The number of Federal employees engaged in regulatory activities

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The number of Federal employees engaged in regulatory activities staff paper
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ix, 16 p. : ; 24 cm.
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English
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United States -- Congressional Budget Office
United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. -- Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations
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Independent regulatory commissions -- United States   ( lcsh )
Officials and employees -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
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CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 76 H502-36
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At head of title: Subcommittee print.
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Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, by the Congressional Budget Office, August 1976.

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University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Summary
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    Chapter 1. Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Chapter 2. Survey results
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Chapter 3. Budgetary costs of regulation
        Page 8
    Appendix A. Analytical approach
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Appendix B. Manpower documentation
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Appendix C. Budgetary cost documentation
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text
\ 1~ ~-


SUBCOMMITTEE PRINT]


THE NUMBER OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES
ENGAGED IN REGULATORY ACTIVITIES




STAFF PAPER

PREPARED FOR TIHE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT
AND INVESTIGATIONS

OF TIHE

COMMITTEE ON INTERSTATE AND
FOREIGN COMMERCE
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

BY THE

CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE


AUGUST 1976


U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1976


78-740
















COMMITTEE ON INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE


HARLEY 0. STAGGERS, West Virginia, Chairman


JOHN E. MOSS, California
JOHN D. DINGELL, Mlichigan
PAUL G. ROGERS, Florida
LIONEL VAN DEERLIN, California
FRED B. ROONEY, Peiiisy.vlvania
JOHN M. MURPHY, New York
DAVID E. SATTERFIELD III, Virginia
BROCK ADAMS, Washington
W. S. (BILL) ST UCKEY, JR., Georgia
BOB ECKHARDT, Texas
RICHARDSON PREYER, North Carolina
JAMES W. SYMINGTON, Missouri
CHARLES J. CARNEY, Ohio
RALPH H. METCALFE, Illinois
GOODLOE E. BYRON, Maryland
JAMES H. SCHEUER, New York
RICHARD L. OTTINGER, New York
HENRY A. WAXMAN, California
ROBERT (BOB) KRUEGER, Texas
TIMOTHY E. WIRTH, Colorado
PHILIP R. SHARP, Indiana
WILLIAM M. BRODHEAD, Michigan
JAMES J. FLORIO, New Jersey
ANTHONY TOBY MOFFETT, Connecticut
JIM SANTINI, Nevada
ANDREW MAGUIRE, New Jersey
MARTIN A. RUSSO, Illinois


SAMUEL L. DEVINE, Ohio
JAMES T. BROYHILL, North Carolina
TIM LEE CARTER, Kentucky
CLARENCE J. BROWN, Ohio
JOE SKUBITZ, Kansas
JAMES M. COLLINS, Texas
LOUIS FREY, JR., Florida
JOHN Y. McCOLLISTER, Nebraska
NORMAN F. LENT, New York
H. JOHN IIE INZ III, Pennsylvania
EDWARD R. MADIGAN, Illinois
CARLOS J. MOO RILEAD, California
MATTHEW J. RINALDO, New Jersz'y
W. HENSON MOORE, Louisiana


W. E. WILLIAMSON, Clerk
KENNETH J. PAINTER, Assistant Clerk



SUBCOMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT AND INVESTIGATIONS

SJOHN E. MOSS, California, Chairman


%. .^ I I f I
RICIIHARD L: OTTING ER, New York
ROBERT (BOB) KRUEGER, Tuxas
.'ANTHONY TOBY MOFFETT, Connecticut
JIM SANTINI, Nevada
W. 9. (BILL) STUCKEY, J., Georgia
. JAMDS It. SCHEUER, New York
HENRY A. WAXMAN, California
IPHIILIP R. SHARP, Indiana
ANDREW MAGUIRE, New Jersey
HARLIY 0. STAat(ERS, West Virginia
(Ex Oliclo) )


JAMES M. COLLINS, Texas
NORMAN F. LENT, New York
MATTHEW J. RINALDO, New Jersey
W. HIENSON MOORE, Louisiana
SAMUEL L. DEVINE, Ohio (Ex Officio)


" MICHAEL R. LEMOV, Chief Counsel
THOMAS G RENE, Counsel to the Chairman
JAMES NEI.I.I'.%N, Op.ratior.s Director
FRANCES WHITE, Deputy Chitf Counsel
LOWELL DODGE, qpt cial Counsel
KIRK C. SMITH, Spcciol Assistant


(II)











LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


CONGRESS OF THE UNITED) STATES,
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON OVERSIGHT AND INVESTIGATIONS,
COMMITTEE ON INTERSTATE AND) FOREIGN COMMERCE,
Wa.hhington, D.C., August 16, 1976.
Hon. HARLEY 0. STAGGERS,
Chairman, Co(mtmi fhC on 1hv ristate and Foreign Conm enrce,
U.S. Housc of IMprc.'-'Whi't.t', Washington, D.C.
Di:.Akit Mi. CIAIIM.x: I ami transmnitting herewith a Cori re,-ional
Budget Office (CBO) Report entitled "Estimate of the Number of
Federal Employees Enggaged in Regulatory Activiti(es." The CBO
Study, cond(uctd(l for the Subcommittee at my request, conclu(des-
"''Under a refined definition to determine positions more directly re-
lated to regulation by excluding program support positions not directly
involved in regulation, the estimate of the number of Federal regula-
tors would be 84,773." Even when the CBO adds 7,399 positions not
directly related to regulation such as public information, con-ulrner
education, legislative liaison, and re-earch, the total still falls signifi-
cantly short of recent claims that there are over 100,000 regulators
employed by the Federal Government.
The 84,773 figure is small compared to the total number of Federald
workers. 4,561,400 persons are employed by the Federal Government,
according to the President's proposed 1977 budget. Thus, about 2%c
of all Federal workers are directly, but not exclusively, involved in
regulation. Approximately, 45% of all Federal workers are in military
uniform. The 84,773 figure is also small when compared to persons
employed by one of America's leading manufacturers, General
Motors, which now hias 756,000 persons on its payroll.
The CBO recognizes that there "is no single accepted definition of
what constitutes regulation by the Federal Government." To deter-
mine a reasonable basis for identifying Federal employees engaged in
regulatory activities, the CBO started with its broadest definition by
including activities which:
Impact [on] the operating business environment of broad
sectors of private enterprise, including market entry and exit;
rate, price, and profit structures; and competition;
Impact [on] specific commodities, products, or services through
permit, certification, or licensing requirements; and
Involve tlie development, administration, and enforcement of
national standards, violations of which could result in civil or
criminal penalties, or which result in the types of impact described
above.
The report calls this "the CBO general definition." For a more refined
definition, the CBO excluded support positions not directly related to
regulation. The positions excluded are those of persons engaged
(III)







primarily in: (1) public information, consumer education, legislative
matters, complaint processing, business and consumer advice or
assistance, and research; and (2) data gathering and economic analysis
functions not directly and primarily related to regulatory activity.
There were thirty-three departments and agencies which fell within
the scope of the CBO general definition. MIost of the Federal regulators
were found in Executive Departments (63%) and the remainder in
independent regulatory agencies (37%).
In terms of the types of regulatory activities under the CBO general
definition, the four categories and their percentages of the total are:
Percent
Economic regulation of commerce, transportation, agriculture, and
comimunications------------------------------------------------- 17
Health, safety, and environmental and consumer protection regulation--- 58
Regulation of banking and financial activities------------------------- 14
Employment and civil rights regulation------------------------------ 11
Total---------------------------------------------------- 100
As you know, throughout the past year, the Subcommittee on Over-
sight and Investigations has conducted an extensive study of the need
and means for reform of the regulatory process. The subcommittee has
obtained the views from those in business, government, the academic
community, and the public at large. It has conducted hearings on nine
agencies within our jurisdiction: the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion, Federal Trade Commission, Federal Communications Commis-
sion, Federal Power Commission, Securities and Exchange Commis-
sion, Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administra-
tion, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and the
Consumer Product Safety Commission.
The subcommittee expects to complete the first of several parts of
its report on regulatory reform shortly. Towards that effort, the
Congressional Budget Office report will be of considerable value to the
subcommittee and to the Congress.
Sincerely,
JOHN E. Moss,
Cliairmnan, Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee.










SUMMARY
Back ground
Chairman John E. Moss of the Subcommittee on Over-ight and
Investigations of the House Committee on Interstate arid Foreign
Commerce requested the assistance of the Congre.-sional Budget
Office in the subcommittee's review of regulatory agencie-;. Specifically,
the Chairman asked that the CBO provide its bcet estimnate of the
number of federal employees engaged in regulatory activities.
Defining regulation
There is no single accepted definition of what constitutes regulation
by the federal government. Thile broadest definition would include all
governmental activities which somehow affect the operations of private
industry or the lives of private citizens. Such a definition would result
in the identification of most federal activities a- regulatory. Develop-
ing staffing estimates for federal agencies involves the identification of
positions needed for direct program operations.-, program support, and
administrative support. In the regulatory agencies programni support
positions include those involved in public information, consumer
education, legislative matters, complaint procesing, bu-iness and
consumer advice or assistance, and research. Al-o, there are persons
engaged in data gathering and economic analy-is- functions not
directly and primarily related to regulatory activity in agencies with
regulatory functions.
Because of the broadly varying views of what cons-titutes regulation,
the CBO analysis used a general definition which would provide a
"reasonable" ba-sis, for identifying federal employees engaged in regu-
latory activities. The CBO general definition included activities, which:
impact the operating business environment of broad sectors of
private enterprise, including market entry and exit; rate, price,
and profit structures; and competition;
impact specific commoditie>-, products, or services through
permit, certification, or liiensincr requirements; and
involve the development, administration, and enforcement of
national standards, violations of which could result in civil or
criminal penalties, or which re:.,ult in the types of impact de-
scribed above.
The CBO staffiuig tsf inmate
Thirty-three dthpartminu.s and agencies are ;ii'dlred in actbi'ites which
appear to come with in the scope of the GBO Vc ral defin ionm of regulation.
These agerncics arc de'oting :f2,172 man-years of f frt during fiscal ?car
1976 to these actiititcs. Uadcr a refined definition to detrmnile positions
more directly related to rgla'ti,, by excluding program support positions
not directly inroired in regulation, the estimate of the number of ftdtral
regulators would be 84,773.









SUMMARY OF FISCAL YEAR 1376 REGULATORY MAN-YEARS, BY AGENCY


Number
under CBO
general
definition


Department or agency


PgrIculIdre.......................................................
Commerce--.-..--.----------------------------.---------------..
Defense---..---..--------------------- --------- ----- ------ ---- ---
He3alth Education, and Welfare.- ---- --- ----------
Housing and Urban Development-----------------------------------
Interior--- --- -- -- ------- ----- -- ----
Justice--.-...- ...-- -- - - -. ...... ---- ..--------.. ------.
Labor--....--.....- ..........-- ......-.......-- ------ ..--- ..-- ..
Transportation............---..-.......--.- .....-----.--.....--
Treasury-............-..- ...----... ----- --- --------
Civ.'lI Aeronautics Board-...-..--.....-- .......--- ----- ------..-...
Commission on Civil Rights----------------------------------------
Commodity Futures Trading Commission.-......-.-- ..--....--......
Consumer Product Safety Commission-....-..---.--------..-------..
Environmental Protection Agency ---..--..-...---.------------..-..
Equal Employment Opportun.t, Commission-.---------.-----------..
Federal Communcaltions Cjmmjssion.. --_ ----------
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation....--.-------------- ---
Federal Energy Administration--- ---...- ....-....--- ..----. ...---
Federal Home Loan Bank Board--------.....-- .-- ...------.-------.
Federal Maritime Coma mission -...-. ...---- ...-------------------.-
Federal Power Commission..--.-................---------------.-..
Federal Reserve Board-..------------------------------------------
Federal Trade Commission-.---..---.-----.----------------------.-
Interstate Commerce Commission.---..........-.....--.--.---.--..
National Credit Union Administration...............---..-....---.--
NatiJonal Labor Relations Board--------------------------------
National Meoi.,tion Board-------..... ---- .......----- --------------
flational Transportation Safetj Board ..---.-----------------
Nuclear Regulatory Commission--...-....---...-----------....---------
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.....---------
Postal Rate Commission..--.....-......--------------------
Securities and Exchange Commission --....------------------------


Total ------------------------------------------------


20,470
2,260
789
8,023
166
3,561
1,161
7,055
9 317
5, 028
708
302
450
935
6,938
2,584
2,018
3,265
1,824
1,205
321
1,398
277
1,678
2,142
602
2,570
105
386
2,335
179
90
2,030


92,172


Number
excluding
program
support
positions


2, 532
---------"g--
789
84
602
287
29
12
12
65
2,029
22
173
19
127
62
11
14
203
9
13
11
--------------
6
179
5
1
53


7,399


Total 1

17,888
2,260
789
7,234
166
3, 477
1, 161
6,453
9,030
5,028
679
290
438
870
4,909
2,562
1,845
3,246
1,697
1,143
310
1,384
277
1,475
2,133
589
2,559
105
380
2,156
174
89
1,977


84,773


ICBO general definition less program support.

As shown below, more man-years are being expended in the areas of
health, safety, and environmental and consumer protection regulation
than in any of the other principal categories identified. Of the total of
92,172 man-years, 57,830 are in departments and 34,342 in independent
a, cen cies.

SwSu:,nary of fiscal yar, 1976 nian-years devoted to regulatory activities under CBO
gi ,ioral definition

Economic regullation of commerce, transportation, agriculture, and
communications---------------------------------------------- 15, 422
Health, ;nfety, and environmental and consumer protection regulation-_ 53, 729
RPe.ulation of Ibanking and financial activities------------------------13, 193
Employment and civil rights regultion------------------------ 9, 828

Total------------------------------------- 92, 172

The CBO budgetary cost estimate
The fiscal year 1976 estimated budgetary cost of the activities
covered by the CBO general definition of regulation is $2.9 billion.
Of the $2.9 billion in outlays, $2.1 billion is associated with 7 of the
33 departments and agencies:




VII

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S i h t f>tl. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.;'
A 'I -0. 1i, r--... ..................................................... 7 15

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Digitized by the Internet Archive
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http://archive.org/details/numberoffede






























CONTENTS
Pat
Chapter I-Introduction 1------- ------ ------- 1
Chapter II-Survey Results------------------------------3
Chapter III-Budgetary Costs of Regulation---- 8-------- ------8
Appendix A-Analytical Approach---------------------- 9
Appendix B--Manpower Documentation----------------- 14
Appendix C-Budgetary Cost Documentation------------------------- 16
(IX)


75-740-76----2













THE NUMBER OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES ENGAGED IN
REGULATORY ACTIVITIES
(IIAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
The Subcommittee on Oversight an(l 1Ivestirations of thle IIoii-e
Committee onil Interstate and Foreign (Co'innerce is eai n.' in a
(regulaltory reform review of nine agencies within its jurisdictions.
Chairman John E. Moss requested the assistance of the Conlgrl'-sioal
Budget Office (CBO0) in developing information for thie Sub'ommnittee.
Spec(ificalliy, the Chairmian requested CBO's best e-timiate of the num-
ber of federal employee, enga(ged(l in regulatory activities. The 're(ults of
tlhe analytical effort undertaken to develop tlhe estimate follow. A
more detailed description of the analytical approach is provided inl
Appendix A.
DEFINING REGULATION
There is no single accepted definition of what constitute, regulation
by the federal government; and definition is the critical element in
developing any staffing estimate. A "traditional" definition would
include those activities which impact major aspects of private enter-
prise operations, such as market entry and exit; rate, price, and profit
structures; and competitive environment. This definition would-at
a minimum-cover the oldest and some of the best known independent
regulatory agencies; e.g., the Interstate Commerce Commission,
Federal Tira(le Comni.nion, Federal Communications Commission,
Federal Power Conmmi.sion, and the Securities and Exctange Com-
missi.-on. Many activities of the federal government in the areas of
health, safety, environmental and consumer protection, and employ-
mnent standards have significant regulatory impact on private enter-
prise operations. The broadest definition of federal regulation would
include all governmental activities which somehow affect the opeira-
tions of private industry or the lives of private citizens. Such a defini-
tion would result in the identification of most federal activities as
regulatory.
CBO GENERAL DEFINITION OF REGULATION
Because of the broadly varying views of what constitute' regulation,
the CBO analysis used a general definition which would provide a
"reasonable" basis for identifying federal employees ern,,utd inl
regulatory activities. The CBO general definition included activities
which-
Impact on the operating buiines environment of broad sectors
of private enterprise, including market entry and exit; rate, price,
and profit structures; and competition;
(1)







Impact on specific commodities, products, or services through
permit, certification, or licensing requirements; and
Involve the development, administration, and enforcement of
national standards, violations of which could result in civil or
criminal penalties, or which result in the types of impact described
above.
There are other activities found in several agencies which are
difficult to categorize as regulatory, nonregulatory, or something in
between. The CBO estimate would be much higher if staffing for
these activities were included. A description of these "borderline"
activities is included in the chapter on survey results.
The scope of the definition did not include certain major govern-
mental program areas: national defense and foreign policy activities;
law enforcement activities; revenue collection activities (e.g., the
Internal Revenue Service); the internal management of the federal
government (e.g., the Civil Service Commission); and economic policy














CHAPTER II
SURVEY RESULTS
OVERVIEW

Thirty-three departments and agencies are involved in activities
which appear to come within the scope of the CBO general definition
of regulation. These agencies are devoting 92,172 man-years of effort
during fiscal year 1976 to thee activities. As shown below, more man-
years are being expended in the areas of health, safety, and environ-
mental and consumer protection regulation than in any of the other
principal categories identified. Of the total of 92,172 man-years,
57,830 are in departments and 34,342 are in independent agencies.
Summary of fiscal year 1976 nain-'iears drro, d to regulatory acliv'ities under CBO
g( neral deficit lion
Economic regulation of commerce, transportation, agriculture, and
communications ----------------------------------------------15, 422
Health, safety, and environmental and consumer protection regulation 53, 729
Regula.ition of banking and financial activities---------------------13, 193
Employment and Civil Rights Regulation--------------_ 9, 828
Total---------- -------------- ----------- 92, 172
A more refined definition of administrative and program support
positions identified to regulatory program activities would reduce
the estimate of 92,172 by 7,399 to 84,773. The excluded positions are
those of persons engaged primarily in: (1) public information, consumer
education, legislative matters, complaint proces-ing, business and
consumer advice or assistance, and research; and (2) data gathering
and economic analysis functions not directly and primarily related to
regulatory activity.
(3)







Exclusion of certain adminisltrative and progy'em support-tiip, positions-Numbfr of
positions in activities to be i.cchlu( d,
De p rrlimirnt or g, iiicy
Agricultureduai-- 2, 582
(XIi iiizirec

Ihealth, Educaition, and Welfare_ 789
Housing and Urbhan Development
Interior --------------------------------------- 84
.iii-ticc - - - - - - - _
Labor 602
Labport---------------------------------------------------------- 602
"lr; inT,- lportation_- - - 287
Treasury ----------------------------------
Civil Aeronautic Board------------------------------------------- 29
Commi-sion on Civil Rights--------------------------------- --- 12
Commodity Futuref- Trading Commission------ --_ 12
Consumer Product Safety Comi.ion- -----------------------65
Environmental Protection Agency ----------------------------------- 2 029
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission----------------------- 22
Federal Communications Comini.-:ion_ -------------------------------- 173
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation------------------------------- 19
Federal Energy Administration-------------------------------------- 127
Federal Home Loan Bank Board----------------------------------- 62
Federal Maritime Commission------------ ------------------------ 11
Fedi ra1 Power Commission----------------------------------------- 14
Federal Reserve Board
Federal Tradet Conmmission---------------------------------------- 203
Inter-tate Commerce Commission ---- ----- ------ 9
National Credit Union Administration_-- ----------------------- 13
National Labor relations Board------------------------------------- 11
National Mediation Board
National Transportation Sfety Board------------------------------- 6
Nuclear Regulatory Commission------------------------------------ 179
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commision-- --- --- 5
Pst:d Rate Commission ------- ----------------1
Securities and Exchange Com is-ion--------------------------------- 53

Total--------------------------------------- 7,399

ECONOMIC REGULATION OF COMMERCE, TRANSPORTATION, AGRICULTURE,
AND COMMUNICATIONS

The economic regulation of commerce, transportation, agriculture,
and communications includes market entry and exit; price, rate, and
profit structure,-; and competitive environment. In fiscal year 1976,
15,422 man-years were devoted to this category.

Fiscal y"ar 1I976 vitin-years for e'o0toilic regulation by agency
Department of Agriculture---------- ------ 3, 014
Department of Commerce---------------------------------------------- 2,260
Federal Communications Commission------------------------------- 2, 018
Federal Energy Adiiiii-tr:tion ---------------- ----------- 1,824
Federal Po\\er Commission -- -------------------1, 398
Federal Trade Commission --------------- 862
Interstate Commerce Commissio2n----- ------------------------2, 142
All others ----------------------------------------- 1, 904

Total----------------------------------------------------- 15, 422







Fi cal year 1!176 main-i-'ars fir ,ira, mi,' regulautio by a lr/i ity


:\ward of fran 'chis -<; ani (Itl h r ri lits -------- ----------....... .. .. .-. 4, 7.-':
Raite, pricc, :Li1l profit -,trict iir'..- MI;.
Antitrust. proinotin ,,f C( ,,pctition-- 1, 742
l'ini:imici;l comilition : (d roce'lurc. ------ 503
Other-_-___-_.............. ---- .. --. -----.----.... 5, 01
T ot: l : . . . .------ --.. ..---- - -- 1. 422
All of the minan-year- for the Depaiitmitient of Commnierce (2,260)
are for tle iszunce of patents (Award of Fr ancise a Othier
Riglihts). Of the Dej)artrmeniit of Agrrictilt ire's 3,014 nman-yvar-., 1,277
are for inspection, gradig, claseig, and sta ll(ard(izationl of certain
agricultural pr)m(iucts; and 844 arc for tolhacco anid )eanuLt acr- I Z('FC
allotmenti- an(d marketing quotas.
MNajor activitie-, in the independent a.encnies include:
1,127 man-years in the Federal (C'ommunitcationis C(omamuission
for licensing activities, and 455 man-years for enforcement of
rules and rigutilations relate(l to radio services.
775 man-years in lthe Fedleral Traile (Commission for activiti(-
relalte(l to aiti-trust a1(d promotion of competition.
509 ian-vears in the Federal Power (Comnmission for the i-.u-
a nee of permnits and license, for non-Federal hydroelectric power
projects and for certificates for interstate 2"rs sales and construc-
tion and operation of interstate pipeline facilities; 499 man-years
for irtumlation of rates in interstate wholesale transactions in
electric power and natural gas.
1,658 mian-years in tlhe Federal Energy Administration related
to rates and prices for crude oil, petroleum products, and other
energy ret-ources.

HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL AND CONSU-IMER PROTECTION
REGULATION

Of the 53,729 man-years devoted to health, safety, and environ-
mental and consumer protection regulation, 50,178 or 93 percent are
in :even agencies.
Fiscal year, 1976 manm-iJ ( sfir for hial/h, s,.ifeiy, .,od ri,' 0 n iio, i ,la l ,.i,, o in,,umcr
pro/cction r h]ilftion by aupiic'Y,
I)ipirtinctit of Agriculture -----------------------------------17, 456
Du';irt 'ut of Ilc-ilth, Educ.ition, and Welf8re-- 8, 023
Department of the Interior---------------------------------------- 3, 561
)Depiartment of Labor--------------------------------------------- 2, 570
D)epartmnciit of Trii ortation------------------------------------- 9, 317
Environmental Protection Ag.ncy -- --------------- 6, 985'
Nucle.ir Rgilitry Coiiiiion----------------------------------- 2,313
All oth r------------- --------- ----- ------ 3, 551
Totl-------- ---------3--------------------- 3, 729

The largest single bloc of man-year.s (11,,5)47) is expendel iii inmeat
and poultry inspection by the Department of A\,,ricultuire. Agricuiltu re
also d(levotes 4,6.8 man-yeairs to ;inim.il andl plant (i-,,ae a(nd pe-tz
control. Most of tlie ma-n,-yea r of tlie Depar tment of Hlea lth, Ed.mvi,-
tion, and(l Welfare's iegulato(ry total ,re chargeable to tlie activities, of







the Food and Drug Administration. The majority (3,134) of the
man-years for the Department of the Interior are related to mining
safety. In the Department of Labor the man-years are for occupational
safety and health activities.
The Department of Transportation devotes 5,043 man-years to
aviation safety (Federal Aviation Administration) and 2,842 man-
years to water safety (U.S. Coast Guard). The man-years for the
environmental Protection Agency do not include its construction
grants program and certain other functions not related directly to
regulatory activities.
Of the total of 53,729 man-years, the majority are devoted to public
health and safety (26,175) and consumer health and safety (12,537).
REGULATION OF BANKING AND FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES
This category includes federal chartering, insuring of deposits, and
financial oversight of banking and financial institutions, including
national banks, insured State banks, credit unions, and savings and
loan institutions. A total of 8,059 man-years are devoted to these
activities in the Federal Reserve, Federal Deposit Insurance Corpora-
tion, Federal Home Loan Bank Board, Comptroller of the Currency,
and National Credit Union Administration. The monetary policy
responsibilities of the Federal Reserves Board have been excluded.
This category also includes the Securities and Exchange Commission
(2,030 man-years), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission
(450 man-years), and activities of the Departments of the Treasury
and Labor related to employee pension plans (1,188 and 578 man-
years respectively).
EMPLOYMENT AND CIVIL RIGHTS REGULATION
This category covers governmental activities which pertain to
employment opportunity and other civil rights activities, compensa-
tion, and labor relations. A total of 9,828 man-years were devoted to
this category in fiscal year 1976. Major activities include:
3,791 man-years for employment opportunity and other civil
rights activities (Departments of Justice and Labor, Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission, and Commission on
Civil Rights).
3,534 man-years for labor relations (Department of Labor,
National Labor Relations Board, and National Mediation
Board).
2,379 man-years for the administration of federal laws per-
taining to compensation (Department of Labor).

'GRAY AREA" ACTIVITIES
FEDERAL GRANT, CONTRACT, AND ENTITLEMENT PROGRAMS
Federal programs providing assistance and transfer payments in
areas such as education, training, unemployment, health, and income
security have regulations which determine eligibility requirements
and benefit levels. Federal grantees and contractors must conform
with certain regulations as a requirement associated with doing








buine-s with the federal government. Argmiient rln b1,e made pro
and con zlboitt the "riiet.lztorv'" i'ittire of anyv of ti.'-,i, prIn,.r'LI.
These activities were not inrluddl in tlie ('B( )-.timzitv e i il-1' the
re(qliremientt, involvewl deal primiaUrily with theliv aImh,,;.,rt;,,, of
progralIs wlioue p ary obje tives are not to r,'gulIt(' private
sector operations but to achieve different public, policy goal.

CERTAIN GOVERNMENT OPERATED OR MANAGED ACTIVITIEIS:
Federal prograiml, for rnawiw-iiit, public hind, liational iark-, and
similar resources involve the Bureau of Laid Managemeniit, the oi-.-t
Service, the National Park Service, the Geological S.IIrvey, a1d(l the
Ocean Miningi Administration. The-se activities, carni imp)act private
busines- si.pDiLicaintly through the Government's control of icce-- to
the resources. involved. The programs hiave been excluded from the
('BO eltiiiiate' beca':-e their primary objective i, to manage tlhe
public domain. Also excluded are activities :uch a, the St. Lawrrence
Seaway Development Corporation, the Tenne-.(e Valley Authority,
and the Bonneville Power Adminiiitra.tion. In these proJgra .'. the
Federal Governrimtnit is operating as a bu-iieL'.-s cnterpri'-e rather than
regulating private enterprise operations.

INFORMATION GATHERING ACTIVITIES
Many Fedleral department- and agencies conduct information
gathering activities not related directly to a regulatory responsibility.
Such activities have not been included in the CBO e-timate, even
though they may place a "paperwork" requirement on an industry,
State or local government, or private individual. Trle following indi-
cates the staffing of major information gathering activities not related
to regulatory responsibilities.
Estimate, 1976, of principal Federal statistical programs-permanent positions by
agency
Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service -------------- 1, 235
Department of Cummerce:
Bureau of the Cen-us ----------- ---------------------------4, 385
Bureau of Economic Analyv-kis_---------------------------------- 517
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare:
National Center for Education Statistics------------------------- 191
National Center for Health Stat istie ----------------------------522
Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics------------------ 1, 774
Total------------------------------------------------------ 8, 24
Source: Special Analysis G; Budget of the United States Government; Fiscal Year 1977.



















CHAPTER III

BUDGETARY COSTS OF REGULATION

The fiscal year 1976 estimated budgetary cost of the activities
covered by the CBO general definition of regulation is $2.9 billion.
The estimate includes the total outlays for the independent agencies
and departinental bureaus whose entire mission is identified as regu-
latory plus an average cost of $20,000 per regulatory man-year in
other agencies. The outlay figures do not reflect offsetting receipts
from user changes.
Of the $2.9 billion in outlays, $2.1 billion is associated with 7 of
the 33 departments and agencies:
Fiscal ycar 1976 oullays for regulatory activities by agency (millions of dollars)
Department of Agriculture----------------------------------------- 500
Environmental Protection Agency----------------------------------- 444
Department of Transportation----- 402
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare----------------------- 265
Department of Labor---------------------------------------------- 226
Nuclear Regulatory Coinis.ion----- --- --- ------ 200
Department of the Treasury---------------------------------------- 102
Subtotal-------------------------------------------------- 2, 139
All others--------------------------------------715
Total -------------------------------- 2, 854










APPENDIX A


ANALYTICAL APPROACH
Four steps er, taken in developing an e-timate of the numbiei.r of
fe, -a eml)oye ellgage(1 iii re, ul tory ;itivit i'. ly were "
D)evelopminent of a working ( definition of reIglilation to lpr,,vide
a; ba-i- for i(lentifving federal employees eng nged iii r,'gulatorv
arctivitiie;
The initial identification of department ti aii( azenci, '- with
;ctivili,'. which appeared to come within the scop of the
definition:
(.ollection of staflinll data from the identifil'd departments and
iigcncio,; and
Analysis of the (Idanta.

DEFINING REGULATION
Because of the varying views of what constitute- regulation, the
('13BO a0 i.v-i used a general definition which would provide a r1eason-
able ba-i for identifying federal employees engaged in regulatory
activities. Thie (BO definition included activities which"
Impact the operating business environment of broad sectors
of private enterpri-e, including market entry and exit, rate,
price, and profit strtuctures;
Impact specific commodities, products, or services through
permit, certification, or licen-inii: requirements; and
Involve the development, ad ministration, and enforcement of
national standards, violations of which could result in civil or
criminal penalties, or which result in the tvpe.- of impact described
above.
Not considered within the -cope of the definition were certain major
governmental proarai area-:,: national defen-e and foreign pli
activities; law enforcement activities; revenue collection activities,
(e.g., Internal Revenue Service); internal management of the federal
government (e.g., the Civil Service Comnmnision); and economic
policy.
IDENTIFICATION OF REGULATORY ACTIVITI L-ES
A review of functional description- and mission statements found
in the United States Government Organization Manual, tlie Budget
of the United States, and other relevant documents- rn-,ulted in the
identification of :33 departments and agencies within the ex.eutive
branch with activities which appear to come within thle s-ope of tlhe
CBO definition of regulation ('-,e listing-r at e(l( of ap'pendlix). Ex-
cluded from the review were the Executive Olffice of 1lie Pre-ident
and certain boardl-, conmmittee-, and commi--ion-. The Ex4 cutive
Office of the Pre4ident was excluded becau-e of its prim ary role a- a
staff support organization for tlhe Pre-ident. Tlie )boar-., (,,i,: itt e -,
(9)






10


and commissions were excluded because of the absence of any meaning-
ful concentration of positions and the marginal impact of their
operations. Also excluded were advisory committees, quasi-official
agencies, multilateral organizations; and bilateral organizations.
COLLECTION OF STAFFING DATA
Staffing data for fiscal year 1976 were requested from the 33 de-
partments and agencies having identified regulatory activities. The
data were requested in terms of man-years to adjust for other than
full-time employment and for positions which are split between
regulatory and non-regulatory activities. No distinction was made
between clerical and professional positions. Administrative and
program support positions were prorated to program activities in the
compilation of data under the general definition without further
distinction as to the kinds of support positions counted.
In most cases the agencies were able to supply the information as
requested, although in some instances slight adjustments were made
due to particular budget or organizational idiosyncrasies. These
adjustments did not affect the overall results of the survey.
ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
The data submitted by the departments, and agencies were compiled
by major type of regulation (e.g., economic regulation, health and
safety, etc.) and by subcategory within major type. There were,
however, certain areas of governmental activity which were difficult
to categorize as regulatory, non-regulatory, or something in-between.
The CBO estimate would be much higher if staffing for these ac-
tivities were included. A description of these "borderline" activities
has been included in the report.

EXECUTIVE BRANCH ORGANIZATIONS WITH REGULATORY ACTIVITIES
Departments
Agriculture
Commerce
Defense (Corps of Engineers)
Health, Education, and Welfare
Housing and Urban Development
Interior
Justice
Labor
Transportation
Treasury
Independent agencies

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Civil Aeronautics Board
Commission on Civil Rights
Commodity Futures Trading Commission
Consumer Product Safety Commission
Environmental Protection Agency
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Federal Communications Commission





11


Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal Energy Administration
Federal Home Loan Bank Board
Federal Maritime Coiimission
Federal Power Comnmission
Federal Trade Commi.ssion
Interstate Commerce Commnission
National Credit Union Administration
National Labor Relations Board
National Mediation Board
National Transportation Safety Board
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission
Postal Rate Commission
Securities and Exchange Commission
Executive branch organizations not having regulatory activities
Department of State
ACTION
Administrative Conference of the United States
American Battle Monuments Commission
American Revolution Bicentennial Administration
Appalachian Regional Commission
Canal Zone Government
Commission on Fine Arts
Community Services Administration
District of Columbia
Energy Research and Development Administration
Export-Import Bank of the United States
Farm Credit Administration
Federal Election Commis.-ion
Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service
Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the U.S.
General Services Administration
Indian Claims Commission
Inter-American Foundation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities,
National Science Foundation
Overseas Private Investment Corporation
Panama Canal Company
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
Railroad Retirement Board
Renegotiation Board
Selective Service System
Small Busines Administration
Smithsonian Institution
Tennessee Valley Authority
U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
U.S. Civil Service Commission
U.S. Information Agency
U.S. International Trade Commission
U.S. Postal Service
Veterans Administration






12


Organizations not included in sirrey
Legislative branch
Judicial branch
Executive Office of the Preisdent
Quasi-Official Agencies:
National Academy of Sciences
National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak)
The Americiw! Red Cross
iMultilateral International Organiizations
Bilateral Organizations
Advisory Committees
Selected Boards, Committees, and Commissions
Administrative Committee of the Federal Register
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations
Board of Foreign Scholarships
Board on Geographic Names
(Commission on Presidential Scholars
Committee for Purchase from the Blind and Other Severely
IHandicap)ped
Delaware River Basin Commission
Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board
Export Administration Review Board
Federal Advisory Council on Regional Economic Development
Federal Council for Science and Technology
Federal Fire Council
Federal Labor Relations Council
Federal Library Committee
Federal Records Council
Federal Safety Advisory Council
Federal Service Impasses Panel
Foreign-Trade Zones Board
Franklin Delano Roo-evelt Memorial Commission
Indian Arts and Crafts Board
Interagency Classification Review Committee
interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee
Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women
Interdepartmental Savings Bonds Committee
Interim Compliance Panel
Marine Mammal Commission
Migratory Bird Conservation Commi.ssion
Missis.ippi River Commission
National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged
Children
National Advisory Council on International MIonetary and Finan-
cial Policies
National Archives Trust Fund Board
National Capital Planning Commission
National Commission on Libraries and Infori ation Science
National Commission on Water Quality
National Forest Reservation Commission
National Historical Publications and Records Commission
National Park Foundation







'atiolu2l Rcevie.w Bardl fo r the ('cill.r for ('u1ltl iJl :ill I Tc(I-
nlic'utl InItcchn ,itwcr' E.;:I-t anld \\est
PertInnIent ('CiiIIittee for tie O)liver WentIcll I ,li, I)evi-,
]Pr,-idkIent's ("'otnlli.-iton ilPcl-,iIcl ]ntcrrliuiL',.
Pri-idttit's C(mlniitte'. on E ipmloyimcit of tlle Ill iic.;plpwd
I'r-ident's E"l.loniniC Policy B,,ird
P'i,-ident's Foreign lntlIliL<.nce Advi-ry B;,rd
R-,6ioiitl Action lPlhnninl f'oinniissiins
Sti-queliami;!. River Ba-in Comi-inis*ion
TraIlde Expal i'ion Act Advi-sory ("omiinittl.f
Unitedl stt,,-. Atlvi-,y Corvission on l .It-.rn:itional E,'.Icatim;!;:l
and Cilturntl AfTairs
United Statr,- Nationil f()inissi()i for UN ES('i)
U1nitcd Stnitc-, Territorial Expninsion Memnorinl (oi-nnii>io
Veterail- 1):v National (C'onmmittee
Water Re-oir',-" Council










APPENDIX B

MANPOWER DOCUMENTATION

ECONOMIC REGULATION OF COMMERCE, TRANSPORTATION, AGRICULTURE, AND COMMUNICATIONS
[Fiscal year 1976 man-years]

Award of Antitrust;
franchises Rate price promotion Financial
and other and profit of competi- health and
Department or agency rights structure tion procedures Other Total

Agriculture.------------------------- 15 38 67 ----------- 2,894 3,014
Commerce ...------------.----------- 2,260 ------------------------- 2,260
Justice-------------.---------...--.------ 801 --.------------------ 801
Civil Aeronautics Board-..------. ------ 272 176 64 93 84 689
Federal Communications Commission.. 1,127 192 10-------- 689 2,018
Federal Energy Administration--- 120 1,658 3 ------- 43 1,824
Federal Maritime Commission -..--.- 123 179- ..- --------------------- 302
Federal Power Commission ----------- 509 499 ------ 99 291 1, 398
Federal Trade Commission ----------------------87 775 -------.----------------- 862
Interstate Commerce Commission.--- 297 487 -----311 1,047 2,142
Nuclear Regulatory Commission------ -------------- 22 ------ -- ------- 22
Postal Rate Commission..------------------------ 90 ---------------------------------- 90
Total ..-------..--------------- 4,723 3,406 1,742 503 5,048 15,422

HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL AND CONSUMER PROTECTION REGLUATION
[Fiscal year 1976 man-years]

Public Worker Consumer
health health health and Consumer
Department or agency and safety and safety safety protection Other TotalI

Agriculture-.....------------------------..............---..-------------... 11,547 160 5,749 17,456-
Defense.............. --------------------------789 ....---------.--------------------------------. 789
Health, Education, and Welfare-------....... 7,257 760 ........... 6 ----....-------- 8,023.
Interior..............................----------------------------------....... 3,314 ----....-------..------------- 247 3,561
Housing and Urban Development ----------------..------------ 34 132 ------------ 166
Labor -----------------------------------........................................ 2,570 ---..----------------------------- 2,570,
Transportation.---------....----------- 8,981 205 12 1 118 9,317
Treasury.................. -------------------------- 39 ------------------------ 203 .- -----.---. 242
Civil Aeronautics Board-------- -------------------------------.................................................. 19 ------------ 19
Consumer Product Safety Commission--..........------------ 935 -------------------. 935
Environmental Protection Agency--... 6,938 --------.....-..---.-------.--------------------- 6,938
Federal Maritime Commission-----..- 12 .-...-....-....-......-- 7 ---------- 19
Federal Trade Commission-----...--.........-- ----- 9 807 --------- 816
National Transportation Safety Board-. 386 .---...---.-----------------.------------------- 386
Nuclear Regulatory Commission---- 2,313 ------------------------------------------ 2, 313
Occupational Safety and Health Review
Commission ------------------------------- 179 -------------------.--------------- 179
Total--------..............-- .....----------- 26,715 7, 028 12,537 1,335 6, 114 53,729,

REGULATION OF BANKING AND FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES
[ Fiscal year 1976 man-years]

Regulation
of banks and Other
financial financial
Department or agency institutions regulation Total

Treasury --- ------------------..--------.--.. --------------- 2,710 2,076 4,786
Labor....................... ...............-------------------------------------------------------------- 578 578
Federal Reserve Board..----------------------------------------........................ 277 .-------------- 277
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation... --------------... -------------- 3,265 .-------------- 3,265
Federal Home Loan Bank Board------.......--..------------------------- 1,205 -------------- 1,205
National Credit Union Administration ------..------. ------------- 602 -----.---- 602
Commodity Futures Trading Commission.----------.. ----------.---------- 450 450
Securities and Exchange Commission-.------------..-----.-----..----------------- 2,030 2,030
Total................. ----------------------------------------------8, 059 5, 134 13,193

(14)







15

EMPLOYMENT AND CIVIL RIGHTS REGULATION
[Fiscal year 1976 man-yearsl


Employment
opportunity
and other Compensation Labor
Department or agency civil rights and benefits relations Other Total

Justice------------------------------.............................. 360 -........................................ 360
labor ............................... 545 2,379 859 124 3 907
Commission on Civil Rights ...........-- 302 .......................................... 302
Equal Employment Opportunity Comis-
sion.............................. 2,584 ..........................................-------------------------------------- 2,8%4
National Labor Relations Board................................... 2,570 .............. 2, 7r)
National Mediation Board..... ---------------------------------------..................................... 105 .............. 105
Total.......................... ------------------------- 3,791 2,379 3, 534 124 9,828


REGULATORY MAN-YEARS BY AGENCY
[Fiscal year 1976 man-years]

Economic Safety and
reRulation health and BankinR and Employment
of commerce, related financial and civil
Department or agency etc regulation activities rights Total

Agriculture..................................... 3,014 17,456 ..- ---------.. ....- 20.470
Commerce .....---..----- -------....26..... ..-- 2,260 .. ....... .. 2,20
Defense............................................ 789 .....-- --- ....-....-- 789
Health, Education, and Welfare.------.------------------...... --- 8, 023 --.-.--- -..-..-- 8, 023
Housing and Urban Development................. 166 ------.-------. ----- 6
Interior..----------....----........------........ 3,561 -----.------------------ 3.561
Justice..............- -- ---.---.--..-- 801- ------------------ 3 E 1,161
Labor--......---..--- ---------------- .... .. 2,570 578 3,907 7,055
Transportation...-...--- -------------------------------- 9,317 ------------------------ 9, 317
Treasury-----.........---...-----------------... -----..----------- 242 4,786 ---5, 328
Civil Aeronautics Board.. ......-------- 689 19 -----.---...-------.--------- 708
Commission on Ciil Rights- ----- --. ................. 302 302
Commodity Futures Trading Commission-................................... 450 ")0------- '
Consumer Product Safety Commission.---------- .. 935 ------.. ------------------.. 935
Environmental Protection Agency ............ ..........- --------- 6,938 ... .... 6,938
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ............................---.------- 2,584 2. 54
Federal Communications Commission........ .--- 2,018 ----------------------_---------- 2, C.18
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation-----......-..-..-..---........---------------. 3,265-------- 3, 265
Federal Energy Administrtion................... 1,824 -----------..-.....-------------------- 1,824
Federal Home Loan Bank Board ...----- -----------------.. -----.. 1,205 --. ------ 1,205
Federal Maritime Commission --.....--..------- 302 19 ----------------- 321
Federal Power Commission....................... ---------------------1,398 --------------..--------..- 1,398
Federal Reserve Board-2..---.......------------ --.....-......-- 277 --.------. 277
Federal Trade Commission.......--------.. 862 816 ----------- --.... 1,678
Interstate Commerce Commission................. 2, 142 .---. .-----.2----------. -- 2, 2
'National C re Ji Union Adminietration .......----..- --- .........-- 602 -.-.-- o02
National Labor Relations Board.---- -------- ------......... ------ ----.. 2, ,57, 2,570
National Mediation Boird ..................-----------------------------...---------......------------ 105 105
National Transortat'on Safety Board... ............-- ...... 386 -.-. --------. 3.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission............---- 22 2,313---------------.-... 2, *'35
Occupation.l Sifetf and Health Review Commission.. -------------- 179 -----------------------. 1'9
Postal Rate Commissi)n ..........-----------------------..-.. 90 --------------------...---------------.. 90
Securities and Exchange Commission-..................----....---.- 2, 330 ----.. 2, ',3)

Total-... --------.-.....--.--- 15,422 53,729 13,193 9,828 92,172











APPENDIX C
BUD(GITARY COST DOCUMENTATION I
[Dollars in millions]
Depa:, rtments:
Agriculture ..-._- 500
Com m erce--____ -_ ______ ______ ______ ___ -_ -_______ 84
Defense (Corps of Engineers)_ --------- ------ --- 16
Health, Eduic:ttion, and Welfare------------- ---- 265
Htiousing and Urban Development- ----------------- 3
Interior----------------------- --------------------------- 90
Justice ---------------------------- 32
Labor------------------------------ 226
Transp)ortation- ------ --------------- 402
Trar ---------------------------- 102

Subtotal----------------------------- 1, 720
Independent aig.ncies:
B,,:ird of Governors of the Federal Reserve System---------------- (2)
Civil Aeronautic- Board- --------------------- 3 19
Coinink-iion on Civil Rights8---------------------- -- 8
Commodity Futures Tr:ding Commission -------------- 12
Consumer Product S.ifety Commission -------------- 48
Environmental Protection Agncy---------------------- 444
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission_------ 63
Fed',ril Communic:itions Commission--- ------_ 51
Federal Deposit In.:,ranfee Corporation---....------ ------ (2)
Federal Energy Administration- ----_- -- ----- 36
Federal Home Loan Bank Board-------------------------------- (2)
Fed'r.il Maritime Commission-_------------------- ----- 8
Federal Power Commission---_ --------------------------- 38
Federal Trade Commission---------------------------------- 47
Int er.,t ate Commerce Commission------------------------------- 52
National Credit Union Administration---_--- ------------------- (2)
National Labor Relations Board--------------------------------- 72
National Mediation Board-------------------------------------- 3
National Transportation Safety Board--------------------------- 12
Nuclear Regulatory Commission- ---- ----------- 200
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission-------------- 6
Postal Rate Commission---------------------------------------- 3
Securities and Exchange Commission----------------------------- 12

Subtotal---------------------------------- 1, 134

Total--------------------------------- 2,854
1 Costs do not reflect offsetting receipts from user charges.
2 Th"',e are self-supporting activities which do not require appropriation of U.S. Treasury
funds.
3 Payments to air carriers are not included.
(16)

0



















UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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