Space law

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Space law
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United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences
United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
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U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
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Full Text







95th Congress COMMITTEE PRINT
2d Session J


SPACI
Selected BIasj
Seond


iLA~W
IE Documents
Editioll


PREPARED AT THE REQUEST OF

HoN. HOWARD AV. CANNON, Chai'man


COMMITTEE
SCIENCE, AND


ON COMMERCE,
TRANSPORTATION


UNITED STATES


DECEMBER 1978


Printed for the use of the
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 197>


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402


SENATE


32-231 0




































('0MM ITTEE I()N COMME1wE, SCIENCE, ANI) TRANSIP{ }RTATI()

IIOWA RD WV. CANNON, Nevaida, Chairman


WARREN MAGNUSoN, WIhington
RUS SELL B. L)N, LAluisiana
ERNEST F. lIOLLIN (3S, South Caroliua
)ANIEL K. INOUYE, Iliawaii
ADLAI E. STEVENSON, Ilinois
WENI)ELL II. FORI), Kentucky
JOHN A. I)URKIN, New Ilampshire
EDWARI) ZORINSKY, Nebkrka
DONALD W. RIEGLE, JR., Michigan


JAMES B. PEARSON, Kans
ROBERT 1'. G RIFFIN, Michigan
TEl) STEVENS, Alaka
BAR RY ; ) L1)OWATE H, Arizona
BOB PACK WO( 1), (Oregon
HARRIS()N It. SCHMITT, New Mexico
JOHN C. IDANFOR TII, Missouri


AUBREY L. SARViS, Seaff Director and Cief Counstl
EDWIN K. HALL, neutrall Counsel
MALCOLM M. B. STERRETT, Minority Staff Direclor

(II)










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


U.S. SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE,
AND TRANS PORTATION,
IT'Vashtigtou, D.U, N\roccmbcr 22, 1S>.
DEAR COLLEAGUE: Under Senate Resolution 4 agreed to on te)ri1-
arv 4, 1977, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transporta-
tion was given legislative jurisdiction over the Nation's civil space
program and oversight jurisdiction over all space matters. The inter-
national aspects of space activities are governed by a broa(I sp)ectrum
of agreements between nations, and new agreements are constantly
being discussed and considered. To understand what has alrea(dV
been agreed to and to assist in the formulation of new a0reeinents, the
former Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences in 1976
published, as a committee print, a selection of basic documents on
space law. That collection was a, useful reference source on space law.
Unfortunately, copies are no longer available.
This second edition on space law was rearedd so that 'MembeIs of
Congress, and their staffs, members of the executive branch, the
scientific, technical and legal community involved in space act ivi ties.
and the general public will have available again in one volume the
principal agreements that govern international space activities. It
should be a, useful source document on issues over which the com-
mittee has jurisdiction.
Sincerely,
HOWARD W. CANNON, ('hairrnat.


(I III)

















CONTENTS

Page
Letter of Submittal vii
Introduction to the 2d EditionI
Introduction to the 1st Edition------------ ..3

INTERNATIONAL SpAciE: AGREEMENTS To WHICH THEl U.S. Is \ P, xrxr
Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space
and Under Water (October 10, 1963) ----------------
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration
and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies
(October 10, 1967)-21
Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts an(I the
Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (December 3, 196S) 37
Convention on International Liability for Damage Causd by Space Ob-
jects (October 9, 1973)-.......-49
Convention on the Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space
(September 15, 197G) -9
Excerpts from the 1973 International Telecommunication Convention al
Radio Regulations (Direct Broadcast Satellites) -
International Telecommunications Satellite Orgamzation (INTELSAT)
Agreement with Annexes -- 173
Operating Agreement Relating to the International Telecommunications
Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) 2, 7
Headquarters Agreement Between the Government of the United StatC1 of
America and the International Telecommunication, Satellite Organiza-
tiorn .. .. . .. . .. . 29
Aerosat Memorandum of Understanding August 2, 1974) 305
OTHER INTERNATIONAL SPACE AGREEMENTS
Convention for the Establishment of a European Space Agency (May 30,
1975)- -331
Agreement on the Establishment of the "INTERSPUTNIK" Interna-
tional System and Organization of Space o-)'S
Agreement on Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for
Peaceful Purposes (Moscow, July 13, 1976) .............. 399
Statement on the negotiations between delegations of the socialist
countries participating in the 'Intrco.rno'" programme 404
Statement on the consultations concerning the qu('stion of flight Lv
citizens of the countries participating in the "Intercosmo' pro-
gramme on board Soviet space craft and space 40ations_ 4 5
Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organization ('N
MARSAT) (Date of signature-September 3, 1976) ..407
Operating Agreement on the International Maitime Satellte Organiza-
tion (IN4'IARSAT)-- ----
The Agreement of the Arab Corporation for Space Coln InUnicat i01-- 449
Agreement on the Constitution of a Provi-ional turopean T lecomniim-
cations Satellite Organization "INTERIM EUTELSAT" -. .. 499
Convention on the Transfer and Use of Data of the R('iiote Sens;ing of the
Earth From Outer Space (Moscow. May 19, 197s)-. 4N7
i V)








U.S. SP.AcE LAw AND Policy
?age
I int (i1ct iAn 49
N ati<)nl:Il Acro'aut ics :mLJ I >;:L A ct 4) 1 95S, :u- im 'uen d ..... ...... 497
( '(,iixuini',t ioiins Satellite Act of 1(91i)2.., : a icide(d 521
N :a' ir ti: 1 it Iuc a t I T chit g y 1ic r g a i i at i)n an ;Il Priori t i es Act .f
I I I97 539
tW n4 14AL f A-t1r v, Values, Objectives antr ( 1 de1 for N U'
I t I It it ral 11ro raiii ........... .... ..... 55





I S1iil Aia~c Pll I Idi c v NA
X\\hitt Iii ii~t P~ 1{tjt aw I 1)t rilpt it tl f 1 a i0 iNt1 al directivee n
N~itiil:Ii SjIartIu'icvy Junel( 20, 197>...... 558
XX hiit I tuuw ( [a('t Shin et U.S. ( 'ivil Space I))i('3, ()ct()l .r II. 197h 541
> p)at,('1i "I'r:i )t ,rtalt tn Sv-tenm. (STS) usedr charge' t)ilicie's"
1{, itt 1 ur t 1iitnt fo)r Shut tl( 1 S(rviccs Pr()viti,( I t (, Nt m-I '.5. ( i v(,n-

lin 1 ~u r- i, inU ft 'r Shut thle Serviee(' P~rox it it, to(('ivil U..S. (,onvern-
iiitnt 11 ,er- a:mI Fo)reign I s'r \h() 11ave' Ma(hc Si tant ial Invest-
11,1t in the, STIS P~rogram ....... ..... ......... 579
l1ilt 'rnant mit f [Unt hr~t ant ing Be(t wen the' National Re(mote Sensing
A g,. in N I{S A) (it '.vtrnment of I nt ia ant I th(, I 'nit ttI St ates~ National
Atr~ tfla it c ant I Space Adtin istrati()n (NASA) 5........ ......... .93

PREiiVIOUS ('OMMITrTEE REPORTS


Pr' ViMI -. -tt r1' trt (0o Cilt'cr iItg internIational -paIIceI activities












LETTER OF SUBMITTAL


U.S. SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE,
AND TRANSPORTATION,
II ashington, D.C., October Ii, 1.97.
Hon. HOWARD W. CANNON,
Chairman, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportatiol,
U.S. Senate,
Washington, D.C.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: I am pleased to submit for printing as a
committee print a collection of documents on space law. This will be
the second edition of this important work. The first edition was widely
used in the Congress, the executive branch, and indeed throuthoiit
the world. However, it has been out of print for some time and there-
fore unavailable.
Given the worldwide interest in the subject, I believe this committee
print will receive the same wide use as the first edition. It will be
especially useful to members of Congress and officials in the executive
branch.
Sincerely,
ADLAI E. STEVENSON,
Chairman, Suibcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space.


(VII)



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013













http://archive.org/detaiIs/spalected00unit











INTRODUCTION TO SECOND EDITION


The first edition of "Space Law-Selected Basic Documents" was
published at the direction of the former Committee on AeronuItical
and Space Sciences. Although somewhat out of (late, the worlh-wide
demand for this publication continues; unfortunately, the first edition
was a limited printing and copies have not been available for some
time.
This second edition of "Space Law" retains all of the documents of
the first edition except the AEROSAT agreement between )MSAT,
the European Space Agency and Canada; new agreements negotiated
since the publication of the first edition have been added.
As stated in the introduction to the first edition, the purpose of
this committee print is to provi(le the text of basic documentss so
that the Committee, the Congress, and others responsible for formu-
lating legal principles that guide states in the conduct of their space
activities have a ready reference to what is already in existence and
thereby will be assisted in constructing a consistent body of space law.
I also hope that it will encourage continued and expanded international
cooperation in space activities. International cooperation played an
important role during the early decades of space exploration. I believe
cooperation between nations in space activities will become increas-
ingly important as man expands his exploration and use of the space
environment with the Space Shuttle now under development; many
of my colleagues share this view.
It has been and remains the policy of the United States to cooperate
with other nations so that the benefits of space reach all mankind.
For that policy to be effective, it is important that the legal aspects of
space activities develop along with the scientific and technological
aspects of space exploration and use. The publication of this committee
print, I believe, will further that purpose.
The documents in this second edition are current as of December 1,
1978. They are arranged under four sections: International Space
Agreements to Which the United States is a Party; Other international
Space Agreements; U.S. Space Law and Policy; and Previous Con)-
mittee Reports.
The first edition of this work was prepared by Mrs. Eilene 4 f. (ia lo-
way under the direction of Mr. James J. Gehrig of the professional
staff of the Committee.
This second edition also was prepared under the direction of Mr.
Gehrig. Miss Anna Fotias, Miss Anne Jones, and Mr. Lloyd Beasley
of the Committee staff prepared the volume for printing. Mr. Matthew
Mitchell, serving with the Committee as a student intern during the
summer of 1978, did most of the detail work such as ordering and
indexing the agreements to make the committee print easier to use.
(1)





2

I\rrs. Galloway, Vice President of the International Institute of
Space Iaw, gave valuable counsel from time to time. Many others
from the Library of congress, the executive branch of the Govern-
ient and from the I)rivate sector provided usef11 information during
the )rel)arat ion of this second edition. Tir asi stance in making this
bok ios+ihle is greatly appreciate(I.
ADLAI E. STEVENSON,
Chairman, Subcommittee on Science,
Technology, and Space.












INTRODUCTION TO FIRST EDITION


The Conmittee oil Aeronalitictal and Sptace sciencess Is I eel (out-
cerned -withI tle (tevell)1Illenlt of slace ],a \\- Ilwe satellites Xelv ifi'>l
orbited and there Iwas recogii it 'ol tlhat leviI pl)u(,leIs wl11- an-C (1 a
a result of the Ilse an( exI)loration of miter space. Iln ecl',cii111a Its
jurisdiction l1111der tile sellate rules ... to sive v and review, : 11 ( t,)
prepare st udies a(1 ad r)()rts 1)() ae.1 (iiallt ical a1d Spae, activit l(-, ()f
all agencies of tlhe nite(d States ..." tle (Twilillittee has ket)l al)Qst
of the )r()gress made in tli- field.
Th first study 1 bi'. was initiated ill 1)15 hy Senatoir Lvn-
don B. Johnson who was the cla iran of th e Senate Sp cial (' '011-
niittee on Space a(d Astron1utics. the Iinediate predee-e;ss,)r of the(
Senate Comum ittee on Aeronautical and Sp-cc Sciences. >S'() .,va wa>
the wor'ldwi(e demand for this pl1lbli(catioI that a se(,ond .vI)UsitillI
was published ill 196;1 {)1 IA( 1' l I)bb iiU oi '. plce I..l,it;ol,. .1
document which reveals the extent anl (e)t () anal sis (,011'c(0,'l 10(l
with the establishment of an internatilonal legal toi u-deV( t( I to1eH
encouragement of )eacefull purposes. a1nd the av ,idan(c o1, latilfuil
consequences. resuItili from the variety of iise- ( ,f tle space( } '] \l \-11V0l
meant. Both stl(,-ie> were edited by E lene ( all waV. ')a(Iia 1 ( '
sultant to the committeee.
S pace activities have 1)rou1lrtaI llt a iLl (hf( of COOl )tTr:t
among nations. a de elo silentt wleil strewitlens the r condition s fo(r)
world peace. Throu h the years this (oniiiiittee hIs survey ,ed .11;1d
made available to the ,'enate a(d the pudic the devel()pi1a )atte ,115
of international cooperation on outer space activities. TIhe st El r tII o f
tfle 1. space program was developed in aeeoanlaiire with the N a-
tional Aeronauti cs and Si )ace Act of I 9a, wt i(rl requires tile l- iited
S-tates to be "'a leader in aeronautical and space science ,11( tech loloarv
aid inl tle 811lication thereof to the (ond ,ct of peaceful activity ic>
within Ind (outside tlhe at mosphere.' This strength a een essential
ill providin- tle means and methods whicii foster inte rnat I na co-
operation. One has only to note that NASA has had in ('ess of Hi
cooperative space agreements with other c(o,1ttrie to realize tle op-
portunities afforded by space science and tec.olm-)y i lillt"n i(e0-
ple and nations together for mutually advantareo.1s 1)I ,4,VseS.
The climate of international opinion which developed ill (coil ctioll
with tile p)rogres of space activities helped to forni thle basis for )-
operation III the United Nations where tlie (onmm ittee oil t lie Iwea'e-
flul Uses of Outer pNlace, and particularl v its l~ea1 Suil)fOl,,ii in ce.
were charged withI the responsibility a)f i, g treaties to drif icr


(3)









States in the C(onduIt of their pa1c act Ivit ies. The texts of spawe
t rat ies I r at a iid l x co )IInII ratI er than I vol 1 ,. and this
unanimity f :1 recent formed a slid folundat ion for thlit developing
regime of inIterlat ional spIatIe law. Fl.r4ts aIe cmtitii1 in the Iga.l
ll)COl licit tet' M1: keeI; international law aIreast aId foI eIightedlv
ahleadt of Sp:ar.c science/ e a iid techitiologv,.
As legal developments occur in the I nit ed Nat ions and elsewhere,
there is a need to know what has been accomplished and what remains
to be done. A new lea issues arise, it is necessary to ensure that the
total I)ly of space law is harmonilus an"li avoids internal conflicts.
Spae law, whether national or international, has bwell developing
SteP by step over a period of seller 18 vears and can 1e expected to
continue this pattern In (a det to meet the demands of new space
Il ications.
The purpose of this collection is to provide tw texts of existing basic
documents so that those responsible for formnulatnm leg l lrineilles
to tnile States in the conduct of future space activities will be assisted
in constructing a consistent bodv of international space law. The den-
ment should also be of assistance to those who wish to study the prog-
ress that has been made since the leginning of the space age.
Senator F\RANK E. Moss
C ha; man.




























INTERNATIONAL SPACE AGREEMENTS TO WHICH THE
UNITED STATES IS A PARTY
















TREATY BANNING
ATMOSPHERE, IN


NUCLEAR WEAPON TESTS
OUTER SPACE AND UNDER


IN "II E
WAT E R


(7)ONTENTS



Proclamation by the President of the Ynited States of America .
Article I-Areas of prohibition of nuclear weapons testing .......
Article II-Amendment procedure -. .. .. .. .. .
Article III-Signature, ratification, entry into force -
Article IV-Duration of the treaty and withdrawal
Article V-Depositary__ -- -
(7)


11
!12














MULTILATERAL

Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere,
in Outer Space and Under Water

Done at Moscow August 5, 1963;
Ratification advised by the Senate of the United States of A nerica
September 24, 1963;
Ratified by the President of the United States of America October 7,
1963;
Ratifications of the Governments of the United States of Anerica,
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics deposited with
the said Governments at Washington, London, and Moscow
October 10, 1963;
Proclaimed by the President of the United States of America Octo-
ber 10, 1963;
Entered into force October 10, 1963.
(9)


32-231 0 7, 2








































.Y THE PRESIDENT OF THE !ThITED STATES OF AMERICA


A PROCLAMATION


WHEREAS the Treaty banning nuclear weaoon tests in the

atmosphere, In outer space and under water was signed at Moscow

on August 5, 190 3 by the respective plenlpotentiarles of the

United States of America, the United Kingdom of Ireat Britain

and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,

and was thereafter opened to other States for signature at

Washington, London, and Moscow;

WHEREAS the text of the Treaty, in the English and Russian

languages, as certified by the Department of State of the United

States of America, Is word for word as follows:


















T R E A T Y
banning nuclear weapon tests
in the atmosphere, in outer
space and under water


The Governments of the United States of America, the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, hereinafter referred to
as the "Original Parties",

Proclaiming as their principal aim the speediest
possible achievement of an agreement on general and complete
disarmament under strict international control in accordance
with the objectives of the United Nations which would put an
end to the armaments race and eliminate the incentive to the
production and testing of all kinds of weapons, including
nuclear weapons,

Seeking to achieve the discontinuance of all test
explosions of nuclear weapons for all time, determined to
continue negotiations to this end, and desiring to put an end
to the contamination of man's environment by radioactive
substances,

Have agreed as follows:

Article I

1. Each of the Parties to this Treaty undertakes to
prohibit, to prevent, and not to carry out any nuclear
weapon test explosion, or any other nuclear explosion, at
any place under its jurisdiction or control:

(a) in the atmosphere; beyond its limits, including
outer space; or underwater, including territorial waters or
high seas; or

















-b) tn any other ervironment* if such explosion causes
radioactive debris to be present outside the territorial
limits of e State under whose Jurisdiction or control such
ex loion is conducted. It is understoodI in this connection

thnt the rovisions of this ubpa~raprh are without prejudice
to the conclusion of a treaty resulting in the enent
banr~ir4 of nil nuclear test explosions, including all such

explosions underground, the conclusion of which, as the
Parties have tated in the Preamble to this Treaty, they
seek to achieve.

2. Each of the Parties to this Treaty undertakes
f rthermore to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any
way participating in, the carryn out of any nuclear weapon
test explosion, or any other nuclear explosion, anywhere
which would take place in any of the environments described,
or have the effect referred to, in paragraph 1 of this
Article.

Article II

1. Any Party may propose amendients to this Treaty.
The text of any proposed amendment shall be submitted to
the Depositar Governments which shall circulate it to all
Parties to this Treaty. Thereafter, if requested to do no
by one-third or more of the Parties, the Depositary
Governments shall convene a conference, to which they shall
invite all the Parties, to consider such amendment.

2. Any amendment to this Treaty must be approved by a
majority of the votes of all the Parties to this Treaty,
including the votes of all of the Original Parties. The
amendment shall enter into force for all Parties upon the










I


!5 = = ........... .. ,, ,, rM M .. . IIIIII ... ./ I I







13










deposit of instruments of ratification by a majority of all
the Parties, including the instruments of ratification of
all of the Original Parties.


Article III

1. .2his Treaty shall be open to all States for
signature. Any State which does not sign this Tretty before
its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this
Article may accede to it at any time.

2. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by
signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments
of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the
Original Parties -- the United States of America, the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics which are hereby designated
the Depositary Governments.

3. This Treaty shall enter into force after its
ratification by all the Original Parties and the deposit of
their instruments of ratification.

4. For States whose instruments of ratification or
accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force
of this Treaty, it shall enter into lorce on the date of the
deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.

>. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform
all signatory and acceding btates of the uate of each
signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of
ratification of and accession to this Treaty, the date of
its entry into force, an the date of receipt of any requests
for conferences or other notices.
6. This Treaty shall be registered by the epositary
Governments pursuant to Article 1u2 of the Uharter of the
United N1ations. i I





Ht4>


ITS 993, 59 Stat. 1052.







14










:'hbis Tre.ty shall be of u iizitel ration.
Each Fart: shall in exe~i~i its [ z.tionnl soverei~ty
X to withIra from the reaty if Ft lecifes t t

x[ o iaz events, related to the sut, ct zatter o! this
r~ itv h ... eopr :ze the :m; re: e in~ere ts of its co. ~ftxv.

to te Treat; three months n advance.


Article V

-hiz ?rety, of which the Lanlih ad Russian tes are
,u~ 1'; authentic, snail be neosited 'n the archives of the
e~oot:; =ove -nents. Dh1y certifie copies of ths Treaty LihI
e tra~nrzitted by the vepositaxy Governents to the Gove~oent.
of the zimato and acceding States.

: "AT2:L,,5. : ?, F tne ndersigned duly authorized, have
sie this Treatv.

i in triplicate at the Cit of 'oscow the fifth
day of Au6ust one thousand nine hundred and
sxt-th-,ree .



For the over ri ent For the Government ror the lovernmat
of the h:.ite: States of the united iingdom of the union of
of ?:erica of Great Britain and Soviet Socialist
orthern Ireland republics







~~1 f~& _


/A. LT







15


Signatures and ratifications depited t
the treaty banning nuclear eap t ests ir
the atn-sph.erE, in OutEr Spa-E a-
water


SignatureS
Afghanistan
August 8. 19c63 W'L
August 9, 1963 M
Algeria
August 14, 1963 WL
August 19, 1963 M
Argentina
August 8, 1963 W
August 9, 1963 L
Australia
August 8, 1963 -W.L,
Austria
September 11, 1963 WM
September 12, 1963 L
Belgium
August 8, 1963 WLI.M
Bolivia
August 8, 1963 W
August 21, 1963 L
September 20, 1963 M
Brazil
August 8, 1963 W,L
August 9, 1963 M
Bulgaria
August 8, 1963 W,LM


Burma
August 14, 1963 W,LM
Burundi
October 4, 1963 W
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Rep.
October 8, 1963 M
Cameroon
August 27, 1963 W
September 6, 1963 L
Canada
August 8, 1963 WL,M
Ceylon
August 22, 1963 W.L
August 23, 1963 M
Chad
August 26, 1963 W
Chile
August 8, 1963 W
August 9, 1963 L,M
China
August 23, 1963 W
Congo (Kinshasa)
August 9, 1963 W,L
August 12, 1963 M
Colombia
August 16, 1963 WM
August 20, 1963 L
Costa Rica
August 9, 1963 L
August 13, 1963 W
August 23, 1963 M
Cyprus
August 8, 1963 -W,L,M

Czechoslovakia
August 8, 1963 W,L,M


Marcb 12. 19 -
March 13, 1964 -W
March 23, 1964 X







November 12, 1963 -

July 17, 196- W.L.M


March 1, 1966 WL ,Y

August 4, 1965 W
January 25, 1966 L


December 15. 1964 M
January 15, 1965 W
March 4, 1965 L
November 13, 1963 W
November 21, 1963 Y
December 2, 1963 L
November 15, 1963 W,LM



December 16, 19631 M




January 28, 1964 W,L,M

February 5, 1964 W
February 12, 1964 M
February 13, 1963 L
March 1, 1965 W

October 6, 1965 L


May 18, 1964 W

October 28, 1965 W






July 10, 1967 W



April 15, 1965 L
April 21, 1965 M
May 7, 1965 W
October I, 193 L.M
October 17, 1963 W





















t : r 1. 1' LF


tt
At<. t r I







1 R


CI L


AB.s 9 1963 '.
A196st -. ,.


Gd.ba r. :ort~


August 131 -
O~r~an. hderal Rep.
Aug:ust ly, 1't2 WLY
G6. an a

August 9. 19w3 -
t~pe er -, 1963 L
(Grecet
August 8. 19,3 W
August t19,3 L,M

tepte Der 23, 1963 W









a ti
(ctober 9, 1963 V
Iiond~uras
August b. 19'3 W
Au ;ust 15. 1963 -L
Au gjSt 16, V9'3 N

August 8. 19 3 L,

I celand
August 12, 1963 W,L,M


I ran
Au.ut 8. l963 W.L.Y
I rac
August 13, 1v13 V,LYM

rc land
Augist 8. 1-(3 L

I ,rael
A~gst 8, 19"3 -WLM
I tal.
Au 'st 8. 19 : -WL,

August 8, 19 3 W.L.M


r ceber 15, 19:-. -
k
'A' ... 1 9

June 1at, 15' *9-4 L ..

dune 1', .



LaV t iW4 -










L 27 L
F;









Dercem ., 1196- W

Octceber 3. i'"3 i

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JanuaLr 2, 19t' WL
February 9 19 4 V
May 31, 16-
Ncarh 4 189t -

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Decetmber 2, 19t4 L3


Ocoeber 2. 193 L
Octobery 22. 1963 W

Ocober 23, 193 N,,







April 24, 1964 W

Denuar 20, 196 Y 8
Ote-ur 27, 1963 L


Nto ber 29 L W
MApri 2, 1964- ,L,M


NovI ter 1964 L
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Deember 20. 1963 N
January 15, 1964 W,L
Janruary 28. 1964 N
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c ir 19t3 L
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(October 18, 1963 V












:vorV Coast
September 5, 1963 W
Jamaica
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Japan
August 14, 1963 WVL,N
Jordan
August 12, 1963 W.L
August 19. 19-6 N
Korea
August 30, 19 3 W L
Kuwait
August 20, 1963 W,L


Laos
August


12, 1963 W.L.


Lebanon
August 12, 1963 W
August 13, 1963 LM
Liberia
August 8, 1963 W
August 16, 1963 L
August 27, 1963 M
Libya
August 9, 1963 L
August 16, 1963 WM
Luxembourg
August 13, 1963 L
September 3, 1963 W
September 13, 1963 M
Madagascar
September 23, 1963 W
Malaysia
August 8, 1963 W
August 12, 1963 L
August 21, 1963 M
Mali
August 23, 1963 WL,M
Mauritania
September 13, 1963 W
September 17, 1963 L
October 8, 1963 M
Mexico
August 8, 1963 WL,M
Mongolia
August 8, 1963 LM
Morocco
August 27, 1963 WM
August 30, 1963 L
Nepal
August 26, 1963 LM
August 30, 1963 W
Netherlands
August 9, 1963 -W,LM
New Zealand
August 8, 1963 WLM
Nicaragua
August 13, 1963 WL
August 16, 1963 M
Niger
September 24, 1963 WL

Nigeria
August 30, 1963 M
September 2, 1963 L
September 4, 1963 W


June 15. 19o4 l.Lt

Ma- 29. 164 -
July 7. 1964- -
July 10, 1- V

July 2-, 1 1-

ay 20, 195-
',av 21 1 6-, L
June e 19 5 -
ezruarv; 10. 19! 5 L
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Nav 14, 1965 W
,ay 20. 19"5 L
June 4, 1965 Y
Nay 19. 1964 W
Nay 22. 19,4 L
June 16, 19,4 N

July 15, 1968 L


February 10, 1965 W.L,.



March 15? 1965 W

July 15, 1964 M
July 16, 1964 W,L




April 6, 1964 W
April 15, 1964 L
April 28, 1964 M

December 27, 1963 WLM


November 1, 1963
November 7, 1963
February 1, 1966
February 18, 1966
February 21, 1966
October 7, 1964 -


-M
- L

W
WLY,


September 14, 1964 W5, L.N

October 10 1963 WL
October 16, 1963 M
January 26, If5 L
February 26, 1965 WM


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July 6, 1964
July 9, 1964
February 17,
February 25,
February 28,


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1967 N
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Septeber 2, 1963 W
SepttemLer 24f, 19 M
SL teg er 20 193 W
SLpterber 23, 1963 L
jc tober 9, 1963 M
Sierra Leone
September 4, 1963 L
September 9, 1963 M
September I1, 1963 W
Scalia
August 19, 1963 W,M
Spain
August 13, 1963 W
August 14, 1963 L
Sudan
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Sweden
August 12, 1963 W,L,M
Switzerland
August 26, 1963 W,L,M
Syriab Arab Rep.
August 13, 1963 W,L,M
Tanzania
September 16, 1963 L
September 18, 1963 W
Scptenber 20, 1963 M
Thailand
August 8, 1963 W,L,M

Togo
Septeimber 18, 1963 W
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August 13, 1963 M
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August 12, 1963 L
August 13, 1963 M


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November
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De(. cer


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21, 1963 M
29,1964 W
7, 19!4 W


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July 16, 1964 L
August 6, 1964 M
May 26, 1965 L,M
June 3, 1965 W












Turkey
August 9, 1963 W,L,M
Uganda
August 29, 1963 W,L
Union of Soviet Socialist Reps.
August 5, 1963 M
United Arab Rep.
August 8, 1963 W,L,M
United Kingdom
August 5, 1963 M
United States
August 5, 1963 M
Upper Volta
August 30, 1963 W
Uruguay
August 12, 1963 W
September 27, 1963 L,M
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Rep.
October 8, 1963 M
Venezuela
August 16, 1963 W,M
August 20, 1963 L
Viet Nam
October 1, 1963 W
Western Samoa
September 6, 1963 W,M
September 5, 1963 L
Yemen Arab Rep.
August 13, 1963 M
September 6, 1963 W
Yugoslavia
August 8, 1963 W,LM


July 8, 1965 W,LM

March 24, 1964 L
April 2, 1964 W
October 10, 1963 W,LM

January 10, 19644 W,LM

October 10, 1963 W,L,M

October 10, 1963 W,L,M



February 25, 1963 L


December 30, 1963 M1

February 22, 1965 M
March 3, 1965 L
March 29, 1965 W


January 15,
January 19,
February 8,


1965 -
1965 -
1965 -


January 15, 1964 -
January 31, 1964 -
April 3, 1964 W


1 The United States considers the reported signature and deposit of ratification
at Moscow by the Byelorussian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR as already covered by
the signature and deposit of ratification by the USSR.
2 United States does not accept notification of signature and deposit of ratification
3 Applicable to Land Berlin.
4 With a statement.
5 Including Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles.
6 Rwanda signed and deposited ratification in Washington and should only be counted
once when counting parties to the treaty.








20


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a: uarv 7, 1965 L
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April 30, 1969 W
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S
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T ~
JuIx 7, 1971 -w


- ~ iC, P.

7L~. A ~ s: P., P.It -












TREATY ON PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ACTIVITIES
OF STATES IN THE EXPLORATION AND USE OF OUTER
SPACE, INCLUDING THE MOON AND OTHER CELES-
TIAL BODIES
CONTENTS


Page
Proclamation by the President ef the United States of America ---------- 23
Article I-Freedom of exploration and iDvestigation of outer space 25
Article II-Non-appropriation of outer space and celestial bodie----------- 26
Article III-Exploration and use of outer space in accordance with interna-
tional law and the Charter of the United Nations- 26
Article IV-Prohibition of nuclear weapons 26
Article V-Rescue and recovery of astronauts- 27
Article VI-International responsibility for national activities in outer
space--28
Article VII-Liability for space activities ----------------------------- 28
Article VIII-Jurisdiction over space objects----29
Article IX-Avoidance of harmful contamination and adverse changes in
the Earth's environment_-29
Article X-Observation of space flights---30
Article XI-Notification of space activities- 31
Article XII-Stations, installations, equipment and space vehicles on the
Moon and other celestial bodies ----------------------------------- 31
Article XIII-Applieation of the treaty's provisions ---------------------31
Article XIV-Signature, ratification, entry into force-- 32
Article XV-Amendments-33
Article XVI-Withdrawal-33
Article XVII-Depositary_-33
(21)













MULTILATERAL

Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in
the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the
Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

Done at Washington, London, and Moscow January 27, 1967;
Ratification advised by the Senate of the United States of America
April 25, 1967;
Ratified by the President of the United States of America May 24,
1967;
Ratification of the United States of America deposited at Washing.
ton, London, and Moscow October 10, 1967;
Proclaimed by the President of the United States of America Octo-
ber 10, 1967;
Entered into force October 10, 1967.




BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
A PROCLAMATION
WHEREAS the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of
States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon
and Other Celestial Bodies, was signed at Washington, London, and
Moscow on January 27, 1967 in behalf of the United States of America,
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and was signed at one or more of
the three capitals in behalf of a number of other States;
WHEREAS the text of the Treaty, in the English, Russian, French,
Spanish, and Chinese languages, as certified by the Department of
State of the United States of America, is word for word as follows:


(23)






24


TREATY ON PRINCILES (VERNING THE ACTIVITIES OF TATS
IN TE EXPLOR A-ION AND USE OF OUTER SPACE,
INC LUDI N PHE ,OON AN D OTHER CELESTIAL BODIES




The States Partie to this Treaty,

I',tpired by r he great prospects opening up before mankind

are'sult f m s entrv into outer space,

Recognizi g the c
of tl.e exploration and use (.f outer space for peaceful purposes,
Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should


be carried on for the benefit of all peoples irrespective of the

degree of their economic or scientific development,

Desiring to contribute to broad international co-operation in

the scientific as well as the legal aspects of the exploration and

use of outer space for peaceful purposes,

Believing that such co-operation will contribute to the

develop-ent of mutual understanding and to the strengthening of

friendly relations between States and peoples,

Recalling resolution 1962 (XVIII), entitled "Declaration of

Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the

Exploration and Use of Outer Space", which was adopted unanimously

by the United Nat~ons General Assembly on 13 December 1963,






25



Recalling resolution,1384 (XVIII), calling upon States to

refrain from placing in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying

nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction

or from installing such'weapons on celestial bodies, which was

adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on

17 October 1963,

Taking account of United Nations General Assembly

resolution 110 (II) of 3 November 1947, which condemned propaganda

designed or likely to provoke or encourage any threat to the peace,

breach of the peace or act of aggression, and considering that the

aforementioned resolution is applicable to outer space,

Convinced that a Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities

of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the

Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, will further the Purposes and

Principles of the Charter of the United Nations,[']

Have agreed on the following:


Article I

The exploration and use of outer space, including the moon

and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit

and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree

of economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of

all mankind.

Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies,

shall be free for exploration and use by all States without

'TS 993"59 Stt. 1W1.


?2-23'1 () 711-






26


discrimination of any kind, on a kasis of equality and in

accordance with international law, and there shall be free access

to all areas'of celestial bodies.

There shall be freedom of scientific investigation in outer

space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, and States

shall facilitate and encourage international co-operation in such

investigation.


Article II

Outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies,

is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty,

by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.


Article III

States Parties to the Treaty shall carry on activities in the

exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other

celestial bodies, in accordance with international law, including

the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest of maintaining

international peace and security and promoting international

co-operation and understanding.


Article IV

States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit

around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other

kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on

celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any

other manner.






27


The moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all States

Parties to the Treaty exclusively for peaceful purposes. The

establishment of military bases, installations and fortifications,

the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of military

maneuvers on celestial bodies shall be forbidden. The use of

military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful

purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment or

facility necessary for peaceful exploration of the moon and other

celestial bodies shall also not be prohibited.


Article V

States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys

of mankind iii outer space and shall render to them all possible

assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing

on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas. When

astronauts make such a landing, they shall be safely and promptly

returned to the State of registry of their space vehicle.

In carrying on activities in outer space and on celestial

bodies, the astronauts of one State Party shall render all possible

assistance to the astronauts of other States Parties.

States Parties Co the Treaty shall immediately inform the other

States Parties to the Treaty or the Secretary-General of the United

Nations of any phenomena they discover in outer space, including

the moon and other celestial bodies, which could constitute a

danger to the life or health of astronauts.










Article VI

States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international

responsibility for national activities in outer space, including

the moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are

carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities,

and for assuring that national activities are carried out in

conformity with the provisions set forth in the present Treaty.

The activities of non-governmental entities in outer space,

including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall require

authorization and corLtinuing supervision by the appropriate State

Party to the Treaty. When activities are carried on in outer space,

including the moon and other celestial bodies, by an international

organization, responsibility for compliance with this Treaty shall

be borne both by the international organization and by the States

Parties to the Treaty participating in such organization.


Article VII

Each State Party to the Treaty that launches or procures the

launching of an object into outer space, including the moon and

other celestial bodies, and each State Party from whose territory

or facility an object is launched, is internationally liable for

damage to another State Party to the Treaty or to its natural or

juridical persons by such object or its Lomponent parts on the

Earth, in air space or in outer space, including the moon and

other celestial bodies.






29


Article VIII

A State Party to the Treaty on whose r is trv an object

launched into outer space is carried sh, i reLain jurisdiction a!d

control over such object, and over any personnel thereof, while in

outer space or on a celestial body. Ownership of (bjects launched

into outer space, including objects landed or constructed on a

celestial body, and of their component parts, is not affected by

their presence in outer space or on a celesti l bodv or by their

return to the Earth. Such objects or component parts found beyond

the limits of the State Party to the Treaty on whose registry they

are carried shall be returned to that State Party, which shall,

upon request, furnish identifying data prior to their return.


Article IX

In the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon

and other celestial bodies, States Parties to the Treaty shall be

guided by the principle of co-operation and mutual assistance and

shall conduct all their activities in outer space, including the

moon and other celestial bodies, with due regard to the corresponding

interests of all other States Parties to the Treaty. States Parties

to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the

moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them

so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes

in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of

extraterrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate

measures for this purpose. If a State Party to the Treaty has










reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by it

or its nationals in outer space, including the moon and other

celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with

activities of other States Parties in the peaceful exploration and

use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies,

it shall undertake appropriate international consultations before

proceeding with any such activity or experiment. A State Party

to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or

experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including

the moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially

harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration

and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial

bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or

experiment.


Article X

In order to promote international co-operation in the

exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other

celestial bodies, in conformity with the purposes of this Treaty,

the States Parties to the Treaty shall consider on a basis of

equality any requests by other States Parties to the Treaty to be

afforded an opportunity to observe the flight of space objects

launched by those States.

The nature of such an opportunity for observation and the

conditions under which it could be afforded shall be determined by

agreement between the States concerned.






31


Article XI

In order to promote international co-operation in the peaceful

exploration and use of outer space, States Parties to the Treaty

conducting activities in outer space, including tne moon and other

celestial bodies, agree to inform the Secretary-General of the

United Nations as well as the public and the international scientifi

community, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of the

nature, conduct, locations and results of such activities. On

receiving the said information, the Secretary-General of the United

Nations should be prepared to disseminate it immediately and

effectively.


Article XII

All stations, installations, equipment and space vehicles on

the moon and other celestial bodies shall be open to representatives

of other States Parties to the Treaty on a basis of reciprocity.

Such representatives shall give reasonable advance notice of a

projected visit, in order that appropriate consultations may be held

and that maximum precautions may be taken to assure safety and to

avoid interference with normal operations in the facility to be

visited.


Article XIII

The provisions of this Treaty shall apply to the activities of

States Parties to the Treaty in the exploration and use of outer

space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, whether such










activities are carried on by a single State Party to the Treaty or

jointly with other States, including cases where they are carried

on within the framework of international inter-governmental

organizations.

Any practical questions arising in connection with activities

carried on by international inter-governmental organizations in the

exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other

celestial bodies, shall be resolved by the States Parties to the

Treaty either with the appropriate international organization or

with one or more States members of that international organization,

which are Parties to this Treaty.


Article XIV

1. This Treaty shall be open to all States for signature.

Any State which does not sign this Treaty before its entry into

force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede

to it at any time.

2. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory

States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession

shall be deposited with the Governments of the United States of

America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are hereby

designated the Depositary Governments.

3. This Treaty shall enter into force upon the deposit of

instruments of ratification by five Governments including the

Governments designated as Depositary Governments under this Treaty.


:32






33



4. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession

are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Treaty,

it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their

instruments of ratification or accession.

5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all

signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the

date of deposit of each instrument of ratification of and accession

to this Treaty, the date of its entry into force and other notices.

6. This Treaty shall be registered by the Depositary

Governments pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United

Nations.


Article XV

Any State Party to the Treaty may propose amendments to this

Treaty. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to

the Treaty accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a

majority of the States Parties to the Treaty and thereafter for each

remaining State Party tQ the Treaty on the date of acceptance by it.


Article XVI

Any State Party to the Treaty may give notice of its withdrawal

from the Treaty one year after its entry into force by written

notification to the Depositary Governments. Such withdrawal shall

take effect one year from the date of receipt of this notification.



Article XVII

.This Treaty, of which the English, Russian, French, Spanish

and Chinese texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the

archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of

this Treaty shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments to

the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.





34

()UTER SPACE 'REATY
Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the ex-
ploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial
hodies. Opened for signatilre at Wa,shingtonl, Lonlon, atiil Moscow,
,anuary 27, 1967 (T1AS 6347). Entered into force (ctober 10, 1967.
Total as of Decemiber 1, 197
Signatures: 90 plus the Ukrainian 8.8.R. & Byelorussian S.S.R.
Ratiflications: 56 plhis the Bytlorussiani S.S.R. & Ukrainian
S.8.R.
Accessions; 14.
Notification that it continues to be bound : 4.







35


THE OUTER SPACE TREATY


Signature Ratification


Signature Ratfication Sg ature Pat rato.


United States .---------- Jan. 27
United Kingdom ---------- do-..
U.S.S.R .do
Afghanistan -do-
A rgentina ------------------- do -
A ustralia .. ..........- ------ do -
A ustria --------------- Feb. 20
Belgium ..Feb. 2
Bolivia. Jan. 27
Botsw ana .................... do -
Brazil -- Feb. 2
Bulgaria Jan. 27
Burma May 22
Burundi-.......Soviet ... Jan. 27
Byelorussian Soviet .. .
Socialist Republic.
Cameroon ---------- Jan. 27
Canada ---- -- do-
Central African Republic do-
Ceylon ---------------
Chile Jan. 27
China, Republic of ---------do.
Colombia_. do-
Cyprus -do-
Czechoslovak a ----- --------- do-
Denmark ---------------do-
Dominican Republic ---------- do
Ecuador_--- do-
Egypt. -- -- do-
El Salvador ----------------- do-
Ethiopia -------------------- do -
Finland __ do-
France ...........- ---- Sept. 25
Gambia, The ....................
German Democratic ----
Republic.
Germany, Federal Jan. 27
Republic.
Ghana ----------------- do.
Greece -----------------do-
Guyana ................ Feb. 3
Haiti ................... Jan. 27
Honduras- ......do-
Holy See ----------------
Hungary __ Jan. 27
Iceland ........ do
Ind ia -..... ....... ...... M ar. 3
Indonesia. Jan. 2;
Ira n .. .- . . . . . . . . . . . .
I raq .... ................ Feb. 27
Ireland .Jan. 27
Is ra e l - .. - - - - - - -. . . -d o -
Italy... do
Jamaica ---------------- June 29
Japan .. .. ...----- -- Jan. 27
Jordan ..... ............ Feb. 2
Korea ---------------- Jan. 27
Laos --....... ..... - ...... do -
Lebanon ---------------- Feb. 23
Lesotho.__ --- Jan. 27
Luxem bourg-------------. -_ -.. do-
Malaysia Feb. 2C
Mexico .Jan. 27
M o n go lia --- -- -- -- ---- ---- --
Nepal .Feb. 3
Netierlands ------------- Feb. 10
New Zealand. ...- -_ ... ...Jan, 27
N ica rag u a -- -- ---------- ---- ---- d o -
Niger ............. Feb, 1
Norway --------------.-. Feb.
Pakistan ---------------- Sept. 12
Panama ............... Jan. 27
Peru .................. June 3C
Philippines -------------- Jan. 27
Puland ............... do
Romania ................do
Rwanda do
San Marino ............. Apr. 2]
Sierra Leone. .........May if
Somalia -------------- Feb.


1967




1967
1967
1967

1967
1967
1967
,1967

',1967


',1967









,1967


Oct. 10, 1967
.t. do.2 19
Oct. 10, 1967


Mar.
Oct.
Feb.
Mar.

Mar.
Aor.
Mar.


26, 1969
10, 1967
26, 1968
30, 1973

5, 19693
11, 1967
18, 1970


Jan. 27,1967
- -d o -.. .. .
-do .
Jan. 30,1967
Apr. 18, 1967
Feb. 20,1967
Jan. 27,1957

Jan. 30,1967
Jan. 27,1967
May 22, 1967


Oct. 10. 1967
....... d o .2 .
- -do ,


Mar.
Oct.
Feb.
Mar.

Mar.
Mar.
Mar,


26, 1969
10, 1967
26, 1968
31, 1973

5,1969
28, 1967
18, 1970


Jan. 27, 197
do-
.. .do . .



Feb. 20 196
Jan, 27,1976


Feb.
Jan.
May


2 1967
27,19K7
22,1961


)ct. I0
Do.-


1967


Do.
Feb 26,1968
Mar. 31,1973


Mar.
Apr.
Mar.


51969
19,1967
18 1970


- ------Feb. 10, 19674 Oct. 31, 1967


Oct. 10, 1967 Jan. 27, 1967

Feb. 20.!1967


_ July 24, 1970
- July 5,1972
_ May 22, 1967
Oct. 10, 1967
Nov. 21, 1968
Mar. 7, 1969
_ Oct. 10, 1967
Jan. 15,1969

July 12, 1967
Aug. 5, 1970


Feb, 15,
Jan. 27,
---- -d o -


1967
1967


June 7, 1967
Jan. 27,1967
Feb. 10,1967
Jan. 27,1967
Sept. 25, 1967


Oct. 10, 1967


Sept.
May
Oct.


20, 1972
18 1967
10, 1967


Jan. 23,1968

July 12. 1967
Aug. o,1970


Jan. 27, 1967' Feb. 2,1967


1,1967 Feb. 10, 19716


,1967
, 1 9 6 7 - - - - - -- -


7,1967

i,1967
7,1967
7,1967
1967

1967
1967
1967
,1967

3,1967
7,1967
,1967
1,967

1967
1967
1967
1967
3,1967
1967
1967
i.1967
1967


1,1967
6,1967
2, 1967


June 26,1967
Feb. 5,1968


July 17, 1968
Feb. 18,1977
May 4, 1972
Aug. 6, 1970
Oct. 10, 1967
Oct. 13, 1967
Nov. 29 1972
June 30,1969


Jar. 31,1968
Nov. 22, 1967
Oct. 10, 19697
May 31,1968
May 3,1967
July 1,1969
Apr. 8,1968


Jan. 30,1968
Apr. 9,1968


. .do . .

Feb. 15, 1967




Jan. 27,1967
- - -d o - - - -
Mar. 3, 1967
Jan, 30,1967

Mar. 9,1967

Jan, 27,1967
- - -d o . . .
June 29, 1967
Jan. 27 1967

Feb. 2,1 96
Feb. 23. 1967

Jan. 27.197
Ma 19
Jan. 27, 197
Feb. 3,197
Feb. 10 1967
Jan. 27. 19'

Feb. 3 1367
Sept. 12, 1967

Apr. 29,13&
Jan. 27 1967
. . .-d o -.. .


Oct. 29,1i%8 Jane 6 1967
July 14,1967 Jan. 27.1967


Jan. 27, 19-7
Mar. 1(, 1967
Feb. 31967

Feb. 161967
Jan. 2 ,1967
. ...do .. .. .

May 6, 1967

Jan. 27, 1967
.--do
Sept. 25,1967
June /, 196


Oct. 10, 1967


J ul, 5 1972
May1 11,1967
Oct. 10. 1967


July 12 1967
Aug 5 1970


Jan. 27, 19676 Feb. 10, 1971


June
Feb.


Dec.


.. . .Mar, 3,1967



Apr. 5,1967
26,1967 Jan 27, 1967
5,1968
...... Mar. 3,!9K7
Feb. 14, 1967
4,1968 Jan. 271967
4, 1968 Feb. 27,!19F7
... ..... Jan. 27, t9n7


Ma1 4, 1972
Aug. 21,i90
Oct. 1 1!9'7

No ,17
Mar. 31, 1969


J, ne 9 19'~
Jdn. 2'7 1~-

Ja
Fec. B 19~


Jan. 19,1971



June 26,197
Feb. 519 8


Sept. 3,19o9
J 1y 19 19K8
Mar. 1, 197
A g, 1i970
.ct. I019U6

J 1n 1197
ar 3119r9


2!,197


Jan.
Oct.
Oct
O t.
Ma1


.&pr. 3,!968 Set 1L,1967


iam 1 0, 196'
Air. 9 1963


ail 7 1


Nc.. 21, 1968 Apr. 2 I96
Jly 13, 1q7 Jan. 27,1967


A,17 1967
1ut i,969
p.8, 19%8


Jan. 30 1968
A r. 9,1963
Fen. 3 1969
Oct. 25,1967


See footnotes at end of table.


Couotry


Washington


Moscow I


I iI


Feb 20 1967







36

THE OUTER SPACE TREATY-Continued


Washington


Signature Ratifcation


Moscow Londoni
Signature Ratification Signature RatlKktio


South Africa
Sweden
Switerland.
Tha land ... ...


To~o ....... .. .
f ndad and Tobago. ...
Juns .. .
Turkey ..... .
Ukra n an Soy et Soc al st
Republ c.
Upper '.olta .. .. .
Uruguay .. .. .
Venezuela ..... ....
V etnam
YTuoslat a. . . .
Za re . .. .. .. .


Mar, 1, 1%7
Jan. 27, 1967
do
do
do
Sept. 28, 197
Jan 27, 1967
do

Mar. 3, 1967
Jan. 27, 1967
do
do
do
do ...


Sept. 30, 1968
Oct. 11,1967
Dec. 18, 1969
Sept. 10, 19%8

Apr. 17, 1968
Mar. 27, 1968


June
Aug.
Mar.


18, 1968
31, 1970
3, 1970


Jan,
Jan
Jan.
Aug.
Feb.
Jan,
Feb.


27, 1967
30, 1967
27, 1967


Oct 11, 1967
Dec. 18, 1969
Sept. 9, 196A


17, 1%7
15, 1967 Ap-r.
27, 1967 Mar.
10, 1967 Oct.


27, 1%8
31, 197


Jan. 27, 1967
do.
.do
July 24, 1967
Jan. 27, 1967
do


Oct.
Oct,
Dec.
Sept.


8,968
It. 967
is, 19
5, 1968


Mar, 28, 198
Mar. 27, 1968


Jan. 30,1967.


Jan. 27, 1967
Apr. 29, 1*7


Accession


Jan 27, 1967
May 4, 1967


Accession


Accession


M orroc .... .
Ugbanda .. .. . ..
N ger a.... . .
Barbados . .... . .
MaL
Sp~ n .. .... . .
Syran Arab Republic
K uw a t .. .. .. .. .
Zamba.. . .
Singar ore
Saud Arabia
Seychelles


Dec. 22, 1967
Apr 24, 1968
July 3, 1968
Aug. 22, 1968 S
Sept. 12, 1968
Dec. 7, 198
June 7, 1972
Aug. 20, 1973
Sept. 10, 1976
Dec 17, 1976


Dec. 21, 1%7


June 11, 1968
Nov. 19, 1968
July 4, 1972
Aug. 21, 1973


Dec. 21, 1967

Nov. 14, 1967


Nov. 27, 1968
June 20, 1972
Aug. 28, 1973

Jan, 5, 1978


Date of not ficat-on that t continues
Washington Moscow


Maur t us ...
Tonga.
Fiji .. . .


Apr. 16, 1969
July 7, 1971
July 18, 1972
Aug. 13, 1976


May 13, 1969


Apr. 21, 1969
June 22, 1971
July 14, 1972
Aug. 11, 1976


These I'st ngs for signings in MoscoN and London are based upon office Ireports received by the Dep3rtment of State-
Extended to the terr tories under the territorial sovereignty of the Unite K ngdrm and to Antigua. Br ti;h Solomon
Islands Protectorate, Brune Dominica, Grenada, St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, and St. Lucia. Treaty is not applicable
to Rhodes a.
3 W th a declaration.
The Unted States considers th s Republ c a; already covered by the signature affixeJ to the treaty by the U.S.S.R.
The Un ted States made a statement regard ng this action.
Appi cable to Land Berlin.
Apple cable to Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles.
I With a statement.


Country


to be bound


London













AGREEMENT ON THE RESCUE OF ASTRONAUTS, THE
RETURN OF ASTRONAUTS AND THE RETURN OF OB-
JECTS LAUNCHED INTO OUTER SPACE

CONTENTS


Page
Proclamation of the President of the United Statos ..
Article 1-Notification of an accident, distress condition, Qnlergcnev" via-
tion or unintended landing of spacecraft -.41
Article 2-Rescue procedure -----------------------------. 41
Article 3-Search an(d rescue on the high seas or other are: of internali, ,a!
ju ris dlic tio n . .. . . .. . .. . . ... .. ....... ... .. 4 2
Article 4-Safe and prompt return of the spacecraft to the launching
authority--------. . .. . ...... 42
Article 5-Notification of the launching authority; recovery aini return of
the space object (or its component parts); expenses incurred 42
Article 6-Definition of the term "launching authority".. 43
Article 7-Signature, ratification an(1 entry into force------- 44
Article 8-Amendments .. .45
Article 9-Withdrawal------------..... ... 45
Article 10- Depositary ...------------ ------ ------- ---- -- 45
( 37)

















MULTILATERAL

Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of
Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into
Outer Space

Done at Washington, London and Moscow April 22, 1968;
Ratification advised by the Senate of the United States of America
October 8, 1968;
Ratified by the President of the United States of America
October 18, 1968;
Ratification of the United States of America deposited at Washing-
ton, London and Moscow December 3, 1968;
Proclaimed by the President of the United States of America
December 3, 1968;
Entered into force December 3, 1968.


BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMIERICA

A PROCLAMATION
WHEREAS the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return
of Astronauts, and the Return of Objects Launched Into Outer Space
was signed at Washington, London, and Moscow on April 22, 1968
in behalf of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics and was signed at one or more of the three capitals in
behalf of a number of other States;
WHEREAS a certified copy of the text of the Agreement, in the
English, Russian, French, Spanish, and Chinese languages, is word
for word as follows:


(39)






41)


AGREEMENT ON THE RESCUE OF ASTRONAUTS,
THE RETURN OF ASTRONAUTS AND
THE RETURN OF OBJECTS LAUNCHED INTO OUTER SPACE



The Contracting Parties,

Noting the great importance of the Treaty on Principles

Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use

of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,

which calls for the rendering of all possible assistance to

astronauts in the event of accident, distress or emergency

landing, the prompt and safe return of astronauts, and the

return of objects launched into outer space,

Desiring to develop and give further concrete expression

to these duties,

Wishing to promote international co-operation in the

peaceful exploration and use of outer space,

Prompted by sentiments of humanity,

Have agreed on the following:





1
TIA 6347; 18 U T 2410.










Article 1

Each Contracting Party which receives information or discovers

that the personnel of a spacecraft have suffered accident or are

experiencing conditions of distress or have made an emergency or

unintended landing in territory under its jurisdiction or on the high

seas or in any other place not under the jurisdiction of any State

shall immediately:

(a) Notify the launching authority or, if it cannot identify

and immediately communicate with the launching authority, immediately

make a public announcement by all appropriate means of communication

at its disposal;

(b) Notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who

should disseminate the information without delay by all appropriate

means of communication at his disposal.


Article 2

If, owing to accident, distress, emergency or unintended landing,

the personnel of a spacecraft land in territory under the jurisdiction

of a Contracting Party, it shall immediately take all possible steps

to rescue them and render them all necessary assistance. It shall

inform the launching authority and also the Secretary-General of the

United Nations of the steps it is taking and of their progress. If

assistance by the launching authority would help to effect a prompt

rescue or would contribute substantially to the effectiveness of

search and rescue operations, the launching authority shall co-operate

with the Contracting Party with a view to the effective conduct of

search and rescue operations. Such operations shall be subject to the


32-231 - 7 4










direction and control of the Contracting Party, which shall act

in close and continuing consultation with the launching authority.


Article 3

If information is received or it is discovered that the

personnel of a spacecraft have alighted on the high seas or in

any other place not under the jurisdiction of any State, those

Contracting Parties which are in a position to do so shall, if

necessary, extend assistance in search and rescue operations for

such personnel to assure their speedy rescue. They shall inform

the launching authority and the Secretary-General of the United

Nations of the steps they are taking and of their progress.


Article 4

If, owing to accident, distress, emergency or unintended

landing, the personnel of a spacecraft land in territory under

the jurisdiction of a Contracting Party or have been found on

the high seas or in any other place not under the jurisdiction

of any State, they shall be safely and promptly returned to

representatives of the launching authority.


Article 5

1. Each Contracting Party which receives information or

discovers that a space object or its component parts has returned

to Earth in territory under its jurisdiction or on the high seas

or in any other place not under the jurisdiction of any State,

shall notify the launching authority and the Secretary-General

of the United Nations.






43


2. Each Contracting Party having jurisdiction over the

territory on which a space object or its component parts has been

discovered shall, upon the request of the launching authority and

with assistance from that authority if requested, take such steps

as it finds practicable to recover the object or component parts.

3. Upon request of the launching authority, objects

launched into outer space or their component parts found beyond

the territorial limits of the launching authority shall be

returned to or held at the disposal of representatives of the

launching authority, which shall, upon request, furnish

identifying data prior to their return.

4. Notwithstanding paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article, a

Contracting Party which has reason to believe that a space object

or its component parts discovered in territory under its jurisdic-

tion, or recovered by it elsewhere, is of a hazardous or

deleterious nature may so notify the launching authority, which

shall immediately take effective steps, under the direction and

control of the said Contracting Party, to eliminate possible

danger of harm.

5. Expenses incurred in fulfilling obligations to recover

and return a space object or its component parts under paragraphs

2 and 3 of this article shall be borne by the launching authority.


Article 6

For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "launching

authority" shall refer to the State responsible for launching,






14



or, where an international inter-gover,imental organization is

responsible for launching, that organization, provided that that

organization declares its acceptance of the rights and obligations

provided for in this Agreement and a majority of the States

members of that organization are Contracting Parties to this

Agreement and to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities

of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including

the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies.


Article 7

I. This Agreement shall be open to all States for

signature. Any State which does not sign this Agreement before

its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this

article may accede to it at any time.

2. This Agreement shall be subject to ratification by

signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments

of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the

United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain

and Northern Ireland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,

which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments.

3. This Agreement shall enter into force upon the deposit

of instruments of ratification by five Governments including the

Governments designated as Depositary Governments under this

Agreement.

4. For States whose instruments of ratification or

accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of

this Agreement, it shall enter into force on the date of the

deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.






45



5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all

signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the

date of deposit of each instrument of ratification of and

i accession to this Agreement, the date of its entry into force

and other notices.

6. This Agreement shall be registered by the Depositary

Governments pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United

Nations.


Article 8

Any State Party to the Agreement may propose amendments to

this Agreement. Amendments shall enter into force for each State

Party to the Agreement accepting the amendments upon their

acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Agreement

and thereafter for each remaining State Party to the Agreement

on the date of acceptance by it.


Article 9

Any State Party to the Agreement may give notice of its

withdrawal from the Agreement one year after its entry into

force by written notification to the Depositary Governments.

Such withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of

receipt of this notification.

Article 10

This Agreement, of which the English, Russian, French,

Spanish and Chinese texts are equally authentic, shall be

deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly

certified copies of this Agreement shall :e transmitted by the

Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory and

acceding States.







46


rA ( i IE \E I. E N T


on tlile res('tl of t rona Ift s, the ret lrn of astronauts,


utidt 11l return ()f ()jec(L- laUti%'lle(l I1Ito() oilier spUce.
sinaizit11"reit \VshinztoI, I wldl, aldt i ()s'ow April 22,
L5 Etere 0 into t'o (. 1)eun1wr 2, 19th.
Tlt, 1 z~,- otf I )e(e(ier 1)9>


()pened for
1!6 (iTIAS


1i Ilul~res: 79 )1 us the kra itian S and B.%elorussian
>.>. iH.

I{at ict!tions 51 p)li1' the Bleii-iin .. amd Ukrainian
-,>. It.


N ( w it1(:nti()Il thai it: (.(mlt inlles t(, 1w( ImIItI1, 3

A(eJ ) I0 ,H ) ( 1 1 at \I ( )rn I za 11 "111
pl)l('e AgenxyI ),(,. 31 ,1977]


THE ASTRONAUT AGREEMENT


Country


Un ted States ..
Un ted K ngdcm ........
U.S S.R
Argentna ... .
Austral ..... .
Austr a
Belgium ..
Boliv a
Bulgar
Burm a,. ..... .. .
Byeloruss an Soviet
Social st Republic.
Cameron .. n ..
Canada ---... ..
Chile -
Ch na, Republ c of.
Colombia .. .. .
Costa Rica .
Cyprus
Czechoslovak a ----
Denmark ... ...
Domin can Republic.
Ecuador
Egypt
El Sa lor .. .. .
F nland
Gambia, The, (See under
access on ).
German Democratic
Republ c.
Germany, Fedcral
Republic.
Ghana
Greece
Guyana.. . .
Ha it.
Hungary .. . .
Iceland . .
Iran .. .. .
Ireland . .. . .
Israel . . .
Italy .... . .

Jordan.. .. . .
Korea .. .. .
Laos ..... .
Lebanon .
Lesotho
LuxAem bou ....
Malagasy Republic
Malaysia
Maldive Islands
M alta .. ...... ..
Mexi co
Monaco .... ..... ..


Washington

Signature Rat fication

Apr. 22, 1968 Dec. 3, 1968
do do :
do do .
do Mar, 26, 1969
do .. .. .. .
do Feb. 19, 1970
Aug. 14, 1968 Apr. 15, 1977
Apr. 22, 1968 .
_ do . .. Apr. 16, 1969
A ug. 21, 19f8 .... . ..


Apr. 25, 1968
Apr. 22 1968
do
Apr. 23, 1968
Apr. 24, 1968
Ma) 9, 1968
Apr. 22, 1968
do .. ....
--. do .......

Apr. 22, 1968
do... --
Sept. 20,1968


Feb. 20, 1975

June 15, 1973


Jan.
Feb.
May


20, 1971
18, 1969
6,1969


Mar. 7, 1969

Feb. 19, 19710
Sept. 10, 1970


Moscow I


London I


S nature Ratification Signature Ratifcation


Apr. 22, 1968
... do,. .
- do
May 28, 1968
Apr. 22, 1968
do
Aug. 14, 1968


Apr.
Aug.
May

June
Apr.
May


Dec. 3, 1968
.. do- .
. do


Mar,
Feb.
Apr.


22, 1968 Apr.
21, 1968 -. .
14, 1968 Dec.


14, 1968
25, 1968
16, 1968


July 9, 1968
Apr. 22, 19b8
.. .do . . .


July 4, 1968

Apr. 22, 1968


26, 1969
19, 1970
15 1977


Apr. 22, 1968
do
do
May 2, 1968
Apr. 22, 1968
. do
Aug. i4, 1968


2, 1969 Apr. 22, 1968
Aug. 21, 1968
2,1968,


Apr.
Apr.
Apr.


De-c. 17, 1970
Feb. 18, 1969
May 6, 19( 9


22, 1968
25, 1968
22, 1968


May 7, 1968
Apr. 22, 1968
_ do _


Dec. 3 1968
Do_
Do.
Mar. 26, 1969
Apr. 15, 1977
Feb. 19, 1970
Apr. 15, 1977

Apr. 16, 1969


Jan. 10, 1969
Feb, 20, 1975



Dec. 17, 1970
Feb. 18, 1969
May 6, 1969


Dec. 11, 1968 May 10, 1968


Sept. 10, 1970


Apr. 22, 1968 Sept. 10, 1970


Apr. 22, 19684 Dec. 11, 1968


Aug. 20 1968 Feb. 17, 1972! Aug. 20, 1968


Apr. 22, 1968
June 11, 1968

Apr. 22, 1968
_ do- June
do .. .. Dec.
do. Dec.
_ -do Sept.
-.. do Dec.
.. do- Mar.
July 23, 1968 .


1969
1969
1970
1968
1969
1978


May 9, 1968 Apr. 4, 1969
Apr. 22, 1968 Nov. 29, 1972
do June 30, 1969
July 18, 1968
Aug 14, 1968
June 25, 1968 Feb. 11, 1969
June 18, 1968
Apr. 22, 198 Apr. 3, 190


Apr. 22, 1968


Apr 22, 1968
do
S do.. .

Apr. 22 1968
July 23, 1968

Apr. 22, 1968
Apr. 30, 1968

Aug. 14, 1968

July 4,1968


Aug. 20, 1968 Feb. 17, 1972


May 6 1968

Oct. 4, 1968


June
0 ec.
Dec.


Mar. 31,


1969 Apr. 22, 1968
1969 do
1970 do
do
Apr. 26, 1968
1978 Apr. 22, 19*38
July 23,1968
July 24, 1968


Nov. 27, 1972
Mar. 31, 1969


July 15, 1968 Mar. 11, 1969 July 15, 1968 Mar.


July 7, 1975
May 30, 1969


June
Dec.
Dec.
Aug.
Jan.
Mar.


4, 1969
4, 1969
21, 1970
29, 1968
6, 1970
31, 1978


Apr. 22, 1968 Jan. 15, 1973
Apr. 30, 1968 Mar, 31, 1969

Aug. 14, 1968

July 29, 1968


May 29, 1968
11, 1969 July 15,1968
---- June 13,1968


Mar. 11, 1969


See footnotes at end of table.


A L r1' Ife I I t I







47

THE ASTRONAUT AGREEMENT-Continued


Washington

Signature Ratification


Country


Moscow I


Signature Ratification


London ,
Signature Ratification


Mongolia ------------------------------------------- Apr. 22, 1968 Jan. 31, 1969 _
Morocco -------------- Apr. 22, 1968 Dec. 21, 1970 June 7,1968 Feb. 10, 1971
Nepal ----------------------- do ------ July 11, 1968 Apr. 22, 1968 July 26, 1968
Netherlands ----------Aug. 14, 1968 ------------Aug. 14, 1968 --------------
New Zealand --------- Apr. 24, 1968 July 8,1969 Apr. 24, 1968 July 8,1969
Nicaragua ------------- Apr. 22, 1968 ---------------------------------------
Niger ----------------------- do ------ Jan. 15, 1969 ----------------------------
Nigeria ---------------- May 3,1968 ------------June 14, 1968 Feb. 26, 1973
Norway -------------Apr. 22, 1958 Apr. 20, 1970 Apr. 22, 1968 Apr. 20, 1970
Philippines -- ----------- Apr. 24. 1968 -------------------------------------------
Poland --------------- Apr. 22, 1968 Feb. 14, 1969 Apr. 22, 1968 Feb. 14, 1969
Portugal -------------------- do ------ Mar. 25, 1970 ----------------------------
Romania ---------------do ----- June 28, 1971 Apr. 22, 1968 June 28,.1971
Rwanda ---------------- do -----------------------------------------------
San Marino -----------Nov. 7, 1968 Aug. 31, 1970 Nov. 21, 1968 Aug. 20, 1970
S e n e g a l -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - : . . . . .. . . .
Sierra Leone ------------------------------ Apr. 22, 1968
Somali Republic ---------- Apr. 22, 1968 ---------------- do
South Africa ----------Aug. 6, 1968 Oct. 6,1969-------
Switzerland ---------- Apr. 22, 1968 Dec. 18, 1969 Apr. 22, 1968 Dec. 18, 1969
Syrian Arab Republic ----------------------- Oct. 3, 1968 Aug. 14, 1969 -
Tunisia ------------- Apr. 22, 1968 Feb. 10, 1971 Apr. 24, 1968 Feb. 10, 1971
Turkey ------------- Nov. 29, 1968 ------------- Nov. 29, 1968 -------------
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist _.................----------- June 28,1968 3 Jan. 16, 1969 3
Republic.
Uruguay ------------Apr. 22, 1968 ------------------------------------------
Venezuela --------------do --------------------------------------- -----------
Vietnam---------------------------------------- -
Yemen Arab Republic .... July 23, 1968 ---------------
Yugoslavia -----------Apr. 22, 1968 Mar. 1, 1971 Apr. 22, 1968 Mar. 1,1971
Zaire ------------------ do--------------------------------


June
Apr.
Aug.
Apr.
June


14,1968
22,1968
14, 1968
24, 1968
13, 1968


July 26, 1968
Apr. 22, 1968
Apr. 22, 1968
Apr. 22, 1968

June 26,1968
May 20, 1968

Apr. 22,1968
Apr. 22, 1968
Nov. 29,1968



May 22, 1968
Apr. 22, 1968
June 25, 1968


Nov. 20, 1970
Feb. 3,1969
July 8, 1969
Mar. 23, 1973
Apr. 20, 1970
Feb. 14, 1969
June 28, 1971
Aug. 10, 1970


Sept. 24, 1969
Dec. 18,1969
Feb. 15,1971


Feb. 25,1969


Mar. 1, 1971


Accession Accession Accession


Gambia, The ....
Gabon_
Mauritius ....
Botswana ---------------
Barbados ---------------
Thailand -
Swaziland-_
Sweden
Iraq
Kuwait .......
Brazil-
Zambia.
Pakistan
France- --
Singapore_ -
Seychelles .......


Apr. 2,1969
Apr. 16, 1969
Apr. 18, 1969
May 30, 1969
June 9,1969
July 21, 1969
June 7,1972
Feb. 27,1973
Aug. 20,1973
Oct. 18,1973
Dec. 31,1975
Sept. 10,1976
Jan. 5, 1978


July 26, 1968
May 13,1969
Apr. 10, 1969
- ---- do ---
May 26,1969
June 17, 1969
July 21, 1969
Mar. 12, 1970
July 4,1972
Feb. 27,1973
Aug. 21,1973
Oct. 17, 1973


Aug. 2,1968
Apr. 21, 1969
Apr. 18, 1969
Feb. 20,1969
May 29, 1969
June 10,1969
July 21, 1969
May 7,1970
June 20, 1972
Feb. 27,1973
Aug. 28, 1973
Nov. 2,1973
Sept. 10, 1976


NOTES
Acceptance by international organization under article 6: European Space Agency, effective Dec. 31, 1975.
Notification that it continues to be bound: Tonga-Washington, July 7, 1971; London, June 22, 1971. Fiji-Washington
July 18, 1972; London, July 14, 1972; Moscow, July 14, 1972. Bahamas-Washington, Aug. 13, 1976; London, Aug. 11, 1976.
1 The listings for signings in Moscow and London are based upon official reports received by the Department of State.
2 Extended to Antigua, British Solomon Islands Protectorate, Brunei, Dominica, Grenada, St. Christopher-Nevis-An-
guilla, St. Lucia, and territories under the territorial sovereignty of the United Kingdom. Non applicable to Southern
Rhodesia.
3 The United States considers this Republic as already covered by the signature and ratification of the treaty by the
U.S.S.R.
4 The United States made a statement regarding this action.
!Applicable to Land Berlin.


















































































































-Ok












CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL LIABILITY FOR
DAMAGE CAUSED BY SPACE OBJECTS

CONTENTS


Page
Proclamation by the President of the United States- 51
Article I-Definition of "damage," "launching" and "space object" -- 54
Article II-Liability of the launching state for damage on the Earth's
surface or to aircraft in flight------------------------------- 54
Article III-Liability of the launching state for damage caused elsewhere
than on the Earth's surface----54
Article IV-Joint and several liability -- 5
Article V-Liability in a joint launching-56
Article VI-Exoneration from absolute liability_--56
Article VII-Damage to parties not regulated by the Convention-...... 57
Article VIII-Damage compensation --7
Article IX-Presentation of a damage compensation claim -.5S
Article X-Time limitation for presentation of a damage compensation
claim------------------------
Article XI-Local remedies for damage compensation. 59
Article XII-Determination of the compensation amount-..........,- 59
Article XIII-Currency used in compensation --------------------------59
Article XIV-Duration of the settlement and provision for the establish-
ment of a Claims Commission__-- 60
Article XV-Composition of the Claims'Commission and the selection of
a Chairman__--60
Article XVI-Operating procedure of the Claims Commission 60
Article XVII-Membership of the Claims Commission -------------------61
Article XVIII-Function of the Claims Commission ---------------------61
Article XIX-Decisions of the Claims Commission ----------------------62
Article XX-Expenses of the Claims Commission- ----------------------62
Article XXI-Assistance to a state which has suffered large scale damage- 62
Article XXII-Application of the Convention to the space activities of
an international intergovernmental organization- 63
Article XXIII-Other international agreements 64
Article XXIV-Signature, ratification and entry into force-----------------64
Article XXV-Amendment procedure----------------------------------65
Article XXVI-Review of the Convention------------------ ..... 65
Article XXVII-Withdrawal_-66
Article XXVIII-Depositary--------------------------------- 66
(49)














MULTILATERAL

Convention on International Liability for
Damage Caused by Space Objects

Done at Washington, London, and Moscow March 29, 1972;
Ratification advised by the Senate of the United States of America
October 6, 1972;
Ratified by the President of the United States of America May 18,
1973;
Ratification of the United States of America deposited at Wash-
ington, London, and Moscow October 9, 1973;
Proclaimed by the President of the United States of America
November 21, 1973;
Entered into force with respect to the United States of America
October 9, 1973.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

A PROCLAMATION

CONSIDERING THAT:
The Convention on International Liability for Datnage ('aused by
Space Objects was signed at Washington, London, an(1 Mo,-cow oi
March 29, 1972 in behalf of the United States of America, the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics, the depositary governuien t>, and wat
signed at one or more of the three capital- in behalf of a number of
other States, a certified copy of which Convent ion i; hereto annexed
The Senate of the United Stat.s of Anerica by its re,-olitiwio of
October 6, 1972, two-thirds of the Senators present (0n(1r,(rring t hereil,
gave its advice an(I consent to the ratification of thie ('oiventioin
The President of the United States of America ratified( tle ('onveni-
tion on May 18, 1973, in pursuance of tihe advice aid consent of t0he
Senate;
The United States of America depo-ited it- instrunient of ratifieat ion
on October 9, 1973, in accordance with the provisioins of 2a g'a)l 2
of Article XXIV of the Convention; an(d
Pursuant to the provisions of paragraph 4 of Arti(-le XXIV of the
Convention, the Convention entered into force for the United States
of America on October 9, 1973;


(51)





,-2


N, l, I IEi, It 1-1 1 1( 1 t. l iI iurd k i\U i e It-lit

( (1 \.l~it 1 t11 I' hr 'iW I hat I wi ) X .Ci 1 :11( flf 1illei withI
tt() )ti f ~it ,t IuIH fi(t ( )ei r 9, II.7,t, I Iy t 1. 1IIit State-. II f
11,ri ) I :tjA I i ') 1) '111' 1' ), c."; .. )f A ) ,I 11 .1-1! :1 111
-i her I mt,) Xi IV1( 1 F, I It I 1, j li 'i-i (, 1 011 1 tb*, rh)f.

the I 'le, l ()f the t ieI >tIe- if A IIerica to l) allixd.
I )o-<. 1111. ('i1- f \th'ijiii)ztui is wen ly-fira dluY oIf N()vembher
i I Iie vIf r f 1111 I()rl oi e tlfi'-.ui( nine hunr1ied
F x). (,vtit v-t Iiir('e uU( of the :lml(,peudc(nee of th~e United
St ittt of Amerieai tHe( Ine IQin1Ired( ninety-ei htlI.
RIiCHARi) NIxON

By tIte IIa, Adent
IIF.:.NH A. hI ss.IN(;EII







53



CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL LIABILITY FOR
DAMAGE CAUSED BY SPACE OBJECTS



The States Parties to this Convention,

Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in furth'ring

the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,

Recalling the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities

of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including

the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, [1]

Taking into consideration that, notwithstanding the

precautionary measures to be taken by States and international

intergovernmental organizations involved in the launching of space

objects, damage may on occasion be caused by such objects,

Recognizing the need to elaborate effective international

rules and procedures concerning liability for damage caused by

space objects and to ensure, in particular, the prompt payment

under the terms of this Convention of a full and equitable measure

of compensation to victims of such damage,

Believing that the establishment of such rules and procedures

will contribute to the strengthening of international cooperation

in the field of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful

purposes,

Have agreed on the following:










ARTICLE 1

inu o hir







(a h tA ia~~e --h~ n -!is uf procues pt lie I iury of
oth r padir ent f ha lth; r 1oss5 of or dag~ to prperty of

tte r o erso(ii, A atu r jur dca, .rty .. ;iter-



((1) Th1e ter "1puchin include" ttetedlu nhing;
(c) Ih te 'ldunchIn :St ~ ate" means:

i) A State which launches or procures the lauk ng of
a sce< object;

(mi) A State from uhose territory or facility space

object is launched;

(d The terrr "space object" includes component parts ct a

space object as well as its launch vehicle and parts thereof.


ARTICLE II

A launching State shall be absolutely liable to pay compensation

for dawe caused by its space object on the surface of the earth or

to aircraft in flight.


ARTICLE III

In the event of damage being caused elsewhere than on the

surface of the earth to a space object of one launching State or to

persons or property on board such a space object by a space object

of another launching State, the latter shall be liable only if the

damage is due to its fault or the fault of persons for whom it is

responsible.










AT I CL E IV

1. In the event of damage being caused elsewhre tIw

the surface of the earth to a space object of one ldurch~ng :tat

or to persons or property on board such a space obect 1)

object of another launching State, and of damage there'y :eIn.

caused to a third State or to its natural or juridical persons,

the first two States shall be jointly and severally liable to

the third State, to the extent indicated by the following:

(a) If the damage has been caused to the third State

on the surface of the earth or to aircraft in flight, their

liability to the third State shall be absolute;

(b) If the damage has been caused to a space object of

the third State or to persons or property on board that

space object elsewhere than on the surface of the earth,

their liability to the third State shall be based on the

fault of either of the first two States or on the fault of

persons for whom either is responsible.

2. In all cases of joint and several liability referred to

in paragraph 1 of this article, the burden of compensation for the

damage shall be apportioned between the first two States in

accordance with the extent to which they were at fault; if the

extent of the fault of each of these States cannot be established,

the burden of compensation shall be apportioned equally between

them. Such apportionment shall be without prejudice to the right of

the third State to seek the entire compensation due under this

Convention from any or all of the launching States which are jointly

and severally liable.







514


1'




ti~:.

t


I S



1~

itjI

~ h irti


I ~i. i~ f ~z~'h



Lim~ Jv tO

~ c i~v~ ~t Ion


iro hose trritoy or tC ilt 1 spaCe object

be s {rded s S partic iant in a oint


ut to revisions o paragraph 2 of this article,

2 x t u oa te libilit, s1he granted to the extent

t a ianch:n Sate es;tablishs that t he .arndage has~ res~ulted


ot hoy r pirtia IlJy rom srss negligence or from an act

or o Cis o on with intent to cause damage on the part of a

1 al:'ant State or : natural r juridical persons it represents.

2. o generation w hatever i 11jshall ranted in cases where

cIe av g a res ted f ro lctivit conducted y a 1auwnchin;g

Stat whc are not in. conhormity with intt'rnjtional law including,


r! C 'f C,











[1]
in particular, the Charter ( f the 'i ed :iti(: -

on Principles ;overni.... t 'ti ...

and Use of OuterIc,,...

Bodies.


RIiCLL Vii

The provisions of this 'onvention shall ntr<

caused by a space object of alaunchig tu:

(a) Nationals of that launching ..Ste;

(b) Foreign nationals during such ti:ne as tey ir-

participatinq in the oration of that ec- .

of its launching or at any stage thereafter nt 4S Ct s ., r

during such time as they are i. the i tvicnlit_ o.

launching or recovery area as the result of &n ivaiait u.'

launching State.


ARTICLE VIII

1. A State which suffers (damage, or whose na-uralor

juridical persons suffer damage, may present to a launching itt ite

a claim for compensation for such damage.

2. if tne State of nationality has not presented a clainn,

another State may, in respect of damage sustaine i:n its territory

by any natural or juridical person, present a claim to a launch.

State.

3. If neither the State of nationality nor the State In

whose territory the damage was sustained has presented a claim or

notified its intention of presenting a clai., Stater eat ay,

in respect of damage sustained by its permanent residents, ofse

a claim to a launching State.






'TS 993; 59 Stat. 1031.


32-231 0 71 -






38


ARTICLE IX

\ claim for compensation for damage shall be presented to a

launching State through diplomatic channels. If a State does not

maintain Yiplo: atic relations with the launching State concerned,

it may reuest another State to present its claim to that launching

State r otherwise represent its interests under this Convention,

It iay also present its claim through the Secretary-General of the

United Nations, provided the claimant State and the launching State

are both Members of the United Nations.


ARTICLE X

1. A claim for compensation for damage may be presented to

a launching State not later than one year following the date of

the occurrence of the damage or the identification of the launching

State which is liable.

2. If, however, a State does not know of the occurrence of

the damage or has not been able to identify the launching State

which is liable, it may present a claim within one year following

the date on which it learned of the aforementioned facts; however,

this period shall in no event exceed one year following the date

on which the State could reasonably be expected to have learned

of the facts through the exercise of due diligence.

3. The time-limits specified in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this

article shall apply even if the full extent of the damage may not

be known. In this event, however, the claimant State shall be

entitled to revise the claim and submit additional documentation

after the expiration of such time-limits until one year after the

full extent of the damage is known.







59


..RTI CLX 1

Presentation of a claim to a ie :or

compensation for damage under this Convention shall o t r re-lr

the prior exhaustion of any local remedies whiche avaalie

to a claimant State or to natural or juridical persns _t- rcpr--s-is

2. Nothing in this Convention shall preve-. a State, or

natural or -uridical persons it ... ht represent, from pursu.ing a

claim in the courts or a(-inistrative tribunals or agencies of a

launching State. A State shall not, however, ;,e entitled to present

a claim under this Convention in respect of the same damage for

which a claim is being pursued in the courts or administrative

tribunals or agencies of a launching State or under another inter-

national agreement which is binding on the States concerned.


ARTICLE XII

The compensation which the launching State shall be liable to

pay for damage under this Convention shall be determined in accor-

dance with international law and the principles of justice and

equity, in order to provide such reparation in respect of the

damage as will restore the person, natural or juridical, State or

international organization on whose behalf the claim is presented

to the condition which would have existed if the damage had not

occurred.


ARTICLE XIII

Unless the claimant State and the State from which compensation

is due under this Convention agree on another form of compensation,







(4)


*~~t er


"S ,



tw r<:h .


om : dof three members:



.. .. s t <2: T: n, be hos n by both

t i. o::: rt :ih~l :: k2it pontment within two

:,::tfo r he stb0s n of th < lm Co0isin

o r e is rched on the choi of the Chairman
rr i Sm o; 3f the
.... :, s te :< uest f or 'he establishment of the

1t[ party Nay quest the Sretary-General f the

n aoint the Chaian within a further period of


ARTICLE XVI

I. If one f the parties does not make its appointment

within the stipulated period, the Chairman shall, at the request

of the other party, constitute a single-member Claims Commission.











2. V 'a.......n e

whatever reason shall b e filed )v the sine ro: -, .

the original appointment.

3. The Commission shall determine its ow o r

4. The Commission shall determine the place cwer

it shall sit and all other acinistrative matters.

5. Except in the case of decisions and awards a singile-

member Commission, all decisions and v'rds -f e :in-ion shall

be by majority vote.


ARTICLE X%'II

No increase in the membership Of the Claims L0-kmIssi On shall

take place by reason of two or more claimant States Or launchin;

States being joined in any one proceeding bef-ore the mursson.

The claimant States so 'oined shall collectively it one

member of the Commission in the same manner and su>ect the

same conditions as would be the case for a single claimant State.

When two or more launching States are so joined, they shall

collectively appoint one member of the Commission in the same way.

If the claimant States or the launching States ao not make the

appointment within the stipulated period, the Chairman shall

constitute a single-member Commission.


ARTICLE XVIII

The Claims Commission shall decide the merits of the claim for

compensation and determine the amount of compensation payable, if

any.










ARTICLE XIX

1. The Claims Commission shall act in accordance with the

provisions of article XII.

2. The decision of the Commission shall te final and binding

if the parties have so agreed; otherwise the Commission shall render

a final and recommendatory award, which the parties shall consider

in good faith. The Commission shall state the reasons for its

decision or award.

3. The Commission shall give its decision or award as

promptly as possible and no later than one year from the date of

its establishment, unless an extension of this period is found

necessary by the Commission.

4. The Commission shall make its decision or award public.

It shall deliver a certified copy of its decision or award to each

of the parties and to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.


ARTICLE XX

The expenses in regard to the Claims Commission shall be

borne equally by the parties, unless otherwise decided by the

Commission.


ARTICLE XXI

If the damage caused by a space object presents a large-scale

danger to human life or seriously interferes with the living

conditions of the population or the functioning of vital centers,

the States Parties, and in particular the launching State, shall

examine the possibility of rendering appropriate and rapid

assistance to the State which has suffered the damage, when it

so requests. However, nothing in this article shall affect the

rights or obligations of the States Parties under this Convention.







63



ARTICLE XXII

1. In this Convention, with the exception of articles XXIV

to XXVII*, references to States shall be deemed to apply to any

international intergovernmental organization which conducts space

activities if the organization declares its acceptance of the

rights and obligations provided for in this Convention and if a

majority of the States members of the organization are States

Parties to this Convention and to the Treaty on Principles Govern-

ing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer

Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies.

2. States members of any such organization which are States

Parties to this Convention shall take all appropriate steps to

ensure that the organization makes a declaration in accordance with

the preceding paragraph.

3. If an international intergovernmental organization is

liable for damage by virtue of the provisions of this Convention,

that organization and those of its members which are States Parties

to this Convention shall be jointly and severally liable; provided,

however, that:

(a) Any claim for compensation in respect of such damage

shall be first presented to the organization;

(b) Only where the organization has not paid, within a

period of six months, any sum agreed or determined to be due

as compensation for such damage, may the claimant State invoke

the liability of the members which are States Parties to this

Convention for the payment of that sum.













S t,


I Lt


of!.~


n-


- U


I fi


Z 1 il~ L t

U ~pL i~ ~ thiS

**~U 1 ;~fli~~ition


I *t f ct other



Io ):II rve t S a e

' IX,:: f ] : 1. p l me t n


Sall ates for signature,
Arv Stt w h e 'i s his Cnvention efore its entry into


for'e n -cordaoe wi th aragraph 3 of this article may accede to

-i at i n v i
Tis onetion shall be ;ubject tc ratification by


signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of

accessII 76hall be deposited with the Governments of the United

tates of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern

Ireland and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are

hereby designated the Depositary Governments.

3. This Convention shall enter into force on the deposit of

the fifth instru.ent of ratification.


4. An











4. For States whose instruments of ratification ()r

are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this

it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of -heir

instruments of ratification or accession.

5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform ,11

signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the

date of deposit of each instrument of ratification of and c ...i. >r

to this Convention, the date of its entry into force and oth r

notices.

6. This Convention shall be registered 1ly the Depositary

Governments pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the Vnited

Nations.


ARTICLE XXV

Any State Party to this Convention may propose amendments

to this Convention. Amendments shall enter into force for each

State Party to the Convention accepting the amendments upon their

acceptance by a majority of the States Parties to the Convention

and thereafter for each remaining State Party to the Convention on

the date of acceptance by it.


ARTICLE XXVI

Ten years after the entry into force of this Convention, the

question of the review of this Convention shall be included in the

provisional agenda of the United Nations General Assembly in order

to consider, in the light of past application of the Convention,

whether it requires revision. However, at any time after the






66



Convention has been in force for five years, and at the request of

one third of the States Parties to the Convention, and with the

concurrence of the majority of the States Parties, a conference of

the States Parties shall be convened to review this Convention.


ARTICLE XXVII

Any State Party to this Convention may give notice of its

withdrawal from the Convention one year after its entry into force

by written notification to the Depositary Governments. Such

withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt

of this notification.


ARTICLE XXVIII

This Convention, of which the English, Russian, French, Spanish

and Chinese texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the

archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of

this Convention shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments

to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.







67


SPACE LIABILITY CONVENTION

Convention on international liability for damage caw'tled by "pace
objects. Done at Washington, London and Moscow larch 29, 1972.
(Senate advice and consent to ratification givell October 6, 1972;
ratified by the President May 18, 1973; ratification deposited ()tober
9, 1973) (TIAS 7762). Entered into force for the United >tates
October 9, 1973.
Totals as of December 1, 1978:
Signatures: 71 plus the Ukrainian S.S.R. and Byelorul.ian
S.S.R.
Ratifications: 34 plus the Ukrainian S.S.R.
Accessions: 17.
THE SPACE LIABILITY CONVENTION


Washington

Signature Ratification


Country


Moscow I


Signature Ratification


London,


Signature Ratification


United States ---------Mar. 29, 1972 Oct. 9, 1973 Mar. 29, 1972 Oct. 9, 1973 Ma
Algeria ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ap
Argentina ------------- Mar. 29, 1972 ------------Mar. 29, 1972 A
Austria -------------May 30, 1972 ------------May 30, 1972 ----------- M
Belguim ------------- Mar. 29, 1972 ---- Mar. 29, 1972 ---------- M
Botswana ------------- do --.-- Mar. 11, 1974 --- 1- 72-- ar... 9.... 973.... J
Brazil -------------- July 13, 1972 Mar. 9, 1973 July 13, 1972 Mar. 9, 1973 Jul
Bulgaria -------------Mar. 29, 1972 June 14, 1972 Mar. 29, 1972 May 14, 1973 Ma
Burund! ---------------- do ----------------------------------------- -
Byelorussian Soviet
Socialist Republic2--------.------------ Mar. 29, 1972 -----------------
Central African Republic-- Apr. 27, 1972 ---------------------------------------------
China, Republic of ------Mar. 29, 1972 Feb. 9,1973 -------------------------------
Colombia --------------- do---------------------------
Costa Rica -------------- do---
Cyprus -------------May 12, 1972 May 23, 1973 May 5, 1972 May 23, 1973 Ap
Czechoslovakia --------Mar. 29, 1972 Sept. 8, 1976 Mar. 29, 1972 --
Dahomey --------------- do ------- Apr. 25, 1975 ---. ---------------------------
Denmark ------------ Apr. 19, 1972 Apr. 1, 19773 Apr. 19, 1972--- A
Dominican Republic ----- Apr. 26, 1972 Feb. 23, 1973----------------
Ecuador ------------- Apr. 25, 1972 Aug. 17, 1972 ------------------------------
Egypt -----------------------------------May 19, 1972 Ju
El Salvador ----------- M ar. 29, 1972 ---------------------------- ----------- ----
Finland ----------------do ------- Feb. 1, 1977 Mar. 29, 1972 -M- M
Gambia, The ----------June 2, 1972---------- June 2, 1972 ___ Au
German Democratic
Republic ---------------------------------------- - Mar. 29, 1972 Aug. 30, 1972 ---
Ghana -------------- Mar. 31, 1972 do -
Greece -------------- Apr. 12, 19724 Apr. 27, 1977 --------------------- ---- ----
Guatemala ----------- Mar. 29, 1972 ------------------------------------------
Haiti ------------------ do ----------------------------------------------------
Honduras --------------- do ------------------------------------------
Hungary ---------------- -------Dec. 27, 1972 Mar. 29, 1972 Dec. 27, 1972 Ma
Iceland ----------------do _-do -------- .......----------
Iran ------------------ do ---- Feb. 13,1974 -----do ------------------------
Ireland ----------------do ------ June 29, 1972 3 -.-----------------------------
Italy ------------------ do ----------------Mar. 29, 1972 -_ Ap
Jordan-------------- May 25, 1972 ------------- June 6, 1972 --------------
Khmer Republic --------- Mar. 29, 1972 ---------------------------------- --------
Korea, Republic of --------- _do.3 ...................................... M a
Kuwait ------------- June 7, 1972 Nov. 15, 1972 June 9, 1972 Nov. 23, 1972 Jui
Laos ---------------Mar. 29, 1972 Mar. 22, 1973 Mar. 31, 1972 Mar. 20, 1973 Ma
Lebanon --------------- do ----------------Apr. 21, 1972 -----------------
Luxembourg ---------- Apr. 25, 1972 -... May 10,1972 .-. ---------- Ap
Mali Apr. 10, 1972 June 9, 1972 Apr. 4,1972 ----------------
Mexico ----------------- Mar. 29,1972 Apr. 8,1974 Mar. 29, 1972 ---------... Ma
Mongolia ------------Apr. 10, 1972 Sept. 5, 1972 ----- do ...... Oct. 20 1972
Morocco -------------Mar. 29, 1972 --------- Apr. 5, 1972 ------------ Ap
Nepal -------------- June 19, 1972 -------------- Mar. 29, 1972 ....... .. .... Ma
New Zealand -------------do ------Oct. 30, 19743 June 22, 1972 ........... Jur
Nicaragua ------------ Mar. 29, 1972 --------------------------- ---------- Ap
Niger -------------- May 24, 1972 Sept. 1, 1972 --------- ...... ..- ------
Norway ---------------- Mar. 29, 1972 -------------- Mar. 29, 1972 ..... ........ Ma
Oman -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ju
Pakistan ------------ Aug. 10, 1972 Apr. 4, 1973 July 7, 1972 May 29, 1973 Jul
Panama -----------------------June 5, 1974 ---------- -...... .. .Ma
Peru. --------------- Apr. 10, 1972 -------------------------... ... ... ..........
Philippines ------------ Aug. 22, 1972 --------------------------------- ----------
See footnotes at end of table.


ir.
r.
)r.



y
ar.


29, 1972
20, 1972
5,1972
30, 1972
29, 1972
13, 1972
29, 1972


r. 28, 1972
ir. 29, 1972
r. 19, 1972

ne 6, 1972


ar.
g.


Oct. 9,1973




Mar. 9,1973
May 16, 1972






May 15, 1973

"Apr. 1,1977


29, 1972
8, 1972


tr. 29, 1972
--d o ... ..
--do .. .....
- -d o - - -- -
r. 14, 1972


ir. 29,
ne 20,
r. 29,
--do _
r. 27


ir. 29, 1972
--do-
r. 4, 1972
r. 29, 1972
ne 19, 1972
r. 11, 1972


ri.
ne
y
r.


29, 1972
23, 1972
6,1972
29, 1972


May 4, 1977


Dec. 27, 1972

4June 29, 1972



Oct. 30, 1972
Apr. 25, 1973


Apr. 8, 1974
Sept. 14, 1972

4Oct. 30, 1974



Apr. 10, 1973







68

THE SPACE LIABILITY CON'VfNTON-ntinued


Washington


Country


Signature Ratifation


Poland ..... ..... ..... Mar. 29, 1972
Romania do-
Rwanda .. ................
Seneial. Apr. 14, 1972
Sierra Leone.. July 17, 1972
S ngapore July 19, 1972
Spa n.. Mar. 29, 1972
South Af ca__ do -..
Sw terland do-
Tannia ..a May 31, 1972
To o .... .. .. .. Apr. 10, 1972
Tunisia Mar. 29, 1972
Ukrain an Soviet Socialist
Republ c.
U.S.S.R. Mar. 29, 1972
United Kingdom ------------ do ...
Venezuela ........ ....... do...
Zaire ........... ... ... do


Mosco~


Signature


Jan. 25, 1973 Mar. 29, 1972 Jan.
do,
do. .
Mar. 26, 1975
July 14, 1972
Aug. 19, 1975 July 19, 1972


Jan. 22, 1974 Mar. 29, 1972 -------
Apr. 26, 1976
May 18, 1973 Apr. 3, 1972 May 30, 1973
....... Mar. 29, 1972 Oct. 16, 1973

Oct. 9, 1973 ...do .__.. Oct. 9, 1973
...... . do .....
Aug 1. 1978 --Apr--4,-197-
.... .... .... A pr, 4, 1972 . ... . .


London,
Ratification Signature Ratificati

25, 1973 Mar. 29, 1972 Jan. Z 1973


July 19, 1972

Mar. 29, 1972

Apr. 6, 1972


June 6, 1973


Mar. 29, 1972 Oct. 9, 1973
... do. Do.


Accession Accession Accession


Iraq -------------------------
F ill _ --i- -- -
Sri Lanka ---------------
Zam bia --------------..
A ustralia ---------------
Canada ---------------..
Kenya ------------
Yugoslavia ....... ......
Federal Republic of
G erm any -------------------
France ---------
Sweden ----------------
Ch ile .. .................
Saudi Arabia ------------
Uruguay ..............
Israe l ----------- ------
Seychelles ...................
Malta ....................


Apr. 4, 1973
Apr. 9, 1973
Aug. 20, 1973
Jan. 20, 1975
Feb. 20, 1975 3
Sept. 25, 1975
Oct. 20, 1975
Dec. 18, 1975 4
Dec. 31, 1975
June 15, 19763
Dec. 1, 1976
Dec. 17, 1976
Jan. 7, 1977
June 21, 1977


---- Oct. 4, 1972
May 14, 1973
Apr. 9, 1973
Aug. 21. 1973


May 4, 1973
May 3, 1973
Aug. 28, 1973
Jan. 20, 1975
Feb. 20, 19758


June 23, 1977


- -. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. - - -. j a n 5 19 78
- - - --.-. - - - - - - - - - -. -. -. .. .. J a n 1 3 19 7 8


IThe listings for signings in Moscow and London are ba;ed upon official reports received by the Department of State.
IThe United States considers this Republic as already covered by the signature affixed to the treaty by the U.S.S.R.
3 With declaration.
, With statement.












CONVENTION ON THE REGISTRATION OF OBJECTS
LAUNCHED INTO OUTER SPACE

CONTENTS


Page
Article I-Definition of "launching state," "space object" and "state of
registry"-71
Article II-Registration procedure................. 72
Article III-Maintenance of the Register.--------------------------- 72
Article IY-Required information registered, additional information, and
notification of space objects no longer in Earth orbit- -----------------72
Article V-Notification of the designator or registration number -- 73
Article VI-Identification of a space object which has caused damage .... 73
Article VII-Application of the Convention's provisions to international
intergovernmental organizations which conduct space activities______ 73
Article VIII-Signature, ratification, entry into force --------------------73
Article IX-Amendments_-74
Article X-Review of the Convention ---------------------------------74
Article XI-Withdrawal-74
Article XII-Depositary_-74
(69)














CONVENTION ON REGISTRATION OF OBJECTS LAUNCIIED INTO OUTER
SPACE

TIe States Parties to tTi is CorYit;on,.
Ptceognizig the common interest of all mankind in fuirthering the
exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,
l calling that the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of
States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, iliH(lil the Moon
and Other Celestial Bodies of '27 January 1967 afirims that States Shall
bear international responsibility for their national activities in outer
space and refers to the State on whose registry an object launched
into outer space is carried,
flecauling al&.so that the Agreement on the Rescue of Adtronauts. the
Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launclied into ()uter
Space of 22 April 1968 provi(les that a launching authority shall. upon
request, furnish identifying data prior to the return of an ol)ject it has
launched into outer space found beyond the territorial limits of the
launching authority.
IRecallinq f1irtlwt' that the Convention on International Liability for
Damage Caused by Space Objects of 2) March 1972 establishes inter-
national rules and procedures concerning the liabilit of launching
States for damage caused by their Zpace objects.
Desiring. in the light of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Ac-
tivities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space. includ-
ing the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, to make provision for tle
national registration by launching States of space objects launched into
outer space,
Desiring further that a central register of objects amiehed into
outer space be established and maintained, on a mandatory basis, by
the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Desirivg al.so to provide for States Parties additional means and
procedures to assist in the identification of space objects,
Beliering that a mandatory system of registering objects launched
into outer space would, in articular. assist in their identification and
would contribute to the application and development of international
law governing tle exploration and use of outer space,
flare agreed on the following:

ARTICLE I
For the purposes of this Convention:
(a) The term "launching State" means:
(i) A State which launches or procures the launching of a
space object;
(ii) A State from whose territory or facility a space object
is launched:
(b) The term "space object" includes component parts of a space
object as well as its launch vehicle and parts thereof;


k71)





72


(c) The tern "State of registry" means a launching State on
-whose registry a space object is carried in accordance with article
II.
A CRTWE II
1. Wh3len a space object is launched into orbit or beyond, the launch-
ing State shall register the space object by means of an entry in an
apj)ropriatc registry which it shall maintain. Each launching State
shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the es-
tablishinent of such a registry.
2. Where there are two or more launching States in respect of any
such space object, they shall jointly determine which one of them
shall register the object in accordance with paragraph 1 of this ar-
ticle, learii in mind t he provisions of article VIII of the Treaty
on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration
and U e of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial
Bodies, and without prejudice to appropriate agreements concluded
or to be concluded among the launching States on jurisdiction and
contr ol over the space object and over any personnel thereof.
3. The contents of each registry and the conditions under which it
is maintained shall be determined by the State of registry concerned.
ARTICLE III
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall maintain a
R ter',-'c in which the information furnished in accordance with
article IV shall be recorded.
'2. There shall be full and open access to the information in this
Register.
ARTicLE IV
1. F:wlh State of registry shall furnish to the Secretary-General of
the United Nations, as soon as practicable, the following informa-
tion concerning each space object carried on its registry:
(a) Name of launching State or States;
(b) An appropriate desiggnator of the space object or its regis-
tration number;
(c) Date and territory or location of launch;
(d) Basic orbital parameters, including:
(i) Nodal period,
(ii;) Inclination,
(ii ;i) Apogee,
(iv) Perigee;
(e) General function of the space object.
2. ,wI State of registry may, from time to time, provide the
Secretarv-General of the U.nited Nations with additional informa-
tion concerning a space object carried on its registry.
3. Each State of registry shall notify the Secretary-General of the
United Natins, to the greatest extent feasible and as soon as prac-
ticable, of space objects concerning which it has previously trans-
mitted information, and which have been but no longer are in earth
orbit.





73


ARTICLE V
Whenever a space object launched into earth orbit or beyond is
marked with the designator or registration number referred to in arti-
cle IV, paragraph 1 (b), or both, the State of registry shall notify the
Secretary-General of this fact when submitting the information re-
garding the space object in accordance with article IV. In such case,
the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall record this notifica-
tion in the Register.
ARTICLE VI

Where the application of the provisions of this Convention has not
enabled a State Party to identify a space object which has caused dam-
age to it or to any of its natural or juridical persons, or which may be
of a hazardous or deleterious nature, other States Parties. including
in particular States possessing space monitoring and trackingr facili-
ties, shall respond to the greatest extent feasible to a request by that
State Party, or transmitted through the Secretary-Generalon its be-
half, for assistance under equitable and reasonable conditions in the
identification of the object. A State Party making such a request shall,
to the greatest extent feasible, submit information as to the time,
nature and circumstances of the events giving rise to the request. Ar-
rangements under which such assistance shall be rendered shall be the
subject of agreement between the parties concerned.

ARTICLE VI
1. In this Convention, with the exception of articles VIII to XII
inclusive, references to States shall be deenied to apply to any interna-
tional intergovernmental org-anization which conducts space activities
if the organization declares its acceptance of the rights and o'hlia-
tions provided for in this Convention and if a majority of the States
members of the organization are States Parties to this Convention and
to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the
Exploration aiid Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies.
States members of any such organization which are States Par-
ties to this Convention shall take all appropriate steps to ensure that
the organization makes a declaration in accordance with paragraph 1
of this article.
ARTICLE VIII
1. This Convention shall be open for signature by all States at
United Nations Headquarters in New York. Any State which does not
sign. this Convention before its entry into force in accordance with
paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time.
2. This Convention shall be subject to ratification by sig(matory
States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall
be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. This Convention shall enter into force amn the States whi*i
have deposited instruments of ratification on the deposit of the fifth
such instrument with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.


32-231 0 -6









I. For States wvl, instruments of rt tifiat io or acession are de-
I,,siteaI suk~se, lt to tihe elit V inlto for of the Convention, it shall
ente into force oIi the date of I he deIsit of their in1t ruInMnt of ratiti-
cat loll 1 r 01 (t'sU ll.
I. Th Sevretary -General hall promptly inform all signatory and
acceding States f th e dlate of eacl :i gnt ure, the date of deposit of
each i 1 r (nl'nt of ratiiication of and a (ceHiot to this Convention, the
da te ol it s clit rv illt o force and it(tlie r ho(t ices.

AwrI:L IX
Any State Partv to thlis (onvention Iiiay l)PO4 se aiiietidinents to
the ( ou 1 ch 0lt AI I Id eIIts hall enter III to orte for each State
art y to t ie (oIeIA\ Io(n aIccipting th aIuenhItinu upon their accept-
ance ty a 11Vjority of thre States artIeI to tlie (onventioI and there-
aft 1r ecI rehilI I I tate I'arty to ti conent ion on the date of
ac,.ej)1ta11ce by it.
ARTICLE X

Ten years a fter th e tr ry into force of this Convention, the question
of tle re, ew of tIe (iollventiol >lial 1 e Iel 1ded in the provisional
aeIa of tIe [Iited Nations General Asseuiiluy in order to consider,
in t Ie t.,il ,l I o... 'l t applhcati i o f tile ( IIi It 11ion, w e tle r it requires
reviki'n. I we Ver. a a tI tiI I after the Convent ion has (Ien in force
fI r lixe years, at the requesL of ole third of the Stales Parties to the
C(mel utioll altI witlk tlte collurrence of lie uiiajorit y of the States
Sa ,t ie-, a c(hlference Of ti States Partics -Itall be o('eoiVeid to review
tii ls ( nlVeil ll. Nicli review sha take into accotl iII parI't icular any
el (It'll 1i, de)ii1og'ca1 developjl nts, inliuing tlme relating to the
it,!eI 1iirat in of >pace o }ject s.

AnRIcrL XI
Any State Party to thlis Convent ion may rive notice of its with-
dra: wal fIoil t1w l Wovent ion one year after its entrv iito force by writ-
tell 11,t hcat ilml to Ihe 1 ,ecretwai'v-(lieral of the !iiited Nat ioIs.i Sulch
\Vi,1 I i ,av:lh shall take elect year from the date of receipt of this
iiot lica t loll.
AR"ITICLE XIT
I i origin:'] (, this Coiiventio,1n. of wh ich the Aralic. (!'inese, Fng-
jisl. I reiicli. ~I1sila~l alt Sj'Spaliifli texts aIre eually atlnt it ic, shall he
wit e Sr a th ieral of t lie I united Nat .n-, who shall
etl iied lie- thereof to all sig natory and acceding States.
Ix V',lTNr:, s Wr I I F II tlIe 1ndersigned b-eing lulv authorized
ti ieret t1 Iv t li II re ,ecti ye (Iernuints, have signed this Convention,
op'nld fo)r IgIlatlure at New York o*







75


OUTER SPACE REGISTRATION CONVENTION

Convention on registration of objects launched into outer space.
Opened for signature at New York January 14, 1975. Senate advice
and consent to ratification June 21, 1976. Instrument of ratification
signed by the President July 24, 1976.
Proclaimed by the President January 18, 1977. Ratification de-
posited September 15, 1976 (TIAS 8467.) Entered into force September
15, 1976.
Totals as of December 1, 1978:1
Signatures: 27.
Ratifications: 18.
Accessions: 5.
Signatures, ratifications deposited, adherences, acceptances.
Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Entry into force-Date: September 15, 1976.
Method: On the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification (art.
VIII, 3); subsequent to entry into force of the convention, it will enter
into force for each state on deposit of instruments of ratification or
accession (art. VIII, 4).
Duration: Not stated. Parties may withdraw from the convention
one year after its entry into force by written notice to the UN Secre-
tary-General, to be effective one year from date of receipt (art. XI).


Ratification s
Countries Signatures deposited

United States -------------------------------------------------------------------- Jan. 24. 1975 Sept. 15, 1976
France ------------------------------------------------------------ Jan. 14, 1975 Dec. 17, 1975
Canada ------------------------------------------------------------ Feb. 14, 1975 Aug. 4, 1976
Belgium ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Mar. 19, 1975 Feb. 24, 1977
Argentina ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Mar. 26,1975 -
Switzerland -------------------------------------------------------------------- Apr. 14, 1975 Feb. 15, 1978
United Kingdom ----------------------------------------------------------------- May 6,1975 Mar. 30, 1978
Nicaragua ----------------------------------------------------- M ay 13, 1975 -------------
Iran ----------------------------------------------------------------------------May 27, 1975 --------- -
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ------------------------------------------------ June 17, 1975 Jan. 13, 1978
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic --------------------------------------------- June 30, 1975 Jan. 26, 1978
Ukraninian Soviet Socialist Republic ------------------------------------------------ July 11, 1975 Sept. 14, 1977
German Democratic Republic ------------------------------------------------------ Aug. 27, 1975 May 12, 1977
Austria ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Oct. 14, 1975 ....
Mongolia ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Oct. 30, 1975 -----------
Bungary --------------------------------------------------------------------- Oct. 13, 1975 Oct. 26, 1977
Burundi------------------------------------------------------Nov. 13, 1975 ....
Pakistan ------------------------------------------------------ Dec. 1, 1975 -
Poland -------------------------------------------------------Dec. 4,1975 Nov. 22, 1978
Denmark ------------------------------------------------------Dec. 12, 1975 Apr. 1,1977
Mexico ------------------------------------------------------- Dec. 19, 1975 Mar. 1,1977
Bulgaria ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Feb. 4, 1976 May 11,1976
Federal Republic of Germany ------------------------------------------------------ Mar. 2, 1976 ------------
Czechoslovakia ------------------------------------------------------------------ Apr. 5, 1976 July 26, 1977
Sweden ------------------------------------------------------------------------ June 9,1976 June 9,1976
Niger --.-. ..-------------------------------------------------------- Aug. 5, 1976 Dec. 22, 1977
Singapore ----------------------------------------------------- Aug. 31, 1976 ------------

ACCESSIONS DEPOSITED

Uruguay ---------------------------------------------------------------- Aug. 18, 1977 -------------
Seychelles ---------------------------------------------------------------- Dec. 28, 1977 ------------
Yugoslavia ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Feb. 28,1978
Cuba --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Apr. 10, 1978 -------
Cyprus -------------------------------------------------------------------------- July 6,1978 ------ ..

'Based on official reports received by the Department of State.















EXCERPTS FROM THE 1973 INTERNATIONAL TELE(OM-
MUNICATION CONVENTION AND RADIO REGULATIONS
(DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITES)

CONTENTS


Page
International Telecommunication Convention (Excerpts)
Chapter I-Composition, Purposes, and Structure.... .si
Article 10-International Frequency Registration Board, sec. 66-

Chapter III-Special Provisions for Radio8......6
Article 33-Rational Use of the Frequency Spectrum and of the
Geostationary Satellite Orbit, sec. 131-132- -------6
Radio Regulations (Sections Pertaining to the Use of Direct Broad-
casting Satellites)- --- .8
Article 1-Terms and Definitions ........88
Section I-General Terms --
2. Telecommunication .
Section II-Radio Systems, Services and Stations S9....89
21A Space Station-----------------------------------S9
21B Earth Station-90
21C Space Radiocommunication -------------------- 90
Section IIA-Space Systems, Services and Stations 91
84AF-Space System--------------------------------91
84AFA- Satellite System ----------------------- 92
84AFB-Satellite Network 92
84AFC-Satellite Link ----------------------- 92
84AP-Broadcasting-Satellite Service-------. 93
84APA-Individual Reception-93
84APB-Community Reception (in the broadcasting
service)-- - - - -- - - - -93
Table: MHz 470-942 Allocation to Services, sec. 790-890;
Note: 332A 94
Table: MHz 2450-2655, Allocation to Services; 2500-2655 96
Table: MHz 2655-2700, Allocation to Services 2655-2690;
Note: 364H_-97
Table: GHz 10.7-12.5, Allocation to Services, 11.7-12.5:
Notes: 405BA, 405BB, 405BC---------------------- 99
Table: GHz 40-58.2, Allocation to Services 41-43 ... 101
Table: GHz 58.2-92, Allocation to Services, 84-86 .. 102
Section IA-Broadcasting-Satellite Service -.. .. 103
Section IX-Space Radiocommunicat ions Services- 104
Cessation of Emissions, 470V- 104
Control of Interference between Geostationary-Sat-
ellite Systems and non-synchronous inclined
Orbit-Satellite Systems, 470 VA_ ...............105
Station Keeping of Space Stations 470VB-470VE 105
Pointing Accuracy of Antennae on Geostationary Sat-
ellites 470VF-------------------------------------106
Resolution No. Spa 2-2 Relating to the Establishment of
Agreement and Associated Plans for the Broadcasting-
Satellite Service_-135
Resolution No. Spa 2-3 Relating to the Bringing into Use of
Space Stations in the Broadcasting-Satellite Service, prior
to the Entry into Force of Agreements and Associated
Plans for the Broadcasting-Satellite Service --------------137
(77)






78

International Telecommunication Convention (Excerpts)-Coltilued
IRadio Regulations, etc. ('ont inuedt
Article I -Teras and I)eiinitiors ('outinued
Resolution No. Spa 2-3 etc. (ontiiued
Section A 1110(oordination Procedure between Space Sta-
tions in the Broadcasting-Satellte Ser Ice and Terres-
trial S tatilons 138
Section B Coordination Procedure between Space Sta-
tions in the Broadcasting-Satllite Service and Space
Systenis of other Administrations 139
S(ctilun C Notification, Examninatin, Recording in the
Master ltegister of Assignients to Space Sta tios In
the ir 'adcai~t ing-Satellte Scrvice dealt with under
this Rcsolution- ..140










INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION CONVENTION AND RADIO
REGULATIONS
The following pages contain extracts from the International Tele-
communication Convention and from the Radio Regulations appended
thereto. These documents possess full treaty status, having been
submitted to the Senate for advice and consent to ratification and
having been ratified by the President.
In their entirety, these documents constitute U.S. commitments in
varying degrees to all aspects of international telecommunications.
The extract of the Convention serves to indicate briefly the scope of
that commitment. The extracts of the radio regulations presented here
consist only of those pages containing material directly affecting con-
siderations with regard to the use of direct broadcasting satellites
(which has been side lined for clarity). It must be emphasized that the
radio regulations also contain much larger quantities of material af-
fecting all other forms of space telecommunications applications, and
even greater quantities of material affecting telecommunications using
other than space techniques. For the balance of this information,
the reader is urged to consult the documents in their original form.
They are far too voluminous to reproduce here in their entirety.
In 1977 the United States participated with other members of
the International Telecommunication Union in the World Broad-
casting Satellite Administrative Radio Conference in Geneva. The
Final Acts of that Conference which involve the use of only the fre-
quency bands 11.7-12.2 GHz (Regions 2 and 3) and 11.7-12.5 GHz
(Region 1) will come into force on January 1, 1979. As of adjournment
of the 95th Congress sine die (October 15, 1978) these Final Acts
had not been submitted to the Senate for advice and consent to
ratification. The interested reader is urged to consult the Final Acts
as they are also too voluminous to reproduce here.
(79)














INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION
CONVENTION


FIRST PART

BASIC PROVISIONS


Preamble

1 While fully recognizing the sovereign right of each country to regulate
its telecommunication, the plenipotentiaries of the Contracting Governments,
with the object of facilitating relations and cooperation between the peoples
by means of efficient telecommunication services, have agreed to establish
this Convention which is the basic instrument of the International Tele-
communication Union.



CHAPTER I

Composition, Purposes and Structure of the Union

ARTICLE 1
Composition of the Union

2 1. The International Telecommunication Union shall comprise Members
which, having regard to the principle of universality and the desirability of
universal participation in the Union, shall be:
3 a) any country listed in Annex 1 which signs and ratifies, or accedes to,
the Convention;


(81)








C.I-4 -


4 b) any poultry, not listed in Annex 1, which becomes a Member of
the United Nations and which accedes to thc Convention in accor-
dance with Article 46 ;
5 c) any sovereign country, not listed in Annex I and not a Member of
the United Natioiis, which applies for Membership of the Union
and whidh, atIer havig sc ured approval of suh application by
two-third's of the Members of ti Union, accedes to the Convention
in accordance with Article 46.
6 2. For the purpose of 5, if an application for Membership is made,
by diplomatic channel and through the intermediary ot the country of the
seat of the Union, during the interval bctwccn two Plcnipotentiary Cofer-
ences, the Secretarv-Gsncral shall consult the Members of the Union: a
Member shall be deemed to have abstained if it has not replied within
four months after its opinion has been requested.


ARTICLE 2

Rights and Obligations of Members

7 1. Members of the Union shall have the rights and shall be subject to
the obligations provided for in the Convention.

8 2. Rights of Members in respect of their participation in the confer-
ences, meetings and consultations of the Union are:
a) all Members shall be entitled to participate in conferences of the
Union, shall be eligible for election to the Administrative Council
and shall have the right to nominate candidates for election to any
of the permanent organs of the Union;
9 b) each Member shall have one vote at all conferences of the Union,
at all meetings of the International Consultative Committees and,
if it is a Member of the Administrative Council, at all sessions of
that Council;
10 c) each Member shall also have one vote in all consultations carried
out by correspondence.


- 2





S3


-3-- C. 1- 11


ARTICLE 3

Seat of the Union

11 The seat of the Union shall be at Geneva.


ARTICLE 4
Purposes of the Union

12 1. The purposes of the Union are:
a) to maintain and extend international cooperation for the improve-
ment and rational use of telecommunications of all kinds;
13 b) to promote the development of technical facilities and their most
efficient operation with a view to improving the efficiency of tele-
communications services, increasing their usefulness and making them,
so far as possible, generally available to the public;
14 c) to harmonize the actions of nations in the attainment of those ends.

15 2. To this end, the Union shall in particular:
a) effect allocation of the radio frequency spectrum and registration of
radio frequency assignments in order to avoid harmful interference
between radio stations of different countries;
16 b) coordinate efforts to eliminate harmful interference between radio
stations of different countries and to improve the use made of the
radio frequency spectrum;
17 c) coordinate efforts with a view to harmonizing the development
of telecommunications facilities, notably those using space techni-
ques, with a view to full advantage being taken of their possibilities;
18 d) foster collaboration among its Members with a view to the establish-
ment of rates at levels as low as possible consistent with an efficient
service and taking into account the necessity for maintaining indepen-
dent financial administration of telecommunication on a sound basis;








C1 19


19 e) foster the creation, k1velopment and improvement of telecommuni-
cation equment a networks in developing countries by every
means at its disposal, esl-ccially its part icipation in the app;'opriatc
prograrumes of the United Nations;
20 ) promote the adoption of measures for ensuuiIg the safety of life
through the cooperation of tcecommu1nication scr% icCs;
21 g) undertake studies, imke regulations, adopt resolutions, formulate re-
co nnkIIdationls and opinions, and collect and publish information con-
cerning telecom municat ion matters.


ARTICLE 5

Structure of the Union

22 The Union shall comprise the following organs:
1. the Plenipotentiary Conference, which is the supreme organ of, the
Union;
23 2. administrative conferences;
24 3. the Administrative Council;
25 4. the permanent organs of the Union, which are:
a) the General Secretariat;
26 b) the International Frequency Registration Board (I.F.R.L.);
27 c) the International Radio Consultative Committee (C.C.I.R.);
28 d) the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee
(C.C.I.T.T.).


ARTICLE 6

Plenipotentiary Conference

29 1. The Plenipotentiary Conference shall be composed of delegations
representing Members. It shall be convened at regular intervals and
normally every five years.


- 4 -





85


-9- C.I 63


ARTICLE 10

International Frequency Registration Board

63 1. The International F1equency Registration Board (I.F.R.B.) shall
consist of five independent members, elected by the Plenipotentiary
Conference. These members shall be elected from the candidates sponsored
by countries, Members of the Union, in such a way as to ensure equitable
distribution amongst the regions of the world. Each Mmenber of the Union
may propose only one candidate who shall be a national of its country.

64 2. The members of the International Frequency Registration Board shall
serve, not as representing their respective countries, or of a region, but
as custodians of an international public trust.

65 3. The essential duties of the International Frequency Registration
Board shall be:
a) to effect an orderly recording of frequency assigniiients made by the
different countries so as to establish, in accordance with the pro-
cedure provided for in the Radio Regulations and in accordance with
any decision which may be taken by competent conferences of t'he
Union, the date, purpose and technical characteristics of each of
these assignments, with a view to ensuring formal international
recognition thereof;
66 b) to effect, in the same conditions and for the same purpose, an
orderly recording of the positions assigned by countries to geo-
stationary satellites;
67 c) to furnish advice to Members with a view to the operation of the
maximum practicable number of radio channels in those portions of
the spectrum where harmful interference may occur, and with a view
to the equitable, effective and economical use of the geostationary
satellite orbit;
68 d) to perform any additional duties, concerned with the assignment
and utilization of frequencies and with the utilization of the geo-
stationary satellite orbit, in accordance with the procedures provided
for in the Radio Regulations, and as prescribed by a competent





SG


C. I 129 20--

conflict with the terms of this Cojnvcntion or of the Administrative Regu-
lations annexed thereto, so far as concerns the harmful inierference which
their operation might be likely to cause to the radio services of other
countries.


ARTICLE 32

Regional C.., '." ,:ices, Arrangements
and Organizations

129 Members reserve the right to convene regional conferences, to make
regional arrangements and to form regional organizations, for the purpose
of settling telecommunication questions which are susceptible of being
treated on a regional basis. Such arrangements shall not be in conflict with
this Convention.




CHAPTER III

Special Provisions for Radio


ARTICLE 33

Rational Use of the Radio Frequency Spectrum and of the Geostationary
Satellite Orbit

130 1. Members shall endeavour to limit tie number of frequencies and the
spectrum space used to the minimum essential to provide in a satisfactory
manner the necessary services. To that end they shall endeavour to apply
the latest technical advances as soon as possible.
131 2. In using frequency bands for space radio services Members shall bear
in mind that radio frequencies and the geostationary satellite orbit are limited
natural resources, that they must be used efficiently and economically so





87


-21- C. 1 132

that countries or groups of countries may have equitable access to both in
conformity with the provisions of the Radio Regulations according to their
needs and the technical facilities at their disposal.


ARTICLE 34

Intercommunication

2 1. Stations performing radiocommunication in the mobile service shall
be bound, within the limits of their normal employment, to exchange radio-
communications reciprocally without distinction as to the radio system
adopted by them.
!53 2. Nevertheless, in order not to impede scientific progress, the provisions
of 132 shall not prevent the use of a radio system incapable of communi-
cating with other systems, provided that such incapacity is due to the
specific nature of such system and is not the result of devices adopted
solely with the object of preventing intercommunication.
44 3. Notwithstanding the provisions of 132, a station may be assigned
to a restricted international service of telecommunication, determined by the
purpose of such service, or by other circumstances independent of the
system used.

ARTICLE 35

Harmful Interference

35 1. All stations, whatever their purpose, must be established and operated
in such a manner as not to cause harmful interference to the radio services
or communications of other Members or of recognized private operating agen-
cies, or of other duly authorized operating agencies which carry on radio
service, and which operate in accordance with the provisions of the Radio
Regulations.
6 2. Each Member undertakes to require the private operating agencies
which it recognizes and the other operating agencies duly authorized for
this purpose, to observe the provisions of 135.









RDI0 RJLAT I0NS
Extracts consist of only those pages containing
material directly affecting considerations Ith RRI-l
regard to the use of direct broadcasting satellites.

CHAPTER I
Terminology


ARTICLE I
Terms and Definitions
Preamble

1 For the purposes of these Regulations. the following terms shall
have the meanings defined below. These terms and definitions do
not, however, necessarily apply for other purposes.

Section 1. General Terms

2 Telecommunication: Any transmission, emission or reception
of signs, signals, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any
nature by wire, radio, visual or other electromagnetic systems.
3 General Network of Telecommunication Channels: The
Mar2 whole of the existing telecommunication channels open to public cor-
respondence. with the exception of the telecommunication channels of
the mobile service, of the maritime mobile-satellite service and of the
fixed-satellite service when used for connection between one or more
earth stations and a satellite used for the maritime mobile-satellite
service.

4 Simplex Operation: Operating method in which transmission is
made possible alternately in each direction, for example, by means
of manual control.'
5 Duplex Operation: Operating method in which transmission is
possible simultaneously in both directions.'
6 Semi-duplex Operation: Operating method which is simplex at
one end of the circuit and duplex at the other.'

4.1
s. i In general, duplex and semi-duplex operation require two frequencies in radio-
6.1 communication; simplex may use either one or two.


S








RR1-3


its route over the radiocommunication channels of the maritime mobile
service or the maritime mobile-satellite service.

15 Telemetering: The use of telecommunication for automatically
indicating or recording measurements at a distance from the
measuring instrument.

16 Radiotelenietering "Telenetering by means of radio waves

17 Telephony: A system of telecommunication set up for the
transmission of speech or, in some cases, other sounds.

18 Radiotelephone Call: A telephone call. originaing in or in-
Mar2 tended for a mobile station or a mobile earth station in the maritime
mobile-satellite service, transmitted on all or part of its route o,,er the
radiocommunication channels of a mobile service or of the maritime
mobile-satellite service.

19 Television : A system of telecommunication for th transmission
of transient images of fixed or moving objects.

20 Facsimile: A system of telecommunication for the transmission
of fixed images, with or without half-tones, with a view to their
reproduction in a permanent form.


Section 11. Radio Systems, Serveces and Stations


21 Station : One or more transmitters or receivers or a combination
of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment,
necessary at one location for carrying on a radiocommunication
service. Each station shall be classified by the service in which it
operates permanently or temporarily.
21A Space Station
Spa2 A station located on an object which is beyond, is intended
to go beyond, or has been beyond, the major portion of the Earth's
atmosphere.


32-231 ( 79 7









RR1-4


21B Earth Station
Sps2
A station located either on the Earth's surface or within

the major portion of the Earth's atmosphere intended for communi-
cation:
with one or more space stations; or
with one or more stations of the same kind by means
of one or more passive satellites or other objects in
space.

21C Space Radiocommunication
Any radiocommunication involving the use of one or more

space stations or the use of one or more passive satellites or other
objects in space.
21D Terrestrial Radiocommunicat ion'
SP2 Any radiocommunication other than space radiocom-
munication or radio astronomy.

21E Terrestrial Station 2
SP82 A station effecting terrestrial radiocommunication.

22 Fixed Service: A service of radiocommunication between
specified fixed points.

23 Fixed Station : A station in the fixed service.

24 Aeronautical Fixed Service: A fixed service intended for the
transmission of information relating to air navigation, preparation
for and safety of flight.

2 Aeronautical Fixed Station : A station in the aeronautical fixed
service.


21D.I in these Regulations, unless otherwise stated, any radiocommunication
Spe2 service relates to terrestrial radiocommunication.
21 E.I I In these Regulations, unless otherwise stated, any station is a terrestrial
Spie2 station.


90