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Strategies and adaptations for adjusting to changes in sources of revenues at selected community colleges

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Strategies and adaptations for adjusting to changes in sources of revenues at selected community colleges
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STRATEGIES AND ADAPTATIONS FOR ADJUSTING TO
CHANGES IN SOURCES OF REVENUES AT
SELECTED COMMUNITY COLLEGES









By

NANCY J. VADER


A DISSERTATION IS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1985

































Copyright 1985

by
Nancy J. Vader



































To my mother and father,
Donald and Jennie Vader.













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am greatly indebted to the many persons who have assisted me with

this study. First of all, I would like to acknowledge my chairman, Dr.

James L. Wattenbarger, and my committee members, Dr. Harold Riker and

Dr. C. Arthur Sandeen, for their patience, assistance, and recom-

mendations. Their helpful expertise and encouragement made this study

enjoyable as well as extremely worthwhile.

This study would not have been possible without the support and

participation from the institutions in the League for Innovation in the

Community College. In particular, I would like to thank Terry O'Banion,

Tal Mullis, and Brenda Beckman for their help, enthusiasm, and friendship.

A very sincere thank you is extended to Donald J. Carlyon, President of

Delta College, for his continued support and especially for his example

of commitment to the community college mission.

My family and friends have also provided me with a very special

source of support throughout the dissertation stages. My friends and

colleagues--Shirley Hekemian, Lesley Hogan, Lettie Molter, Gene Packwood,

David Smith, and Portia Taylor--have provided me with continual encour-

agement. I would especially like to thank two friends--Nancy Laughner

and Maryann Schiller--who have always been there when I needed them.

Most of all, I thank John McCormick for giving me the inspiration to

finish.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . ... . . . . . . . . iv

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Background and Rationale . . . . . . . 1
The Problem . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . .. 10
Justification for the Study ... ..... ..... 13
Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Organization of the Remainder of the Study . .. 16

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES . . . . . . . 17

Open Systems Theory . . . . .. . . . .. 17
Changes in Sources of Revenue . . . . . . 24
Reactions to Changes in Revenues . . . . . 32
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

III. METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Research Population . . . . . . . . . 48
Sample Selection . . . . . . . . . 48
Instrument Development . . . . . . . .. 53
Data Collection . . . . . . .. . . . 55
Analysis of the Data . . . .. . . . . .. 58

IV. RESULTS . ..... . . .. . . . . . 62

Results of the Survey . . .. . . . . . 62
Field Studies and Interviews . . . . . . 74
Santa Fe Community College . . . . . . . 75
Miami-Dade Community Colege . . .. .. ............. 87
Delta College . . . . . . . . . . 96
Overall Interview and Field Study Results . . .. 106
Discussion of the Results . . .. . . . 110









Page


V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY . . . . . . 118

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Implications . . . . . . . . . . 126
Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Recommendation for Further Study . . . . . 132

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

APPENDIX

A MEMBER INSTITUTIONS IN THE LEAGUE FOR INNOVATION IN THE
COMMUNITY COLLEGE . .. .. . . . . ... 143

B COMMUNITY COLLEGE SURVEY OF EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES . . 145

C COMMUNITY COLLEGE INTERVIEW GUIDE USED WITH INTERVIEWEES 148

D FIELD INTERVIEW GUIDE USED AT FIELD STUDIES . . . 152

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . ...... 155












Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


STRATEGIES AND ADAPTATIONS FOR ADJUSTING TO
CHANGES IN SOURCES OF REVENUES AT
SELECTED COMMUNITY COLLEGES

by

Nancy J. Vader

August, 1985


Chairman: Dr. James L. Wattenbarger
Major Department: Educational Leadership


The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of

changes in sources of revenues at community colleges and to identify

the strategies and adaptations implemented by selected community

colleges in order to minimize the problems related to the revenue

changes. The population for the study consisted of the 18 community

college districts that are members of the League for Innovation in the

Community College. Thirty-three personal interviews were conducted at

three community colleges that were selected from the population for in-

depth field study. In addition to the field studies, a survey was

administered to the chief executive officers at all 18 of the community

colleges. The survey responses, based on a 100% return rate, supported

the actual practices as discovered through the field studies.










The data obtained from the survey and field studies were also used

to either confirm or not confirm two postulates and eight propositions

generated from a review of the related literature; nine of the ten

postulates and propositions were confirmed.

The study confirmed a common assumption regarding the nature of

changes in sources of revenues at community colleges: A lesser propor-

tion of total revenues is coming from state funding sources and a

greater proportion of revenues is being made up of tuition and fees.

The study did not confirm that the approaches community colleges are

utilizing to adjust to the revenue changes are uniform in substance or

effectiveness, but rather that the strategies utilized and subsequent

perceptions and degrees of effectiveness appear to be influenced by

several factors. Some of the influencial factors included the leadership

style of the chief executive officer, the institutional climate, and

the degree of flexibility in raising revenues from other sources.

Further, the study demonstrated that there is no one best way or set of

generalizable guidelines to adjust to problems related to revenue

changes, but rather that a variety of different responses and strategies

may be most suitable for different institutions.

In addition to the conclusions of the study, a set of strategies

were developed based on the results of the study which may prove useful

to community colleges encountering problems similar to the problems

related to revenue changes encountered by the community colleges

involved in the study.


viii














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Background and Rationale


Beginning in the 1970s, the majority of community colleges, as

well as other higher educational systems, began experiencing a gradual

erosion of their financial position. Major problems of the 1970s and

1980s have been caused by inflation and the accompanying increases in

costs. One of the major problems facing higher education during the

1980s will be reacting to changes in sources of revenues. Community

colleges in particular will be faced with major decisions regarding

adjustments to revenue changes which affect budgeting, programming, and

enrollment policies. In addition, these changes in priority emphases

will reflect changes in institutional mission and goals. Connolly

(1981) characterized the scenario as "a mild form of institutional

middle age setting in," and further asserted:

No longer is there talk of "a new community college
opening every week" or proud boasts of ever-increasing
enrollments. Declining enrollments have meant declining
income for some institutions, and stable enrollments
have produced financial atrophy elsewhere. (p. 35)

Clearly, research aimed at identifying institutional strategies that

have been utilized at community colleges in order to minimize the

problems attributed to changes in sources of revenues is timely as well

as necessary.

The history of community college finance illustrates the dramatic

shift in sources of revenue from primarily local support to increasing

1






2

percentages of state support. In 1929, state support to community

colleges provided only 3 percent of current operating funds, while

local support provided 46 percent (Wattenbarger & Bibby, 1981). By

1969 these distributions had shifted to 51 percent for state support

and 21 percent for local support. A 1983 study (Wattenbarger & Heck,

1983) found that in 1982 state support had risen to 65 percent and

local support had dwindled to 10.9 percent of current operating funds

for community colleges.

In general, however, state appropriations to community colleges

have increased in absolute dollars in most states each year (Martorana,

Wattenbarger, & Smutz, 1978). Despite this fact, the trend has been

for the average percentage growth rate in appropriations to decrease

over the same period. According to Martorana et al. (1978), the

following changes have occurred in community college appropriations:

The average percentage increase was 20.1 in 1974-75,
21.9 in 1975-76, and only 12.1 in 1977.78. This
decrease in the average percentage growth rate may not
only mean that community college systems are not
expanding but also that they may be hard pressed to
maintain current services since increased costs caused
by inflation and utilities costs are large in all
instances. (p. 8)

In addition, a 1983 report (Magarrell) found that while state spending

in fiscal year 1983 rose approximately 6 percent nationwide, it was

the smallest one-year increase in state funds for colleges and univer-

sities in more than 20 years.

The situation created by the changes and decreases in resources can

be attributed to primarily two factors, according to Wattenbarger (1978).

The factors include the following:

First, a reduced or static enrollment, which provides
less money to the college; second, a reduced real
income, resulting from inflation, increased costs of







operation, and/or increased costs of basic items such
as utilities, maintenance, and interest charges. (p. 61)

Even in instances where some institutions have not experienced decreases

in amounts of dollars appropriated, a decline in the real income of the

institution has occurred.

Support for equality of educational opportunity via the comprehen-

sive community college open-door philosophy has been strongly documented

by historical evidence and by noted community college authorities (Bogue,

1950; Gleazer, 1980; Koos, 1970). Ferrin (1971) cited the use of inno-

vative and nontraditional methods by community colleges to overcome

traditional barriers to higher education and to strengthen the open-

door philosophy:

The financial barrier was reduced by charging little or
no tuition, the academic barrier was reduced by open
door admissions policies, and the geographic barrier
was reduced by locating colleges in close proximity to
populated areas. (p. 31)

The original philosophy and commitment of the community college have

been threatened due to the impact of changes in revenues. Gleazer's

contention that community colleges have attempted to be "all things to

all people" (1980, p. 7) is being questioned in an era of changes in

funding and increases in demands for accountability. Cosand (1983)

questioned whether or not the community college will even continue to

function as a "people's college" (p. 24) and maintain a comprehensive

mission:

The colleges were given the autonomy to provide a
diverse educational program of quality for the youth
and adults of the community to be served. This provided
an educational opportunity at minimal or no cost for
all the people who were eligible to enroll regardless
of their age, race, affluence, sex, or educational
background. The community college was indeed a "people's
college." Will this philosophy and service continue?
(p. 24)






4

In light of the impact of changes in revenues at community colleges,

administrators must examine the relationship between institutional

aspirations and available resources to carry out institutional goals.

Carefully considered and skillfully planned responses to revenue

changes must attempt to uphold the institutional mission while becoming

a part of the overall planning process of the institution. Kenneth

Boulding (1975) has warned that unless educational administrators

develop and utilize the skills necessary to address the challenge of

changing revenues, they may find themselves in situations they are

unprepared to meet. Boulding made the following observation:

Present educational administrators have grown in a
period of rapid growth and have been selected presumably
because they are well adjusted to growth and capable of
dealing with it. Perhaps the most serious immediate
problem facing education is that many skills that were
highly desirable during the last thirty years may no
longer be needed in the next thirty years. (p. 5)

A study of financial statistics for community colleges was under-

taken in 1983 by the National Association of College and University

Business Officers (NACUBO) to ascertain what actually has happened to

sources of fund revenues over the past five years. A review of the

details of the report indicated that although the dollars from state

appropriations have increased during the past four years, the percentage

of these revenues has declined, and the decline represents the lost of

substantial funds (Jenkins, 1984). Further examination of the NACUBO

report shows that some colleges have been successful in expanding their

revenue bases as a response to decreasing percentages of state funds

and have made substantial increases in the variety of categories and

amounts of funds from other sources. Therefore, the purpose of this

study (i. e., to examine how some community colleges responded to the







problems created by revenue changes) proves invaluable by identifying

potentially effective strategies useful to similar institutions.

The need for a financial study of this nature is also evident in a

review of relevant literature. According to a 1982 doctoral survey

(Yopp, 1982), community college presidents identified the most trouble-

some issues of concern as money, finances, and declining resources, and

additionally expected the effects of inflation and resource development/

grants/other external funding to consume a greater percentage of their

resources during the 1980s. Further justification stems from the need

to link concepts of organizational theory regarding managerial effec-

tiveness to identification and development of effective administrative

strategies for managing changes in revenues in the community college

(Cameron, 1978; Goodman & Pennings, 1977; Quinn & Cameron, 1983;

Whetten, 1980). Martorana and Kuhns (1975) depicted the community

college as an open system capable of surviving through adaptation based

on feedback from the external environment. Studies in the organiza-

tional systems literature (Griffiths, 1964; Quinn & Cameron, 1983) have

found that open, living systems strive to maintain a steady state in

which all counteracting influences are balanced. The theoretical basis

of this study will focus on the tendency of community colleges, viewed

as open, living systems, to use environmental feedback to strive

towards maintaining the mission of the comprehensive community college

while responding to changes in sources of revenues.

The historical development of community colleges provides an addi-

tional justification for a study in this area. Since their development

in the early 1900s, community colleges have been viewed as innovative

leaders in democratizing educational opportunity and providing equal







access to education. Given this democratizing mission (Koos, 1925) it

may be appropriate to assume that community colleges will continue to

provide effective leadership when faced with significant changes in

revenues. There is a continued need for a study which represents a

potential contribution to the field of educational administration

through the development of guidelines for strategies that will prove

useful to community college administrators when faced with revenue

changes.

In summary, the tension experienced by community colleges between

mission and available resources has been summarized by Richardson and

Leslie (1980) in The Impossible Dream? Financing Community Colleges

Evolving Mission? The legitimacy and potential of the community

college mission in light of changes in resources were discussed in this

monograph:

The community college concept has encompassed a dream
of educational equality for all. Preventing a noble
dream from becoming an impossible dream in the environ-
ment of the eighties will require the best efforts of
policy makers and educators working together to reduce
the widening gap between missions and resources.
(p. 45)

The lack of a clear understanding regarding the impact of responses to

changes in revenues on institutional commitment to mission, planning,

and innovation has left a gap in community college development. This

research will attempt to fill in that gap through the examination of

institutional adaptations to changes in sources of revenue at selected

community colleges.

This study analyzed the nature of changes in revenues and the

impact of institutional adaptations by community colleges to the

changes in revenues. General and individual financial statistics of








selected community colleges were analyzed, as well as data regarding

perceptions of the effectiveness of certain institutional strategies.

An in-depth investigation of specific institutional adaptations and

strategies to changes in revenues at three selected community colleges

formed both the focus of the research and the foundation for the

development of guidelines for adjusting to revenue changes at community

colleges.


The Problem

Statement of the Problem

The problem of this study was to determine which strategies and

adaptations have been utilized at selected community colleges in order

to minimize the problems attributed to changes imposed by the external

environment (i.e., changes in sources of revenues).

Specifically, answers were sought to the following research

questions:

1. What environmental changes (i.e., changes in sources of revenue)

have occurred at the selected community colleges for the period from

1979-80 through 1983-84?

2. What are the institutional adaptations to the changes at the

selected community colleges?

3. Based on a review of relevant literature and the perceptions of

community college presidents, what are the institutional strategies for

adaptation that are considered effective during periods of changes in

sources of revenues at community colleges?

4. What are the implications derived from the data for future efforts

by institutions experiencing similar changes?







Delimitations and Limitations

This study was confined to the 18 community colleges that are

members of the League for Innovation in the Community College (see

Appendix A). Three community colleges were selected from the identified

population for in-depth field study based primarily on the greatest

degree of change in current operating revenue from 1979 through 1982.

Additional criteria for the selection of the three colleges for field

study included willingness to participate, size of the college, size

of the service area, geographic location, and comprehensiveness of

mission. An attempt was made to select the three colleges that exhibited

most of the selection criteria. The financial data were confined to

the financial data collected by the National Association of College and

University Business Officers (NACUBO). The field study data collected

included the NACUBO data as well as state and institutional reports

from the selected community colleges.

A survey instrument was developed by the researcher based on the

literature review. The purpose of the survey was to assess the percep-

tions of the chief executive officers of the League community colleges

regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies a community college

might implement when experiencing changes in sources of revenues (see

Appendix B). The in-depth institutional field studies were subject to

the limitations of case study methodolgy and interviewing using a

researcher-developed interview guide (see Appendix C). Limitations

included the nature of the type of information desired, the specified

concepts involved in the study, the method of interviewing, and the

characteristics of the interviewer (Gorden, 1969, p. 87).








Analysis of the comparative financial data was confined to the use

of descriptive statistics for the purpose of identifying the community

colleges with the greatest changes in revenues. The survey data were

analyzed using rank orders, frequency distributions, and measures of

central tendency displayed in tabular form and accompanied by a narrative

summary. The analysis of the field study data was confined to verifi-

cation, inspection, and matrix and narrative summaries.

The descriptive, ex post facto nature of the study constituted a

strong research approach, even though effects were not manipulated as

in true experimental methods (Selgas, 1976). The design limited the

extent of cause-and-effect statements regarding institutional strategies

and changes in revenues, and also limited the external validity of the

study. Despite these inherent limitations, the findings of this inves-

tigation have significance to community colleges similar to the selected

community colleges in the study in clientele, purpose, structure, and

services offered. This congruence enables community colleges of a

similar nature to take necessary corrective action based on the guide-

lines that were developed as an outcome of the study.

Assumptions

The following assumptions are present in this study:

1. The procedures achieved the purposes of the study.

2. The instruments used yielded valid and reliable data.

3. Community colleges made adaptations and developed strategies to

counteract the effects of changes in revenues.

4. The review of the literature and institutional perceptions by the

chief executive officers at selected community colleges provided a







realistic basis for determining the institutional adaptations to

changes in revenues perceived as most effective.


Definitions of Terms

Changes in Revenues

Changes in revenues were operationally defined as an increase or

decrease of at least one standard deviation or more from the mean in

one or more categories of revenues for the years 1979-80 through 1982-
83 (based on the NACUBO reports for the individual institutions who

were members of the League for Innovation).

Comprehensive Community College (Public)

A comprehensive community college is an institution supported by

public funds and governed by a publicly appointed board which offers

courses and programs limited to the first two years of postsecondary

education. Medsker and Tillery (1971) defined the comprehensive

community college as

encompassing the six main functions of preparation for
advanced study, career education, guidance, develop-
mental education, general education, and community
service. The comprehensive community college is
expected to provide a "program for all" with the
fundamental purpose of equalizing education opportunity.
(p. 53)

Dynamic Equilibrium

Dynamic equilibrium is defined as a condition in which all counter-

acting influences are cancelled, resulting in a balanced, stable

system.

Effectiveness

Effectiveness is an inherently subjective perception, generally

relative to the goals of an institution, regarding how well an institu-

tion maintains its missions and achieves its goals. The major criteria






11
for effectiveness for the purposes of this study are based on a combina-

tion of perceptual data, objective data, and normative definitions from

the literature.

Feedback

Feedback is "the input from the environment to the system telling

it how it is doing as a result of its output to the environment"

(Lonsdale, 1964, p. 175).

Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) Enrollment

FTE enrollment is the number of students enrolled at a community

college consisting of full-time equivalent of all credit hours taken by

full-time, part-time, and non-credit students (NACUBO, 1984, p. 13).

Guidelines

Guidelines are considerations or steps to be followed when develop-

ing institutional responses to changes in revenues.

Institutional Adaptations and Strategies

Institutional adaptations and strategies are operationally defined

as the responses to changing revenues identified in the major studies

found in the review of relevant literature. Probable strategies to

be included are reexamination of institutional mission and goals,

increased productivity, identification of new sources of revenues, and

changes in faculty and staff compositions (Alfred, 1978; Deutsch, 1983;

Wattenbarger, 1978; Whetten, 1981).

League for Innovation in the Community College

The League for Innovation in the Community College is an institu-

tional membership organization comprised of 18 community colleges in the

United States. Membership is by invitation only. Represented in the

League membership are multi-campus districts, single-campus districts,







urban districts, and rural districts of varying sizes. The member

community colleges are noted for innovation among community colleges in

the United States.

Mission

The mission of a higher educational institution is, according to

Caruther and Lott (1981), a statement or report of "what the institution

has been (its heritage), what it shall become (its destiny), and what it

does not believe itself to be" (p. 25). The mission of an institution

is usually a broad statement of the fundamental purpose, philosophy,

clientele served, and services of the college or university.

Revenues

Revenues are operationally defined as the total current fund

balances of an institution, excluding auxiliaries. Current fund

revenues include tuition and fees; appropriations (federal, state,

and local); gifts, grants, and contracts (federal, state, local, and

private); and other sources (NACUBO, 1981). Further, definition of

current fund revenues used by the National Center for Educational

Statistics (1982) is as follows:

Current fund revenues include all unrestricted gifts
and other unrestricted revenues earned during the
fiscal year and restricted current funds to the extent
that such funds were expended for current operating
purposes. (Form 2300-4, p. 5)

State and Local Appropriations

State and local appropriations are government collected revenues

received from or made available to the institution through acts of a

legislative body, except grants or contracts, for the purposes of

meeting current operating expenses. Sources of state and local appro-

priations are state and local revenues.







System

A system is "a set of elements standing in interaction" (von

Bertalanffy, 1956, p. 3). Operationally, the community college is the

system for the purpose of this study.


Justification for the Study

Justification for the study stems from the need to provide a link

between the theory regarding community colleges as open systems capable

of adapting to changes in the environment and the effectiveness of

specific strategies employed by selected community colleges to changes

in sources of revenues. A study of how selected community colleges

maintain dynamic equilibrium by adapting to feedback from the environ-

ment will no doubt prove useful to many other community colleges that

are attempting to uphold the community college mission while responding

to changes in revenues.

Several community college authorities have suggested that the

qualities of the community college that denote its individuality (i.e.,

flexibility, innovativeness, and responsiveness to the community),

further justify a study of how community colleges have responded when

faced with changes in revenues (Carnegie Foundation, 1975; Gleazer,

1980; Vaughn, 1983). The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of

Teaching (1975) viewed the strength of the mission of the community

college as a valuable asset in developing the flexibility and overall

strategy to respond effectively to revenue changes. The recommendation

presented by the Foundation in More Than Survival (1975) stated that

community colleges should do more of what they are now
doing. They draw their strength, direction, and
identify from the local community they serve. Their








strength is their role as a community resource and this
can be enlarged by developing new programs to meet
urgent needs, such as training programs for police,
small business, etc. (p. 136)

A final justification for this study is that the study fits into

current research efforts and needs identified by NACUBO and the National

Center for Higher Education Management Systems and has received support

from member institutions in the League for Innovation. In addition,

institutions currently experiencing revenue changes (such as Coast

Community College in California and Lane Community College in Orgeon)

have indicated eagerness to learn and benefit from the experiences of

other colleges that have adapted to changing revenue conditions (such

as Delta College in Michigan and Miami-Dade Community College in

Florida). A valuable outcome of this study was the development of

guidelines designed to provide practitioners in the field with a

framework adapting to changes in revenues.


Procedures

Design of the Study

The study, descriptive and ex post facto in nature, incorporated

the research approach of triangulation (Denzin, 1978; Patton, 1980).

Triangulation, or the combination of methodologies in the study of the

same phenomena or programs, incorporates the use of both quantitative

and qualitative data and methodologies. Denzin (1978) explained the

logic of triangulation as being based on the premise that

no single method ever adequately solves the problem of
rival causal factors. . Because each method reveals
different aspects of empirical reality, multiple methods
of observations must be employed. This is termed tri-
angulation. I now offer a final methodological rule
the principle that multiple methods should be used in
every investigation. (p. 28)







The study determined the nature and impact of changes in revenues

at selected community colleges and examined the institutional adapta-

tions and strategies employed by the institutions in order to minimize

the problems attributed to the changes. The investigation included the

following major procedures:

1. A review of relevant literature, including the identification of

institutional adaptations and strategies for dealing with changes in

revenues perceived as most effective.

2. The development of a survey instrument used to assess perceptions

regarding the effectiveness of specific institutional adaptations to

changes in revenues at the selected community colleges, including pilot

tests and subsequent revisions.

3. The administration of the survey to the chief executive officers at

all 18 of the community colleges in the League for Innovation.

4. The securing of permission for the release of the individual

institutional NACUBO financial data from the participating League

colleges.

5. The collection and analysis of the comparative and individual

financial data from NACUBO. The analysis of the financial data provided

part of the information needed to identify the three community colleges

for further in-depth study.

6. The selection of three community colleges for the in-depth field

studies. Criteria for the selection of the colleges included the

degree of changes in sources of revenues, the size of the college, the

size of the service area, the comprehensiveness of mission, the geo-

graphic location, and the willingness of the college to participate.

7. The requests to the three community colleges selected for








participation in the study and subsequent requests for specific

institutional documents from the college, such as the college catalog,

self-study reports, institutional publications, and budget reports.

8. The development of an interview instrument for the field studies,

two pilot field tests at two community colleges, and subsequent revi-

sions of the interview instrument.

9. The in-depth field studies conducted during on-site visitations to

the three selected community colleges.

10. The analysis and presentation of the data, including the development

of specific guidelines for institutional adaptations and strategies for

adjusting to changes in revenues at community colleges.

The effect of triangulation, i.e. the use of data from several

sources (Patton, 1980), strengthened the external validity of the study

as well as the guidelines and implications presented for further

research. The findings of the investigation therefore have significance

to many community colleges similar in clientele, purpose, and structure

to the community colleges involved in this study.


Organization of the Remainder of the Study

The study consists of five chapters. Chapter II provides a

review of related literature. Chapter III presents the methodology

and specific procedures used for the study. Chapter IV presents the

results of the survey and field studies. Chapter V provides the

summary and conclusions of the study and presents the guidelines

developed from the analysis of the data.













CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


The review of related literature for this study is divided into

two sections. The first section examines the theoretical literature on

open systems in relationship to the problem of the study, that is, the

examination of strategies and adaptations utilized at selected community

colleges in order to minimize the problems attributed to changes in

sources of revenues. The second section examines the nature of and

responses to changes in sources of revenues at community colleges; the

second section is confined to relevant literature and studies published

from 1974 through 1984. The summary of this chapter includes the

theoretical propositions developed from the dominant themes found in

the literature review.


Open Systems Theory

Overview

One of the most prominent developments that has emerged in organiza-

tional theory since the early 1960s is the growing view of organizations

as open systems (Hall, 1977; Kast & Rosenzweig, 1974; Katz & Kahn, 1966).

Open systems theory grew out of the application of general systems theory

to organizational theory. General systems theory, the larger view of

"the dynamic interrelationship of several parts of a larger whole as it

interacts with its environment" (Beer, 1980, p. 76), originated from

the seminal works of Boulding (1956), Miller (1978), and von Bertalanffy

(1956). Miller (1978) defined general systems theory as

17








a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions
which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of
organizations of matter and energy. (p. 9)

In general, several conceptualizations and classifications of

systems have been used in literature regarding the systems theory of

organizations. They are as follows:

1. Organizations as rational systems (Barnard, 1938; Etzioni, 1964;

Simon, 1950; Taylor, 1911; Taylor, 1947; Weber, 1964); and

2. Organizations as open systems (Boulding, 1956; von Bertalanaffy,

1956; Katz & Kahn, 1966; Miller, 1978; Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979).

The view of an organization as a rational system tends to conceptualize

the organization as a "closed system, separate from its environment and

comprised of stable and easily identified participants" (Scott, 1981,

p. 22). In contrast, the view of an organization by the open systems

theorists is that of

a coalition of shifting interest groups that develops
goals by negotiation; the structure of the coalition,
its activities and its outcomes are strongly influenced
by environmental factors. (Scott, 1981, p. 23)

Kimbrough and Nunnery (1983), in their discussion of systems

theory, contended that a system may be viewed as either open or closed.

They define a closed system as "one with rigid, impermeable boundaries;

as such, there are neither inputs nor outputs--no exchange of matter

and energy with the environment" (p. 298). In contrast, they stated

that "open systems have relatively permeable boundaries. As such, they

receive inputs and receive outputs; energy and matter exchange occurs

between the system and the environment" (p. 298). Most of the current

proponents of the open systems view of organizations stress the








importance of the exchange and interdependence of the system with its

environment (Katz, Kahn & Adams, 1980; Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979; Scott,

1981).

Summarizing the trend in the literature toward open systems theory,

Hoy (1982) stated that "open systems models of organizations began to

supplant closed-systems ones in the 1960s, and, by the late 1970s, the

transition was virtually complete" (p. 7). This transition appearingly

produced a consensus that modern organizations, including educational

ones, are open systems; any analysis of modern-day organizations without

reference to the dynamics of the environment is simply insufficient

(Bidwell, 1979).

Organizations as Open Systems

The view of organizations as open systems that interact constantly

with a dynamic, changing environment is most timely and applicable to

the study of changes in sources of revenues at community colleges. For

instance, Martorana and Kuhns (1975) depicted the community college as

a system that was capable of adaptation based on feedback from the

external environment in order to maintain survival. Therefore, com-

munity colleges, when confronted with a change in sources of revenues,

may respond in manner not only to survive but also to carry out insti-

tutional goals and maintain mission.

Prior to a thorough understanding of the relationship between an

open system and its environment, the characteristics of open systems

known as feedback, dynamic equilibrium, and equifinality need to be

considered. For example, the concepts of feedback and dynamic equilib-

rium are critical to understanding how an organization uses information

and changes from the environment to continually adjust and modify its








subsequent functioning in order to perform effectively and ultimately

survive. Applied to a community college, feedback could be in the form

of decreased state appropriations which in turn may cause the institution

to look to other sources of revenue, such as increasing tuition.

Feedback, which can be either positive or negative, is information

from the internal or external environment regarding the outputs of the

organization. The feedback to the organization is a critical means of

organizational control, particularly if it is of a negative nature.

Negative feedback "indicates that the system is deviating from a

prescribed course and should readjust to a new steady state" (Kast &

Rosenzweig, 1974, p. 7). Whetten (1981) claimed that feedback is infor-

mation which enables the system to adjust in order to "maintain a state

of compatibility between internal operations and environmental con-

ditions, including social norms, regulations, and client needs" (p. 81).

Dynamic equilibrium, the preferred modus operendi for an organi-

zation, is a dynamic state of continuous adaptation to changes in the

environment and internal forces in order to preserve the character of

the system (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1974; Katz & Kahn, 1978). Dynamic

equilibrium involves a continuous flow of material, energy, and infor-

mation which the system utilized to stay on target and continue to

proceed toward its goals.

The concept of equifinality is that final results may be achieved

with different inputs and similar inputs may result in different

conditions. Stated more parsimoniously, the concept of equifinality

suggests that there is no one best way to reach a goal, but rather that

varying inputs, paths, condition, and activities in an organization can

achieve given goals and results. The concept of equifinality opens up






21

a wide range of alternatives for meeting organizational goals (Kimbrough

& Nunnery, 1983). Kast and Rosenzweig (1974) suggested the following

operational application of equifinality to organizations:

The equifinality of social systems has major importance
for the management of complex organizations. The
closed-system cause-and-effect relationship from the
physical sciences would suggest that there is "one best
way" to achieve a given objective. The concept of
equifinality suggests that the manager can utilize a
varying bundle of inputs into the organization, can
transform these in a variety of ways, and can achieve
satisfactory output. Extending this view further
suggests that the management function is not necessarily
one of seeking a rigid optimal solution but rather one
of having available a variety of satisfactory alterna-
tives. (p. 9)

Another tenet of systems theory is that to some degree all organi-

zations depend on the types of relations they develop with the larger

environment for their own survival. No organization is self-sufficient;

"each organization exists in a specific physical, technological, cul-

tural, and social environment to which it must adapt" (Scott, 1981,

p. 17). Wattenbarger, Haynes, and Smith (1982) stated that "according

to systems theory, the external organizations provide the medium in

which an organizational system operates" (p. 4); they described the

external environment as consisting of such things as the available

clientele and working supplies, staff, level of knowledge, other

educational institutions, and the level of support of public opinion

for the organization.

Katz, Kahn and Adams (1980) viewed changes in the organization as

the result of environmental modifications, conditions, and forces.

They claimed that without environmental changes that interfere with the

maintenance and production inputs an organization will not change. The

environment, or world outside the organization, is the driving force







behind organizational changes. In an operational sense, a greater

degree of complexity, instability, and future potential for change in

the environment will lead to an increase in the differentiation,

innovation, and ability of an organization to respond quickly to

environmental changes (Wattenbarger et al., 1982).

A 1982 study of changes affecting community colleges illustrated

how environmental forces can become a threat to the community college

mission and to the open door philosophy (Henderson, 1982). The environ-

mental feedback to the community college identified by Henderson and

others included legislative actions such as reduced funding, changes in

governance/structure, increased demands for accountability and quality,

and limitations on enrollments (Alfred, 1979; Burnsted, 1980; Martorana

& Nespoli, 1978; Marty, 1978). The studies concluded that the environ-

ment in which the community college functions must be known in order to

render responses which facilitate survival and maintain institutional

mission.

Organizational Effectiveness in Higher Education

Cameron (1978) was among the first researchers to address the

actual measurement and prediction of organizational effectiveness in

higher education. In his 1978 doctoral study he demonstrated a need

for considering specific domains and expanding predictive models of

organizational effectiveness. Also, he proposed a more inclusive

definition of organizational effectiveness than relying solely on

organizational goal accomplishment. In subsequent research, Cameron

(1981) identified four domains of organizational effectiveness (i.e.,

academic, morale, external adaptation, and extracurricula domains) as

well as identified characteristics of institutions which were predictive





23

of organizational effectiveness. Implications of the research findings

include the possibility that different models of effectiveness may be

relevant to different types of organizations; and, when viewed as a multi-

domain construct, levels of organizational effectiveness in different

domains may vary significantly within the same organization (pp. 42-

45).

Several models of organizational effectiveness have emerged from

related studies. The majority of the studies concluded that organiza-

tional effectiveness is inherently subjective and the best criteria for

its definition and assessment are relative to the situation and contingent

upon several factors (Cameron & Whetten, 1983; Drucker, 1980; Zammuto,

1982). Zammutto succinctly described the open systems approach to

organizational effectiveness, that is, emphasizing flexibility and

growth in his summary of the changing nature of organizational effec-

tiveness. He stated:

Organizational effectiveness is not a known or constant
quality. . Performance that is effective today is
equally likely to be ineffective tomorrow as preferences
and contraints change. The goal of the effective organ-
ization is, continually, to become effective rather
than be effective. The journey is, in this case, more
important than the destination. (p. 161)

Although there appears to be a void in the literature in relation

to organizational effectiveness in higher education, two additional

studies seem to have relevance to education in general. Gilmartin

(1984), in his longitudinal attempt to compute indicators of institu-

tional viability, developed statistics on nearly all colleges and

universities in the United States. He used objective measures to

identify colleges and universities in distress of some sort, such as

closure, extreme enrollment decline and extreme decline in current fund

revenues and balances. Although the kinds of colleges which frequently








tend to be less viable were identified, his study did not include any

examination of how colleges adapted to distress and what actions were

effective at the colleges that improved in viability.

In contrast to Gilmartin's quantitative study (1984), Chaffee

(1982) incorporated a case study approach to assess recovery from

financial and enrollment decline in small, private, liberal arts

institutions. Chaffee identified several characteristics that were

crucial to the institution's ability to weather the decline and recover

successfully. The characteristics included the leadership ability of

the chief executive officer, a clear and strong sense of organizational

identity and mission, and close attention to constituencies of the

college. In addition, Chaffee attributed the success of the institution

to raise revenues from outside sources to the degree that the institu-

tion possessed the characteristics cited.

In summary, the review of the literature on open systems theory

demonstrated a lack of research on how community colleges have adapted

to environmental changes. Commenting on higher education in general,

Whetten (1981) proposed that educational organizations can enhance

their adaptive potential by utilizing the pressure of environmental

change (i.e., scarcity), to spur innovation and improve organizational

effectiveness. The next section of this chapter will review the

specific studies regarding changes in sources of revenue and subsequent

responses by institutions of higher education.


Changes in Sources of Revenue

Higher Education Overview

During the 1960s, unprecedented growth in both enrollments and

sources of revenue in organizations of higher education generated








considerable preoccupation with growth. The experience of tremendous

growth encouraged the development of a growth psychology, growth-

dependent structures, and growth-contingent funding, particularly in

community colleges. Unfortunately, according to Dresch (1977), this

preoccupation with growth "relieved the education establishment of the

need to devise adaptive mechanisms that did not rely on growth for

their effectiveness" (p. 29).

According to the Carnegie Foundation studies (1975), higher education

has gone through various phases of development and will be experiencing

a period of slow or no growth from 1985 through the year 2000. The

growth phases of higher education development as presented in the

Carnegie Foundation report More Than Survival (1975) are

1636-1870 Slow growth
1870-1880 Fast acceleration of growth
1880-1960 Rapid growth
1960-1970 Fast acceleration of growth
1970-1985 Fast deceleration of growth
1985-2000 Slow growth or not growth (p. 87)

These forecasts of decline in the growth rate of institutions of

higher education have come to fruition in the late 1970s and early

1980s, particularly in four-year college and university enrollments.

Since universities and four-year colleges enroll the majority of the

traditional college-age population group (i.e., 18 through 24 year

olds), the decline in this population group has been reflected in

decreasing numbers at these institutions. Until 1983, community

colleges did not experience the same degree of enrollment decline, with

the exception of a slight enrollment drop in 1978.

In addition to the enrollment decline, community colleges faced

increased competition for students from four-year institutions and







rising costs of educating a diversity of students. In spite of these

trends, Breneman (1983) suggested that public community colleges are

probably most favorable positioned in relation to other sectors of

higher education due to their "relatively low prices, their ability to

serve the adult part-time population, and their flexibility of shifting

program offerings rapidly in response to changing demands" (p. 18).

Although considerable attention has focused on fluctuations in

higher education enrollments, many higher education critics see the

most serious problem as inflation, not enrollment (Alfred, 1982; Astin,

1977; Frances, 1983; Johnson, 1983; Mortimer & Tierney, 1979). In a

review of the past 10 years, Frances (1983) contended that although

inflation is down markedly in the economy as a whole, in higher education

it is hardly down at all (p. 4). Frances cited two major problems

resulting from continued inflation in higher education: one is the

comparatively lower purchasing power of faculty than of workers in

general due to salary increases that were lower than inflation rates;

the other is that increased productivity in higher education has resulted

in educating significantly more students with significantly fewer real

dollars for instruction. Further complicating the problem of inflation

in higher education, according to Frances, is the following trend:

Institutions have faced serious shortfalls in state and
local funding, in most cases because enrollment grew
faster than the real value of funding per student. But
the problem was inflation, not unwillingness of legislatures
to finance higher education. (p. 5)

Purga's 1979 study of the effects of enrollment decline in Florida's

community colleges supported Frances' contentions regarding inflation.

Purga found that during times of inflation, institutions that had not







experienced actual decline may have experienced an effective resource

decline due to the inherent fiscal constraints of inflation.

Inflation has had a direct bearing on sources of revenue to higher

education, resulting in the inability of tax revenues to keep pace with

state and local spending (Alfred, 1982). Specifically, inflation has

had an impact on the three principal sources of community college

revenue, that is, property tax, state appropriations, and tuition and

fees (Lombardi, 1979). Lombardi, in his 1979 study of community

college finance, indicated that the potential for increasing revenue

from traditional sources is bleak, based on numerous failures to

increase local tax levies. The 1978 passage of Proposition 13, a

property tax limitation measure in California, resulted in a dramatic

shift in the primary sources of revenue from the local level to the

state level (Good, 1983). In addition to the shift in sources of

revenue prompted by Proposition 13, the 1984 California legislature

approved the authorization of tuition in the traditionally tuition-free

community colleges in exchange for increased community college support.

In many states, inflation combined with the political and economic

environment has dictated educational policy decisions (Astin, 1977;

Burnsted, 1980; Henderson, 1982). Financial strains on community col-

leges have been created by the increased costs involved in expanding

greater access to a diversity of students with varying levels of ability.

At the same, community colleges have become victims of economic policy

trends to cut operating costs and streamline higher education (Astin,

1977).

Henderson (1982), in his study of Florida's community colleges,

found that the economy has influenced the state legislature to make







decisions and set spending priorities which affected the open door

philosophy of the community colleges. (p. 104). The traditional open

door philosophy embraced by community colleges since the 1960s has begun

to close at some institutions (Watkins, 1982). This is primarily due

to fiscal constraints imposed by legislative cuts in funding, programs

and student aid (Knoell, 1983; Richardson & Leslie, 1980; Vaughn, 1983).

Vaughn (1983), concurring with the major critics, stated that "perhaps
more than any other factor, funding influences the shape of mission"

(p. 14).

In addition, Richardson (1982) cited a shift in the priorities of

public policy from access toward achievement. He maintained that

community colleges are "victims of their own success," stating that the

"explosion of clienteles, services, enrollments, and delivery systems

has not been matched by corresponding commitments of additional dollars

from state, local, or federal sources" (pp. 147-8). Cohen (1983),

elaborating on the effects of the cutbacks in funding and resources,

noted:

More recently the era of declining resources has forced
a redefinition of institutional purpose. The question
now is not how to add but how to drop programs, how to
eliminate curriculums and services. The question is no
longer a new program versus no program; it is which
program to keep, which one to drop. (p. 183)

Clearly, the environment of the 1980s for community colleges is a

dramatically different scenario than that of the growth decade of the

1960s, when resources seemed unlimited and community colleges were

opening at the rate of one per week. Talk of retrenchment and how to

do more with less has replaced grandeur talk of endless growth. In

1983 B. Lamar Johnson, the first executive director for the League for

Innovation in the Community College, stated that "community colleges--






29
and indeed all of higher education--are faced with a financial crisis"

(p. 35). Paul Elsner (1981), Chancellor of Arizona's Maricopa Community

Colleges, claimed that a "tax conscious public and budget conscious

legislators have brought us into a time of retrenchment" (p. 5). Many

leading critics appear to agree with Deustch (1983), who summarized

that "retrenchment is the single most important issue facing higher

education through the year 2000" (p. 41)

Richardson (1982) cited the changed external environment in which
community colleges function as one characterized by a period of scarcity.

He stated the following:

Accustomed to growth, we have attempted to forestall
the inevitable stabilization or even decline of enroll-
ments by seeking new clientele. Many of the new
clientele have problems which make them more expensive
to serve. Public policy makers have not been as
enthusiastic about our pursuit of new clientele as we
have been. Consistently they have refused to provide
us with the additional funds that we have required.
(p. 150).

Studies consistent with the focus of revenue changes at community

colleges have mushroomed since the passage of the tax-limiting

"Proposition 13" in California in 1978. Proposition 13 limited property

taxes, the primary source of community college funding in California,

by almost 60 percent (Jackson, 1981, pp. 152-3; Lombardi, 1979).

Lombardi (1979) reported that community colleges lost 465 million

dollars in property tax receipts due to the passage of Proposition 13.

Despite the buffer provided by some state surpluses, the "Post-Proposi-

tion 13" budget for the California community colleges was 86 percent of

the "Pre-Proposition 13" budget (p. 8). In a related study on tax

limitation issues by Lombardi (1979), the impact of Proposition 13 was

reflected by the failure of 20 local tax levy increases in Illinois.






30

In general, it appeared that by the end of the 1970s the potential for

increasing revenues from the traditional sources was gloomy for community

colleges.

McGuire (1978), in his study of public community college funding in

the United States, surveyed state community college directors to assess

state community college financial conditions. Of the 39 states respond-

ing, state directors in 21 states reported that community college

funding had reached a "stabilized" condition with no appreciable

increase or decrease in financial resources in three years. Of the

remaining 18 states, seven reported a decrease in funding and eleven

reported an increase. McGuire pointed out that even stable funding

constitutes a real cut in an inflationary period, especially if enroll-

ments are increasing as they have been at community colleges.

Further validation of changes in revenue sources is found in a 1982

doctoral study (Sedate, 1982). Sedate examined the current operating

revenue and expenditure patterns of 14 selected community colleges in

Texas. As a group, the Texas community colleges obtained funds to

match enrollment changes and inflation, yet in doing so relied more

upon state funds and less from local sources, especially student

tuition and fees. Several studies conducted by the Institute of Higher

Education at the University of Florida (Wattenbarger & Bibby, 1981;

Wattenbarger & Heck, 1983; Wattenbarger & Starnes, 1976) have also

validated the changes in sources of revenues at community colleges on a

state by state basis as well as incorporating a longitudinal national

comparison. Richardson and Leslie provided a summary of the scenario

of the 1970s in their 1980 monograph on community college funding:

From 1972 to the present, there has been gradual
erosion of the financial position of community colleges,







with no concomitant adjustment of institutional aspira-
tion. The result has been a period of educational
inflation during which programs and services have been
provided to greater numbers of students while the
constant dollars available have often remained essen-
tially stable or, in some instances, declined.
Community colleges have been among the hardest hit in
terms of the adequacy of state appropriations. Those
funded in part by local property taxes have encountered
taxpayer resistance as the decline in the share of the
costs paid by states had to be offset by increased
local dollars. (pp. 43-44)

The latest and perhaps most extensive study regarding trends in

what is happening to sources of revenue at community colleges was

conducted by NACUBO over the period 1976 through 1984. NACUBO surveyed

the business officers in 120 two-year public community colleges in 21

states chosen at random, representative of the total population of

community colleges. The following revenue trends were identified

(Jenkins, 1984):

1. Actual dollars appropriated by state and local governments have

continued to increase substantially.

2. The other source of increase in revenue was in tuition and fees.

3. There was a small decrease in federal grants and contracts.

4. Two other sources which showed increases were endowment income and

private gifts, grants, and contracts.

5. The remaining total of other revenues did not reflect substantial

change. (p. 25)

Although the NACUBO findings identified an actual dollar increase,

the actual percentage of state funds had decreased and was made up by

the substantial increases in tuition and fees and increased local

government funds. In summary, the trends apparent in revenue source

changes at community colleges from the studies reviewed include the

following:








1. Tuition is becoming increasingly important in financing community

colleges, comprising more than 10 percent of most operating budgets

Jenkins, 1984; Richardson & Leslie, 1980; Wattenbarger & Bibby, 1981;

Wattenbarger & Stepp, 1978).

2. Local funds contributing to community college revenues are decreasing

in general as a percent of the total operating budgets of community

colleges (Lombardi, 1979; Richardson & Leslie, 1980; Wattenbarger &

Heck, 1983).

3. State funds, while continuing to increase in dollar amounts, have

decreased as a percent of the total operating budget (Jenkins, 1984).

4. Some community colleges have been successful in expanding their

revenue base through substantial increases in increased sources of

revenue generated through efforts in development and fundraising

activities (Jenkins, 1984; Watkins, 1984b).


Reactions to Changes in Revenues

Four-Year Colleges and Universities

Four year colleges and universities were the first to react to

revenue decline perpetuated by demographic pressures and expenditure

pressures that grew faster than institutional revenues (Breneman, 1983;

Carnegie Foundation, 1975; Mortimer & Tierney, 1979). In many cases of

institutional decline in higher education, management was ill-prepared

to cope with retrenchment. Chaffee (1982), in her study of strategies

used in small private liberal arts colleges, found that in many cases

prior growth of enrollments and institutional revenues were the chief

cause of decline because the growth was planned, financed and managed

poorly, thus undermining productivity. Whetten (1981) supported

Chaffee's finding, contending that due to previous periods of rapid







growth, institutions have not developed the skills nor the mentality

necessary to deal with scarcity. Whetten further proposed that insti-

tutions tend to respond conservatively to decline and do more of what

they are already doing. He attributed this tendency to the conservative

structure of higher education institutions which creates a bias against

changes and innovation, thus perpetuating the status quo (pp. 83-89).

Specifically, studies of reactions to declines in revenue sources

in higher education have concentrated on ways to reduce expenditures

and reallocate resources (Carnegie Foundation, 1975; Heydinger, 1983;

Hyatt, Shulman, & Santiago, 1984; Mayhew, 1980; Mortimer & Tierney,

1979). The Center for the Study of Higher Education at The Pennsylvania

State University (Mortimer & Tierney, 1979) documented the experiences

of three institutions experiencing reductions in revenues: University

of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania State

College System. The two primary strategies employed were changing the

student-faculty ratios and internal reallocations of resources based on

program review. The internal review of programs resulted in faculty re-

ductions and dismissals as a result of specific program discontinuences.

Pfleiger (1980), in his study of the effects of revenue on the

administrative structures in small independent colleges, found that

attempts at increasing revenues were implemented rather than cutbacks

in administrative staff. The presidents surveyed in the study indicated

that the most prevalent techniques for increasing revenues were increas-

ing tuition and fees and developing programs to attract nontraditional,

part-time students. In a similar study focusing primarily on adminis-

trative staff reductions (Abrahamowitz & Rosenfeld, 1978), the most







frequently cited methods for retrenchment were early retirement,

nonreplacement of faculty and staff, and termination of part-time staff.

Chaffee's (1982) study of the effects and responses to enrollment

and revenue decline in small independent four-year schools incorporated

a case study approach. The results of the study of fourteen schools

formed the basis of Chaffee's generalizations regarding the management

of decline. In the institutions that had arrested the decline in

revenue and achieved financial stability and improvement, the following

characteristics were evident, as summarized by Lawrence (1984):

1. The presidents had an obvious ability to explain
the merits of the institution to the public.
2. The presidents were backed by assertive admissions
officers who understood the missions of the college.
3. Marginal rather than major changes were made in
programs.
4. Capital fund campaigns were started and alumni
development efforts were organized.
5. Close attention was paid to market factors and
constituencies who supplied critical resources.
6. Environmental opportunities were seized (i.e.,
via the use of trustees, professionalization of the
management team, public support, and development
efforts).
7. A strong and clear sense of organizational identity
was established and maintained.
8. Major decisions were made on the basis of the
institution's identity and the subsequent budgeting,
programmatic and enrollment policies reflected insti-
tutional mission and goals. (paraphrased, p. 23)

Another significant discovery in Chaffee's study was that in every case

of successful recovery from decline, the schools had replaced the old

administrators (i.e., those who had managed the college during growth

and expansion) with a new management team. Cameron and Whetten (1983)

described the reason for this phenomenon documented by Chaffee:

A new state of organizational development made old
ways of administering ineffective. Administrative
style must change, therefore, or else new administrators








who can manage the demands of a new state of development
must be installed when major institutional transitions
occur. (p. 295)

In two related studies by Cameron (1982; 1983), the orientations of

administrators and their responses to enrollment changes in universities

were examined. Both studies revealed a significant difference in the

strategic emphasis of the administrators in universities declining in

enrollments from administrators with growing or stable enrollments.

The administrators experiencing decline tended to be conservative and

internally focused in their orientation, emphasizing finances, budget-

ing, and fundraising. The administrators with growing enrollments were

characterized by an external orientation, advocating innovative proac-

tive responses and emphasizing public relations, service, and interaction

with external constituencies. Cameron's studies supported the findings

of Chaffee and Whetten, noting that administrators in declining organi-

zations tend to respond with conservatism, and may actually be perpet-

uating the decline by their anachronistic style.
*
The most recent study of strategies to changes in resources at

public colleges and universities examined four universities and one

community college district in three states hit hard by state revenue

shortfalls (Hyatt et al., 1984). The study incorporated a case study

approach to determine the effects of revenue reductions and the specific

institutional responses to the fiscal stress. Hyatt reported that what

actually had occurred at the institutions was reallocation, or, a long-

term approach defined as "a process which distributes resources according

to a plan" (p. 15). The specific factors involved in developing what

was considered to be an effective reallocation process at the institu-

tions were as follows:







1. Faculty and constituent involvement in the reallocation process;

2. Assessment of institutional role and mission;

3. The quality of academic and support programs; and,

4. Assessment of the long-term versus short-term costs and benefits

associated with reallocation.

It should be noted that all of the institutions included in the Hyatt

study viewed retrenchment and reallocation as a generally positive

experience. Some institutions found that the process "improved faculty

and staff understanding of the institution's role and mission and has

helped in setting institutional priorities" (p. 11). In concluding,

Hyatt et al. noted that the process of reallocation had prompted an in-

depth discussion of the long- and short-term implications associated

with the process (pp. 11-12). Also, in order to meet the challenges

facing institutions of higher education in the years ahead, Hyatt et

al. concluded that "reallocation must be made an integral part of

institutional management" (p. 12).

Community Colleges

Community colleges, despite relatively stable enrollments until

1983 (Watkins, 1984a), are facing similar stabilized and changed revenue

conditions as found in four-year institutions. Increased competition

for state dollars (Wattenbarger & Starnes, 1976) as well as for students

(Breneman, 1983) has placed community colleges in an uncomfortable

position. In many instances, community colleges have responded to

worsened revenue conditions amidst demands for increased services and

growing demands for accountability (Alfred, 1978; Henderson, 1982;

Richardson, 1982). Henderson (1978) cited that the most urgently

needed high-cost and innovative programs are generally the first to be







cut at community colleges in times of declining resources (p. 30).

Further, Henderson described the strategies employed to adjust to

declining revenues at community colleges as "a retreat to traditionalism"

(p. 29) precisely when there are renewed demands for new approaches to

serve new clientele.

Studies on strategies used by community colleges to adapt to

changes in revenue began to appear shortly after the passage of Proposi-

tion 13 in California and concurrent tax limitation measures in other

states (Jackson, 1981; Lombardi, 1979; McGuire, 1978). In McGuire's

1978 study of funding conditions in community colleges as reported by

the state directors in 39 states, the most frequently mentioned responses

to decreased and stabilized funding were reported as increasing part-

time faculty, reducing non-instruction expenses, and increasing student/

teacher ratios (p. 19). Wattenbarger (1978) expanded on responses to

reduced resources at community colleges, maintaining that reexamination

of the institutional mission was essential, as well as an institutional

planning process. Proposing an action-oriented approach to reduced

resources, Wattenbarger suggested several responses for administrators

to implement, including

1. Reducing the teaching and administrative staff;

2. Increasing faculty productivity by raising faculty/student ratios;

3. Reducing full-time faculty;

4. Curtailing/consolidating programs;

5. Identifying new sources of funds; and

6. Increasing efficiency and effectiveness through the reorganization

of the management structure.






38
Alfred (1978) reaffirmed Wattenbarger's approach and also recommended

the organization of an aggressive public relations program, increasing

lobbying efforts, using outcome measures to build an effective resource

base, and implementation of a flexible short- and long-term planning

process carried out by the central administration (p. ix, 87).

The responses to revenue decline by 70 community college districts

in California in 1978 were studied by Lombardi (1979). The most

frequent strategies implemented by the community colleges identified by

Lombardi were as follows:

1. Determined program priorities among current programs and made

subsequent program cuts. (The highest priority programs were occupa-

tional and transfer; the lowest priority programs were community

service and non-credit adult education.)

2. Suspended cost-of-living increases.

3. Instituted hiring freezes and cut current fringe benefits.

4. Dropped overload assignments of tenured faculty.

5. Cut the length of administrative contracts.

6. Eliminated and combined courses and programs based on a "zero-

based type of scrutiny" to determine need.

7. Imposed fees such as health and facilities fees.

8. Stopped capital outlay projects.

Breneman and Nelson (1981), in their analysis of community college

financing in the 1980s, suggested three possible approaches for community

colleges. The alternatives they suggested are as follows:

1. Maintain the commitment to the comprehensive mission, giving

academic, occupational, and community service components equal priority.






39

2. Drop the community service component and emphasize the traditional

collegiate function.

3. Emphasize the community service orientation and become community

based learning centers.

Three recent doctoral studies (Charnley & Hungar, 1982; Mehnert,

1982; Yopp, 1982) provided research on revenue changes in community

colleges. Yopp (1982), in a national survey of 827 community and

junior college presidents, found that the most troublesome issue

identified by the presidents centered around finances. The presidents

reported that they expected to generate funds or reduce expenditures at

their institutions by increasing tuition, productivity, funding from

the state, and through the increased use of parttime instructors and

energy conservation practices.

In Mehnert's (1982) study of strategies for community college

retrenchment a historical analysis was used to create a weighted order

of survival strategies. In descendent order, the strategies include

balancing the budget by research, resource analysis, and cost effective-

ness; planning/self-study; maintaining a unique mission; improving

spirit and morale; lowering personnel costs; improving public attitudes;

offering pertinent, quality programs; and collaborating with other

institutions.

In a related doctoral study, Charnley and Hungar (1982) examined

the planning process for resource allocation at Seattle Central Community

College. They developed a planning model to meet the particular

context and environmental conditions for the allocation of declining

resources at the college. In doing so, they identified the key factors

to effective planning and resource allocation as committed, dynamic







executive-leadership and systematic involvement or organizational

members in the planning process.

In addition to the previously cited studies, the literature search

revealed agreement regarding the criteria for effective strategies to

changes in revenues in higher education. Levine (1979), discussing

cutback management in the arena of public management, stressed the

value of involving the affected units or parties in the cutback process

and the disservice of implementing across-the-board cuts:

Sharing the pain of cuts by allocating them across-
the-board to all units may minimize pain, help to
maintain morale, and build a good team spirit in the
organization, but it is not responsible management.
Not every unit in an organization or every agency in a
government contributes equally to the goals, purposes,
and basic functions of that organization or government.
(p. 102)

An additional problem cited by Levine (1979) was that in general "inef-

ficient organizations are less penalized when cuts are taken across-

the-board than are efficient organizations" (pp. 181-2). According to

Levine, this was primarily due to the lack of rewards for conserving

resources in public management.

An example of staff involvement in the priority-setting process and

avoidance of any across-the-board cuts is the institution-wide planning

process implemented by the University of Minnesota (Heydinger, 1983).

The University, caught in a 12% cut in their operational budget in the

1981-83 biennium, responded by using their existing institution-wide

planning process to arrive at a set of specific program priorities for

the system. The process leading up to the final budget decisions

involved faculty and staff, avoided any across-the-board cuts, and

ultimately integrated the academic governance procedures of each

college throughout the entire process.








The State University of New York (SUNY), which has over 60

campuses including community colleges, responded in a similar nature

when faced with a major state budget reduction in 1976 (Shirley, 1982).

One of the four major university centers in the system, SUNY-Albany,

responded to the cutback directives within a long-range planning

perspective. The institution formed a faculty-dominated taskforce

which implemented program review to determine program cuts. The

taskforce rejected across-the-board cuts and focused on program areas

where they had "over-expanded" in the 1960s. The final outcome was the

termination of 18 of the institution's 129 programs. Of the 110

faculty affected by the cuts, 70 faculty were reallocated to high

priority program areas and 38 faculty positions were surrendered to the

State of New York (p. 24). An obvious benefit of the SUNY-Albany

process appeared to be that the short-range budget cuts were perceived

to be consistent with the long-range plan for the campus and significant

involvement by departments was incorporated into the reallocation

process.

Campbell (1982), in his study of 37 campuses responding the finan-

cial difficulty, found common responses which concur with the previous

studies. He cited deferred maintenance, restricted travel, increased

recruitment, upgraded public image, and cutbacks in non-instructional

areas as the most common approaches. Campbell characterized the "most

successful" institutions surveyed:

1. They knew they needed to employ a more effective
use of resources.
2. They had to promote a long-range perspective in
their planning activities.
3. They needed to identify priority programs, and
cut or trim other.








4. They recognized the need to attract and retain
capable managers.
5. They knew they had to improve their fundraising
activities.
6. They needed greater trustee involvement and
more structured faculty and staff participation.
(pp. 15-16)

Overall, the studies regarding how community colleges and other

institutions of higher education have adjusted to changes in revenue

appear to have several themes in common, including the following:

1. The need to incorporate the existing planning process into the

decision-making process regarding the reallocation of resources was

stressed (Heydinger, 1983; Shirley, 1982; Wattenbarger, 1978).

2. Retreating to traditional responses such as deferred maintenance

and across-the-board cuts was viewed as a short-term solution (Henderson,

1978; Levine, 1979; Lombardi, 1979).

3. The most strategic and innovative measures promoted a long-range

approach (Breneman, 1983; Hyatt et al., 1984; Whetten, 1981). These

themes contribute to the development of the theoretical propositions

regarding adjustments to changes in revenues presented in the summary

section of this chapter.


Summary

Development of the Postulates and Propositions

Several recurring themes were present in the studies reviewed, which

led to the development of the following postulated and propositions.

The postulates are suggested and used as the premises related to

reaching conclusions regarding strategies utilized to adjust to changes

in sources of revenues at community colleges. The propositions, which

are suggested to support the postulates, were analyzed in conjunction






43

with the data presented in Chapter IV as to whether they are supported

(confirmed) or not supported (rejected). Further, the degree of con-

firmation or rejection of the postulates and propositions led to the

development of strategies for responding to the problems related to

changes in revenues at community colleges, which will be presented in

Chapter V. The propositions are as follows:

Postulate I

Where there were changes in sources of revenues at community

colleges, they were usually a result of changes in state funding or

fiscal restraints imposed by the state legislature. The results of the

changes, although dollars had actually increased, was that the propor-

tion of dollars from state sources had decreased.

Proposition I-A

Institutions attempted to increase revenues by raising tuition,

increasing fundraising and development efforts, and by making some

activities self-supporting.

Proposition I-B

Institutions attempted to decrease expenditures by implementing

across-the-board cuts, deferring maintenance, and increasing the use of

part-time faculty.

Proposition I-C

Institutions attempted to become more efficient by raising student-

faculty ratios and instituting hiring freezes/nonreplacement of faculty

and staff.

Proposition I-D

Institutions protected the instructional program area by making

little or no changes in it; when changes were made, they were made








according to plan, such as using program review, priorities, planning

data, and incorporating the changes into the long-range goals and plans

of the institution.

Postulate II

The effectiveness of the strategies implemented as a result of

changes in revenues is a function of the characteristics of the community

college and its environment.

Proposition II-A

Assertive leadership of the chief executive officer was crucial to

instilling a clear and strong sense of institutional mission during

periods of changes in sources of revenues.

Proposition II-B

Close attention to constituencies and to the process of faculty and

staff involvement in the priority and decision-setting processes was

crucial to the acceptance of the plans, as well as to the maintenance

of the morale and innovation within the institution.

Proposition II-C

The skills and mindset to deal with changes in revenues were often

lacking due to prior periods of growth; therefore, institutions tended

to respond conservatively, avoid program risk-taking or hard personnel

decisions.

Proposition II-D

Strategies were often limited in scope and application due to the

lack of control of external variables present in the environment (i.e.,

state-set tuition levels, state and local economy, and legislative

policy).








It appears clear from the literature reviewed that the changing

environment permeating higher education has produced new trends in the

sources and amounts of revenue for community colleges. Funds from the

traditional state and local revenue sources to community colleges began

to decline in the 1970s due to inflation and shifts in legislative

priorities (Henderson, 1982). The effects of these changes have

included the development of responses and strategies by community

colleges to adjust to the changes in revenues, often at the expense of

the institutional mission. The funding experience of the 1960s and

1970s created a growth orientation which has dominated the management

of community colleges. This growth orientation became dysfunctional in

the late 1970s, contributing to the lack of data-based recommendations

and strategies regarding the management of an organization experiencing

revenue decline conditions caused by inflation and rising costs.

Whetten (1980) contended that even systems theory, which emphasizes the

need for an institution to adjust to environmental changes, suggests

"that an organization must grow in order to maintain a steady state

relationship with its environment" (p. 579).

In the review of related studies, it was found that changes in

revenues, particularly if they were of a negative nature, were the pri-

mary stimulus for changes in the organization. The changes in the

organizations were usually related to the strategies implemented as a

result of the revenue changes. For instance, when institutions imple-

mented across-the-board cuts there were sometimes changes in the

institutional budgeting processes. Also, at some institutions a review

of institutional missions and goals followed the implementation of

certain strategies, such as cutting back in non-instructional or





46

student service areas. The most prominent themes found in the literature

identified through the development of the postulates and propositions

will guide the analysis of the data in Chapter IV and the development

of the strategies recommended for community colleges experiencing

revenue changes presented in Chapter V.














CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY


This chapter provides a description of the specific methodology

employed for addressing the research problem, that is, determining which

strategies and adaptations have been utilized in order to minimize the

problems attributed to changes in revenues at community colleges. The

procedures developed and utilized in collecting data for this study are

described and summarized in this chapter. In addition, the logical

relationship between the problem statement and the methodology utilized

for this study is demonstrated through utilization of the research

technique of triangulation, that is, the use of a variety of sources of

data and multiple methods to study the research problem (Denzin, 1978).

The research methodolgy of this study consisted of the following

elements: (a) identification of the research population, (b) selection

of the sample for field study, (c) development of an instrument, (d) col-

lection of data, and (e) analysis of the data. This investigation

began with informal interviews with two administrators at two community

colleges in January, 1984. Both of the community colleges are members

of the League for Innovation in the Community College. One of the

administrators interviewed was a community college president. Each

administrator was asked to describe the degree of change in sources of

institutional revenues for the period 1979 through 1983 at their

institution. If changes had occurred, each administrator was asked to

describe what, if any, problems had been created at the institution







because of the revenue changes. In addition, each administrator was

asked what responses the institution had employed to counteract the

problems and if they perceived the responses to be effective (i.e., to

maintain the mission of the college). The results of the informal

interviews reflected a consensus among the perceptions of these community

college administrators that changes in sources of revenues were creating

problems at community colleges. The findings also revealed differing

perceptions regarding the effectiveness of specific responses to deal

with the situation created by the revenue changes. The findings of the

informal interviews reinforced the need for the study and provided a basis

for the formulation of the survey instrument developed by the researcher.


Research Population

The research population for this study consisted of the 18 community

college districts that are member institutions of the League for Innova-

tion in the Community College (see Appendix A). The League, an educa-

tional consortium noted for national leadership and development in the

community college field, functions specifically to stimulate experimen-

tation and innovation in community colleges. The 18 League member

districts are comprised of 54 public community colleges, represent 13

states, enroll over 850,000 students, and have a combined faculty and

staff of 25,000. Membership in the League is by invitation only; the

current board policy is to limit membership to no more than 18 community

college districts.


Sample Selection

The selection of the sample for this investigation consisted of two

phases. The first phase was the distribution of the researcher-developed






49
survey instrument to the chief executive officers of the entire popula-

tion, that is, at all 18 of the community college districts in the

League for Innovation. The rationale for using this strategy was to

increase the likelihood that the survey data collected were represent-

ative of the entire population of interest. Also, distributing the

survey to the entire population increased the degree of external

validity, or, generalizability, of the study.

The second phase of the sample selection employed a combination of

quantitative and purposeful sample selection techniques in the selection

of three community colleges for in-depth field study. The purpose of

the field studies (i.e., to study in-depth the situation, environment,

and perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the actual responses

employed to adapt to changes in sources of revenues at community

colleges) increased the need for a sample of varied and extreme cases.

In order to identify varied and extreme cases for field study,

data from a national study of community college finance conducted by

the National Association of College and University Business Officers

(NACUBO, 1984) were used. Thirteen League community colleges were

identified as participants in the study for the baseline period of

interest (i.e., 1979 through 1983). The 13 League community colleges

were contacted by the researcher requesting permission for the release

of their individual institutional financial statistics as reported to

NACUBO for the study. Of the total 13 League colleges contacted, all

13, or, 100%, granted permission for the data release by NACUBO to the

researcher. The data were released from NACUBO to the researcher in

June, 1984. The data from NACUBO were limited to financial statistics







for only 10 of the 13 League colleges identified for the period from

1980 through 1983 because of a change in the data processing program

used by NACUBO in 1980 which restricted access to the data.

Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis of the NACUBO data

in order to identify the community colleges with the greatest degree of

change in current operating revenues from 1980 through 1983. The finan-

cial data were interpreted using frequency distributions and measures

of central tendency. The purposes of utilizing frequency distributions

were to identify patterns in the distribution of scores and to identify

the most frequently occurring class of scores (Huck, Cormier, & Bounds,

1974). The identification of the means and standard deviations for the

selected community colleges for the years 1980 through 1983 identified

the institutions with the greatest degree of change in current revenue

categories (i.e., those which deviated more than one standard deviation

from the mean). It should be noted that no attempt was made to rank or

analyze interinstitutional revenue mixes, as comparisons are limited in

use and difficult to make due to the wide range of financing schemes in

different states and localities. Further, the lack of control that

administrators have over the setting of tuition and appropriation

levels makes medians and quartile comparisons of dubious statistical

value. The composite means and standard deviations are presented in

Table 3-1.

In addition to the NACUBO financial data, additional criteria were

employed for the selection of the three community colleges for field

study. The additional criteria included the following:

1. Willingness to participate.

2. The size of the institution, that is, at least one community









Table 3-1
Changes in Current Operating Revenues
1980-81 through 1982-83


Sources of Revenues


Institution

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J


Credit Tuition
and Fees

2.8

1.9

-.1

-2.6

3.7

1.0

-3.8

2.6

3.7

.9


State Local
Appropriations Appropriations

-4.1 -2.2

-2.1 n/a

.6 n/a

-4.1 -.9

-4.5 3.7

-4.6 -2.2

5.3 -4.7

-9.7 .5

-1.4 -2.1

-5.0 -1.0


Gifts, Grants & Contracts
Federal State & Local

5.7 -1.2

1.1 .6

4.3 .3

3.1 1.8

1.2 0

5.0 .7

.7 -.7

5.4 3.7

-2.2 2.3

3.2 1.7


Other

-.9

.2

-2.1

-1.1

-4.2

.9

2.6

-1.4

-.9

.1


Total SD from
the mn Tn all
six categories

1

2

3

0

4

3

4

3.5

2

2


Mean of
the category 2.31

Standard deviation 1.23


n=10


4.14

2.4


1.73

1.48


3.2

2.1


1 .92

.95


1.48

1.13


2.45





52

college generating less than a total credit and noncredit enrollment of

8,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) units and at least one community college

generating more than a total credit and noncredit enrollment of 12,000

full-time equivalent (FTE) units.

3. The size of the service area, that is, at least one community

college from a total service area population greater than 250,000 but

less than 500,000 and at least one community college from a total

service area population in excess of 500,000.

4. The geographic location of the institution, that is, at least one

community college from the southern/western region of the United States

and at least one community college from the northeastern/midwest region

of the United States.

5. The comprehensiveness of the mission of the institution, that is,

the scope of the community college mission should encompass the six

functions of transfer preparation, occupational education, developmental

or compensatory education, general education, guidance, and community

service (including adult/continuing education).

The selection procedures combined quantitative data analysis and

purposeful sample selection techniques, using criteria, judgement, and

strategy on the part of the researcher. The three community colleges

selected for in-depth field study met the majority of the selection cri-

teria as well as provided a diversity of institutional characteristics.

Although the problem of small sample size is present in the method

employed, the maximization of variation in case selection increased the

likelihood of greater representativeness and generalizability to other

community colleges. Patton (1980) stated: "While studying one or a

few critical cases does not technically permit broad generalizations to






53

all possible cases, logical generalizations can often be made from the

weight of evidence produced in studying a single, critical case"

(p. 130). Further, increasing the diversity in the sample, although

the sample size remains small, affords the researcher more confidence

in patterns that emerge as common among cases as well as characteristics

that emerge as unique to the different settings (Patton, 1980, p. 102).


Instrument Development

Data for this study were collected by means of two separate re-

searcher-developed instruments. The first instrument was a survey

questionnaire (See Appendix B) developed to assess the perceptions of

the chief executive officers of the 18 League community college districts

as to the effectiveness of specific strategies for adapting to changes

in revenues. A secondary purpose of the survey instrument was to

validate the findings in the literature review and establish standards

against which the theoretical propositions were evaluated in the

analysis of the data. The second instrument developed was an interview

guide (see Appendix C) used to facilitate the data collection of the

perceptions of institutional personnel at the three community colleges

selected for field study.

The survey questionnaire was developed based on the institutional

adaptations to revenue changes found in the review of the literature

and from information obtained from the informal interviews conducted

with administrators at two League community colleges experiencing

changes in sources of revenues. The informal interviews facilitated

the task of developing good objective questions through the adminis-

tration of open-ended forms of the survey questions to a small sample







of subjects representative of the population of interest (Issac &

Michael, 1975).

The survey questionnaire was pilot-tested during a field visit to

two community colleges representative in size, comprehensiveness, and

mission to those community colleges involved in the study. In addition,

several community college personnel reviewed the instrument for clarity

and content validity. Upon subsequent revision of the instrument,

the final draft incorporated a Likert-type ordinal rating scale to

assess the perceptions of the chief executive officers at the 18

League community college districts as to the effectiveness of specific

institutional adaptations and strategies an institution may employ to

deal with revenue changes. The five-point rating scale included a

range from one, signifying not at all effective, to five, signifying

extremely effective. Each interval between the five points on the

scale was assumed to be equal (Tuckman, 1978).

The second instrument developed by the researcher was an interview

guide for the interviews conducted at the three League community col-

leges selected for field study. The questions included in the interview

guide were designed to facilitate answers to the following questions:

1. Based on the revenue changes that have occurred at the institu-

tion, have related changes or problems occurred?

2. Have specific strategies and adaptations been implemented to

counteract the impacts and effects created by the changes in revenues?

If so, what were the strategies and how effective were they perceived

to be?







3. What effect, if any, have the changes in revenues had on the

institution, and how effectively has the institution responded in terms

of maintaining the institutional mission?

4. What are some of the strengths of the institution as well as re-

strictions that have influenced the course of events at the institution?

The interview instrument was pilot-tested over a three day period

consisting of 10 interviews at two community colleges similar in size,

scope, and mission to the League colleges involved in the study. Subse-

quent revisions of the interview instrument incorporated the suggestions

and eliminated the deficiencies revealed in the pilot tests.


Data Collection

The data for this investigation were collected in two phases.

First, the survey instruments were distributed to each of the chief

executive officers of the 18 member districts in the League for Inno-

vation. The distribution of the surveys occurred through a mail-out on

June 6, 1984. A cover letter describing the primary focus of the study

and assuring anonymity was included with the survey. Replies from 14

of the 18 chief executive officers were received by the designated dead-

line of June 15, 1984. Follow-up letters and telephone calls were used

to contact nonresponding subjects after the established return deadline

has passed. The follow-up attempts resulted in securing the remaining

four surveys from the chief executive officers by August 3, 1984.

The total number of responses to the survey instrument was 18 of 18,

or, a 100% return rate. This high rate of return influences both the

external and internal validity of the results, and establishes a






56

greater possibility for generalization among the perceptions regarding

the effectiveness of specific responses to changes in sources of revenues.

Prior to the second phase of the data collection (i.e., field stud-

ies), the chief executive officers of the three institutions selected

for field study were contacted and asked for their consent and coopera-

tion in conducting a study on changes in revenues and their institutional

adaptations to revenue changes. Included in the letter requesting co-

operation was a brief description of the purpose and anticipated outcome

of the study. In addition, concurrent cooperation was received from

the Executive Director of the League for Innovation and from the appro-

priate staff associate at NACUBO.

The second phase of the data collection for this study was conducted

by the researcher during individual site visitations to the three

community colleges selected for in-depth field study. A field study

guide developed by the researcher was used to prepare for the site

visitation and to guide the actual data collection in the field (see

Appendix D). The site visitations lasted from four to five days at

each institution. The majority of meetings and interviews were pre-

scheduled in conjunction with the designated League representative at

the institution. Additional meetings and interviews were scheduled on-

site according to the availability of specific institutional personnel.

Personal interviews were conducted with 11 respondents at each of

the three institutions by the researcher. Interviewee respondents at

each community college included the president, chancellor or chief

executive officer, if available; a provost or executive vice-president;

the chief institutional budget officer; the chief student personnel

services officer; the foundation director; two deans or directors of







instructional programs most directly affected by revenue changes; the

staff development director or dean; the chief institutional planning

officer; and three selected faculty and staff from departments most

directly affected by revenue changes.

Consequently, interviews were accomplished with a total of 33

participants; each interview lasted approximately one hour. Each

interviewee responded to questions posed by the researcher based on the

interview guide (See Appendix C). Responses were recorded by the

researcher in written form; further clarification of responses was

requested when deemed necessary by the researcher. The interviewees

supplemented their verbal responses with documents in many cases, such

as departmental reports, budget memos, and written policies. The

reliability of the interview responses was checked by cross-checking

the intra-institutional responses to certain items as well as cross-

checking the responses with the available documentation. Inter-insti-

tutional reliability was checked by the researcher by comparing the

responses of the same items on the interview guide between institutions.

External validity was increased by the design of the persons selected

to be interviewed, that is, persons in the same or comparable positions

at each institution.

After the interviews and field visitations were completed, the data

were summarized and executive summaries of the data prepared by the

researcher were sent to the League representatives of the involved

institutions for their reaction and feedback. The feedback received

from the League representatives was included in the final analysis of

the field study data in Chapter IV.








Analysis of the Data

Data analysis is the process of bringing order to the data by

organizing the data into patterns, categories, and basic descriptive

units (Patton, 1980). Several approaches to data analysis as well as

to data collection were used in this study. This combination of method-

ologies in the study of the same phenomena is known as triangulation

(Denzin, 1978; Patton, 1980). Triangulation allows the researcher

greater flexibility in the data collection process, such as collecting

data through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the

obvious advantage of the comparability of the data collected, two

additional advantages of this technique that contribute to the verifi-

cation and validation of data analysis are, according to Patton (1980)

(a) checking out the consistency of findings generated by different

data collection methods and (b) checking out the consistency of dif-

ferent sources within the same method.

The analysis of the survey data for this study incorporated the

quantitative techiques of descriptive statistics to identify the insti-

tutional strategies perceived as most effective by the chief executive

officers of the League institutions during periods of changes in

revenues at community colleges. The responses from each individual

survey were keypunched on data processing cards and run on an IBM 360

mainframe computer during August, 1984. The resulting output displayed

the composite data in an item analysis format for each individual

question on the survey. The item analysis included the arithmetic mean

and standard deviation for each survey item; the means and standard

deviations were displayed for both yes and no responses.







The data were interpreted and presented using frequency distribu-

tions, means, standard deviations, and rank order computations. The

data were displayed in tabular format and accompanied by a narrative

summary. The complete results of the survey data analysis are presented

in Chapter IV.

The rank summary of responses was used to establish the criteria

for categories regarding the perceived effectiveness of the survey

responses. The criteria for data inclusion were developed by the

researcher in order to place composite responses in categories of

effectiveness. The standards used to develop the criterion were based

on achieving majority or greater of the number of respondents to each

item on the survey; the decision rules established for the standards

for the means were based on the rating scale identified in the survey

instructions. The decision rules establishing the criteria for data

inclusion were as follows:

1. For inclusion in the category of most effective, the number of

responses must total eight or more and the mean must be equal to or

greater than 3.70.

2. For inclusion in categories of average in effectiveness, the number

of responses must total eight or more and the mean must be between 3.20

and 3.69.

3. For inclusion in the category of least effective, the number of

responses must total eight or more and the mean must be equal to or

less than 3.19.

The results of the survey data analysis were used to check the va-

lidity of the theoretical propositions and to faciliate the development

of guidelines for community colleges when responding to problems related







to changes in revenues. The results of the survey data analysis are

presented in Chapter IV.

The nature of the field study data collected during the in-depth

interviews and document inspection lent itself to analysis in several

ways. The analysis of qualitative data of this nature typically

follows no formal or universal rules. The lack of limitations aligns

well with the nature of the inductive method of qualitative discovery.

For example, Guba (1978) described the "discovery oriented approach" as

minimizing the manipulation of the study setting by the researcher.

Further, Guba (1978) described this approach as lacking prior restraints

on what the outcomes of the research will be, as opposed to the re-

straints present when pure scientific inquiry is conducted.

Prior to the field study data analysis a decision rule was estab-

lished by the researcher as a guide for the inclusion of data from the

interviews. The decision rule was: If 40% or more of the interviewees

gave the same response to an item, the item was included in the overall

summary matrix analysis presented in Chapter IV. This inclusion rule

increased the external validity of the study by allowing only those

responses that nearly met a majority of the responses received from

the interviewees. The internal validity and reliability of the data

were cross-checked through the comparison of interviewee responses.

The data from each individual field study were analyzed and presented

for each institution in a case study format. In addition, the overall

data from all three institutions were presented in tabular and matrix

formats accompanied by a descriptive narrative.

The purposes of classifying the institutional data in case study

format were to identify patterns and themes within a particular setting






61

and across cases. The analysis organized the data by specific cases of

each institution, thus permitting in-depth study of each case. Included

in the case study data for each institution were the interview data,

the documentary data, the observational data, and general impressions

and statements of the researcher and others regarding the case. The

case study analysis incorporated an inductive approach, allowing rela-

tionships between variables to emerge from the analysis process itself.

The complete case studies, matrices, and descriptive narratives are

presented in Chapter IV.














CHAPTER IV
RESULTS


This study attempted to determine the nature of changes in sources

of revenues at community colleges, the strategies and adaptations that

have been utilized at selected community colleges in order to minimize

the problems associated with the changes, and which strategies were

perceived as effective by the chief executive officers of the selected

community colleges. The results of the study were determined by as-

sessing the perceptions of the chief executive officers of the League

institutions regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies, by

interviewing institutional personnel at three selected community col-

leges, and by conducting in-depth field studies at the three selected

institutions. First, the results of the survey are presented. Second,

the results of the in-depth field studies and personal interviews are

presented. Finally, the theoretical propositions developed and presented

in Chapter II are either confirmed or rejected based on the results.


Results of the Survey

The purpose of the survey was to measure the perceptions of the chief

executive officers of the League institutions as to the effectiveness

of specific strategies a community college might implement when experi-

encing a decline in sources of revenues. For the purpose of the

survey, effectiveness was defined in terms of how well the strategies

contributed to maintaining the overall goals of the institution. The

rating scale for the survey was as follows:

62







1 not at all effective
2 below average in effectiveness
3 about average in effectiveness
4 above average in effectiveness
5 extremely effective

The results of the chief executive officers' perceptions are based

on the entire population of interest, that is, all 18 of the League

chief executive officers. The total number of responses to the survey

instrument was 18 of 18, or, 100% of the population. All surveys

returned were usable; therefore the results are based on a 100% effective

return rate. The results of the survey are presented in tabular format

accompanied by a narrative explanation.

Effectiveness Ratings of Strategies

Strategies perceived as most effective. Listed in Table 4-1 in

rank order are the strategies perceived as most effective by the chief

executive officers. The statistics are based on those who ranked the

strategy after indicating that they had used the strategy in the last

three to four years. Since the respondents indicating no (they had not

used the strategy) did not rank the strategy, only those respondents

indicating yes (they had used the strategy) are included in the analysis.

Only strategies used by eight or more of the respondents are included

in the table; the mean of the strategies included are all 3.70 or above.

Although strategies used by less than eight of the respondents were not

included in the table, it should be noted that three of the strategies

listed in the survey had a mean rating of 4.25 and above, although they

were used by only three to four of the respondents. The strategies

include review/change enrollment-driven funding formula, mean = 4.25;

sell or rent unused or underutilized facilities, mean = 4.33; and

contract for services such as bookstore or daycare, mean = 4.67.





64

The strategies ranked as most effective which were used by the greatest

percentage of the respondents were initiate retirement options, used

by 89% and increase cooperative relations and linkages with business

and industry, also used by 89% of the respondents. The percentages

reflecting those respondents who have tried the strategies within the

past three to four years are also presented in Table 4-1.

Strategies perceived as average in effectiveness. The strategies

perceived as average in effectiveness, falling within the mean ratings

from 3.20 to 3.69, are presented in Table 4-2. Nineteen strategies, or

49% of the total strategies listed in the survey, fell within the

average in effectiveness range. There appears to be strong consensus

in regard to the ratings in this category. The low standard deviations

in this rating category reflect a greater consensus regarding the

effectiveness of the strategies in this category as compared to the

category of most effective. It should also be noted that a signif-

icant number of the strategies listed in this category refer to faculty

and staff usage.

Strategies perceived as least effective. As can be seen from Table

4-3, seven strategies were perceived as least effective by the chief

executive officers; least effective strategies were defined with a mean

rating of 3.19 or below. Although only four of these strategies were

used by more than half of the respondents, all of the strategies

perceived as least effective related to deferral and reductions of

expenditures and across-the-board cuts.

Effectiveness rankings of the most frequently used strategies.

Table 4-4 presents a ranking of the strategies and their perceived

effectiveness according to the total percent of the respondents










Table 4-1

Strategies Perceived as Most Effective


Strategy Mean Standard N (yes Percent
Deviation responses) of total


Attempt raising the local millage
level/taxes 4.13 1.05 8 44%

Initiate retirement options 4.00 1.00 16 89

Raise student/faculty teaching
ratio 3.91 .90 11 61

Increase cooperative relations
and linkages with business
and industry 3.88 .70 16 89

Attempt to make some activities
self-supporting 3.87 .90 11 61

Increase student recruitment
efforts 3.85 .77 13 72

Increase the use of part-time
faculty 3.85 .66 13 72

Increase fundraising and
development efforts 3.75 1.03 10 56

Renew and redefine institutional
mission and goals 3.73 .96 12 67

Institute a hiring freeze 3.70 1.1 11 61








Table 4-2

Strategies Perceived as Average in Effectiveness


Strategy Mean Standard N (yes Percent
Deviation responses) of total

Reassign faculty and staff 3.69 .82 13 72%

Limit non-FTE-producing programs
and services 3.67 .94 10 56

Charge user fees for services 3.63 .70 9 50

Increase public relation efforts 3.62 .84 13 72

Retrain faculty and staff 3.55 .78 11 61

Reduce non-instructional staff 3.54 .84 13 72

Share staff among campuses
or departments 3.54 .84 14 78

Attempt to reduce student
attrition 3.53 .85 17 94
Increase the recruitment of new
student populations 3.50 .73 14 78

Increase lobbying efforts 3.50 1.06 16 89

Raise tuition/student fees 3.50 1.12 15 83

Increase institutional long-term
planning efforts 3.46 .71 15 83

Target reductions through an
institution-wide program
review process 3.45 .78 12 67

Implement cost-analysis studies 3.38 .70 17 94

Involve faculty and staff in
the reallocation process 3.38 .93 16 89

Reduce the number of course
sections 3.35 .88 12 67

Encourage staff and faculty
development programs 3.35 .76 17 94










Table 4-3

Strategies Perceived as Least Effective


Strategy Mean Standard N (yes Percent
Deviation responses) of total


Institute across-the-board-cuts 3.00 .71 8 44%

Reduce travel expenditures 2.82 .94 12 67

Defer equipment purchases 2.58 .92 16 89

Defer major maintenance
expenditures 2.27 1.14 11 61

Use up excess revenues/
fund balance 2.11 .74 9 50









Table 4-4

Effectiveness Rankings of the Most Frequently Used Strategies




Rank Strategy Percent of Effectiveness
Order total Rating (mean)


1 Reduce student attrition 94% 3.53

2 Cost-analysis studies 94 3.38

3 Faculty/staff development 94 3.35

4 Retirement options 89 4.00

5 Business/industry cooperation 89 3.88

6 Increase lobbying 89 3.50

7 Involve faculty/staff 89 3.38

8 Defer equipment purchases 89 2.28

9 Raise tuition/fees 83 3.50

10 Increase planning 83 3.46

11 Share staff 78 3.54

12 Increase student recruitment* 72 3.85

Increase part-time faculty* 72 3.85

13 Reassign faculty/staff 72 3.69

14 Increase public relations 72 3.62

15 Reduce non-institutional staff 72 3.54


*indicates tie rankings








that indicated they had tried the strategy. For the most part, the

strategies most frequently used fell within the personnel and enrollment

areas, as well as appear to be process-oriented. It is interesting to

note that of the 16 strategies which 72% or more of the respondents

tried, only one fell below 3.35 in effectiveness rating (defer equipment

purchases = 2.82).

Effectiveness rating by type of strategy. A related illustration

of the effectiveness of specific strategies is presented in Table 4-5.

The strategies are grouped according to type of strategy (personnel,

revenues, expenditures, enrollment, and process). Only strategies

tried by 50% or more of the respondents are included in this table; the

total number of strategies illustrated is 28, or 72% of the total.

The types of strategies most frequently tried by the respondents

fell within the process (81%), enrollment (78%) and personnel (71%)

categories. The type of strategy with the highest average effectiveness

rating is the revenue type (mean = 3.78), followed by the personnel

type (mean = 3.72). Both means, 3.78 and 3.72, fall within the most

effective range. It is interesting to note that although the revenue

type of strategies was tried by an average of only 59% of the respond-

ents, it was ranked highest in overall effectiveness at 3.78. The

lowest ranked type of strategy, expenditures, was tried by 66% of the

respondents and was ranked with an average of 2.51, falling in the

least effective category.

Measures of Central Tendency and Frequency Distribution

The grand mean of the perceived effectiveness strategies listed was

3.50, which would fall in the average in effectiveness category. The

mode, or most frequently occurring rating, was also 3.50, which indicated








Table 4-5

Effectiveness Rating by Type of Strategy


Type of Strategy Percent Effectiveness
Tried Rating (mean)

ENROLLMENT
Increase recruitment 72% 3.85
Reduce attrition 94 3.53
Reduce course sections 67 3.35
n=3 m=78% m=3.58

EXPENDITURES
Limit non=FTE activities 56% 3.67
Cost-analysis studies 94 3.38
Across-the-board reductions 44 3.0
Reduce travel expenditures 67 2.82
Defer equipment purchases 89 2.58
Defer maintenance 61 2.27
Use up fund balances 50 2.11
n=7 m=66% m=2.51

PERSONNEL
Retirement options 89% 4.00
Raise teaching ratios 61 3.91
Increase part-time faculty 72 3.85
Hiring freeze 61 3.70
Reassign faculty/staff 72 3.69
Retrain faculty/staff 61 3.55
Reduce non-instructional staff 72 3.54
Share staff 78 3.54
n=8 m=71% m=3.72

PROCESS
Business/industry cooperation 89% 3.88
Review mission/goals 67 3.72
Increase public relations 72 3.62
Increase lobbying 89 3.50
Increase planning 83 3.46
Program review 67 3.45
Involve faculty/staff 89 3.38
Faculty/staff development 94 3.35
n=8 m=81% m=3.55

REVENUES
Raise millage/taxes 44% 4.13
Self-supporting activities 61 3.87
Increase fundraising/development 56 3.75
Charge user fees 50 3.63
Raise tuition/fees 83 3.50
n=5 m=59% m=3.78








consistency in the rating of strategies. The median was 3.54 and the

range of ratings fell within 2.11 to 4.67. The overall mean of the

standard deviations was .87, which by itself is difficult to interpret

but could be an indication of general consensus among the ratings of

the respondents.

The measures of central tendency as well as the ratings presented

in this chapter are based on the respondents which indicated that they

had used the strategy in the last three to four years. The no responses

were not incorporated into the statistical analysis because the respond-

ents indicating that they had not used the startegy did not go on to

rank the strategy based on how effective they believed it would be if

they had tried it. Although this occurrence limited the possibility of

including this variable in the analysis, the overall external validity

of the results may be greater because the ratings were generated only

from those chief executive officers who indicated they had in fact used

the strategy. In other words, the ratings are based on actual practices,

not on speculation as to how effective the strategies may have been if

they were used.

The general distribution of the scores is illustrated in the fre-

quency distribution presented in Table 4-6. Although no parametic

tests were used, the scores are distributed quite evenly, closely

approximating the normal curve. As can be seen from the overall dis-

tribution of scores presented in Table 4-7, there is a tendency for the

scores to cluster near the middle of the distribution. Nearly half, or

48.7% of the overall total scores fell within the 3.99 to 3.50 range.

The 3.49 to 3.0 range encompassed 20.5% of the total scores. The

lower and higher ends of the distribution were evenly matched, with










Table 4-6

General Distribution of Scores


Class Interval Overall Percent Frequency of
Frequency of Area Yes Responses


5.00 4.50 1 2.6% 0

4.49 4.00 5 12.8 2

3.99 3.50 19 48.7 19

3.49 3.00 8 20.5 7

2.99 2.50 3 7.7 2

2.49 2.00 3 7.7 2

n=39 100.0% n=22







Table 4-7

Overall Distribution of Scores


Score Overall Range Percent of
Frequency Total Area


4.67 1 5.00-4.50 2.6%


4.33 1
4.25 1 4.49-4.00 12.8%
4.13 1
4.00 2


3.88 1
3.87 1
3.85 2
3.75 1
3.73 1
3.70 1
3.69 1 3.99-3.50 48.7%
3.67 1
3.63 1
3.62 1
3.55 1
3.54 2
3.53 1
3.50 4


3.45 1
3.43 1
3.38 2 3.49-3.0 20.5%
3.35 2
3.00 2


2.82 1
2.67 1 2.99-2.50 7.7%
2.58 1


2.40 1
2.27 1 2.49-2.00 7.7%
2.11 1


n=39


100.0%






74

six, or 15.4% of the scores falling below 3.0 and six, or 15.4% of the

scores falling above 4.0.


Field Studies and Interviews

This section presents the results of the in-depth field studies and

the interviews conducted at the three selected community colleges. The

purposes of the field studies and interviews were to determine the

nature of changes in revenues at the institutions, to discover the

strategies implemented to minimize the problems attributed to the

revenue changes, and to determine the perceptions of institutional

personnel regarding the strategies implemented to adjust to the changes.

The institutions visited ranged from a medium size single-campus com-

munity college to a large multi-campus college in a major metropolitan

setting. The field studies, conducted during June, July, and August

1984, lasted from four to five days at each institution. A standard

interview protocol guided all interviews and is included in Appendix C;

11 personnel were interviewed at each institution. In addition,

document analysis, field notes and informal observations contributed to

the results. The three case studies, reflecting institutional operations

and perceptions as of August 1984, have been critiqued by institutional

representatives to avoid factual errors.

The results of the three field studies are presented in this

chapter in case study format, including an institutional profile, an

overview of funding, a chronology of changes in revenues and enroll-

ments, and the institutional perceptions. In addition, a summary

section ties together the individual interview results into a composite

synthesis.









Santa Fe Community College

Institutional Profile

Santa Fe Community College was established by the Florida State

Legislature in 1965 as a comprehensive public community college to

serve the counties of Alachua and Bradford in north central Florida.

The open-door policy and concept of total service to the community of

the college is reflected in the college mission statement (Santa Fe

Community College Catalog, 1984):

Santa Fe Community College is a comprehensive community
college with an open-door policy and is firmly committed
to equal access and equal opportunity for all persons.
Placement in the college is on the basis of testing and
counseling. The mission of the college is to offer
opportunities to develop intellectual capacities,
occupational aptitudes and avocational interests so as
to contribute to students' personal growth and to meet
contemporary society's needs for informed, concerned
and responsive citizens. (p. 10)

The college has grown from an institution of 889 full-time equivalent

students with 102 full-time and part-time faculty in 1966 to a total of

5559 academic full-time equivalent students with over 370 full- and

part-time faculty in 1982. The growth in the service district of the

institution has also been significant; the 1980 census for the combined

counties of Alachua and Bradford was 171,371.

Santa Fe Community College is located in one of the richest agri-

cultural centers of the state. The major occupational group in the

city in which the college is located (i.e., Gainesville) is government,

which makes up 43.12% of all employment. The University of Florida,

Shands Teaching Hospital, and a large Veterans Administration Hospital

are located in Gainesville in addition to some light industry. The

tourism industry also contributes to the economy of the area.







Santa Fe Community College operates primarily on a main campus of

125 acres and has a total of 30 buildings. The college operates two

off-campus centers: One is located in Bradford County and the other is

the college's Police Academy at the Gainesville Municipal Airport. The

completion of a building on the main campus for the college's health

related programs enabled the sale of the southwest Gainesville Center

that had previously housed the health programs. The college offers

college transfer programs, occupational programs, community education

programs, and is the designated area vocational education school.

Santa Fe Community College's 1983 enrollment consisted of over 10,000

students in all programs (unduplicated student headcount). The college

prides itself on the fact that it attracts 40 percent of the top 10

percent of its district's graduating seniors. The college employs 228

full-time faculty, 245 career service staff, 39 administrative personnel,

and 17 professional specialists.

The college is governed by an eight member Board of Trustees

appointed by the Governor in four-year staggered terms. State regu-

lations provide a clear differentiation between the policy-making role

of the Board and the management role of the president. The president

of the college, who has held the office since 1971, succeeded the

founding president of the institution, Joseph W. Fordyce. Three

principal administrators report directly to the president, and the six

top-ranking administrators of the college comprise the president's ad-

ministrative council. The College Senate, comprised of all individuals

on annual and continuing contracts, plays a major role in the organi-

zation and governance of the college. Another governing body comprised








of career service employees also contributes to the governance of the

college.

The college has an Endowment Corporation that has been in existence

since 1971. The Santa Fe Community College Community Gallery of Art is

the first community college art gallery approved by the National

Gallery of Art and Smithsonian Institutions for loan of high security

exhibitions. The college Biological Parks Training Program and Zoo is

the only one of its kind in the nation in an educational institution.

The college has established linkages with the business community by

providing training and assessment for local industries. Santa Fe

Community College is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges

and Schools; most recent accredition was granted in 1982. In addition,

Santa Fe Community College is a charter member of the League for

Innovation in the Community College as well as a charter member of the

Florida Community Junior College Inter-Institutional Research Council,

the research consortium for Florida's community college. The college

ranks 11th in enrollment size of Florida's 28 community colleges and

operates with an annual budget of over 18 million dollars for the 1984-

85 fiscal year.

Funding

Florida's 28 community colleges operate under a balance of local

control with state coordination and support; state support has for the

most part been consistent with the steady enrollment growth in the

community colleges. The colleges are funded by the state through an

annual College Program Fund Appropriation (CPFA) on a program cost

basis which differentiates thirty four programs; the program costs

factors have been determined by state level studies. The formula








allows funding at a higher rate for smaller schools and withholds

revenues if a college does not achieve the number of full-time equiva-

lents assigned. Wattenbarger and Heck, in their 1983 study of community

college finance, describe the funding environment for the community

colleges in Florida:

Salary increases, rising energy costs, new facilities,
and inflation form the bases for annual revenue in-
creases. Currently, the state provides 66.5% of the
total operation costs with student fees providing 22.2%
and the federal government providing 6.7%. (p. 15)

Due to a legislative change in the contact hours required in

occupational programs, enrollment trends are emerging that indicate the

leveling off of occupational programs and modest increases in other

programs (Santa Fe Community College Self-Study, 1982, p. IV-16). For

the most part, state appropriations to educational sectors in Florida

have roughly kept pace with inflation, but the community colleges have

fallen behind somewhat because of a higher growth in FTE than the K-12

or state university system sectors. In addition to the restrictions

imposed by state funding, the student matriculation fees for community

colleges are capped by law, thereby limiting the flexibility on the

part of the colleges to raise tuition.

The system of funding community colleges in the state of Florida

imposes several restrictions on certain funds by making them categorical

in nature, such as for special faculty salary increases, staff and pro-

gram development, and for the improvement of academic standards. In

some instances, the lack of funds to support state mandated requirements

and increases in accountability have created major problems for community

colleges. In addition, funding levels are extremely sensitive to short-

falls in state revenue collection as the state sales tax constitutes





79
the major revenue-producing category of the budget. Funds for capital

projects and improvement have historically had strong state commitment,

yet have been diminished by the veto of the governor in recent years.

Chronology of Changes in Revenues and Enrollments

Santa Fe Community College has experienced concurrent downturns in

enrollment and appropriations from the state (see Tables 4-8 and 4-9).

The enrollment decline reflects a general pattern of leveling enrollments

at community colleges on a state-wide basis. Inflation and downturns

in the state's economy were dramatized by cuts in state appropriation

in 1981-82 and again in 1982-83. The 1981-82 cut was 1.2% and the

1982-83 cut was 4.7% of the original appropriations.

In addition to the demonstrated changes in enrollments and sources

of revenues at the institution, several other changes were identified

in the college's Self-Study report (1982). The changes include the

following:

1. There was a decline in the percent of the budget allocated to

instruction;

2. There was a decrease in the number of full-time faculty and an

increase in the number and proportion of part-time faculty (see Table

4-10);

3. There was an increase in the average class size;

4. More financial resources were required for evaluation and follow-up

activities due to legislative emphasis on quality and accountability;

and

5. Expenditures for plant operations were escalating at a greater rate

than other categories of expenditures; this was primarily due to rising

utility rates.










Table 4-8

Changes in Enrollment, 1980-85
Santa Fe Community College


Year FTE
Enrollment


1980-81

1982-83

1984-85


5777

5559

5101 (projected)


Source: Santa Fe Community College Institutional
Self-Study Report (1982)









Table 4-9

Changes in Sources of Revenue
Santa Fe Community College


Revenue Source


Tuition and Fees

State Appropriations

Grants, Gifts and
Contracts

Other


Percent of Total Revenues
1980-81 1981-82 1982-83


21.7%

64.7


11.3

2.1


23.8%

65.1


9.3

1.8


23.5%

62.5


12.5

1.5


Source: NACUBO Comparative Financial Statistics for Public
Community and Junior Colleges (1982; 1983; 1984)










Table 4-10

Proportion of Part-Time Faculty to Full-Time Faculty, 1976-80
Santa Fe Community College



Faculty


Ful 1 -Time

203
199
206
217
213


Part-Time


Percentage of
Part-Time Faculty


130
103
79


39%
24%
28%
24%
21%


Source: Santa Fe Community College Institutional
Self-Study Report (1982)


Year


1980-81
1979-80
1978-79
1977-78
1976-77





83

As the results of the Self-Study indicated the proportion of part-time

to full-time faculty members has increased significantly. Although

there are only 10 fewer full-time faculty members in 1980-81 than in

1976-77, there are 54 more part-time faculty members, or, an increase

of 71%. These figures do not account for the number of overload

credit hours taught by full-time either but nevertheless indicate a

rising degree of dependence upon part-time faculty.

Institutional Perceptions

The field study site visit to Santa Fe Community College, conducted

in August of 1984, included interviews with 11 administrators and

faculty at the Santa Fe Community College campus in Gainesville,

Florida. All of the interviewees concurred with the researchers'

description of changes in revenues at the institution (i.e., a decrease

in the proportion of the general operating budgets from state appro-

priations and an increase in the proportion of the budget comprised of

fees, grants, gifts, and contracts). In addition, nearly all of the

interviewees were concerned with the impact the state cuts imposed in

1981 and 1982 and also expressed concern for the continued decrease in

enrollments.

The most frequently mentioned problem identified by the interviewees

as being associated with changes in revenues was the propensity of the

state legislature to impose mandates on community colleges without

accompanying the mandates with sufficient--or in many instances any--

additional funding. Nine of the 11 respondents indicated this as a

major problem. Nearly half of the respondents also mentioned increased

program and budget scrutiny and the closing of the traditional community

college open door as major problems. The closing of the open door was





84

attributed to increased testing, standards, and requirements imposed by

both the state and the institution.

The most frequently mentioned strategies implemented to adjust to

changes in revenues at the institution are shown in Table 4-11. Of the

strategies mentioned, the consensus of the interviewees was that the

hiring freeze and the reassignment of faculty and staff were the most

effective strategies and increased the overall efficiency of the

institution. The least effective strategy mentioned was the deferral

of maintenance and equipment purchases. Comments included: "We've

lost ground with technological advances" and "In the long run, catching

up on deferred maintenance costs more."

The interviewees identified several criteria they perceived as

guiding the institutional strategies implemented. The most frequently

mentioned response was that "protecting people" (i.e., the faculty and

staff of the institution), was the basic premise behind the decisions

that were made. One interviewee described the criterion as "protecting

people by making the least painful and most humane decisions." The next

most frequently mentioned criterion guiding the strategies developed,

in descendent order, were to protect and maintain the instructional pro-

gram, to meet legislative mandates, to maintain quality, and to maintain

service to students.

There was a significant level of consensus in regards to the degree

of the involvement of the faculty and staff in the development of the

strategies. The majority of respondents stated that the process was a

top down process, while several other respondents identified the chief

executive officer as the major decision-maker and the degree of involve-

ment of faculty and staff as minor. Two of the respondents stated










Table 4-11

The Most Frequently Implemented Strategies to
Adjust to Changes in Revenues at
Santa Fe Community College





Number of
Strategy Respondents



Hiring Freeze/Unfilled Positions 11

Recruit new populations 11

Reassign faculty/staff 9

Across-the-board cuts 7

Increase fundraising/development efforts 7

Increase recruitment 6

Defer maintenance and major equipment purchases 6

Encourage early retirement 4

Improve retention 4

Increase linkages with business and industry 3

Implement user fees 3

Reduce travel expenditures 3

Increase self-supporting activities 3

Lower student/faculty ratio 3


n=ll






86
that they felt there was a considerable amount of involvement and that

people basically understood the rationale behind the decisions that

were made. A dean at the institution described the decisions as

"people-based, combining both the human element and efficiency."

The strengths identified as extremely positive factors in regard to

adjusting to changes in revenues were stated by the majority of respond-

ents as the institution's flexibility in responding to and meeting

needs and also the institutional personnel. Other frequently mentioned

strengths were the management and leadership of the institution, the

President, the environment, the institutional orientation toward

students, and the openness to pursue new things at the institution.

The most frequently mentioned factors perceived as restrictive were

legislative mandates and controls, the economy, the lack of local

funds, and the lack of legislative planning. The majority of the

interviewees reflected the comment voiced by one administrator: "The

constant change in the legislative attitudes and activity make it

almost impossible to plan anymore."

Overall, the personnel interviewed were very positive in their

assessment of the ability of the institution to adjust to changes in

revenues. There was clear consensus that Santa Fe Community College

had dealt with the changes very well, improved and strengthened the

academic program, and in spite of the circumstances, maintained the

mission of the institution. The negative comments reflected a feeling

that morale and creativity at the institution have suffered in the

process. One individual summarized the outcome as "The right decisions

have been made . although without the process of involving people








in making the decisions that affect them as well as affect the course

of the institution."


Miami-Dade Community College

Institutional Profile

Miami-Dade Community College is a large, public-supported multi-

campus community college which serves the populous Metropolitan Dade

County community. The service area population for the college is

1,764,400. Miami, the largest city in the state of Florida, makes up

the bulk of the college's service district. Known largely for its

tourist industry, the Miami area has also emerged as a national and

international center for business, banking, and culture.

Dade County Junior College, as it was called when it began instruc-

tion in 1960, was changed by Board action in 1963 to Miami-Dade Junior

College and finally to Miami-Dade Community College in July, 1973.

Miami-Dade Community College has grown from a single campus which

opened in temporary quarters with 1,400 students to a multi-campus

college which enrolls over 60,000 students (total unduplicated head-

count) at four major campuses and numerous centers throughout the

college's service area. In addition, Miami-Dade Community College

offers college level courses through the Open College, a multi-media

system of television, radio, audio-visual cassette tapes, and independ-

ent study.

Miami-Dade Community College is a comprehensive community college

with goals that advance the open door admissions philosophy. Three-

fifths of the students are enrolled in Associate of Arts transfer

programs and one-fifth are enrolled in occupational and special interest






88
program courses. The diversity of the college's student population is

reflected in the fact that Miami-Dade has the largest number of foreign

student-visa enrollees of any postsecondary institution in the United

States; the majority of students enrolled are Hispanic and less than

half of all Miami-Dade students report English as their native language.

Partially in response to the challenges presented by this diverse

student body, the college initiated a series of systematic and compre-

hensive reforms and innovations involving the entire educational

program since the mid-1970s. Miami-Dade Community College has received

national recognition for leadership in postsecondary educational

reforms, particularly for its General Education model, Standards of

Academic Progess monitoring system, and the Advisement and Graduation

Information System (AGIS).

Miami-Dade Community College employs over 2300 personnel, including

approximately 1100 faculty and approximately 1290 administrative and

support staff. The faculty of the institution are not unionized

although there have been several union votes at the institution. The

Faculty Senate, composed of full-time faculty and staff, is the internal

governing body for the institution. The President's Council of the

college is composed of the president, the chief executive officers of

the college's district administration, the vice presidents of the

college's four campuses, the president of the Faculty Senate, and the

chief representatives of the college's Community Relations, Business

Affairs and Institutional Development components. The current president

has served as president of Miami-Dade since 1980, preceded by Peter

Masiko, the founding president of the institution. The institutional

budget for the 1983-84 year was set at over $80 million dollars.







The Miami-Dade Community College District Board of Trustees is

comprised of five members, each of whom is appointed by the governor

and confirmed by the Florida state senate for a four year term. The

district governing board, vested with the governing authority for the

college, works directly with the college president in all matters

pertaining to the governance and operation of the college.

Miami-Dade is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges

and Schools; the most recent self-study was of a non-traditional nature

conducted in 1983. Included in the non-traditional self-study was a

college mission reform component which was to be completed in 1984.

Miami-Dade has been a member of the League for Innovation in the

Community College since 1980. In 1983, the Miami-Dade Community

College Foundation, Inc. (established in 1965) was the recipient of the

third largest gift given to college or university and largest given to

any two-year institution in the United States. The gift, approximately

$50 million dollars, was from the estate of the late Colonel Mitchell

Wolfson, Sr., the first chairman of the Miami-Dade Community College

District Board of Trustees.

Funding

Miami-Dade Community College receives the majority of their op-

erating revenues from the state through the Florida College Program

Appropriation (described in detail in the Funding section of the Santa

Fe Community College field study). To the extent that the state

treasury in Florida provides the bulk of the operating budget of each

community college in the state, some financial restrictions are similar

among the community colleges in the state. For instance, the state

sets the upper tuition level limit for the community colleges as well








as sets enrollment projection levels. Colleges are penalized if they

do not fall within their specified corridors for enrollment by having

to pay back state aid.

In comparison to other community colleges in the state, Miami-

Dade's salary schedules are the highest. Part of the reason may be due

to the high cost of living in Dade County as compared to the rest of

the state. Due to the fact that a large number of Miami-Dade's enroll-

ees are in developmental courses, a state-mandated redefinition of the

credit hour base for developmental instruction which underestimated the

workload created an inequity for Miami-Dade (Richter, 1984); the change

resulted in a loss of nearly 50% of the institutions' FTE generation

and subsequent funding.

Chronology of Changes in Revenues and Enrollments

Changes in revenues and enrollments paralled each other at Miami-

Dade Community College: Enrollments began to decline in the 1980s

concurrently with a decline in the proportion of the operating budget

derived from the state, as illustrated in tables 4-12 and 4-13. The

proportion of the budget coming from tuition and fees remained fairly

constant, while the gifts, grants and contracts category increased from

10.5% in 1980-81 to 15.2% in 1982-83. During this period, state

mandated cuts of 1.2% in 1980-81 and 4.7% in 1981-82 were executed

after the budget had been set.

Miami-Dade's enrollments began to decline in the 1980s, and appear

to exhibit a trend in the downward direction. The enrollment decline

came as no surprise, but rather was projected by institutional officials

after the burgeoning enrollment growth experienced in the 1970s.










Table 4-12

Changes in Sources of Revenue
Miami-Dade Community College


Revenue Source Percent of Total Revenues
1980-81 1981-82 1982-83


Tuition and fees 25.9% 26.4% 25.7%

State Appropriation 59.3 60.1 56.9

Grants, Gifts, and Contracts 10.5 10.2 15.2

Other 4.3 3.4 2.2


Source: NACUBO Comparative Financial Statistics for
Public Community and Junior Colleges
(1982; 1983; 1984)










Table 4-13

Changes in Enrollment
Miami-Dade Community College


Full 1-Time

Part-Time

Non-Credit


Total


1980-81

17,622

8,720

3,041

29,383


1981-82

17,137

8,382

3,291

28,810


Source: NACUBO Comparative Financial Statistics for
Public Community and Junior Colleges
(1982; 1983; 1984)


1982-83

16,228

8,666

764

25,658




Full Text
154
2. Reliability:
a) cross-check responses for consistency and stability of interpretation
by interviewees
b) establish a decision-rule for data
inclusion (such as 50% of the interviewees agree)
3. Validity: assess whether the actual responses reflect the actual
practices, through cross-check documentation and through confirmation
from other sources.
4. Data inclusion:
a) decision-rule
b) reliability and validity of data
c) cross-check of interviewee perceptions and responses with the
perceptions of the League CEO's (from survey) and with the theoretical
propositions developed from the literature review
d) suitability of data to analysis, display, and quantification


3
operation, and/or increased costs of basic items such
as utilities, maintenance, and interest charges, (p. 61)
Even in instances where some institutions have not experienced decreases
in amounts of dollars appropriated, a decline in the real income of the
institution has occurred.
Support for equality of educational opportunity via the comprehen
sive community college open-door philosophy has been strongly documented
by historical evidence and by noted community college authorities (Bogue,
1950; Gleazer, 1980; Koos, 1970). Ferrin (1971) cited the use of inno
vative and nontraditional methods by community colleges to overcome
traditional barriers to higher education and to strengthen the open-
door philosophy:
The financial barrier was reduced by charging little or
no tuition, the academic barrier was reduced by open
door admissions policies, and the geographic barrier
was reduced by locating colleges in close proximity to
populated areas, (p. 31)
The original philosophy and commitment of the community college have
been threatened due to the impact of changes in revenues. Gleazer's
contention that community colleges have attempted to be "all things to
all people" (1980, p. 7) is being questioned in an era of changes in
funding and increases in demands for accountability. Cosand (1983)
questioned whether or not the community college will even continue to
function as a "people's college" (p. 24) and maintain a comprehensive
mission:
The colleges were given the autonomy to provide a
diverse educational program of quality for the youth
and adults of the community to be served. This provided
an educational opportunity at minimal or no cost for
all the people who were eligible to enroll regardless
of their age, race, affluence, sex, or educational
background. The community college was indeed a "people's
college." Will this philosophy and service continue?
(p. 24)


46
student service areas. The most prominent themes found in the literature
identified through the development of the postulates and propositions
will guide the analysis of the data in Chapter IV and the development
of the strategies recommended for community colleges experiencing
revenue changes presented in Chapter V.


15
The study determined the nature and impact of changes in revenues
at selected community colleges and examined the institutional adapta
tions and strategies employed by the institutions in order to minimize
the problems attributed to the changes. The investigation included the
following major procedures:
1. A review of relevant literature, including the identification of
institutional adaptations and strategies for dealing with changes in
revenues perceived as most effective.
2. The development of a survey instrument used to assess perceptions
regarding the effectiveness of specific institutional adaptations to
changes in revenues at the selected community colleges, including pilot
tests and subsequent revisions.
3. The administration of the survey to the chief executive officers at
all 18 of the community colleges in the League for Innovation.
4. The securing of permission for the release of the individual
institutional NACUBO financial data from the participating League
col 1eges.
5. The collection and analysis of the comparative and individual
financial data from NACUBO. The analysis of the financial data provided
part of the information needed to identify the three community colleges
for further in-depth study.
6. The selection of three community colleges for the in-depth field
studies. Criteria for the selection of the colleges included the
degree of changes in sources of revenues, the size of the college, the
size of the service area, the comprehensiveness of mission, the geo
graphic location, and the willingness of the college to participate.
7. The requests to the three community colleges selected for


75
Santa Fe Community College
Institutional Profile
Santa Fe Community College was established by the Florida State
Legislature in 1965 as a comprehensive public community college to
serve the counties of Alachua and Bradford in north central Florida.
The open-door policy and concept of total service to the community of
the college is reflected in the college mission statement (Santa Fe
Community College Catalog, 1984):
Santa Fe Community College is a comprehensive community
college with an open-door policy and is firmly committed
to equal access and equal opportunity for all persons.
Placement in the college is on the basis of testing and
counseling. The mission of the college is to offer
opportunities to develop intellectual capacities,
occupational aptitudes and avocational interests so as
to contribute to students' personal growth and to meet
contemporary society's needs for informed, concerned
and responsive citizens, (p. 10)
The college has grown from an institution of 889 full-time equivalent
students with 102 full-time and part-time faculty in 1966 to a total of
5559 academic full-time equivalent students with over 370 full- and
part-time faculty in 1982. The growth in the service district of the
institution has also been significant; the 1980 census for the combined
counties of Alachua and Bradford was 171,371.
Santa Fe Community College is located in one of the richest agri
cultural centers of the state. The major occupational group in the
city in which the college is located (i.e., Gainesville) is government,
which makes up 43.12% of all employment. The University of Florida,
Shands Teaching Hospital, and a large Veterans Administration Hospital
are located in Gainesville in addition to some light industry. The
tourism industry also contributes to the economy of the area.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08555 2775


113
Proposition I-C
Institutions attempted to become more efficient by raising student-
faculty ratios and instituting hiring freezes/nonreplacement of faculty
and staff.
This proposition was confirmed. Sixty-one percent of the survey
respondents had instituted a hiring freeze as well as raised student/
faculty teaching ratios. The effectiveness ratings for both of these
strategies were above 3.70, or in the category of most effective. All
three institutions involved in the field studies had used a hiring
freeze/unfilled positions as a means of cutting personnel expenditures
through attrition. The three institutions had not deliberately raised
student/faculty ratios as a cost-cutting strategy, but rather had
achieved what was considered an acceptable productivity level set at
their institution in regard to the faculty/student ratio.
Proposition I-D
Institutions protected the instructional program area by making
little or no changes in it; when changes were made, they were made
according to plan, such as using program review, priorities, planning
data, and incorporating the changes into the long-range goals and plans
of the institution.
This proposition was confirmed. Although the results of the survey
did not relate to this postulate directly, the field study data strongly
confirmed the assumption that the primary priority guiding the decisions
regarding revenue changes was to protect the instructional program.
When changes in the instructional programs were considered, there was a
planning process in place (i.e., such as program review) to accommodate
the changes.


APPENDIX C
COMMUNITY COLLEGE INTERVIEW GUIDE
1. Introduction and purpose of study:
Nancy Vader, doctoral candidate at the University of Florida and on
professional leave from Delta College, conducting this study for my
dissertation with Dr. Wattenbarger at the University of Florida and in
cooperation with the League for Innovation in the Community College and
the National Association of College and University of Business Officers
(NACUBO).
The purpose of this study is to determine the nature and impact of
changes in sources of revenue at community colleges from 1979 through
1983, and to examine the effectiveness of the strategies implemented to
adjust to the changes. Your institution was chosen because it has
experienced greater than average changes in sources of revenues in
comparison to the other League schools. You were specifically selected
to interview because of your involvement in the development and imple
mentation of the strategies at your institution.
(*Guarantee anonymity for the interviewee.)
Cite NACUB data, effects of inflation, and trends in changes in
sources of revenue at community colleges.
2. Information about the interviewee:
Name and official title:
Length of time in current position:
148


Page
V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 118
Summary 118
Conclusions 122
Implications 126
Strategies 129
Recommendation for Further Study 132
REFERENCES 134
APPENDIX
A MEMBER INSTITUTIONS IN THE LEAGUE FOR INNOVATION IN THE
COMMUNITY COLLEGE 143
B COMMUNITY COLLEGE SURVEY OF EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES 145
C COMMUNITY COLLEGE INTERVIEW GUIDE USED WITH INTERVIEWEES 148
D FIELD INTERVIEW GUIDE USED AT FIELD STUDIES 152
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 155
vi


97
efforts may be mutually beneficial. Delta College is
committed to continue and expand its involvement in the
social, cultural, and economic development of the
community, (p. 13)
The college serves a three county district in Michigan with a
combined service population of over 425,000. Delta's immediate service
area is comprised of three major cities with a heavy industrial emphasis,
including the Dow Chemical Company and General Motors. In addition,
the three county area is well known for its agricultural production.
Delta College is the 14th largest college in the state of Michigan
and the 6th largest community college of the 29 located in the state.
Delta has grown from an institution of 1,800 students in 1961 to an
institution of over 10,000 full-time equivalent students with an annual
budget of over $23 million dollars for 1984-85. Over half of Delta's
academic credit students are enrolled in occupational programs; many
students transfer to four-year institutions or are enrolled in courses
for personal enrichment reasons. The college extends its programs and
services to over 30 off-campus centers and offers a variety of tele-
courses over WUCM-TV, Channel 19 the college-owned and operated public
broadcasting station. In addition, Delta has established several
special partnerships with business and industry within its service
area.
The college is governed by a locally-elected nine-member district
Board of Trustees. The incumbent president of the college has served as
president for 20 years (i. e., since 1964). Of the top executive of
ficers composing the presidents' immediate executive cabinet, nearly all
have served at the institution for over 10 years. Delta employs 218
full-time faculty, 146 adminstrative and professional support staff, and
151 classified (secretarial) and maintenance. Delta is one of two


140
O'Banion, T. (1972). Teachers for tomorrow: Staff development in the
community-junior college. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods.
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Peters, T. & Waterman, R. (1982). In search of excellence: Lessons
from America1 best-run companies^ New York: Harper &Row.
Pflieger, R. T. (1980). The effects of forced cost reduction on
administrative structures in small independent colleges (Doctoral
dissertation, University of Florida, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 42, 490A.
Purga, III, A. J. (1979). The impact of enrollment decline upon selected
Florida junior colleges (Doctoral dissertation, University of
Florida, 1979). Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 4438A.
Quinn, R. E., & Cameron, K. S. (1983). Organizational life cycles and
shifting criteria of effectiveness: Some preliminary evidence.
Management Science, 29, 33-51.
Richardson, Jr., R. C. (1982). Financing community college missions in
an era of scarce resources. In R. A. Wilson (Ed.), Responses to
fiscal stress in higher education (pp. 147-156). Tucson, AZ:
University of Arizona, Center for the study of Higher Education.
Richardson, Jr., R. C., & Leslie, L. L. (1980). The impossible dream?
Financing community college's evolving mission. Washington, DC:
American Association of Community and Junior Colleges.
Richter, W. (1984). Florida education finance: The quantitative
record 1971/72-1982/83. Unpublished manuscript, Miami-Dade
Community College, Miami.
Santa Fe Community College catalog, 1984-85. (1984). Gainesville,
FL: Santa Fe Community College Press.
Santa Fe Community College institutional self-study report. (1982).
Gainesville, FL: Santa Fe Community College Press.
Scott, W. R. (1981). Organizations: Rational, natural, and open
systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Sedate, B. (1982). Changes in spending patterns and revenue sources of
selected Texas public community colleges, 1970-1980 (Doctoral
dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1982).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 643A.


37
cut at community colleges in times of declining resources (p. 30).
Further, Henderson described the strategies employed to adjust to
declining revenues at community colleges as "a retreat to traditionalism"
(p. 29) precisely when there are renewed demands for new approaches to
serve new clientele.
Studies on strategies used by community colleges to adapt to
changes in revenue began to appear shortly after the passage of Proposi
tion 13 in California and concurrent tax limitation measures in other
states (Jackson, 1981; Lombardi, 1979; McGuire, 1978). In McGuire's
1978 study of funding conditions in community colleges as reported by
the state directors in 39 states, the most frequently mentioned responses
to decreased and stabilized funding were reported as increasing part-
time faculty, reducing non-instruction expenses, and increasing student/
teacher ratios (p. 19). Wattenbarger (1978) expanded on responses to
reduced resources at community colleges, maintaining that reexamination
of the institutional mission was essential, as well as an institutional
planning process. Proposing an action-oriented approach to reduced
resources, Wattenbarger suggested several responses for administrators
to implement, including
1. Reducing the teaching and administrative staff;
2. Increasing faculty productivity by raising faculty/student ratios;
3. Reducing full-time faculty;
4. Curtailing/consolidating programs;
5. Identifying new sources of funds; and
6. Increasing efficiency and effectiveness through the reorganization
of the management structure.


139
Marty, M. A. (1978). Legitimacy and the promise of community colleges.
In M. A. Marty (Ed.), Responding to new missions: New directions
for community colleges (No. 24). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mayhew, L. B. (1980). Surviving the eighties: Strategies and procedures
for solving fiscal and enrollment problems. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
McGuire, W. G. (1978). Emerging trends in state support. In R. L.
Alfred (Ed.), Coping with reduced resources: New directions
for community col 1eges (No. 22, pp. 16-26). San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Medsker, L. I. & Tillery, D. (1971). Breaking the access barriers:
A profile of two-year colleges. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Mehnert, B. H. (1982). Effective strategies for community college
retrenchment (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas, 1982).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 2868A.
Miller, J. G. (1978). Living systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Mortimer, K. P., & Tierney, M. L. (1979). The three r1 s11 of the
eighties: Reduction, reallocation and retrenchment. (Research
Report No. 4). Washington, DC: American Association for Higher
Education.
National Association of College and University Business Officers.
(1981). Comparative financial statistics for public community
and junior colleges 1979-80. Washington, DC: National Association
of College and University Business Officers.
National Association of College and University Business Officers.
(1982). Comparative financial statistics for public community and
junior colleges 1980-81. Washington, DC: National Association of
College and University Business Officers.
National Association of College and University Business Officers.
(1983). Comparative financial statistics for public community and
junior colleges 1981-82. Washington, DC: National Association of
College and University Business Officers.
National Association of College and University Business Officers.
(1984). Comparative financial statistics for public community and
junior colleges 1982-83. Washington, DC: National Association of
College and University Business Officers.
National Center for Education Statistics (1982). Higher education and
general information survey (HEGIS XVII): Definitions and
instructions. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education.


Copyright 1985
by
Nancy J. Vader


85
Table 4-11
The Most Frequently Implemented Strategies to
Adjust to Changes in Revenues at~
Santa Fe Community College
Number of
Strategy Respondents
Hiring Freeze/Unfilled Positions 11
Recruit new populations 11
Reassign faculty/staff 9
Across-the-board cuts 7
Increase fundraising/development efforts 7
Increase recruitment 6
Defer maintenance and major equipment purchases 6
Encourage early retirement 4
Improve retention 4
Increase linkages with business and industry 3
Implement user fees 3
Reduce travel expenditures 3
Increase self-supporting activities 3
Lower student/faculty ratio 3
n=ll


Table 3-1
Changes in Current Operating Revenues
1980-81 through 1982-83
Sources of Revenues
Institution
Credit Tuition
and Fees
State
Appropriations
Local
Appropriations
Gifts, Grants &
Federal State
Contracts
& Local
Total SD from
the m in all
Other six categories
A
2.8
-4.1
-2.2
5.7
-1.2
-.9
1
B
1.9
-2.1
n/a
1.1
.6
.2
2
C
-.1
.6
n/a
4.3
.3
-2.1
3
D
-2.6
-4.1
-.9
3.1
1.8
-1.1
0
E
3.7
-4.5
3.7
1.2
0
-4.2
4
F
1.0
-4.6
-2.2
5.0
.7
.9
3
G
-3.8
5.3
-4.7
.7
-.7
2.6
4
H
2.6
-9.7
.5
5.4
3.7
-1.4
3.5
I
3.7
-1.4
-2.1
-2.2
2.3
-.9
2
J
.9
-5.0
-1.0
3.2
1.7
.1
2
Mean of
the category
2.31
4.14
1 .73
3.2
1 .92
1.48
2.45
Standard deviation 1.23
2.4
1.48
2.1
.95
1.13


25
considerable preoccupation with growth. The experience of tremendous
growth encouraged the development of a growth psychology, growth-
dependent structures, and growth-contingent funding, particularly in
community colleges. Unfortunately, according to Dresch (1977), this
preoccupation with growth "relieved the education establishment of the
need to devise adaptive mechanisms that did not rely on growth for
their effectiveness" (p. 29).
According to the Carnegie Foundation studies (1975), higher education
has gone through various phases of development and will be experiencing
a period of slow or no growth from 1985 through the year 2000. The
growth phases of higher education development as presented in the
Carnegie Foundation report More Than Survival (1975) are
1636-1870 Slow growth
1870-1880 Fast acceleration of growth
1880-1960 Rapid growth
1960-1970 Fast acceleration of growth
1970-1985 Fast deceleration of growth
1985-2000 Slow growth or not growth (p. 87)
These forecasts of decline in the growth rate of institutions of
higher education have come to fruition in the late 1970s and early
1980s, particularly in four-year college and university enrollments.
Since universities and four-year colleges enroll the majority of the
traditional college-age population group (i.e., 18 through 24 year
olds), the decline in this population group has been reflected in
decreasing numbers at these institutions. Until 1983, community
colleges did not experience the same degree of enrollment decline, with
the exception of a slight enrollment drop in 1978.
In addition to the enrollment decline, community colleges faced
increased competition for students from four-year institutions and


84
attributed to increased testing, standards, and requirements imposed by
both the state and the institution.
The most frequently mentioned strategies implemented to adjust to
changes in revenues at the institution are shown in Table 4-11. Of the
strategies mentioned, the consensus of the interviewees was that the
hiring freeze and the reassignment of faculty and staff were the most
effective strategies and increased the overall efficiency of the
institution. The least effective strategy mentioned was the deferral
of maintenance and equipment purchases. Comments included: "We've
lost ground with technological advances" and "In the long run, catching
up on deferred maintenance costs more."
The interviewees identified several criteria they perceived as
guiding the institutional strategies implemented. The most frequently
mentioned response was that "protecting people" (i.e., the faculty and
staff of the institution), was the basic premise behind the decisions
that were made. One interviewee described the criterion as "protecting
people by making the least painful and most humane decisions." The next
most frequently mentioned criterion guiding the strategies developed,
in descendent order, were to protect and maintain the instructional pro
gram, to meet legislative mandates, to maintain quality, and to maintain
service to students.
There was a significant level of consensus in regards to the degree
of the involvement of the faculty and staff in the development of the
strategies. The majority of respondents stated that the process was a
top down process, while several other respondents identified the chief
executive officer as the major decision-maker and the degree of involve
ment of faculty and staff as minor. Two of the respondents stated


68
Table 4-4
Effectiveness Rankings of the Most Frequently Used Strategies
Rank Strategy Percent of Effectiveness
Order total Rating (mean)
1
Reduce student attrition
94%
3.53
2
Cost-analysis studies
94
3.38
3
Faculty/staff development
94
3.35
4
Retirement options
89
4.00
5
Business/industry cooperation
89
3.88
6
Increase lobbying
89
3.50
7
Involve faculty/staff
89
3.38
8
Defer equipment purchases
89
2.28
9
Raise tuition/fees
83
3.50
10
Increase planning
83
3.46
11
Share staff
78
3.54
12
Increase student recruitment*
72
3.85
Increase part-time faculty*
72
3.85
13
Reassign faculty/staff
72
3.69
14
Increase public relations
72
3.62
15
Reduce non-institutional staff
72
3.54
indicates tie rankings


20
subsequent functioning in order to perform effectively and ultimately
survive. Applied to a community college, feedback could be in the form
of decreased state appropriations which in turn may cause the institution
to look to other sources of revenue, such as increasing tuition.
Feedback, which can be either positive or negative, is information
from the internal or external environment regarding the outputs of the
organization. The feedback to the organization is a critical means of
organizational control, particularly if it is of a negative nature.
Negative feedback "indicates that the system is deviating from a
prescribed course and should readjust to a new steady state" (Kast &
Rosenzweig, 1974, p. 7). Whetten (1981) claimed that feedback is infor
mation which enables the system to adjust in order to "maintain a state
of compatibility between internal operations and environmental con
ditions, including social norms, regulations, and client needs" (p. 81).
Dynamic equilibrium, the preferred modus operendi for an organi
zation, is a dynamic state of continuous adaptation to changes in the
environment and internal forces in order to preserve the character of
the system (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1974; Katz & Kahn, 1978). Dynamic
equilibrium involves a continuous flow of material, energy, and infor
mation which the system utilized to stay on target and continue to
proceed toward its goals.
The concept of equifinality is that final results may be achieved
with different inputs and similar inputs may result in different
conditions. Stated more parsimoniously, the concept of equifinality
suggests that there is no one best way to reach a goal, but rather that
varying inputs, paths, condition, and activities in an organization can
achieve given goals and results. The concept of equifinality opens up


99
Valuation (SEV) for Delta's district has consistently been approximately
two and one half percent above the state average. Percent increases in
the SEV have ranged from 12.0% in 1979, 10.9% in 1980, and 6.6% in
1983. Due to the continuation of depressed economic conditions in the
State of Michigan, preliminary projections indicate that for 1984 it
appears that there will be no growth in Delta's SEV base.
State aid to community colleges in Michigan for operations is
primarily enrollment driven, based on the number of Fiscal Year Equated
Students (FYES). The prior year's actual FYES is used as the funding
base. Starting in the fiscal year 1979-80 executive cuts were imple
mented in the state aid appropriations to the community colleges.
During this period, the state abandoned the practice of funding the
succeeding budget year by using the past year's FYES base. Instead, an
across-the-board percentage increase of the current net state aid
appropriation determined the next year's gross appropriation. The
percentages of the state's executive cuts were 1.5% in 1979-80, 3.0% in
1980-81, and 8.8% in 1981-82.
Chronology of Changes in Revenues and Enrollments
Due to the extensive state cuts in appropriations to community
colleges in the state of Michigan, Delta has experienced significant
changes in the proportions of sources of revenues. Table 4-15 documents
the changes in revenue sources at Delta from 1980 through 1983.
Enrollments at Delta have grown slowly but steadily from 1980
through 1983. Table 4-16 reflects a trend towards increasing numbers
of part-time students accompanied by concurrent decreasing numbers of
full-time students. For the first time, full-time academic headcount
is projected to decline during the 1984-85 year.


125
and acceptance of the decisions and adjustments. Significant faculty
and staff involvement in the decision-making process appears to be one
of the major variables affecting the level of acceptance and cooperation
regarding the adjustments.
8. External variables in the environment greatly shape the nature of
and type of responses available to some community colleges. For
instance, there is limited flexibility in raising revenues from other
sources when tuition levels are set by the state. Furthermore, the
health of the economy greatly influences the nature of and level of
funding for education from state revenues.
The findings of the descriptive data analysis indicate that com
munity colleges have adjusted to adverse revenue changes in ways that
are perceived to be fairly effective by institutional personnel and
chief executive officers. The results suggest that the revenue changes
are sometimes related to local or state economy fluctuations which are
in turn reflected in funding levels. The overall findings further
suggest that the appropriateness or perceived effectiveness of specific
strategies are heavily influenced by characteristics of the community
college and related environmental factors.
For example, morale did not appear to suffer as significantly at
the institutions where the personnel felt that they had been involved
in the decision-making process as at the institutions where personnel
felt that the majority of the decisions had been made by the president.
Also, the condition of the local and state economy appears to affect
the selection and subsequent effectiveness of specific strategies. The
amount of additional financial revenues available from state and local
sources are usually closely related to the conditions of the state


64
The strategies ranked as most effective which were used by the greatest
percentage of the respondents were initiate retirement options, used
by 89% and increase cooperative relations and linkages with business
and industry, also used by 89% of the respondents. The percentages
reflecting those respondents who have tried the strategies within the
past three to four years are also presented in Table 4-1.
Strategies perceived as average in effectiveness. The strategies
perceived as average in effectiveness, falling within the mean ratings
from 3.20 to 3.69, are presented in Table 4-2. Nineteen strategies, or
49% of the total strategies listed in the survey, fell within the
average in effectiveness range. There appears to be strong consensus
in regard to the ratings in this category. The low standard deviations
in this rating category reflect a greater consensus regarding the
effectiveness of the strategies in this category as compared to the
category of most effective. It should also be noted that a signif
icant number of the strategies listed in this category refer to faculty
and staff usage.
Strategies perceived as least effective. As can be seen from Table
4-3, seven strategies were perceived as least effective by the chief
executive officers; least effective strategies were defined with a mean
rating of 3.19 or below. Although only four of these strategies were
used by more than half of the respondents, all of the strategies
perceived as least effective related to deferral and reductions of
expenditures and across-the-board cuts.
Effectiveness rankings of the most frequently used strategies.
Table 4-4 presents a ranking of the strategies and their perceived
effectiveness according to the total percent of the respondents


52
college generating less than a total credit and noncredit enrollment of
8,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) units and at least one community college
generating more than a total credit and noncredit enrollment of 12,000
full-time equivalent (FTE) units.
3. The size of the service area, that is, at least one commmunity
college from a total service area population greater than 250,000 but
less than 500,000 and at least one community college from a total
service area population in excess of 500,000.
4. The geographic location of the institution, that is, at least one
community college from the southern/western region of the United States
and at least one community college from the northeastern/midwest region
of the United States.
5. The comprehensiveness of the mission of the institution, that is,
the scope of the community college mission should encompass the six
functions of transfer preparation, occupational education, developmental
or compensatory education, general education, guidance, and community
service (including adult/continuing education).
The selection procedures combined quantitative data analysis and
purposeful sample selection techniques, using criteria, judgement, and
strategy on the part of the researcher. The three community colleges
selected for in-depth field study met the majority of the selection cri
teria as well as provided a diversity of institutional characteristics.
Although the problem of small sample size is present in the method
employed, the maximization of variation in case selection increased the
likelihood of greater representati veness and generalizabi1ity to other
community colleges. Patton (1980) stated: "While studying one or a
few critical cases does not technically permit broad generalizations to


STRATEGY
147
Have you done this
in the last
3-4 years?
Charge user fees for services such
as testing
Yes
No
Reduce services such as library or
tutoring
Yes
No
Implement cost-analysis studies
Yes
No
Encourage unpaid leaves of absence
Yes
No
Reduce non-instructional staff
Yes
No
Target reductions through an
institution-wide program review process
Yes
No
Increase cooperative relations and
linkages with business and industry
Yes
No
Review/change enrollment-driven
funding formula
Yes
No
Reduce ongoing faculty and staff
contractual commitments
Yes
No
Increase the recruitment of new
student populations
Yes
No
Increase institutional long-term
planning efforts
Yes
No
Attempt to reduce student attrition
Yes
No
Contract for services such as bookstore
or daycare
Yes
No
Other:
Yes
No
Yes
No
Degree of
Effectiveness
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
Please return by June 15, 1984. Thank you.


The data obtained from the survey and field studies were also used
to either confirm or not confirm two postulates and eight propositions
generated from a review of the related literature; nine of the ten
postulates and propositions were confirmed.
The study confirmed a common assumption regarding the nature of
changes in sources of revenues at community colleges: A lesser propor
tion of total revenues is coming from state funding sources and a
greater proportion of revenues is being made up of tuition and fees.
The study did not confirm that the approaches community colleges are
utilizing to adjust to the revenue changes are uniform in substance or
effectiveness, but rather that the strategies utilized and subsequent
perceptions and degrees of effectiveness appear to be influenced by
several factors. Some of the influencial factors included the leadership
style of the chief executive officer, the institutional climate, and
the degree of flexibility in raising revenues from other sources.
Further, the study demonstrated that there is no one best way or set of
generalizable guidelines to adjust to problems related to revenue
changes, but rather that a variety of different responses and strategies
may be most suitable for different institutions.
In addition to the conclusions of the study, a set of strategies
were developed based on the results of the study which may prove useful
to community colleges encountering problems similar to the problems
related to revenue changes encountered by the community colleges
involved in the study.
vi i i


39
2. Drop the community service component and emphasize the traditional
collegiate function.
3. Emphasize the community service orientation and become community
based learning centers.
Three recent doctoral studies (Charnley & Hungar, 1982; Mehnert,
1982; Yopp, 1982) provided research on revenue changes in community
colleges. Yopp (1982), in a national survey of 827 community and
junior college presidents, found that the most troublesome issue
identified by the presidents centered around finances. The presidents
reported that they expected to generate funds or reduce expenditures at
their institutions by increasing tuition, productivity, funding from
the state, and through the increased use of parttime instructors and
energy conservation practices.
In Mehnert's (1982) study of strategies for community college
retrenchment a historical analysis was used to create a weighted order
of survival strategies. In descendent order, the strategies include
balancing the budget by research, resource analysis, and cost effective
ness; planning/self-study; maintaining a unique mission; improving
spirit and morale; lowering personnel costs; improving public attitudes;
offering pertinant, quality programs; and collaborating with other
i nstitutions.
In a related doctoral study, Charnley and Hungar (1982) examined
the planning process for resource allocation at Seattle Central Community
College. They developed a planning model to meet the particular
context and environmental conditions for the allocation of declining
resources at the college. In doing so, they identified the key factors
to effective planning and resource allocation as committed, dynamic


131
4. New efforts need to be directed toward diversifying revenue sources
and investigating new or underutilized sources of revenue. The college
foundation should play an active role in establishing linkages and
organizing development efforts which encourage gifts and grants to the
institution. Funds from outside agencies should be more actively
sought if these sources have been underutilized in the past. Insti
tutional studies of cost centers, programs, services, and activities
can assist administrators in determining the feasibility of making some
services self-supporting, implementing fees, or restructuring some of
the ways the college organizes and delivers its services.
5. Alternatives to present staffing structures need to be explored.
For example, options such as early retirement, part-time staffing,
leaves witout pay, leaves with partial support for professional develop
ment, and alternative contracts can be made available to personnel.
6. Contingency planning needs to replace reactive responses; in
addition, the long-range effects of short term responses to problems
need to be weighed. Although the short-term solutions such as hiring
freezes, across-the-board cuts, and deferred maintenance appear expe
dient and acceptable, in the long run they can cost the institution
more in catch-up costs or in terms of damaged morale. Despite the
highly interactive environment of community colleges which resists
long-range planning, carefully developed plans can help to anticipate
and to some extent prepare for the future.
7. Significant involvement of institutional personnel and constituen
cies needs to be maximized. Ongoing two-way communication should
provide information to the total college environment. Consistent
communication and involvement throughout the strategy development


42
4. They recognized the need to attract and retain
capable managers.
5. They knew they had to improve their fundraising
activities.
6. They needed greater trustee involvement and
more structured faculty and staff participation.
(pp. 15-16)
Overall, the studies regarding how community colleges and other
institutions of higher education have adjusted to changes in revenue
appear to have several themes in common, including the following:
1. The need to incorporate the existing planning process into the
decision-making process regarding the reallocation of resources was
stressed (Heydinger, 1983; Shirley, 1982; Wattenbarger, 1978).
2. Retreating to traditional responses such as deferred maintenance
and across-the-board cuts was viewed as a short-term solution (Henderson,
1978; Levine, 1979; Lombardi, 1979).
3. The most strategic and innovative measures promoted a long-range
approach (Breneman, 1983; Hyatt et al., 1984; Whetten, 1981). These
themes contribute to the development of the theoretical propositions
regarding adjustments to changes in revenues presented in the summary
section of this chapter.
Summary
Development of the Postulates and Propositions
Several recurring themes were present in the studies reviewed, which
led to the development of the following postulated and propositions.
The postulates are suggested and used as the premises related to
reaching conclusions regarding strategies utilized to adjust to changes
in sources of revenues at community colleges. The propositions, which
are suggested to support the postulates, were analyzed in conjunction


50
for only 10 of the 13 League colleges identified for the period from
1980 through 1983 because of a change in the data processing program
used by NACUBO in 1980 which restricted access to the data.
Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis of the NACUBO data
in order to identify the community colleges with the greatest degree of
change in current operating revenues from 1980 through 1983. The finan
cial data were interpreted using frequency distributions and measures
of central tendency. The purposes of utilizing frequency distributions
were to identify patterns in the distribution of scores and to identify
the most frequently occurring class of scores (Huck, Cormier, & Bounds,
1974). The identification of the means and standard deviations for the
selected community colleges for the years 1980 through 1983 identified
the institutions with the greatest degree of change in current revenue
categories (i.e., those which deviated more than one standard deviation
from the mean). It should be noted that no attempt was made to rank or
analyze interinstitutional revenue mixes, as comparisons are limited in
use and difficult to make due to the wide range of financing schemes in
different states and localities. Further, the lack of control that
administrators have over the setting of tuition and appropriation
levels makes medians and quartile comparisons of dubious statistical
value. The composite means and standard deviations are presented in
Table 3-1.
In addition to the NACUBO financial data, additional criteria were
employed for the selection of the three community colleges for field
study. The additional criteria included the following:
1. Willingness to participate.
2. The size of the institution, that is, at least one community


STRATEGIES AND ADAPTATIONS FOR ADJUSTING TO
CHANGES IN SOURCES OF REVENUES AT
SELECTED COMMUNITY COLLEGES
By
NANCY J. VADER
A DISSERTATION IS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1985


APPENDIX D
FIELD INTERVIEW GUIDE
A. PRE-SITE DATA COLLECTION
1. Documents reviewed prior to the site visitation: college catalog,
self-study accreditation report, organizational chart and directory,
institutional planning documents, mission statement, related internal
reports (budget, enrollment reports).
2. Data reviewed prior to the site visitation in addition to insti
tutional documents:
a) NACUBO report for the individual institution (includes revenue and
expenditure data, enrollment data, size of service area, size of
faculty and staff, etc.)
b) Relevant League or AACJC publications regarding the institution
c) Funding formula for the state in which the institution is located,
current funding reports and studies
d) Results of the "Community College Survey of Effective Strategies"
B. SITE VISITATION DATA COLLECTION
I. Data needed for "Institutional Profile" section of data analysis
and narrative:
a) size and scope of institution
b) governance stucture
c) when founded
d) growth patterns
152


92
Table 4-13
Changes in Enrollment
Mi ami-Dade Community College
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
Ful 1-Time
17,622
17,137
16,228
Part-Time
8,720
8,382
8,666
Non-Credit
3,041
3,291
764
Total
29,383
28,810
25,658
Source:
NACUBO Comparative Financial
Statistics for
Public Community and Junior Colleges
(1982; 1983; 1984)


122
Conclusions
The problem of this investigation was to identify the nature of
changes in sources of revenues at community colleges and to examine
the strategies utilized by selected community colleges to counteract
the problems associated with the revenue changes. A related objective
of the study was to identify the strategies perceived as most effective
by institutional personnel.
This study did confirm a common assumption regarding the nature of
changes in sources of revenues at community colleges: The trend is for
a lesser proportion of total revenues coming from state funding sources
and a greater proportion of revenues made up of tuition and fees.
Although the nature of changes in revenue sources at community colleges
is similar, this study did not confirm that the approaches community
colleges are utilizing to counteract the problems attributed to the
changes are uniform in substance or uniform in effectiveness. The
strategies selected and subsequent degrees of effectiveness appear to
be influenced by several factors. Among the factors are prior experience
with rapid growth, the economy, the type of funding, the leadership and
management style of the chief executive officer, the amount of contin
gency planning and revenue reserves, the amount of constituency support
and personnel involvement in decision-making, the diversification of
revenue sources, and the degree and duration of the changes in the
sources revenues.
Further conclusions are as follows:
1. When community colleges experience changes in sources of revenues,
which usually are in the form of a decreased proportion of the budget
comprised from state sources, the most frequently implemented strategies


6
access to education. Given this democratizing mission (Koos, 1925) it
may be appropriate to assume that community colleges will continue to
provide effective leadership when faced with significant changes in
revenues. There is a continued need for a study which represents a
potential contribution to the field of educational administration
through the development of guidelines for strategies that will prove
useful to community college administrators when faced with revenue
changes.
In summary, the tension experienced by community colleges between
mission and available resources has been summarized by Richardson and
Leslie (1980) in The Impossible Dream? Financing Community Colleges
Evolving Mission? The legitimacy and potential of the community
college mission in light of changes in resources were discussed in this
monograph:
The community college concept has encompassed a dream
of educational equality for all. Preventing a noble
dream from becoming an impossible dream in the environ
ment of the eighties will require the best efforts of
policy makers and educators working together to reduce
the widening gap between missions and resources.
(p. 45)
The lack of a clear understanding regarding the impact of responses to
changes in revenues on institutional commitment to mission, planning,
and innovation has left a gap in community college development. This
research will attempt to fill in that gap through the examination of
institutional adaptations to changes in sources of revenue at selected
community col leges.
This study analyzed the nature of changes in revenues and the
impact of institutional adaptations by community colleges to the
changes in revenues. General and individual financial statistics of


43
with the data presented in Chapter IV as to whether they are supported
(confirmed) or not supported (rejected). Further, the degree of con
firmation or rejection of the postulates and propositions led to the
development of strategies for responding to the problems related to
changes in revenues at community colleges, which will be presented in
Chapter V. The propositions are as follows:
Postulate I
Where there were changes in sources of revenues at community
colleges, they were usually a result of changes in state funding or
fiscal restraints imposed by the state legislature. The results of the
changes, although dollars had actually increased, was that the propor
tion of dollars from state sources had decreased.
Proposition I-A
Institutions attempted to increase revenues by raising tuition,
increasing fundraising and development efforts, and by making some
activities self-supporting.
Proposition I-B
Institutions attempted to decrease expenditures by implementing
across-the-board cuts, deferring maintenance, and increasing the use of
part-time faculty.
Proposition I-C
Institutions attempted to become more efficient by raising student-
faculty ratios and instituting hiring freezes/nonreplacement of faculty
and staff.
Proposition I-D
Institutions protected the instructional program area by making
little or no changes in it; when changes were made, they were made


12
urban districts, and rural districts of varying sizes. The member
community colleges are noted for innovation among community colleges in
the United States.
Mission
The mission of a higher educational institution is, according to
Caruther and Lott (1981), a statement or report of "what the institution
has been (its heritage), what it shall become (its destiny), and what it
does not believe itself to be" (p. 25). The mission of an institution
is usually a broad statement of the fundamental purpose, philosophy,
clientele served, and services of the college or university.
Revenues
Revenues are operationally defined as the total current fund
balances of an institution, excluding auxiliaries. Current fund
revenues include tuition and fees; appropriations (federal, state,
and local); gifts, grants, and contracts (federal, state, local, and
private); and other sources (NACUBO, 1981). Further, definition of
current fund revenues used by the National Center for Educational
Statistics (1982) is as follows:
Current fund revenues include all unrestricted gifts
and other unrestricted revenues earned during the
fiscal year and restricted current funds to the extent
that such funds were expended for current operating
purposes. (Form 2300-4, p. 5)
State and Local Appropriations
State and local appropriations are government collected revenues
received from or made available to the institution through acts of a
legislative body, except grants or contracts, for the purposes of
meeting current operating expenses. Sources of state and local appro
priations are state and local revenues.


105
majority of interviewees felt that the involvement of faculty and staff
in the development of strategies was good and that personnel were well
informed. One respondent stated: "At Delta everyone has an opportunity
to be involved and present ideas--from the mailroom to the President."
Two areas were identified by the majority of respondents as strengths
of the institution: Eight interviewees cited the quality of the faculty
and staff and six cited the attitude of the President (i.e., as humane
and positive). Other strengths mentioned by interviewees were the
college's good tax base, the reputation of the institution, the environ
ment, constitutency support, and the flexibility of the institution.
The main restrictions cited were related to the economy and state
funding. In descendant order, the restrictions identified were the
state and local economy, state funding, the long-term nature of the
state cuts, and taxpayer resistance and attitudes. Also mentioned was
the lack of immediate alternative delivery systems to meet needs
outside the traditional schedule and classroom (i.e., variable length
training programs needed by business and industry).
The majority of the interviewees felt that overall Delta had not
changed much despite the budget cuts. Interviewees stated that no
essential functions or services had to be cut; rather, the institutional
personnel picked up ad hoc responsibilities in order to maintain
service levels. One effect of the budget cuts cited by several inter
viewees was that efficiency had raised significantly (i.e., some func
tions have been consolidated and responsibilities from unfilled positions
have been incorporated into remaining positions). One interviewee sta
ted that this practice has affected the sanity and morale of employees.


11
for effectiveness for the purposes of this study are based on a combina
tion of perceptual data, objective data, and normative definitions from
the literature.
Feedback
Feedback is "the input from the environment to the system telling
it how it is doing as a result of its output to the environment"
(Lonsdale, 1964, p. 175).
Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) Enrollment
FTE enrollment is the number of students enrolled at a community
college consisting of full-time equivalent of all credit hours taken by
full-time, part-time, and non-credit students (NACUBO, 1984, p. 13).
Guidelines
Guidelines are considerations or steps to be followed when develop
ing institutional responses to changes in revenues.
Institutional Adaptations and Strategies
Institutional adaptations and strategies are operationally defined
as the responses to changing revenues identified in the major studies
found in the review of relevant literature. Probable strategies to
be included are reexamination of institutional mission and goals,
increased productivity, identification of new sources of revenues, and
changes in faculty and staff compositions (Alfred, 1978; Deutsch, 1983;
Wattenbarger, 1978; Whetten, 1981).
League for Innovation in the Community College
The League for Innovation in the Community College is an institu
tional membership organization comprised of 18 community colleges in the
United States. Membership is by invitation only. Represented in the
League membership are multi-campus districts, single-campus districts,


95
as fair for the most part, especially by the management of the campuses
who retained the decision-making power as to how the cut would be
implemented at their campus. Miami-Dade's fundraising and development
efforts were perceived as having become more aggressive and consequently
more successful. The increase in obtaining federal grants and the
awarding of the Wolfsen grant were mentioned by most of the interviewees.
The long-term ineffectiveness of deferring maintenance and equipment
purchases was viewed by most as a negative effect which outweighed the
short-term advantages of decreasing expenditures. A recent change in
the custodial staffing structure was frequently mentioned as an effect
ive strategy which demonstrated substantial savings to the institution.
The two most frequently cited criteria guiding the institutional
adjustments were to save the instructional program and to avoid laying
off employees. The degree of involvement by faculty and staff in the
decision-making process was described equally from three different
perspectives: "okay"--advisory in nature within units and departments;
"participative"--the management of each campus participated; and, "very
little" little or no input or involvement from faculty and staff.
Nearly half of the interviewees perceived the leadership and the
personnel of the institution as the main strengths in regard to the
institution's ability to cope with changing revenues. Several interview
ees also cited the President's vision and futurism and the conservative
pre-planning in the budget area as major strengths. Although the
leadership style of the president was cited as a strength, his attention
to detail was sometimes cited concurrently as a weakness.
The factors viewed as restrictive or beyond the control of the
institution which influenced the course of events were primarily the


29
and indeed all of higher education--are faced with a financial crisis"
(p. 35). Paul Eisner (1981), Chancellor of Arizona's Maricopa Community
Colleges, claimed that a "tax conscious public and budget conscious
legislators have brought us into a time of retrenchment" (p. 5). Many
leading critics appear to agree with Deustch (1983), who summarized
that retrenchment is the single most important issue facing higher
education through the year 2000" (p. 41)
Richardson (1982) cited the changed external environment in which
community colleges function as one characterized by a period of scarcity.
He stated the following:
Accustomed to growth, we have attempted to forestall
the inevitable stabilization or even decline of enroll
ments by seeking new clientele. Many of the new
clientele have problems which make them more expensive
to serve. Public policy makers have not been as
enthusiastic about our pursuit of new clientele as we
have been. Consistently they have refused to provide
us with the additional funds that we have required.
(p. 150).
Studies consistent with the focus of revenue changes at community
colleges have mushroomed since the passage of the tax-limiting
"Proposition 13" in California in 1978. Proposition 13 limited property
taxes, the primary source of community college funding in California,
by almost 60 percent (Jackson, 1981, pp. 152-3; Lombardi, 1979).
Lombardi (1979) reported that community colleges lost 465 million
dollars in property tax receipts due to the passage of Proposition 13.
Despite the buffer provided by some state surpluses, the "Post-Proposi
tion 13" budget for tde California community colleges was 86 percent of
the "Pre-Proposition 13" budget (p. 8). In a related study on tax
limitation issues by Lombardi (1979), the impact of Proposition 13 was
reflected by the failure of 20 local tax levy increases in Illinois.


53
all possible cases, logical generalizations can often be made from the
weight of evidence produced in studying a single, critical case"
(p. 130). Further, increasing the diversity in the sample, although
the sample size remains small, affords the researcher more confidence
in patterns that emerge as common among cases as well as characteristies
that emerge as unique to the different settings (Patton, 1980, p. 102).
Instrument Development
Data for this study were collected by means of two separate re
searcher-developed instruments. The first instrument was a survey
questionnaire (See Appendix B) developed to assess the perceptions of
the chief executive officers of the 18 League community college districts
as to the effectiveness of specific strategies for adapting to changes
in revenues. A secondary purpose of the survey instrument was to
validate the findings in the literature review and establish standards
against which the theoretical propositions were evaluated in the
analysis of the data. The second instrument developed was an interview
guide (see Appendix C) used to facilitate the data collection of the
perceptions of institutional personnel at the three community colleges
selected for field study.
The survey questionnaire was developed based on the institutional
adaptations to revenue changes found in the review of the literature
and from information obtained from the informal interviews conducted
with administrators at two League community colleges experiencing
changes in sources of revenues. The informal interviews facilitated
the task of developing good objective questions through the adminis
tration of open-ended forms of the survey questions to a small sample


24
tend to be less viable were identified, his study did not include any
examination of how colleges adapted to distress and what actions were
effective at the colleges that improved in viability.
In contrast to Gilmartin's quantitative study (1984), Chaffee
(1982) incorporated a case study approach to assess recovery from
financial and enrollment decline in small, private, liberal arts
institutions. Chaffee identified several characteristics that were
crucial to the institution's ability to weather the decline and recover
successfully. The characteristics included the leadership ability of
the chief executive officer, a clear and strong sense of organizational
identity and mission, and close attention to constituences of the
college. In addition, Chaffee attributed the success of the institution
to raise revenues from outside sources to the degree that the institu
tion possessed the characteristics cited.
In summary, the review of the literature on open systems theory
demonstrated a lack of research on how community colleges have adapted
to environmental changes. Commenting on higher education in general,
Whetten (1981) proposed that educational organizations can enhance
their adaptive potential by utilizing the pressure of environmental
change (i.e., scarcity), to spur innovation and improve organizational
effectiveness. The next section of this chapter will review the
specific studies regarding changes in sources of revenue and subsequent
responses by institutions of higher education.
Changes in Sources of Revenue
Higher Education Overview
During the 1960s, unprecedented growth in both enrollments and
sources of revenue in organizations of higher education generated


77
of career service employees also contributes to the governance of the
col lege.
The college has an Endowment Corporation that has been in existence
since 1971. The Santa Fe Community College Community Gallery of Art is
the first community college art gallery approved by the National
Gallery of Art and Smithsonian Institutions for loan of high security
exhibitions. The college Biological Parks Training Program and Zoo is
the only one of its kind in the nation in an educational institution.
The college has established linkages with the business community by
providing training and assessment for local industries. Santa Fe
Community College is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools; most recent accredition was granted in 1982. In addition,
Santa Fe Community College is a charter member of the League for
Innovation in the Community College as well as a charter member of the
Florida Community Junior College Inter-Institutional Research Council,
the research consortium for Florida's community college. The college
ranks 11th in enrollment size of Florida's 28 community colleges and
operates with an annual budget of over 18 million dollars for the 1984-
85 fiscal year.
Funding
Florida's 28 community colleges operate under a balance of local
control with state coordination and support; state support has for the
most part been consistent with the steady enrollment growth in the
community colleges. The colleges are funded by the state through an
annual College Program Fund Appropriation (CPFA) on a program cost
basis which differentiates thirty four programs; the program costs
factors have been determined by state level studies. The formula


106
One individual commenting on the process stated: "Hard decisions have
not been made--rather, results have been by attrition."
Although most of the interviewees felt that Delta had coped well
and maintained its mission and major functions several noted that the
impact on faculty and staff over has "taken its toll . you can only
ask people to do so much for so long without burnout." Also, several
interviewees felt that there was less room for innovation and experi
mentation at the institution than there had been in the past. New
programs now need to operate on self-sustaining basis and may be
limiting the likelihood of innovation. One administrator stated:
"People are overly cautiousthey almost need a guarantee of success
before they'll take risks."
Overall Interview and Field Study Results
This section presents a consolidation of the 33 personal interviews
conducted at the three community colleges included in this study. The
presentation of the consolidated data is structured around the following
questions, which incorporate the primary research questions. The
questions are as follows:
1. Based on the changes in sources of revenues that have occurred at
the selected community colleges, what related changes or problems have
occurred?
2. What are the institutional adaptations to the changes at the
selected community colleges?
3. What criteria were used to guide institutional decisions and how
involved were faculty and staff in the decision-making process?
4. What are some of the strengths and weaknesses of the institution
that have influenced the course of events?


18
a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions
which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of
organizations of matter and energy, (p. 9)
In general, several conceptualizations and classifications of
systems have been used in literature regarding the systems theory of
organizations. They are as follows:
1. Organizations as rational systems (Barnard, 1938; Etzioni, 1964;
Simon, 1950; Taylor, 1911; Taylor, 1947; Weber, 1964); and
2. Organizations as open systems (Boulding, 1956; von Berta!anaffy,
1956; Katz & Kahn, 1966; Miller, 1978; Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979).
The view of an organization as a rational system tends to conceptualize
the organization as a "closed system, separate from its environment and
comprised of stable and easily identified participants" (Scott, 1981,
p. 22). In contrast, the view of an organization by the open systems
theorists is that of
a coalition of shifting interest groups that develops
goals by negotiation; the structure of the coalition,
its activities and its outcomes are strongly influenced
by environmental factors. (Scott, 1981, p. 23)
Kimbrough and Nunnery (1983), in their discussion of systems
theory, contended that a system may be viewed as either open or closed.
They define a closed system as "one with rigid, impermeable boundaries;
as such, there are neither inputs nor outputs--no exchange of matter
and energy with the environment" (p. 298). In contrast, they stated
that "open systems have relatively permeable boundaries. As such, they
receive inputs and receive outputs; energy and matter exchange occurs
between the system and the environment" (p. 298). Most of the current
proponents of the open systems view of organizations stress the


45
It appears clear from the literature reviewed that the changing
environment permeating higher education has produced new trends in the
sources and amounts of revenue for community colleges. Funds from the
traditional state and local revenue sources to community colleges began
to decline in the 1970s due to inflation and shifts in legislative
priorities (Henderson, 1982). The effects of these changes have
included the development of responses and strategies by community
colleges to adjust to the changes in revenues, often at the expense of
the institutional mission. The funding experience of the 1960s and
1970s created a growth orientation which has dominated the management
of community colleges. This growth orientation became disfunctional in
the late 1970s, contributing to the lack of data-based recommendations
and strategies regarding the management of an organization experiencing
revenue decline conditions caused by inflation and rising costs.
Whetten (1980) contended that even systems theory, which emphasizes the
need for an institution to adjust to environmental changes, suggests
"that an organization must grow in order to maintain a steady state
relationship with its environment" (p. 579).
In the review of related studies, it was found that changes in
revenues, particularly if they were of a negative nature, were the pri
mary stimulus for changes in the organization. The changes in the
organizations were usually related to the strategies implemented as a
result of the revenue changes. For instance, when institutions imple
mented across-the-board cuts there were sometimes changes in the
institutional budgeting processes. Also, at some institutions a review
of institutional missions and goals followed the implementation of
certain strategies, such as cutting back in non-instructional or


87
in making the decisions that affect them as well as affect the course
of the institution."
Mi ami-Dade Community College
Institutional Profile
Miami-Dade Community College is a large, public-supported multi
campus community college which serves the populous Metropolitan Dade
County community. The service area population for the college is
1,764,400. Miami, the largest city in the state of Florida, makes up
the bulk of the college's service district. Known largely for its
tourist industry, the Miami area has also emerged as a national and
international center for business, banking, and culture.
Dade County Junior College, as it was called when it began instruc
tion in 1960, was changed by Board action in 1963 to Miami-Dade Junior
College and finally to Miami-Dade Community College in July, 1973.
Miami-Dade Community College has grown from a single campus which
opened in temporary quarters with 1,400 students to a multi-campus
college which enrolls over 60,000 students (total unduplicated head-
count) at four major campuses and numerous centers throughout the
college's service area. In addition, Miami-Dade Community College
offers college level courses through the Open College, a multi-media
system of television, radio, audio-visual cassette tapes, and independ
ent study.
Miami-Dade Community College is a comprehensive community college
with goals that advance the open door admissions philosophy. Three-
fifths of the students are enrolled in Associate of Arts transfer
programs and one-fifth are enrolled in occupational and special interest


21
a wide range of alternatives for meeting organizational goals (Kimbrough
& Nunnery, 1983). Kast and Rosenzweig (1974) suggested the following
operational application of equifinality to organizations:
The equifinality of social systems has major importance
for the management of complex organizations. The
closed-system cause-and-effect relationship from the
physical sciences would suggest that there is "one best
way" to achieve a given objective. The concept of
equifinality suggests that the manager can utilize a
varying bundle of inputs into the organization, can
transform these in a variety of ways, and can achieve
satisfactory output. Extending this view further
suggests that the management function is not necessarily
one of seeking a rigid optimal solution but rather one
of having available a variety of satisfactory alterna
tives. (p. 9)
Another tenet of systems theory is that to some degree all organi
zations depend on the types of relations they develop with the larger
environment for their own survival. No organization is self-sufficient;
"each organization exists in a specific physical, technological, cul
tural, and social environment to which it must adapt" (Scott, 1981,
p. 17). Wattenbarger, Haynes, and Smith (1982) stated that "according
to systems theory, the external organizations provide the medium in
which an organizational system operates" (p. 4); they described the
external environment as consisting of such things as the available
clientele and working supplies, staff, level of knowledge, other
educational institutions, and the level of support of public opinion
for the organization.
Katz, Kahn and Adams (1980) viewed changes in the organization as
the result of environmental modifications, conditions, and forces.
They claimed that without environmental changes that interfere with the
maintenance and production inputs an organization will not change. The
environment, or world outside the organization, is the driving force


Moraine Valley Community College
Palos Hills, Illinois
Peralta Community College District
Oakland, California
Santa Fe Community College
Gainesville, Florida
St. Louis Community College
St. Louis, Missouri


101
Table 4-16
Academic Fall/Winter Headcount 1980-83
Delta College
1980-81 1981-82 1982-83
Fall
Winter
Fall
Winter
Fall
Winter
Ful 1-Time
3948
3831
3954
3627
3816
3623
Part-Time
5505
5147
5590
5471
6082
6072
Total
9453
8978
9544
9098
9898
9707
Source:
Institutional
Profile:
Sel f-Stud.y
(Delta College, 1983)


49
survey instrument to the chief executive officers of the entire popula
tion, that is, at ail 18 of the community college districts in the
League for Innovation. The rationale for using this strategy was to
increase the likelihood that the survey data collected were represent
ative of the entire population of interest. Also, distributing the
survey to the entire population increased the degree of external
validity, or, general izabi1ity, of the study.
The second phase of the sample selection employed a combination of
quantitative and purposeful sample selection techniques in the selection
of three community colleges for in-depth field study. The purpose of
the field studies (i.e., to study in-depth the situation, environment,
and perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the actual responses
employed to adapt to changes in sources of revenues at community
colleges) increased the need for a sample of varied and extreme cases.
In order to identify varied and extreme cases for field study,
data from a national study of community college finance conducted by
the National Association of College and University Business Officers
(NACUBO, 1984) were used. Thirteen League community colleges were
identified as participants in the study for the baseline period of
interest (i.e., 1979 through 1983). The 13 League community colleges
were contacted by the researcher requesting permission for the release
of their individual institutional financial statistics as reported to
NACUBO for the study. Of the total 13 League colleges contacted, all
13, or, 100%, granted permission for the data release by NACUBO to the
researcher. The data were released from NACUBO to the researcher in
June, 1984. The data from NACUBO were limited to financial statistics


114
Postulate II
The effectiveness of the strategies implemented as a result of
changes in revenues are a function of the characteristics of the
community college and its environment.
This postulate was confirmed. As the results of the field studies
indicated certain strategies that are perceived to be effective at one
institution may not necessarily be effective at another institution.
Rather, each institution selected strategies most appropriate for their
specific situation.
Proposition II-A
Assertive leadership of the chief executive officer was critical to
instilling a clear and strong sense of institutional mission during
periods of changes in sources of revenues.
This proposition was confirmed. The responses from the field study
interviews clearly identified that strong leadership by the chief
executive officer is one of the most critical variables influencing the
course of events at the institution. In addition, the high response
rate (i.e., 100%) to the survey by the League chief executive officers
may be an indication that the top leadership is in fact extremely
concerned and committed to providing a sense of vision, mission, and
leadership during critical times for community colleges.
Proposition II-B
Close attention to constituencies and to the process of faculty and
staff involvement in the priority-setting and decision-making processes
was crucial to the acceptance of the plans as well as to the maintenance
of the morale and innovation within the institution.


31
with no concomitant adjustment of institutional aspira
tion. The result has been a period of educational
inflation during which programs and services have been
provided to greater numbers of students while the
constant dollars available have often remained essen
tially stable or, in some instances, declined.
Community colleges have been among the hardest hit in
terms of the adequacy of state appropriations. Those
funded in part by local property taxes have encountered
taxpayer resistance as the decline in the share of the
costs paid by states had to be offset by increased
local dollars, (pp. 43-44)
The latest and perhaps most extensive study regarding trends in
what is happening to sources of revenue at community colleges was
conducted by NACUBO over the period 1976 through 1984. NACUBO surveyed
the business officers in 120 two-year public community colleges in 21
states chosen at random, representative of the total population of
community colleges. The following revenue trends were identified
(Jenkins, 1984):
1. Actual dollars appropriated by state and local governments have
continued to increase substantially.
2. The other source of increase in revenue was in tuition and fees.
3. There was a small decrease in federal grants and contracts.
4. Two other sources which showed increases were endowment income and
private gifts, grants, and contracts.
5. The remaining total of other revenues did not reflect substantial
change, (p. 25)
Although the NACUBO findings identified an actual dollar increase,
the actual percentage of state funds had decreased and was made up by
the substantial increases in tuition and fees and increased local
government funds. In summary, the trends apparent in revenue source
changes at community colleges from the studies reviewed include the
following:


91
Table 4-12
Changes in Sources of Revenue
Mi ami-Dade Community College
Revenue
Source
Percent
of Total
Revenues
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
Tuition
and fees
25.9%
26.4%
25.7%
State Appropriation
59.3
60.1
56.9
Grants,
Gifts, and Contracts
10.5
10.2
15.2
Other
4.3
3.4
2.2
Source:
NACUBO Comparative Financial
Statistics
for
Public Community and Junior
Col 1eges
(1982; 1983; 1984)


28
decisions and set spending priorities which affected the open door
philosophy of the community colleges, (p. 104). The traditional open
door philosophy embraced by community colleges since the 1960s has begun
to close at some institutions (Watkins, 1982). This is primarily due
to fiscal constraints imposed by legislative cuts in funding, programs
and student aid (Knoell, 1983; Richardson & Leslie, 1980; Vaughn, 1983).
Vaughn (1983), concurring with the major critics, stated that "perhaps
more than any other factor, funding influences the shape of mission"
(p. 14).
In addition, Richardson (1982) cited a shift in the priorities of
public policy from access toward achievement. He maintained that
community colleges are "victims of their own success," stating that the
"explosion of clienteles, services, enrollments, and delivery systems
has not been matched by corresponding commitments of additional dollars
from state, local, or federal sources" (pp. 147-8). Cohen (1983),
elaborating on the effects of the cutbacks in funding and resources,
noted:
More recently the era of declining resources has forced
a redefinition of institutional purpose. The question
now is not how to add but how to drop programs, how to
eliminate curriculums and services. The question is no
longer a new program versus no program; it is which
program to keep, which one to drop. (p. 183)
Clearly, the environment of the 1980s for community colleges is a
dramatically different scenario than that of the growth decade of the
1960s, when resources seemed unlimited and community colleges were
opening at the rate of one per week. Talk of retrenchment and how to
do more with less has replaced grandeur talk of endless growth. In
1983 B. Lamar Johnson, the first executive director for the League for
Innovation in the Community College, stated that "community colleges


115
This proposition was confirmed. The survey results indicated that
the most frequenty used strategies (i.e., used by 72% or more of the
respondents) involved the use of faculty and staff in the decision
making process, increasing communication with the college constituencies,
and increasing public relations efforts. The in-depth field interviews
confirmed the assumption that involvement of faculty, staff, and college
constituencies in the communication and decision-making process was
crucial to the acceptance of the decisions. The quality of communication
was also cited as an important factor in sustaining morale and innovation
within the institution. The respondents agreed that the presence of a
viable process guiding the decision-making and priority-setting within
the institution greatly improved not only the acceptance of the outcome
but also the willingness of faculty and staff to become involved.
Proposition II-C
The skills and mindset to deal with changes in revenues were often
lacking due to prior periods of growth; therefore, institutions tended
to respond conservatively, avoiding program risk-taking or hard personnel
decisions.
This proposition was confirmed. As demonstrated in the literature
review and the results sections, community colleges have experienced
prior periods of growth and until the 1980s have not had to deal with
downturns in enrollments and revenues. The field institution visita
tions revealed a hesitation on the part of the management to drastically
cut programs or personnel. Rather, decisions were made by personnel
attrition and program review processes. Also, of the most frequently
implemented strategies by the survey respondents, only four of the top
strategies used by 72% or more of the respondents involved staffing


119
decline was a widespread decrease in state and local funds to education
which produced a strain on other sources of revenues. Although in most
instances the amount of dollars from state sources to community colleges
had increased, the proportion of the operating budget from state
sources had declined. The changes in sources of revenue to community
colleges forced institutions to scrutinize more closely mission along
with finances.
Although the dramatic changes in sources of revenue have not pro
duced an accompanying blueprint as how to deal most effectively with
the problems associated with the revenue changes, this gap should not
be misinterpreted as a lack of demand for such information. Various
strategies to counteract the problems associated with revenue changes
have been implemented by numerous community colleges; yet there has
been little documentation regarding the outcomes of these strategies.
This study attempted to fill in that gap by identifying institutional
adaptations and strategies employed by community colleges as well as
provide guidelines based on the research and data for minimizing the
problems associated with changes in sources of revenues at community
colleges. This investigation examined in-depth how some community
colleges adapted to changes of sources of revenues, how some community
college presidents perceived the effectiveness of specific strategies,
and determined whether the theoretical propositions developed from the
literature review were confirmed or not when compared to the actual
practices identified in the field.
The Research Problem
The problem investigated in this study was to determine which
strategies and adaptations have been utilized at selected community


23
of organizational effectiveness. Implications of the research findings
include the possibility that different models of effectiveness may be
relevant to different types of organizations; and, when viewed as a multi-
domain construct, levels of organizational effectiveness in different
domains may vary significantly within the same organization (pp. 42-
45).
Several models of organizational effectiveness have emerged from
related studies. The majority of the studies concluded that organiza
tional effectiveness is inherently subjective and the best criteria for
its definition and assessment are relative to the situation and contingent
upon several factors (Cameron & Whetten, 1983; Drucker, 1980; Zammuto,
1982). Zammutto succinctly described the open systems approach to
organizational effectiveness, that is, emphasizing flexibility and
growth in his summary of the changing nature of organizational effec
tiveness. He stated:
Organizational effectiveness is not a known or constant
quality. . Performance that is effective today is
equally likely to be ineffective tomorrow as preferences
and contraints change. The goal of the effective organ
ization is, continually, to become effective rather
than be effective. The journey is, in this case, more
important than the destination, (p. 161)
Although there appears to be a void in the literature in relation
to organizational effectiveness in higher education, two additional
studies seem to have relevance to education in general. Gilmartin
(1984), in his longitudinal attempt to compute indicators of institu
tional viability, developed statistics on nearly all colleges and
universities in the United States. He used objective measures to
identify colleges and universities in distress of some sort, such as
closure, extreme enrollment decline and extreme decline in current fund
revenues and balances. Although the kinds of colleges which frequently


5
problems created by revenue changes) proves invaluable by identifying
potentially effective strategies useful to similar institutions.
The need for a financial study of this nature is also evident in a
review of relevant literature. According to a 1982 doctoral survey
(Yopp, 1982), community college presidents identified the most trouble
some issues of concern as money, finances, and declining resources, and
additionally expected the effects of inflation and resource development/
grants/other external funding to consume a greater percentage of their
resources during the 1980s. Further justification stems from the need
to link concepts of organizational theory regarding managerial effec
tiveness to identification and development of effective administrative
strategies for managing changes in revenues in the community college
(Cameron, 1978; Goodman & Pennings, 1977; Quinn & Cameron, 1983;
Whetten, 1980). Martorana and Kuhns (1975) depicted the community
college as an open system capable of surviving through adaptation based
on feedback from the external environment. Studies in the organiza
tional systems literature (Griffiths, 1964; Quinn & Cameron, 1983) have
found that open, living systems strive to maintain a steady state in
which all counteracting influences are balanced. The theoretical basis
of this study will focus on the tendency of community colleges, viewed
as open, living systems, to use environmental feedback to strive
towards maintaining the mission of the comprehensive community college
while responding to changes in sources of revenues.
The historical development of community colleges provides an addi
tional justification for a study in this area. Since their development
in the early 1900s, community colleges have been viewed as innovative
leaders in democratizing educational opportunity and providing equal


CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS,
GUIDELINES, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR FURTHER STUDY
This chapter presents a brief overview of the study, including sum
mary statements of the need for the study, the research problem, and
the research design. The answers to the research questions and the
findings of the study are presented as a list of conclusions. Implica
tions of the research, guidelines developed from the results of the
study, and recommendations for further research are also presented.
Summary
Need for the Study
Reports of the deteriorating financial condition of colleges and
universities were widespread in the late 1970s. Due to rapid enrollment
growth, low tuition, the open door policy, and geographic accessibility,
community colleges were perceived to be exempt from the financial
crisis. The expansionist 1960s had created a growth mentality that
bigger was better and that resources were virtually unlimited. The
changes occurring in the late 1970s and 1980s, such as inflation,
enrollment declines, and limited resources challenged the mindset of
community college administrators.
Community colleges began to experience the effects of revenue and
enrollment changes despite prior experience of escalating growth;
community college enrollments declined significantly for the first time
nationwide in 1983 (Watkins, 1984a). Accompanying the enrollment
118


27
experienced actual decline may have experienced an effective resource
decline due to the inherent fiscal constraints of inflation.
Inflation has had a direct bearing on sources of revenue to higher
education, resulting in the inability of tax revenues to keep pace with
state and local spending (Alfred, 1982). Specifically, inflation has
had an impact on the three principal sources of community college
revenue, that is, property tax, state appropriations, and tuition and
fees (Lombardi, 1979). Lombardi, in his 1979 study of community
college finance, indicated that the potential for increasing revenue
from traditional sources is bleak, based on numerous failures to
increase local tax levies. The 1978 passage of Proposition 13, a
property tax limitation measure in California, resulted in a dramatic
shift in the primary sources of revenue from the local level to the
state level (Good, 1983). In addition to the shift in sources of
revenue prompted by Proposition 13, the 1984 California legislature
approved the authorization of tuition in the traditionally tuition-free
community colleges in exchange for increased community college support.
In many states, inflation combined with the political and economic
environment has dictated educational policy decisions (Astin, 1977;
Burnsted, 1980; Henderson, 1982). Financial strains on community col
leges have been created by the increased costs involved in expanding
greater access to a diversity of students with varying levels of ability.
At the same, community colleges have become victims of economic policy
trends to cut operating costs and streamline higher education (Astin,
1977).
Henderson (1982), in his study of Florida's community colleges,
found that the economy has influenced the state legislature to make


86
that they felt there was a considerable amount of involvement and that
people basically understood the rationale behind the decisions that
were made. A dean at the institution described the decisions as
"people-based, combining both the human element and efficiency."
The strengths identified as extremely positive factors in regard to
adjusting to changes in revenues were stated by the majority of respond
ents as the institution's flexibility in responding to and meeting
needs and also the institutional personnel. Other frequently mentioned
strengths were the management and leadership of the institution, the
President, the environment, the institutional orientation toward
students, and the openness to pursue new things at the institution.
The most frequently mentioned factors perceived as restrictive were
legislative mandates and controls, the economy, the lack of local
funds, and the lack of legislative planning. The majority of the
interviewees reflected the comment voiced by one administrator: "The
constant change in the legislative attitudes and activity make it
almost impossible to plan anymore."
Overall, the personnel interviewed were very positive in their
assessment of the ability of the institution to adjust to changes in
revenues. There was clear consensus that Santa Fe Community College
had dealt with the changes very well, improved and strengthened the
academic program, and in spite of the circumstances, maintained the
mission of the institution. The negative comments reflected a feeling
that morale and creativity at the institution have suffered in the
process. One individual summarized the outcome as "The right decisions
have been made . although without the process of involving people


127
The understanding of the open systems theory is/reinforces the
implications in this study regarding adaptations made by community
colleges to minimize the problems associated with revenue changes.
Feedback, in the form of changes in revenues, leads to the formulation
of responses to that specific feedback by the community college in order
to maintain its mission. For instance, if revenue changes were pro
ducing a situation which may seemingly be best resolved by increasing
tuition to students, the mission of the community college may be altered
if it increases tuition to a level that prohibits financial accessibility
for some students. Therefore, the response the community college may
choose to pursue may take a different form, such making across-the-
board cuts or deferring maintenance, in order to adapt to the changes
in such a way that the character of the system (i.e., the character and
mission of the community college) is preserved (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1974).
Another example of the application of systems theory to the study
of changes in revenues at community colleges is the concept of equi-
finality. The results of this study did not confirm the assumption
that there is one best way or that there is a group of most effective
strategies for dealing with the problems attributed to changes in
revenues. Conversely, this study demonstrated the concept of equifi
nality by illustrating the effectiveness of several different strategies
in several different circumstances. Also, the illustration of the
concept of equifinality in this study confirmed that a wide range of
alternatives for adaptation to changes are available which may not
produce the same results when applied in different environments or
under varying circumstances. For instance, strategies which were
perceived effective at one institution were not necessarily perceived


44
according to plan, such as using program review, priorities, planning
data, and incorporating the changes into the long-range goals and plans
of the institution.
Postulate II
The effectiveness of the strategies implemented as a result of
changes in revenues is a function of the characteristics of the community
college and its environment.
Proposition 11-A
Assertive leadership of the chief executive officer was crucial to
instilling a clear and strong sense of institutional mission during
periods of changes in sources of revenues.
Proposition II-B
Close attention to constituencies and to the process of faculty and
staff involvement in the priority and decision-setting processes was
crucial to the acceptance of the plans, as well as to the maintenance
of the morale and innovation within the institution.
Proposition II-C
The skills and mindset to deal with changes in revenues were often
lacking due to prior periods of growth; therefore, institutions tended
to respond conservatively, avoid program risk-taking or hard personnel
decisions.
Proposition II-D
Strategies were often limited in scope and application due to the
lack of control of external variables present in the environment (i.e.,
state-set tuition levels, state and local economy, and legislative
policy).


48
because of the revenue changes. In addition, each administrator was
asked what responses the institution had employed to counteract the
problems and if they perceived the responses to be effective (i.e., to
maintain the mission of the college). The results of the informal
interviews reflected a consensus among the perceptions of these community
college administrators that changes in sources of revenues were creating
problems at community colleges. The findings also revealed differing
perceptions regarding the effectiveness of specific responses to deal
with the situation created by the revenue changes. The findings of the
informal interviews reinforced the need for the study and provided a basis
for the formulation of the survey instrument developed by the researcher.
Research Population
The research population for this study consisted of the 18 community
college districts that are member institutions of the League for Innova
tion in the Community College (see Appendix A). The League, an educa
tional consortium noted for national leadership and development in the
community college field, functions specifically to stimulate experimen
tation and innovation in community colleges. The 18 League member
districts are comprised of 54 public community colleges, represent 13
states, enroll over 850,000 students, and have a combined faculty and
staff of 25,000. Membership in the League is by invitation only; the
current board policy is to limit membership to no more than 18 community
col 1ege districts.
Sample Selection
The selection of the sample for this investigation consisted of two
phases. The first phase was the distribution of the researcher-developed


78
allows funding at a higher rate for smaller schools and withholds
revenues if a college does not achieve the number of full-time equiva
lents assigned. Wattenbarger and Heck, in their 1983 study of community
college finance, describe the funding environment for the community
colleges in Florida:
Salary increases, rising energy costs, new facilities,
and inflation form the bases for annual revenue in
creases. Currently, the state provides 66.5% of the
total operation costs with student fees providing 22.2%
and the federal government providing 6.7%. (p. 15)
Due to a legislative change in the contact hours required in
occupational programs, enrollment trends are emerging that indicate the
leveling off of occupational programs and modest increases in other
programs (Santa Fe Community College Self-Study, 1982, p. IV-16). For
the most part, state appropriations to educational sectors in Florida
have roughly kept pace with inflation, but the community colleges have
fallen behind somewhat because of a higher growth in FTE than the K-12
or state university system sectors. In addition to the restrictions
imposed by state funding, the student matriculation fees for community
colleges are capped by law, thereby limiting the flexibility on the
part of the colleges to raise tuition.
The system of funding community colleges in the state of Florida
imposes several restrictions on certain funds by making them categorical
in nature, such as for special faculty salary increases, staff and pro
gram development, and for the improvement of academic standards. In
some instances, the lack of funds to support state mandated requirements
and increases in accountability have created major problems for community
colleges. In addition, funding levels are extremely sensitive to short
falls in state revenue collection as the state sales tax constitutes


74
six, or 15.4% of the scores falling below 3.0 and six, or 15.4% of the
scores falling above 4.0.
Field Studies and Interviews
This section presents the results of the in-depth field studies and
the interviews conducted at the three selected community colleges. The
purposes of the field studies and interviews were to determine the
nature of changes in revenues at the institutions, to discover the
strategies implemented to minimize the problems attributed to the
revenue changes, and to determine the perceptions of institutional
personnel regarding the strategies implemented to adjust to the changes.
The institutions visited ranged from a medium size single-campus com
munity college to a large multi-campus college in a major metropolitan
setting. The field studies, conducted during June, July, and August
1984, lasted from four to five days at each institution. A standard
interview protocol guided all interviews and is included in Appendix C;
11 personnel were interviewed at each institution. In addition,
document analysis, field notes and informal observations contributed to
the results. The three case studies, reflecting institutional operations
and perceptions as of August 1984, have been critiqued by institutional
representatives to avoid factual errors.
The results of the three field studies are presented in this
chapter in case study format, including an institutional profile, an
overview of funding, a chronology of changes in revenues and enroll
ments, and the institutional perceptions. In addition, a summary
section ties together the individual interview results into a composite
synthesis.


130
individual characteristics, circumstances, and environment of the
community college. The strategies are as follows:
1. Community college personnel need to monitor continuously the
variables affecting the college environment. A constant awareness of
market factors, constituency support, available resources, and legis
lative priorities needs to be encouraged by the top management of the
institution. Data collection and feedback mechanisms need to be
reviewed and improved on an on-going basis. Consequently, information
should be appropriately shared and used in the decision-making and
planning processes.
2. The distinct role and mission of the community college must be
clearly articulated to the community and to legislators. Community
colleges need to become more assertive in communicating the important
role they play in the economic development of local and state economies.
In addition to increasing constituency and legislative support, this
strategy is useful for increasing partnerships with business and
industry. Economic development impact reports which demonstrate the
role community colleges play in economic development can be cooperatively
developed and distributed by state or local consortiums of community
col 1eges.
3. A strong and clear sense of institutional mission and identity
needs be developed and affirmed, if it is not already in place. The
chief executive officer of the institution should play a leading role
in involving institutional personnel in the process of establishing or
reaffirming institutional mission and direction based on the goals of
the college.


66
Table 4-2
Strategies Perceived as Average in Effectiveness
Strategy
Mean
Standard
Deviation
N (yes
responses)
Percent
of total
Reassign faculty and staff
3.69
.82
13
72%
Limit non-FTE-producing programs
and services
3.67
.94
10
56
Charge user fees for services
3.63
.70
9
50
Increase public relation efforts
3.62
.84
13
72
Retrain faculty and staff
3.55
.78
11
61
Reduce non-instructional staff
3.54
.84
13
72
Share staff among campuses
or departments
3.54
.84
14
78
Attempt to reduce student
attrition
3.53
IT)
00

17
94
Increase the recruitment of new
student populations
3.50
.73
14
78
Increase lobbying efforts
3.50
1.06
16
89
Raise tuition/student fees
3.50
1.12
15
83
Increase institutional long-term
planning efforts
3.46
.71
15
83
Target reductions through an
institution-wide program
review process
3.45
.78
12
67
Implement cost-analysis studies
3.38
.70
17
94
Involve faculty and staff in
the reallocation process
3.38
.93
16
89
Reduce the number of course
sections
3.35
00
00
.
12
67
Encourage staff and faculty
development programs
3.35
.76
17
94


124
3. Very few changes are evident in the instructional program areas of
the institutions; the highest priority identified is preserving,
maintaining, or improving the instructional area of the college. The
other area where few substantial changes are made is in the personnel
area; rather, faculty and staff are reduced through attrition as a
result of hiring freezes rather than by releasing personnel or making
changes in contractual agreements.
4. Although the majority of strategies implemented by the community
colleges are defended on the basis of expediency, ease of implementation,
lower stress on personnel, and the desire to preserve of the instruc
tional program, very few of the strategies are backed up by data,
research, or are part of an on-going planning process in place at the
institution.
5. Strategies that are perceived effective at one institution are not
necessarily perceived as effective at other institutions. Several
factors appear to influence the perceived effectiveness of the strategy,
such as the institutional climate, characteristics unique to the
institution, the leadership of the chief executive officer, and the
reputation of the institution.
6. The leadership style and characteristics of the chief executive
officer of the institution contribute greatly to the manner in which
the institution adjusts to changes in resources. Also, the degree of
confidence the institutional personnel express in the chief executive
officer relates to the degree of comfort personnel feel regarding the
decisions and adjustments being implemented.
7. Effective and on-going communication with the faculty, staff, and
constituencies of the institution is crucial to the understanding


79
the major revenue-producing category of the budget. Funds for capital
projects and improvement have historically had strong state commitment,
yet have been diminished by the veto of the governor in recent years.
Chronology of Changes in Revenues and Enrollments
Santa Fe Community College has experienced concurrent downturns in
enrollment and appropriations from the state (see Tables 4-8 and 4-9).
The enrollment decline reflects a general pattern of leveling enrollments
at community colleges on a state-wide basis. Inflation and downturns
in the state's economy were dramatized by cuts in state appropriation
in 1981-82 and again in 1982-83. The 1981-82 cut was 1.2% and the
1982-83 cut was 4.7% of the original appropriations.
In addition to the demonstrated changes in enrollments and sources
of revenues at the institution, several other changes were identified
in the college's Self-Study report (1982). The changes include the
following:
1. There was a decline in the percent of the budget allocated to
instruction;
2. There was a decrease in the number of full-time faculty and an
increase in the number and proportion of part-time faculty (see Table
4-10);
3. There was an increase in the average class size;
4. More financial resources were required for evaluation and follow-up
activities due to legislative emphasis on quality and accountability;
and
5. Expenditures for plant operations were escalating at a greater rate
than other categories of expenditures; this was primarily due to rising
utility rates.


151
10. What do you see as the particular "strengths" of your institution
or factors that were to your institution's advantage in regard to
adjusting to changes in revenue sources? (such as institutional
characteristics, available resources, constituency support, leadership,
etc.)
11. What do you see as "restrictive" factors in the environment or
limitations beyond the control of the institution that have influenced
the course of events? (such as events, circumstances, or legislation
beyond the control of the college)
12. How would you describe where the college is today in relation to
before the changes, and what do you predict for the future?


35
who can manage the demands of a new state of development
must be installed when major institutional transitions
occur, (p. 295)
In two related studies by Cameron (1982; 1983), the orientations of
administrators and their responses to enrollment changes in universities
were examined. Both studies revealed a significant difference in the
strategic emphasis of the administrators in universities declining in
enrollments from administrators with growing or stable enrollments.
The administrators experiencing decline tended to be conservative and
internally focused in their orientation, emphasizing finances, budget
ing, and fundraising. The administrators with growing enrollments were
characterized by an external orientation, advocating innovative proac
tive responses and emphasizing public relations, service, and interaction
with external constituencies. Cameron's studies suppported the findings
of Chaffee and Whetten, noting that administrators in declining organi
zations tend to respond with conservatism, and may actually be perpet
uating the decline by their anachronistic style.
The most recent study of strategies to changes in resources at
public colleges and universities examined four universities and one
community college district in three states hit hard by state revenue
shortfalls (Hyatt et al., 1984). The study incorporated a case study
approach to determine the effects of revenue reductions and the specific
institutional responses to the fiscal stress. Hyatt reported that what
actually had occurred at the institutions was reallocation, or, a long
term approach defined as "a process which distributes resources according
to a plan" (p. 15). The specific factors involved in developing what
was considered to be an effective reallocation process at the institu
tions were as follows:


36
1. Faculty and constituent involvement in the reallocation process;
2. Assessment of institutional role and mission;
3. The quality of academic and support programs; and,
4. Assessment of the long-term versus short-term costs and benefits
associated with reallocation.
It should be noted that all of the institutions included in the Hyatt
study viewed retrenchment and reallocation as a generally positive
experience. Some institutions found that the process "improved faculty
and staff understanding of the institution's role and mission and has
helped in setting institutional priorities" (p. 11). In concluding,
Hyatt et al. noted that the process of reallocation had prompted an in-
depth discussion of the long- and short-term implications associated
with the process (pp. 11-12). Also, in order to meet the challenges
facing institutions of higher education in the years ahead, Hyatt et
al. concluded that "reallocation must be made an integral part of
institutional management" (p. 12).
Community Colleges
Community colleges, despite relatively stable enrollments until
1983 (Watkins, 1984a), are facing similar stabilized and changed revenue
conditions as found in four-year institutions. Increased competition
for state dollars (Wattenbarger & Starnes, 1976) as well as for students
(Breneman, 1983) has placed community colleges in an uncomfortable
position. In many instances, community colleges have responded to
worsened revenue conditions amidst demands for increased services and
growing demands for accountability (Alfred, 1978; Henderson, 1982;
Richardson, 1982). Henderson (1978) cited that the most urgently
needed high-cost and innovative programs are generally the first to be


103
of the budget year. There was little mention of changes or trends in
enrollment patterns; Delta's enrollment increases, although slight,
have been consistent over the years.
The main problems resulting from changes in revenues identified by
the interviewees were as follows: declines in state support and
district millage, a greater burden placed on students due to increased
tuition, little new program development, low morale, less innovation,
deteriorating physical plant condition due to deferred maintenance, and
the negative psychological effects of the state cuts.
Specific strategies institutional personnel mentioned as having
been employed by the institution to adjust to changes in revenues are
presented in Table 4-17. Most of the respondents identified hiring
freeze/unfilled positions as the most effective strategy in terms of
reducing expenditures and also as a positive method of increasing
efficiency and productivity. The main drawback to this strategy
mentioned by most was the damaging effect on morale and employee
burnout over a long duration of time. The deferral of maintenance was
perceived as a necessary yet highly ineffective strategy, by the
majority of respondents. Also, across-the-board cuts were perceived as
unfair by several respondents. Although across-the-board cuts appear
to be equitable, several respondents felt that this type of cut was a
reactive response which does not reward individual efforts.
Nearly half of the interviewees indicated that they did not feel
that there had been any criteria or priorities guiding the reallocation
strategies. Of the remaining respondents, three felt that the priority
was to protect the instructional program and another felt that the
priority was to protect the institutional personnel. Overall, the


136
Denzin, N. K. (1978). The logic of naturalistic inquiry. In N. K.
Denzin (Ed.), Sociological methods: A sourcebook (pp. 17-26).
New York: McGraw-Hill.
Deutsch, J. M. (1983). Retrenchment: Crisis or challenge?
Educational Record, 64(1), 41-44.
Dresch, S. P. (1977). Dynamics of growth and decline. In J. Millet
(Ed.), Managing turbulence and change (pp. 17-31). New York:
Harper.
Drucker, P. (1980). Managing in turbulent times. New York: Harper.
Eisner, P. A. (1981). Management as a creative human resource.
Community and Junior College Journal, ^1(4), 5-9.
Etzioni, A. (1964). Modern organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall .
Ferrin, R. I. (1971). A decade of change in free-access higher
education. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.
Frances, C. (1983). 1984: An outlook for higher education.
American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 36.(4), 3-6.
Gilmartin, J. K. (1984). Measuring the viability of colleges:
Who is really in distress? American Educational Research Journal,
21(1), 79-101.
Gleazer, Jr., E. J. (1980). The community college: Values, vision,
and vitality. Washington, DC: American Association of Community
and Junior Colleges.
Good, W. E. (1983). Disfunctional finance: The case of the California
community colleges. Community College Review, _U(2), 49-55.
Goodman, P. S., & Pennings, J. M. (1977). Perspectives and issues:
An introduction. In P. S. Goodman & J. M. Pennings (Eds.),
New Perspectives on Organizational Effectiveness (pp. 1-12).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gorden, R. L. (1969). Interviewing: Strategy, technique, and tactics.
Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
Griffiths, D. E. (1964). Administrative theory and change in
organizations. In M. B. Miles (Ed.) Innovation in education
(pp. 21-45). New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Guba, E. G. (1978). Toward a methodolgy of naturalistic inquiry in
educational evaluation. CSE Monograph Series in Evaluation,8.
Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of
California.


38
Alfred (1978) reaffirmed Wattenbarger's approach and also recommended
the organization of an aggressive public relations program, increasing
lobbying efforts, using outcome measures to build an effective resource
base, and implementation of a flexible short- and long-term planning
process carried out by the central administration (p. ix, 87).
The responses to revenue decline by 70 community college districts
in California in 1978 were studied by Lombardi (1979). The most
frequent strategies implemented by the community colleges identified by
Lombardi were as follows:
1. Determined program priorities among current programs and made
subsequent program cuts. (The highest priority programs were occupa
tional and transfer; the lowest priority programs were community
service and non-credit adult education.)
2. Suspended cost-of-living increases.
3. Instituted hiring freezes and cut current fringe benefits.
4. Dropped overload assignments of tenured faculty.
5. Cut the length of administrative contracts.
6. Eliminated and combined courses and programs based on a "zero-
based type of scrutiny" to determine need.
7. Imposed fees such as health and facilities fees.
8. Stopped capital outlay projects.
Breneman and Nelson (1981), in their analysis of community college
financing in the 1980s, suggested three possible approaches for community
colleges. The alternatives they suggested are as follows:
1. Maintain the commitment to the comprehensive mission, giving
academic, occupational, and community service components equal priority.


71
consistency in the rating of strategies. The median was 3.54 and the
range of ratings fell within 2.11 to 4.67. The overall mean of the
standard deviations was .87, which by itself is difficult to interpret
but could be an indication of general consensus among the ratings of
the respondents.
The measures of central tendency as well as the ratings presented
in this chapter are based on the respondents which indicated that they
had used the strategy in the last three to four years. The no responses
were not incorporated into the statistical analysis because the respond
ents indicating that they had not used the startegy did not go on to
rank the strategy based on how effective they believed it would be if
they had tried it. Although this occurrence limited the possibility of
including this variable in the analysis, the overall external validity
of the results may be greater because the ratings were generated only
from those chief executive officers who indicated they had in fact used
the strategy. In other words, the ratings are based on actual practices,
not on speculation as to how effective the strategies may have been if
they were used.
The general distribution of the scores is illustrated in the fre
quency distribution presented in Table 4-6. Although no parametic
tests were used, the scores are distributed quite evenly, closely
approximating the normal curve. As can be seen from the overall dis
tribution of scores presented in Table 4-7, there is a tendency for the
scores to cluster near the middle of the distribution. Nearly half, or
48.7% of the overall total scores fell within the 3.99 to 3.50 range.
The 3.49 to 3.0 range encompassed 20.5% of the total scores. The
lower and higher ends of the distribution were evenly matched, with


104
Table 4-17
The Most Frequently Implemented Strategies to
Adjust to Changes in Revenues at
Delta College
Strategy
Number of
Respondents
Defer maintenance and equipment purchases
7
Limit new program development
7
Raise tuition
6
Hiring freeze/Unfi11ed positions
5
Across-the-board cuts
4
Reassign faculty/staff
4
Limit non-FTE producing programs and services
3
Increase part-time faculty use
3
Program review
3
n=ll


APPENDIX B
COMMUNITY COLLEGE SURVEY OF EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES
Dear Chancellor/President:
This survey is intended to measure your perceptions as to the
effectiveness of specific strategies a community college might implement
when experiencing a decline in sources of revenues. For the purpose of
this survey, effectiveness wi11 be defined in terms of how well the
strategies listed below contribute to maintaining the overall goals of
your institution. Please indicate if you have used the strategy listed
in the last 3-4 years by circling Yes or No in the space provided. If
Yes, please rate how effective you feel the strategy was; if _No, please
rate how effective you believe it would be if you tried it. Thank you
very much.
Nancy Vader, University of Florida
The rating scale is: 1 not at all effective
2 below average in effectiveness
3 about average in effectiveness
4 above average in effectiveness
5 extremely effective
(circle one)
(circle one)
Have you done this
STRATEGY
in the last
Degree of
3-4 years?
Effectiveness
Increase the use of part-time faculty
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
5
Reduce the number of course sections
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
5
Raise tuition/student fees
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
5
Share staff among campuses or departments
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
5
Defer major maintenance expenditures
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
5
Initiate retirement options, such as
early retirement
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
5
Institute across-the-board reductions
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
5
145


112
frequently implemented by 89% or more of the survey respondents were
reducing student attrition, cost-analysis studies, faculty/staff
development, retirement options, increasing cooperation with business/
industry, increasing lobbying efforts, deferring equipment purchases,
and involving faculty/staff in the decision-making process. Although
all of the institutions selected for field study had raised tuition as
one strategy, two of the institutions had tuition limits imposed by the
state. The other two strategies, increasing fundraising/development
efforts and making some activities self-supporting were cited as having
been used by less than half of the interviewees in the field study
visits.
Propositon I-B
Institutions attempted to decrease expenditures by implementing
across-the-board cuts, deferring maintenance, and increasing the use of
part-time faculty.
This proposition was confirmed. All three of the selected community
colleges had initiated some type of across-the-board cuts at their
institution and indicated they had deferred maintenance as primary
strategies to decrease expenditures. An increase in the use of part-
time faculty was not demonstrated at the field site institutions,
although the survey results indicated that 72% of the respondents had
increased the use of part-time faculty. Interestingly, this strategy
was rated as 3.85 in effectiveness (i.e., most effective) by the survey
respondents. Although across-the-board cuts and deferred maintenance
were strategies used by approximately half of the survey respondents,
both strategies were rated in the category of least effective by the
respondents.


100
Table 4-15
Changes in Sources of Revenues
Delta College
Revenue Source
Percent
1980-81
of Total
1981-82
Revenues
1982-83
Tuition and fees
25.8%
27.2%
26.3%
State Appropriations
27.5
24.9
22.9
Local Appropriations
36.0
35.6
33.8
Grants, Gifts, and Contracts
8.7
10.0
13.7
Other
2.1
2.2
3.0
Source: NACUBO Comparative Financial
Statistics
for
Public Community and Junior Colleges
(1982; 1983; 1984)


34
frequently cited methods for retrenchment were early retirement,
nonreplacement of faculty and staff, and termination of part-time staff.
Chaffee's (1982) study of the effects and responses to enrollment
and revenue decline in small independent four-year schools incorporated
a case study approach. The results of the study of fourteen schools
formed the basis of Chaffee's generalizations regarding the management
of decline. In the institutions that had arrested the decline in
revenue and achieved financial stability and improvement, the following
characteristies were evident, as summarized by Lawrence (1984):
1. The presidents had an obvious ability to explain
the merits of the institution to the public.
2. The presidents were backed by assertive admissions
officers who understood the missions of the college.
3. Marginal rather than major changes were made in
programs.
4. Capital fund campaigns were started and alumni
development efforts were organized.
5. Close attention was paid to market factors and
constituencies who supplied critical resources.
6. Environmental opportunities were seized (i.e.,
via the use of trustees, professionalization of the
management team, public support, and development
efforts).
7. A strong and clear sense of organizational identity
was established and maintained.
8. Major decisions were made on the basis of the
institution's identity and the subsequent budgeting,
programmatic and enrollment policies reflected insti
tutional mission and goals, (paraphrased, p. 23)
Another significant discovery in Chaffee's study was that in every case
of successful recovery from decline, the schools had replaced the old
administrators (i.e., those who had managed the college during growth
and expansion) with a new management team. Cameron and Whetten (1983)
described the reason for this phenomenon documented by Chaffee:
A new state of organizational development made old
ways of administering ineffective. Administrative
style must change, therefore, or else new administrators


126
and local economies. Therefore, when revenues decreased due to reces
sions, business shutdowns, or shortfalls in the state treasury, less
resources were available to the community colleges.
The findings of this study, which indicate that community colleges
are implementing traditional responses to changes in revenue sources,
are in agreement with the major related studies on reallocation (Hyatt
et al., 1984), revenue changes (Jenkins, 1984; Wattenbarger, 1978), and
institutional adaptations (Chaffee, 1982; Purga, 1979). The extent to
which the conclusions of this study can or should be generalized to the
population is contingent upon the key variables identified in the
conclusions of this study and the extent to which they are represented
in the population. Further, the conclusions of this study are limited
in application due to the varying degrees of control community colleges
have over related environmental factors.
Implications
The theoretical basis for this study, (i.e., the view of community
colleges as open systems) assumes that community colleges are capable
of adaptation based on feedback from the environment in order to main
tain survival (Martorana & Kuhns, 1975). This view also assumes that
community colleges are in constant interaction with their environment
and make continuous adjustments based on feedback from the environment.
Furthermore, community colleges, as open sytems, strive to maintain
dynamic equilibrium in order to grow and survive. The tendency of
community colleges, as open systems, to maintain dynamic equilibrium
may be construed as the attempt of the community college not only to
survive but also to carry out its institutional mission.


67
Table 4-3
Strategies Perceived as Least Effective
Strategy Mean Standard N (yes Percent
Deviation responses) of total
Institute across-the-board-cuts
Reduce travel expenditures
Defer equipment purchases
Defer major maintenance
expenditures
Use up excess revenues/
fund balance
3.00
.71
8
44%
2.82
.94
12
67
2.58
.92
16
89
2.27
1.14
11
61
2.11
.74
9
50


57
instructional programs most directly affected by revenue changes; the
staff development director or dean; the chief institutional planning
officer; and three selected faculty and staff from departments most
directly affected by revenue changes.
Consequently, interviews were accomplished with a total of 33
participants; each interview lasted approximately one hour. Each
interviewee responded to questions posed by the researcher based on the
interview guide (See Appendix C). Responses were recorded by the
researcher in written form; further clarification of responses was
requested when deemed necessary by the researcher. The interviewees
supplemented their verbal responses with documents in many cases, such
as departmental reports, budget memos, and written policies. The
reliability of the interview responses was checked by cross-checking
the intra-institutional responses to certain items as well as cross
checking the responses with the available documentation. Inter-insti
tutional reliability was checked by the researcher by comparing the
responses of the same items on the interview guide between institutions.
External validity was increased by the design of the persons selected
to be interviewed, that is, persons in the same or comparable positions
at each institution.
After the interviews and field visitations were completed, the data
were summarized and executive summaries of the data prepared by the
researcher were sent to the League representatives of the involved
institutions for their reaction and feedback. The feedback received
from the League representatives was included in the final analysis of
the field study data in Chapter IV.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
STRATEGIES AND ADAPTATIONS FOR ADJUSTING TO
CHANGES IN SOURCES OF REVENUES AT
SELECTED COMMUNITY COLLEGES
by
Nancy J. Vader
August, 1985
Chairman: Dr. James L. Wattenbarger
Major Department: Educational Leadership
The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of
changes in sources of revenues at community colleges and to identify
the strategies and adaptations implemented by selected community
colleges in order to minimize the problems related to the revenue
changes. The population for the study consisted of the 18 community
college districts that are members of the League for Innovation in the
Community College. Thirty-three personal interviews were conducted at
three community colleges that were selected from the population for in-
depth field study. In addition to the field studies, a survey was
administered to the chief executive officers at all 18 of the community
colleges. The survey responses, based on a 100% return rate, supported
the actual practices as discovered through the field studies.


Table 4-18
Overall Summary Matrix
Institutional Adaptations to the Changes at the Institutions
Number of
Strategy Respondents
Hiring Freeze/Unfilled Positions 23
Reassignment of faculty and staff 19
Deferral of maintenance 17
Increased recruitment efforts 16
Reduced purchase of supplies and equipment 14
Across-the-board cuts 13
Increased fundraising/development efforts 13
n=33


83
As the results of the Self-Study indicated the proportion of part-time
to full-time faculty members has increased significantly. Although
there are only 10 fewer full-time faculty members in 1980-81 than in
1976-77, there are 54 more part-time faculty members, or, an increase
of lit. These figures do not account for the number of overload
credit hours taught by full-time either but nevertheless indicate a
rising degree of dependence upon part-time faculty.
Institutional Perceptions
The field study site visit to Santa Fe Community College, conducted
in August of 1984, included interviews with 11 administrators and
faculty at the Santa Fe Community College campus in Gainesville,
Florida. All of the interviewees concurred with the researchers'
description of changes in revenues at the institution (i.e., a decrease
in the proportion of the general operating budgets from state appro
priations and an increase in the proportion of the budget comprised of
fees, grants, gifts, and contracts). In addition, nearly all of the
interviewees were concerned with the impact the state cuts imposed in
1981 and 1982 and also expressed concern for the continued decrease in
enrollments.
The most frequently mentioned problem identified by the interviewees
as being associated with changes in revenues was the propensity of the
state legislature to impose mandates on community colleges without
accompanying the mandates with sufficientor in many instances any
additional funding. Nine of the 11 respondents indicated this as a
major problem. Nearly half of the respondents also mentioned increased
program and budget scrutiny and the closing of the traditional community
college open door as major problems. The closing of the open door was



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14
strength is their role as a community resource and this
can be enlarged by developing new programs to meet
urgent needs, such as training programs for police,
small business, etc. (p. 136)
A final justification for this study is that the study fits into
current research efforts and needs identified by NACUBO and the National
Center for Higher Education Management Systems and has received support
from member institutions in the League for Innovation. In addition,
institutions currently experiencing revenue changes (such as Coast
Community College in California and Lane Community College in Orgeon)
have indicated eagerness to learn and benefit from the experiences of
other colleges that have adapted to changing revenue conditions (such
as Delta College in Michigan and Miami-Dade Community College in
Florida). A valuable outcome of this study was the development of
guidelines designed to provide practitioners in the field with a
framework adapting to changes in revenues.
Procedures
Design of the Study
The study, descriptive and ex post facto in nature, incorporated
the research approach of triangulation (Denzin, 1978; Patton, 1980).
Triangulation, or the combination of methodologies in the study of the
same phenomena or programs, incorporates the use of both quantitative
and qualitative data and methodologies. Denzin (1978) explained the
logic of triangulation as being based on the premise that
no single method ever adequately solves the problem of
rival causal factors. . Because each method reveals
different aspects of empirical reality, multiple methods
of observations must be employed. This is termed tri-
angulation. I now offer a final methodological rule
the principle that multiple methods should be used in
every investigation, (p. 28)


93
Institutional Perceptions
Interviews were conducted with 11 institutional personnel during
July, 1984. The interviews took place at the Mitchell Wolfsen New
World Center Campus, South Campus, and the Mi ami-Dade Administrative
Center at South Campus.
The majority of interviewees concurred that Miami-Dade Community
College had experienced a decline in the proportion of the overall
operating budget derived from state funding. Due to the enrollment-
driven component of the state funding formula, Miami-Dade's enrollment
decline had contributed to the change in state funding level to the
institution. In addition, the majority of interviewees mentioned that
the institution had taken a more aggressive posture toward federal
funds and grants and that this effort had resulted in increased funding
to Miami-Dade Community College from external sources. Two other
changes frequently mentioned were the loss of state funds for capital
outlay and maintenance and the across-the-board cuts in state appropri
ations in the 1982-83 and 1983-84 fiscal years.
A decline in morale was cited most frequently as the major problem
resulting from the changes in revenue. Additional problems mentioned
with equal frequency by the interviewees were the institutional decline
in enrollment, state funding, the economy, faculty salaries, and the
image the institution has in the community.
Table 4-14 is a summary of the strategies cited by interviewees.
The most frequently mentioned strategy was instituting a hiring freeze
(i.e., not filling positions when they become open). Across-the-board
cuts and the reassignment of faculty and staff were the second most
frequently mentioned response. The across-the-board cuts were perceived


117
and external validity of the study; as a result the guidelines developed
from the data has greater general izabi1ity to colleges similar in
scope, size, and purpose.
Chapter V will present the summary, conclusions, implications,
guidelines, and recommendations for further research. The guidelines
presented in Chapter V are a culmination of the results, literature
review, conclusions, and implications of the study.


65
Table 4-1
Strategies Perceived as Most Effective
Strategy
Mean
Standard
Deviation
N (yes
responses)
Percent
of total
Attempt raising the local mi 11 age
level/taxes
4.13
1.05
8
44%
Initiate retirement options
4.00
1.00
16
89
Raise student/faculty teaching
ratio
3.91
.90
11
61
Increase cooperative relations
and linkages with business
and industry
3.88
.70
16
89
Attempt to make some activities
self-supporting
3.87
.90
11
61
Increase student recruitment
efforts
3.85
.77
13
72
Increase the use of part-time
faculty
3.85
.66
13
72
Increase fundraising and
development efforts
3.75
1.03
10
56
Renew and redefine institutional
mission and goals
3.73
.96
12
67
Institute a hiring freeze
3.70
1.1
11
61


116
changes. The strategies involving staffing changes were initiating
retirement options, sharing or reassigning staff among campuses,
increasing the use of part-time faculty, and reducing non-instructional
staff.
Proposition II-D
Strategies were often limited in scope and application due to the
lack of control of external variables present in the environment, that
is, state-set tuition levels, state and local economy, and legislative
policy.
This proposition was confirmed. At each of the three field study
institutions, the state and local economy played a major role in the
flexibility of the college to make adjustments. Funding and legislative
policy followed the impact of the economy at the institutions; little
or no control was evident over the state policy decisions toward
community college funding. Local millage levels and state-set tuition
levels were additional variables the institutions felt they had little
or no control over.
The results presented in this chapter were analyzed and used to
either support (confirm) or not support (reject) the theoretical proposi
tions developed from the literature review. The high number of confirmed
propositions may be an indication that the studies on how institutions
of higher education are adjusting to changes in sources of revenue
accurately reflect the practices in the field as well as the perceptions
of selected chief executive officers of community colleges. Interesting
ly, the survey responses further supported the actual practices in the
field as discovered through the field studies. The confirmation of the
survey data with the field study data strengthens both the internal


132
process is essential to preserving morale and encouraging innovation by
institutional personnel.
The strategies listed do not exhaust all possible suggestions that
could contribute to maximizing the effectiveness of institutional
adaptations to adjust to problems related to changes in revenues.
Final solutions must be developed in concert with the characteristics,
resources, policies, and environment of the community college.
Recommendation for Further Study
This study was limited to examining responses of community colleges
which had experienced changes in sources of revenues. Although changes
in enrollments were also examined, no deliberate attempt was made to
correlate the two changes. There exists a need to determine the extent
to which changes in revenues may affect enrollments in community
col leges.
The study found that the external environment, particularly the
political and legal environment, played a major role in influencing the
range of responses to community colleges when faced with revenue
changes. More state-wide financial studies of a longitudinal nature
need to be made to ascertain the long-range impact of policy-making on
community colleges. A related financial study regarding the results of
greater diversification of revenue sources may also prove useful.
No attempts were made to rank, compare or contrast the community
colleges involved in this study. Rather, each case was approached from
the position of attempting to find out as much as possible from a
variety of cases. A study which makes comparison related to the size,
funding, and scope of community colleges may prove valuable.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The review of related literature for this study is divided into
two sections. The first section examines the theoretical literature on
open systems in relationship to the problem of the study, that is, the
examination of strategies and adaptations utilized at selected community
colleges in order to minimize the problems attributed to changes in
sources of revenues. The second section examines the nature of and
responses to changes in sources of revenues at community colleges; the
second section is confined to relevant literature and studies published
from 1974 through 1984. The summary of this chapter includes the
theoretical propositions developed from the dominant themes found in
the literature review.
Open Systems Theory
Overview
One of the most prominent developments that has emerged in organiza
tional theory since the early 1960s is the growing view of organizations
as open systems (Hall, 1977; Kast & Rosenzweig, 1974; Katz & Kahn, 1966).
Open systems theory grew out of the application of general systems theory
to organizational theory. General systems theory, the larger view of
"the dynamic interrelationship of several parts of a larger whole as it
interacts with its environment" (Beer, 1980, p. 76), originated from
the seminal works of Boulding (1956), Miller (1978), and von Bertalanffy
(1956). Miller (1978) defined general systems theory as
17


55
3. What effect, if any, have the changes in revenues had on the
institution, and how effectively has the institution responded in terms
of maintaining the institutional mission?
4. What are some of the strengths of the institution as well as re
strictions that have influenced the course of events at the institution?
The interview instrument was pilot-tested over a three day period
consisting of 10 interviews at two community colleges similar in size,
scope, and mission to the League colleges involved in the study. Subse
quent revisions of the interview instrument incorporated the suggestions
and eliminated the deficiencies revealed in the pilot tests.
Data Collection
The data for this investigation were collected in two phases.
First, the survey instruments were distributed to each of the chief
executive officers of the 18 member districts in the League for Inno
vation. The distribution of the surveys occurred through a mail-out on
June 6, 1984. A cover letter describing the primary focus of the study
and assuring anonymity was included with the survey. Replies from 14
of the 18 chief executive officers were received by the designated dead
line of June 15, 1984. Follow-up letters and telphone calls were used
to contact nonresponding subjects after the established return deadline
has passed. The follow-up attempts resulted in securing the remaining
four surveys from the chief executive officers by August 3, 1984.
The total number of responses to the survey instrument was 18 of 18,
or, a 100% return rate. This high rate of return influences both the
external and internal validity of the results, and establishes a


109
Criteria used to Guide Institutional Decisions and Faculty/Staff
Involvement
The most frequently mentioned criterion used to guide institutional
decisions regarding the reallocation of revenues was either to protect
the instructional program or to avoid laying people off. The next most
frequently mentioned criteria were to maintain services to students.
At one of the institutions, nearly half of the respondents felt that
there had not been any criteria used, or, if there had been, they were
not aware of any criteria.
Perceptions regarding involvement of faculty and staff in the
decision-making process across the three institutions were mixed. Half
of the respondents perceived the process as a top-down one (i.e., the
chief executive officer decides), and half perceived the process as a
participative, informative process.
Strengths and Weakness of the Institutions that Influenced the Course
of Events
Nearly two thirds of the respondents at all three institutions
cited the quality of the faculty and staff of the institution as a
major strength. There was also consensus among the three institutions
that the chief executive officer, the management of the institution,
and the institutional flexibility in meeting needs were strengths that
positively influenced the course of events. Two other strengths that
were mentioned by 12 respondents were the environment and the reputation
of the institution.
Regarding the weaknesses or restrictions beyond the control of the
institution that influenced the course of events, the most frequently
mentioned responses were: legislative controls (10), the state and


no
local economy (9), state funding (7), and, legislative mandates (5).
All of the top four restrictions mentioned are related in some way to
the state legislature and the economy, which are in and of themselves
related. Another weakness cited by several of the interviewees was the
lack of understanding of the community college mission and the ineffect
iveness of the community colleges within the state legislatures.
Overall Effectiveness of the Institutional Adaptations and Responses as
Perceived by Institutional Personnel
Although 22 of the interviewees, or two thirds, indicated that they
felt the overall effectiveness of the institution was very good, there
was mixed consensus regarding some other perceived outcomes. While 10
interviewees cited that the institution was stronger academically as an
overall result of some of the adaptations, nine of the interviewees
felt that morale and innovation had suffered to a large extent. Eight
interviewees rated the overall institutional effectiveness as "so so"
or "okay"; seven felt that the institution had changed very little
overall, although some respondents cited examples of raised efficiency
as a positive overall outcome.
Discussion of the Results
In this section, the survey results and the field study results
are combined with the theoretical propositions and postulates developed
from the literature review regarding the institutional strategies and
adaptations that are considered effective during periods of changes in
sources of revenues at community colleges. From the extensive review
of the literature, two postulates and eight propositions were developed


60
to changes in revenues. The results of the survey data analysis are
presented in Chapter IV.
The nature of the field study data collected during the in-depth
interviews and document inspection lent itself to analysis in several
ways. The analysis of qualitative data of this nature typically
follows no formal or universal rules. The lack of limitations aligns
well with the nature of the inductive method of qualitative discovery.
For example, Guba (1978) described the "discovery oriented approach" as
minimizing the manipulation of the study setting by the researcher.
Further, Guba (1978) described this approach as lacking prior restraints
on what the outcomes of the research will be, as opposed to the re
straints present when pure scientific inquiry is conducted.
Prior to the field study data analysis a decision rule was estab
lished by the researcher as a guide for the inclusion of data from the
interviews. The decision rule was: If 40% or more of the interviewees
gave the same response to an item, the item was included in the overall
summary matrix analysis presented in Chapter IV. This inclusion rule
increased the external validity of the study by allowing only those
responses that nearly met a majority of the responses received from
the interviewees. The internal validity and reliability of the data
were cross-checked through the comparison of interviewee responses.
The data from each individual field study were analyzed and presented
for each institution in a case study format. In addition, the overall
data from all three institutions were presented in tabular and matrix
formats accompanied by a descriptive narrative.
The purposes of classifying the institutional data in case study
format were to identify patterns and themes within a particular setting


76
Santa Fe Community College operates primarily on a main campus of
125 acres and has a total of 30 buildings. The college operates two
off-campus centers: One is located in Bradford County and the other is
the college's Police Academy at the Gainesville Municipal Airport. The
completion of a building on the main campus for the college's health
related programs enabled the sale of the southwest Gainesville Center
that had previously housed the health programs. The college offers
college transfer programs, occupational programs, community education
programs, and is the designated area vocational education school.
Santa Fe Community College's 1983 enrollment consisted of over 10,000
students in all programs (unduplicated student headcount). The college
prides itself on the fact that it attracts 40 percent of the top 10
percent of its district's graduating seniors. The college employs 228
full-time faculty, 245 career service staff, 39 administrative personnel,
and 17 professional specialists.
The college is governed by an eight member Board of Trustees
appointed by the Governor in four-year staggered terms. State regu
lations provide a clear differentiation between the policy-making role
of the Board and the management role of the president. The president
of the college, who has held the office since 1971, succeeded the
founding president of the institution, Joseph W. Fordyce. Three
principal administrators report directly to the president, and the six
top-ranking administrators of the college comprise the president's ad
ministrative council. The College Senate, comprised of all individuals
on annual and continuing contracts, plays a major role in the organi
zation and governance of the college. Another governing body comprised


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
r
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
C. Arthur Sandeen
Professor of
Educational Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
CL, .
Harold C. Riker
Professor of Counselor Education
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1985
."h ChAkA () C >
Dean, College of Education^
Dean, Graduate School


63
1 not at all effective
2 below average in effectiveness
3 about average in effectiveness
4 above average in effectiveness
5 extremely effective
The results of the chief executive officers' perceptions are based
on the entire population of interest, that is, all 18 of the League
chief executive officers. The total number of responses to the survey
instrument was 18 of 18, or, 100% of the population. All surveys
returned were usable; therefore the results are based on a 100% effective
return rate. The results of the survey are presented in tabular format
accompanied by a narrative explanation.
Effectiveness Ratings of Strategies
Strategies perceived as most effective. Listed in Table 4-1 in
rank order are the strategies perceived as most effective by the chief
executive officers. The statistics are based on those who ranked the
strategy after indicating that they had used the strategy in the last
three to four years. Since the respondents indicating no (they had not
used the strategy) did not rank the strategy, only those respondents
indicating yes (they had used the strategy) are included in the analysis.
Only strategies used by eight or more of the respondents are included
in the table; the mean of the strategies included are all 3.70 or above.
Although strategies used by less than eight of the respondents were not
included in the table, it should be noted that three of the strategies
listed in the survey had a mean rating of 4.25 and above, although they
were used by only three to four of the respondents. The strategies
include review/change enrollment-driven funding formula, mean = 4.25;
sell or rent unused or underutilized facilities, mean = 4.33; and
contract for services such as bookstore or daycare, mean = 4.67.


7
selected community colleges were analyzed, as well as data regarding
perceptions of the effectiveness of certain institutional strategies.
An in-depth investigation of specific institutional adaptations and
strategies to changes in revenues at three selected community colleges
formed both the focus of the research and the foundation for the
development of guidelines for adjusting to revenue changes at community
col leges.
The Problem
Statement of the Problem
The problem of this study was to determine which strategies and
adaptations have been utilized at selected community colleges in order
to minimize the problems attributed to changes imposed by the external
environment (i.e., changes in sources of revenues).
Specifically, answers were sought to the following research
questions:
1. What environmental changes (i.e., changes in sources of revenue)
have occurred at the selected community colleges for the period from
1979-80 through 1983-84?
2. What are the institutional adaptations to the changes at the
selected community colleges?
3. Based on a review of relevant literature and the perceptions of
community college presidents, what are the institutional strategies for
adaptation that are considered effective during periods of changes in
sources of revenues at community colleges?
4. What are the implications derived from the data for future efforts
by institutions experiencing similar changes?


96
lack of planning on the part of the state legislature (i.e., changes in
funding formulas and categoricals and the misunderstanding by the state
legislature of the mission of the community college). Public attitudes,
the testing thrust by the state, and the inability of the community
colleges in the state to influence the legislature were also mentioned.
The majority of restrictions mentioned related to the state legislature
in some manner. One interviewee summarized the situation as "It is a
continuing struggle--it is difficult to meet goals with the state
funding and mandates--the funding comes with more string attached."
Overall, the majority of interviewees felt that Miami-Dade has been
very effective in terms of maintaining its mission while responding to
revenue changes. One administrator summarized: "Crisis prompts
priorities to fulfill the mission of the community college." Although
several interviewees mentioned that morale was low and the image of the
community college in the community and in the state legislature was
low, many stated that they felt the overall quality of the institution
had improved over the past five years. As one interviewee summarized:
"Miami-Dade is getting better."
Delta College
Institutional Profile
Delta College, founded in 1961, is a single-campus, comprehensive
community with an open door philosophy of service and commitment to its
community. The mission statement of the college was reformulated in
1976 to include the following (Delta College, 1984):
The college is dedicated to meeting the educational
needs of its constitutents who desire the opportunity
to participate in the college program and to an open
relationship with business, industry, and the professions
as well as other institutions or groups where cooperative


153
e) funding formula; effect on mission
f) environment: political, economic, social
g) brief overview of significant chronological events/changes since
the 1979 baseline year
2. Persons to be interviewed (using the "Community College Interview
Guide")
a) President, Chancellor, or CEO
b) Chief budget officer
c) Executive vice-president
d) Campus provost
e) Foundation director
f) Chief student personnel services officer
g) Chief institutional planning officer
h) Chief academic officer
i) 2-3 deans/directors of programs most directly affected by revenue
changes
j) 2-3 selected faculty/staff most directly affected by revenue
changes
3. General impressions regarding the institution, the environment, and
the nature and impact of the changes in revenues:
a) interviewer field notes
b) casual observations and conversations
c) informal and formal community feedback and literature
C. SITE VISITATION GUIDELINES FOR DATA ANALYSIS
1. Confirmation of data: the use of several sources (triangulation)
such as NACUBO data, institutional reports, current studies/documents,
and interviews


81
Table 4-9
Changes in Sources of Revenue
Santa Fe Community College
Percent of Total Revenues
Revenue Source
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
Tuition and Fees
21.7%
23.8%
23.5%
State Appropriations
64.7
65.1
62.5
Grants, Gifts and
Contracts
11.3
9.3
12.5
Other
2.1
00

rH
1.5
Source: NACUBO Comparative Financial Statistics for Public
Community and Junior Colleges (1982; 1983; 1984)


80
Table 4-8
Changes in Enrollment, 1980-85
Santa Fe Community College
Year
FTE
Enrol
Iment
1980-81
5777
1982-83
5559
1984-85
5101
(projected)
Source: Santa Fe Community College Institutional
Self-Study Report (1982)


135
Cameron, K. S. (1978). Organizational effectiveness: Its measurement
and prediction in higher education (Doctoral dissertation, Yale
University, 1978). Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 341-2A.
Cameron, K. S. (1981). Domains of organizational effectiveness in
colleges and universities. Academy of Management Journal, 23(1),
25-47.
Cameron, K. S. (1982). The relationship between faculty unionism and
organizational effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 25(1),
6-24.
Cameron, K. S. (1983). An empirical investigation of the multiple
constituencies model of organizational effectiveness. Boulder, CO:
National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.
Cameron, K. S., & Whetton, D. A. (1983). Models of the organizational
life cycle: Applications to higher education. The Review of
Higher Education, _6, 269-299.
Campbell, S. D. (1982). Responses to financial stress. In C. Frances
(Ed.), Successful responses to financial difficulty: New directions
for higTTer education (No. 2, pp. 7-16). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (1975). More
than survival. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caruther, J. D., & Lott, G. B. (1981). Mission review: Foundation for
strategic planning. Boulder, CO: National Center for Higher
Education Management Systems.
Chaffe, E. E. (1982). Case studies in college strategy. Boulder, CO:
National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.
Charnley, L. F., & Hungar, J. Y. (1982). Strategic planning for
resource allocation at Seattle Central Community College (Doctoral
dissertation Seattle University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 42, 4698A.
Cohen, A. (1983). Leading the educational program. In G. Vaughn (Ed.),
Issues for community college leaders in a new era (pp. 159-185).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Connolly, J. J. (1981). Community colleges in the 1980s.
Educational Record, _62j4), 35-40.
Cosand, J. (1983). Who will make the decisions? Community College
Review, _10(4), 24-29.
Delta College catalog, 1984-86. (1984). University Center, MI:
Delta College Press.
Delta College. (1983). Institutional profile: Self-study report.
University Center, MI: Delta College Press.


32
1. Tuition is becoming increasingly important in financing community
colleges, comprising more than 10 percent of most operating budgets
Jenkins, 1984; Richardson & Leslie, 1980; Wattenbarger & Bibby, 1981;
Wattenbarger & Stepp, 1978).
2. Local funds contributing to community college revenues are decreasing
in general as a percent of the total operating budgets of community
colleges (Lombardi, 1979; Richardson & Leslie, 1980; Wattenbarger &
Heck, 1983).
3. State funds, while continuing to increase in dollar amounts, have
decreased as a percent of the total operating budget (Jenkins, 1984).
4. Some community colleges have been successful in expanding their
revenue base through substantial increases in increased sources of
revenue generated through efforts in development and fundraising
activities (Jenkins, 1984; Watkins, 1984b).
Reactions to Changes in Revenues
Four-Year Colleges and Universities
Four year colleges and universities were the first to react to
revenue decline perpetuated by demographic pressures and expenditure
pressures that grew faster than institutional revenues (Breneman, 1983;
Carnegie Foundation, 1975; Mortimer & Tierney, 1979). In many cases of
institutional decline in higher education, management was ill-prepared
to cope with retrenchment. Chaffee (1982), in her study of strategies
used in small private liberal arts colleges, found that in many cases
prior growth of enrollments and institutional revenues were the chief
cause of decline because the growth was planned, financed and managed
poorly, thus undermining productivity. Whetten (1981) supported
Chaffee's finding, contending that due to previous periods of rapid


133
Finally, further study needs to be directed towards the following
question: To what extent do changes in revenues alter the mission of a
community college? This study revealed that the type of strategies
selected for dealing with changes in revenues can influence the mission
of the institution. For example, a decision to raise tuition dis-
proporti onately can directly affect access for certain individuals.
Also, cutbacks in certain non-instructional services, such as in the
student services area, can detract from the total educational and
developmental experiences students need. Further study regarding the
effect certain strategies have on the philosophy, mission, and goals of
institutions experiencing changes in revenue sources may help institu
tions develop criteria to assess the potential impact of certain types
of management decision and strategies. There is a definite need to
explore the relationship between administrative decisions and strategies
and the degree to which the community colleges are fulfilling their
missions.


STRATEGY
146
Have you done this
in the last
3-4 years?
Encourage staff and faculty development
programs Yes No
Increase public relations efforts Yes
Involve faculty and staff in the
reallocation decision-making and
planning process Yes
Limit non-FTE-producing programs
and services Yes
Increase student recruitment efforts Yes
Sell or rent unused or underutilized
facilities Yes
Institute a hiring freeze Yes
Reassign faculty and staff Yes
Attempt to make some activities self-
support, such as TV/radio or continuing
education Yes
Raise student/faculty teaching ratio Yes
Use up excess revenues/fund balance Yes
Increase fundraising and development
efforts Yes
Limit/cap enrollment levels Yes
Retrain faculty and staff Yes
Reduce travel expenditures Yes
Defer equipment purchases Yes
Increase lobbying efforts Yes
Review and redefine institutional
mission and goals Yes
Attempt raising the local millage
level/taxes Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Degree of
Effectiveness
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTER
I.INTRODUCTION 1
Background and Rationale 1
The Problem 7
Definition of Terms 10
Justification for the Study 13
Procedures 14
Organization of the Remainder of the Study 16
II.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES 17
Open Systems Theory 17
Changes in Sources of Revenue 24
Reactions to Changes in Revenues 32
Summary 42
III.METHODOLOGY 47
Research Population 48
Sample Selection 48
Instrument Development 53
Data Collection 55
Analysis of the Data 58
IV.RESULTS 62
Results of the Survey 62
Field Studies and Interviews 74
Santa Fe Community College 75
Mi ami-Dade Community Colege 87
Delta College 96
Overall Interview and Field Study Results 106
Discussion of the Results 110
v


70
Table 4-5
Effectiveness Rating by Type of Strategy
Type of Strategy
Percent
Effectiveness
Tried
Rating (mean)
ENROLLMENT
Increase recruitment
72%
3.85
Reduce attrition
94
3.53
Reduce course sections
67
3.35
n=3
m=78%
m=3.58
EXPENDITURES
Limit non=FTE activities
56%
3.67
Cost-analysis studies
94
3.38
Across-the-board reductions
44
3.0
Reduce travel expenditures
67
2.82
Defer equipment purchases
89
2.58
Defer maintenance
61
2.27
Use up fund balances
50
2.11
n=7
m=66%
m=2.51
PERSONNEL
Retirement options
89%
4.00
Raise teaching ratios
61
3.91
Increase part-time faculty
72
3.85
Hiring freeze
61
3.70
Reassign faculty/staff
72
3.69
Retrain faculty/staff
61
3.55
Reduce non-instructional staff
72
3.54
Share staff
78
3.54
n=8
m=71%
m=3.72
PROCESS
Business/industry cooperation
89%
3.88
Review mission/goals
67
3.72
Increase public relations
72
3.62
Increase lobbying
89
3.50
Increase planning
83
3.46
Program review
67
3.45
Involve faculty/staff
89
3.38
Faculty/staff development
94
3.35
n=8
m=81%
m=3.55
REVENUES
Raise mill age/taxes
44%
4.13
Self-supporting activities
61
3.87
Increase fundraising/development
56
3.75
Charge user fees
50
3.63
Raise tuition/fees
83
3.50
n=5
m=59%
m=3.78


107
5. Overall, how effectively have the institutions responded in terms
of maintaining institutional mission, and how has the overall effective
ness of the institution been perceived by institutional personnel?
Problems Related to Revenue Changes at the Institutions
A consolidation of the 33 interviewee responses revealed that the
majority of personnel interviewed at all three institutions felt that
state funding was a problem because it was declining most significantly
as a proportion of total revenues. Santa Fe Community College and
Miami-Dade Community College concurred that a related problem was the
state mandates legislated without additional funding. The other most
frequently mentioned problem related to changes in revenues at all
three institutions was the damaging effect on morale and innovation.
Tuition increases, the closing of the traditionally community college
open door and physical plant deterioration were also frequently men
tioned changes.
Institutional Adaptation to the Changes at the Institutions
As can be seen in Table 4-18, the five most frequently implemented
strategies, in descendant order, were hiring/freeze unfilled positions
(23), reassignment of faculty and staff (19), deferral of maintenance
(17), increased recruitment efforts (16), and reduced purchase of sup
plies and equipment (14). The next group of most frequently mentioned
strategies, each with 13 respondents, were as follows: across-the-
board cuts and increased fundraising/development efforts. Of the most
frequently utilized strategies, it is interesting to note that three
involve a reduction in expenditures and three involve changes in
personnel and student recruitment.


121
the comprehensiveness of mission, the geographic location, and the
willingness of the college to participate.
7. The conducting of the field studies and the interviewing of 33
institutional personnel (11 at each institution) familiar with the
institution's adaptations to changes in sources of revenues.
8. The presentation, analysis, and summary of data, along with the
formulation of conclusions, implications, guidelines, and recommen
dations for further study.
The data obtained for the study took two forms: One was quan
titative in nature and the other was qualitative. Statistical data
on the extent and nature of changes in sources of revenues at
community colleges were analyzed in order to provide an understanding
of the specific changes and to identify the institutions for further
field study. The data obtained from the survey were analyzed, which
reflected the perceptions of the chief executive officers of the League
institutions regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies. The
qualitative data obtained from the field studies and interviews were
used to confirm the financial and survey data to a greater extent.
The end result, which may have been speculative if based only on one
source of data or methodology, was a broad contextual understanding of
the relationship between changes in sources of revenues and institu
tional adaptations and perceptions. Further, the cross verifications
of the measures facilitated the possibility of the serendipituous
discovery of other significant variables related to the problem of the
study.


2
percentages of state support. In 1929, state support to community
colleges provided only 3 percent of current operating funds, while
local support provided 46 percent (Wattenbarger & Bibby, 1981). By
1969 these distributions had shifted to 51 percent for state support
and 21 percent for local support. A 1983 study (Wattenbarger & Heck,
1983) found that in 1982 state support had risen to 65 percent and
local support had dwindled to 10.9 percent of current operating funds
for community colleges.
In general, however, state appropriations to community colleges
have increased in absolute dollars in most states each year (Martorana,
Wattenbarger, & Smutz, 1978). Despite this fact, the trend has been
for the average percentage growth rate in appropriations to decrease
over the same period. According to Martorana et al. (1978), the
following changes have occurred in community college appropriations:
The average percentage increase was 20.1 in 1974-75,
21.9 in 1975-76, and only 12.1 in 1977.78. This
decrease in the average percentage growth rate may not
only mean that community college systems are not
expanding but also that they may be hard pressed to
maintain current services since increased costs caused
by inflation and utilities costs are large in all
instances, (p. 8)
In addition, a 1983 report (Magarrell) found that while state spending
in fiscal year 1983 rose approximately 6 percent nationwide, it was
the smallest one-year increase in state funds for colleges and univer
sities in more than 20 years.
The situation created by the changes and decreases in resources can
be attributed to primarily two factors, according to Wattenbarger (1978).
The factors include the following:
First, a reduced or static enrollment, which provides
less money to the college; second, a reduced real
income, resulting from inflation, increased costs of


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am greatly indebted to the many persons who have assisted me with
this study. First of all, I would like to acknowledge my chairman, Dr.
James L. Wattenbarger, and my committee members, Dr. Harold Riker and
Dr. C. Arthur Sandeen, for their patience, assistance, and recom
mendations. Their helpful expertise and encouragement made this study
enjoyable as well as extremely worthwhile.
This study would not have been possible without the support and
participation from the institutions in the League for Innovation in the
Community College. In particular, I would like to thank Terry O'Banion,
Tal Mullis, and Brenda Beckman for their help, enthusiasm, and friendship.
A very sincere thank you is extended to Donald J. Carlyon, President of
Delta College, for his continued support and especially for his example
of commitment to the community college mission.
My family and friends have also provided me with a very special
source of support throughout the dissertation stages. My friends and
colleaguesShirley Hekemian, Lesley Hogan, Lettie Molter, Gene Packwood,
David Smith, and Portia Taylorhave provided me with continual encour
agement. I would especially like to thank two friendsNancy Laughner
and Maryann Schillerwho have always been there when I needed them.
Most of all, I thank John McCormick for giving me the inspiration to
finish.


72
Table 4-6
General Distribution of Scores
Class Interval
Overall
Frequency
Percent
of Area
Frequency of
Yes Responses
5.00 4.50
1
2.6%
0
4.49 4.00
5
12.8
2
3.99 3.50
19
48.7
19
3.49 3.00
8
20.5
7
2.99 2.50
3
7.7
2
2.49 2.00
3
7.7
2
n=39
100.0%
n=22


94
Table 4-14
The Most Frequently Implemented Strategies to
Adjust to Changes in Revenues at
Mi ami-Dade Community College
Strategy
Number of
Respondents
Hiring freeze/Unfi11ed positions
7
Reassign faculty/staff
6
Across-the-board cuts
6
Increase fundraising/development efforts
5
Increase recruitment
4
Increase productivity
4
Reduce travel expenditures
4
Reduce supply expenditures
4
Defer maintenance and equipment purchases
4
Retrain faculty and staff
3
Increase part-time staff use (custodial)
3
Improve retention
3
n=ll


58
Analysis of the Data
Data analysis is the process of bringing order to the data by
organizing the data into patterns, categories, and basic descriptive
units (Patton, 1980). Several approaches to data analysis as well as
to data collection were used in this study. This combination of method
ologies in the study of the same phenomena is known as triangulation
(Denzin, 1978; Patton, 1980). Triangulation allows the researcher
greater flexibility in the data collection process, such as collecting
data through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the
obvious advantage of the comparability of the data collected, two
additional advantages of this technique that contribute to the verifi
cation and validation of data analysis are, according to Patton (1980)
(a) checking out the consistency of findings generated by different
data collection methods and (b) checking out the consistency of dif
ferent sources within the same method.
The analysis of the survey data for this study incorporated the
quantitative techiques of descriptive statistics to identify the insti
tutional strategies perceived as most effective by the chief executive
officers of the League institutions during periods of changes in
revenues at community colleges. The responses from each individual
survey were keypunched on data processing cards and run on an IBM 360
mainframe computer during August, 1984. The resulting output displayed
the composite data in an item analysis format for each individual
question on the survey. The item analysis included the arithmetic mean
and standard deviation for each survey item; the means and standard
deviations were displayed for both yes and n£ responses.


98
institutions of higher education in the state of Michigan that does not
have collective bargaining.
The Faculty Senate, composed of faculty and administrators, is the
major policy recommending body of the college. The Senate provides a
forum and framework for the development of policy that ultimately goes
to the Board of Trustees for action. Except for the Senate Handbook,
there is no formal policy or procedural handbook for the codification
of procedures at Delta.
Delta has received continuous accredition from the North Central
Association of College and Secondary Schools; most recent accreditation
was granted in 1984 for an extended 10 year period. Delta is a charter
member of the League for Innovation in the Community College. Delta
has received national recognition for innovations in the development
of training partnerships with business and industry and also for staff
development programs. In 1983 the college was awarded "Excellence in
Professional Development Programs and Delivery Systems in the Single
Campus Category" from the National Council for Staff, Program and
Organizational Development.
Funding
Revenue for the operating budgets of community colleges in the
state of Michigan is derived from three main sources: tuition and
fees, district millage, and state aid. Tuition and fees are determined
locally by the community colleges and assessed based on the residency
status of students. The district millage limit is set by district
voter approval and remain in effect until altered by voters. Delta has
levied the maximum millage of 1.60 mills for operations since the 1979-
80 fiscal year. The annual increase in the district State Equalized


40
executive-leadership and systematic involvement or organizational
members in the planning process.
In addition to the previously cited studies, the literature search
revealed agreement regarding the criteria for effective strategies to
changes in revenues in higher education. Levine (1979), discussing
cutback management in the arena of public management, stressed the
value of involving the affected units or parties in the cutback process
and the disservice of implementing across-the-board cuts:
Sharing the pain of cuts by allocating them across-
the-board to all units may minimize pain, help to
maintain morale, and build a good team spirit in the
organization, but it is not responsible management.
Not every unit in an organization or every agency in a
government contributes equally to the goals, purposes,
and basic functions of that organization or government.
(p. 102)
An additional problem cited by Levine (1979) was that in general "inef
ficient organizations are less penalized when cuts are taken across-
the-board than are efficient organizations" (pp. 181-2). According to
Levine, this was primarily due to the lack of rewards for conserving
resources in public management.
An example of staff involvement in the priority-setting process and
avoidance of any across-the-board cuts is the institution-wide planning
process implemented by the University of Minnesota (Heydinger, 1983).
The University, caught in a 12% cut in their operational budget in the
1981-83 biennium, responded by using their existing institution-wide
planning process to arrive at a set of specific program priorities for
the system. The process leading up to the final budget decisions
involved faculty and staff, avoided any across-the-board cuts, and
ultimately integrated the academic governance procedures of each
college throughout the entire process.


REFERENCES
Abramowitz, S., & Rosenfeld, S. (1978). Declining enrollment:
The challenge of the coming decade. Washington, DC:
National Institute of Education.
Alfred, R. (1978). Coping with reduced resources. In R. Alfred (Ed.),
Coping with reduced resources: New directions for community
colleges (No. 22, pp. vi-xi). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Alfred, R. (1982). An enterprise in need of investment. Community
and Junior College Journal, 52^(8), 43-45.
Astin, A. W. (June, 1977). On the failures of educational policy.
Change, pp. 40-43.
Barnard, C. I. (1938). The functions of the executive.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Beer, M. (1980). A social systems model for organization development.
In T. G. Cummings, (Ed.), Systems theory for organization
development (pp. 73-86). New York: Wiley.
Bidwell, C. E. (1979). The school as formal organization: Some new
thoughts. In G. L. Immegart & W. L. Boyd (Eds.), Problem-finding
in educational administration (pp. 111-131). Lexington, KY:
D. C. Heath.
Bogue, J. P. (1950). The community college. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Boulding, K. E. (1956). General systems theory: The skeleton of science.
Management Science, 2, 197-208.
Boulding, K. E. (June, 1975). The management of decline. Change,
pp. 8-9.
Breneman, D. W. (March, 1983). The coming enrollment crisis: Focusing
on the figures. Change, pp. 14-19.
Breneman, D. W., & Nelson, S. C. (1981). Financing community colleges.
Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Burnsted, B. (1980). Higher education: Legislative issues in the 80s.
State Legislatures, 6.(8), 20-25.
134


8
Delimitations and Limitations
This study was confined to the 18 community colleges that are
members of the League for Innovation in the Community College (see
Appendix A). Three community colleges were selected from the identified
population for in-depth field study based primarily on the greatest
degree of change in current operating revenue from 1979 through 1982.
Additional criteria for the selection of the three colleges for field
study included willingness to participate, size of the college, size
of the service area, geographic location, and comprehensiveness of
mission. An attempt was made to select the three colleges that exhibited
most of the selection criteria. The financial data were confined to
the financial data collected by the National Association of College and
University Business Officers (NACUBO). The field study data collected
included the NACUBO data as well as state and institutional reports
from the selected community colleges.
A survey instrument was developed by the researcher based on the
literature review. The purpose of the survey was to assess the percep
tions of the chief executive officers of the League community colleges
regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies a community college
might implement when experiencing changes in sources of revenues (see
Appendix B). The in-depth institutional field studies were subject to
the limitations of case study methodolgy and interviewing using a
researcher-developed interview guide (see Appendix C). Limitations
included the nature of the type of information desired, the specified
concepts involved in the study, the method of interviewing, and the
characteristics of the interviewer (Gorden, 1969, p. 87).


123
or adaptations used to counteract the problems created by the changes
in revenues are deferring maintenance and equipment purchases, instituting
a hiring freeze, reassigning faculty and staff, increasing recruitment
efforts, implementing across-the-board cuts, and increasing the use of
part-time faculty. In addition, the most frequently implemented
strategies are directed toward decreasing current expenditures, rather
than oriented on ways to increase revenues to the institution. The
most frequently implemented strategies are also considered short term
in effectiveness; deferred maintenance and across-the-board cuts can
have debilitating effects on an institution in the long run. Interest
ingly, some of the strategies perceived as most effective (i.e.,
initiating retirement options, making some activities self-supporting,
and increasing fundraising and development) are not utilized to the
extent that they could be.
2. The morale of faculty and staff is lower than before the revenue
changes; some personnel expressed that they felt that they had been
overextended in regard to the amount of additional ad hoc responsi
bilities they had assumed. Similarly, revenue changes have a damaging
effect on innovation at the institutions; new program development is
not evident at some institutions and many personnel are less willing to
take risks than they had been in the past. Some other final problems
identified as a result of the revenue changes threaten the traditional
open door philosophy of the community college; for example, increased
tuition rates, enrollment limits, state-imposed mandates, and the
elimination of some program areas limit accessibility for some students.


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
This study attempted to determine the nature of changes in sources
of revenues at community colleges, the strategies and adaptations that
have been utilized at selected community colleges in order to minimize
the problems associated with the changes, and which strategies were
perceived as effective by the chief executive officers of the selected
community colleges. The results of the study were determined by as
sessing the perceptions of the chief executive officers of the League
institutions regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies, by
interviewing institutional personnel at three selected community col
leges, and by conducting in-depth field studies at the three selected
institutions. First, the results of the survey are presented. Second,
the results of the in-depth field studies and personal interviews are
presented. Finally, the theoretical propositions developed and presented
in Chapter II are either confirmed or rejected based on the results.
Results of the Survey
The purpose of the survey was to measure the perceptions of the chief
executive officers of the League institutions as to the effectiveness
of specific strategies a community college might implement when experi
encing a decline in sources of revenues. For the purpose of the
survey, effectiveness was defined in terms of how well the strategies
contributed to maintaining the overall goals of the institution. The
rating scale for the survey was as follows:
62


16
participation in the study and subsequent requests for specific
institutional documents from the college, such as the college catalog,
self-study reports, institutional publications, and budget reports.
8. The development of an interview instrument for the field studies,
two pilot field tests at two community colleges, and subsequent revi
sions of the interview instrument.
9. The in-depth field studies conducted during on-site visitations to
the three selected community colleges.
10. The analysis and presentation of the data, including the development
of specific guidelines for institutional adaptations and strategies for
adjusting to changes in revenues at community colleges.
The effect of triangulation, i.e. the use of data from several
sources (Patton, 1980), strengthened the external validity of the study
as well as the guidelines and implications presented for further
research. The findings of the investigation therefore have significance
to many community colleges similar in clientele, purpose, and structure
to the community colleges involved in this study.
Organization of the Remainder of the Study
The study consists of five chapters. Chapter II provides a
review of related literature. Chapter III presents the methodology
and specific procedures used for the study. Chapter IV presents the
results of the survey and field studies. Chapter V provides the
summary and conclusions of the study and presents the guidelines
developed from the analysis of the data.


129
planning process which directly supports the community college mission
goals. This task will require more than reactive, short-range solutions
this task will require a new breed of educational entreprenuers whom do
not allow the past to place restraints on the future. The type of
leaders that are needed are those who are futuristic, humanistic risk-
takers willing to involve and enpower the institutional personnel in
the process. This type of entrepreneuer will encourage a type of
innovation in community colleges referred to as "process innovation" by
Kantor (1984), that is, innovations involving the management procedures
and organizational processes of the institution.
The implications of this research are directed toward the future.
O'Banion (1972) tagged the 1960s as the decade of quantity and the
1970s as the decade of quality for community colleges. Perhaps the
1980s will be considered the decade of integrity by reaffirming the
community college mission through the balanced commitment of providing
a quality and accessible education in a cost-effective manner.
Strategies
The purpose of the strategies developed as a result of the findings
of this study is to provide suggestions which may prove useful to
community colleges encountering problems associated with revenue
changes similar to the problems encountered by the community colleges
involved in the study. The strategies to some extent represent optimal
solutions or situations. In no way should these strategies be consid
ered absolute or applicable to all situations; rather, these strategies
are intended to serve as a general framework. The effectiveness of any
specific guidelines or strategies is largely contingent upon the


30
In general, it appeared that by the end of the 1970s the potential for
increasing revenues from the traditional sources was gloomy for community
col 1eges.
McGuire (1978), in his study of public community college funding in
the United States, surveyed state community college directors to assess
state community college financial conditions. Of the 39 states respond
ing, state directors in 21 states reported that community college
funding had reached a "stabilized" condition with no appreciable
increase or decrease in financial resources in three years. Of the
remaining 18 states, seven reported a decrease in funding and eleven
reported an increase. McGuire pointed out that even stable funding
constitutes a real cut in an inflationary period, especially if enroll
ments are increasing as they have been at community colleges.
Further validation of changes in revenue sources is found in a 1982
doctoral study (Sedate, 1982). Sedate examined the current operating
revenue and expenditure patterns of 14 selected community colleges in
Texas. As a group, the Texas community colleges obtained funds to
match enrollment changes and inflation, yet in doing so relied more
upon state funds and less from local sources, especially student
tuition and fees. Several studies conducted by the Institute of Higher
Education at the University of Florida (Wattenbarger & Bibby, 1981;
Wattenbarger & Heck, 1983; Wattenbarger & Starnes, 1976) have also
validated the changes in sources of revenues at community colleges on a
state by state basis as well as incorporating a longitudinal national
comparison. Richardson and Leslie provided a summary of the scenario
of the 1970s in their 1980 monograph on community college funding:
From 1972 to the present, there has been gradual
erosion of the financial position of community colleges,


56
greater possibility for generalization among the perceptions regarding
the effectiveness of specific responses to changes in sources of revenues.
Prior to the second phase of the data collection (i.e., field stud
ies), the chief executive officers of the three institutions selected
for field study were contacted and asked for their consent and coopera
tion in conducting a study on changes in revenues and their institutional
adaptations to revenue changes. Included in the letter requesting co
operation was a brief description of the purpose and anticipated outcome
of the study. In addition, concurrent cooperation was received from
the Executive Director of the League for Innovation and from the appro
priate staff associate at NACUBO.
The second phase of the data collection for this study was conducted
by the researcher during individual site visitations to the three
community colleges selected for in-depth field study. A field study
guide developed by the researcher was used to prepare for the site
visitation and to guide the actual data collection in the field (see
Appendix D). The site visitations lasted from four to five days at
each institution. The majority of meetings and interviews were pre
scheduled in conjunction with the designated League representative at
the institution. Additional meetings and interviews were scheduled on
site according to the availability of specific institutional personnel.
Personal interviews were conducted with 11 respondents at each of
the three institutions by the researcher. Interviewee respondents at
each community college included the president, chancellor or chief
executive officer, if available; a provost or executive vice-president;
the chief institutional budget officer; the chief student personnel
services officer; the foundation director; two deans or directors of


73
Table 4-7
Overall Distribution of Scores
Score
Overal1
Frequency
Range
Percent of
Total Area
4.67
1
5.00-4.50
2.6%
4.33
1
4.25
1
4.49-4.00
12.8%
4.13
1
4.00
2
3.88
1
3.87
1
3.85
2
3.75
1
3.73
1
3.70
1
3.69
1
3.99-3.50
48.7%
3.67
1
3.63
1
3.62
1
3.55
1
3.54
2
3.53
1
3.50
4
3.45
1
3.43
1
3.38
2
3.49-3.0
20.5%
3.35
2
3.00
2
2.82
1
2.67
1
2.99-2.50
7.7%
2.58
1
2.40
1
2.27
1
2.49-2.00
7.7%
2.11
1
n=39
100.0%


To my mother and father
Donald and Jennie Vader


120
colleges in order to minimize the problems attributed to changes
imposed by the external environment (i.e., changes in sources of
revenues).
The Method of the Study
The study involved eight major procedures:
1. The review of the literature which included the identification of
the most frequently implemented strategies for minimizing the problems
related to changes in revenues and the development of theoretical
propositions based on the review.
2. A review of the changes in sources of revenues at League community
colleges involved in the NACUBO study of comparative financial statistics
from 1979 through 1983.
3. The development of a survey instrument used to assess the perceptions
related to the effectiveness of specific strategies a community college
might implement when experiencing a decline in sources of revenues.
The survey items were formulated from the review of the literature and
from preliminary investigations at League community colleges.
4. The administration of the survey to the chief executive officers of
the 18 of the community colleges in the League.
5. The designing of an interview guide used during field study inter
views. The questions were formulated from the review of the literature
and form the preliminary survey results.
6. The selection of three League community colleges for the in-depth
field studies. Criteria for the selection of the colleges included:
the degree and nature of changes in souces of revenues from 1979
through 1983, the size of the college, the size of the service area,


137
Hall, R. H. (1977). Organizations: Structure and process.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Henderson, L. G. (1978). State agencies and effects of reduction.
In R. L. Alfred (Ed.), Coping with reduced resources: New directions
for community colleges (No. 22, pp. 27-38). San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Henderson, Jr., L. N. (1982). Applications of the theory of
incrementalism, to statutory changes in the open door philosophy
of Florida's community colleges, 1957 to 1981 (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Florida, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International,
43, 2867A.
Heydinger, R. B. (1983). Using program priorities to make retrenchment
decisions: The case of the University of Minnesota. Atlanta, GA:
Southern Regional Education Board.
Hoy, W. C. (1982). Recent developments in theory and research in
educational administration. Educational Administration, 18(3),
1-11.
Huck, S. W., Cormier, W. H., & Bounds, Jr., W. G. (1974).
Reading statistics and research. New York: Harper & Row.
Hyatt, J. A., Shulman, C. H. & Santiago, A. A. (1984).
Reallocation: Strategies for effective resource management.
Washington, DC: National Association of College and University
Business Officers.
Issac, S., & Michael, W. B. (1975). Handbook in research and evaluation.
San Diego: EDITS.
Jackson, G. A. (1981). Community colleges in the post-13 era:
Institutional responses to tax limitation. Community/Junior College
Research Quarterly, _5, 141-161.
Jenkins, J. (1984). More dollars from private sector--Future funding
trend. Community and Junior College Journal, 54_,(5), 24-25.
Johnson, B. L. (1983). Low cost and high quality instruction can go
hand in hand. Community College Review, _10(4), 35-38.
Kantor, R. M. (July/August, 1984). The change masters: Heralding a
renaissance for corporate AmericaRelying on the people. Change,
pp. 18-19; 40-47.
Kast, F. E., & Rosenzweig, J. E. (1974). Organizations and management:
A systems approach (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.


142
Wattenbarger, J. L., Haynes, Jr., F., & Smith, III, A. (1982).
Coping with complexity: Another viewpoint for community colleges.
Community College Review, _10(2), 3-12.
Wattenbarger, J. L., & Heck, J. (1983). Financing community colleges
1983. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Institute of Higher
Education.
Wattenbarger, J. L., & Starnes, P. M. (1976). Financial support patterns
for community colleges 1976. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida,
Institute of Higher Education.
Wattenbarger, J. L., & Stepp, B. (1978). Financing community colleges
1978. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Institute of Higher
Education.
Weber, M. (1964). The theory of social and economic organization
(A. M. Henderson and T. Parsons, Trans., and T. Parsons, Ed.).
New York: Free Press.
Whetten, D. A. (1980). Organizational decline: Causes, responses, and
effects. In J. Kimberly & R. Miles (Eds.), The organization life
cycle: Creation, transformations, and decline. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Whetten, D. A. (1981). Organizational responses to scarcity: Exploring
the obstacles to innovative approaches to retrenchment in education.
Educational Administration Quarterly, 17, 80-97.
Yopp, M. C. (1982). The president's; survey: Issues and activities of
concern to community and junior college presidents in the 1980s
(Doctoral dissertation, The George Washington University, 1982).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 4268A.
Zammuto, R. F. (1982). Assessing organization effectiveness.
New York: State University of New York Press.


41
The State University of New York (SUNY), which has over 60
campuses including community colleges, responded in a similar nature
when faced with a major state budget reduction in 1976 (Shirley, 1982).
One of the four major university centers in the system, SUNY-Albany,
responded to the cutback directives within a long-range planning
perspective. The institution formed a faculty-dominated taskforce
which implemented program review to determine program cuts. The
taskforce rejected across-the-board cuts and focused on program areas
where they had "over-expanded" in the 1960s. The final outcome was the
termination of 18 of the institution's 129 programs. Of the 110
faculty affected by the cuts, 70 faculty were reallocated to high
priority program areas and 38 faculty positions were surrendered to the
State of New York (p. 24). An obvious benefit of the SUNY-Albany
process appeared to be that the short-range budget cuts were perceived
to be consistent with the long-range plan for the campus and significant
involvement by departments was incorporated into the reallocation
process.
Campbell (1982), in his study of 37 campuses responding the finan
cial difficulty, found common responses which concur with the previous
studies. He cited deferred maintenance, restricted travel, increased
recruitment, upgraded public image, and cutbacks in non-instructional
areas as the most common approaches. Campbell characterized the "most
successful" institutions surveyed:
1. They knew they needed to employ a more effective
use of resources.
2. They had to promote a long-range perspective in
their planning activities.
3. They needed to identify priority programs, and
cut or trim other.


102
Faced with projections of no growth in the local SEV base as well
as a projected decline in student enrollment, the college has pursued
several measures to counteract the changes. Delta was instrumental in
conducting a state-wide economic impact study involving all 29 community
colleges in the state of Michigan. The results of the study have been
used extensively on the local as well as state-wide levels to demonstrate
the role community colleges play in economic development. The college
established an Advisory Council for Evaluation by board action in 1983
with the charge of evaluating all cost centers of the college on a five
year cycle. The Council will make its first recommendations in the
fall of 1984. The most significant measure the college has implemented
is a district-wide millage proposal vote to ask voters for approval of
two-tenth of one mill for a five year period. The additional revenues
would be used for the purchase of new instructional equipment to keep
up with the job training requests of business and industry and also for
maintenance which has been deferred over the past years.
Institutional Perceptions
Eleven institutional personnel were interviewed during the field
study visit to Delta College conducted in June, 1984. There was a
clear consensus among the interviewees that the nature of changes in
revenues was that the proportion of revenues from state and local
sources had decreased and that tuition was making up the most of the
difference in the general operating budget. Other frequently mentioned
changes were the anticipated decrease in the SEV state equalized
valuation as the result of a nearby nuclear plant under construction
closing and the cutbacks in state appropriations after the beginning


90
as sets enrollment projection levels. Colleges are penalized if they
do not fall within their specified corridors for enrollment by having
to pay back state aid.
In comparison to other community colleges in the state, Miami-
Dade's salary schedules are the highest. Part of the reason may be due
to the high cost of living in Dade County as compared to the rest of
the state. Due to the fact that a large number of Miami-Dade's enroll-
ees are in developmental courses, a state-mandated redefinition of the
credit hour base for developmental instruction which underestimated the
workload created an inequity for Miami-Dade (Richter, 1984); the change
resulted in a loss of nearly 50% of the institutions' FTE generation
and subsequent funding.
Chronology of Changes in Revenues and Enrollments
Changes in revenues and enrollments paralled each other at Miami-
Dade Community College: Enrollments began to decline in the 1980s
concurrently with a decline in the proportion of the operating budget
derived from the state, as illustrated in tables 4-12 and 4-13. The
proportion of the budget coming from tuition and fees remained fairly
constant, while the gifts, grants and contracts category increased from
10.5% in 1980-81 to 15.2% in 1982-83. During this period, state
mandated cuts of 1.2% in 1980-81 and 4.7% in 1981-82 were executed
after the budget had been set.
Miami-Dade's enrollments began to decline in the 1980s, and appear
to exhibit a trend in the downward direction. The enrollment decline
came as no surprise, but rather was projected by institutional officials
after the burgeoning enrollment growth experienced in the 1970s.


88
program courses. The diversity of the college's student population is
reflected in the fact that Miami-Dade has the largest number of foreign
student-visa enrollees of any postsecondary institution in the United
States; the majority of students enrolled are Hispanic and less than
half of all Miami-Dade students report English as their native language.
Partially in response to the challenges presented by this diverse
student body, the college initiated a series of systematic and compre
hensive reforms and innovations involving the entire educational
program since the mid-1970s. Miami-Dade Community College has received
national recognition for leadership in postsecondary educational
reforms, particularly for its General Education model, Standards of
Academic Progess monitoring system, and the Advisement and Graduation
Information System (AGIS).
Miami-Dade Community College employs over 2300 personnel, including
approximately 1100 faculty and approximately 1290 administrative and
support staff. The faculty of the institution are not unionized
although there have been several union votes at the institution. The
Faculty Senate, composed of full-time faculty and staff, is the internal
governing body for the institution. The President's Council of the
college is composed of the president, the chief executive officers of
the college's district administration, the vice presidents of the
college's four campuses, the president of the Faculty Senate, and the
chief representatives of the college's Community Relations, Business
Affairs and Institutional Development components. The current president
has served as president of Miami-Dade since 1980, preceded by Peter
Masiko, the founding president of the institution. The institutional
budget for the 1983-84 year was set at over $80 million dollars.


150
Increase recruitment efforts
Recruit new populations
Reduce course sections
Raise student/faculty ratio
Increase public relations
Defer maintenance/equipment purchases
Implement cost-analysis studies
Across-the-board cuts (or limits on increases)
Limit non-FTE-producing programs/services
Reduce travel/supply expenses
Increase faculty/staff development
Redefine mission/goals
Increase linkages with business/industry
Increase long-range planning
Promote faculty/staff improvement in the decision-making process
Program review (to improve, eliminate, identify new areas of need)
Other:
6. Are you aware of any criteria or order of institutional priorities
used to guide the decisions made regarding reallocation strategies?
7. What do you feel the primary focus of the strategies has been
(reallocation, reduction, retrenchment, etc.)?
8. How would you describe the degree of involvement of faculty and
staff in the development and implementation of the decisions made
regarding strategies for adjusting to changes in revenue?
9. Overall, how effective do you feel the strategies have been in
terms of how well they contributed to maintaining the overall goals and
mission of your institution?


9
Analysis of the comparative financial data was confined to the use
of descriptive statistics for the purpose of identifying the community
colleges with the greatest changes in revenues. The survey data were
analyzed using rank orders, frequency distributions, and measures of
central tendency displayed in tabular form and accompanied by a narrative
summary. The analysis of the field study data was confined to verifi
cation, inspection, and matrix and narrative summaries.
The descriptive, ex post facto nature of the study constituted a
strong research approach, even though effects were not manipulated as
in true experimental methods (Selgas, 1976). The design limited the
extent of cause-and-effect statements regarding institutional strategies
and changes in revenues, and also limited the external validity of the
study. Despite these inherent limitations, the findings of this inves
tigation have significance to community colleges similar to the selected
community colleges in the study in clientele, purpose, structure, and
services offered. This congruence enables community colleges of a
similar nature to take necessary corrective action based on the guide
lines that were developed as an outcome of the study.
Assumptions
The following assumptions are present in this study:
1. The procedures achieved the purposes of the study.
2. The instruments used yielded valid and reliable data.
3. Community colleges made adaptations and developed strategies to
counteract the effects of changes in revenues.
4. The review of the literature and institutional perceptions by the
chief executive officers at selected community colleges provided a


realistic basis for determining the institutional adaptations to
changes in revenues perceived as most effective.
10
Definitions of Terms
Changes in Revenues
Changes in revenues were operationally defined as an increase or
decrease of at least one standard deviation or more from the mean in
one or more categories of revenues for the years 1979-80 through 1982-
83 (based on the NACUBO reports for the individual institutions who
were members of the League for Innovation).
Comprehensive Community College (Public)
A comprehensive community college is an institution supported by
public funds and governed by a publicly appointed board which offers
courses and programs limited to the first two years of postsecondary
education. Medsker and Tillery (1971) defined the comprehensive
community college as
encompassing the six main functions of preparation for
advanced study, career education, guidance, develop
mental education, general education, and community
service. The comprehensive community college is
expected to provide a "program for all" with the
fundamental purpose of equalizing education opportunity.
(p. 53)
Dynamic Equilibrium
Dynamic equilibrium is defined as a condition in which all counter
acting influences are cancelled, resulting in a balanced, stable
system.
Effectiveness
Effectiveness is an inherently subjective perception, generally
relative to the goals of an institution, regarding how well an institu
tion maintains its missions and achieves its goals. The major criteria


26
rising costs of educating a diversity of students. In spite of these
trends, Breneman (1983) suggested that public community colleges are
probably most favorable positioned in relation to other sectors of
higher education due to their "relatively low prices, their ability to
serve the adult part-time population, and their flexibility of shifting
program offerings rapidly in response to changing demands" (p. 18).
Although considerable attention has focused on fluctuations in
higher education enrollments, many higher education critics see the
most serious problem as inflation, not enrollment (Alfred, 1982; Astin,
1977; Frances, 1983; Johnson, 1983; Mortimer & Tierney, 1979). In a
review of the past 10 years, Frances (1983) contended that although
inflation is down markedly in the economy as a whole, in higher education
it is hardly down at all (p. 4). Frances cited two major problems
resulting from continued inflation in higher education: one is the
comparatively lower purchasing power of faculty than of workers in
general due to salary increases that were lower than inflation rates;
the other is that increased productivity in higher education has resulted
in educating significantly more students with significantly fewer real
dollars for instruction. Further complicating the problem of inflation
in higher education, according to Frances, is the following trend:
Institutions have faced serious shortfalls in state and
local funding, in most cases because enrollment grew
faster than the real value of funding per student. But
the problem was inflation, not unwillingness of legislatures
to finance higher education, (p. 5)
Purga's 1979 study of the effects of enrollment decline in Florida's
community colleges supported Frances' contentions regarding inflation.
Purga found that during times of inflation, institutions that had not


54
of subjects representative of the population of interest (Issac &
Michael, 1975).
The survey questionnaire was pilot-tested during a field visit to
two community colleges representative in size, comprehensiveness, and
mission to those community colleges involved in the study. In addition,
several community college personnel reviewed the instrument for clarity
and content validity. Upon subsequent revision of the instrument,
the final draft incorporated a Likert-type ordinal rating scale to
assess the perceptions of the chief executive officers at the 18
League community college districts as to the effectiveness of specific
institutional adaptations and strategies an institution may employ to
deal with revenue changes. The five-point rating scale included a
range from one, signifying not at all effective, to five, signifying
extremely effective. Each interval between the five points on the
scale was assumed to be equal (Tuckman, 1978).
The second instrument developed by the researcher was an interview
guide for the interviews conducted at the three League community col
leges selected for field study. The questions included in the interview
guide were designed to facilitate answers to the following questions:
1. Based on the revenue changes that have occurred at the institu
tion, have related changes or problems occurred?
2. Have specific strategies and adaptations been implemented to
counteract the impacts and effects created by the changes in revenues?
If so, what were the strategies and how effective were they perceived
to be?


13
System
A system is "a set of elements standing in interaction" (von
Bertalanffy, 1956, p. 3). Operationally, the community college is the
system for the purpose of this study.
Justification for the Study
Justification for the study stems from the need to provide a link
between the theory regarding community colleges as open systems capable
of adapting to changes in the environment and the effectiveness of
specific strategies employed by selected community colleges to changes
in sources of revenues. A study of how selected community colleges
maintain dynamic equilibrium by adapting to feedback from the environ
ment will no doubt prove useful to many other community colleges that
are attempting to uphold the community college mission while responding
to changes in revenues.
Several community college authorities have suggested that the
qualities of the community college that denote its individuality (i.e.,
flexibility, innovativeness, and responsiveness to the community),
further justify a study of how community colleges have responded when
faced with changes in revenues (Carnegie Foundation, 1975; Gleazer,
1980; Vaughn, 1983). The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
Teaching (1975) viewed the strength of the mission of the community
college as a valuable asset in developing the flexibility and overall
strategy to respond effectively to revenue changes. The recommendation
presented by the Foundation in More Than Survival (1975) stated that
community colleges should do more of what they are now
doing. They draw their strength, direction, and
identify from the local community they serve. Their


82
Table 4-10
Proportion of Part-Time Faculty to Full-Time Faculty, 1976-80
Santa Fe Community College
Faculty
Year
Full-Time
Part-Time
Percentage of
Part-Time Faculty
1980-81
203
130
39%
1979-80
199
103
24%
1978-79
206
79
28%
1977-78
217
70
24%
1976-77
213
76
21%
Source: Santa Fe Community College Institutional
Self-Study Report (1982)


19
importance of the exchange and interdependence of the system with its
environment (Katz, Kahn & Adams, 1980; Kast & Rosenzweig, 1979; Scott,
1981).
Summarizing the trend in the literature toward open systems theory,
Hoy (1982) stated that "open systems models of organizations began to
supplant closed-systems ones in the 1960s, and, by the late 1970s, the
transition was virtually complete" (p. 7). This transition appearingly
produced a consensus that modern organizations, including educational
ones, are open systems; any analysis of modern-day organizations without
reference to the dynamics of the environment is simply insufficient
(Bidwell, 1979).
Organizations as Open Systems
The view of organizations as open systems that interact constantly
with a dynamic, changing environment is most timely and applicable to
the study of changes in sources of revenues at community colleges. For
instance, Martorana and Kuhns (1975) depicted the community college as
a system that was capable of adaptation based on feedback from the
external environment in order to maintain survival. Therefore, com
munity colleges, when confronted with a change in sources of revenues,
may respond in manner not only to survive but also to carry out insti
tutional goals and maintain mission.
Prior to a thorough understanding of the relationship between an
open system and its environment, the characteristics of open systems
known as feedback, dynamic equilibrium, and equifinality need to be
considered. For example, the concepts of feedback and dynamic equilib
rium are critical to understanding how an organization uses information
and changes from the environment to continually adjust and modify its


128
effective at other institutions. Rather, the effectiveness of the
strategies appeared to be influenced by several factors or character
istics unique to each institution.
Another tenet of systems theory is the assumption that feedback
from the external environment is necessary for organizational change
and growth (Katz, Kahn & Adams, 1980). This study confirmed that
assumption through the direct observation of several community colleges
experiencing internal changes related to changes occurring in the
environment. This type of change can be extremely positive, according
to Peters and Waterman (1982). In fact, in their examination of the
management style and environment of leading American companies they
concluded that "innovative companies are especially adroit at contin-
nually responding to change of any sort in their environment" (p. 12).
The development of strategies to adjust to revenue changes by
community colleges involves considering the total nature of changes in
the social, economic and political environments. Adapting to these
changes involves more than upholding the philosophical mission of the
community college. In order to survive as well as maintain mission,
community college administrators will need to respond by demonstrating
flexibility, creativity, and innovativeness. The traditional open door
philosophy of the community college can be dramatically changed by the
type of decisions administrators make as a result of problems created
by changes in sources of revenues. When this does happen, decisions
and adjustments that are implemented can indirecty shape the mission of
the community college. What is needed are community college adminis-
strators with not only the skills to make appropriate decisions, but
also with the vision and foresight to incorporate decisions into the


4
In light of the impact of changes in revenues at community colleges,
administrators must examine the relationship between institutional
aspirations and available resources to carry out institutional goals.
Carefully considered and skillfully planned responses to revenue
changes must attempt to uphold the institutional mission while becoming
a part of the overall planning process of the institution. Kenneth
Boulding (1975) has warned that unless educational administrators
develop and utilize the skills necessary to address the challenge of
changing revenues, they may find themselves in situations they are
unprepared to meet. Boulding made the following observation:
Present educational administrators have grown in a
period of rapid growth and have been selected presumably
because they are well adjusted to growth and capable of
dealing with it. Perhaps the most serious immediate
problem facing education is that many skills that were
highly desirable during the last thirty years may no
longer be needed in the next thirty years, (p. 5)
A study of financial statistics for community colleges was under
taken in 1983 by the National Association of College and University
Business Officers (NACUBO) to ascertain what actually has happened to
sources of fund revenues over the past five years. A review of the
details of the report indicated that although the dollars from state
appropriations have increased during the past four years, the percentage
of these revenues has declined, and the decline represents the lost of
substantial funds (Jenkins, 1984). Further examination of the NACUBO
report shows that some colleges have been successful in expanding their
revenue bases as a response to decreasing percentages of state funds
and have made substantial increases in the variety of categories and
amounts of funds from other sources. Therefore, the purpose of this
study (i. e., to examine how some community colleges responded to the


149
Previous positions and total length of time at the college:
General scope of responsibilities:
3. According to NACUBO financial data and institutional reports, the
following changes in revenue have occurred at your institution from
1979 through 1983: (changes in revenue cited)
Do you agree?
Could you describe these changes in greater detail?
4. Do you feel that adjustments have been made or that problems have
been created at your community college as a result of these changes in
revenue? If so, what are some of the major problems attributed to
changes in revenue at your institution? If not, please comment.
5. Some community colleges have implemented some specific strategies
to adjust to changes in revenue. Please indicate if the strategy
mentioned has been used at your institution. If so, how effective do
you feel it has been?
Hiring freeze/unfilled positions
Increase part-time faculty use
Institute early retirement
Reassign/share faculty/staff
Retrain faculty/staff
Raise tuition
Increase fundraising/development efforts
Increase lobbying efforts
Implement user fees
Increase self-supporting activities
Improve retention


141
Selgas, J. W. (1976). Research methods and statistical analyses for
developing professionals in institutional research. In Community
College research: Methods, trends, and prospects (pp. 31-39).
Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
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Shirley, R. C. (1982). The SUNY-Albany experience. In R. A. Wilson
(Ed.), Responses to fiscal stress in higher education (pp. 19-24).
Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Center for the Study of Higher
Education.
Stewart, J. H. (1976). Factors accounting for goal effectiveness:
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Taylor, F. W. (1911). Shop management. New York: Harper.
Taylor, F. W. (1947). Scientific management. New York: Harper.
Tuckman, B. W. (1978). Conducting educational research (2nd ed.).
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Vaughn, G. B. (1983). Introduction: Community colleges in perspective.
In G. Vaughn (Ed.), Issues for community college leaders in a new
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systems: Yearbook of the Society for General Systems Theory, _1,
1-10. Ann Arbor, MI: Braum-Brumfield, Inc.
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The Chronicle of Higher Education, 25 2,3.
Watkins, B. T. (1984a). Two-year colleges face a decline in enrollment.
The Chronicle of Higher Education, _28(13), 1,16.
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1981. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Institute of Higher
Education.


22
behind organizational changes. In an operational sense, a greater
degree of complexity, instability, and future potential for change in
the environment will lead to an increase in the differentiation,
innovation, and ability of an organization to respond quickly to
environmental changes (Wattenbarger et al., 1982).
A 1982 study of changes affecting community colleges illustrated
how environmental forces can become a threat to the community college
mission and to the open door philosophy (Henderson, 1982). The environ
mental feedback to the community college identified by Henderson and
others included legislative actions such as reduced funding, changes in
governance/structure, increased demands for accountability and quality,
and limitations on enrollments (Alfred, 1979; Burnsted, 1980; Martorana
& Nespoli, 1978; Marty, 1978). The studies concluded that the environ
ment in which the community college functions must be known in order to
render responses which facilitate survival and maintain institutional
mission.
Organizational Effectiveness in Higher Education
Cameron (1978) was among the first researchers to address the
actual measurement and prediction of organizational effectiveness in
higher education. In his 1978 doctoral study he demonstrated a need
for considering specific domains and expanding predictive models of
organizational effectiveness. Also, he proposed a more inclusive
definition of organizational effectiveness than relying solely on
organizational goal accomplishment. In subsequent research, Cameron
(1981) identified four domains of organizational effectiveness (i. e.,
academic, morale, external adaptation, and extracurricula domains) as
well as identified characteristics of institutions which were predictive


69
that indicated they had tried the strategy. For the most part, the
strategies most frequently used fell within the personnel and enrollment
areas, as well as appear to be process-oriented. It is interesting to
note that of the 16 strategies which 72% or more of the respondents
tried, only one fell below 3.35 in effectiveness rating (defer equipment
purchases = 2.82).
Effectiveness rating by type of strategy. A related illustration
of the effectiveness of specific strategies is presented in Table 4-5.
The strategies are grouped according to type of strategy (personnel,
revenues, expenditures, enrollment, and process). Only strategies
tried by 50% or more of the respondents are included in this table; the
total number of strategies illustrated is 28, or 72% of the total.
The types of strategies most frequently tried by the respondents
fell within the process (81%), enrollment (78%) and personnel (71%)
categories. The type of strategy with the highest average effectiveness
rating is the revenue type (mean = 3.78), followed by the personnel
type (mean = 3.72). Both means, 3.78 and 3.72, fall within the most
effective range. It is interesting to note that although the revenue
type of strategies was tried by an average of only 59% of the respond
ents, it was ranked highest in overall effectiveness at 3.78. The
lowest ranked type of strategy, expenditures, was tried by 66% of the
respondents and was ranked with an average of 2.51, falling in the
least effective category.
Measures of Central Tendency and Frequency Distribution
The grand mean of the perceived effectiveness strategies listed was
3.50, which would fall in the average in effectiveness category. The
mode, or most frequently occurring rating, was also 3.50, which indicated


138
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An introduction (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
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(Ed.), Issues for community college leaders in a new era (pp. 21-38).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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University of Florida Press.
Lawrence, B. (1984). Good managers look behind the bottom line to
results. Community and Junior College Journal, 54(5), 21-23.
Levine, C. H. (1979). More on cutback management: Hard questions for
hard times. Public Administration Review, 39, 179-183.
Lombardi, J. (1979). Proposition 13: Is the worst over for community
colleges? Community College Review, 6(4), 7-14.
Lonsdale, R. C. Maintaining the organization in dynamic equilibrium.
In D. E. Griffiths (Ed.), Behavioral science and educational
administration. Sixty-third Yearbook of the National Society
for the Study of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago
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Magarrell, J. (1983). Growth in state funds for colleges expected to
slow further in 1984. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 26(14),
1,6.
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San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Martorana, S. V., & Nespoli, L. A. (1978). State legislation affecting
community colleges. Community College Review, 5_(3), 33-43.
Martorana, S. V., Wattenbarger, J. L., & Smutz, W. D. (1978).
Dollars and directives: Issues and problems related to financial
support and legal authorization of community colleges.
Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges.


59
The data were interpreted and presented using frequency distribu
tions, means, standard deviations, and rank order computations. The
data were displayed in tabular format and accompanied by a narrative
summary. The complete results of the survey data analysis are presented
in Chapter IV.
The rank summary of responses was used to establish the criteria
for categories regarding the perceived effectiveness of the survey
responses. The criteria for data inclusion were developed by the
researcher in order to place composite responses in categories of
effectiveness. The standards used to develop the criterion were based
on achieving majority or greater of the number of respondents to each
item on the survey; the decision rules established for the standards
for the means were based on the rating scale identified in the survey
instructions. The decision rules establishing the criteria for data
inclusion were as follows:
1. For inclusion in the category of most effective, the number of
responses must total eight or more and the mean must be equal to or
greater than 3.70.
2. For inclusion in categories of average in effectiveness, the number
of responses must total eight or more and the mean must be between 3.20
and 3.69.
3. For inclusion in the category of least effective, the number of
responses must total eight or more and the mean must be equal to or
less than 3.19.
The results of the survey data analysis were used to check the va
lidity of the theoretical propositions and to faciliate the development
of guidelines for community colleges when responding to problems related


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Nancy J. Vader was born February 2, 1955, in Bay City, Michigan.
She attended kindergarten through twelfth grade at Unionvi11e-Sebewaing
Area Schools in Unionville, Michigan. In 1976, she received the degree
of Bachelor of Science with a major in communications and a minor in
industrial psychology from Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo,
Michigan. Upon graduation in 1976, Nancy began her professional career
at Delta College, a two-year public community college in Michigan, as
an admissions counselor. In 1977 she also assumed the responsibilities
of Assistant Director of Center Services at Delta. From 1977 through
1982 she served as Coordinator of Center Services at Delta, assuming
the major responsibilities for over 40 off-campus extension centers.
During this time, she completed the requirements for the Master of Arts
in educational administration from Central Michigan University (i.e.,
1980). In 1980, she was also selected as a participant in the national
leadership identification program for women in community colleges,
"Leaders for the 80s." She received a Charles Stewart Mott Fellowship
in Educational Administration in 1982 and began graduate studies at the
University of Florida. From 1982 through 1984 she was a full-time
graduate student and also a part-time graduate assistant in the Depart
ment of Educational Administration at the University of Florida. In
1984, she resumed her professional career at Delta College as Adminis
trative Assistant to the Vice President.
155


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
This chapter provides a description of the specific methodology
employed for addressing the research problem, that is, determining which
strategies and adaptations have been utilized in order to minimize the
problems attributed to changes in revenues at community colleges. The
procedures developed and utilized in collecting data for this study are
described and summarized in this chapter. In addition, the logical
relationship between the problem statement and the methodology utilized
for this study is demonstrated through utilization of the research
technique of triangulation, that is, the use of a variety of sources of
data and multiple methods to study the research problem (Denzin, 1978).
The research methodolgy of this study consisted of the following
elements: (a) identification of the research population, (b) selection
of the sample for field study, (c) development of an instrument, (d) col
lection of data, and (e) analysis of the data. This investigation
began with informal interviews with two administrators at two community
colleges in January, 1984. Both of the community colleges are members
of the League for Innovation in the Community College. One of the
administrators interviewed was a community college president. Each
administrator was asked to describe the degree of change in sources of
institutional revenues for the period 1979 through 1983 at their
institution. If changes had occurred, each administrator was asked to
describe what, if any, problems had been created at the institution
47


Ill
regarding how colleges might react to changes in sources of revenues.
The data presented in this chapter were used to either support (confirm)
or not support (reject) these propositions. The results of this exer
cise formed the basis for the guidelines developed and presented in
Chapter Five for dealing with changes in sources of revenues at community
col 1eges.
Postulate I
Where there were changes in sources of revenues at community
colleges, they were usually a result of changes in state funding or
fiscal restraints imposed by the state legislature. The results of the
changes, although dollars had actually increased, was that the proportion
of dollars from state sources had decreased.
This postulate was confirmed. The majority of the respondents at
all three institutions indicated that the problems created at the
institution were results of state funding changes, cuts, or legislative
mandates without accompanying funding. In each case, the proportion of
the institutional general operating budget from state sources had
decreased even though actual dollar amounts had increased.
Proposition I-A
Institutions attempted to increase revenues by raising tuition,
increasing fundraising and development efforts, and making some activi
ties self-supporting.
This proposition was not confirmed. Although 83% of the chief
executive officers surveyed indicated they had raised tuition as a
strategy to increase revenues, increases in fundraising efforts and
self-supporting activities were not the most frequently implemented
strategies by the majority of the respondents. The six strategies most


33
growth, institutions have not developed the skills nor the mentality
necessary to deal with scarcity. Whetten further proposed that insti
tutions tend to respond conservatively to decline and do more of what
they are already doing. He attributed this tendency to the conservative
structure of higher education institutions which creates a bias against
changes and innovation, thus perpetuating the status quo (pp. 83-89).
Specifically, studies of reactions to declines in revenue sources
in higher education have concentrated on ways to reduce expenditures
and reallocate resources (Carnegie Foundation, 1975; Heydinger, 1983;
Hyatt, Shulman, & Santiago, 1984; Mayhew, 1980; Mortimer & Tierney,
1979). The Center for the Study of Higher Education at The Pennsylvania
State University (Mortimer & Tierney, 1979) documented the experiences
of three institutions experiencing reductions in revenues: University
of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania State
College System. The two primary strategies employed were changing the
student-faculty ratios and internal reallocations of resources based on
program review. The internal review of programs resulted in faculty re
ductions and dismissals as a result of specific program discontinuences.
Pfleiger (1980), in his study of the effects of revenue on the
administrative structures in small independent colleges, found that
attempts at increasing revenues were implemented rather than cutbacks
in administrative staff. The presidents surveyed in the study indicated
that the most prevalent techniques for increasing revenues were increas
ing tuition and fees and developing programs to attract nontraditional,
part-time students. In a similar study focusing primarily on adminis
trative staff reductions (Abrahamowitz & Rosenfeld, 1978), the most


APPENDIX A
MEMBER INSTITUTIONS IN THE LEAGUE FOR INNOVATION IN THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Brookdale Community College
Lincroft, New Jersey
Central Piedmont Community College
Charlotte, North Carolina
Coast Community College District
Costa Mesa, California
Cuyahoga Community College
Cleveland, Ohio
Dallas County Community College District
Dallas, Texas
Delta College
University Center, Michigan
Foothi 11-DeAnza Community College District
Los Altos, Hills, California
Johnson County Community College
Overland Park, Kansas
Kern Community College District
Bakersfield, California
Kirkwood Community College
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Lane Community College
Eugene, Oregon
Los Angeles Community College District
Los Angeles, California
Maricopa Community Colleges
Phoenix, Arizona
Miami-Dade Community College
Mi ami, FIorida
143


61
and across cases. The analysis organized the data by specific cases of
each institution, thus permitting in-depth study of each case. Included
in the case study data for each institution were the interview data,
the documentary data, the observational data, and general impressions
and statements of the researcher and others regarding the case. The
case study analysis incorporated an inductive approach, allowing rela
tionships between variables to emerge from the analysis process itself.
The complete case studies, matrices, and descriptive narratives are
presented in Chapter IV.


89
The Miami-Dade Community College District Board of Trustees is
comprised of five members, each of whom is appointed by the governor
and confirmed by the Florida state senate for a four year term. The
district governing board, vested with the governing authority for the
college, works directly with the college president in all matters
pertaining to the governance and operation of the college.
Miami-Dade is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools; the most recent self-study was of a non-traditional nature
conducted in 1983. Included in the non-traditional self-study was a
college mission reform component which was to be completed in 1984.
Miami-Dade has been a member of the League for Innovation in the
Community College since 1980. In 1983, the Miami-Dade Community
College Foundation, Inc. (established in 1965) was the recipient of the
third largest gift given to college or university and largest given to
any two-year institution in the United States. The gift, approximately
$50 million dollars, was from the estate of the late Colonel Mitchell
Wolfson, Sr., the first chairman of the Miami-Dade Community College
District Board of Trustees.
*
Funding
Miami-Dade Community College receives the majority of their op
erating revenues from the state through the Florida College Program
Appropriation (described in detail in the Funding section of the Santa
Fe Community College field study). To the extent that the state
treasury in Florida provides the bulk of the operating budget of each
community college in the state, some financial restrictions are similar
among the community colleges in the state. For instance, the state
sets the upper tuition level limit for the community colleges as well


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background and Rationale
Beginning in the 1970s, the majority of community colleges, as
well as other higher educational systems, began experiencing a gradual
erosion of their financial position. Major problems of the 1970s and
1980s have been caused by inflation and the accompanying increases in
costs. One of the major problems facing higher education during the
1980s will be reacting to changes in sources of revenues. Community
colleges in particular will be faced with major decisions regarding
adjustments to revenue changes which affect budgeting, programming, and
enrollment policies. In addition, these changes in priority emphases
will reflect changes in institutional mission and goals. Connolly
(1981) characterized the scenario as "a mild form of institutional
middle age setting in," and further asserted:
No longer is there talk of "a new community college
opening every week" or proud boasts of ever-increasing
enrollments. Declining enrollments have meant declining
income for some institutions, and stable enrollments
have produced financial atrophy elsewhere, (p. 35)
Clearly, research aimed at identifying institutional strategies that
have been utilized at community colleges in order to minimize the
problems attributed to changes in sources of revenues is timely as well
as necessary.
The history of community college finance illustrates the dramatic
shift in sources of revenue from primarily local support to increasing
1