt w0,11l 81l l;tl,ilf Iflel~e'i-iuim. ,e,, 1*
t(Ite eil2' .O AI ims A1s5 t!he 1181t l 'eaeh. h ttl, t y 'lhetl fw-

N, mat ter hw ha w W trugghed di'in' ti irst year. I A WI I 141r w) ]].,,.
llThre w ps i ste I1 I p iiihlt a, e il 'i Ir( 'i the II( Pli8 i 9N i*Ir1 I 44'V' I i t,
Call\\ eve mt lea '(i l l de11 li I ile 1)eu(a t l akeI' | !'iioulliglii!
( )ne sQ('tOR 0f ( j(,Ve'11I('lt whli'l I e1 ,illir'ais 1 liollt w85 ii tier' I
ot "I still c )1oo, 8 nl lonr -l i 1IlI,, wi le-sooll dIn' r\ I l IeI
starlls of (im iiTOlelVe410t regullais, i I(la1liilt th t of lir
Federal (1olllIlet i fls ( o l~~Si)1 ih1IR~~" aipn bu
Riltmtt-ax re'j a l i"i '/.al iou i ait time V( '( '. la ge segi iei iis 'If t I t' )~r'08 4 lea> ii ,,
i(s11"111 were Ie naN.t
oftel eauiuiai'v AdI 1.. was8 th u e ofi to he ch V( a'iilt'li hew 8ohit Vi"'het !8-

l1011 w;1s 1)iliu ('8 'efilly. atil1 ,iheiatelv (oot.olel'e! 1, raliei 1iea' 1
Who mad diheow. al w s4asv :ieess to thate 1f1ei(lt-,l 't. ter th, eler-
lion Eisenlower" la1 elete(1 Pnner te'iLV. (ei, IoeI,'I (m ilt tl'"'I

We vitalizedl (c eloil'iJ 1ou' the 'tsiliot."-t ( 'itter, iii !iseliower> wo, It.

'O se ()ie l io"of ()iii l iV e lf u w s en vtdical I Im41 t l a III ieoul ltld-
4'o-s iii.' i liiM d) lo)811aldl( we' xvoili la ati n-s I iiiic

talls ro i n l lde:i ,lio1i 1. i 8l|ii||il|ator lo, i '1v a H 1 lie of( F ( ( I I lie
('a i I V i o ITs ,)1 1..,.,."
(Bn Janmarv 17 1 :)) (t .ti.e wIo was heit 1,oIIul ,,.'iiIi4
twhe ()ld (olo,1 nd -ist (c. oe soston t 'h I Ol' ills fii'"i leftt' ter lei'ii
)lirreorganiz 1 le-Nt' onl ectv Cmit-15'11 t''p)l~~ hen t Iamol e )e'uI itl4

ile F( (. F,' t]uil ost i rtt, iee let ter ( lite ( li ts l1 ,

;, Slhcrian Adams~ Sij f ol P r ,'e dur'' i .' ',." *0o,' _"} 24 X jp lro'ntlyo ihii r
,sn 0wa 10, r ohlm ially tktriiuted. '"Art"' to T11jIUJ E St,'hn-". A ai. 1 9 -?,
io in ol I Ih, F 1I08, hot 152.
a l'nrm t, (p. ('i!,, I. 19 .
n I' arnmt, N). 9it., pp. 114)11 .
Ih t4FCrv ow with pillis..
r~141,''t~ii11.r. Ian. 19 1958. p. 122.
M~lri"Jy. ('. it.. 1p. 174;.
hrii l 'i t nd op.ltrt sto ry of ow
1 ,n 7 7.
W \\i (ins in S I t i i .ll rni iI, M a r. 20 19 5 4' 4.
NI urlph -v. op, vit., 10. 1 7-.
2, 'j I : i k ) Nv c\ r, ( oI ). It-iit I t,,'. : -1.


Cutler ly one of I friends lto has a resposille position in tile
(onlniunicatils jI l u- t v. (Tile coItext of Cutlers letter indicates
hte used the reil "iiiiiiiiiuiatiois to refer to telephone and wire,
rather than television or radio.) First, Cutler's friend noted, much
(f the F( start ifil retnmed the general thinking that dominated
tii New I)2:,1 erIll \%-](II liness InI general and public utilities In
PVt eillavr were Ilait v and iselul, 'whiI)ping boyS.'" As such, the
staafts :,nt ion> gra e "lar evi(lenite of a desire to expand reculatlon
to the 1)1i1t ()! a detailed control." Since "most" of the commissioner
h~ad "o lpreyibs exv 1eieiice in comlmion carrier problems," matters
were left largely v in ands of lower echelons. What was nee(led in-
stead, lie lct'r ,onIt inied, was "hirh level, intelligent, constructive
regulation [h I ,W11I can best encourage the Continued development
"0, t~dpin .ytl- The letter concluded~
of an effective. efthejeui telephone system * Th"etr"ocue
",vitl1 tiIe advice t I It .mn of "denionst rated ability" should be ap-
1, h av\e served et.t i e1 v on State regulatory bodies.! Two weeks
]ater, governorr Adainis forwarded a copy of the letter to Charles
Willis ,witi tlhet i 1vtrl IPeter-ol to0 "develop) some positive suggestions" along that line25
I' e, adliiiistoratil police toward FCC appointments was beginning
to i :|ke form .
Witlii a few "c kr. a enwral White IToue mllemorandull on ap-
Pw,)I.tlleits to tile F(C 11'ad been, jreIlre(I. It followed faithfully the
1 aic outline Of tlie C11i7'10r letter. Tle ne01o first mentioned that the
FCC was still (1oi iintted b~v a New Deal "antagonism against utili-
ties." Then it noted that utility regulation had been left to the staff,
withl t!l result that tile indlstvy 11 11 l)en "harassed" by:
I1 I)emiands for more and mo-re voluminous detail in handling routine
(2 1tr- (12) regulation affecting the total operations of the industry rather
II interstate oIperationis over which the Commission has jurisdiction, (3) a
I elu d+eey to inject regulatory authoritV into management functions, and (4)
i realistic theories effecting corporate finnneial and earnings problems.
The industry, the BI-1,1(1 continuedl. "recognizes the need for fair and
proPer reulat ion it objectss, however, to antintility bias and 'in-
rca listi, e'on)llic, views w hich endanger the future of the industry."
Fi iitly thie ni1orandum fully sulhseribed to the notion of Cutler's
fI'riend that tle !&et source for al)+1onitnlellts was tle, State regulatory
rol+lfhissi11 all bt oi'ie of the seven illen recoineoiided were former
Or >eiet State oOlflissioners. of the persons recomniiiended were
.Jol, ( 1 '. D+oert'er of i onsin and Jeronie K. Kuvkendall of the State

Met ile. tlie public and lprivate canipain to make Rosel IIyde
x,,lo was not aoji- 1I l),;;e Ille itioICd ili tlie AV!iite HTouse meno)
t}e, first Eis+n|ow< r Iii,, ensit y. By centerite. I Vra deasti Iigiagaziiie hlad1 set aside all
et ')11,Q I he Ileadfie ol its le d storv on Deceinber 22.
I '> read! 'Ike I'rmd To N\'ii, I[,,, o N zilie, IIvde rcp?.re-entl an "nr!eriy t ra1 it ont" which "would mean
I- (' ttr t A A\dam :, Jan, 1.5. 195, DI L,, OFl4. (1954). box 190.
-l inu to willi *1Jani 29, 1958, )DEL, 01' 1;. bo! 190.
r Mrm dra n 7Im r'' 1n1r11n t to the Fe'deral Coimunications Commission", filed
y Mr. Adaims. Mdr. 4, 1958. DDEL, GF-1A.

t )iIIII tAPiii t \\'aS : in'r t(f lmt ili. II Ci ( l lH-' :li .l*i 8 >r. ,
a "friII-scale stair ''t)I',LIIZ818I l "it t ]( 1;I't,1 ],: V(if \A( i A- I
Iidhltit thlat Ilylte w il be I. illi' ., I V .1 nni '1m r v .1 1, r i ( v,I'(' 1 "
cl'ail. 0 l) rI I tirned 11114) he 11K' Il ii "ii 'iir l ,lol f,;i '"t. \AN| tit, 1,1
I\8 I14 I xt- ii -, I t 14\I Ie XIc i ,ccIe I I I v I nn (I11' a -I( i
i Ia II -,()rI I 's'rIL IIlent i t 11 Iri).I I st r!- I ). t \ I e i; t I 1 e I ~I

dlelay Ii I 1 t I I Igr l( e betI \Vae(il I (i -&, Nvhi I a t le r( r(i~ It I x I I i- It It
ftlv i -, a,, t ...,,_, I .,.t. F (1
"v1(lt1111 ot leoI : 1 11'1,1W 0,1. l i'( I I
an: S1s-, t ,' ,s l1)it tl eN8L fa'A k s(.'tI.iand "1 ( t witl, n ,,' ,lrlIte. I I w lI If
tle F I('( t iti.:iI e:l'lx I:elivtilil" 1r,:e litle t the I Il ti ,I .
the{( )11 ( I' I V e Var (l c )rI Il 'I r' liti I w (4 11, l,'i ' i, ( l'" It,, I I

wallit. to apI, (m-11 cis I\~ e I lla I f the i F' w Ix it I III th~ I I I --I r
of P)residentl I 1Tman. tFillall-v. it wm,,ld~ be( I (,,) l I',) I! ,V ,t~ .
1'eO12 'llize Ile 1(' ( stalIt to( the lkil-l" o)f lI t ct Iik:iip N :i I I
((i,1lllittee. "Ilt I it IN( il]d Ix,: P)I I 'l 11,1 .1v ,d illi,'ilt ( -,, w I it m' 'l,!: t I it,
tIit ]IliIl(l-1I1:i I eI'e l Il le xl,) Ial d v()I tl- I ,\v I ti 1 'll h i I ii o'] Vt le)'-.
I X'118 j is. thle U Nvene *wl iQV 111mv v' I 2j Iro'M)1P 18th8\ IV l~1l)1e' v\ iii) VVT
eqi 1 (a c IV I I 11 iA lit.
Iv(1e first wa s aske, to nieet with -lY IV loberts. .l iinii:1 ,f
the "e)1l)dcli':l N national ( "i5l e
sta(iff alol(l I lian Iine- Arar.h 1.
siolier Hydve \\ a-; sIilnionled to i lie Wh\ite I IoI'-e lo a ira1liel. hurried~
interview vitil Ad.lalis 1l(1 Wili[. AXitliiii Hydt.. 1 lvtle att,,lihptei
to find out wha!-t vWaS Loinll 01.: Instea(. the X Wite ttt,-tz at. ixe-
Se(med to )e IHMre coMICe'ed ab11ut how Ili tliV FC( \ iatlw11iw'S I m (Ii] I

ma111s llommivI 8 off Eug(ene eril to ft(i FCC( 1 hit eilox
adhninistratioa rohid simply withdraw it a'1 appoint a ( olii-

The "X i ite I B,,lise also was arnxio- to ease ( a in anum l 'Wal1.kt r
off the FC( " 4I t0. As I White I lose mlemorildulIn 1 l (ml.. 01, did
"niot resicgil 111ml) rqeiest. iis (onlunissioli e,ilL! 1, e 'eriilaetl, and'l

his term.-il v Tis would allow the aIl-ii it rati)11 to tw() 1,:N, [I)-
1)oilitileflts at owice. Adailis antd Willis walled it) klovit' i
agreed witth tiiV plan. )oubrless to their constertiation. II v.I a(!x'ic,
against the removal of Walker in 511(,lc an Ili'lilII(l wav.- Til,
Vice ha irinali of the FC remilinlied tle 'VIi eI lc,'-)e atvi-x r- ti:lt'
WXalker bathd considerable st anlillL. -I II( iit t Ia ticle Iilt 111 t (()ll It 1-
Nersv fxtl1 a r 0111 xeilTh anyv adixatalre tyrI'l i etl 1~ thetlt :t~ili'111
t i)j .23

: r t]j tt'a:iZ itt I --. 22, 1 t5". 1. 2 .
I ]rnnticuai l .1 m. 5, 1 as::, 41s.
2 -. 5.
?pPP* ~ ~ ,*r o il, \ lh P'restidvit ].:isen Ill\ t~ 'w' 1 ( t h l tli~ :1f 1* 0h., (h :ll I- ; 1 r
v I n'w withIi Ilyd. I
rlntpr~ i,,i wilth Il'..


The a(lvisers beard iln out, a1d Ihyde left without any word about
the hairmanshi. X1 hen nothing happened, it was feared that the
niodest. self-eftacing hyde hadn t done an optinum job of selling
Iimself.:i In fact, he had done the reverse: he had argued for the
cuitiatjtil a co>lelnie wlioii the a(l1liniStration wanted replaced.
Thle interview c(OIild not have been to his advantage.
The p1'rleltil wvitli tle+ aging WNalker aside, there was one seat which
could be filled bv an EisenIhower appointee. By March, the long list
,f l(+si~ltl h1ad bel narrowed) to two: Jerome K. Kuykendall, of
Washington, and John C. Doerfer. of Wisconsin. Both were lawyers
in their fortijes. 1)0o were then serving as chairman of State public
utilities coniHssions. Neithlr had been very active in Republican
politics. alt liougli each had strong partisan backing.
J,!I ill i )er 1r 11at! i'l, active SIl1i)ort of (ov. Walter T. K o-r, who
\\a-; III i vIt r A )o.'-itionl to assist I)oerfer ill secui'tng all appoint-
1'1+t itWasi.igtu. The Wisc(,nsilI (overnor ll ad een an early )sup-
!-,r ,1r liseJ+N- i er. lha vi l eil~lonsedl t'e (IeraI in June 1951, the
',,. ,ip' I lin :V+ >lieiiii ai AdlUs; le 1hadl a1so) Ilayed an instrumental
,l, iii Lv ef.pwa "s campaignfoi the Replublican no1niination.15 In
I ),)&Ii !.t,'I 1 9)2. I )oerfLr 11a(l informed hohiet' of his intention to re-
-i_,i Ii, tlie StIale ,.oli tntissioii in order to returii to iivate practice,
hut. thec, (GOver1lor had other ideas ini mind for the Wisconsin regu-
lat,,r.T Kohler fil-st telelphoned terbert Brownell. and then followed
it tip wit i a letter ohI I )oerfer's behalf
I )uerfer is aide 111d hliest, and has guts. Basially, he has fought the battle
fr Ihe (o-ilslmier. uit lelieves in private utilities and has been so eminently just
11.11 v\ vel th li ility oper;1 ttrs have a8lt( x led+ged his fairness. . Let me make
it clearti I a11 rider no olligation to [Doerfer]-rather the contrary."
I )oerfer did have a reputation as an administrator, and lie
lad taken sole forthright stands on the consumer's behalf while a
S, eleiber of the State conlimssion.s Although an open advocate of the
)rivate eliterlrise svstei and opielv critical of certain aspects of util-
itNv regulation," I)oerfer was familiar with the workings of AT & T,
LaVsIi.) serVd on "onttiiittees of the National Association of Railroad
& l iiitv ('olumissioers dealing with the problems of that corporate
I i e tl tiiot 1!n
( )u Mar 12. IhRoert. ('utler intervened. this time with more specific
Pecolh1111lel-tattionis. ( ttler reiteratedl his belief that the F CC had no
*pr( per ( Co)lilliIsSioller repiesentation of tie telephone industry * *
one Of t le greatest insltlstries il the world." Cutler again had spoken
W !t 11s "AIerit-a; LI Tlel'io _, Teieralph friends," who felt that
oitleir liv\eiulall K, I)oerfer was "\ell qualified'" for aI)pointlient to
tile C"( lPowerftil1 indlist rv support joined vigorous political en-
nl+,'+,r and D(1 lt'fer was called to W1as1in toil to ieet with Sher-
I r ,' d "i Mir. 8.0, 1 957, p. 7.
S,,ltr Iimad a in4nIed f'r Eisnhower at the same time as Governor Adams. See,
I 'i ri*t. 'p. cit., pp>. 8S, s SiR.
+ I ++ 'rf1 r I T, It[ res i nses.
,.\aite+r ,, KlohIer, .Jr., to Herbert Brownell, Dec. 27. 1952, DDEL, GF 44A,
J+ro~ideust inu Apr. 1,. 1958, P. 22.
Meiinratndmim r4, Appoitments to the Federal Communications, Commission," filed
M .5. I I)EL F 41 A.
W l)erfer writi r "L4ll es.
(' utlr lo WVilis, Mar. 12, 1958,. DD)EL, GF-41A, box 380.

). )

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~~~ ~ ~ ~ i1 \Vlt I, (..lm< (\~l' ,7 it7,l I)~ ], I .- t lI IvI' -(


But. before his -owiirmtion, Doerfer was advised to see McCarthy,
and he did so. Why I)oerfer was instructed to meet with McCarthy
is not clear. Doerfer recalls that N[cCarthy seemed d to be too much
1 re~c411J)ieII within otler things to in(lulge in any substantive eonversa-
tions." I ndeed.. iIcCarthv did not even appear at Doerfer's hearing
althoIII the eIt IIT' iscolisin Senator and Governor Kohler did. All
the same. a man from h Carfhy's home State was the first Eisenhower
nominee to the FCC. and there was speculation that he would be
named Chairman shortly. Thie implication that the appointment was
ill (leference to the jlli Wisconsin Senator was lost on no one-least
of all on Joe McCarthy.
In April 1958., Joe McCarthv was interested in the future of channel
10 in Ailw'ukee.' Altlionuh channel 10 had been expressly reserved
by tle P(C for noioniinereial programing, the Milwaukee Sentinel,
a erst newsplapaer was also interested and petitioned the FCC to
witlhIlraw thi.e e(bcational reservation. Tile Sentinel, a Republican
1ewsal)er4 had endorsed MTcCarthv for reelection in a front page edi-
torial the precedin fall-.52 On April 1. 1953, the FCC-for the second
ti ille rejecte(l the I Lea rst petition by a vote of 6-1, with Commission-
er lRosel ITvde dissenting. The next step was to issue a construction
permit to tie educational association. It was at that point that Sena-
tot, MeCarthv dramatically intervened.
()n ITondy. April 1i, FCC Chairman Paul Walker and Conmis-
!iolier Eufiene Merrill were sumnmoned to appear before a meeting of
Senator. MeCa rt livs Subloifnittee on Expenditures in the Executive
l)epartinent. Merrill still was waiting for Doerfer to take the oath of
()tice and replace him. Walker was continuing as chairman until Eisen-
lbower ( esignated his suieessor. Both were "lame ducks" and both had
opposed the h1earst petition. With no other member of the committee
J>resent or notified. and with a stenographer present, Senator Me-
(,Irthv interrogated the two Commissioners, both of whom were under
All of tle. questions pertained to channel 10 in Milwaukee. Mc-
(artIIv's objective was to obtain an assurance from Chairman Walker
thiat 11o further action would be taken on that matter until Doerfer was
seated and an Eisenhower Chairman of the Commission named. No
11(11 aSurnI'e were rwen. Lnt the Senator was told that no action on
tlie controversy was planned for that week. Satisfied. IcCarthy ad-
jo-irnod thle neeting after an hour. within days, Heart filed its
third motion for a rehearing and Doerfer took his seat as a Commis-
sioner. At flat tiiiie, it was still considered a toss up as to whether
I)oerfer or IIv(le wOuld l)e gained FCC Chairman.
flie (l"x, M aiv in tervened on belalf of the Mtilwaukee Sentinel,
. !i oliva,)vi. Ma-so. vice president of American Telephone & Tele-
5rra"t ". +saw Cli~irles Willis. "As a spokesman for the industry," Horns-
f). Whdvise, the Wuite tlouse that "the best thing that could be done
S)--rf-*r N\ rit ton r'jion ,.
\++ AI of" ths inforntti no corning McCarthv and channel 10 ik taken from: the
Wa';t'hini:,to lot. May 10. 1953., pp. 1. 8, 9; St. Louis Post-Dispatch. May 16, 1953,
p 2Z # II( ,ortIr. \ a 2;, I ; I .
JT- l'February, Mc'{art llonl with Senator Alexander Wiley of Wisconsin had written
t h V1'4' r it to withdraw channel 10 from education and dev)to it to commerelal
;r4It ti%. G1overn1r Kol4r and four ViseOIlni Congressnn had taken the same
p i'.ii iorn, W,1hin~ton Post. M1ay 10. 1953, p. ".
".\ltlh h (' WaiIker had requeste(I and been promised a copy of the tran-
srilpt. ])one( was ever made avatflahle. Ibid.


W"111~l1 be( to appoJint, Il II I, IcI I Iv .( .I I I -I I lId I Ihat I I~ v ( I
"11iie than able t( h) do the ver I l,'S~ V ,'l"ifl i+,) Job. )n April 1l.
a)r. I1fl lk St iantol. ie rce sidhiiti f' SI called MTl i I er :il i mi d
' l i d-
I t I it (r )ii e l v1 ,ie Wl li I t' I I i li 1'8)lt 41aI I ie li iweli i rLV

cliairiofnIip for hyde ieth arrlieti c c18 e m iji nEt. 1 t lt1,1vt
Fcvicwcd~1 1)c ilc ta l )ii l l t the~l ( 'willilll ca'ttionls ( ()Illt-
reiewd rc dvl.a
lirl ( I rhout, thet wveck., i virwl llm I/)vtwIljlt of c'1llr- elllllt'- 1,41.

1111J. therefore. ,Iore able ti LiII i)oerfer trll*I' 1,(o

1I lie 8r)fj'aticul' I, 11c 1i Ir+( al tv xviwl't I ),cfe1i -..1. ,

]Iitlo1 tas (Clai Il 111 XVOl have grivenl. I )ovrfer va> iiiforinle o~f ti
d1(lestoll for 11 vdc.
Btit lydle -v8-. 11*t. Mos el 11 I(h was it ll)lt' on >iit r A I 1".
wNlieii a sta1ff InclelIwr called 1i11 It) >8y iii:ii li' thail he: IiV1cii in
;niO~Cenielit 0)1 o lie radio: Ilyle wa> Ilamed ( ]Lti"iaii Of 1t F(C(
lt. only for a r-I iii of 1 year, under ;e oiie s>0t of no)lolln of Iot lt in!
eliariianship. It was i vde's fr not ice of the apl)oIl ,i vl. xxi icI
pleased him, andl of the 1-year term. which di, neyi. I',i Fr1 the dtiav
he xas a)lpoilite I. lie wouht l be a lame duck chairmann Furelr. it
liardI v ed to ,x to Spe(,iv the lengtIi of Ilie t(ql' l silce l,
4(e 1111111i"r1ian ser'et 1 at, the pIleasure of tIw lire I ,lent: in i 8 yeaI-.
le could be replla+I without this Stilpilatioli. In liort. IZ(o-el l v de
was on probation :n11 lie knew it. A very shiew(I lirui.-e !1ad l,,.e01
worked Out at tle White Ilole between those who fa v th)re tl e Xlieri-
enced hand of II vie an(1 those wi) felt a still, new broo wh Is n ere--
Sarv. The latter /roup was pacific (-oniewli:t ; peritIa ps iin a yeaf r0
so b)oerfer would be suIfliciently exIperiencee! to take over the laff-
ianship. Moreover. IINe w.,as on notice that if le ,liln't p>erfoIll Toi
the satisfaction ol' i le administration. lie si plly would not be r'etde'iz-
nated chairml tile next year. In tile Iiealii Ine. tle ofi o t el -
vision allocattio(ns woi 11(l go oil without interrutti(om, and(i Ili, V. a l
1 year to clean )Jit "'tie left-wiiier anJ -New I)ca1ers" f,. )111 til ,*
poI v )osts andl 1o reorganize tle F(V to> tlie sati-4actiom "l tilft
White House
Not on1y was I vle le-' i trm e' ,fo .IIn 1 I vyeaI. kit it 01 be W10'
appi)rent that. mi at least soiii, lim(tters. the White I II-Re trealc,
I)oerfer as if lie were the F(( (Clairman. I lvle al I)oerfcr X\,vI,
I i:ted by t he W 'tit e Ilolise as V( '( cn t-tics on l ersoinnel Ilw:ltcr-e.
B ut I)ierefer al,) handtled cerllain P- )Crs1-4nel rI-'ru1ilenl fiilcs Xli,!l
al)lear to hive ieeni kept fr ('hainillan Ilvile. Lat er, Xvellix I1 t.
was repla:d as ( 'ili ia n. l)o, rfeir turned t lie files e r to It vt "
o Inl add ion, I)oerfer Involved illuvel f inl forlat i1 i 1 '1
+ Wiis to Adanms, Apr. 14, 19,,. fDI,,. OF -16, box 190.
I' rn k Stxltin t, ila s. ,Apr. 19. 1 58. 11E'L, GF -11, box
Broadeatln Apr. 6. 1958, p. 5.
r Broadcast lng. Apr. 20, 1951, p. 5.
IntCrviw V with I yd'.
I" Broadcastin Apr. 2,2 1953. p. 37.
+'Wi lis to Phili;, You ng x Chairman, civill Service ( il i, n, NCv. 7o 1 '.
OF 103, box 4.:
Ch I'. I '-'rfr to Wi!lis. N,.v. 2G. 19571. IDEL., GF 41. h(,% ::',.'


eral pwlic'v fol. the :,,,enoy. Two iiovnthI s aft er le to tk office. D)oerfer
-iIlhlllitted a trl to tle White Ilole which began: "There
It "m pl-rll [e th lfoe! I l.S ') :,11 )li hi n a ( 01111111issj aMdl rec eat ing it.'"C
'itlli a >ax in"11 of SI0).())) a Near. tile ilopoaI11 ,(itinued. the mei-
I Iersli )f i i ( ,i 'S oII) I hlm I l Ie FCI I WC4! frlll u even to five, 'therel)
,, &i+ ri A I i l ''xve s 1 ,ag r e." 001-
I )(orfcr lht oI tills ipl)osal with officials in the Bureau of the
ild hIolet.. It Itme- 1101 al>)earV tllat Ilyde wts colsl]ite(, and the Chair-
ii a I oil ii )re I la 11 1 e 0Wcasioi-v1oiced Iiis cOl ceni about, the fre-
tjielut Iiweti -bet xv-(wee I)oe-rfer an( the Wllite IIlouse."4 In reality,
I vLe iot IhIIl i a : rI I 1.1)- Iiial'lhi ior 12 1 i i t IIS.
iHiere t'ore it is 1ardll V ll-'i)r'silg that, 1111 ike most Eisenhower
:taic i'y lheadis. ( '1 iial' IIv(le was not volnsulte(l I)v the White House
W), its Seof" a'sut essor to Iria al))ointee, Paul Walker..5
A 1lII+iiL)i' (f calldidate> actively s IR),er.t J. I )cii oi >011" IS )alota.
Sit t lie E';t-lshowelu Lib)Ia. there 1 a nomination paper which reads:
*I 1u l"Ite Robert J. )ean of Sout t )akota to be a member of the
I.('( ... It is date( August ,8 19.3, -nd it is complete except for
tle lresi delt s sian:iat iie.'6 Biroadcasting hiiaLvazine ( which had excel-
lelit s0til'Cvs thiolluil)-lult tlis 'lriol) cioiifidteiltIy de(1ared, in its Au-
a.i;st 8, i*t+I, lat Rh)ohlrt eaIls uaiiie would go to the Senate that
-\ee 0k. (;
1") 1t lile iiii(i'l'ois )oai sii)ppOrters. victory wtas in sig-ht at long last.
lhe 'l ire )ltli Dakota Rep1ublican structure had been vigorously
S+ul)hlp)rtinlg tte ,)O-Ve,+-oI(l lawver-t rned-broadlcaster for a. number
of 1114)1tls. The first (ColiiiiiInic-atioins had occurred back in December.
S' iiator Fraicois (ase ha(a N written no less than five letters and made
111111W1(101111 )l )v calls from eeenber to July on Dean's behalf; 08
11 lore would follow. Ag li and aiain, the South Dakota. Senator
s1re-seI the fact t )at not ()illV was I)eal a broa(lcaster but a lawyer
as wvel1. As an or,,anlize of tle South Dakota Broadcasters Associa-
iio. l)eai kiiew the industry. ("lie knows how to make weather re-
l+(wts useful to stockiiien, aniiei, and plain picnic fans." 69)
("Ise (liid n10ot ieect to Iciiieion thlt Dean had been a fund raiser in
1 ie Li ca i)a j)igli. )ean also) secured warnli ell(lo1rsenients from Sen-
a r Ed xviii (u Joluison (former 1)eiiioclatichliai ,inli of the Inter-
>1 ate a)ul I()reigll (1(IIolilerce ( oimittee) and Representative Harold
If. Velite (c,!tdinau of tlie I louse (Cmiiittee on 7 1-American Activi-
tIc ; .l)eal was i ut erv iewe bv Willis and Adamis at the White
I flvM, :11(1 le Ll r o)l )d iy tle F(( to meet with tIyde and J)oerfer7
I i+ ,4(t 1. I)Iior Io AligUust 1. )eani had spent the better part of 2 months
iii \ asi i W; viis to Itw,,,or Jones ( Buireaii of the Biidgot), attaching a copy of the inemoranduin,
+ .2.. I ,5,;. I I EL, I HF 16. bO 190.
Wi! 1 o Ib 11. Ee ,,. IDE)I L, OF 16, box 190.
SI et ruling v rittien te ose~s+s
I+ ln rviw w ithi l~ol' rt In ervivw wit I I Iv e.
V 0 H,, I I ; t im 11 1 ,;1~r, IN )I: f W t )h x 190.
S*ai bi;!tr Frais l 4'a-+o tO Willis. Maiy 27, 1'#-7):". DDEL. OF 1G. box 190. Case to Ada snl,
2 : Mw, '20 1958- .1 11o'211. 2- 8 Case to Wills, May 23, 195:. DIEL, GF 41A.
'., Ada s. May 2(), 1'958, D) EL., F 41 A.
ei, + to E -Ii;isohwvr, ,lul:,' N2, 1958 Velde to Eisnhoiilier. July 10, 1953. I)DEL,
( I 1 A,
W illis to Iot(rt I2)9an, May 29, 1953. 1)I)EL, GE 41A ; Iroadeasting, June 22,

III>ew. ( illi V I I LIil 8> >()i!' III '1 1th' 'L ll W il' I 1

110I1I1v )III i iI(12?I'S. eI ) k III lti' I I 'i. I i I'&Ibolt i''-. Ii I PX1 0 i lti ( I'Iil
FCC p' i."" (!lT] w IaI -a I 1at i I IIX t i 'i\\it'
lii I itl ,! I '- I li l i i l I I I it l toii \ I I I I I I I I. I I t v I

Ithl t',e ( oei l l>ki iit i e O ii'l ,iii trllliiet t'tl X-ii i I irl >11'),,-
I 8 I t li ea III a i I I i lil I li l >I t' ii Ii Iii/ Vlii i l, I II) Ih'I

wiile it'' 11 iit tie liiS F 'o)1,Cl ke(1 iaii t i e IX lol teiiiii a l !) 'ia ii it e'' xva
tn I INVI tiu tfl IloeI :I t I Le of Iah Iu to I I.&. II:II o II

A I ll1w a Iu I X\i ( i i. i tleeo itl. i ili ViI lij I II.t" tlI, ll' it't'i -
I lel X' iiieittiv 114ll ltMi aj1f)ti t" t l i Ult I IIliVi.I 'ndlit bl lt' III
tillt Let' hoiild the Itiiiw1i4li 012 llt '4l ,1 1i li t' Xvea it(rtiil'-
h "i ( 4 1 Is 2, 1ea 1 rn lm l I l tI ,,I \ I I l'W 1 )(' i, IS it
Ic' I I i it h ()ii ( )t ,1 I I I I I riS 1 ,1 "'> "a : -I 1 Nv a., 11 1

,I fum I f! It aI l >tI I I IIIt VI II e> t Ii' XX Io 11, aXpeit Imeli Ith I r lutoid

MI ea 1 14 1X8 to e llo l'> dal e~o0 -t ha' t Yof callt' ]I()% prh.Lt> i t t11c~-
It PP IIiat If c

I' I Ii' t II liii tir. a 28Ii. t 1 ) e. e s(IJ I l 41 Al.I im l e ( .II t
(din IcI'te 1)i-i nrI I I-Itile w t cle;v I IIlc i 'tit Ie Stra I i ( I. tI l'" I p ll A Mi il 111
whol ) I t :l it 4 t195 I I toI t, th 4IIc'

hi ert11.illit Ii 1b lali Ii Lt'4'.
tan Ii acout .t), I o!e IIl s. -e 1 of A I I sI I t(In \vt Ill I).(IeI Ifi(a "(IIY
IIIaI t A, Ic : l. I -Itil I nt m o I I 111, l:( ( r (*I)t'1-1 Nvve li~ li t~ ; I cll.-; )I I
po I l- t I l' I I ,I ( lI li i l e s I I I I I II)- t I a I a w Ie Iil(l aitii 1)' : < i -
I a.11 a I )(lI't-.c 111o1l II( ])()l calld 1lae w li ItStlcrm ",I )cil l" "I~t ], l lIV(~
in( tlhelpite.l 111 l who f'lle'\ mattle 11 Oil I( e re pele -""l w l h
AN-hole,~( mak wa epnd n ie iew rillida h tt altllidl"atv*~,),
ane acc ua nt R b rtE Leel'i~ of)'lii W as" itl)i ililt 1i D ( ll'll\v leil'l )
F I~ e c oIt ] f wr IIw II -
ilie1))i(, ee C I I!II I I 1 )ler[ ie !llr) of (t'mlll i( It 1) it >> ,
ilp pir1it)1'Olimw l C l llitev d)1! ll( li m ver vlti( nilh l hrt I l i

hO l llcl*(, _l ll 1 till, vac11(1 >el t)l tit(, j ('('1,7 u ,; { l i(i ll:ti
,Ifell ']-, ll,ti' ia t w t klll o-l for n'le. ll tll wlit 1() l (1 '' Im I*1w th lermii i ()l,.f
tIc t vc l"is ~l:t isti ,' lli to e ( el1 t ] (l> '111-e- .!W ~ !
fill. f ae l ctmp'li >I I as (me: (f i l"d l Ilms'i "r a lz ( t Ily II V I W -
Ill~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~1' his/ i11mv thlt:)Ya- mteWIIjm-( I tl'. m 1, p('ll:l~ilW1'

l(/ )l! \V I) [It !l li t I I I(), l 2' \-('l ()I* Il |.t' ( l i ,!g 0''l i~ l
II i Tl' (;iI a 1)( ',, l l 1 StvIc" >"gc- ~ .I t l 1 m lr di,
fl V I- 1,A I I I+ s() 1- S eIl I \ ,I; I III (I1"1 1) '

All"_. P),., I DOl~l IFl 1 G, Iw.x l190i
;: S r, 11 v.,rll -I .. .. 1 l Jl'1n torsemeinlt Filo D D L (It -1 1 + A.
.,,~2:, 19!53;. IMtl,. GF 41 A.
:'''l tr 1~r l,-,r NO\'l. 'd 1"I11 TIWl -o :IV ilial [l I l I 1,- I, 11 4,, w/ z

l ~ ~ ~ 1 N\l l' it' i ts lI.
v:lirviv.w Nviih ]ilt wlrt E. J,oje.


lou(1 and clear" II "vel'V ulleasant" terms the seInator infor-ned 'Wil-
liis that he had wthtXr I M consulted before any such decision was m.e.
and t hat lie would spe'ak )eIaoltIllv with tle I'resilent about tliIs at
their reflar meeting that coining Monday. However, despite efforts
y ll'id vs :tiid thy lst of is SIuppoiters, Lee (lid not get the appoint-
liinet. W11at dof) -\-oil do with a per0I1 who has 100 congresiona en-
t 1" B~rigs? Thie Lee,
(lorseeents anll( thlc Slilmo appointlnient as a istait cOllptroller general was in serious doubt in
mid-July; by early August, Dean's ship was also sinking fast5
The I)ean sit uat ion cooled through August and in September, Le
was isked if lie would consider an appointment to the FCC. His
respond was IIti ally le ,ss than enthusiastic: to a staff member of the
Con -resi oln:i col inittee where all Government appropriations orig-
inated, tlie F(C didn'tt seem to be very important nor was its reputa-
tion that ceeo1. Leo replied that he would consult his supporters and
twen r(,ch ael decision. Securing the advice of Bridges and Taber, Lee
a~reed to accept and then left for Europe on congressional business.
lie w~!S 5U~~llnoned back to accept the appointment from Eisenhower
lii nselNf who app-eared to know little about the FCC. The President
11eelv stigrgested to the new Commissioner that he speak with his
J,.ellir. Milton, about educational television. Chairman Hyde was
infored of the Lee nomination by an FCC staff member.87 The day
after Lxees appointment was announced on October 6, 1953, a 25-year
career man was named Assistant Comptroller General.8
All tlose involved seemlyed pacified by the accommodation-all, that
is, except Senator Case of South Dakota and Robert Dean. In an at-
tempt to make nearly everybody happy, Willis spoke with Dean and
asked if he would accept instead the position of FCC Secretary. Both
Dean and Senator Case agreed, and it seemed settled.89 But, the Com-
uiission had known Robert Dean for years as an occasional applicant
for broadcasting privileges. From past experience, Rosel Hyde wasn't
impressed and neither were most of the other Commissioners. Dean
was found wanting, and the Commission-under the chairmanship of
Ro te-reeted a man for the position of Secretary whom the
President had almost made a Commissioner." Senator Case and others
were flfrious, and Hyde had not heard the end of that matter.91
Wiilis t Adams, July 11,1953. DDEL, OF 99, box 336.
SThe reaon why Lee's appointment as assistant comptroller general was blocked is
unclear. According to Lee, the reason was that President Eisenhower had promised the
oijdit~(i~rn stroller general to name his former assistant to the post. Interview with
Ie.,. Ilrew lh',arson-whose sources during this period were hardly infallible-suggested
that the reason was a result of a judgment on Lee's competence, and quotes Sherman
Audam' o as syng "It was a case where we thought [Lee] would be less dangerous over
ih4.ri, rac to CC]." Drew Pearson, Washington Post, Jan. 4, 1954, p. 21.
SAside from the intervention of Lee. Dean may have had other problems connected
w ith his Iu, Iss. In 198, the FCC had found Dean to have violated certain FCC regu-
latIion re,.a rdit- the transfer of stations. The commission decision was liter upheld by
the corts. Iroadcatinl, Aug. 8, 195,). 1. The White House memorandum which pro-
lIII- I( n the nominee also all1des to certain problems with Dean: The best move' as
far ii that vacancy is to select a man "who has unquestioned intoe-rity, who is unin-
h.ited vy Ihe (Cojn;ission's past record, and who Is completely free of network and
tudisr, ;~r-ire." Memorandum re: Robert E. Lee", DI)EL, OF 16, box 191.
[I I r~ihw with Lee.
T: nt .rvie v with it yde.
Brs'riluistii0g, Oct. 12, 195,, 1). 52.
WiI',Vi n, Ad us, Sept. 22, 195 I)DEL1 OF 16, box 191.
t*' hIt ervuith with Tiyde.
"++ l;ut +'ha Ir ('.1 s i tot 're.t in I)ean hardly abat(ed. When it appeared as though a
v:meattv s,' the, FCC ould1 occur In 1954, Case again recommended Dean. Case to Willis,
M~r. 19. 1 951 Iid~ied. aN late as June 26, 1957, Case was still pushing Dean for appoint-
mi~t to thle I"'C( 1) EL. GF 41lA.

S'jncc ( Coll-Ii .-e lhad adjolI'Iied, I(,lI- I'd. IAe a> .ri11 It eu ;i ,-
UI)Ipoiniliit, to thle (Commiiissioni w~ildlw later (i-Illatti lou
cinicate wvlmle it I'eoollvel('d in lil()IltIs. Yet, thle eoFt eover, 11 :-
io)iiiat o1 did iiot await the return of the l eiiate. It wal- Ii' H
(oilCi(hch lt al that, lroa(hastli)g )lace t lewi li()t i,.'(, l (' (,11d
of its ,h.1,il)tiol of theiw' ('(v I iP si,)rk2Tt )a(l" e la ,
after Iec took Ills seat, the Ii( aiiol (ie4l, I that it wa. ,,i.->ie* ...-
Opeiim-r 1Nj) -aitot hew s tatlonl \\il nLIgeOf NI iiwaiiie fo. ilie I lean-i-
OWIICed M ilwaulkee iit itiel ( as t(o resolve e tle cult ,vo ,eI V ,(' el, ni i
Ilel I0 wlil-1111-m bc,""'n rese (I)v.( fw,) cIla ia l 1) 1-001,11, Il.,I] %ellt-
tP Joe A1( ar-tIr h (ll 110t lost Ilis ilitv l '-1 ill that ilittt(i. w. Mn ln(
IICC. (Duvillg t, spring of I :C("art h t \, St"
l((< turiui(' l .,)"ithe. ":
had swariled int o tle F(-.( to ispert I liei r files.
5emiutoi M( alCaiv mld 1olwrt l. lf \e(' e l(). l I l frivn) I
The imi ii(liate l)tl)ei reattioli1 Was ol() ofI ai)lazeelia I lat IresI '11t
1i.isenliower O would select as li is Ii i.t lI)V( I t( llpino.,ts Ille.l \\-1()
appeare(d to e)(' ilet i fie(l wit It lIe V s I I SCI It or. (0 I ( )I (.*I er :27
John "Tex" M1('rary (a broadcaster allot cl(se friend of t le allivii
t nation) w rot cSIerinan Adans
I'm (urious to) Idi)\OXVh v lAe goN)t l)lh(Ald i'1l) the, 1(1 j,). A ii I wowlroet ifi I h.
boss kn()vs all the factors involved. If lie story hits him fiuil). tiwIi frt l)~r,
he Could be awful iiad.
I'm iiitereste(l () course, because 1'it i, he Ibuisi ( s, :ad ex e mt)r(, th'(plv
interested be(-ause I (14)n't like to see certain inltluences iin'rease tlwir ,t'ro1lye111
in strat gie (luart ers.i
Mc( rary, like aliy others, saw this ap l0lotil ict as another con-
ciliatory move () right-wi hg Relpblicai elements ii general, and to
5e(natoP h.MCartly in particular.
Front the start, everyone-including Lee himself-agreed that the
new Conimissio) r knew absolutely nothing about the regulatory fhin'-
tions of the F('('. Ils expertise was aecomitig, and his talents iIl
that area had beeni recognized I y J. l!4dga r Iloover who ia l talent a
liking to Lee and til de him chief clerk of the FBI in charge of all
fiscal m-atters. IUnder Hoover's Sponsorshi), Lee I()ved to tle ]Ho(se
Appropriations (ommittee in 1946 where he eventually became I)i-
rector of Invest i(at ions.
From then oil, Lee's activities iiwr(easig(lv were hIi('slwid witl I-i!riht-
wving eleits ill tlhe RepllARlidan Party, oni whose I )ell h -,w x )Il
with sufliiet diligence, to cialble 1iuu to grou) a larcre mm1inr ()f
end(orse met s fi'cim conservative ( onressniIj for a Federal )(ositio
in 195,8,
In 19.7 it was Lee, as a meml)er of the staff of Ole IHrouse A I Ir0()l'i
ations (""oil1111 ittee, who had Initially compiled a list of1 WS :e>, )f
ale(Irel (islovalty in the 'riiiaii Mate IDepartient ea
J years, the list was examined by no less than four con(i'ssio()al cw(i-
inittees. IIy 19; 0, only a fourth of the persons named were still withI
the department, and all of those had been fully investigated.
'*, tlroalcasting. Oct. 12, 1953, p. 54.
Washintoi Post, May 10, 1953. p. 9.
I 5See Washin~ton Post, Oct. 7, 1953, p. 6.
1s l John l1oea :n McCrary. Jr., to Adams, Oct. 27 1953. DDEL. ,F 11 1)4),
'-Broadcasting. Oct. 12, 1953, p. 52.

Il st Ilad jr xw1aI ])it stale w Ieiii Senator Joe M[c(,arthy gave it
pwx life in 19-1).. Aier a spIeel in West Virginia. Mi,i((arthy's critics
1in.+iste,&! that lie >~l A a iii t late i is cl ia rge that there were 2)5 "aTd risks
:1 id 57 ':aud-ra T'xrMiI conill|uunists" in the State l )elartient. Mc-
(':I rt Iv wa-, never kil"iw fo)r numerical precision wlen he made his
a rIv ( clai a ,ulU ( 1oniniiinist inifiltration, and he never substan-
I Iale IIs wlit hiirt. l111t lIe dit use ti lie remaining 4) names on Lee's
oli list wN-irh sa ved 1111 1'r(mi coiiiplete public eil)arrasslent.9 Con-
i isl:1 imer I oe re'c)at (, lII stated t I iat lie h:ad not supplied the list to

It w asa l-u lh who l d l)een the first inoderator for oil mogul IT. L.
I lunts pwrrail "tFa'I ; lior1i1i in the sprin of 195g. Lee had been
d or the job by Senators Bridges. McCarthy, and Mundt."
In! evx'liaie for *B).40 Lee moderated tlie first few programs before
heiiia retpl'nced bY I )aIi S iioot. another former FBI man. By the tine
lv wa's il1 for (oifriniatioi, "Facts Forum was being carried free as
aI ptbli senice, Iw__ radio stations and 58 television stations. It had
a]so l1rai(ired 0111 into new hunt enterprises such as "Answers for
Allmerin),'-1 and "'Ieporters Roundup." The Internal Revenue Service
1ha-d (iven the proiorani tax-exemtpt status because it was a nonpartisan,
vd(tatioilI project. Many did not agree. One newspaper, after ex-
lhatiI Ive resear'! conclu(Ied that "Facts Forumi' divided all its issues
:11 Or t lie Iilies of 'isolationism, ultraconservatisn and McCarthyism"
o e( Sidhe. "verstis treason or stupidity" on the other.O'" Lee had not
lbe ivolved with the program or its sponsors since his departure
a:s I ltoderat or.1WI
It was Lee again, alono with his wife-a very active member of
t he IDistrict of (oltim)ia Republican Coimmittee-who was involved in
h, calipa lain to unseat Senator Millard Tydinrs of Marylandl. Me-
('art liv aind hiis entire staff moved into the Maryland senatorial cam-
1 ill in I 9.5() to de lfeat Tydings, an avowed opponent of tie Wisconsin
eiator. Later, a selat orial committee would describe it as a "despic-
1t)lQ, Ia('lk-51reet tyl). of campaign" infamous for its doctored photo-
l!( t IO (,iiiiiist smear tactics. Lee state that his involvement
NVU Ili'iited to (le)ositing an unreported $5,000 check in a Baltimore
I )i uk. lAe had 1o responsibility for reporting" the funds, and the man
wlo did .,vzs later liiedl for not complying with State campaign
tii'ili' (>IUili'Q,: W I, -.: Lea's FCC nomination revNived the Tyding s
a iiipa i .1. .(,l oveisv t(-) sm'h 81n extent that, on October 16, ,,,3' At-
io' 11V W'i wiaI !oxv ll I anmlouneed that were was no evidence of vio-
lii ii )i (,i t, e len. 11 a w. liv LI()ifll l lee .03
lo'() :0 1 tida! was added thie 1,l ic suspicion concerning the possible
.\Id.( 'a d't lx, iiulliei'e oui I .ee n ()i oadcasting matters. Lee openly stated
I 'v v L' 1u iddlt's t a 1 ,r \Ic(- artlyv is a friend of mine. I like him.
I tiiiik hl'' :1 -rra I i u .. It was also tue that Lee's wife had been
a:11a *l o()f liioni at Mc('art!iy's weddin- just a few weeks before Lee's
i1udwri St rauss Ieuvrlicht, "Joe McCarthy and MeCarthyism : The Hate that Haunts
A m ,ric~'," 7) 5 s;.
B'r,,a(l tlIn .May 21, 1954, p. 32.
"1 T,. I )It to i ,nh 1wv,r, Jau1. 27, 1954. )DE L. GF 41, box 280.
She, qiwte are fromi the Irovldence Journal Bulletin which ran an S-part series on
t l t I I 4 New pII I iC, Feb. 1, 1954, p. 6.
1 1 l,'e S~ natI hearing. 1954, p. 10.
: t~ri~in ce'e 'v-+r Jan. IS, 1954, 1). 1.
\V; I Va' T iui. ()1t; I 2, J a .i:l 54.
1 \\a~hiin~a'n Star, Jani. 15, 1951, p). A2.


appoiittiiientit.' This, stadin(liiflr -,lome, w ()lld he )lotliin' more l l:, n criIlt
by assoejatiol. But, iII XmoVell'bkr after Lee had heel api )oint(t. to the
the Ph.._, s losls)l(.Oii deel)eied when Senator Mc(.arthly r(-ei'vd for
tie ( ) () f iii vt tirk le t t) re'-j)J(, nId to (I 0 \ I 4(,t )rk X .V i ,,1
nmiade III(, week lorer toril-"er IPre--i(l&'llt TI-1ar 1i1. TIii 11iiw. 1'ii l)
teel iven flree time to resj)oi(I to clargus.-y i. e lbisiiliower atl, i(i.-
istiration on lis )polic'y tow-iri loyalty, imote a -iljrle relereiioe Mc-
C a rthyism il a 30- 11 iIIt e speech. 10
The networks \\-ere 110 i I ota IV l)Oybou(I t(- )'it t M-c( -11VtV '(,iflt,4
for free time)(. u)llt thIey, l)'(*)TIlid Iv (Iid. 1Kyen. I roa (cas t i11 orn a ,:)zi I ZII
observed that tli acquieSl('41 e "(Iid ot. a(1 to) broadcasting's rei l -
tation for coira eous j u(igmnent." 107 It was genera lly thought that
the reason the iilt\Nv(m'ks :iceld w : t hat ihey l(ea n' 111(, .) e II()f I
promise to demi a nd an F(C& investigator if the time was not allotted.,(,
As one observer l)(oi ite l out. "'tlie thIica ca red- an NN1i
wVeight beeaus(' o)Il)laints )V McI(arthy i ll oml)any volId find svil-
pathetic ears at te "FC (.'o trar to the general assumnti) AIl.-
Carthy appears niot to have )eel involve'l ill I lie Lee sel.,t i, o) t. Olie
FCC, and Lee (lid ev erth"n he ,oull to keep t lie information from tile
WVisconsin Seniator 1iiitil the pild]( aIini)o (,ireient lhad been 1Iade 110
Further. Lee ret)vat elv state'(d that as Jar as lie was conrerne,. Nl(-
(Carthv would be treated like anyone else.ll
Long before .Janmarv 1954, i4isenhower was weary of McCarthlv12
and certainly lie must have taken little leasure in ti e rOm)iiI'l lalli)n
fight which would 1ow ensue over tle Lee nominat-ion. Robe-rt E. 1,(,e
was on his own; he could expect little or nothing from an embarrassed
AWhite IIouse.'' Ie (lid, however, have the enthusiastic support of
Senator Styles Bridges, who-more than anyone-lad been initially
responsible for the nomination.'14
When, on Janiary -2-), 1954. Senator Mike Ilonroiev sto(tl in tlhe
Senate to oppose the confirmation of Robert E. Lee. he expected little
more than "a corporal's guard" to agree with his position.1-'
The Oklahoma Senator first referred to the "sense of fear" that
enveloped this matter: the usually vocal broadeatinlz iuiobtrv la(l
"maintained stony silence" on Lees nomination. The salne strangee
silence." Monronlev continued, was present at Lee's hearing where not
one of his many influential political sponsors appeared; indeed. "this
strange silence seems to run deep even in this augiust body." 1" Aon-
roney did not challenge the integrity or honesty of the nominee : he was,
SWashinzton Pos t, )t 17. 1953,
New York Times Nov. 17, 1953, P. 1.
"' Quoted in the Wahlington Star, Nov. 25, 1953, p. B13.
:' Ne'w Repl) ic~h. ITl) 1. 19)54. pt. (1.
N0 M(Carth lt 'jTi t hat 1e had nuthitn. wh:itoever' to On with the Le, 4l-in
Conwesshorni1 I .', I .Tai. 2-5. I 5-4. p 11i1. Ini*,'d. Me(':irthv st!)port1'il s ', ,
for the position, "M'eNlorandum re Robert E. Lee", Sept. 1953, DIEL,. OF 1', B ,1L
Lee is certain that MeiCarthv had no a~ivaIee knowledge of the selection. nt eiew w h
U Washington Post. Jan. 19. 1954, p. 29.
.'~ As ea ~ .)).,. lhe, I'r,,,Mnt dumbted both the wlsdi, and inrity of
McO'artlis Inves iia tions. anod had written a friend thait he felt McC 'd rt yv wa< in 'r-
ested onily iin i1,cr(, ;i'in) his f*,',> :s atn ft'r dlinnet si)(ak,r. Th,,ox. ln:'i ', :r vi','xx ,I h',
whole matter as a "sorry mess.' Parmot, op. cit. 241 -41. Yt., he tmi Hii ri I ',
tolcratd hi praci i''- fuir it -,- wPi lnn't oi, -,r'- i, ''\\ o\' I W 1I '1 l
for the ofliial stlence, see Eisenhower, op. cit., pp. 308-89.
13 Interview with Lee.
114 Ibid.
US ongressional Record. ,Tan. 25, 1 954. p. ( O
See Congressional Record, Jan. 25, 1954, pp. 658-59.

02 119 G -.


however, concerned about the integrity of some of Lee's close associates
andthebenfit t ey iiihtderive from Lee's appointmentt.17
anld tjj(e sxnft tllv niight -'
First, there was iI. L. Ihunt. Froin Monronev's viewpoint, "Facts
1oru1" was little more than a thinly (iisgl ised pro)aganda vehicle
for Ilint's pn-titive and (lange runs political philosophy. The senator
was alaru! at t lI growth an(t the effect of the Dallas oimans various
})rogral~ls dealing with the Commnunist menace, and it can be safely
assui,10l th:at MInronev witnessed both ocurring in his home State
of Oklahoma. Backed'by tax-exempt dollas. the program had al-
ready rotec'tedt itself as a "lpublit service" deserving free air time to
over A)O statiMons across the country.18 Robert E. Lee believed that
the program "h1al been pIresented very fairly." Monroney advised
t1 Sate that Ie was "not talking in riddles or imagginin ghosts
under the bed" when he wondered:
1o, ma-ny i mall broadcasters, wishing to discontinue the free time for Facts
Forui. will have the courage to do so, after the confirmation of the nomination
c1ol rt E. Lee. 11o)w many will be fearful when solicited to give their time
o1 new slatiois to) this Facts Forum device? "1
i f anvo+e considered that to be foolishness, Monroney continued, let
theni consider the new-found impact of Senator Joseph McCarthy on
COJn~1ui i()Its matters. Because of a single paragraph reference by
Hiarry S. Timan to McCarthvismn." the Senator from Wisconsin
wired the networks for equal time, sending a copy of the telegram to
eachW F('C commissioner. Ie demanded and received a full half hour to
respond to President Truman. Monroney again wondered aloud:
Would this time have been given by all three networks if they had not realized
the strategic importance of the placement on this sensitive agency controlling
collnications one of the best friends and political associates of the Senator
from Wisconsin ? '
Then there was the matter of channel 10. Milwaukee, and the Hearst
Corp. Monronev recounted the details of the repeated FCC denials of
I 1ea rst petitions. the "closed session" interrogation by Senator Me-
C;1rtllv of F( c( olnunlssloners. the piessure from the McCarthy in-
ve- t ;if: tous. 'ad t I en-a fter Lee took his seat-the announcement from
the F( C that it would consider opening up a station in a suburb of
M1 il wa uk~ee to accom)nmodate thearst.
Thore had also been new developments which the Senator shared
with his colleagues. Onlv 30 days from the filing of the Hearst peti-
tiol, tle F( V had created a new station. In order to do so, the Commis-
siln dJisrupted station in tree States. At the time of the Senate debate,
th ree' alj i tS-in(hl.ldi' I Iearst-were competing for the license.
'l~e control over tliou(ht itself through the use of the media by men
lik .( ,tlv and hint is what disturbed Senator Mlononey when
lIe concluded:
I do, nt believe rLes] baekgroinid as an expert auditor or his fine Wervice
a [ a del.i je in thl FBI]1 would lead me-to believe, that he would defenA
with hi veiry life the right of dissent and the right of freedom of speech.'
4:,ureiona Record. Jan. 25, 1954. p. G6O.
: I1bid. p v
1 I bidI p. 66i7.


N 4t for I)le lyv > l )lJ- i ]Ii' v-I,' 1 c'lea ', c'nd~idl. :111dl ck l t( )(+I 4111:e11
.1\te 1 I (!(', ; titlst oIIc(artlly II the( -;(1latc,. T h(e';tili,- ar,
11114 a b~it 11t11asN..
]' ,th lit'l 1 l') ti r i l e l (,Iv I\ r aieU-l l l'" rodt I'\

fto 01 ) ) +'l N't S\b' ( Un ) leil, I'1,'i -ifIt 11it [c(I *" Intoii I hei2 (,):11,,.
]Le f vas onlYia i (Zt' rf Jvcl w' il) Ii> i t' L e(, as bk,'tIJ)) -i I 'm I l li f 11 I'd .m-\,ldcrlti () f (]I.l 1lV -t.1( )
p~etItlI()11.': lo)l;s (v(,rhoik)o l (]I(, f*;I(.t 111It fltI,) ,' ,,14. "v i),t l
( usiig l a I l (': i I' 111 li(')f I iii it (at I~h-s o i'
I v t II -I I ht )I I NlN, i +a cal I t'iiic-'-I I' ,+(l'- II i( 1irt l il

peh k on Wi, ., I ) 11 ,\ i t t i ot he I t e l' > 1 11 '1 1Y e ll) '. n[ 1>a (

Iatoi' I t I IIf (I I a I- bae p r t. le I 1 Va I e ~ pI I If 11'. A mlo
f 01 f Ws l)kp ll)l' Ie I:4t i t a vealr'.' J) ot I) I: II(. tl,
"' I oe l(71i t th v ,'l, I'U Ile OI{t I t a' l u l t,(e ( l)t i t I I l-I' ) i \ s
Io i ra I I \ot- I Iit(riot a 1 I I e I 'oi ( t',1TI Iei'a- Iv )I wit -lIv For
iLt I I I I i 'i Ja I It j Pat l g t e t I1 t V cd i rt Ia( l'or ohich fas I I+ '
"tie lproblen v iiit N(, t T 'xas olt'im t''ti. II(, i he, ot insl Sei) :tt,
,TIh son wan tiel u I it v ot hol pa ta ars i tllv fl(,htt(, l
tie teliat if w hatitd ben preset-.t, fliai Vonl tiave Suon eiportedcl'ea-
JIojllsoll wa"s 111) for rect, ,l,(toll th~at year.1-,5
W hen) tlte r(llcall vote wvas tiallicdl, te att ic'iltated "c'o)lpor)lY.-
girard"CF agaji~ISt CO()tjiI,-ttio)IjI,t( (dr-ow\t)1 Mllosidlerablv. "]",,etltv-five o)f
t2 eigaty-tr 'e Iparti ciat irg elators voted whichas wa a Sla.

Pari)'t, up ('Ii, P. t
risi nly large te e Relian. I 1-1 lI. I f
Veril vi)t and of i\laii) voto(J "flay.* (ld th e ltli,.tt
dlividled( i (,v 1t)Iv. l?+(dwl),t IF Lot,, ('.4tm d If(;\\ he (, '))ill -ni e ,(,, I .)
the -4 montl,-s'tl(,. )iad,. served -withoit+ ipay awaititll ', acin and
the, I%.elublif":lIs }lad their first ma1jority oil tile F:('C sill(.(! its cel

Th' 1 jlil ). 669 '70,
'--S(nator Mc(arthy\.s Gallup Poll rating+ on Jan. 15. 1954, was 50+ percent e, pproval.
Pairmiet, (it eit, 1t. 96.
I I-(n n ,t I i 1f+ ], +1 m id( jl): vid P:. l)()w ers, J oh n n y W e+( fla +; l< + v Y c +n o i+
: N> Vas .t () tI r :- ;1 2 7, 11)54, 1). A,,.
l( iltervif \N w ith I,+.

ri1IR\l1l1 ( OM3 M ISSI( 'N

"I am not timid ai II ha ve lwive i ,rvi -t, in Congress for 20 years a id never before this y ear h:!ve I
had the o)ppOrttlllily to reo.mnmeml the als)ulint lnlit of a p)sltmaster. I aiii nlow
doing i1v best toet 'a few offices now and then, and I am g-ing t, work harder
at it,"'-Senat()r Ercrcftt Dirks n (Republic:n of Illinois ), J'anuary 25. 1!)-A
The forces which rocked tihe FCC in 1!C8 ujitset led tlie FIT" with
even greater fulrV. With a Repulican ( onIr(: and White ITloise. tle
FTC would n()w taike a Republican cour:'se. After -(2 years of ])emo-
cratic domination, it would not be an easv clpngre to, -1resilent
Eisenhower wrote in March 1953 that there was one Government do-
partment ill wvllc}I every civil service positioll w.1S li(,'(l bv SoTne1f
who believed in tlite philosophy of the precedin;r adillinistraition. Flur-
thermore. the President asserted enphatically. eacl of these now
entrenched bureaucrats has reached their positions "through a proc-
ess of selection based upon their devotion to tie socialistic doctrine
and bureaucratic controls practiced over the past two decades." 2 For
example. it was ceitainlv true that Democratic appointees honey-
combed the FTC staff front top to bottom. Aside from tle fatct that
no Republican programm could be developed ad implemnente(d upon
such a base. there were iriany deserving Republicans who were ready
to fill the jol)s of tile once favored Democrats. The transfusion at the
FTC would bcgin with the appointment of an Eisenhower chairman.
CoMniSSioner Lowell Blake Afason of the FTC had one thing in
comminon with C(omnilissioner Rosel IHvde of the FCC: both were Re-
publicans appointed by Truman who wanted to become the first Eisen-
hower chairmien of their agencies. Beyond tlat, all simil rity ended.
Inlike Ilvde, Mason was a very controversial fifmre by 195". Since
1945 his time had been spent either dissentin within the Comminission,
or attackiny it in speeches across the country. More than once. he had
publicly alluded to the policies and mentalities of his fellow corn-
missioners to the delight of his business-oriented audiences and to the
increasing a nta(Inlsl of his FTC colleagies.3 In thle das before the
Chairman was al)pointed by the President, the FTC a1llowedt eaclh
Commissioner to serve as Chairman in turn. When Mason's turn caine,
"the other Commissioners showed their suspicion of Mason by refus-
ing. to approve his term in the chairmanship.' Mason later thought
this "a wise an(d natural precaution. consideritr my dissident views to-
Congressional Record. Jan. 25, 1954, p. 696.
2 Parmnet. (p. cit.. pp. 209-10.
3 Fortune, February 1952. 1S.
Advertising Age, July 1', 1n5:I, p. 4S.


'ward much of what they were doing." 7 Mason believed that business-
nen should 1)e edt4'atel through tie use of trade conferences rather
than Iprosecuted further, that when complaints were issued against
coront1011s. certaiin rights of (lue prx(ess should be accorded them.6
In a. word, Lowell Mason was probusiness. But was business pro-
B oth li), ral and coTIe'rvative commissioners who served with him
do hot recall Lowvell Mason as a diligent worker.7 lie liked instead to
make speeches and write colorful dissents on an occasional glamorous
issue. ,M anly of his piquant opinions were more humorous than effec-
tive, more arrestin~ than apt. A year earlier, in February 1952, Fortune
magazine atvisedt he l)usiness (oilniulity : "Both friends and foes of
the ( I', In mission agree it needs t lie kin1 of ventilation and prodding
that Mason can provide, but tley regret that Illis dramatic oversimpli-
ficatioj"is vitiate s() liaiy of his points. Fortune, like many others,
wa- 1)egfilnifl t) (question whether Mason. the lone Republican com-
n1issi(ner. w(il! )rove to he the best Republican Chairman. Earl Kint-
net. one of the few IRepublican staff members, doubted that he would
and avised Ile rert Brownell that Mason had:
Vigorously raised bi voice against some of the creeping soci-Iism espoused at
the (C'Iumi1ol. altho(ugh generally he has had harmonious relations with the
policy memiwers of lhe staff and has kept his fences mended with the Truman
Adwnini-tr1iin. * *
[Mrover. it] is an open secret at the Commission that Chairman James M.
Mead has passed the word that he and Mr. Mason have a complete understanding
for the future and none of the present staff need fear Mr. Mason's taking over.
I have talked to some f the p)olicy makers who tell me that they have Mason's
j)ersonal assurances () this*. *
Personally. I am convinced that the same old brain trust will remain in the
saddle under [Mason's] Chairmanship and that there Is a firm understanding to
that effect.
in 1.3, no cha rge could be more (lannaino'
M4:,-on ldid actively seek the c!ialiriianslhip and to many businessmen
lie svinl)olized "that won(lerfill day when (Tovernmnen t and business
[wotild] work peacefully together to resolve their mutual differ-
ences." ~0 MNiason s campaign peaked in March 1953 with a flood of en-
domements from retail chain groups including the National Retail
Flarl1i Equipnment Association, National Retail Dry Goods Association,
National Association Qf Electrical Distributors, National Potato Chip
Institute, and the National Wholesale Hardware Association. This
Wa, not an unimpressive display of organizational support from groups
which took a re(rlar interest in the FTC. But it was peanuts compared
to the indistrv support for Edward F. Iiowrev.
Ilowrev. a 50-yearm-old partner in the very Republican Washington,
I).K., law firm of San(lers. Gravelle, Whitlock & HTowrev, had spent 24
.vea v retreenting corp)ortions before thle FTC. At the time, one of
I~owrev's uincipal clients. Firestone Tire & Rubber, was being sued
)Y I ]o I'FC on (roinn(! of price (iscrinlination. Firestone, one of the
ilarest rid d concernsr, operated its own retail tire outlets in direct
rwo1 B Mn. "T<-n. T:inTi of Dis<<(nt." p. .05.
I'rt uI '. -1bri : rv 1 9.2, p 1- O.
7 Sixv ri, whi wer*interviewed and who had served with Mason expressed
th I' ri 'r'- Ii ionI
T !'urtijtio. 1'ib 19.52. p 109
*Ear WV J(intn' r t,, iTorhvrt W Prnwnpll. Jr., Dec. 10. 1952. DDEL, GF-45B, Box 392.
\,Ivort i'~iniz Ar. Febrii1ry 23. 1!15,, p. 60.
n I)DFYL, GF 47A. bx 94.

Comlpetit ion with hoth ilidle)elvilit dealer :Il -]tiler fivl-i:t I [ !-
stone( (alealhe I. 1 ire-t oii was verv coni about iell i tu dici -
tion of the F'T.
Back in Noven4bier, 1iretone vas alrea(dv orga iiizir, (ol Io Ioxx'tl\v -
lbellall. Ill a letter to tle selior tii(r Of tile (w st coa it firiti \011 4li
l)e(VV'c,5 (1(l it. 1l re4oii"s >e(-'(,etar, h k( Ilimi to "i (,rI U F > '
"ill your own way for Ilowrvy in (aliflornia. 'Ilhe( l(tt er otih l'"
W ('. it Fir,,, woul hiate very uiiiicii If, i (t) the strvice,,4 ,f Mr. Ib v~r(,
lut we think it is 4t) iiilli(rtalnt to rel'li8('e Ilit, "PQl11 '(l E] ,i)oiiiy l)o'y ,i)
individhal', whil1 really want to lort-serve i le Fr,, Ent erplrise Systm, that wve
ar(, willing t) suiho)rlinate our pers'si):l interests iii the hl(e ()f g(,tting a stro)ILK
and Sound 111( lb'rshil Oil Ole (C(m n lli ,S -im).
TWO "eekS late'. first bv Id)'10 '111(1 1HeC (heN letter. ]FireStoJe (.ol-
t' Ated I Iarol(t E. Talbot, a I, ( II Ii ZeI) luli(,aIIc: I )Ii s1 11i IvII
w- Ilater ftil. le )ianed Secret arv of t lle Air l,'()rce. Iti tlhat letter, Fir(
stones secret arv (ILclosed a (lO>SiVT' (11 Ilowrev and advised
I think you will liltd thai [ Iovry] is well an(d fawitrally known to) the (,1n-
eral Mo)tors ()rp., International BI'usiness Machine (')., the Shell (il (>,)., and
Standard Oil of Iidiaia."
IlowreV would later state that all of h)is nhnrucrOlis Cli(eit- >lppor eti
hinl.l5 ~lie result was a storlil of lett ers from att)r niev. lurin t ie
month Of I)ecemb)ler. Withiin veks. I Iowre(v n( Id Iis sIll)orT eSad
tle, enlorseen It (f Senator ROIlt T' ft of O SeTIat or I a'rv I.
Byrd an( l e))er(-,tatlve Joel BroYir ill )f Virgzi ia. Senator Iirner
Capehart and Iteipresenitative ('harles I [allck of Indiana. At torne v
Gieeral Browil ll. IPost rnaster (Gieneral Sumtnmerfiel and Secretary of
C()o)ninerce Sinclair Weeks-to naie Ibut a few. 1"
While his (Ii ,nt s had | l)( eel OrI- a izlir thlie )ar and t!le iuIntry,
Itowrev"s law part er Douglas IWhit lock had been active in t lie ,l iti-
cal circles of tlie adihinisti-ratio01. Wlitlock. ani earl. tippme t'r of
Eisenhower. hiad Ii rested the Eisenh ower ('ampa igli Tour ( ontni te
in 152 andI a ft(,rwarhi served as executive (Iirector of the epublio'an
National (0nm11it c.1- ( onsidering, tihie strength of lIowrev's Support,
it, was not slrpri-]I ig that lIe, was t he first aIpointmient t)a regulatory
agency that t l(, I'isenliower a(lininist)ration announced.
Altlouglh there was no niterition of the chairmranshipiI wl e ll Iowrey
was nominate(l on Mar ih 1 4, 195. to t'epliace ('on Inii 1sioner JIohnii ( Ca r-
soil. there was little (oult that it woul(d follow slhortlv after tire Senate
Confirmed 111111. Front the beiri ir. all of tile correspoldence ni)eri-
tione(I Ifowrev for the chairinanshjip: surely a Illau of Ills stateire
would accept nothing less.
I Iowrey's lriaIet asset was his kn)wl(,rle of ilie A((,it(y ,lz':iwn
front 200 y s Of repress, it i1-( clients befre It." 'No one (Il(mled I [w-
rev's fanliliaritv with tile ('(h)lnissil. b t s(il D )eltioa'ioi ic SeitI, rs
New R pini!liio. M:f y 4. 195", p, 18.
.IV)*- h "l'hi) i. serear, v. irestnn 'T'ire & Rubb r ("().. to O' irar Triplilit 'TriT qi t,
Ntw( oiir. Y)akur T & Thii)as) N)v _',. 192. 1 tI IE I. I.' 47A, b ix C;"
11.>4'11 ThMTIIor I I, 11:1r I (I I T;jibI t, I 1 1 1 II I: 1, (, 1 47A, 1 -98.,
l:> 11,)wr(,v Se 11-'rii- p. IOi)
"WI i--F ) E L,. )1' .0B. b(x 19.
r W\h&)'- XVhit) 8),jitit- WVik. Alpr. 4. 19)5)8. Ijl) 29 8
7 It l b)- n())1 tl:t ll,)wr-,y a. ;tt-iv, i I \V -1,,, '\li n Partr, (f Vir Iiz !'ro n
.4 la rl2 t) vs, xxit a ie Iiit)r ,f th( Siali( 1"i it-s' ('')riin tti,. I hi ,l t,
'I"tr o S'i ii ; Irtvy itillV(-ii) i 1. rI I ha1 il )en io ] j~iii lIh n tn-i fir A li.t i
attorneys uf I'airfax (i ouity lu 1 ,,,). White Ihou~, n~m) lhA., I)I)i G 1'" tA,\ ))~ --r,


thought his back,. "ound impair his ability rather than enhance
it. Ilowrev declared at Ils Senate hearing that he would disassociate
himself from his law firm and disqualify himself on any matter con-
cerning a former client. But. ttowrev had represented so many com-
panic110s 011 SO 11Tli'IV iIII) w-t tlt f'ases that Senator Warren Magnuson
fearedl I Iowlrev wold "be on a vcation almost permanently" while at
the FTCI9 Iowrev disagreed, and also stated that he felt there would
be no problem with FTC enforcement orders then pending against
sev er,al of h .is ci cents.
Fiially. there wvas the matter of "regulatory lag'" the slow pace at
which many matters moved in the Commission. An FTC antitrust
action is a very protracted and complex affair with ample opportuni-
ties for delay. At that time. there was very little for a businessman to
gain from a settlement provided he didn't object to the publicity and
legal expense. After years of litigation, the only result was an appeal-
ald ('icease-admI-iesist order, which simply required the respondent to
stop the disputed practic.-' Until that order issued, the businessman
[01l1d continue on as before. In one such case before the commission,
Iwev-epresentl jg the respondent Automatic Canteen Corp.
moved for 10 separate delays which alone gained his client 3 years and
3 months.22 For that and other reasons, it took 10 years before there was
a final FTC finding and order which was then appealed to the courts.
The Senate committee was concerned as to whether Howrey would con-
tinue to allow such delays to bog down the agency. Howrey, who had
"plenty of experience in delays," promised that one of his main ob-
jectives would be to speed things up.23 Without objection, the Senate
confirmed Howrey: on April 1, 1953, the day he took his seat on the
Commission, President Eisenhower designated him Chairman.
With broad powers over the budget, the staff and the general direc-
tion of the agency, Chairman Howrey brought a stiff new broom
to the FTC. From the start, he had a working majority composed of
himself, the arch-conservative Mason and another Truman appointee,
Albeit Carretta. Howrey was out to "change the complexion of the
agency overnight" and he worked tirelessly to that end.24 Even before
1Towrey was confirmed, Eisenhower's budget bureau had informed the
FTC that its budget would be cut by $1 million to a total of $4.5 mil-
lion. The bureau orally advised the Commission where the cuts were
to be made, but refused to state any particulars in writing. The cuts
did include $186.000 which had been proposed for a pilot project to
determine the feasibility of a study of how large a share of the con-
stoner dollar was going to middlemen. When Howrey was confirmed,
one of his first acts was to acquiesce in the administration budget cuts
for the Commission.25
It was not long after-ward that heads began to roll. Initially, with
the alI)roval of tHie Commission, Ilowrey hired a management con-
sultant firm to review for efficiency the various nonlegal procedures
and personnel structure of the agency. With the aid of a reduced
10 ,howroy Sente Hearings. p. 14.
1l bid, pp. 9-10.
Advertising Age. Aug. 10, 1953, p. 41.
2o T1wrey Senate loarings, pp. 28, 30-32.
T idT p. 30.
24 Business Week. Apr. 4, 1953, p. 29.
Testimony of Stophen J. Spingarn, July 20. 1955, House Small Business Committee
Hearings, pp. 1s9-19:. At the time of the budget cuts, Commissioner Spingarn had cer-
tain budgetary responsibilities for the commission.

budget-w\hich forced staff clit,,lackz a 11l a reorga i:iirat 1 :1 :1!1.
which freed 11iin froin the lprotct i reqiiirenieIi ts of tile ci ii Vr iv
laws-I Iowr v was able to totaIlly ev ap tie Ir(c.
It Was ani Iineasy tinie It tilie ( tmiii oliisiol for miainv. leiyulil.r i:ci I
Kintner, a Republical St air Illicler wllo ]ha( ili|>it lns to be gillie r:i
counsel. llow ilg tie cletioi, lie lwga i hi IinV ;IV froi., tin' 1,,:1i1
who had iredn him a Is is sistInt. ( (oiniIssi(,lVir Stepliii J. Slpiil- r-
arn. In tlie new publicic, era, tlie "issociat io it i S i 'ig ... a
liberal, olitsI)ok-fn IDemnlorat-Nvis an ob)violus ,lisa(1v,1tIagefe to fi e
aspirin K intner. ihe Kinutner's bst, e(tht secllre( ]Iliii tie l
tion of (eneraIl counsel, he issued a detailed biographily slat i n t 1hat
fro1 195'1 lilltil his new a)poiitleit. lie linld )een a le.ral 8(lvis r lo
the comiii ( ). Actually. lie hall been a legal adviser to ( Oniilissiouli i*
Spingarn. Wlien ("Omnilssioner Siuigarn announced1 the ltlpoilitniit
of Ils new loeral assist ant and note(I tlat lie was replacing IE4,iri Kilit-
ner, Kintner intercepted the press release and asked tie (,'mInIs-
sioner to dlete his name. Over Kiitiers heate(I objct(,1ots, >piiifaru
issued the press release as it was written.2
WTithiln a ye'r. the FTC woull be carefullv an(1 sydenatlai1v
"Howrevize,." Many staif nieibers were firm(i outright soie vere
demoted, others simply moyoved on to other jobs elsewliere. Liwvc(,rs
who handled many of the key pendin( cases were replete bV new
appointees who knew nothing aboit, tile liticatiom. Thie (1ivisioii vii'1h
developed reports on industry and comipetit ion lost only ole stair m1e111-
her. while 16; e(oilflists we(e (lsmlssed.- F'ive FTC experts in :anti-
trust imnatters were fire(d oltrigIit. an, l a si xthi delleoted.- One of the
five llal)polle(l t)!( tile lawyer wilo lia( Ol)osed tlowre-y on the miara-
ilionAlltlll~ti('"" I
thouI -Aitoui-I~t i (Canteen case. 29 Wili a very few exceptions. I Ioxvrey
hired new staff lm'libers Iho were svmpatl1etic to his coals as (iair-
mlall. all(t tiell-a"cco(ill to ole Colul111issioIner'ii /and(fe(l and Ie-
ceived lmxlim loyalty from them at tle Conmlsslon.' The result
was that the oilier ( omniiilS1lon/ers werl'e not acorded equivalent r-
s1)ect by the maln I lowrev-selected taff imlembers.
The reoruai izati(n of the FTC wvas effected by Chair'maln !I ow-rev
in close cooperation with the IRepublican National Committee. Re-
publican Members of (ongress, and the WIhite Iouse.30 Be inniig
110 later thn1 A iiltl 1t. 1 H..,,I l -vye Se. t literally (l.ozens (f Imelm S
to the WVlhito Ilouse indicating tlat staff 110ll r1-rai n1 '.' lil
bureau directors (lown to (GS-7 attorneys-liad en cleared i a,,1-
Vali('e by the Rl)lil)lican National ('onnittee. The MeMOm S iSO i!l-
dicated who their specific congressional supporters were.31 On Alt-
(rust 30 1 19541, (]hairinan ] Iowrev could xvrite the AWillite louse

T IIMTL interview with SIringarn, 11)(.7, v. V. p. S97-04.
Interview wtlih (,ar(on. (2arsn stated that thw Ilowrey changes "almost wr tiked he
FTC." Ie re ferrd to, the period as a *reign of terror."
21 New Reliblic,(i)t. ( t, 1. ,p. 10.
Farmers Unti( In Wahington. A Weekly Report. Sept. 1S. 1953, p. 4.
SCiairanil1 Ilfwrev was Oloerating lll (der (&)Insidlerat stris. (, ntitorer Sptnan
recalls thut oie (1:ay I[, wrey burst Owt in an fer it1 words to this effort" it d O t I i w
the pressure that'- n no .... The Iteluliein National ('omnlit ee has ,zot six or ei.b ,
thxi ousan1d people who they want to feed into johs. The Ire.sure on T110 I- '-tiorm l I
dinig the best I ,.an hut von f 11,ow dont know the reassuree on nie" I1iSTI. I ut rv>w
with Splngarn. 1967. v. IV, pp. 596-597.
31Ilowr, V to) Vi. Auguust 17, 1 95, reporting thnt h had Rppointed men t'l tw
to) level jo). "B t had the strong- SUpport of 1he N:j tonal o mittt ot'. '" 1)1 i) I" t 2t,
Box 196. For other examples of these memos, see the same files.


As T am sure you know, no action has been taken by me to date with respect
to the hiring of I~erMiel nutii" (1) chearaice has been received from the Re-
pulilican Natijoal (t'omiitte and (2) you have been notified of the proposed
-(t ion I)y Iii -nii n(ii (lutii .
11 owrev cou iIl 11)t tha\e 1b(ei more vij()rous or systematic.
Alog withi 1)ersoiiiil. tl11 olicv directions of the agency began
to change. (,a1tiug itself in tle role of "friendly policeman" rather
than "irate Ipr)secto)r the re. ( promised a greater reliance
on ilifornial, Noliiutary settlenients of coinplaints3" In his first public
add rcss is elia iritiall, I Iowrey proposed thie establislinient of a "Bu-
rea Iit) ( Miit il" with three purposes:
S11 to) act in n cu(,peraiive and consultative capacity to business, particularly
small b iie ( i t) give infornial advice on all kinds of matters involving
the .: t v idl1ini1st(,red b.y the ('(nis.sion" and (3 to seek voluntary compli-
ance %\ ilh such laws lN means of conferences, informal hearings and other
types o-f informal Iroce(1 ures.'
In addition to taking steps to encourage voluntary compliance, the
Pre)l )li('Ila l(' was "'inaking it easier for the businessman who is
ll) oin the FT(C carpet, harder for the FTC lawyers handling the cases."
centrall to the new approach was a much higher standard of proof
wivch t he (oniission's own lawyers had to meet in order to show
1iiila w ful piergers, trice discrimination and other injuries to compe-
tition. As Business Week observed, "FTCs job has in no way
chaned-l)ut the way it intends to carry it out has." a3
Weeks before Eisenhower's inauguration, Commissioner Stephen
J. Spingarn announced that he would under no circumstances accept
rca pl)ointnment from the new administration. The outspoken Sping-
arn knew that he had no worries on that score.7 While Spingarn re-
mnained on the Commission, the Democrats technically had the ma-
joritv. Howrev reminde( the White House of that fact when he asked,
in Ju 1953 for prompt action in securing a clear Republican ma-
jOrit V naining a successor to Spingarn2. Unlike Chairman Rosel
yT*de of the FCC. Edward F. Howrey was clearly the administra-
tions n(in at the FTC. Since the AVhite House was prepared to assist
him in developing and implementing a Republican program for the
FTC, his opinions on new appointments to the Commission would be
critically important.
111(ck in l)eceinber 195 John W. Gwynne had been one of Howrey's
first supporters for the FTC chairmanship. Gwynne-who had lived
for ilmany years in Ilowrev's hometown of Waterloo. Iowa-could hon-
estly 'vtlte that he w-as "well acouainted" with Howrey's family.39 In-
(loed. Gxvvnne had represented Waterloo and the rest of Iowa's third
district in ('olncress for seven terms. He was the dean of the Iowa Con-
gres ion:al Delegation when. in June 1948, a politically unsettling
'T Tl-wr',v to Willi Aug. 20. 1954. DDEL. GF 41. 'Box 3R0.
dv-rti iltz \un Air. 10. 1952. r). 40,
I1Eardl F. Ho1wrey "Revaluation of Commrion's Responsibilities," in "Lectures on
Yed ral Ant it" 'imt Jw,Iiin 17 19 1953. pp. 202, 208.
fl T i1'nu W Tuno 5 1954. p. 41
lttrview with Spltnzarn.
f, orfr th:iD on C(Onllnlb1nor Srin-nrn had clenrly expressed hi, views on the
I~oefl S new Iiree.ton': tie h-d "'fnpT4el bac' at charge made by qeeretnrv of Commerce
W' k that the FTC Wa t ne'r1nctltjur the mannf1f tilr(r Of a controversial battery additive.
Advertlt~- Ar, Jully 1.2. 1953. p. 51. Spitrarn h,d 9lo, publicly charged owrey with
hiiri n''' the, fell mm i < io)n's a uthoritv by instituting "reductions In force" of
eI era prollwrTiOt \a~hn~o Pozt, qpvnt 2) 1952 p)1 1.
T T,wr to WilIti. J1Iv 21, 195. DDET tO 2nF t'ox 196.
Gwvnne to Swummrflield, Dee. 1, 1952. DDETI. GF 47A, Box 393.


1eI IIvtt puicler,1 st ri ke III W nitei'Jo re-iItv~t III II-; II':ttl Iv Icplll**l i t
(iC ~ i'ha Ii~l. 11. 1'Ve( Gna>S ri m Jlll(I 1 eulect Vllr to i~ 'MI (~III Il
tr le NVY I ,II 1a Ie 1(r f( I r r; I1 1 wta I ( l( I 1 I lne g 'x 1 l I in Ift :I I

to'()1 le v lAe s n N 'I (f I I(' Awr IIi ii r -i. I1 i( I f re Nv,.,v Ill'e A\ (' )I
v hai ii litti',' wU r( Il~ 1 eI i i1111l2k .4 I v r vlll~!(1 14'\ 'i l
i lii' ( '1:1\i x ) o .i.': I ( 'l, I iI l:i ', 11 2! I' (\i x iui' 1v:i- ''1ll-
as xv, it, I : )1 li 1' oii(ifieu t it' tnr t: (I I ts )II.'I A ,( Iit I p l ti -
ndc I ittle I Il'2(d, t le Ailit I 1 011 I(I tt' )1"Hf II I. (A V \t'i .l l i,, I

lt [l *l l .1 Y4. lie. W;8> (i({ItS I 'l ( '("__ler b valll i! tY i'nr()i i'l
tlo)) 1 I l l n I'K111I Bee ni ; wi I''o il'i~ilt:t' t II i i lit ) \V iii- 0

lilt' NatIional (C-- ouI0\Niittee ~I)V :'11d 1hat ie2li aGlioiII :5 1non
i1llll N IuI for le() ) and( I 1 l lt'> e11: 1 I I. (1)jent 111i- x-0 111:1(

be 1i'i1itl hluiilie( I*_0 f(i ll e )r -~e 11,1 1dI Int evenual PO it to,(
RoI~p( wtl :. L e. t'i 111 I 41' ,I rmi e ls l2 'l. )i I:, ell ,l 1 t Il. lie wa

Ao s ieret I wo r i)jl)lliutllentl (tte-( hi)i' 1 le1:it, vNoa<. sill d A -
al miatter (4 f iltili thie rI-zig t 1)m)iti)li fI'm 111111. Inl at li-davi p, ;md( III
]'lie July 1 I)5 1)0z-'-'ilirlits'iill 1 cwll idrf d t fi l eveiah i'i 'erelit ',_-
lat(Wry Pn;, i l9s. I e nwii lie wi is "so ipli li:i. (titile- Ii11," ill( )Iep lb-
101a 11 Nae im Il ('mltlilt itt(l,(, 8 a'ste., I Ixxreit l t i pIo)I)p lit(,e 1 I : io x.cmn-
proiise xvliIdieti for th iiik le ill ite s'pelniil()li (0ti1in1 iVOn ll
ite (rrn"tlv ilie t i wied weV forit i)it I12':1i llS tell ii to
N fIo Ser ttf ) 1 ...)...

'XX hen 6wvn~ie t ook Ii is seat li Bepil IN' 0nn~h( h 'Iir11: o-
c()l/s}(,Ivd'( forI 1p a )m n)i iliint to theO "Nn io, a a o. e.t(w ,'a
i rather Ill()i n)()1lilthan cl l'sht of ti ot event wlii'e ol 1('! deo-

leit an xvrii n1rt ntemn t efr viue(lO~il~t11 11
Co ll'nn 10,11. Evetiwit oiarli; Willis hil reiii.- )wuIoreAts (llT-
( n oil t e prot lem et, i 3 ings. MIo r. Irld x l iv ti l te(o'd --I kl()r w,
qlul'(:lo- t V lit' Jilld think Ip llt;111 siak fI sil )oldi(1 aC di li . N1el whYS o1". ld(erx G\ mi o waos nominitel bOe t'o.\lioT A, i'
elp e(t 0 tihi- lA' Iee 1a 10 J )lTen W ahilte ) lateI .111l P1w Ni, 11l l i r 111l4edt
lit itu 4 lav s. artv ime a o ell in O(|i te fohi -r I lt.'' A ',-ll tO11i-)
expT)I re on se Pt t, I I Ier 1. :-.
Vl GAN -vlim~e took 16i.; se~tt file Repulill'-Zi 11ad tlleir fil.4t Iill Ior-
it it OwearT(' Ill wirp ote ilill "i VO!in's. eve tiiul tie (ile ()f til lie lr-
IlissimODCrs Nver, "Tl'r11.1-M alpolitees. Yet. T r, HOVItl, Id) notI lwien

oe s rlit1ii, a speechrIII(Q) N l ft, Io) -It r1 wes bef irst,, 1lion I111 ill l1111d
(":' r tef I a voe 1 IId 1w, ),t :1!rovili r e l l l (1 t o tii ) l l i l) O i l l t S ji f t S 'I p ) (!l -' 1 1 1 ( 1 l / o < t 4 s
(tat ft- -(11) '11,' 1 SVe a il riedlv -5 molllan !, befre ],;- iiIowoii.s
ele1ioll -lindi Nel -IT)I' m lltedIunS" 1It li bleral )ll'lo /lt o 9!. ii fii i 25
fie' colitimlled| t 1 vt n-"' one 0ll o {!'ll-(rhOlf hlis tv1"11 oif of1I('."" 1i!(,- All O lZ l
]i iT' Clre 1Tr il (" iit olej- nO Ill S010l i' t'40e S su 2 Ili ( (110l 01-01WO folr ll52-
T*(1N P110l'ri).1",. r InI nI -pevchl prle-datill-t lIfmA-nA'% first I)llIIN nidd~re'.,-;,
:''tr J2,I'./ l f'1 i t] Tiaiiv i vitli Iv' ieV' v tfl ,i 1 t o F (" sdiold b4e a ti1 a '', 1 )li'enlani !11(1 oil14 41'f) Pied4
4,i to \d a'. Tii. lu1T- lu 452. 1941W r, "'\w Y442 -o.

~1 t 'l" Etw! ti, tVl'-iii to ])iimn 2. 195 ,i,, 1 1.t 1.),
) )DFL : 0P I Ot,,.
I" A'ijllt, tto \0|;,1111 .. D EIL, Fl; loi ll ,, 47-"
WbXilte Tlolwr.ul z- 1 o A l -Iii"" 2'' D E ,0 0 1,
W .i52 lhmwriv ti Willi'.. Jiilv 21. 111)1 '1 201
41 \dvort n, A.%1.e ulv 12, 195 p 51.
'T rltervie'w with ('arret ta.

most businessmen would abide by the law. FuIthermore, Carretta
favored a tougher staii(lard of proof in trade conspiracies.51 Unlike the
first two Truiii cIi-] Isi ers replaced by F.'Isenhower, Carretta was
philosophical l )alatabhle to the administration. Commissioner Car-
retta also watmted to be reappointed to this seat which could not, by
lawl go to a epill )ican.
For the fourth time, Carretta gathered his political sponsors, al-
though this tile lIe recog nize ( that he could not rely on Democratic
suipt>. New Republican contacts were necessary and that was not
el:V for a liberall democrats, record or no reord. Carretta did have
one cleairlv exuhlisiat ic supporlei Senator Harry F. Byrd of Vir-
ginia. Alt boug l hoad beeii at best lukewarm to Carretta's previous
attei ",ts tr Fde(1,ral Sosotions, Senator Byrd now in the warmest
tern is ci i~b rse, (':rretta for reappointment. Senator Byrd wrote at
least tlree letters fmr ( arretta and ma(e an unknown number of phone
calls.P Yivrl saw Sherman A(lamns; and Carretta was certain that if
anyone could do it for him, it was the Senator from Virginia.54 The
prvssltr)s 10 ral)loilit C(arretta were being felt by the President's
staf liv I)ecemiber 1953, a White House memo identified the matter as
the -( areta sic proIblem." The White House staff for a time even
dis(.Iis the p)ssibility of offering Carretta the directorship of the
FT( s Ne vork ofliLe.55
In the irst year- of the Eisenhower administration, 3,000 letters ar-
rived daily at tite W ite House. By one estimate, 50 to 100 of these ac-
thall v tossed President Eisenhower's desk,6 and presumably fewer
than that Wvould warrant a l)ersonal response from the President.
Ca retta*s Re)ubliean connections were sutfficiently good to secure
the l)ersonal attention of the President. Bradshaw Minteer-
despite iii 11M01s pre(lictions that it would be politically catastrophic-
ad~ orZanilze(l and led the 19)2 Eisenhower write-in campaign
le a iliry. The *surprisingly large turnout there
f or *Eiselllmv N'was an imii)ortant factor in the General's decision to
resign as NATO commander and return to the United States.57 In
1954o Mintener would be atpl)ointed assistant secretary of the New
h)epartmuent of tIealth, Education. and WVelfare. But, in September
1953\vllen he wrote endorsing Carretta, Mintener was still vice presi-
dent and general counsel of Pillsbury Mills. In that position, Mintener
11 )eel favorably mniiprese(l witli Comnmissioner Carretta's perform-
a1te and he so iM formed( the President.58
Eisenhlwer, aI after aiswerlig Mintener, referred the matter to Gov-
ernor A(ails with the postscript: "I suppose that under our general
agreement. all of these milatters are checked with Len Hall [Chairman
of the Repblican National Con+niittee]." This was a surprisingly
basic ol)servation1 coMsideriii that Eisenhower had been in office for
sonie 10 mont hs, and ti geneIral policy had )een clear for at least that

Adv ertisig Age, .une 15, 1953, p. 6.
Interview with Cnrretta.
Byrd to EiseIhower. March 11, 1954 : Byrd to Eisenhower, May 26, 1954" Byrd to
Adaius1. June 24, 1954. DI)EL, GF 47, Box ,,3. Carretta (lid see Senator Byrd on this
fatter anti feels that Byrd's enthusiastic support was a result of a review of the positions
Carretta had taken on the commission. Interview with Carretta.
r, Ibid.
SWillis to Mix Rabh. December 18. 19,3....... D GF 47, Box 393.
( mries .J. V. Murphy. 'Elsenhowrr's WMte Iouse", Fortune, July 1953, p. 176.
Eisenhower, "Mandate for Change," p. 54; Parniet, Eisenhower, p. 55.
6 Interview with Carretta.
Eisenhower to Adams, Sept. 11, 1953, DDEL, GF 47. box 393.

III !Sep1tciIb; the P5; I r'esidenit and hIs stall 11'r erav :Iu(
tlI ij)OlLl 12 I esLj'>-()UlrIv-. Ja I d~lIrs d 1 1 k
d(e1l Of 1el(atoI' I1 r' t Ja t ail uis Ijoplaciuelt 1v a I h)u114( t
Ilai1l alIready I ost tIle Ir ):I' vo I I4t1, IiIj(ritV I til I 5(.l e \ c I a I air I, ji~zi
t ItIee seals w ulld Inr ii liot, I I cI lot of I l o) 111) 1 II uI' \' i I e
IoI I ,t-c o f I Z'l( tt I )I cIIt IIvos. I:-+- 'l 11 m \.k.+ \v': s vc .(' 01 i:)t<,v,1- w ( I t,1))11 1 1}(
future Oif liS l)l' (,)proraill ,Nt14.' l it to ()w( 1l'.') Mi itt s ca'li) l r ie-jcitii
Eiisellhowvoir ''adv'ise(i all (izet )ilil,'ces t) plait thil+i Sl Ikii1ir ('II$ldr' -
ilC.Jtts wvitlh critical co()It (< .<)Lt list ri+:ts i~t+ll +I'
Bv Felrt)la'rv 19, .; 1)1)111 ( i 1ct1'ilr k(:is antd artv (1l *(tll
lal I ad c(I'stest'l tihe ('it izl'v f(r I'm caliowr ( (m ("()III-
1it1 e A ) t) OtitA't V'W I l1)8lrt M\Io)'r U.ij 1()li'ul (til "1 {)(lc' ab ili i1e P -
litical sitinat iou ill ( )l %iu'> 1,tl I ('<)++ '- mia,'tl I)istri,+. MIr. II)ul lia o-
x ise.l I lie ,tlliltitt t 1 t It I a 1 et" 1 c re ii \ o lh Popiuh 11i
(In(Iidate but tit lie w(ttilI bave ':t ',, 41 difli'ut is4c iMi (I-'11] or''
the incumbent I)elnocrat, lIef)1eM2IIat i\ iobert T. Se'rest. The let-
ter continued:
iMany I)rominent Repullicans and R(eulfliein n"wxivaI)+rs iin tlik (ti'trie J)jfI-i1v
support Robert Sewr..xt * *. rf1t l4$'dt I{ii1 li('taI ()-igaizatios did not se4'f
to te interested in securing a can(i(ate to oi)i)ose s'e(" t.l
Conresstian l1()) Secrest was (Luite ptopiular i tie i-tri('t lie had
represented for soliac eigh t termii us. See.,'e, --wi ill a 4,01ie 1'11 C ea] te's
est I I Ite, nmade as ii 1811v veterI ts all t's S" )eI (1(,- as aVbo(1v inl the
Nation-belon e to tite A mllercian leAv2<)on...\ Anvets. 1 eela r V'etr,1en+ s"
As>ociation, *111( the V 12W. ie had s,)eI(I xvitli dii)-,t(,t ion in Wor!l
War II, and was a member of thle etera)s' A fIailrs i nd Pijbli Works
Contnittees of the Ilo1se of Replreseiitatives. lie w:is qIso tie only
Demaiocrat who could win in that heavily Republican he had polled only 1., ))votes fewer than 4.eunihower> In a word,
Robet See('i'es was l11l)eatable.
Albert Carret ta s olJtint111f sgg(ed whlen he heard that two Demo-
Clati, (onressumeln In1 5ivlla ( ist-rict 5 iad lelitne(l ol!lers by the, ad!-
ministration to ac((ept lis FT( seat. Ii May 1954t his campaign was
iitensilie 1. (, aret ta Id 1a l'Q :vl41v, se<,ired the en1(o'seuiejit of Virl'giia's
junior Senator, A. Willis I .<)t ert->ol. lohertson had fi rst, so adlvire of FTC ('oimnlIissi)oner iea( highly satisfaeto'v.- TII(, rlrsileint of "Y vice )lreidell ()f Blristol-M vmes (o.. also a I tlhI iel l j)ort ill Mav.i"'
At the saiiw time. the o,>.e,<'t11+e (1 Of ies '
Council w'ote thlie White II<)i-e: "We lave a'a;sed the Zit v:ati [and] Ca8'1'('tla ha- dmIe a (lc(litable jolb and is ito ew I)ealer in Illis
pilosopIliv. Th Ieni. on \a v "(). 1954. C( Oliiissione' (at'rci'ta wrote
PihCilil a forjier a'-walili!llalit h. ce was ]i.-,ho then nIMi'tid,
of the Civil ,1evv'te ( hnacaon Urrelta was; "h1a1)l to s:lv I hla1,
for the uiio)4 part, what were dlissenl ti u viexvwp)Oit> prior to the new
""On ()ct. 2'. 195., thi, Pr(,-dent t-l a press conference thait he wna 'eroivin more
and ns e I'ot err,,1 fr I{(,l Iblitan sn''eos~es [ in 1954 1 S Mci:iIly in rtanin 1 or i ure :s-
ill ReI)ldi+.8 H mai()1i tis in the next Concrss Visenhower, Ol cit. 1). 51 ;.
t Parn(et, Op cit, p. 81($-17.
Fell. IId.;rt \Inr ,,n to S. W+ Iarris, vice chairman, Citizens for Eisenhower Committpe,
Frh. 19. 1 9+).54. Il)I. o)f GF 1 09.\ -2. mIsc. box.
c1 (' tl (I I r d 1 ''1 11 A i VI Ir f 4 ,77, 2 '>2.
c IntervIw with C rret ta
e.' ln(-rtorI to Eisenlhower, Mar. 13, 1954; Mead to Robertson, Mar. 11, 1954. DDEL,
GI1 47I Ix 298.
i': rTrd S. Larm(n to Adams, May 26, 19541 eneh1sing a letter from Geer( w -.
Of ,'IFtn) '-,. Ibhid
e Walter White to Willis, May 28, 1954. Ibid.


atllizlitra'~I1 to !:Ill J 111cle 111jor-ity ViNw-)oints. Tltsw a clear
eIh)r~cxiic~t of ta it, a Ii ii in set I I ( 'IairIIan I Iowrey. Carretta
a1() tilcko> I( a :t i~l 11 ,aIi e (cT'e)ts Will h'characterized lii as a
"IIith tertIl FAr I. i r Ut "ii I I I II crat' or a I)eiiocI'at of definitely
on- IN l )I a i- lits.'" i 8$) 01 i."i
:i is caIif ('arreta lad not disc:ussed ra ppoiiitm1nent w Ith
('lIirIaI J L i ati r I Iw IeI.' i iI Sstjember 1951,
(1111rl, Will is Wf t W Hlite Ihouse staff had on at least three separate
occasions askc'l forl" l lwI'ev 's opinion on the Carretta reappoint-
meiti A> +\s lat, A jril 195t. no deinitive oin)llon had been re-
(eil. ('crt :t in. lb lrc rea 1+lcd that ('arrett a had often been a
necessary i Ii ,c ill t lie first few nintlis of Iis chairmansip. He
hesitar et I :11 uill e'a'CIII it'll ly I lowre'cv endorsed Ie selection of

l'lad 'rt Sca'rest the t hir Democrattie Col(nrressman approached,
accepl~ted1 t~e atl)l)Oite 1t. By1 tha tinlie. Sec(rest 's name had been
'lea red l,v tle Itfliran Nati6onal CoIlllittee. the "Ohio State orga-
nizt ion,'" and heptilJlian Selltor J()ln IBricker of Ohio. chairman
of Senate ( 'oinin it ee on Interst ate anI FI'orei rr Commerce.72 As far as
FT( Iatters' were concerned, all that was known about Secrest-a
Ia w Nhrailiat ,() had llNever been admitted to practice-was that
he had sulN)o(rtC(, t wo J)iec(wes of antit rust legislation passed while
he waIs in ( onjriss. verest (lid state that, as a Commissioner, he
%111111 view l1*1-i(ilf as a 'jnldge." iot as a prosecutor.,3 A Republican
('o: Hii -hinur o -(, ) M'rved with Secrest recalls that he was "not the
hrilt ill kind of I Del orat." On June 25. 1951, before the nomination
w:is :iriiotincea Governor Adams personallv called Senator Byrd to
giv, biit the ad hex's.1 Coimissioner Carretta learned in the news-
1)pae'rs of his rel)lacetlnt. Although deeply disappointed, Carretta
tli)1l h t it mnad( good political sense to select Secrest instead
of hiniself.5 After a 6-ininute hearing before Senator Bricker's corn-
t ,. -a (,onhirmed by a receptive Senate without objection.76
Everyvone asstnied thlat Secrests congressional seat would now go
Pe11d ican, aIId-7 weeks before the elections- Mr. Morgan of Ohio
wrote Governor A(Lanls:
I have talked with Mr. Henderson [the Republican candidate] recently and
1e sten to he progressing very nicely. Again, let me thank you and any of your
fI-'1i th;t nmde Iossle the election ()f Mr. Henderson by the elevation of
'ongressnan Secrest to a Federal position.
On November 2, 1.(954. in the face of an unprecedented coast-to-coast
caNain by Presiden1t Eisenhower, the Democrats won a clear major-
it v 171 the enate. aid the Republans lost control of the House.78
()ne ,If tli lix e f)riuwrlv 1eniiocratic districts which the Republicans
wonI w:) the5lth in ()hio.
In l(ss thoan I vea'. president Eisenhower had appointed one Re-
plibl !i,'ai ex-( 'otTrcsst:n~a nd:! one I )eniocratic sitting Congressman
tt It FTl(C
i 'ar? :: 1' ""I. u a 11, 1iP 1 I, o 2EL, of Th Box 196.
XX' \\+Iii Vxa l vr, S,'~t. 11. 1 Wi52+ IIDIEL. C 47. box 393. Willis to Howrey, Mlar. 24.
1951 Willis to lln a r+ay+ Apre 27. 1P.S54 I)IIEI, 01" 20)B. hux 196.
W i I s 1 -5. t), :I 1(I' 1iu 1\ 2, Nic. box.
(11, IW A 2.b x
B: h~I++o+Si 'l+'s W\+ 'k. ,Tl II 1 1971, + 1 1f'
S. t \ 7-, 1 w+ 5 I 'T (F 4,, b 9II .
or I ~ r iW it h ('rr rrt i Ve
'+ S'', r,' ,+tii'lI h+':lrio I rt.'~crilt. National A+rch i o+,
V. l1.durt +M+r an to AIamo. Sept. 22. 1954. DDEL, GF 109A-2, misc. box.
h Els(nhqwer, op. cIt., pp. 518, 525.

Q)t i' r ult z'l in t~t'i Et" 1 l N I., I l )' FA I klb

-The I det' a',a l "',l t v a r :of Ih e t' 4\ lv Ih i '-I e.' II, li' i p n and all.% t'ij
SI4.)11lII il he ha1t i )I' w hic I i .i t t fI )+ t l c'olit+ lit I1 ciXlusi)11 I lit) i l a i) t I'(qt+

IW 1alxh.ti) l e W'n l J ~l(ira ii it' tii.N(I ().'tl- XX et' (ti'li,)tI () t t'iii.( i'ni>~tl' >lt p
:Ii i (it1er11 :11551 11 I, it ISl)!' 1v ae1 l )li '. mliti a v ve ll li a o i the ler m 't t i (, ie i (l ptll it(l ilitlitt' I4) \(l" ultly ,"'he,,t Ii,/,,'h t

a'ndsaly reulted intu''i v with lhe tr ie. ~111ltealiiiii'i'it
By alm pe- rt1 'l,' ( .. l,>t l I)(w)t'et'il t e It ']' W'.l I tl l I) I'! Ite-
i t l e s r e c r i ll i t ( ) r m l 1 ' )) ) x iv.) I m I' h e),, : : ti )E, i P tl'i,,: ) ) v' ( ,)tl iP P ) ) .,
to xvai f a t'i I et! i' th 't'C: e' el:eh'.t ti t' l i !' t'l1,ii it'1 1 (4 1 I I t
,ei llt I -e41 II Ii vi I c. I' tt I!-
tio tn r' It1 t It l l l 1it' I ted to I Y e':t ," t11,f it" \+ i l ,'t III Ill.]]
I (., 4. A\ few \\e+ ]l.;s 1'i )'. I w, rtct*t. +<)dw .1 tlorilll \\+,,ld, atls, e~x]p i+ : I t
thiat tIlIIV 11 111t IM 111cc lill (d i ,,),'l:t +( :: ++t t IM: l d 1 a +
I)v law. '"lle Iopldl~i,':III tlwlttlwr- wor e ll, ld lD tw ifr. G( WI+, ret TrA-
]litr.11, 1 a Rbil < lwrt El Loot ..\.-1-IItIilII, If t l wfer' I v, til he re.I ll i +I .1,
f(,,theo iletxili t't +t R el+1,1lml lld+ Iml (w .11 f):~ ti1 *11 .1 ti' t~~ i' FI l t(-
fo,;is t ile a(,t 11+ 'sI l 1* t' w ld ,' m vl lll 't I:()lt \V lw a..... fromt I+t'i)l W'+t +t+
TI'Leaiit Pit tier] )oer fer If-ly .d il ltI'l r +t,))+ ''+t te AVI l ,t l() (. ()It A pli 1G(. 19it+ I ~..
]4;-t .2 dlays l+, >rt belw 11 tori'll, e'-pired-_l ........ a+i~ irm an HIll II+I ll"W ', :1, ("1111 to+
shet rnmall +\ ( ITYi ,(\+e Info'rmed, 111c .,.- ist (mlt to Hilt Il'c illel t thtIt

frolthle ]Prv,;idllt. th ) 11111c111 AVOl~~tss t (,ectt IIIt acrltIy
+!+tir ~ Irt fl l. !)1(11l tl d, 1- ito thet ()f + e+ ftl~e : l Iiti t+ t +.
A d. :11ttti < F'+.lmll- c N%*.,+: i or I) nt d pttcl :~', ie T he P rc- 'idIent lia l it t t t, 1 .
Ifvdct Nvoi !l Ile ift,+ilt 'd el he' ld. and~ (the W h ile I Toti-te \ ftflY
NW111 Of: I the( f"(t', t tl+ '' cm l olc II +Cl ( I I
interim ~. TIllo iY w ifwl~ )[ + lo:v. II\-(l(, ,.icm,lv tire (C m tmilli iZ
-w which t~ : llt l, sclh','tcd !IIII as Ytt-il"r (1)1:1*1't*t1MI !p ,tdll-' ,I dti(. I-

,'o litilli 'e + 't(,iV O :Is ('ri1 w l ho ]) )(0

tilrte(Il e t'] \+il _1 l +t t :,l i h d Ilter'ven tld ( + I lI c' s hl i:11i'. ll:,,l
I ji (l !<)t+ t+ () t I ricill, I R od,,,tt ( 'lit Icr (E I I ( s~ l ,v~ ,+)I it, f :1.- -
:111 oll N :It Ii 'd~ ri', t Y+, ( w l wll il ItIl l t r ) .flit so 'tl 'd~t It 1'- lPl',l lt

It + v 'v ,T h l I t, .

( 57 )

( I I ,., I I I I ]'. I t !: 1


to hand-deliver irsnalv to the president a resolution endorsing
IlVde passed v t lie adto" Liectroiics Televislion Manufacturers As-
S,ciation. Sprague 1l ivetl that I Ile shoul(l be reialpinted Chair-
nl b~eclause "f i l t i 1t1!1:ate fam1iliarityv with tle colplicated tech-
nical problems involved in oir industry and his ta-,pable and judi-
;l di...har (e of his resj)onsibilities in the public interest." The al-
1).:,tl ioll fi I telex 151011 liceI'es lad moverl quite well under Ilyde's
i'm lers1'ip tlire Were now 4(I1) TV stations on tlIe air, which was
more (tan 1 doule te t otal of a year ago.4 As )efore, the broadcasters
a d led t} it'1 r Wva ri, ii eIIl )r.,Iseln e nt.
In : n e~lI tI,1i:l tit Jet I Iwires Hyde. Why Seek ?" Broadcasting
decla red1 t iat 99 eret of tte Nation's broadcasters favored his
1-;di ation as ( 1aimiiann in order to continue "efficient adminis-
trat in at the FCC. This obvious "merit" appointment was being
bl~, ',!1(, ii 1 W1it 11ial continued. lv a "snall hard core of profession-
al pouiial'... who were (lisIleased at Hyde's restraint at firing hold-
oer Ir)enioerat.s and IIeorazlg the staff along Republican lines,
lix lve ba liii ked !his 1obatlon: a new Iepublican Chairman-
IwrlPl in the mold of Ilowrev of the FTC-was needed. Chair-
man 11de ihad not supmervised a housecleaniiig such as had occurred
in oiter, aeIcies in tie first year of the Eisenhower administration.
],tle first I ~ae, Ivde could not-due to his nature-assume the role
of a d niineerin, chairman : ordinarily, he did not line up the neces-
sary four votes before raising an issue in a Coinmission meeting.
-dler Ivde the viewpoints of all seven Commissioners were given
fll airin), and no pressures to vote a certain way were exerted by
the Chair
As u on lhis colleagues to accept persons (who were politically well en-
(lrsed and had strong political support) for apppointment when
I }i'e wr questions Conerning the individual's ability or aptitude
for aI cerain" position. Ieex-ing Republicans were turned away by
the (Conlimson cdue to problems of qualifications or competence. In-
(de1(l, it was not until late summer 193. that the FCC agreed on a
I iv g-elera I eonsel. rAlth-ough approved by the Republican National
Coittee,s the new General Counsel was a career civil servant who
transfa'ed from te Cjvil Aeronautics Board. The position of FCC
> :'1et1,'v was no>t filled for nearly a. year. but eventually went to an
F'C st'ff iiieiiih r described as '"a arldent Republican" and a close
:,ssiate of party chairman Leonard 1Iall Reportedly, Hall was
s; ill 111h;1a11 Y le(aiie the resl)oiisililities of the position had been
rdefi ied 1 t ier to her appointment, and major functions transferred
elewx hiere.' Even though IHyde had tried to be aceommodating"
-I~brt (' Sprn~ne to Gen. Roert Cutler, Mar. S, 1954. DDEL, OF 16, Box 191.
~ Wibl~i tn IPo~t. Sept. Ig f 1954, p. 12
Inter' liwwithi hyde
~~~ ~ lfnl~lt~' AI ;1 -2 I I0 .
I'lu owv r'.Liht ]orinIzs, 195 p1. 1 p3. 5252.
1 'res release, Feb. 4, 1954 (furished by the FCC) ; Broadcasting, Sept. 7, 1953,
p 5
lra ln1 ithn Apr. 19. 1954, p. 4(1.
i ree Ster tn recalls at lon't one situation whre he had to fi-ght for the retention
f I 1, ve* tff J i m ,r whon the admnisliitr:Tion wanted repfa'e( I by a deserving young
I t+ b+ tlib an law~er. IId was wvi!lZig to s the ,'ha1le made.1 Sterlin ,, was even called
h Sit Ior l'i n J of Mn ie 1o t o e R 1is office to diws tS the matter, but Sterling's efforts
wre sIiccessfu1l Sterling 'Writ ten Respounses.


his major interest WAl:- a'c,,ipl i iilur tie wvmrk ,, I liv ( ,li~iiV-i(ul),
For thlis, lie needled a Competen it stall'. as 11Ne pll it 1 vasll i ahidit
to tear Ii) tile orgailizat i()ll. :ll I d(iii t.'
Ce la ll ilf~le lia t ('~i~ i' l i]t tha~t Il( ]w F ( (m) l I Iw
(ol) 1 ll 111c14 ")l. It81 XIh Wals118I ImultIlo aiil'~iiaii
Ie I Ani (l V A \. I I Ilml it Ie I I) it c I-ilt I I Ion- 1 1 1'(.'m i<- I I I I
j(d). I I 1al-c}! '19,)1. lp lI( c ii 1 w ard Il (

WVillis ald 1 eXpl)ressed (I 1>pJi~llvi" :It ]), L\-I l" I e .1 lt iulme Is ( 'Aw II-
11181. thiey 1)01t i tMt I ht Ix 11 I I vIeId Io iiii>Iad I Ihe \VIIII

adtiiiiiistrative tetails (i* I he ( '0i1uillui-s zIl." 'le aIrfilnet(i:o I I,
Sil )eIiOl (Xl)e tise 4a11d klh ,x, l(m .Ic l'. xx hicl 11: 1 (''I1llvd hilil : it iiM 11,('1
I(l year before. lia(t io \ hw()w Ic,,l i cdle l It I l l all I : l illl wilic!ld
w a ted Jolhi )oele r a ; I1mil ted ( tia i' ina of t lhe 14 ( C.,:
While Hyde was muaecet ta )le, I)erferI also l18(d hils piro)lems. By tile
spiiiii of 195-1 (()iihliS-lt)Ii .J ol D~i )nrt 118I(1 I)con2iii a (.()III rV\ el
sial figure. Ever since lii> iiti al appllin Illelit the vear helore. I )oerlfr
had beenl associated wit]i. 5 imto, Joe ilc( (arllv ill tie ofii i1d of a 11V
pei()le. IPrior t() lis ap)i)Oitiicit.l I )oerfitr N\as no It to IV x ,:lV
special interest ill domestic secul-ttv IllItttel's.' Biut wilin lllIoiit hil'
taking hlis seat. t Il)fer he,,ll ('iit) [bi-led in a (' it ltove-sv \vlieyei t
appeared to some fllat lie wa> l)ll'-suligi (oiliiiiiist sitV i-eisiMI int
broadcast iii g Witliout alVco lc eie exidelice. It all eo 'Iel Leo a 1)roa(t-
caste n(a d1ed I \va I L:Ii I. VlIe i Lai I1) a1)11 e fot, r a IC Ilse IOI1eva I
il 1953, Doerfer ilsti,,at,.,d al il vesti (ation was Lased oil two
loyalty compl)lilts, ( one of whiil l was filed by an Allei-an Leriotl 1)(,St
and the other bv an unidentified individual. The complaints sugr'ested
to I)oerft that Land) I iulht be ,a "fellow m ave]e1o I( hinj o, f ihat
nature," and that his Communist leanings migiit jeopardize the
conielrad eliemy alert systema." '
If Edward fai lb were a, Coiiminist or had Co n imist syipatliies.
he had hardly practiced Ilis beliefs. By all outward appearaIices, Lmb
was a highly successful capitalist: Aside from hiis various otlier invesl -
mnents, the lamb media empire alone included five radio and th ree' tele-
vision stations in several States. as well as a prominent Ohio news-
paper; estimates of hiis total wealth could safelv bein at o41 11iiliol.1
Lalni). however. was clea l. 1 liberal": lie lhad lteen an em1 Iisiast i. sill-
po'ter of the New I)eal. and ha1 beeni involved in a n,.11l1ber of liberal
causes. It is also t rue that he had written a l()(k svmipathietic I() tle
Soviet econoni c systelli following a visit to Bussia in tile eay1 v 1).; s.17
Yet, the de1)messh)hl 11:(1 ut io11d .i as far to the left as lie ev erwold
be: since tlell ie uhd slp ported liberal calidilates (o )ot Ii lpw io
political parties.. A 11 tle same. someone always s was iltneOVeriti"I .a li,'s
left-of-center 1)ackgIround: On six separate occasions between 191 ali
2 Int erview with 1tyde.
'a Willis to Adamsi. MWr. 2;, 1954. DDEL. 01 16. Box 191.
Tlre wa< no,,w lltion of ilNy suih ibacktromt1 at Is Senate henrln, In 1.95 I,,w-
ever, at Iis cofI i lrmatlion hearings the following year, Dortfer riwntitmen l his a ttivitio< :
city at t oriwv in \V'st Alls which \\ :s : i O r of Mil aikse, Wis. lit th 19 10 1 ,rftr
stated tha;t ill, vtporoni" ross(1 for 1ros1'( lilions of ceart in iiidividtuals n,,'r(' 'I Il >- I -
tion of property d rin t :i strike ini the c(mitirnhnity. Aceitr(timu to D),wrfe". 'sI n of ....
defend nt s were definitely pegged as being Co ni ti ."' Ioerft'r Senate heari s, l _- 4 ,
pp. 64-65.
ir l{ r, -T Iamb :ase o R, 1 ''It Alior, The Natio J 1 It e 12, 1 ,7l I,
17 Ibid. pp. 50-504; Doerfer Senate Hearings, 1954, pp. 4-5.
62-A19---7 -b.....


1971:-,. Iml l, r 'ceix? ,l im-e-sarv clearances from the FCC and the
Fie I. \et tie hitl, C: woti hit rest.
\\li-i I)( ter -4irre-I tleIII pii)r the seventh time, the reaction of
I~anitI)s acqI[ii't(a' \: WaS oC of "1)0red skepticism." The reaction at
the IL F((' ) lo))(,rfe~r's inliries was a bit different : By the summer of
1 9, all ( ml s various15 al)I)IiCationis-Polttinle and otherwise-
Sere ii l twlld ui at t li ageiicy. ,lamb soon became convinced that
lie wa a N 1.11 ()i o a I )(,rfer-inspired ")olicy of economic strangula-
tio. L ,at, sp>e Iifst witli ( o inissioner Sterling and Chairman
ItiV. Iut i,(tl (), 11itk,1 advised l1imi1 that the "keyN to the problem
was l)(,.rfer. ( )ii Se ptc icer 11, 1953I, Lanl) called on Doerfer19
Hl (lert ions Ix*\ h OiTUI cr .red at that meeting differ. According to
laii l ,. ( ', mumi.e()r 1 )oPerfer stated that he wanted to check carefully
i l~ Ir, l.a(r s >(ia, I)olitical, and economic opinions and be-
1iefs h,,fore ihe w()ld SlJ)l)ort action on Lamb's pending applications.
1 *;u 1 ill ,,l~ lma r-(e tthat at the eii1 of the interview Doerfer stated,
"It w,'ii1 hi, icIt1(er it o we re still a iepthliean. 20 Doerfer denied
1t1i1 Ile ,er ii dIl that statetieit, ))tit I reely admitted questioning
l:1mlt aI)ut Iliis l iilitical a1(1 e(ono iN( views. 1)oerfer later testified
ildlk.r olatI thiat le lhad inforiiie( lamilb that he felt it was his duty
-h) r le a 11 of t Iese va rio(As a venues" because of "the crucial position
a alh I()a(le(astvir cali be in." I)oerfer recalled that he told Lamb:
M1y (. nr is not whetlwr you were a Conmunist, not whether you traveled
Sili ~in mtmi.t li I wvant to km m your e(o)tional nimakeup. Where are you
i_ 1, Ib. It leIlw wIirlwinds Id()w? W hIre wil you be?
S)ocrifer assured Ia)ib that if the illdcnce didn't hold up, he would
le I e t first to (.x(o e rat e 1 i Im.'2-
imard ll ar(otolliimr mre until March i11 1954, when he received
a otliciai ( Conimiission letter char-(ging that lie had not truthfully
iii i ,XX cm l)iQV i()ls ii (iiries co()ern iig his Communist sympathies
a ,il liefs. ltirt 11Cr. tle (oiliniission had information which indicated
I t (Ii g tle years 191t1 to l) IS, ILamb was a member of the Com-
ui Party- and tlhat-for a longer period of time-he had been
".ls1v asso,,iatedl" witl lemnbers of the Conmmunist Party. Pending
lhis reply)l to tlse cl arges, no further action would be taken on his ion for renewal. Tle 4((. letter was widely distributed and
Was i ; lisled tl~ronghiont the (ountry.1t -1 Several weeks later, the Com-
-iis i>)i ifornia1lv den, iel I amb's request for anv further information
o)n Iiis ac'rirs ot or the evidence against ini.--- 1)oerfer later stated
at li, had Op)o)Se(d this witiholding of information, and that he
had notI ellhis or, a11(Y other MC iiatter with the Senator from
1ins N -t ate, ,oe MI( *a,1t0.24
In 1 ie etalv spring of 19.5L Joe McCarthy was riding high. He was
on "virtiually everybody's] tongue" as lie continued his one man in-
VeI i amoiis into thIe Army and its loyalty pr-ocedures. 25 In a public
I mc ri in "el irna r, M(Carhby told one reneral-who had been
d('ecor-Je(, (1111- mr iI e war or !,allttrvy-that he was "not fit" to wear
tli l11ii'(ru of t le inite( Siates. president Eiseiihoweir had found
li n 1u I.
I; li,'r, r S:,t,' Ihearings, 19154, pp. 6 7.
I" I id, q
Ibid, I'1 7.; 77,

I Iq Fle ," "' I ," hoe -. f35II1.


soille ()f "M (( 'a 1 I prev M i2I,6 1,.lI ]I s- It "i"

llaet' (li\'i l1(I the lailv. aii4 l II -f l. r*, e ir 11I,1'';12'il "l:I( ;ii F lK i -
I1a ltir e d a~t 1 i viieo isihl r ta tilt :111d 1 !\Il( 'all liv \\e 11111wriji,'I I
s I. t lo i) a (1 IiIt' (sc4 I t iiA I 11,H 14-11) MYv0.IT.
II dI, ) iIIc I; 'l)a ( I iI (ai I (' ,c I aI I lI(' I lflul(,I ': P IY I-
III)e t If()r ]cinla ,lt ..I ,-lin' II lie" p" ee ) IS I I de l(a t' I(( t ) i

S114 mid (IowI .a It pI e lou>l ralHIl Iv foiirI Iu I ~ In variiai I I Int 1111.
i Ir l, Ma li lit I4i.' i I I l I c I 'lI. I l I(,Ili t( t o' i ) i Ilione( IIl

tIe will fm oPIler Ie t I CIV Ic I~e Iew t i ( ~ )11 r 1 e ~ I t (),(-I ln tl(
x -eiI I' mIilse)) I \( irt'ii v l11(1(als 'ill a. I ,tl l the aN ( 'i,'t' :15 ill'

111111 seea wb'l et ad a t liv r t ,- theIl1- litr 1)( 'lihlIItI ',I Ion(
"I test t'r l f It' la li tIca l ) ( i .hl Taill, Naicn was sililil 14) to}t '
( iot s 1 :hdle til t pr' vi(al s lll tv hil'l()' TA 1it' -" l a l. At 111,1 ti ('.
M 'c('artliv liav rv qllcQ-I- d 1111 v e I'ii' avt, 11 1,111ih- c i \V to 1() Ia\ l) 5: Veve
tloo)k) ll le i w iI mI ll Ii ke note I t..(I l Ti e
same ( t, -"tt ilI Ctkj il)V I Ik-11Q ('lO (fllt'I t )t H-t'li1 1Y.
tIlev wil I I ld er lin(, t I it, t I I I I,."- *" \e'ws sim)-'[s I I_, t I 0*0 1(,41, I la I t I le (
Were refite Mfo.t a one ov (caId c'swtplai) )ll)t(o (1w . a wwr,, s awe
11Cewsillail Ilitilted, "Ile( does llot Nvalit for i111i11,)itial fl)'eII(.* T heI')
cla i f lal (Of ll Iell()ilratic Na i '(lai iw as, III(,o(, .a i)eI n(l 1 ir i.-, lwn
will see whethMer athv1( Ioli ,rols t14) le (,iral )o1)1I iI ,ati lws

Tbse li e o1 ;itor The Setwor's skillfslwi (kie he P)(,;I M( 1 ar0ti
t 'cr1ii( li( ) vh-), l p i tlie o th i t h10 11 11 th, tt' ) i 'I;iil lii 1warw1 i(1) (1(.-
tci<'el ei le wo il
worlk ti)te f I ( .Itth ( "l-l Ihad le l rrivell t r I 114' to lral alfa 11ill A) -
viotus fall. the( r'ebuffl w',as u)mn)
(ilmtist.mii er Robieat E. Lee. ov ( c(Toi t ') e d (l Ifm aI h ll 7--erj tel(,'u
oi the FeC(. vroilm hi'- is lloatthis (to(ime. of t Ito
nMc arivs iV fried ld, b1 t, it' tills (b's it scEvsev I w rl lve t(-)
'L~ook,. I)(,]. it -el,) ) like( a (Il al' den 1I1() )),(." "* It xva- tI it l ), lli
note of iis rhI saitvt between theR 'C eedd S tor''he arilv. Tlhe
sam-e dayv. th~it cm-imient, wlis j()i) id vy (a )).))'e edo(Ilivil (|<() ill
tthe (ei l'nate f'ol' ole ofr (.( ,I tliv' s Flail-
derS Of Vel'l'm. o. Ti ( (art-hv was 7.ot a '5lpl l. but
a N '-0 n-1 11('1 called '("ardivisil. What. 1s951. pemltor 1.l i-
der;,-i w-as T (ar1 's resl)i)- se to i l(tt I, Newv I-c l l)'r(A elnlr is 0 195t p.)v1
bes-et tlhe co()mitrvy he S enator aliswered for tit(, "Ibstit Mc( (arthyv
Ile (l lik N lir l).aint, Ie 951.- intp 1 is war lance. le emits lk war
Ile es f()rtli to battle anl lr()(lly ret lrn4 Nvi I I ll, 9a51.I) (if i I )i
(lent i t. Wve iwi, au-n thtaft finis l)resIenTI the del)th n eill)es ) (m
llA/ll1ist I eilet rat ion iinIhis c.m i)ntrv at t1his95. tie.,
Once lie .e(, 1bolot t!t slech, itesid5t2. sent Flan-
dier a no(te which) said thtat Ailieri(ca edecid to "'heat. from) liore
Iiepul~ij.O'o-i's like Voljrs.!" .4

';NoI York Tmrk II 19,7l. P.r- 'A.)5 .p.
SN(v Y)r T') N," -- M rh ,1954I. 1, I
~ ~ ~ ~ Nv v r "' ),. 7 ~ h i I() !),-, 1. 2) _1
: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 1-, (r ie,-.M I'} 111, 19)51, 1 .

Meanwhile, the ArrIv I j Itei'attac f1 (dcarged that Senator
Mc( arthy l so11l it 1 re firent ja 1 t Ieat ent for one of his former
assist ans 1h I cwi dra Ired. Tih Senate Invest ig.ations Subcom-
mitte ()(,Ive. I('art liv oljectioiis-voted to hold hearings on the
chIarg and :e(arthy agreed to step down tenporalily as chairman
in order f,r it to tIn s4. rI'Ilt Arniv-Mc(arthy hear.-s-which would
unfold f), ").-I vys e fore television cameas-began on April 22,
l'll+,re' f tre, wli{ l+ I-] I{le's teriii als (llairl-anl expired on April 19,
19)51 Ii te l,;eis ( 1w{'xr ie w louse was faced with a dilemma
11 ,c w as N l: aI W a'I le as clairian 1(11 to collplaints from the
party organizat It Yet, PoerferI was also controversial as a result
of Ii i :I I{t !(I[ wlietlier itnagined or real-with Senator Me-
Cart liv: Ian stIil })e ieved that Doerfer's initial appointment was an
a~lnhinistrati,}n .at tI)Ip to placate the maverick Senator.6 That prob-
len c1 oupled v it lI )oerfer's McCa rthyesque investigation into Lamb's
poit ical b~ackgrounl might have resulted in a battle royal over Sen-
ate ,oiilhrmat1 n, lart icularly if l)oerfer was also named chairman.
()1l v ; nont hIs earlier, the adlminiistration had weathered one con-
irinat-,n"" trL. i -that of Robert E. Lee-in which the central
issue had been AieCi rthy's influence at the FCC.
A final drawaek to Doerfer's designation as chairman was the
pro Hyde forces. which were still strong and influential. Robert
Mihlen who 1ad served in the campaign as public relations chief for
Citizens for Eisenhower, wrote the President directly and enclosed
a nWeniorandum whi a leading trade paper in the field and by one of the principal owners
of a 1a1e network." Without qualification, the memo favored the
reallpointlnent of Hyde as chairman for at least another year: "A
change in Chairman at this time could adversely affect the FCC's effi-
cieney by retarding the momentum achieved under [Hyde's] direction
in declaring the dockets." Doerfer, according to the memo, was still
comparatively unfit for the chairmanship because of "the question
of xperience and knowledge."
The forces deadlocked, hut Doerfer still clearly had the edge despite
all l 1/i lr:a w(ks. Oi May 21. 1954, Charles Willis recommended to
Governor A(ams that .Doerfer be immediately designated Chairman
and that his renomination simultaneously be sent to the Senate.8 No
(it rV IVII wa1 ma41e ow either question pending further exploration of a
t!ird po'itilitv. If o plr mesemt meber of the FCC were acceptable as
Chairman, then someone from outside the Commission might be se-
let ed1. Th~at, however, ru1ired an open Republican seat.
(;,vern \i-- ( : ialle(l Doerfer anl a':ked him whether he miht
be interested in a transfer to the Federal Power Commission rather
than reappointment to the FCC. Toerfer refused, later explaining to
Aii:s t at he <.1o l1(1 nIot "retreat" from the charges that Lamb had
made a!ranst him. A(lams also spoke with Robert E. Lee about a
SIbid. t), :;n.
I ,Irf. r r I flls that newsp pers wz re mak1In a connection between his actions as to
I Iii l In ,r I I Ith \': ( ri !adP. I),orfer written responqes. One trade magazine
() II at howv rr s1i(.1rPI Il rfer fi(Iht dis avow being a McCarthy man, the Issue
hi +Ii~ i dilv lo pruv ,, Br,,dvnst nr. April 19, 1954. p. 46. As has been the Case the
a f th hiNte IIt use' rout iTeIy securv(d the approval of Doerfer's Senators, includ-
I ]: I+ M-Ca rr h Willis to da s. Mny 211. 1954. 1)1)12 OF 1r), Box 191.
i::~ R t Iu. MIkI t,} Etsa hower, Ju1ly 1 :, 1954. I)DEL, OF 16, Box 191.
Wilk- to. Adams,. Ma 21, 1954, of 16, Box 191.
11 erfer writte'-n responses.


possible Switch, I )t Le also decliled I i T re were re lrus ,)f' at ra
theo 11(iiui. v otfe'"~ to I kalc. a11(1 tlhe WhIite I lmou-ii v*udlt
i)ossil)ilito f novi lIi I I)vet t() flie Iower (CotmIIissI i sIx Iyle w1I s
not a!ol to leave tli F( Avwliet I. e llad ser-ved iII \'avioIS ( jitit :
since 1C 19 1his term a( alotlher 5 years to) I-lrl. It was at tlat I)tillt
that (Adamsiov Ad1tIii to Une t ie o)d1x'r rlinnuilg 1)jIIJ)liCaIu 1191-
ber oft Ie F(C.C, (Georoe S. Ste rliuluz of AI;il ,.
ITn ,i e 19 ,,I (1om issiotier St((,Slii..... \vlIo was within (lays of Iis
60ftl birth(lav was called to tile White I l)o e vere lie Imet tr one-
half hour with Goverllor Adams. A fter poiit in out that the atlininis-
tratioi lial a lil icy ()f rotatiliig Hi F ( C ,,lm i r,11tshilp, Adams wn-
1ered wicelietr terl .i.g-- tlie next S(l e 1'1 E ublicalWi-ws ii tereste(t1.12
Consi(lerintr the object ions to tle comitinied ',vi(ce of II yde, it w as
indeed a curious offer: Sterling was evenl 111iou1 apol itical than IIvde.
Surlell \(lails vas Im)t sl5 V)ri-(fl xvlie i >rliti2 i~ili(ue(lI (ltat Ihe li:14t
no interest in tlie job. A dams tlien listeiled as (Com ii issioujer Sterl-n
advised hiji to, (iisonitinte tins 1-year cli-maFiilip policy and to
tea l)1)oilit II v-le."'
It was diring tIhis period of little tlat ( )Ionmissioner Wel)ste-
an Independetit al)pointed lv Trimla- h-al)lened to Stop by Ster-
lill fitrgSi(,e. X\\l ),1)e Fr re a)tunte( I wla t 'o1 I()We( I
Sterling "was sittin g on the settee. ha n(1s [over his face], crying. An(1 I si:id,
'If they're trying to fire you, you stick by your guns. They (can't do a damn thing to
yo'.. Ttre was something liack of it, he woulIn't tell Ine. Shortly
8; ter that. li resigned. . Now somebody 1iuist have leen oil lhis Iieek ...
I'll never forge! \v le I walked in tilure mi( saw hisa. Imt lie won(tin't expl:uin
it. But I knew it, I knew they Were after hiuu. . I knew something was goiig
on. 44
Another commlliissioner wio xvas tlien serving, recalled tiat Sterling
did not want to leave, an1d that the l)resstres for liis resignation did
not come, directly fiuni the Wiite I louise but from seg)ients of the
communications Inrd lst ries.4 ( 'ha iran I 1yde, who had known Sterling
well for n ianv yeavs. was S mrise(l at Iiis sudden departure and dis-
tressed that SteriMYI id not speak with li n first. 1 Apparent 1.
Sterling did not (istem ss u i is resij'nat ion with his fellow commissionlers.
By the end of .1mitne. lie liad eoisilte(d a (1letor who informed Sterling
that his blood pressure was tn suallv hligh for his ace. 17 In ,Tuly,
Sterling sold his hIiiioue in Wash int(on a id took his first extended vaca-
tion from the ( 'olilIission.'s I1e ref lined home to Peaks Island, Maine
where-in a 1)tine1 imore relaxed ellvir)imeiit-his blood pressure
slowly returined to nionmal Ey 1 nii(i-,Auiust, tle t rade press a t (i)ated
his reskrflat ion. ()) S'ptet eIe ,"),, 19.4. it was mla(le public in an
"cxcluisive" arti le i ll BIvoad(,astitng matazie."' Steri i 1s term had
nerly Years veliia ilintl.
The situation c(,)meirri n the eliairmanti1p of tlie F C was still Io
clearer--excel t th al there now was a I(epulblic(ar vA(:1n- nc, Vl. -
lowinc Adai) it i1! wit I terllui 1)ael in IJun,. oeres renoNN--
'((I| 111 I t z M CihIt!lnyb c ill Jilo Doc)!crr(relmil
41WNi Illi If) A\d:i!;i. 11:r.h _26. 19-54. DDEL,, of 16. Box 191.
41 Stvtrli in t I ito ;iuI inthor. Iotnainrkei 1 July 20. 1973.
43 St lorli ti7 riItl, -n l ) tiSs
'4 IT Itervifw i I NV4 It4'r.
'7 1 ( ti I, t I I I '.
44 in (rviw wl\ h \ Iyd% Io.
I Sterin i wir I teIn ro4)4o4ef'-
41 lro:ide: -t i n z. Au ii t 10f, 1954. p. 4.
A2 Broindeasting, September 13, 1954, p. 62.

inat ioll as an -(',I tliemliicr was -ent to tIle Senate. 1)oeif'r had 2 days
of Senate helit':i Fl .Ixere Iaiih told all and the commissioner re-
stpldcd t Aal' I h, l.a 'ers. A fel( It)oerfer indicated that, as one
liMnli+r of the ( I',iiOl i,le wu(ldl favor full disclosuIe to Lamb of
all i iniei T i li + i tfoniati mn t lie Seatois appea ),' re+d satisfied. 0
N)\rfer Ias t!en i!:aInMinislv 1contined bv the Senate. But the full
(>niiii ,,i i ri )f lca er &i eI ie pa tI oelars to IaniI ). and ahead of him
wetv:, li:aiv un,)I I + I) lien iii; aii1 1 o1itt act iOu to clear his name once
a11111 f11 t all. l+ ke r I IsII to appoint 1)oerfer chairman n continued
a fter Ie I 1 ,in, 1. A few (ays a fter Senate confirmation, W'illis
In a that 1)oerfe be designated Chairman,
but no act ion \\:I ake.> Meanwliile, Act ingz (ha irman Hyde heard
not li :11,i [I !at 1)vert ion with (iove',)or Adams discouraged
]Ii 1"ii uiikiu aw 11e )1 Id cal H.
1t; late IId itnc I 1 )1 11 de and I)oerfer learned of the
l1,' '1idht leioi 1,(il I lIe 1 1w + apers" (eo(rIe ( -( Mc(1onniu ghey
of ( )l'iio would I e ai vel a recess a)pointmnent (since the Senate was
nt i ses 1on and would be (W'hairn71 for 1 year anl At i Oiiinan foi : months; 1 week after
'Couinau~ev's aii~ointnient, someone at the White House remem-
I ere, t eiid IIvie a lettei- ft'own t le President, thanking him for his
>( cI'V i(eS. :
en 11~ 11 st1t. it wa s a ipa rent tlat ( 'ha inan MVeConnaughey was
: e, ve,.y kti terent ,elat islhil with the aili,,inistration than had
,i1 -l'"e Ie-o ( ) ( )ctoer 4. 1914. t le new cha iman took his oath of
i .....)t at tlie a +euucv lie was to lead0-l)ut in the offices of Gov.
fhtra Ad:1uu at:1-f I, lje WAlite I Iouj.ei'5
A Iltl viwli there had been one other st rong contender for the posi-
I ,, t lliee Iiever W\Ysi :Ill \-)lbt that the a)pointment, would go to
Ml.Connau hey : ever since May, his name had been "bandied about." 57
lI i,,ple il suif1lrt wa's a s his (qu1alifications. First and
f,-11,,4 ill t le fie',,!, cat e*0rorv was Repuiblican Senator John W.
Srrke," .f ()h io. Bicker aid Mhc( 'onnanirliev had been close friends
C e1r i !1+ tflhe (Iayvs thlv had spenilt tow>'ther at officer training camp
Ii, 'i ui, "World War T. 'very public position [cConnauihev had ever
Iiidi! I e t ,me ,iirectlv t ( lie influence of Bricker. It was Bricker,
m Governor of Ohio, 'Nio lhad nlne(l him lhainfan of the Ohio Public
t ii it ies (mulluiis io in 1989. A fter serving in that position for 6 years,
VM'( 'woilnn h resigned to returnui to the i)ractice of law in Columbus.
Followilm- the election of Eisenhoweri it was also Bricker, then an in-
tll!etI'l ellber of the Senate, who had successfully secured his
friendt tlie lia irnuansiiAi p of the Reneotiation Board, whose principal
lnI +oie tlhe eI Iiiiination of excessive profits on certain types of de-
1),+ rfs r S+,n: t" Ie(artng 1 79.54, pp. 114 9)5. 1 Of6.
Vdl:+t r K+++ 'T't -f th; Free Air" The !Tam (T se. the Nation, February 5. 1955,
K, 1!r' 1 < K milr. l' lii i in tl I C. The Lail Case: Act II," the Nation. July 2,
avi: ai \ + ,Tly 7. 1 94. -, i DDET,, OF 1 0:% Bl,)x 45.
+ infervlitw with h~yde.
'i" q)+ t1r7r W1ritten eeponses.
Br : 1+ + t ()i! 4. 11954, It 50+ It harperr+ as thoii_-h MeConnaughey'u Jeslvnatlon
Cl (Th irmi n ii, aevord with the notion >f rotationn chairmanship was initially limited
, 1 a, a r. Whe a d nbout t his. the nea (hai rma n sai it was news to him, and that he
h+ad l'n !mder a differeT m im resi m. Adw rtiin~' AIeT Oct. 11 1954, p. 4z. Whether
Ms'o+n a' u~oT :1n' ,s erin t I i t ia ,:ly s limited )r not. there was no mention of It
tph a t+ 13 f1r9- 5 p.r f hiiS ts i 2 ,1e94dd.
'. Br-adva.tiag, I+'e. 18. 11954. p. 126. September 13. 1954, p. 62, September 20, 1954,
p. 56;


AM (. '(' 1111:14 gi J ]I ( 1V l 4 le 114 1 1 1c l lI1:e \ o-lpp: r l :1 -i' well.'0 2 Ille Ii w ~ (-: '
(lay f I I'Io- It(:m in i I. it ).: V nh I t,,I U "I 1r'.1- Il: I f )i *-cil f1 1~ I' i-
fled oerin ()I.%- llnu It(n -(C iih 1 vui1in frte jh' Iu-

II'l1l1(I Ii I 1 > *t I I N I t :I Ir' Iu I, I~e 1 I c ,In -., I f rc I I t 1 I n*IIt
(>,l!ii 0 1-'1n t 14r1_t11 I ) If X 't r I:I-I11t 4W VeI'I to ,Ii I t dI I ~I e( I ii' 1( 1 (
118(1 Xif)P'I{U ('14 f I -1 !("\ 1114 1-:iii1 f 1)11 Fete 1 4I 4 d lit' :4IiiIl- t I!(( 1n 8
the eI I 1 I( ill ()fI i v ,1' 11i \ pIi- t hle-I H~it, Ilo l l t I t( F I k- ()I
of 4f; he: ( tci~ I J( 1 *: It c reV \V8 I II I It )Ii vV "Ficn :I ff n1;t it)1 v 1rrI
WA< fl1tlel ilI~l '1011n11 xv.Ititvill v l tilt,1-ed Iii. 4 lii-. \ille p)11pf11'lie
The I4 n11 lie1,1O I' Iu'-'iei re Ih IQ)I)i'1 N to iuj: Th \oniiittee.'I

At118 t e t lV:lIf 1114 i~l1- IN' V l1'dit li -ele4' il. iliX l Ikr l-' e'

('mlill V 0411 J ~l li( Vi-er fi )1 t14 liili fil I t )()iltee et The F114( J
thad thx -e d withiie *'V'-.1 0\)110I'14'e "1 Wi 0i 14IhIfIt' and (I It10'1'()1)
I X llvOIIJ I 'I 8111im' Ri I I *r" \-1 dia l at 1 ille 1 11 Nve C(~IIIK 1 ) :1- 11 1dli1
b.1f11 OIli-( I X It Io I-' I''~ I 11)t tinapaA') e- Il I t I'lt I to fiA 1-

94 rnq1'-G( fli 1 1 I4J I 2
and I flhlpr me 14*'A l 141441'Iini P em-t r.-.i edr1 To' X1' 1 'MA m 1:44 1" 1'v

(I bri l, n xx\ n41, t~ If I Id wIhhe Ie IaIt I t he r I (N- 1 ~1 *V Y I I I~ to)i Iw I
)1t I *t t I I tl I I'I ( 1 I ( 111411 rati eo rl"' (o11''b )Trouv I t 1* I I T,, ecl aH t. F(' d't h I IiUT(,*'
iceon h e 111 () (,I l I lb ari''.1. fci 2ul. u (h a ied aiV cl If
the Un'r-i-s1 1 he41 r ic hid~l a d rXX~IllhI ''j BY 14 1 l )'I firm Nv i mx141 11o

Tele to ( ). r'reia m al ,*r.Jn 18. 1 a 4l~ *h Cmp. C(I'I-'. Th ('flt 119 & m


nalheyh('s cowlirm.:itioni. The elections bad given the Democrats clear
1m ajorit ics ii I t I houses, nId a decision was made by the Senate
T)emocratic Policy (otnrilittee that no action would be taken on "con-
troverial n()nin:t ions until the new Senate was organized in Jan-
uarv. A side fru iwoblems of potential conflict of interest, Mc-
( +, sI li i:t ion was controversial for one other reason. Two
da vs b- f()re III Soil e earingte, press disclosed that a 1hite house-
ill sp)ired -jd)s for republicans" program required recruitment of
agteicv p1ersn(nel within the "framework of the Republican Party."
5f,('onna utri y had been listed-talong with Doerfer-as the person to
se on th(se matters a:t the FCC7 Although Bricker easily secured
MrConn:m ,a-ey a prompt hearing and prompt committee approval,
with- all the I)e,mnocrats al)staining, s he was powerless when the nomi-
nation rea'he| tHIe floor.
ii )(tw-ratie leader TLyndon Johnson, of Texas. objected to considera-
ti, iii(m the technic:al Cgrounds that Executive nominations must be in-
tr(luie,( at Sen1te executive sessions. Since this was a special legis-
la:tive s&osS1on called only to consider the censure of Senator Joseph
M"('l rth v, 110 actio c(uld be taken unless the rules were unanimously
". i e.9' T[Cyonniiluev would have to wait until January. In the
iiwviutl ine. he (mild continue to serve as FCC chairman but on an in-
terim bsis with "his every move watched" by the Democrats."0 The
Scinate ,'an delav a confirmation as well as reject it and in McCon-
naltIev's case. ti former method was used.
Wlien the S4t]h Conwress convened on. January 6. 1955, Democrat
W: rren Ma rnuson. of Washington, replaced Republican John Bricker,
of Ohio, as chairllia of the Senate Interstate and Foreign Commerce
(Coiiinittee. President Eisenhower resul)mitted the nomination of
(eorie McConna1iu,1ev. Once again, the administration experienced
l)rolilelis in the Senate with its selections for the FCC: for nearly 7
we( iis. nothI hanpened. Then. on February 23, 1955, the Senate com-
wit te held a I iea rin j on the nomination.
For an entire (lav. the noniee was sbllected to "withering inter-
rogation" on a wide range of topics by Democratic members of the
cIirittee: 11 ore tlina once. tfie atmosphere grew heated.7' For the
f test pa rt, 1\[cConna1!,h ev (oul(I respond to questions concerning FCC
I Wv )v cl:ainin,- l,',k of information or by promising a study of the
ise IIe l1was, after ,dl. not familiar with all the various policies of
Commission. Regrditig the Edw ard Lamb hearings which had
(e P ct in~ling for months. IcConnaughey could state that he had
not been on the Commision when that matter had )een initiated. But
on te maiter of his relationship with the telephone industry, no such

A lea,,ie of consumers in Chiicarro was concerned about McCon-
n :njp,_ 1 connet ions with the telephone industry. Its acting chair-
111: 1, I)irry I. Toth-a formerly Chief of the FCC Rate Division-
auiie'Ired at tIle hea"ril,( to testify against confirmation. According to
B)th. tile Americ:an Felephomte & Telegraph Co. and its subsidiaries
c -(roIled S5 percent of all local telephone business, almost 100 per-
V -!1 W 1h t,0 Po t. Nov. 10 I 054, p. 1.
SIN h|Tton Post. Nov. 7. 1954. p. 1.
I Wai Street foirnil. Nov. 12. 1954. p. 1. 171 N. N 15 954. ). 74.
7 Pro~idrnde tln v. D I :,1954. r. 12rV
.- Washington Post. Feb. 24. 1955, p. 2.


Cent () f all i)tc ) OXXe'1:. O)Xe rU (, ( 1lt lor :,11 i1it1It l,,lthi" ,
busii,((S. AA i' 's ultisol iIt i lh ls. lSXX L I& 'i~le, T:it I*ii _
and ilisi lii t i I lot h 1 ,v ( ") 1 1 FClC..(,),,)ll cow
services, l -vY (t o.) vs

The formnic I'(( slit'II)llwr Pi tciiledl m'. Iol-lell i lee t W :11 11
tiii IC, theri'e w:as i)e 1i& Iig a ga ii nst A .1. & I'. aIII :iit*itiit si ii
sought to) thiX r'-1 te eOIlIlPauV 0)1 os Xvji(w~rl) od, We'stern lh~lw' '.
A)1. l "I" u I Ir )I of ()lui<) I'e I. f 'eI -,)ri(, :',() I)( ''+ f

Ciate(I w it]l Ii t( tI ldef Iloi(' i)lhii 'v- a (d 11(I '1 nI 'j ('',l(l1 ('1 l 1),)1 1i ,,-
I)(Ile s ill ): + r l ( ';++s 1~ 1 (' ())c)o ;)II f ,cN(,v s )) a())s I() 1,,:)! ) V ,II
hal f of his tot .11W () :1 I Ili l)* a ol' i')) tIhe,;+, I N\,()e -il
)aI cs, So l I ,.e ( ) was 1):11( ill I v(,.II' (i(I tIIe to I o I I ) I I('V *
Ilis firm lv 1w ,e IV() iii tie- f'or ](.ai) r, ).<' \\Ie(,) ";,na(l, tI'-
Kefauver ask(,d I l( c'(nnal ,y if ]Ie (iad "l ),lie 'Ved inl" l)is lients
caseZ the 110llliie(, r(, J )on(l((1 lhat le "hope(l '-o.** 7' Booth was 1i11-
pressed by t(lie fin!: t hat M1c( oii iiai '1'li(v I1,(I fi(eX l.'1 )pi'este(l A.1'. &
T. itself, and fial I ever j) 't )ee( be lfore the F ( '. Tlhe reweelial ... IvXI
of Utilities Iuser> IAaru, c(,luded :
"It would not b)e fiir to the ilutlic, even if he wer( not to part inpate, iii iiat terz
involviiig A.T. & T. fr )l en f()r they ar e (IltiletI,( 1too ( ;(l acive pnolt-ti11 I f
the chairman of the F ( '. The wiulic could never be certaiii that his iniluene
directly or indirectly a(l not IIen exer.isd tt) deprive them (f the full measure
of Federal prote(t ii-) to wNvicih tley are entitlel. * *- 77
Others. too. woidere(1 about }iow vi,):ororuv- AL,( (ol)nai Ilev would,
represent the pill)]i interest in telephone regulation. Senator Kefauver
declared that M Connaughey was the first ( ('C a 1)o itee wIl, 10r-
viouslv had been an advocate for those interests wlih he would now
be regulating. Senator Bricker aiiorily denie( this, pointilg out
three instances where Presidents irinian anlt loosevelt nauied lieln
with similar back-'rounds to the FCC.8 Following additional testi-
Mony conlcernllii_ the i(I)o()poly aspects ol A.T. & T. (TIjairian
Man0son adjourmnd ( lie hiarin gs to -let ti}' du;t settle ior a few
days." 7
The doubts con the heart of the question of how close the relationsli) should 14 I)e 1e-
tween the reflilat ,))P ', I(l ti1' )'e2flait edL But there were no 51 'e i,-
chargres against rConnaughev other than the flat that ,i bark-
ground and philosophy y were close to the interests wlinlc hie woul(l now
have to superX\-i e. No one questioned his a(lninistirative ability anid
general competence.
The broadcast int inIlustry had also been ne's about. t (Con-
naugheys b)ackgrrwimd, but for a different reason. The i ndu" t rI was
7 McConn11hey Snate hearing 19 ,55. I. 21 22.
SStatement )f lin rr U. BIg(othI. National8 Ariihives. M(nConna tghey norninai itn. ,'1B A 8.
'. McCoinaghe p 87 .
7.Ibil. p. 4 NV W. r Ba rtII. foiIpt r, lr(r. Cincinnati & Sub11r1n B9ll Tet&,1Ihn1nue TI1
Frank ltillerrl chief cotnsel, Senate Interstat e antI Ftrei 'n (>It tnrct, ,)iii +, ,
March 1, 1955" R. I. B IIehm. vice i'riet Ohio Boll Telephiunt, ( t) lrank l)T Ill 1,
March 2. 1.55. N-atinal Archives, McConnaughey nomination, 83B-A3.
MeConna ughey Sna I e heari ingsI p. 5.
Statement if Harry B iot hi. op cit.
MeConnI'"Il Senal\ hearing. The other three such alI'itintuients were aul A
Porter. Wayne C(y, and Robert Bartley, p. 55.
SIbid, p. 81.


sensitive al$)lt tie possibility that "common carrier" regulatory
i)lilosf)lly iigIlt iihe aIpplied to them; they were not subject to rato
reg1lat tI I s :ts I lie tleploiw industry. Again and again, they had
to he as.umed t M 1c( *oIInlugelv was a -free entterpriser," and they
tou)k e'inuf im inl his Ifreqent statements that he believed in "as few
c, ii rols ,sil'."' \When his appointment was first announced,
a couIIIuniwat (l ,V> lawyer' complained to a Western Union representa-
t ire f ilat t11c F'( C "; .tt ing anotherer common carrier man" rather
tHimiti "i ,l-iilo ie -ool i)I(ma'lser." 'k()li, I wouldnt worry," the
W ,stvi nin 111,111 reportedly responded, "They all become broad-
', lmvill M(-( *(y s -r I e*hiearing, the situation cooled for 2

1eek until tle Oc(mimittce reported out the nomination on March 10.
No wliiiuitce vote was recorded, and Chairman Magnuson simply
siit tlu:~~i] i1:i bee tii, lnir fire for a long time, and it was only
fair I( t le 1( '(' I II get it oing." 82 Without a word of dissent, and
a(.1 ( a delay of 5 m)itlhs. ( ieoige McCommaughey was confirmed by
tie ewre on Marelf 14 1955.
IJI-rTI I N z t :i' I~t V t; 1 C 2 .
A h ,\ ewrtisz Agr. O(wt. 4. 195 4. p. 52.
\ *thiiigt(i 1Yot. Mar. 10, 1955, p. 2.


"Since t Ii iP :i I ,(i iioerafic vara 1cv WeIra DeI have I c rj Invisll i li r.-i i r
-eein- it vell iilht,."-Seriator 'aul 1j. IouliyIa.1?, I)vnI,)crt ,,f Iliwini q, Apri -1,

It was te ,d' ,f deat i xvlcih. attractedl I lie attentionli of t hlev'-
kteper to t hle i!sta irs iMWI, Whvere tlhe Vroii:l)05d "eli ii i" ,t
Richlard A. Mack were disc(,vered iII 19)). M1 jaii police est iluiate I hlat
lie hal l)eei le:ad for .5 to S (tavs. Forty <,eit in pelilies and uii.kles
a1(1 dim wier e t!le(! iI neat Stacks next toM a l si Iet t, )(t: fokr
1o01t]Isli h I~eeii b(I ]I\vIiir oil' liandoits froml friends await mug t lie
legal release l abt1ouf t I1o11 )o left to lIju l Iis father. Mark. vio had
Mille fl10O(e I IiI tlie Ii igi lest Wah i gln i eles. lied ve rv ii iiIi i a h He
in a sk I-o r,,,1n lent to li1 bv a tIfiend Ilis deal i deI(l years ),f
occainlal cmit, lemen+qt fo>r tthe cthrolic, alc'dl ]lsm whll ha111v
tiau once deJl vel lis Feder'al trial om 4l ,'1'-o e i h,'ile.
The 54-year-old foTrmer" ("'oinunications ( ,oiniissimer (id o-,f -'nat-
ural causes" in 1!t8.+
But all of t-hat was unforeseen S years lewfore. in 1955. when 5\l'Mak
was a member (,t thle llornila IZai1r(oad & Publtic I til ities ( ',,oiuri-
Sion. At that ti ue. "Ille always had a bandbox ell look, le
c~ottes smart Iv: -4 raiilgt 1lacfk hair. clol!,llbd Irk with Inever a .t rail
Out of place. Ws one Of lis tradenarks.'' The li]keble lichtarl
'aek !had iiarriel \vel 1 l lively ell. Ilis fil ilre wNas bI-'i1!_It -....I lie
V( I efo1e. fI II1', (adl )c I I ta lk o)f lIis be i I tIie I )eII0,Irat i, c a ,IlidaIe
for GT1vernor.4 From 1 alost tle first uneetilr, everybody called lhim
"I i eliie.'"
Mack had been(1 ietere:4ted ill a Federal app-miitililt 4,t'0 Vea1'K. Ill
1951. le had appllrhed his l.,eatovs. les':iI'l I. oll(;)iii : 1d
( eore A. Sia er.:lolit a vlaIlIcN ('11 thle I uiter-t te( oil re

Later that sl iie m>.i. hie -was i.p.. ted a for appufitiieit hut
this t. ,,ne to the Fo e ((liniI!l ei f cl o r(ws,
Nei t I or c 1:ii) 1 C I 11 1( 00a 'Iirrz f I 1I. XXIVII t Ii(eI eei of F I e (ihoWO
V'ackis c, ,rI .z 1li1 iit'- le. \, a re..isiered l)Deniorat. lark voi l! :it
tle very least h,:I\,e to wait until a 1 )ev1 (n .ulle "*1 1 1r h B. i s
term oin tle 1' w'(V oiil exlire. At that tiniie. there were four el{'l-
: I),pa' m t- l i I ih w', A Ir 4. 1 75. l)liOF,, GB $7 P I T.
T T|b,' fart'-. lr' tii-. lirara i arf; t1tkn frt)'n the f-11l wim. T liItIIrN Ili o 0-. I k i I I n
Po xst v ;: 1' .> ii ral ilih ear11 and hlte vdiii+n'. N, 2 1
1p 1 ,, YoNr TI ++ N nv+ 27. 1 +;:;. n. 2.
\IM itni l! ralii.N N+v 2"- +. 1f + p .\
4 N'.' 1rk Tr N~ + 27 1 ,t;:: Interview wit h (r,
1 eriimirk |, Sr.5.. 1 ard I,. rl rnl ('+'n +,'.iui:ii I 1 \Ir .to IW i t I I
Sm ~her. :* ()ri'n IlIarri'. Mar. 5. 11+5", a'. lriiite~i in ''v+,ri- ah~t lb ,iri,+ v-,.. + ." 4.
|1, ( ) ) I



Iicatns on the C(oiiiislon. The 1aw, wlich barred the appointment of
anther I Ioplil'ti, did not Ivqiiire the naming of a Democrat to this
s.Pat : lI'esi, Ict Ii- iower, following the example of President Tru-
man:1. 'ould 01 d c iil li, e in mont N seat vith an "Independent" or with
a liro,,n ho x, ., : i ,%l; nominallvN a member of the other party. But in
1,,, both I :- of Conwgres were controlled by the Democrats and
t lie I )ei r b. 1:ulesi 1) of the Senate Commerce Committee "in-
sist ciil on 11k, aji J( tint inet of a "real Democrat" rather than an
i w l)ew~hi,.:1 an "Indelendent." Certainly, there was no
coiisi~Ierat loll\ cii to the possibility of reappointing Trunan hold-
OX r II Iiti'Wk.
(Geiiera1 lv ,ol~~Iere'd to be the FCC's "most militant member," Com-
nii(lS~orI lciii"1k bia( fought for the reservation of VHF stations
for 1 I, at IJoaI I i (lvisi)W. Il ich meant that fewer stations were avail-
bordatn she had "harshly attacked" the net-
work'k a- :i i oplies.>P She was also the lone dissenting vote against an
o million rate o, t for A.T. & T.- In addition, Hennock was a
ii i-dly 1i; .ian Democrat from New York.
For I hose reasons, everyone assumed that she would be replaced and
ealipaig1s fo (er seat were mounted early. A year before the vacancy
wa dei to oI()cil. 1)ossible slleveSsors were being mentioned in the press;
almo-t all were solitr (coviservat i ye Demnocrats.
A\iionr the lirt to be considered was Richie Mack of Florida. The
mvin)\' force 1)elhind Mack's campaign was Jerry W. Carter, an expe-
rienced ha,1nd at niatters like tis. After serving 20 years as a member of
tle Florida reielatorv commission, Carter was an immensely influen-
tial 1i1-ure in the National Association of Railroad and Utilities Com-
n~iv-soners (NARIC). Since the administration s policy was to con-
sult this a-soiation on regulatory appointments, Carter could work
(1ite eff'ectively in a familiar arena on Mfack's behalf. As he had done
nmany times before. Carter organized his friends throughout the coun-
try in) sup)I)Ot. of Mack's appointment.10 Mack had been the beneficiary
of( arter' friendship in the past: when Carter resigned his seat on
the executive comniitt-fe of NAR( Cl he asked the committee to appoint
I;i.k in his place wlich they "kindly consented" to do. Just before his,
selection for t he FCC. Carter finallyv promoted" Mack to second vice
president of tle oryanl1ization. As far as the FCC appointment, Carter
later' 'tate that he pulled "undercover whatever wires" he could for
his col 1ea_-e from Florida.'1
It was probably Carter who contacted Eugene Laughlin, chairman
of the Connecticut Public Utilities ConIIission and a former NARUC
president: according to a later White House investigation, it was
La1i-rhlin who had originally bronirht Mack to the attention of Gov-
erno~r Adans. Carter had one close friend who was certainly in a
position to be of assistance: Chairman George C. MConnaughey of
the FCC. They had known each other for years. Only a few weeks
earlierwhen McConnaughev's confirmation lad bogged down in the
Senate Cartor quietly moved into action and did all he could to,
loosen the nomination out of committee."" Some suggested that McCon-
e tBr t ttI Mity 9. 1955... '.27.
Sla;bo~r. May 14, 1955.
P ilrlidaIs:tirg,. .J1y1 9 1954 p. onmber I. 1954. P5.
SC rter Testimony[ 0vrsight Hiearings, part 2, p. S10.
Ibid., pp. '15. 829.
Robert Gray to Adams, February 12, 1958. DDEL OF 16, Box 191.
fCarter Testimony, Oversight Hearings, part 2, p. 828.

nati]iey reciprocated itle favor )v Iakiii a lI'i+lls arid >vl ';LI etalc
look at a- "
look a t ( si' aliidate for tire IF( '(l i
Soniw lere alon.r the line. a decisioll hl-I(1 1een 111adte i1 1 le Wlite
House to till tliem Ilenn(,k sea witlt a I )em,,riat fr)Ill eit lier' FIli1t:L
or some 1i tl0er sitheaieterl Stat(. Fl()rlila wap politically aj ii ,
tothe adiiiiist ratio : liselioll 'in 1954, F lril liad elected its firsl I epiil W';il ('m ,"'I(essi.. i mci I-
3rv. In a irly 19,5-, ti report rache(1 Se atl or 1H)lla i tliitt lir adl-
tinistratioli \vas seeking a (tlalfilie(l Hlor-'ilid for possible apllit-
men'lt to the FV (. 1,) lo iidinndjtcv~ Illi tom-h wvIt Ii I
Villis at t(, WVihite Il(oiise wvlio co ilirn(c ilie report. For fnrtl-cir d-
taiils. Vili-. lvt f'reI the i 1t()oU to ('hi:i1ii,1 1,( C liIaIlrlri, v..Al-
Colinamighev wvas xerv familiar witli tie statt s of tie appointment a oi
told IHollandt hlat Mack was ote ofl Sve l-al wilo were tliell under seri-
oils ConsinhertIt lol. The 1, ( clti'-In:i fi -tia I iIt it, i t(I 1:t h e
planned on imvilit(,r 'Il\ack to Waslinl(,rtlo to d''leterniiiiee his qualifica-
tions and his aI)iIitv to tit into tle ('onnusion.'15
Later, the( \y 11 11-1 oMI 1 o-4 e hitoria I I/A'4d 1 t at there Was 'ot lI) 111
in Ar. Mack's past wlich [qualified] lin iI tilv way for a ppoin1tillit
to the FCC."1" Not!il iu. it sloul( have b eenI :1,'l(led. Vxcept inflluietial
friends who had always helped Mack a loItr in I is career. Matufi ring in
the old school of Florida politics, Mack lilerstOod the importance
of the exchange of favors: as the presidellft o-f Fl orida Power & Li(lt
Co. put it. Stale comm)I-iIotisSi(vI- Alaer lk was "'air and easy to talk to. 17
Mfack formed h is lasting friendships in lite Si rina Nil fraterl itv louse
at the iniversitv of Florida. In 19,)2. he recei ved Ii is ness administration and then spent 8 years selli ihiir ance in Tampa.
Inl 1936. he married tle (laulhter of t lie fo n(ler of the Tam ipa TI il mie.
About the same time. Mack moved to MIiami and-thro~mll the efforts
of friends-becam e a -'credit 1nanajger." WiV tOle entrv i1lt() World
War II, Mack was commissioned a second lieutenant and ordered to
report to the Pentagon, where he worked in personnel matters for the
duration of the war. 1
l)isehargedI a+ :i 1icR tei:ant colonel in 1 91(. \"l lck kept an "elenmentarv
set of books" aml imia cr e I the oice of a conpa ny whijelh supi led To0m4c
for road buil(lit, 1 )os(,s." Tlie compa1iy was owned by a life-lonz
friend. Perrine I ,ilier. wlo al- o happened to be Imavor of Miam11i.
Riehie, Mack was ii.tikino- almi t a 1 a week whien a 'aa ciy dvelOple(t
oil the Floridt1 hR,11110i( :11d Pul)i tlIili ies ("omnlli] lI
evInV was I lit, '( + )lill'li'lltv tillin( tle Pl position wlic!h paidl 5i)i)
per. year. an(1 MA,.t 's friend. M:vor Palmer. recomnei-de( lil for
tle al )ointnvieat .71 Pre'.inia !lv. his selection was the result of 1ol ii('Icl
influence alone : iio (me fle ed then tlhat Mrac! Iad an v qualifila-
tions to 1 lleOi (-)f Florila s %I-zree remiilatorv commnlssloner5.
ie got ilie job. a-mi fitter won iwo St:iteAwid, elections. 11l li': new
office witl I i'oa ( rc )-0SiI )iOlities over all Ilintlie litilitises in it l, Swte
M1 ackl+ reua mi~ a cessil )l to is friends. In one inst ance. Conmi- i-)Iner
T Ma k -' !t i1,nTny, ibid. pairt 4. p. 14t7C.
+ Thiiiar uy S ~i'r I ,. M itIn id, C(ngressional Record, April 3. 195R,. 5575.
"7 Urni,: In.m .d Wti ie 1, l~o In''nn N F~qlIt l ds't allinz Informantio n '"obtai ned" from Toheort II.
lr',. Pr#-sid t. I 'Ior Ia ',wor & light Comp n FebM I DI I5 .DE .. OF ( M V .
1 Maok "1 i++n .. rsi~h t 1lea ri igs, part 2, pp). 1997,- 9 (.)S
1 .Ibid. part 4. p. 12pp.
SPa l Inr 1ist i y, Ibld, part 2, p. 759; Mack Testimony, Ibid, part 4, p. 12 ,2.
2: Ibid, part 4, JL I. 21.

-a- pii in a 2 I wor1" witlli the teleplone company which then
transferred it i:i ',)e strod ion usiw nss fronm a (Georia firm to
t Ie'o)iq a iix of \1 :1 r 1'a iner. I 'aI nr e t ilnted t hat I he contracts
N\re w('I t F[ a11 p xillkatelY Ss to 1I Ilioi I il over a a-yea Ir period. Of
Ct di 'c,. 'a I n ie r ut ii leiiia ii Jed Mlack's vote. Instead, Palmer tried
"t, ~1iip u(II ak I hlow I felt al)omt the matter. I do not
t}ik 1, I x(l t, xr i)e PI I)lrh'1l)tttotls to () and ask any pub]iC
(ltli'ial1I t c v,,e iti, ; Itii li i er ,)11 a certain subject. 1 think I would
go to li11 :aii I e"xu,:i1mi hv I felt." 2
()iin V ,,,litk ar'k W wxas (quite sen tive about how his friends felt.
A ftu,' x t':I ,:,, :i- :1 > regulator. hichie Mack wanted to move up to

Ilxvmird tilt 1,iil. MI:irk journeyed to Waliington, D.C. to be inter-
vie\ Iy tie (1' 1i vita ()f tlte I( 'C M-( 'onnaughey and Mack were
nt! -wvranrer- t i ix Iia1! ()ften ule' at N A I,( convent iols but they
were, a r -llv feivtI (I itIIer..4 Following the interview, MeConnaughey
i ,1 f I I i )1)llandl that he was favorably impressed with
.M[ar.t's ma let ilc.l~l-' 841 froiii tli(.n on. the FCC Chairman was an
art 1ye i ira(0e u)f lrk's a)t ieiit. Mc(onnauighey also correctly
(?1 1 tll th at AMar.k woiltl "fit" into the Commission; more than
(11'0 C(', (111i-010,i M[ar'k was heard to speak "feelingly of his in-
4lt i, 1- t )( h irian M(,('onnauthey for his appointment to the
'oi issi)n. it. was not in Mack's nat ure to forget those who had
1,(, !ellilJ 111. hlen tile Wilite Iouse called McConnaughey over to
h*iis t lie ali )1)uinftinet, he endorsed Mack without qualification.26
M a 1 m_1le a total of tlhree trips to 'Aasliington during the spring
of 195. ~lil( there, lie used Senator Holland's office as a "base of
operations." l)nrin those visits, he saw Charles Willis at the White
l ,) s(e'and stopl)(,d I)y t ie F(-C to see another NARUC acquaintance,
(',)nin11-'sioier John I)oerfer.27 When Mack returned to Florida,
Mr,,( 'ounanulie kept in toucli by long-distance phone: in April, the
F('( ('h airman called Mack four ties-twice in a single day. Later,
S( 'oinai-hiey testified that lie had placed the calls to make sure that
Ma,! would )e a)le to begin serving when Ilennock's term expired. 2
Tlle explanation is unconvincing since no decision was reached on
Blacks selection until the second week in May.29 First, there were
ot her strong contenders-; indeed, at least one person declined the offer of
11)] oi iiient .a econd aside from McConnaughey, Mack's political
Sron-,so iip was essentially Democratic in nature; Mack would later
(l-v thlat he lbad supported Eisenhower in 1952.31 For this or some
*t'r re:usoui, Flori(las only GOP congressman, William C. Cramer,
wit11e( Iiis endorsemienit3- But, after "lengthy and numerous conver-
satl,14 ( rangerr finally agreed in order that the administration might
"reeo,,lize tIe great cuitrilttion made by the State of Florida to
l)re(Ieh,1t Eisenlower's victory in 1932." a Once committed-however
P I ii r T-T i hony> ibid. part 2, p. 761.
.aiu T"l m' in~, ib~id. l, ir 8. p. 1235.
h-!a!ix r t,, 'r~w lI rris. ,l~ ri rv 195s, as printed in ibi(l, part 3, pp. 1061-62.
M i tu'tu~h, T l osi t i monyI. i art 6, pp. 2334-35.
iX T-tm, Iid. part 8. p. 12815.
s' .M ( ('oninau~hey T '..ti munx. ihId. part 6;.1p. 2353.
\Villis t, Adai s. 3II. 1 )7)5. 1)I)d L 01' 1 4. Box 191.
(i raid .M,)r h t \Vi~iP. Thy '2. 11.53. I)I)EI. Files of Gerald Morgan, Box 12 ; Drew
PIY r- u. \Va~ljhijo I'u~4. I'rbruarx I' 1935',. p. 1115.
= Mauck T ,s i n v, (iw~rsi L'ht IIei{rig.. part p. 1194.
N 1 C. ri"ld r ta-, as 1355. p 27B
'William (2. Crame'r to Willis, May 9, 195.DEL F41() Bx33


relutan I ~eresetative ( raIiiei Iii fornneil thle Whiite I Ilri 111i:1t
lie desired to be included in :1lNv visit Mack III:t e there: lie ( 'wl re.,
rrlain also() wvatitedl to) -miake stiire ti):1t It() IIi)totrj-lIpII,lll 1)( ;IV nq
of Ma/ick Avitlh the llri~Ia I)eiiiocrat I Siia10ir. 'lk'o lNildi;ii I:I
M .~~lS llel E:s lhm:I () d c
e114101seriilt .,
The selectiomt Nva:4 tit-III !, v 11).a lCItl 10 wh c ilv"; v ro!
Adaii s asked I Ii i m n im 8 l w(1ll I( 't ii itel It hlie K Uiit 1i a f !it i K l1' I
iiivCt 2a1101 V8- vflip etc~ I. VI ii n 2i hil N- ci 'i II >rIii t ~ I,(,'
was receivedI alrd It lI(c i il lIll )l" l(f lLc L, ni A. ]\ak to I'e Fc i(ri, l

11Iearilig Of the '-*'l(ctl loui. Ii 1'Ahte Ali.O\wI~ 11.of Miain111 ~1~ ti
iC1[ Of t lie Iex ( cltli Iii>> lt o the Ili li e lliniii ol : 1 1 l
M ack, dttring his se 'Il 'Hii> ()f S Iit' I oflice. l1: iole aIlIi 1I)I ;
to justify tie r(w)i (o elev'Itiml I011 ubltllic >el'\Ice I \\ 01t111 lie t,0
know about it.'' v -Wliie delitt at i lie re)t i reiietl oI' 'l.Ilor,'l\.
Broadcasting not surlrisili(lv bemoanedl tlhe a I1iit ilerlt of still -III-
Other 'iiCOliii(In cal'I'l(I' ItV"'Iator 1() the c)IIlIII T III'lper
of the railroad b1tl1ci'lio,! editoiali Ked iia' all t at wa ,t kitm,,It
about 'N.lck wA-s }hi "' .! )sv (: i ,, i \\-*it -N .\I t'(,\
al)tt i1,. V8S.ii *cot' t)IOllIecIl 11\ jil N AI\l (X ) h ilu'1il-
bersliil). for the 111o>1 1p'l it. NV,\ n ''itlt"lilt' liil t v o It( lie Ve I I'(tel1
gas t rust, and telephone t rust." -
Finally, there were a few scattered criticisiuis of tlie adiiinii;ta-
tion's failure to reappoint 'rieda I letllock wlio wvas a "'t hmoul'illilv
independent" FCC cone issioner.40 But, iII geeral, t lie Flori(la reL'u-
lator was an unknown (uit ity and the react io to IIs select l : was
anbivalent. The Senate ("o()initerce ('ou"inittee allowed 1 piunutes for
his hearing. Senators iHolland and Sniathers teftilied thbat Mack was
a "wonderful youmn mian'" who was '"exceediilvy (lean ani lio,(t wiIily
honorable." The 11011 ineo (leclareti that lie believed that 'reaTuiat ion
should be at the lowest p)ossille level" 41, and tie exatiini Iul seliators
uttered not a o'siiigle harsh word" against lil2 tie wNaS coiihlruietl
unanimously the next day.
The saine day that 1R ichie Mlack breezed thIrougii lietri n t lie
Senate Commerce Conilittee was takincr a 1n1uclh closer look at an-
other Eisenihower liolinee. The .51-year-old William (". Kern of -hi
diana was the I' re'iteaT 's cIoiCe for 8lIJoillt iIlIt to a IIC(-)iII11fr
vacancy on the Fedtleral Trade Coiisi. LA ke Mack. Kern Nva- 110111-
inated to aI soat Xvllicht could not, by law. be filled by a IRepiui ican.
But unlike Mack, Korn vas not atcon IIijo to 10s h(ea rl 1 1 )MV',er-
ful Democratic spIo isor s intead, the opening wit 'eps )os(,tl ti
nominee in no une.rt ainI ttrnis.
Senator HIerbert 11. Leliman, Demnocrat of New Y'orh. declared ti lt
he did not know tie nominee personally, nor was le fa miliar vii 1l
34 ,VIllis to BFrn 'h N oe, Mmv 12, 1 5 1) L ,F G -Q. (Miwsv,
1 Willis to Ad;IT Mn_,v _5. 1955, DIEL, OF 16, Box 191, Robtort (;ray' to, Adam-. 1, ,71-
arv 12. 1115s. I)I)E1I OI l1 (Misc.
38 I',,nilled t ,t Wii s to Ad:,ms. May 10. 19155. DDIEILL. 01' 103. 1,ox 191l.
RAbo Aronnvltz to lsehI, w, r. May 9, 1955. DIIL, GF 41 (A x :a
s liroadast i iz. 3May !, 1 5 2
3T Labor, .1 JTi o 4. 1955.
St. I,- Pft )1sptch, Mav 29. 1955. P. 2C. : Drew Pirson. Wa'Pin~ton I' t, M 27,
1955, p. 75 rI'frne Laurent. Wash1ri:tn P4,,st, June 30, 1955. 1 5-I
,' I Mlt'k Sea e l,n ril. 1955. L7P 7 4, 77.
o Broal('astrn, J ulie 20, 19.5 p. 74.


Kern's views on 1:isic p"lcy matters. The Senator did know, however,
that ;erl's qua llilicat Ions pale and grow dim by comparison with the
qualifications of te ni * whom the President has named him to
replace-01 CoInisiN 1et James M. MIead." +3
IX1A'lnn- who lid never previously opposed a nominee before a
commit tee' of w icirl- he was not a iniember-stated that it was not
eelypolt al diagreenent which prompted his appearance; this
ws nt l "Ia 1PlIIItIIWint to a position in the executive branch. This was
I instead! a nor I aton to an independent agency A member of the
FT( '|s n110t Irve at the pleasure of the President. He is not an
agent of the |rcitent's will."** In order to guarantee its independ-
ence fr(Aui ,lie etilxeriitive, the Senator continued, Congress provided
thiat t ie ( o1,,-,ion should have no more than three members from a
singIe PI~atv. ile l)lrlU)ose of this provision, according to Senator Leh-
inAn wasi to sr presentation * not minority repre-
setatioi in theory, hut minority re)resentation in fact." Lehman be-
lieveil that the spirit of the law was not satisfied if the nominee is a
"'re~istered nemlber of the minority party, or even if he simply asserts,
]e\Il,,I power of ,olitradiction, that he is a member of the minority
Pia 11 *V."
]thiWr,. nIinoritv members should be "dedicated to the social and
,e ononi viewl)oint of the minority party." ,4 Others had already pub-
]i~l (,] 4 quostied nominee I'lern's Tetac(ratic Party credentials: Rep-
resentative Wriht Patman lbad i'lable(t him a "pseudo" Democrat,
and I klpre,1ntati e Emmanuel Celler had pointed out that Kern had
b}een selectedd cause of Republican splnsorhip." 46 It was wel-
known that there lhad been no consultation with Democratic congres-
sional le(lders over this "ee io.
Senator Lehman hlad two additional concerns. First, he noted that
the direction of the FTC had ehaned "in tone and temper" since
Edward !towrev had assumed the chairmanship in 1953: the Robin-
son -Pa Tman Act was not being vigorously enforced, Chairman Howrey
hjad endor-ed a report which favored a weaker antitrust policy, and
not a single action on merfers had been initiated since Howrey reor-
,anized the FTC a year earlier. With "this trend in full swing,"
lehman beIlieved that the loss of James Mead to the Commission
could not "safely" be'endured.-8
Senator Lenhman maintained that there was one final "hitch" to
,Kern' appointment. A Year earlier. Chairman Howrey had pro-
ooted Tern to the position of Deputy Director of the FTC Bureau
of LTitioation. wi llh !,ad responsibility for all prosecutions initiated
1)y the Comimision. thence, it was Lehman's opinion that Kern would
b, leally required to disqualify himself on "many, if not most" cases
wi'h would come fore him as a Commissioner. Therefore, even if
he were : vigilantt advocate of the liberal viewpoint," Kern would be
unal e to act In many instances.4
VlWtn the Senator froii New York finished his devastating assault,
the committeeee turned to the nominee. Kern, obviously somewhat
l.vrn 5, nate Hearings. 1955, p. 2.
Ibid. p. 3
Ibid. !p 5
Vo (Otal Vorhntii TranscriPt of Tlartng Before Special Subcommittee of the Judiciary
C,,wmlttpe of the IIo~ise of INe)res'ntt ve' in Connoction with Its Study of the Anti-
Trust Laws." May 10, 1955. National Archives, Executive Nominations-William, C.
Kern. S4B 1R3.
SKern Senate hearings, 1955, p. 7.
Ibid. p. 8.

it)1 1 jt1 I 1 :11 \'', I C C I Ix I I tc t )1( 1 1n i "1 )1 rI I. tl' I If H. ot ,:'i rl I I :I \
i 1(."VVCV l Vttt I~)1'e-'"'l !2ti 't 1 1 ( hi l1 i lll of Ilted wti t ja l't- p fl It I
I(I Ite'.- :i I\ I Il-i n. II a I Itto'" it e I l i '+ 11 It'wl t 1 1 2I al ji' i]t iy Iv.i
w )ll, lw I IWIca l'' .l (4 1\li V i tll o t'* lt)11_, ]Irt 19 1 :i [1 !: i

4)1r ]I*I tht \v :ieitI I Ii~u ~I t ,I I1Ll f \ v I I
wi1e I I IIliter en: 1 tI' I I ,, I I' I I It l I I 1t vI c li i' I, I
F tale l'1 i. ( h- Li i ( l r I 1 I(i)tIe .I Ilvc"r I i 'on It: n c,111
(V'lsi r Ill lt:, I I .,,v i tIt I ll v : (l ,t1 k,, fr III I.i l I td Vl p r I -. lit
)(d it .l Il ac~ t ,, v 1(v. 1 a( < :I it I I t. li a itt'ttt K l -(.r I }I ( If

lbid, p l e, I I I :I

~~f )1t4rv1' 1~ 'ri lw~l 101.
:I \v ( It I t" e ( It II 1-v, I -( o'+l++ a ,It r exttt 'I l l- l c (' o ii ,i let :

I e Kern th', I I t' i ', ll i 1,11, 1 C( ,! I I I> I It S

lil' l141ith14'f : t~ "ll t .1t ( ,+ilhifl--1 ,,'!.~r 4 J+: il+'.",t',Ia 4t. Mlir bI SS l il aliL i 47 .i,
r:{ililtl~".d Sin 'e P )+ I 1+ 1!I i o l I lWV't." l*;ii it,,,_. kt ."11t' "'exco ,ll it.'"
"[ Il o i i l ,2 I i I II l t t i -' i ,+ l :. ,i l +

l O '.i t,,. 4 5 : r t '1, t 1 1 w I III',,II I +I, I I IIIv
to 1\ V C I fi "
_(r1Lt1n could not cl,++t, Nw iliao t v(,lwiihitet'I1lir '111 .I iol m lcoiit' (I
tit,1bo M~lIlo : l-111l cl l+ mvl v v] ( ) lllll t t
t t h li onli lt "in a t' i l l i~ ''l:- I li l '21 t, l, C)% llt t', vx IIw ,11, t I ,
l t Io Il c(t-It Id o iil I, I I, + c .' .- W I,:IIi I, i"tlI(" o 1111 c It I I.
ir i 1ilt l ()lnz. 10 ; 11 il 1 t' I :. k )I I l li !(\ l v I ,,, I ,v dec iflo i 1 l;t 1
wl tit d -e' 1 I,.~ t ( t oli t illtl' V, i I t(,+' co.t l, 't-' l il +' ; [ l l ,
T'l c1I o r ,v co m le tion ()I* I I'll!]iFilllvo _,'+t'.. l 111011,. W 11S ,l,,, ,t<,, ( I the 1:-1
w- t ets P +*edh ,l .,( a tflla ( o -, 0? (III :Ill llptt",o t K (I-.' -
d e l t l 1 ~tti :{ 1 01 1 1 t IcI t I l JZoI I.I i I1" il- 'lt Svet elI I I or e t I I zI I ) lI'] it I I II II \v I I l+ I I I I I I i> I Itli t i, I'ti-
J e IT01 111( ti k'l Ii I 'l t'll v, .,, iI v 1
I t()l\e N'lll l1111, 1 *' 1! 110l V III -a ]()ii' T llt I o4i:-; ) r + ,I I li lt 141 1 :i-(
-;til) l t e v in t I ime.! [ t W il]t, o I) hil c (rl,, c;l e t I(tl& .\1 +I!
o l l t how i [ i Itll t1: +. I,, a 11,11 >Miait iti ,t-e ,t~ Iiai N iiiit
( V e)iiil ht( sevil/te 20 vc ,r, Ii the a low-cand ,, vca iIl.h
alwt nt horl ir Ipp llto- to<,i the~, ' 1I W 'O li ,/w>le sewlim. h-mltll ov Y rk.NI 1 I t o it V~il ov<
D o e d r 11c ca"~ l1i1,p-ot,_ lili tlit lo I o ~i+
,rot llat'.> B yo tI t l ie Ilt I" 21 :II I, l t' ] I In 'tI l t + IfaI II i Iil( it I II-
10If (iOt'S io C ll lett1,11 (]:iT Of ll i t!illit' 11 lt1a4 / Ju ii l. *v om.~
I [ ar fta o eIt-o I -I ItI IIIII I I n+'i Il Iit | i-t' :tI I vtt r Ii Iit I I'IIIIlkl/IiI

lit.']l) ~ ~ ~ ~ !l Nvli~ Il(I lll lt t, I ,1 1.," "1i. 1 \Vi I- ~t rI-, V:1, rf it
f l h- \ro ti! o l W i l li Apr. 4, 1 .,5 l~ l ,l> Ll li!l_" iI )f LIi< F)<'loi, I I x196.

112 11 !j 7 1 *


tfiin >iinetl lv oi,\ ,,f tlite Ilrg t ra le assoc iations was presented to
ti I WIlie l I, ie iI early May.
The l1c .11a oil. All of this lbad 1,een anticipated by Chairman
I Iowrev. Ile lga I I (. larleS Willis of the W1hite House staff.
Rcesea r,,l w: v lii, lcteI(! t o helteriiiii the longest period of time a
JioU'linai ion tad bee l a|noncM 1ed1 il advance of a vacancy, and it was
foll tli-:tit til N lI I appolint dlent hiad been made public 6 months in
advance.. (~n Ar1il 11- 11 ,. Willis ( -based on my conversation with
Vd i lowrVex ) tcolalel il at Kern s nom1nation be sent to the
Seiat e ili i:it iv evU ttlmoigli Mead's term would not expire for
.) iiioitl< (ovrenior Adams declile(l to follow tle advice. FIinaliv oil
May 5. l(",s t:iatle was sent to the Senate. TIhe White House
eXpiai:iewd/ lle eatIv aniiiioiim'eiiienit I)Y sa vilo ihat it was uncertain
wAlw her tile. I eOale woIlld b e in session wiei Mead's term expired in

No ( i WIlieved 11mat for a itionivlet. Speaker Sam Rayburnt a friend
of Mc ia Is. cliaract elize(i tle Wlhite 1Ilouse action as "a cruel thing,
cruel ly 1 ~114:1le' I."' Soe Se )ittors, inhi(ling Lehman, decided to
(qp),( -o hei's c()itirnmati(n). But liiany who hlad endorsed Mead had
otli er i l0 gs 41o t1 weir min(. '4")r instaiice, Sellator iiatliers, another
Ie:1(1 ti)01.Intr.' acc(,('l)ted! Willis ex()laliNht ion that the "obstacle" to
a WI imii ni t g lead was hiis advnY lfvde(i age. In a, letter to Willis,
S,, mat I ieu,,'IS ated: that lIe had ica -d ) "oo(:l tliiiihgs about Mr. Kern" and
"'lilmibitedlv e Imxvotl( he cofined((I. TI"he Seiiator from Florida also
adhed V' ol1( lil, ac case." 63 Vhen
Sn iat hers xvr( )ii ife letter. Macks selection as an FCC Commissioner
wva 199 j)4:ive:lblt I ii
Wh ile lacak was pvmnl)tlv cotifiiined. the Senate Commerce Com-
itt , lint off mYi. vote on Keiii and left ilhe record open for further
c 11iets.,4' Ql lite a ai, t froun ( o)nmii issionier i\[ead, there was a certain
rlicila jce to confiril Rtii. wlho nilnv feared might be guided to a
gre1t extent bv thme ( lait1in. Kern and Ii lowrey both belonged to the
S:11110 clu!)s ( let urololit a anI( Clevy ( Chase). and it was clear that
KI(( owed I ls rise il i l icI de (" omission to llowrey. At that time,
11MV:Vw evWas Ijuider coIl(tel dc, e pressure from Congress concerning
liis xA\i J14dealt IVO,(ra iizal i(on )of tlie ( ()imon ssi staff as well as the
2(elrl I (lireetlioll lie( Nvas -tt ili fior the age11(y. Now to supply him
vit l :111otel.v ,e: t ) (4)tilme lis policies hardly could have been a
1l easiicr t1)luLdit to: sonic I)(,Jlocrat ic leaders. Tile Kern nomination
'e1, Hiiiel ill (' noiwIte for another full nonth. Then, in an extraor-
ii i trY Illove. ('Iian-n al Mg\ia son requested from Kern a list of all
11 ;inwi icl e ri !.tel while I)eputv I)ireetor of tie FTC
Bur,:al ()I ltiration :a I all those cases wliclh he intended to dis-
ai iiiel I if aIpoll(te(I to the oninissi0i. After receiving both
li-Os. ch lie Ullitt ce rel or ed favoral)lv and Kern weas unanimously
COi 11 (i vy tilie Sen ate on .1ilv 21.19. 6 5
l)urii thle j)('rlo(l xvlwii the Kici confirnintion xas stalled in con-
liliitee, it is alllmost certain tlat tle Senators did not know that Ilowrey
: vn tm ,,i'dor'io--w t irtttr';, I)1 T,. ('; 47A. Box 394.
Iik t, Ahi-.\ ri. Apr. 15 1955 I)I)EI, OF 20l, Box 196.
I rt d4a ti Z M)t\ 9. 195.5. P. -7.
\*e\w ),,rk- rini .r M y 1. 1 195., Is.
(,r'Irze A Smt1 nIer, to Eikt,Tho er ( pTdorsiri Mead), April 7. 1955 : Willis to Smath-
ys. xa 1Vi 1955: S 1 th 11 r' to Willis,. May 13, 1955. IDEL, GF 47A, Box 394.
tirolc ll-i .t I 1 _.21, 1 955. 74.
('ouigrus.'is al Record, July 21, 1955, p. 11144.