Central city businesses : plans and problems

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Title:
Central city businesses : plans and problems a study
Physical Description:
v, 68 p. : ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Congress. -- Joint Economic Committee. -- Subcommittee on Fiscal and Intergovernmental Policy
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Urban economics   ( lcsh )
Business enterprises -- United States   ( lcsh )
Cities and towns -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Jan. 14, 1979.
General Note:
Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.
General Note:
At head of title: 95th Congress, 2d session. Joint committee print.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for the use of the Subcommittee on Fiscal and Intergovernmental Policy of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 022618947
oclc - 04600109X
Classification:
lcc - KF49
System ID:
AA00022242:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction and summary
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Implications for public policy
        Page 4
    Comments by respondents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Methodology
        Page 8
        Page 9
    I. Business climate
        Page 10
        Page 11
    II. Changes in work force
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    III. Business options being considered and decided upon
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    IV. City characteristics
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Appendix. Survey of central cities business needs
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Back Cover
        Page 69
        Page 70
Full Text



95th Congress }
2d Session


JOINT COMMITTEE PRINT


CENTRAL CITY -BUSINESSES-

PLANS AND PROBLEMS






A STUDY

PREPARED FOR THE TSE OF THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON FISCAL AND

INTERGOVERNMENTAL POLICY

OF THE

JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE


CONGRESS OF


THE UNITED


STATES


JANUARY 14, 1979


Printed for the use of the Joint Economic Committee


U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE


WASHINGTON: 1979


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402


'a
a


37-421 0































ii ,reatt'd l, ]r'I~n ht s 5(uI) of Public Iw 04 .79th Cong.)
RI('IIAUI BO1PI1ING, Missouri, Chairman
IL AIYI II ENTSEN, Texas, Vice Chairman


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
IIENRY S. RI:i 'SS, WVis,'nsln
\VILLIAM S M(tlRIAD, I'euu..lvala
L:E II IIAMIIL')uN. Indiana
G I ILIl S \\. IANG. Iou ishia
PARR IN .1. M IT(II EA- Maryland
.LARENCE J BR}WN, Ohio
MARGARET M. HECKLER. Massachusetts
JOHIN II R()USSELOT. California


SENATE
WILLIAM PROXMIRE, Wisconsin
A IIRAIIAM RIBICOFF. Connecticut
EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts
(; EORGE McGOVERN, South Dakota

JACOB K. JAVITS, New York
WILLIAM V. ROTH, Jn.. Delaware
JAMES A. McCLURE, Idaho
ORRIN G. IIATCH, Utah


.JOHN R. STARK, Executive Director



S m m I iM MITT'EE ON FISCAL. AAD IN)TERGOVERN MENTAL POLICY

RICIARI) BOLLING, Missouri, Cochairman
W ILLI AM S. M}ORIIEAI). Pennsylvania, Cochairman


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
HENRY S. IEU'SS, Wisconsin
PARREN J1. MIT(CIEII, Maryland
CLARENCE J. BROWN, ( hio
J()11N I. ROUSSELOT, California


SENATE
JAMES A. MCCLURE, Idaho


(II)


,I{IN'" E'{}{} ( '( M ITTEEf












LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL


JANUARY 12. 1979.
To the Members of the Joint Ecoiomic (ommittec:
Transmitted herewith is a study entitled "Central City Businesses
Plans and Problems." This study was prepared by the committeee
staff and examines the business intentions of over i,300 firns in 10
cities and the effect of city traits in shaping those dei;si
The study was funded by the Joint Econoinic Co m"ittee' "
Study on Economic Change (SSEC). The SSEC is charged with the
responsibility of providing a long-range analysis of the Nation's co-
nomy and its implications for the future.
It is understood that the views contained in this stu(ly do not neces-
sarily reflect the views of individual committee members.
Sincerely,
RICHARD BOLLING,
(hahnrvia, ,oJ iit Eco-iiom Cointn i .


JANUARY 9. 1979.
Hon. RICHARD BOLLING.
Chairmcan..Joint Econolllc Committee.
U.S. Congress, Washington., D.C.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: I am pleased to transmit herewith a staff
study prepared for the Subcommittee on Fiscal and Intergovern-
mental Policy of the Joint Economic Committee entitled "'Central
City Businesses-Plans and Problems."
It provides an indepth assessment of the business climate and prob-
lems in 10 large central cities. It also documents the intention of
firms to increase or reduce their work force and to expand or con-
tract their operations. Further, the study analyzes some of the city
characteristics which may influence these decisions.
This study was not intended to ignite regional or inter-city con-
troversy, but to provide valuable information to Congress. the ex-
ecutive branch, and local governments in formulating economic
development programs and policies.
The study was conducted by Deborah Norelli Matz of the conmit-
tee staff.
Sincerely.
WILLIA-3 S. MOORHEAD.

Subcomm ittee on Fiscal and Intergo rec' h 1 Poiw ,.


(ii)







/|ANI *\nv 3. 1979.

.lo;h t (ifl (i/flh ( (i/i t ,1/ / ( (/F( : .N, fl H/. u; qtoa,. D.C.
I )v uI MiT:. M ~ui l+: "lu'raiin 1itt hcrx itlI i a taf st dy entitled
X' t ral ( 'ii \ 'Ii1iu-,w-, .'l:Is ail Prlileii." 11w -II d provides
a detailedd :wI], Ao I)i:" ,-Iu, it ,nte ionI aI (i ned 'Is in IiI central cities.
In :irtiiilar tii, -iiidx a1aIx 11,lt ,uci-iti of finn t alter their
hw',t 1ti6 an1. 1t111 l)r u'u Iiit Ih 11aiiuu i- !It IIIt je 0 ('11 affect

lIII t' lI 1ite e c iI I.% tI alI tc, ative of thet c,)l)eratim and asist-
alice ii I v, t lI e f1cIl I I ng"
( 'an l ), B~c !u111 i. S ae ()III]j Intel- ( enterr
I davi I ir,! Wi-sacl! tiset Is I -1 iUtP ite of Teehnolog'v.
('+enier o)f Nui..]lhorllootI+ atiti Ilegh ima1 (hlaune

(6. Ii I:hi-]1, ( ,at. Senate all ieittee
.,,ee ( 'u i,,cky r. ( ',,Ieress, : lM Re-ca nrli Service, Ljl)rarv of Con-

Itl1\i ii I )al I 11"C Onii ic Stalbiiizat ion subcom imittee. louse Coln-
mitte'+ oil 1{:l:mik, 111( in it anI d I l-an Affairs
I'rll:[rt Wei ntel. I i iiv Isit v of Texas at I)allas ; Southern
(i rwt1i I)4 } iciH- IBoardI
I a 1 blit in1. are ]'i, I ),I i ar l im (,hi )t C to) Tholm s AIII ler of the
Irlan In-titute fI' hiis imlX :iialfle s1g,:e('t ion> and extensive assist-
MI,(t, M r*0viewin.. til,l an s( ilt
The -1 111 v wa+ roi11dlu1t e 1) v I )el )oal N orellii Matz of the commit-
tue -4a1. I F! Ma (.Ia-sst taiice was I 1'OVilet I )v (G' inger I e icli. The bur-
dl llf tyl pil! the Il:1iaiiscrit ,Nva- hioii e 1 v ( arole (ieagley. Valuable
a1111hi1strnative a--1istamice was lrovideti 13 I)avid Battey and Michael
N I I'd(me.
Sinc.erely.
,T()II IN 11. STA RK,
Fa,, -4t;1-c D sector. ,!ot E'cwoomic Committee.









C O N TEN T S

Page
Letters of transmittal -- ITI

CENTRAL CITY BUSINISSES-PLANS ANI) PR )BLEMS
Introduction and summary ---------------------- ---------------------- 1
I. Disparities between growing anl declining cities will continue 1
II. Small businesses perform poorly in cities ----------------------- 2
III. Financial firms lead expansions of employment and operations-- 3
IV. City's quality of life more important than business-related
factors ---------------------------------------------------
V. Businesses overburdened by regulations -----------------------
Implications for public policy ----------------------------------------4
Comments by respondents ---------------------------------------- 5
Atlanta --------------------------------------------------- 5
Dallas --------------------------------------------------------- 5
Detroit -------------------------------------------------------- 5
Los Angeles ------------------------------------------------
Minneapolis -----------------------------------------------------6
New York ------------------------------------------------------ 6
Phoenix --------------------------------------------------------6
Pittsburgh -------------------------------------------------
Seattle ---------------------------------------------------
St. Louis --------------------------------------------------
Methodology --------------------------------------------------------8
Selection of cities ----------------------------------- 8
Selection of firms-----------------------------------------------S
Sample size ---------------------------------------------------- 8
I. Business climate -----------------------------------------------10
Perception of business climate --------------------------------10
II. Changes in work force ------------------------------------------12
Changes in work force: By city category and type of employee-- 12
Changes in work force: By firms size ---------------------------13
Changes in work force: By type of employment and size of firin 13
Changes in work force: By city category mnd size of firm --------15
Changes in work force: By industry type ---------------------- 17
Changes in work force: By city category ---------------------- 17
III. Business options 1)eing considered and decided upon -----------------18
Options being considered and decided upon : By city category-_ 15
Business options decided upon : By firm size -------------------- 19
Business options decided upon : By city category and size of firm- 20
Business options decided upon: By industry type -------------
Relationship between employment increases and expansion of
operations ---------------------------------------------
IV. City characteristics ---------------------------------------------23

APPENDIX
Survey of central cities business needs:
Sample --------------------------------------------------------25
Summary of data received from each city:
Atlanta ..........- 29
Dallas -----------------------------------------------------33
Detroit ---------------------------------------------------- 37
Los Angeles ------------------------------------------------41
Minneapolis ------------------------------------------------45
New York 49
Phoenix -----------------------------------------------
Pittsburgh --------------------------------------------- 57
Seattle ------------------------------------------------------- 61
St. Louis- --
(v)



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013














http://archive.org/details/cecitybusin00unit











CENTRAL CITY BUSINESSES-PLANS AND PROBLEMS


INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY
The Joint Economic Committee has long had a keen interest in the
economic condition of our nation s cities. in recent years, the commit-
tee and its various subcommittees have held hearings and conducted
studies to determine the economic health and needs of our cities.
Our cities, like the residents within them, are not monoliths. While
some are still experiencing population and job reductions or only slow
improvements with the national economic recovery, others appear to
be thriving. The private sector, it seems, holds the key to the economic
well-being of and disparity between city economies. The private sector
is vital in both providing employment opportunities and generating
the tax revenues necessary to provide local services. Since it is now
recognized by most local officials that economic development or redevel-
opment policies are pivotal to ensuring a successful future for our
cities, competition to attract industry is fierce. Both at the local and
Federal levels, public officials have been planning, creating and imple-
menting programs and policies intended to keep existing firms in cities,
encourage their expansion and attract new firms, as well.
However, the differences between cities, and the lack of sufficient
information on business needs, business climate, and the factors which
determine business climate have rendered this job extremely difficult.
Thus. it was felt that a survey of a large number of centrafcity busi-
nesses in a select number of cities would make a significant contri-
bution toward meeting our information needs. The collection and
dissemination of such information is essential as a first step in assisting
local jurisdictions.
This survey was mailed to a probability sample of 2.611 firms in
10 central cities. Of these, 288 were sent to wrong addresses, or were
otherwise unusable resulting in a final same of 2.323 firms. Ulti-
mately, 1.290 usable responses were received. The cities included in
the survey were Atlanta. Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles,. Minneapolis.
New York, Phoenix, Pittsburgh. Seattle. and St. Louis. The results
of the survey led to a division of the 10 cities into three categories of
"business cliimate"-most favorable, somewhat favorable and least
favorable. (See section on Business Climate for explanation.)
The results of the survey indicate that:
1. DISPARITIEs BETWEEN GROWING AND DECLINING CITIES WILL
CONTINUE
In all three city categories, most favorable, somewhat favorable and
least, favorable blsines climate, a larger percentage of firms is plan-
(1)








1/irt~III Iit~ hlt I-+ Lt+iri Vr f,,ii~iIr<' itl~ i'Xl~li fp'i tle'~. theraor oeio pr
I l t i i I Itl'# Iiit l Ik t ( )I*( I cxp. lit t~it'i I If hitu It- i el haI I II I I I-,III

i i i t' ir I I I IIt I~ III i I _41i t fa vora le :1t I 1 1 1 t1ho e
\x lhi,-li ha~x ,at' I-'ji l+i t,, i'\Iltl iii tilie lea:st faa,'alde cate2oryF fls well
4 1 1't'>ei it t-at i t I v I f t I is




".! fit'lwt't! \\ lit']l ]plall It) illit'le'e eiliiloviuieiit nli( 22 lIo1l hc
lIi v t f. Ie iIc lI i t.I it Il p 11ived t o liax e te least fa morale N IIsiness
t'l ti I~i I IIII t I



it it ;uI)ltitel'.eI l fi i I ton i evation- t) exlid Or red(Ie
h t ir t'e- t)] 1 tIiit tie i la it e I et ,ee 11 111i I v ( (1vdI ninig
w'it iets xxill violt abamte il tile nlear fltiiil'e.. lAr p percent age of firms
ir~~ in'ee t't ui(lel'i u expandling their operat ions in the most
fax ov~al le i|t ies han ii iiitlie least fa voral )]e cities. Conversely, a larger
)e V,'e lit: a tie (*ii w 'ii- iii tit' leaist favx lalie category us considering
eI] il,, i Ilie iri )le rat i )1 ist tlanl il tile vi io~t fa voral )lCe ategory. Inl
fhit wil in it lea '-4 fax oral ) I : ctegory, I te as 111'111v res)Opn(s indicated
1 ie.,- I e ti I I ei i1 ) isierel (Ii i I kIII I selliiiIg. oi aII x out of IIsi-
I' ,1 )I Ierat if ) th a 1)sit i ye actions ( expandin") I This
*2 I-a -I xvitli tl ilost Ia oI'alile t-ities in which twice as many
rln ) in- lv ihat I\( consideration is eint given to expanding., than
It ilsi a iet 1ie al t io. It al!)ea is il ikely hefe hefrethat rox. r
iil' tlet+' Ii nii I' it ii- xviil soon xvitnes- a reversal of the current trends.


Tlhe tirntl ili-,t :iktlv t> hi'ease elov](nielNt anld exaInd (perations
a1nt' t I t aIili I t h .ei l]oyees. 'Is oe ec. oppose t enve largf est, or

vi fi l'iil5 leaisi ikelyv to i ffie the enip>loyrent alie the fimn with
.1 N wt '' le t'1lll ilovlees etiet a). 11w le(st iile to expand their
ifea o a fir-c ii r ilvl leve tha 25c eloyee (. 22o percent).

llie+' |iiiliSr 1ile'lies'e( at >enorios IWrOI)il in 0111' cities. There is
-iIilt -e ti iia- alitr I i i Ilt IIt Ira li purox' i ( fe t i- g I'eat est number of
Opeillls; li'all positive tacllls ,ili|l ilz) Thi"






a olle lindiica e) tlel O1)eriit ou-. Tile 're-iilts of this survey
Si)'e4 In ixyw ye i al:!t il 1.itie+ tl e t r i h i -( ,f siiill ce firinS re'
ait 1 +,st. +'- t et ] tI ) ]a ?L' 'r 1 'ills ill iiese respet-ts. As a r1esl) s 1 nifVant
ijl, :iitl t';iil ial ix-c---!liint eXpauilonil p~otiiliai is lost. Tis fact mary
lt-11l to, t-xj ihiii li e ex, elI' e t 'OI I e O\- 1)1'oli1lt' en o ll-ere l by lany,
,witic-, ani1 tii' tlaiitit'-, b)et ax-weui t'iI i's nti sui!bur!s. It is apparent
hei lttiwies iliitM ly'tl to ai-si-I lot';l t'eoo/iit's shoul(1 focns on assistinl
-lil'i11 l'ijuie-,' iIi 0t,1 1t11-Ji iti t'it I s ais tt'y eI<>, ew ere. sIlie small ir
cN (I1tvil S 111:11 -1wlle riit tir l 'l it I\ij tj(i cI- ,-ts,7;







III. FINANCIAL FIRSfS LEA) EXPANSIONS OF E-MNLOYAMENT AND
OPERATIONS
The finance sector has the largest percentage of firms planning to
increase enlployment (45 percent) and expand operations (3 per-
cent).
The smallest percentage of firmc ,planning to increase employment,
is the retail firms (26 percent), while tl largest per(,entage pl1ann in
work force reductions is in manufa(tiring (8 percent).
The smallest p)ercentage of firms planning to expand their opera-
tions is the transl)ort io" atio-)llll( utilities firms (-24 percent) and
construction firms (25 percent).
IV. CITY'S QUALITY OF LIFE MNORE IMPORTANT THAx BUSINESS-
RELATED FACTORS
The perceived business climate of a city closely parallels the per-
ceived quality of life in that city. Six of the seven variables viewed
as most important by the respondents are overall city attributes ,n(
not necessarily business-related factors. They are:
(1) City government attitude toward business.
(2) Crime level.
(3) Adequacy of public facilities.
(3) Adequacy of public facilities.
(4) Market demand for product or services.
(5) Adequacy of public services.
(6) Quality of city's schools.
(7) Cultural attractions.
Tax rates, business costs and labor factors, in general, are not
viewed as important as the quality of life characteristics.
When comparing cities, the greatest disparities perceived by the
respondents, once again, are in the quality of life characteristics.
The Yreatest perceived disparities between cities with the most
favorable business climate and those with the least favorable are, in
the following" order:
Quality of city's schools.
Labor cost.
Adequacy of public facilities.
Crime level.
City government attitude toward business.
Personal tax rate.
One of the primary policy conclusions to be drawn is that improv-
ina the quality of life in cities where it is poor, and maintaininof it
where it is good, can have an important impact on decisions of firms
to relocate, alter the size of their work force and reduce or expand their
operations.
V. BITSINESSES OVERBURDENED) ByX REGIATIONS

The open-ended comments by respondents overwhelminilv cited
the need for reduced Federal paperwork and regulations. This was
the single most, widely expressed sentiment and was iiiversallv stated
by all types and sizes of firms in all cities.


37-421 0 79 2








The icsli'-s of tIli I-iir ev It'\get I tP at i ti~lividual prora]:s and
dli ,int rej tii :n l :ai injiar !bimess nwe1d ,w,'ill eo a1dl lh

if it in 4 :a ii f a i Fe I iti HI Ve i 1 )Ft 1( ) I I .rath, the Iul11 itv of
hift il tit wit ( )ii' o)11. 1 rill CO:) It I' C ) it'h l i-4) ilo )he drawn is
I at iin} WoX (-ii ti* w'it p+iadv. of Iie Ic ~ epe it is )oI' can have a


W} ijj, iii -ceb'i, e/ 111 11.i, I'l 11 I IeIt I Iwentives may influence
1,).: ,>n+l 'l I t.,. 1l11:1tlr t!a il,111 cmlnsider plelaant, lms pitable
SII lk''l ll_-:: I() be(, )f pl):+ 1'1lll<)lil1 illl> 11 t(I it a III l1 :la I I:it N\ TII i ( tiles witI I te I 1ost fav(i'ahle blusi-
iIQN Ulliii : i,. 1V 'I' a I i lIi))t :Ilit clIa ra't eniA ic> were viewed nega-
ii elyr >ii+'l a+ tim 'iile level, er sna1 l I ax rate and (,,Ir-Iy cost. ITow-
;.\ t,'. ii : ,I.\t L i'V i,:ltal le (, h l I,,'alee'sti(s ()f the cities with
ie+ 1lea:'I I t ira I 1c lii yi.e+ 101-111a(- were rated lower lhan the char-
i!.t'ri-d h'- of tite twit it s wvit l I ilk ,1 sI fa,,vorale 1.1siiess llimate.
III p.1 1IcTilar., tl st Iervv reinforces tie need to address the prob-
Ili ).. e 1 1)V SI a1ll I'i4'5ses ill citi es. Small inesses pos-
'-.s5the 21'(il foi. llotent l f )'it new job creation and operation ex-
1 ':1 i-4u. ;V\i(leiiwe >ligest that snal1 usiiesses (relelate a large
!e 11'wellfa21' of ll th]e Iew j ( and in i(eneral the smaller the busl-
Ilw I f 1l v 11 ,,' v II IV it is lo eXl)a ,l. I-11:1 s1Wesse ill cities', however,
:, re fol lowi nr 11ii-, patl i iter. Tle results of this survey suggest that
ill ,itie > -Illier fir ils are ait 1eqt equal 1o large firns With respect to
planned expnion of work fo'-e and operations. As a result. sig-
i f >llt ) a t'almit] investment( expansion potential are lost. This
fa'i w:iv !help to x plai i t( severe economic problems encountered bv
m:ll \ witie d '111 i dis!parities I)etween cities and their submr)s. It is
:a1 parent I bt l1l:) o'lin's int eided to assist local economies should focus
,ii a l tii i ,1 iahli t j(> xerfoi'i in cities as thley dlo elsewhere,
lilt,(, l ,l ,t1 11 ) l-ik li ,M,2,c ei'al t, e utu t of tle new jols.
Tn add itoln.l+ t i, i ort'mt itat economic development activities
l(,' Iw >ntl in a vawil i. 'While l r)1ograms to reduce lalor costs,
fina n:,i ,11! ,o' is id I:axe are imlpori ant they should be part of an
v'IrOll effor.1 )111 'l 4'r: i ( (Il llit v of life (hIlrolurlu i 11proveX schools,
Ie,'vi'es. ad)1 it' f ei li t is. AVI ie I he IFederal Government can, and
in tlie pat hIat enii(,t ltl to assist ill many of these areas. they remain
(,!selialv I'le doilt-lin of local f'overiments. Local tax rates and.
Ilioit irti<'lla liiv. tile 'itv g(overuineut attit tle toward 1)llsisCs are
tint i Iv imljut' nint. bti als,) vary si )ificantlv bietwe the most fav-
raI :ie aid 1(,:I x',Vl -*i v'(,1 v 1, 1 \oViI'l/linent. I'lis sirvev reinforces the impor-
I: () ar of" jin)ilu!lii,'i\'le efduiIt(S iil reslvill l(--" lot'al lrb)l)lems and
iii tlt',i ginngi suitable a 1 )t<>at'l is tor i:aliin cite mre(r livable. Re-
& rdle. of loedera1l itaiiix e., however, if t e cite go\erlmlient atti-
III']( :1xar,! l1iint'-+ and tit' tiiiiv of life :are not Ie'eivedl as posi-
fiX i '. t 114 ch.t"'!, iX ('I l4'~ 4) f dli H 'rete I')gIt'IIIs fnid policies is likely to
he thiidi:JshIed.
(4)


IVPIICATFI(-N FO( I l'I+,I,T(C POLICY












COMMENTSS BY JR ()NI)ENTI


Following g are sone of ti e specif]i1 110i> Vceived froli
res)on(leits oi thte1)i1 )e'iieit t'o)l- e t 0 lii e (n
needs. (ene-allv, tihey 111 i, flto fo (list t ,uG li'd 1110
regulations anl paperwork, providing tax l iel. assi t iji I I
businesses, and impro-vincg thle (tualitv oI' le In (tIt' 1S.

ATLA NTA
"In order to interest the l)1s]nes (,Onhl lmitv in the core urban
area, the Federal Government must do the following' (1) Create (,
special tax (investment credit or property) t1hat would provide
economic relief for building or re.locating iuito 1he core area. (2
Subsidize the business for liiliflo and t raining le 1wml )an in~lki IeVl
unen1) loyed. The G(overnhwient could pay a direct employed or grant tax cr-edits. (3) Lower- property taxet thiat lpro-
vide investment disincentives. Core urban a ras lave come to be
havens for the nontaxable. nlonprofit institutioi. leaving the remain-
ing businesses an unbearable tax burden.
"Less government interference.
"Our No. 1 problem is labor. Wei nee(l an efficient pl})111)ic peroi Il
agency which will bring employers together vwiti those who sincerel v
want to work.

"Just please get governmentt out of business. Quit regi ilating'
Let business do what should be doe-enl)loy people-make rca-
sonable profits and grow
"The need is the availability of nonskilled em)lovees that are
mature and reliable. Train in g can b e provided if tle 1)eople are
available.
"Some of the problems or needs affection" enll)loyers of inner city
employers include adequate public trailsl)oltali0. low cost publicc
parking and availability of day-care ceit ci for children"


"Comlplete revamping of vork force ai(1 ,- ocial assistance p'o-
grains to brino unskilled individuals h(ack Mo tlie labor market that
are now prevented from work i B)wy government pirogranis.
"Tax credits for l)usinesses that are forced to train emplloyees inl
basic clerical skills. i.e.. tvpina" and slortland. ()ur labor market is
such that we must hire clerical persons with I les> than adeqiuate skIills
and then train them.
"Aid in obtaining capital for expansion for small and 1,edim siz,
businesses. .
(5)









Stupl 1aVi11 tvl isit I,)iiritiill tht elual or exceedil wages
.1i(i r il.-i rv. lie prk.-vllt s.\ '11i iv tII s t() n I I'd l)eol)le for not

'"l l 1 ii'tPea -ii 1)11 ,!en ,)f e' )p1illie ,it1I the IvHles of lie various
regiil:itox )f I!e- 'iiti'-:t)li :ilvli" 'reases C()StS 1)t11 to) the l)ulsiness
I r aI Iiz ni ,) a 1 t lie Ilt i IIat cm Itl l wii 'F]lII- t rclI(i. if Iot reverse
Cf )t I l I~ I ii PC I t Ii Jil iC I~ IS t It S


-ReIltice t hie ca161t1l g4ili tnx S)that Small ,Isiws ha a etter
1ti:i11Ce ()f r i\Ial in Iiln tiIi iand f) tiliat att r c, aIIywhere
1, 1 c . .
..I h't, ) ): er \)rk f m(- I )w) i s. and so fort h.
"I('tlIve Cal)it:ll gains tax.
IZI hit FC I1cfCra 1\ IX wild it u es.
.)iriet anit> t ()it ies for vollilereial aildi iidust rial area relh-
hil itat ion.I"

bVh F,(le('al G(verimiiw n, iee(ds to hell urban areas by creating a
Ibetter ()\ (,erall civi'oliiineiit. IhC elnvironnileiit Cait l)e slblstnl1tivlly um-
plfIv(,l t(I t'h ), re(l ing unemiiil)loviiient : this can be (lone only ly
.',:at il(r In entiv(es whicli will p provide l ight mannufactring jobs
suit alle to the 1,knsk illed worl-C,'s who are the predonii-inint number on
Ilie 11n1i)lt )oyi (int roles. ("orrection of the ineniI)loyment, problem
S1iwlId 1it,1I) (I1)1oi'ee. somile of (!i, ot her pr'ol)lems su(h as crime, dete-
)iif)'at iiz l~! I si lim. etc. Th l(ng-term solution would require massive
ail to (,(ltwi tio)l. hut1 lis aiol must be (lthanll(d into specific remedial
I)r'a ,- 111 l iot to i (erl V raise the p eseint salaries of adninistra-
tor's il aneli'ers.
H11 i 1' '(lealra I ( overn -)ent. I roulgh adlI inist ration of welfare and
II H'IlIj)lovil)Iit colIl)elusationl il)lograIls, shou](l also (evise incentives
for Ip()p1he on ()ies(e roles to niove from a 'eas of hi ighl unemployment to
*1)'l,'> (4 f.el at I le ) si oirta(,s. 'l1w true lunemplovmnent rate of the
cowilit 1v alnd of an1Y given) a a is not now l)eing meastired accurately
enoug l I (to liovidi, tl e( lieess, rv in formation for such a proramn.
"Elillifin (, imprl oper i lit(, f'encs er all levels of government and
retl)r"ii ,l.,(, Whi'ch an, ,l' 118t1a'l.l i))ppropriate, allnd incon-
'i,-t emitwit, Ivht levivili statutes."


"S'top) gtveriimiict~ I litef ne let l)lsieesls operate without as-
Sitanec aId it wil I be al riolt.
"TI le n tost ol) jy, (solution i) is to re(I ie Federal Government, inl-
vol ve1 ilt in si iSal1 li einss. TI)(, ielitcrferenice jeol)ardiz(,s any incentive
f'or avin in blsile's ;. I Ielp Shiould he inl the f0o1n1 of less government
r(outr(ohs. SiSall buhsine(,ss Is "cih okiltr to oleath' on government
r'egu Iat (ion5.'








PIq TrSBURGHI
"(1) Encourage capital investment )v increasing ilvestnient tax
credit, and shortening deI)reciation periods. (2) Be niore reasonable oil
environmental regulations. (3) lessen the )lrdell of governilliet data
requirements that business must prepare.
"Lower cost oil financing and )etter conditions for t1lw ential ('itv
as far as labor, location and perhaps land donations would )e useful.
Actually, the Federal ('overninent could only hell) on loans at lower
rates (tax-free) or funds to permit local area to provide needed
services."
SEAIWLE
"Allow investment tax credit on real property in the inner cities.
Grant low interest loans to small business within the inner city.
"What we need is less involvement by the Federal Government. Fed-
eral support, programs aren't a windfall. Every dollar received prob)-
ably costs $2 in taxes! '"
ST. Lot-is
"As far as St. Louis is concerned, the best way that the Federal Gov-
ernment can assist business in urban areas is to improve the public
facilities. In addition, stabilizaton of the economy of the local govern-
ment unit would be beneficial. If possible. the various Federal pro-
grams which presently assist cities should be better coordinated and
simplified.
"Increase and improve personal and business safety and security i1
urban areas. People will move away from areas where their personal
safety is at risk and where schools are of low caliber and high risk to
their children. When families leave neighborhoods. businesses fail and
leave. And larger businesses and industry is faced with increasing
vanda-lism and employment problems. The collapse begins when secu-
rity lessens. Federal assistance in funding and training of police-
and supporting them in the courts would be two major steps.
"In the order listed (the Federal Government should)
"(1) Reduce Government spending.
"(2) Control money supply.
"(3) Reduce real taxes.
"(4) Reduce regulations."














I I IV I 1-N 0e. ('I lIEs
Ihe u 81 "ili a,' len,,t,( f, tu + iii -iir1vev are all large, industrial
+it in I uflM- I i v11 id_ ,,, it ii-,j1Vr>i011 and repre-


1)''t ront P' Ie q Yofrk
I )alla' I11OeInix
I hit r, it 1ittsl~nigli
ILo: A\n~ele: Seattle

Sii FI -aN t I I e

I i- t~j-~ T- MI'~ i ietiii11i'f-1POriioN neighborhood
1 nI I 1.+real'n~ ( n~e in i H a ollhteir file of 1).6 million U.S.
I i i 1 ~e~ 8 ~ i i lt i le ii ( )lg )n& radst reet records.
IB5 >iv IIT' '',m~lphe sv\Iteni, known as ..E S.. a probability
saliiiple otf :1I I tiirii> W.l+ {Ias 1h Ioi), t Ili nitv. The firms were not con-
It i N 1 1I ) a 8 i i 1,a Y 1ize 0I' il dI TI st aI 'ate$ ory.
t[,owevwer, t he 1181nphe wV,'eilted toward larger employers. The
ntiflitleeMs intelet in develI()I tinls sTrvey was not merely to cen-
el'tlt' iII tt11 01 tirni", 1m (m hso hill empIloyment. We sought to
+,; rn ',lt w;s on Ii I I It lolo I eeel n toi't',f 1 e.ilizet In)loveeS rath er than fiF1ls aS the
I,:I-i1 f11 e It 410 1,ur e:i n1 it v. I I d (11I1 i t ()f fir s wa- Wa> COnverted
111 I" II I i \ 1 1t I I III II w I I tii Ii I 11 t I I (,II nI vI( Ia1 Vo rk( l c I ) lcc"II1 pa rt
f I I 8 e.r\ 8 oII I I d li re eililrlovers were -I -'IIfi(antly more
Ii Le+. ij:tn +1ii 1 e~flf~lo~~Vn)' to )be -eleted. II fact. a firm's probability
, f l i 4'I on \\ :1- eN:i''lI !,'t)I)O,'ti101181 t() its ninii er of employees. If
\\, ",,i21i1t 1i,. tI l 1 leel /it ii 8 ,rv au.re lr)Ilportion of the sample

\\I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~(M Il~ (t m1~ 81 4l1 iii:I11-nllnlwth n'-inlz the Du)n
I 'I+ it +' I+i 11 ti lel include lje eS ripl li1g approxi-
ii+:it, ,1 <"' t,, "'U 1m'1 of 11 t I'.5. e1l)lO Vt. Serie is. imritiIcularly
,1,)t +--- 1 ':,l -I 'i '-, 1- V'.t *', te, in I he'tile. I I w '('. tIll(.'otuol '-nope ;II(d ea y- availability
,,f +++ + +l 1: 8 1 t' Iilrti it -iiitibl, lo' t4*40 in+ no+i iittees lurpose .


( )f i Ii, "':iiipln, of (.ItIn miii-. I)uii & liatltreet 1)r)Vided the names
A If+1 8:h+t~+'- +, O>f 2i 11t- :lll '+t!,i'-]liiel'-. l,.8u'Ii o)f tle-& "2.1l! firms was
A+ -II v+!+ '. S+,:lpl+ wlix for .Imp!le' oft -]rvcv 111-1 n nt. 1The
i -enit t' ,;I t'! ni ty \ \Idtal ki1t for the name


I 1 ET 11( )DO Im( I() Y






of the particular city the formn as- eni to. wlii,,l ,,11 i!( dl tiliedl
throughout the (questions.
Each firmN was asked to respon(l to tlie 1nestioli~ only flo ilie
branch or firm wlose nane appeared on, tle Inailin b lt)el ev II if
other branches, plants or slVldiaries wer'e ownedlt)y t le< e tirhe
or located in the same city.
After the initial mailin', on oltnis ,,I I 1 () l
copies of the survey, sent several weeks a)art. In all. t tiirvexy
were returned due to incorrect ad(llv'e.Sse or were o)Ilielwile rN11 1 .
anlld 1.033 firms (lid not res)ond. SiIrvevs wi jel N were not- isa lle fell
into three categories"
(1) Firms located outside of the central city.
I'li ile I-I tlit"l private ol'(-*(Ilizlti()ns:-, tll.(t is. -.'S.
(2) Public rather I mjr a ra zt o> rtia 5
A Iniy, school l)oa n>, et cet nra.
(3) Firms which had gone out of })usiness in the pat year.
Ultimately, the sample size inclI(led ") estal)listlcn ent:. of N ich
1,290 usable responses were received. Of t :e9e. 8,9 t1ave fewxcv than
2' employees 3i2 have. 25 to 99. ,4( have 10 to 499 and i)5 have a
work force of 500 employees or more.1
There are 516 firms included in the most favorable business cate-
gory, 547 in the somewhat favorable categorv. and 227 in t'Ie ledt
favorable category.
The industrial categories are as follows-
93 construction firms.
282 manufacturing firms.
75 transportationi public utility firms.
155 wholesale firms.
159 retail firms.
129 finance firms.
384 service firms.
For eight firms, the size of the work force is unknown.
Ten agriculture. forestry and fishery tirnis and three miniiig firms which responded were
not included in the analyses by industrial sector.











I. SINESS ICIMATE
Tf~ei~elwc'a rlt iim 4) tiii'-1 lrx ey w I ts( I on the thesis that, the
ai'es lr i i~ii''t'1', /( i,,,,PtfJ ,f a citI I Iiness climate
I In I Iol Iie I II I I Ii f i i Ii tlw' I to C Ia 11 11. 1 1ira 01 m Ib atv
In f 11i 11iltii t I t r e Y. it w:I- felt t ;at tI~ l1 'el tion of Iusines
+'lititati, i- tI + >lt + tni 14:1 l ,i |tialix f1,iro' ..... -A)Iii, se iingly 11onl)usines$
In "'l'+' at 1 t hat Wlie i)eT', 11 ) It ari, frI I ,I indiVi ual to the
exl11 TI,+ l)Vlii -ew \\a- i lat rel2i'd It'-.f -i'cii W (C I data on factors which
'I, il ) I r It II (I' II l~ lil it (1llate.l I e )t im l of tlhe cl 111iate Its-elIf

In t l1e irIIW qilte, 11. III(, r,.j !oilent were asked to rate the business
cliIate in 1 heir 1'it v fn(t i l)iIl favorable to highly unfavorable.
'lis. we were alel It, ,Jdait' fo' ea'(eI (ci t. tl1w iel('etage of firms in
(.a(*] -It v whi'.t f(lt te 1w ItWi1ii- (Cilllate was favoral)le and those which
flt it wa- utnfavorable.
Tlw' results were as follows"

TABLE 1.-PERCEPTION OF BUSINESS CLIMATE

Number of Expressed
C ty respondents Favorable I Unfavcrable I no opinion

Dalas. 140 98.6 0 1.4
Seattle 133 88.0 5.3 6.7
Phcenx .-- 147 82.3 4.1 13.6
Atlanta 116 81.9 3.4 14.7
P ttsburgh 141 57.5 11.3 31.2
St. Lou-s - 141 57.4 14.2 28.4
nneapol s 154 56.5 24.7 18+8
Los Angeles .130 53.1 10.0 36.9
iDetro t -. .. . .. . .. . . . . .. 127 30.7 33.9 35.4
%e i York C -ty 114 27.2 39.5 33.3

Percentage of respondents in each city.

I 111,E1I N (I"' B+SI NESSD" CIA ATMF.

Base()1 n tle re-I)pon- e to4 the question of perception of business
i li a te'. Ilie it ie were d( ivided i11t4) three categories
IIi-]ilv fa vora!l ,c ('ti es in w ]ii(h1 at least () percent of the
,)4 (,lts ie tIie I twsiness (limate as favorable and les
tI 1 I ( percet a- urwfa illable
I)aIla Phoenix
e'at tie At lirta
-onIewhIat Iavoralle: (1itie in wlich more than .0 1)ercent.
1)11 leSs 0!1:111ii p } ercei it. of teie resp onses were favorable and
I (t w,(,]1 loh 2a pelvenet were 1111fax orI)le :
PItt I Jl I r(A' IMAfinnealpolis
St. louis L)s Aneles
Lest favoral le ('itis in vich less tlhan 35 percent of the
1'4-l )-('f were Ia Vorl )le an(id I .o tlian pe iec(ent wNer
t e fNwYaof ,Yrkl "
T(,t roit Newv ?Foi]-k (ity


(101








It should be noted that in general the smallest pereenta(e of re-
spondents who felt their city's buidlness climate was favorable, the
greater the percentage who expressed no opinion. In 8 of the 10
cities surveyed, of the respondents who (lid not view the business
climate as favorable, a larger percentage expressed 'no opinion"
than "unfavorable." It appears there is a reluctance to indicate an
unfavorable business climate and it might not be unreasonable to
infer that those who expressed no opinion viewed the business climate
more negatively than positively.
The analysis of the results of the survey which follows focuses on
the variation in firm decisions between the city categories and the
extent of the variation. Further, consideration is given to firm size
(based on the number of employees) and the type of firm. that is,
jianufacturin, service, fimaiwe. wholesale, retail. public utilities-
transportation. and construction.


37-421 0- 71 3








TI. (IACS IN W RK FORCE
All firis were a ked whetr ill the next y'ea r t hey had plans to in-
f ra e. de eI s. r kej aIf I uli the I k t' I tv'ii lili er of emlovees.
Thliey were fu rt h r askedl for a IIreakdowvi I v tyIe of employee Blue
o'lie r. white +'oll ar. a:ii1 l e'+riP'a!1.
The 1ar~est iliurea:se ini e1I1lovniieit is planned in the iiost favor-
Ible cities. Al oct 1I5 erent If t lIe ,s" lents in tlw+, cities are
) annin increases a ojposed t4 alk1I < x imatelv p1rce1t of the
foewhat favorable citi s aii(I :11 I'erit ill t lieleat favorable cities.
Rediiet ions in work fo rce are lplanhled b 16 percent of the firms
in tie leat favorable catfl +; pIeit il the somewhat favorable
category and I lperent in l i most fa vorable c(ate ( ory. Similarly. 5
percent of the firm- in ttle least favorable category plan no increases
or decreases in work fore,, {oit ratIe(d with "19 percent in the some-
what favorable categoryv ami 52 percent in the most favorable category.
The variation is I est illustrat ed Iv considering individual cities.
Ill Pin (eOiix. > pent of tie rs, ondlellt s are lplalining to increase
their work force while in Detroit thle rate is only 24 percent.
Siiiiila 1 '2 er,2nt of I r<'snondents in Dallas are planning work
force redulctions, while in New York City. 12 percent of the surveyed
firms are planning to decree employment levels.

CTu x(;s V, I-AImI FOrTXW1: By CIT C.kTE TYPE-1(4 J+I" E_.NI1"T E

It 11;1aI'r t heat ile 11101 fa vorable a;e of Ii pl li1ann i n to increa.e enm lovnient for each type of em-
i lovee andi thlie Smallest percentage of firm.. which is planning to re-
1Iice each tv;e of elniplovee. A seen in the a (r',ate dat a. the opposite
(,(I 1 v sail for tle firms in tle least favorable category. The largest
>'r'ceiit (iae of fi nin lanninr worlk force re(ductions is found in this
,at e, rv for 'lh ( Ii l]ovee t vpe. It 110o11(1 (1) noted.l however, that in
1'a'l caterwrv. and in each citv. for eacl tvp e of labor. more firm-s plan
t4 in easee their work force than rDan to redce it. Thiis is true even in
tli(e leat favoral le cilies.. Tie greatest net differential. of course, of in-
,'ase ,ver de4'rcae Call 1w fotnd in the most favorable category.
TABLE 2.-PrCeNTAGE OF FIRMS PLANNING CHANGES IN WORK FORCE: BY CITY CATEGORY AND TYPE OF
EMPLOYEE
Blue collar White collar Clerical
In- De- No In- De- No In- De- No
crease crease change crease crease change crease crease change
Most favorable 3 5.( 56.8 137.? 34 59.3 33.7 '3.7 1626
(174) (2 ) (2F3) (184) (17) (293) (166) (18) (308)
Somewhat favorable. .29 1 r68 40 28.9 '5.7 65.3 125.7 1 5.1 69.2
(137) (3?) (301) (151) (30) (341) (132) (26) (355)
Least favorable .. 19.6 11.1 '69,3 17.9 18.1 74.0 17.0 18.9 174.1
(39) (22) (138) (40) (18) (165) (38) (20) (166)
Percent of f rms respond n7 for each category Totals may not equal 100 percent due to rounding.
Note Number n ( ) s absolute number of f rms


(12)





13

(ITAN(],'S 1-.IN- 1VuRKoI cIOR By FIIZrA SIZE
In the aggregate, a greater percentage of ver".y large firms 5)) or
m1ore en1 1 loyees) phin to re(1 iie tlieir' work force anild a s"italler per-
cntage plal to increase tleir work force relative t other Size cate-
gories. In net ternis, the largest J)ercentage of firi is witiclh 1)1an to
increase einl~oyees over those which plan to decrease elplo yees in tl-e
coinir year is in the two categories 25 to 99 eml)ioyees and !()0 to 499.
A net of roughly one-thir(d of the firms in each of these categories
anticiI)ates increases. Tlhe net percenitage of the largest firimts 1)re(ict-
ing increases is the lowest for all size categories-less t han 2() percent.
TABLE 3.--YR PROJECTED WORK FORCE CHANGES: BY SIZE OF FIRM
Less than 251 25 to 99L 100 to 499 500 plus
Increase -------------------------------------- 34.5 41.9 41.0 27.1
D ecrease ------------------------------------------ 5.5 5.4 4.6 9.2
Keep the same ---------------------------------- 60.0 52.7 54.3 63.8
Number of responses ------------------------------- 403 332 368 240
Percentage of firms responding for each size category.
Note: Totals may not add to 100 percent due to rounding.

CHANGES IN WORK FORCE: By TYPE OF E-IPILoY.NENT AND SIZE OF

In each category-blue collar, white collar, and clerical-the largest
percentagee of firms planning increases over those planning decreases
i in the size groping -2.5 to 99 and 100 to 499. A net of approximately
30 percent of the firms in these size categories plan increases in blue
collar, white collar, and clerical workers.
The lowest net percentage of firms planning increases in each cate-
gory is the largest size (500 Or more employees). Only a net of 9
percent of the firms plan increases in blue collar workers, 17 percent
in white collar, and 14 percent in clerical.






















TABLE 4.--PERCENTAGE OF FIRMS PROJECTING CHANGES IN WORK FORCE: BY TYPE OF EMPLOYMENT AND SUE Of FIRM


1-yr work force plans


Less than 25


Blue collar
25 to 99 100 to 499


500 plus Less than 25


White collar
25 to 99 100 to 499


Clerical

500 plus Less than 25 25 to 88 100 to 499


Planned work force expansions-........ '29.9 36. 1 35.0 19. 5 123.9
(89) (104) (114) (43) (78)
No change ....... ----- .. ...'..... 163.1 '57.3 '59.8 '70.0 171.5
(188) (165) (195) (154) (233)
Planned work force reductions.......... 1 7.0 16.6 5.2 '110.5 4.6
(21) (19) (17) (23) (15)

Percentage of firms responding for each size category. Totals may not equal 100 percent due to rounding.
Note: Number in ( ) is the absolute number.


'34. 1
(109)
160.9
(195)
15.0
(16)


35.5
(127)
'60. 9
(218)
'3.6
(13)


126.0
(61)
165. 1
(153)
8.9
(21)


$0 pU5


120. 5
(66)
1752
(242)
I4.3
(14)


128.8
(91)
'66 8
(211)
'4. 4
(14)


'34. 5
(123)
162 2
(222)
13.4
(12)


23.9
(56)
'658
(154)
I 103
(24)


. A I


. 111 ft








CHANGES IN N\ORK FORCE BY (ITY CATEGORY AND SIZE OF FrRM
Across the board, in each size interval, the smallest net percentage
of firms planning work force increases over those planning decreases
is in the least favorable category. The net percentage of firms plan-
ning increases in the least favorable category is relatively constant
for 1 to 24, 25 to 99. and 100 to 499 employee firms. However, for the
largest firms a larger proportion is Al)anling work force redulctions
than expansions. The net percentage of large firms planning reduc-
tions is 3.4 percent.
Similarly in the most favorable and somewhat favorable cate-
gories, the largest establishments are planning the smallest net per-
centage of work force expansions-3.5 percent and 18 percent,
respectively.
Unfortunately, these data measure only the percentage of firms
planning work force changes and not the magnitude of the change.
However, consistent throughout the data. the smallest net percent-
age of firms planning work force increases is found in the largest
firms. In addition, the largest percentage of firms planning work
force reductions are the firms with 500 or more employees.























TABLE 5.-PERCENTAGE OF FIRMS PLANNING CHANGES IN WORK FORCE: BY CITY CATEGORY AND SIZE OF FIRM


Most favorable


Somewhat favorable


Least favorable


100
to 499 1 500 plus I


Less
than 25 1


100
25 to 99 to 499 500plus'


In c rease -...... ... ... .. .. .- -
D ec rease .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Keep the same


Nnmber of responses._


Percentage of firms responding for each size category. Totals may not equal 100 perceut due to rounding.


Less
than 25 1


25 to 991


44.0
3.8
52.2


48.6
3.6
47.8

138


42.1
4.9
53.0
164


40.5
5.4
54.1
74


28.0
5.7
66.3
175


Less
than 25'1


39.0
5.9
55. 1
136


25 to 991


45.3
4.7
50.0
150


1o'9
to 499


25.5
7.5
67.0

106


500 plus


29.0
8. 7
62.3
69


32.8
8.6
58.6
58


25.9
3, 7
70.4


13.3
16. 7
70.0






17

CIIANGES IN WORK FoRcE: BY INDUSTRY TYPE
In the aggregate, the largest percentage of firms planning to
increase their work force is in the finance sector-45 percent. This
contrasts with the retail s(ct or in which only 1 in 4 of the firms
surveyed plans to exi)and the number of employees.
In net terms (increases less decreases), the largest )ercentage of
firms planning increases aa in is locat d in flle finance Sector (39
percent) and the smallest in retailing (20 percent). However. in
absolute percentages, the largest percentage of firms planning work
force reductions is in the imaitufactitring sector (8 percent) and the
smallest percentage is in services (4 percent).
TABLE 6.-PERCENTAGE OF FIRMS PLANNING CHANGES IN WORK FORCE: BY INDUSTRY TYPE
Transporta-
Construc- Manu- tion/public
tion facturing utilities Wholesale Retail Finance Services
Increase --------------- 39.6 38.6 132.9 '38.0 125.6 144.5 137.4
Decrease --------------- 15.2 17.8 16.6 16.1 16.1 15.8 14.2
Keep the same --------- 155.2 153.6 160.5 155.8 168.3 149.6 '58.4
Number of responses ..--- 96 293 76 163 164 137 401
Percentage of firms responding by industry type.
Note: Totals may not equal 100 percent due to rounding.
CIIANGES IN WORK FORCE: 13Y CITY CATEGORY
The data in table 7 are consistent with the work conducted by
Birch 1 and by Jusenius and Ledebur. They conclude that the
difference in employment growth between growing and declining
regions is not a factor of differential rates of job losses but is attrib-
utable to the rate at which job are replaced. The results of this survey
indicate the percentage of firms planning reductions does not sharply
differ from one category to the next. The difference between the per-
centage of firms planning reductions in the most favorable and least
favorable categories is only 5 percent. The variation in the percentage
of firms planning employment increases, however, is 19 percent.
TABLE 7.-PERCENTAGE OF FIRMS PLANNING CHANGES IN WORK FORCE: BY CITY CATEGORY
Most Somewhat Least
favorable favorable favorable
Increase------------------------------------------------'44.1 '34.7 25.3
Decrease -------------------------------------------------------- 4.3 15.8 19.5
Number of responses ----------------------------------------- 535 567 241
I Percentage of firms responding for each category. Totals may not equal 100 percent due to rounding.
1 Birch, et al.. "The Behavioral Foundations of Neighl)orhood Change," report submitted
to U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, M5irch 1977.
2 Jusenius, Carol L. and Ledebur, Larry C., "Documenting the 'Decline' of the Northi. Eco-
nomnic Development Research Report, U.S. Department of Commerce, June 1978.











III. I,'SINES ()I'TI()N"S IEIN( ('()NSIDERE1) AND
I) E( II)ED I )N

Firml\ weie Iirst awke lit l ll in ll(, last year 1h(ey hal considered:
Moving aI ta '\o\i- t hel cit v.
E x il~a lin :e fa f c I t vo er\t os
I~e( ljun' ni t' >~ Ie o f c'it y Ol)erat 101s.
ellirlg ill lieu1 ()f going (wlit ()f l)itl'S].
( Jhlig (ilt of l~n',sN.
None cof t lie -Il)()ve.
Next tll(,v were a-lsed if a Iecii(on h1-10 leell 11iad' regartding .any
of the aIVe (IV0I Opis.
rI alfle s% inti('ie- ile+ a1,is,,m',, te ..> es)onise

TABLE 8.-BUSINESS OPTIONS DECIDED UPON AND BEING CONSIDERED
Considered 12 Decided I
M ove aw ay from city .... .. ... ............................... ............... 11.7 3.4
Expand within city ----------------------- ---------------------------- 34.7 29.9
Reduce operations in city ------------------------------------------------------ 9.3 3.9
Sell business ------------------------------------------------------------------ 8.2 3.1
Go out of business ..2.9 .6
None of the above.------------------- 44.9 59.1
Total exceeds 100 percent due to respondents who are considering more than 1 option.
Percentage of total responses to question.
Percentage of firms responding to question.

0PT1),Ns BEING CONSIDERED ANDn DECIDED DpoN: By Cir" CATFORY
In virt uiallv every instant'e. liegative decisions (reduce operations,
11 of firnns lo the liioit faviralle Coatneoy. (1ovverselv. 1T pernlt iiiore of the hirins
ill lhe fiiot lavofralle catego y ave decided to expand their central
( t rt i(Ht>o i hali ill thle least fa vortalle category.
lhe Iiagnittide o)f hle werentag'e of firills and the displ.arity between
Ill]e l( i ) it f'a liable a1 ldIeast fa IIo-+, ,'11idleili eXIalhlig (is olplosed to litauing llladle a decision).
TI.lie fl'ein'+, Itwee t lie iel.'('eiit a~e of firm's coisiderimnf expnlld-
11 i H I lie oI f1a lorable and least favorable categories is 20 percent.
Ill bllit iol. the trend of a larger lwerceetage of the firiws in the least
a I Ia. I Ie 'at c (V I a 1,2 Le i ve, v on iieg'ative options .(as c(1-
Ja re( I it) t lie ni, )t i ora )le 1,a4;e v 1i 11a-ified when analy zing the
daita for Ilio(e ('onsid/ering iiegatixe optio s; as is the (lislarity be-
I weel thlie Tiolst favornIble aind least fa v()rable categories.
In tie lealfra!vo 'ale categmIv. t -wine as iian v responses indicated
lwe,18t ive, aeil' eireoiie'd uivig .rii~ oing (Jilt o)f ])1151-
ie>-. rIl(,('i 2 ()Il'ratit l ) 111:ai positive nt im (exauding) This
)Jlit l'ls -; withl iie t1 iost favorable cities in which t twice as many re-
(18)






19

sponses indicated consi(leration is l)ein ( riven to exp)andin2 than to
taking negative actions. 1he inescal)able conclusion is that a signifi-
cantlv larger percentage of the firms sli ve(l in tlese citie aredis-
satisfied with their present situation as com-ipared to the most favor-
able category.
More specifically, for example, wlile nearlyp4}ercelt of the re-
sponses front I)etroit indicated negative ol )tions are )eing consi,-
ered only percent of the Dallas responses indicated negative consid-
erations. On the otlier end of tite scale, 47- percent of the responses
from Dallas and 46 percent from Phoenix in(licate(d expansions are
being considered in central city operations. wlile 20111v) 1()ercentof
the 'New York responses and 2")percent of the St. Lonis responses in-
dicated such positive actions are ln(r considere(l.
While the data concerning resl)n(lents who have decided upona
specific course of action provides meaningful inform ation atI)oiit what
is happening in a city currently or may occur in tie immediate future.
an analysis of the options being considered can perhaps shed some
light on the economic future of the cities. The conclusion appears to
be th at the disparities between Trowincg and decliningr cities remain
and these cities are not likely to witness a reversal of the current
trends in the near future.
TABLE 9.-BUSINESS OPTIONS BEING CONSIDERED AND DECIDED UPON: BY CITY CATEGORY
Considering 1 Decided
Most Somewhat Least Most Somewhat Least
favorable favorable favorable favorable favorable favorable
Moving away------ --- 5.9 12.8 22.3 2.2 3.2 6.6
Expanding-------45.2 29.0 24.8 38.7 24.7 22.0
Reducing operations----------------- -4.2 10. 1 18.5 2.0 4.5 7.0
Selling-7.6 8.4 9.2 2.9 3.2 3.5
Going out of business---------------- 1.5 3.2 5.0 .6 .7 0
None of the above-------------------43.3 48.2 40.8 53.6 63.7 60.8
Number of responses .. .. . 529 562 238 511 534 227

Percentage of responses for each category.
Note: Options considered: Totals exceed 100 percent due to respondents who are considering more than 1
of the above options. Options decided: Totals may not equal 100 percent due to rounding.
BUSINESS OPTIoNs DECIDED IoN: By FIRM SIZE
The largest percentage. of firms planning to expand their opera-
tions at their present, location are the 25 to 99 employee and 100 to
499 employee firms (83.-) percent and 033 percent, respectively). A
similar percentage of the largest firms is planning to expand-31
percent. Tie largest firms. however, have the hicyliest percentage of
firms planning to reduce operations-8 percent. The percentage of
firms planning negative actions varies between 17 percent for the
smallest firms. S percent for the "2l5 to 99 employee firms, S percent
for firms of 100 to 499. and 11 1)ercent for the largest firms.
Unlike the data oil eml)loyment increases. tlie lowest percentage
of firms planning to expand operations is the smallest firms' :22 per-
cent). This size category also contains tlhe lare .1et percentage of firms
planning to move (6 percent). Presumal lyV. these firms are prospering.
but do not find the central city an ad(vaitareous location in which
to expand.


37-421 0 70 4






20


This fin(li ii n cOflliat Iti wit Ii tile data oiN work force changes
ii large l)at't lProvide thl hey to tle )cOwO(lii, 1)(ol)leis experienced
by cit iet vis-a-vis tlir]' :ullrlk- allot Il[)ie(t ro)o it ani areas. Small
iinees ... ) or fewer cinillees) in generally provide t he vast
11:a)jo1itY of let eww jOl- at1d the l1iglit lwJrccntage of operation
Vx)lIO115t. IIow verl siiiall tinisi are 11o1 1liriving in cities to the
extent tliat t hey are elsewhere. A,+ a reslilt igiificanit employment and
O,)erati oll expansion potential is lost. This is a major l)rolblem facing
edlt es today.
TABLE 10.-BUSINESS OPTIONS DECIDED UPON: BY FIRM SIZE
Less than 25 1 25 to 991 100 to 4991 500 plus I
Expand operations .. ...... ---------- 22. 0 35. 4 32. 5 31.3
No change ---.------ .-- ..... .. .. .. .. 61.2 56.6 59. 8 58.1
M ove- .- --. - -. -------- .. .. .. .. .. ..6.0 2.8 2.0 1.8
Reduce ............ -....... -...... 3. 1 2.2 3,7 7.9
Sell ........ ............................ ...... 5.8 2.8 2.0 .9
Go out of business -......... ... 1.8 0. 0. 0
Number of responses. -..... 381 316 348 227
I Percentages of firms responding for each size category. Totals may not equal 100 percent due to
rounding.
BUsIN1:ss ()TI'Ios l)EcI) U ,N IBy (Y'T (x'XTEI;oRY AND SMIZE OF

In the most favorable category, the largest percentage of firms
planning to expandl at their pr)Ieent location is the largest firms. Over
half the firnis with more than 500 employees surveyed in the most
favorable cities plan to expand. Since the percentage of firms in this
category exceeds the percent age planning to increase employment, it
can he assumed that a high proportion of tlie large firms involved are
plannillg capital intensive (labor saving) investments.
In the somewhat favorable alnd least favorable categories the largest
)ercetage of firilis 1)lanning expansions is found in the 25 to 99
and 100 to 49 enl)loyee category. These data closely parallel the
findings related to prI(ed changes in the work force. Tile greater
percentage of firns in these two categories are planning to increase
eiiiloyllielit thaln to expaut( their <)l)erations, is I)robIl)l attribut-
able to the fact that some of the expanded operations will be labor
intensive while sonie of tile firms which plan to keep the size of their
operates constant, may increase their work force.






















TABLE 11.-BUSINESS OPTIONS DECIDED UPON: BY CITY CATEGORY AND SIZE OF FIRM


Most favorable


Somewhat favorable


Least favorable


Less than
25' 25 to 991 100to4991 500 plus'


E xpa n d ------ -- -- ---- -- ---- -- -- ----- --
M o ve ---------------- -- ------ -- -----
Other negative options -----------------
N o change ----------------------------
Number of responses -------------------


28.9
3.9
8.6
58.6
152


43. 6
1.5
5.3
49. 6
133


38.7
.6
2.6
55. 1


50. 7
2.8
5.6
40. 8


Less than
251

17.2
7.4
12.3
63. 2
162


25 to 99 100to 499'


30. 2
.8
2.3
66. 7
129


28.9
2.1
9.2
59. 9
142


500 plus'

24. 0
1.0
8.0
66. 0
100


Less than
25'

18.2
7.6
12.1
62. 1
66


25 to 991 100to499'


27.8
11. 1
11. 1
50. 0
54


23.5
5.9
5.9
64. 7
51


Percentage of firms of a particular size interval planning change in operation. Totals may not equal 100 percent due to rounding.


500 plus I

6
19.
1.8
12.5
66. 1
56






22

sIr~iNE~SS ()rIo)NS1 l:n)ui 1 rI(). \ I N 1 T) IYPE

Tle pr'1nitage ()f 1,rnis planiIIg It) expand 4t their present lca-
li nni doexs not) \vary sign ii twa ii v ac im- ii n lust rial >cct()rs. Ifl la1.rget
P)e'IetngeZc of nir*v lIlaini to( expand tleir pe()(rations is in the
Ii lice' M.Wt't) ; l)t'U~e3It )3. lilie howes) l'(elltage of )in1s planning
t) cX land is iiinil iii tie t anhlortation-l~bl)ic ut il ity sector (24.3
I ei('t 11 ii Ii lr ue( 1 )ct vecn t lie secto 01 wit Ii t he greatest percent-
a1 gc f 1i) s il ll 11 pI );II IX a ts s an te I l)wII is oil V I wrceit
,I W I l~e1tItIage () f ,iiii manning g I( Xl)aI(l t heir ()l)eralions at
thl l eM.- I ()ratIf)11, 1iis l()'1 t ia t ie lcee t age plan i in to in-
rtease t le r w rk force in ca(l I i lidiistrinl sectvot. e('Xc it retailing.

RU f1 ( IV'INs IIII I i 'I \VI EN 'M i1 M F -I-NT I N I: s ES \ NI) EXPANSION OF
()pRu.-vr INS
Ilic I iwe 1'"~ i)tl'eiit U, (If fil'11- ill virta llv vvry 5('tor I)lanilg to
eVNIail d a,; cmillarc, wit ll tlo(), l~li1ni)ig to in'crensc their work force
(1a l)ilv IIC (,xl liiedlI )" the Inge percentage of finns that plan
to ee 1i' i )1it ies (l1m 1l)ut Iay 6i, ('Xl.mf(ling their work force.
Inl aw of',at,. ) eJ(ient I ll'e rc(,ll))id(tll are p 1)1anh1il to expand
tli1 0 urat 1011ons at. t lii r 1)reslit bocat ion while a total of .3 percent
1)lali toi iCI 0'(,4a 1 1 (il" w(irk force.
()I the ii m )). ulauui inj.- to i)nC rease their work force. onlv o2 )ercent
a alv 1 l1ha1in!t (o ixnd their o} operations. Tne remaining firms, it.
a f ~ea i's will lI)' i 1(reasinL their work force but not their capital in-
vel, lsent. l us. thle l0 Inoled increase in emlplovinent is lrolrblv to
litiiz e iis',ed ena)aneitv and ,-,ill not Tenerate increased invest tment.
On the other land. 64 percent of the firms planning to expand their
w I a': Io(Ins at t h1Ieir )e' ent ovation are also ) )Iannii1 to inrTease their
work force. It ('1n )e ns.imevd tlie'efore th-It the other 16 percent t are
niamlil2' en lital intensive exPlansio) Ms l ich will not affect their work
fo roe.
To\wever. N2) iei'veiit of tl(, fr 1)1s )!,inimr to keej) their Ol)erat ions
-tt qu(llo are lla)ini ()to ir'-vase ( e11plovment.
TABLE 12.-BUSINESS OPTIONS DECIDED UPON: BY INDUSTRIAL TYPE

Transnort-
Construc- Manufac- tion nhlic
lion I turing I utilities 1 Wholesale I Retail I Finance Services

Expand. 24 7 29.5 24.3 30.2 29.4 32.6 31.7
Nio change 64.5 56.1 70.0 58.4 58.8 56.6 58.8
Move 3.2 5.2 2.9 4.0 1.3 2.3 3.4
Reduce .... ... 1 6.6 0 4.0 4.4 6.2 2.6
Sell 4, 3 2.2 2.9 3.4 5.0 2.3 3.1
Goout of bus ness ---- 2.2 .4 0 0 1.3 0 .5
Number of responses 93 271 70 149 160 129 388
Percenage of firms responding for each industral type. Totals may not equal 100 percent due to
rounding.

















IV. CITY CITAIRACTERISTICS

The firms surveyed were provided with a list of 2; variables and
were asked to rate each as to whether it is "stronglv encouraging."
or "discouraoino" them to stay or expawl at their present locatioll.
They were also given the option of selecting "(loes not apply or
"unmportant.""

Table 13 indicates the relative importance of each characteristic
and the difference in perception between the respoiident- in the most
favorable and least favorable categories.

TABLE 13.-IMPORTANCE OF CITY CHARACTERISTICS

Importance Mean score of responses Difference
ranked by of means
response Most Least most
City characteristics rate favorable favorable least

City government attitude toward business 88.5 0.54 -0.21 0. 75
Crime level ---------------------------------------- 88.0 -.35 1.14 .79
Adequacy of public facilities ------------------ 85.9 .74 .32 .42
Market demand for product or service ----------------- 85. 1 1. 14 1.04 .10
Adequacy of public services ------------------ 82.8 .95 .15 .80
Quality of city's schools ---------------- 82.2 .58 -.71 1. 29
Cultural attractions --------------------------------- 80.6 1.03 1.03 0
Cost of energy---------------------------------- 80.0 -.46 -.92 .46
Availability of skilled workers ------------------------ 78.2 .08 -.24 .32
Personal tax rate ---------------------------------- 75.6 -.28 1.03 .75
Local property tax rate ----------------------------- 74.0 -. 12 -.79 .67
Labor cost ----------------------------------------- 73.9 .09 -.75 .84
Corporate tax rate -------------------------------- 69.1 -. 17 -.91 .74
Availability of professional employees- 66.9 .33 -.08 .41
Cost of financing ------------------------------------ 59.4 -.37 -.49 12
Personal ties to local neighborhood -------------------- 59. 4 65 02 63
Cost of land --------------------------------------- 58.8 -.32 -.33 .01
Tax depreciation ------------------------------------ 58.5 .21 -.05 .26
Availability of unskilled workers ---------------------- 58.3 .15 19 .04
Availability of investment tax credit ------------------- 55. 4 .26 .04 22
Availability of short-term financing -------------------- 55.3 .48 .13 .35
Availability of land --------------------------------- 54.9 .30 -.05 .35
Availability of long-term financing --------------------- 52.4 .25 -. 04 .29
Existence of labor unions ---------------------------- 46.6 -.31 -.66 .35
High education level of workers ----------------------- 43.2 .42 .18 .24
Low education level of workers .... ................... 35.2 -.22 -.51 29


The first column indicate-, the importance of the variable but (oes
not attach a value (negative or positive ) to the variable. The score
was arrived at by subtractin- all the responses (for each variable)
which had indicated "'does not apply" or 'unim portant." The remain-
ing reSj)onss weCe groped together and are given as a percentage
of responses. For each variable. th1ou tli tiie rate does not indicate di-
rection, it does demonstrate the relative importance of each charact-
eristic.
To arrive at the last three columns, a value ranging from -2 to -2
was assigoned to each given response from stm to strongly discouraging (-2). The last column indicates the differ-
ence between the mean score for the most favorable and lea4 favor-
able category for each variable.

(23)






24


Thus in relative terms ll, 'even most imlpoltant variables are:
( 1 ( 'itv ,overhieit ait t it ide towards usi ness.
(:2) ( rine level.
8) Adequacy of public facilities.
4) Market demand for )rodu'ct or services.
5) Adequacy of public services.
G) Q11 it v of cityvs schools.
(7) Cultural at attract ions.
It is apparent that overall cit v chara(cteristics. rather thani partien-
l:1r 1hracteristics which ai1e associated with 1usiliess. are p"Iaaioint.
The n w rhet demand for" product or services is the onlv di rectly busi-
ness- relat ('(1 a tt ritute of tl e seven viewed as most iimlport ant. The
city oveininetit attitude toward business, tie most important charac-
teinst i. is l)obalYlv not conditioned by any one factor. 1)ut is a reflec-
tion o f a combination of municipal functions and attitudes. Of the
t8x opt1011S, personal income tax appears to be most important. fol-
Iowe(l closely by local property tax rate.
A ain, labor cost and personal tax rate being the exceltions, four
of the six factors with the greatest variation between city categories
ae overall attril)utes, and not directly v associated with business costs.
lime evi(lence sees to indicate that the overall qpllity of life in a city
is pal icticularlv significant from the 1)usiness perspective.
To recap. the greatest (ifference between cities perceived to havr the
most favoral)le business climate and the least favorable business ; cli-
mate are in (fualitv of life characteristics and not business related
factors, although generally the most favorable category rates I etter
on business ielat ed factors, as well.
Thus. the business climate is perceived as the sum total of enN iron-
mental factors which directly affect the firm's owners, employees, their
families as well as the operation of the business itself.








APPENDIX


SAMPLE
Congre gof tlhe Nniteb 'tate
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WASHINGTON. D.C. Z0510


SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS


0 (1-2)

- -_ (3-5)
0 1 (6-7)


Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either leave the space blank or indicate "n!a"
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of Atlanta.

1. First, how would you rate the business climate in Atlanta?
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
__ (1) Highly Favorable ___(2) Favorable -(3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
__ (4) Unfavorable -_(5) Highly Unfavorable (8)
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate?
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
-_(1) Atlanta -(2) Los Angeles -(3) Pittsburgh (4) St. Louis


__ (5) Detroit


-(6) Minneapolis -.(7) Phoenix -(8) Dallas


(9) New York -(10) Seattle


2(a). Why?


3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs"
(1) Yes __ (2) No(GotoQ. 4)
3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?


4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in Atlanta? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers are
defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers
Number of white collar workers
Number of clerical workers


4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of Atlanta?
__ (1) Increase __ (2) Decrease __ (3) Keep the Same (31)
4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of Atlanta expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar, white
collar, and clerical workers during the next year? (Please mark an X in the appropriate box.)


BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100 25-491 10-247 1-9c'

(1) (2) (3) (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY

0-100" 25-49, 10-.4 1-9I

(1) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY


INCREASE BY


NO
CHANGE
(5)





NO
CHANGE
(5)


1-9 10-24 25-49


(6) (v) (8)


50-100:"


(32)


INCREASE BY


1-9 10-'4 (


25-49" 50-100


(6) (7) (8)


INCREASE BY


2 9
25A9/' 1(


7


0-24" 1-97, NO
CHANGE
(3) (4) (5)


1-9 10-24T


(6) (7)


(25)


(9-10)

(11-12)


(t3)


(14-15)


(16-20)
(21-25)
(26-30)


50-100(1


(33)


25-49(

(8)


O- 1oof


(34)


7-








2(6


In the last s ear+ has our business sl) sidered (Plea mark an in all that appl )

r 'dosing asa from the I I It of Atlanta (3)
.. ...() 1 xpanding op .rations in the cit + of Atlanta (36)
Il) Reducing s~ope of operat ions in the cit of Atlanta (37)
.........( 1 Sdlhng in lieu of going out of buasin lss ( te hanging ownership) (38)
t'........ I 1, ( Ig out of business (39)

N.................)(I) No, none of the above IonsdeTd (40)
It you are considenng a move, wher arl .ou thinking of moving to

.... .. .. ...... ...... ........ . .. .. . ..... ( 4 1 -4 2 )
5(a I 1s our business made a dec is n (even if it is tentative I to

(I) 'oe away from the cit of Atlanta (43)
...... .... I expand operations in the cit) of Atlanta (4S)
(l) Reduce s,:ope of operations in the city of Atlanta (45)

(I) Sell in lieu of going out of business (46)
(I) (o out of business (47)
II No, none of the above decided (48)
iY ou have decided to iose, where are y ou moving to"

(49-50)

Since l1%Y, has your firm expanded or increased any of the following?
(Please mark an X in all that apply.)

(!) Number of employees (51)
f(I) New line ot products or services (52)
I ) Capital investment (53)

6(a). (IF YOU MARKET) AN X IN ANY OF TIE ABOVE) What was the type(s) of
financing used for such an expansion? (Please mark an X in all that apply.)
(1) 'omnercial bank or financial institution (54)
I__ () Government loan (55)
(1) Internal financing from retained earnings (i.e., investment of profits) (56)
(1) State industrial development corporation (57)
(I) Sale of securities (i.e, equity capital) (58)
I) Other (please specify)

(59-60)

6(b). Is access to capital a problem"
(I) Yes (2) No (61)

6>(c) Is cost of capital a problem (ie., high interest rates)"
(I) Yes -_ (2) No (62)

(,(d), Since I 96, has -our 1irm expanded or built a fa.iht elsewhere which performs
tl s.e functions as y our Atlanta Iacilit)
I) Yes (2) No (63)

I f s o v h r e .. .. .. .. .. ....... .. . .. . . .. ... ... .. .. ......... .......... ( 6 4 6 5 )











0 (1-2)

(3-5)
0 2 (6-7)
7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in Atlanta, are important for your
business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there. From the following
list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly encourages,
encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your firm to stay or expand in Atlanta (that is, what are
the advantages or disadvantages of staying in Atlanta?). If the condition does not apply to your location,
please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR ANSWERS ON YOUR
PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.
Does Strongly Dis- Strongly
Not Encour- Encour- Unim- cour- Discour-
Apply aging aging portant aging aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


LII
LIII
m
LIII
LIII
LIII
LIII

LIII]
LIII
LI~

LIII
LIII
LIIIJ
m
LIII


LIII
LI-I
LIII
L--I






LI]
L---I


LIII
LIII
LIII
LIII
LIII
LIII
LIII


LIII LIII
LIII LIII]
LID LIII


LIII
LIII

LIII


LI ---LIII L--III [ ----LIII L I (23)


l---
L-II
F---1
I--
LI---
LIII

III-
r--II
L---I
LI--I
L---1
LIII
LIII


LIII
LIII
L---I
L---I
L--II

LI-I
LIII
L--I

LI-I
LII
LIII
LII]
LIII


LIII
LIII]
ELI]
EIII
L--I
LIII

I--






LIII
LIII


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)


__(1)
(I)
_(I)
_(1)


__(1)
__(1)

(1)


Low interest loans
Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, etc.)
Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.)
Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additional
employees hired.)
Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
Job training programs
Less government interference
Other (please specify)


37-421 0- 79 5


LI]
LIII
L--I


LII
LI--I
LI--I

LII3
LI--I



L---I


LIII
L--I
LI-I
LIII

LI-I
LI----


LI--I
LI
L---I


(8)
(9)
(10)
(II)
(12)
(13)
(14)

(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)


LII
LIII
LIII
LIII
m


I]


I-
I-I
LI-I
LIII
LIII
LIII
III3


L---I
LIII
LIII
L--I
LI--I
LIII

LIII
LIII
LIII
L-II

LIII
LIII
L---I
L---I
LIII


LIII
L-II
LIII
LI-I
LI-I
LIII



IIZ

LIII
LIII
LIII
LIII
III3


(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)

(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)
(38)
(39-40)
-(41-42)
(43-44)
(4546)
(47-48)



(49)
(50)
(51)

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)

(56-57)













(1-2)

-(3-5)
0 3 (t-7)


What, if any, government programs or a stance, either l aI. State or Federal has ever been
utilized by your firm in Atlanta (P e mark all that apply )


Professonal tec.hnological assistance
LoA nIte rtst Ioans
Loin (uaranlee
(rants for trading programs
(Irants for foilt development
Donation of land
Pr sl ion of faility under leabak arrangement
Worker training
Site selection asistance
l)Cjelopment of pulic facilities to meet your business
needs e g sewer system, ("ce' road
None
O ther (Please Be Specifi ............................ .....


Ahicl ( I)
(81i

I0)
II
(12)
13
(14)
(IS)
......(It)


(17)
(18)


(19)


State (I)
...... (20)
.......(22)

E23)
(24)
(26)
(27)


_(29)
-(30)


(i31 )


F ederal ( 1)
... ..(32)
-(33)
(34)
_(35)
j(36)
.............(3 7 )
138)
(39)
(40I


-(41)
(42)


(4445)
(46-47)
10 WI hat type of government tax benefits or tax relief d'es )our business get from each level of
gernmentL' (Mark an X in all that apply.)


Property tax relief
Acelerated deprecIation
Investment tax credit
I mplo% ment tax credit
Other tax benefit (please specify)


Local
(S)
_ (48)
__(49)
_(50)
__51)


(52)


State
(1)
- .(53)
-(54)
-_(55)
__ (56)


Federal
(I)
(58)
(59)
-(60)
_ (61 )


(57) ___(62)
_______(634)


I I n general, if ou hae any further ideas about how the Federal Government might assist
business in urban areas, the Joint I onomic committeee would appreciate having them.
(Plea fe j feel free to add additional sheets for your comments


__(65 46)
PL ASI INDICATE Tllil NAMI AND T I ILLPHiO\1 NUMBER O TtF PERSON
(OMPI I I 1N( 'I I QI F SIIt()NN A IR !

N AM I..........
N A I .... .. .. .. .... . ...... ............... . .. . .. ...... .. .. .. . .. ... .. .... ............. .. .. .. .... ...... ......... ...... .... ... . . .....





Thank ,ou serx TB ih for taking the tme to complete this questionna r If you have an} questions, please
ontact l)ehorah Mati at (202 224 17 After ou hate completed the questionnaIrC, plea S place it in the
postage paid envelope and send it to the Joint Ionomii 1 ommittee. GI13 Dirksen Building. Washington,
I)( 2051I0









oongre of tje lniteb Otateg 0 (1-2)
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE _
WASHINGTON. oC 20510 (3-5)
01 (6-7)
SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS

Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either leave the space blank or indicate "n/a"
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of Atlanta.

I. First, how would you rate the business climate in Atlanta?
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
21.6 (1) Highly Favorable 60._3 (2) FavorablelL1(3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
1.7 (4) Unfavorable 1.7(5) Highly Unfavorable (8)
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate?
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
60.4 (1) Atlanta 2.0(2) Los Angeles -(3) Pittsburgh 1.0(4) St. Louis
__ (5) Detroit -(6) Minneapolis 5.9(7) Phoenix 29,1_(8) Dallas
1.0 (9) New York -(10) Seattle (9-10)

2(a). Why?
(11-12)
3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs?
41-.(1) Yes L_3(2) No(GotoQ. 4) (13)
3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?




(14-15)
4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in Atlanta? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers are
defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers (16-20)
Number of white collar workers (21-25)
Number of clerical workers (26-30)
4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of Atlanta?
36.__5(1) Increase _.5_.2(2) Decrease 5B_&3__(3) Keep theSame (31)
4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of Atlanta expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar, white
collar, and clerical workers during the next year? (Please mark an X in the appropriate box.)
BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY INCREASE BY
I I I


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)


NO 1-9f7, 10-24'4% 1-5-49" 50-100%
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (32)


INCREASE BY


NO 1-9% 10-24% 25-49% 50-100%
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (33)


INCREASE BY


NO 1-9% 10-24% 25-49% 50-100%
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (34)


(29)








30



In the last IearI has your business I onsiderd IP e mark an X in all that apply )

I,_ + Il) Moving away from the city of Atlanta (35)
ii, I) tpandng upcratlionsin the ity of ~tlanta (36)

5 (I) Reducing s LIope of operations in the I of Atlanta (37)
1 I) S Clling in lieu of going out of busins (i e changing ownership) (38)
I (;oig out oi buSneSS (39)
I ( No, none o the above considerd (40)
If you are considering a move, whem are OU thinking of moving to"

(4142)
5(a) Has your business made a decision (even if it is tentative) to:
(I ) Move away from thc it, of Atlanta (43)
) I expand operations in the city of Atlanta (44)
1 (1) Reduce scope of operations in the city of Atlanta (45)
I) Sell in lieu Of going out of business (46)
() (;o out of business (47)
I' (1) No, none of the ahove decided (48)
If >ou have decided to move, where are you moving to?

(49-50)
6 Since 10609, has your firm expanded or increased any of the following'
(Please mark an X in all that apply)

(I) Number of employees (51)
(I) New line of products or services (52)
() Capital investment (53)
6(a). (IF YOU MARKED AN X IN ANY OF THE ABOVE) What was the type(s) of
financing used for such an expansion? (Please mark an X in all that apply.)
() Commercial bank or financial institution (54)
(I) Government loan (55)
(I) Internal financing from retained earnings (i.e., investment of profits) (56)
(I) State industrial development corporation (57)
(1) Sale of securities (i.e., equity capital) (58)
(1) Other (please specify)

(59-60)
6(b) Is access to capital a problem?
__ (I) Yes (2) No (61)
6(c) Is cost of capital a problem (i.e., high interest rates)"
(I) Yes ( 2) No (62)
6(d) Since 1969, has your finn expanded or built a facility elsewhere which performs
the same functions as your Atlanta facility"
(I) Yes (2) No (63)
If so, where* (64-65)











0 (1-2)

(3-5)
0 2 (6-7)
7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in Atlanta, are important for your
business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there. From the following
list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly encourages,
encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your firm to stay or expand in Atlanta (that is, what are
the advantages or disadvantages of staying in Atlanta?). If the condition does not apply to your location,
please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR ANSWERS ON YOUR
PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.
Does Strongly Dis- Strongly
Not Encour- Encour- Unim- cour- Discour-
Apply aging aging portant aging aging
LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers 14.4 15.3 33.3 7.2 28.8 0.9 (8)
Availability of Unskilled Workers 24.3 9.3 35.5 10.3 18.7 1.9 (9)
Existence of Labor Unions 33.0 1.9 8.7 19.4 24.3 12.6 (10)
Low Education Level of Workers 30.0 1.0 6.0 27.0 33.0 3.0 (11)
High Education Level of Workers 25.5 8.2 36.7 22.4 5.1 2.0 (12)
Labor Cost at Present Location 16.0 7.5 36.8 75 28.3 3.8 (13)
Availability of Professional Employees 17.3 12.5 38.5 8.7 21.2 1.9 (14)
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing 40.2 6.5 25.2 11.2 9.3 7.5 (15)
Availability of Short-Term Financing 39.0 9.5 27.6 1.4 8.6 3.8 (16)
Cost of Financing 37.3 3.9 7.8 7.8 30.4 12.7 (17)
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate 11.2 4.7 24.3 8.4 34.6 16.8 (18)
Corporate Tax Rate 20.8 0.9 23.6 7.5 31.1 16.0 (19)
Availability of Investment Tax Credit 24.5 11.8 22.5 12.7 24.5 3.9 (20)
Tax Depreciation 23.5 8.8 29.4 10,8 23.5 3.9 (21)
Personal Tax Rate 15.0 2.8 17.8 10.3 35.5 18.7 (22)
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection 7.4 11.1 59.3 5.6 13.9 2.8 (23)
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads 6.5 14.8 56.5 4.6 12.0 5.6 (24)
Attitudes of City Government to Business 4.5 10.0 48.2 3.6 27.3 6.4 (25)
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children 8.3 .5 36.7 5.5 37.6 6.4 (26)
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood 20.0 7.6 40.0 19.0 12.4 1.0 (27)
Crime Level 4.8 1.0 17.1 1.o 57.1 19.0 (28)
Cultural Attractions 8.4 30.8 51.4 7.5 1.9 0.0 (29)
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service 6.4 31.2 52.3 4.6 5.5 0.0 (30)
Availability of Land 25.5 12.3 31.1 14.2 14.2 2.8 (31)
Cost of Land 26.4 4.7 17.9 14.2 26.4 10.4 (32)
Cost of Energy 11.2 1.9 16.8 7.5 41.1 21.5 (33)
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)
__-----___"--'____-"____"---__'---W El]-' (34)
_ _ _ _ _ l] ] -- (35)
__-_______-----____-"___"_ I---]-1 (36)
[ ---____----] I-'-__[----I [----1-W'-'-- W(37)
___--___--_ E--] L---Z (38)
-(39-40)
-(41-42)
__(43-44)
__(45-46)
__(4748)
8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)
(1) Low interest loans (49)
() Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, etc.) (50)
(1) Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.) (5 1)
(I) Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additional
employees hired.) (52)
(I) Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.) (53)
(1) Job training programs (54)
(I) Less government interference (55)
(1) Other (please specify)


(56-57)








32


0 (1-2)


(3-5)
0 6-7)


Wat, it any, government programs or asIStanc, either 10L, State or Fedcral
utilized b) your firm in Atlanta? Pleas mark all that apply.)


Local ( I)
Profe signal technological assistance 8)
Low interest loans .......(9)
Loan Guarantee (1I0)
(;rants for training programs .......(11
(grants for facility development 1....... l2 )
I)unation ol land d 3)
Provision ol facility under ke~back arrangement +(14)
Worker training (I15)
Site clie tion assistance .......... 1t )
Lkveloprnent ol public facilities to meet your business
needs Ie g, -ewer system, ac.ess road) (17)
None ....(18 )
Other iPlease Be Specific)


State (I )
.. .(20)
..... 21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
.. .(26)
(27)
i28)


his ever been

Federal ( I
(32)
-(33)
(35)
(36)
(37)
38)
(39)
-_(40)


(29) t (41)
130j (42)


--(19) ____131) (43)
(4445)
(4647)
' What ty PC of government tax benefits or tax relief docs your busineSS get from each level of
government' (Mark an X in all that apple)


Property tax relief
Accelerated deprecIation
Investment tax c:rdit
I-mployment tax credit
Other tax benefit pleae sp-cify)


Local
(I)

- (48)
-_(49)
(50)
(51)


State
(1)

53)
-(54)
- (55)
(56)


Federal
(I)

-_ (58)
__(59)
(60)
__ (61)


...52) (57) (62)
-__(63-64)
II In general, if y ou have any further ideas about how the Federal Government might assist
business in urban areas, the Joint Economic Committee would appreciate having them
(Please feel free to add additional sheets for your comments )


.. (65-66)
PLIAS INDICATE TH NAMI AND TELLPHONE NUMBER OF THE PERSON
(OMPLTING THlS QUFSTIONNAIR[

\AMI ...
PHON I




Thank y ou ver, muh for taking t tne to Lomplete this questionnaire. If you have any questions, please
contact )vborah Mati at (202) 224-5 171 After you have completed the questionnaire, please place it in the
postage paid envelope and send it to the Joint Economic Committee, G- 133 Dirksen Building, Washington,
D C 205 10









Congree;q of tfje Eniteb btates 1 (1-2)
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WASHINGTON., D.C. 20510 (3-5)
0 1 (6-7)
SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS

Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either leave the space blank or indicate "n/a"
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of Dallas.

1. First, how would you rate the business climate in Dallas?
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
69. 3 (1) Highly Favorable29 _3(2) Favorable 1. h (3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
-(4) Unfavorable __ (5) Highly Unfavorable (8)
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate?
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
7.3 (1) Atlanta 1 6 (2) Los Angeles -(3) Pittsburgh -(4) St. Louis
(5) Detroit -6 (6) Minneapolis 0- 8 (7) Phoenix88 -7_(8) Dallas
(9) New York -_(10) Seattle (9-10)
2(a). Why?
(11-12)
3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs?
7L.2 (1) Yes 2B. 8(2) No (Go to Q. 4) (13)
3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?



(14-15)
4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in Dallas? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers are
defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers (16-20)
Number of white collar workers (21-25)
Number of clerical workers (26-30)
4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of Dallas?
43.9(1) Increase 2.2 (2) Decrease 54._0 (3) Keep the Same (31)
4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of Dallas expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar, white
collar, and clerical workers during the next year? (Please mark an X in the appropriate box.)
BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY INCREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)


2 91
NO 1-9% 10-24% 25497, 50-100%
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (32)


INCREASE BY


NO 1-9% 10-24% 25-49% 50-1007
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (33)


INCREASE BY
.0 131
NO 1-9% 10-24% 2549% 50-1007;'
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (34)


(33)







34


In the last s Jr+ hais > cur hu +su sswri onsih re+ Pleas mark an in l' that apple )
1..;. ) a(m away from the city '4 Dallas
Si I a padmg ol+t rtion+ m i the i of )alas
...... I ) Reducing xoc of opratons in the ty of Dalas

i lIng in leu of going out of buIIne ( e changing ownerhip)
I... (;oig out of buness
( AI) No, none of the above considered d
i y+ou art conszderng a move, where are you thinking of moving to?


.1a 1kas Iour busInes made a decision (een if it is tentative) to
L q 1) Move array from the city of Dallas
+ (I) I xpand operations in the c.ity of Dallas

I (I) Reduc1e scope of operations in the city of )allas
I ) SIll in lieu of going out of business
(I) (,o out of business

N l No none of the above decded
II you have decided to move, whe r are you moving to?


6 Since 1969, has your firm expanded or increased any of the following?
(Please mark an X in all that apply )

(I) Number of employees
(I) New line of products or services
(1) Capital investment
6(a) (IF YOU MARKET) AN X IN ANY OF THE ABOVE) What was the type(s) of
financing used for such an expansion' (Please mark an X in all that apply.)

(I) Commercial bank or financial institution
() Government loan
(1) Internal financing from retained earnings (i.e., investment of profits)
(I) State industrial development corporation
(I) Sale of securities (i.e., equity capital)
(I) Other (please specify)


6(b). Is access to capital a problem?
(1) Yes


_ (2) No


hhi) is cost of capital a problem (i.e., high interest rates)?
(I) Yes (2) No

6(d), Since 1969, has your firm expanded or built a facility elsewhere which performs
the ,ame functions as your Dallas facility?
++ ) Yes (2) No


If so, where?


(35)
(36)

(37)
(38)
(39)
(40)


- (4142)


(43)
(44)
(45)
(46)
(47)
(48)


(49-50)


(51)
(52)
(53)


(54)
(55)
(56)
(57)
(58)


(59-60)


(61)


(62)



(63)

(64-65)








35


I (1-2)

(3-5)
0 2 (6-7)

7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in Dallas, are important for your
business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there. From the following
list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly encourages,
encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your firm to stay or expand in Dallas (that is, what are
the advantages or disadvantages of staying in Dallas?). If the condition does not apply to your location,
please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR ANSWERS ON YOUR
PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.


Does Strongly Dis- Strongly
Not Encour- Encour- Unim- cour- Discour-
Apply aging aging portant aging aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate .
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


16.5
23.7
42.3
43.4
33.6
12.3
23.3

37.0
32.3
32.3

i4.3
25.2
29.8
27.9
17.5


6.8
3.8
i0.0
0.0
12.3
.o.8
13.2

16.5
18.9
4.8

18.3
23.6
22.8
22.1
22.2


I6
30. 5
6.9
49
32.0
43.8
40 3

26.8
36.2
21.0

42.1
24.
28.1
34.4
27.8


3.8
10.7

22.1
1&. 0
!5.4
7.P


30.1
26.
15 4
27.9
3 .3
27 7
-12.4


8.7 9.
,8.1 26.6


7.1
9.8
11.6
9.0
5.6


14.3
12.2
5 .0
4.9
16.7


9.2 43.1 43.1


10.0
9.2
9.9
14.3
7.1
10.9

12.3
22.8
23.0
12.4

LiD
F--
L--


42.3
43.8
28.2
23.0
8.7
31.3

43.8
17.3
7.1
4.7


37 .7
39.2
46.6
39.7
35.4
47.7

40.0
41.7
27.8
28.7

Li

Li3


1.5
o.8
0.8
19.8
3.9
10.2

2.3
11.0
10.3
3.1

Li3
iZ
Li3
ELi


6.8
5 .3
13.s
1.6

o0
3. 1



4.6
0.8



1.6
10.3


1.5 1.5 1 .-


6.9
4.6
11.5
1.6
37.8
0.0

1.5
6.3
27.8
37.2


Eli
LiD


1.5
2.3
3.1
1.6

0.0
0.0

4.0


lI
Li

Li


i
i
i
i
II


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)


_(I)
_(I)
_(I)


- (1)
-(1)
- (1)
-(1)


Low interest loans
Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, etc.)
Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.)
Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additional
employees hired.)
Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
Job training programs
Less government interference
Other (please specify)


(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)
(38)
(39-40)
_(41-42)
_(43-44)
(4546)
_(4748)



(49)
(50)
(51)

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)


(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)

(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)


(23)

(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)


(56-57)












I (1-2)


... ..(3-5)
U)(67


'i What, if any, goCernment programs or assistance, either loI.al. Stat or Federal
utiied b L our fir in I)allas1 (Pleas mark all that apply)


Professional technological assistance
Low' interest loans
Loan (;uarantee
{.rants for training programs
(;rants for fai d evelopment
nationin of land
Prviion of ta.ilit> undr leabac k arrangement
Worker training .
Si te -lc~tion aiistanc e

I Ilpinent of publ I iitIes to Ieet your business
tted {g s~rw'er sx stem. access road)
)tho r {i lea Be Spc ificr


() (2)
...(9) (21)
(I0) (22)
... II) (23)
..... 112) ...... (24)
113) (25)
14) (26)
(I5) (27)
16 ......... (28)


(19)
(18)


(19)


has ever been

Federal (I!)

(32)
(33)
(34)
(35)
......(36)
,, (37)
(38)
(39)
(40)


(29) (41)
- (30) _(42)


(31) __ (43)
(4445)
__ (4647)


I0, What t> pc oi government faa benefits or taa relief does your business get from each level of
g erninert (Mark an X in all that applk


I ocal
(I)


Property tas rehief
Accelerated depreciation
Instnient ta\ credit
Im rpho>yment tax credit
()ther tax benefit (please specitfy)


State
(I)


_ (48) _. (53)
o_(49) __(54)
_ (50) _(55)
_(51) _(56)


(52) -(57) -(62)
(63-64)
I I in general, if ou have an% further ideas about how the Federal Government might assist
business in urban areas, the Joint Economic Committee would appreciate having them.
(Please Ieed free to add additional sheets for your comments,)



















(65-66)
PI ASF INDICATE 111H NAMI AND TF LEPHONE NUMBER OF THE PERSON
( MP[ I I IN(G THIS Q[ 1JSTlONNA!RF

N AM!






Thank u very Iu Ih Ior taking the tine to complete this questionnaire. If you have any questions, please
contact I)ehorah Matz at (202) 224-5171. After you have completed the questionnaire, please place it in the
postage pad envelope and send it to the Joint Economic Committee, G-1 33 Dirksen Building. Washington,
D ( 20510


Federal
(I)
-(58)
_ (59)
__(60)
_(61)









1onqreg of tfje VAniteb *tate
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WASHINGTON. D.C. 20510


SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS


2 (I-2)

(3-5)
0A (6-7)


Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either leave the space blank or indicate "n a"
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of Detroit.


1. First, how would you rate the business climate in Detroit?
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
3 9(1) Highly Favorable 26 -(2) Favorable35. _(3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
277T (4) Unfavorable 9 (5) Highly Unfavorable

2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate"
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
13.3(1) Atlanta 5.4 (2) Los Angeles2"4 (3) Pittsburgh L.2(4) St. Louis
15- (5) Detroit (6) Minneapolis "(7) Phoenix 3L"(8) Dallas
(9) New York 2-(10) Seattle
2(a). Why?

3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs'


(8i)





(9-10)

H1t-!4


7. 0(1) Yes


26.0(2) No(GotoQ.4)


(13)


3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?


(14-15)


4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in Detroit? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers are
defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers
Number of white collar workers
Number of clerical workers


(16-20)
(21-25)
(26-30)


4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of Detroit"
24.2(I) Increase 7.P(2) Decrease 6E-0-(3) Keep theSame
4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of Detroit expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar, white
collar, and clerical workers during the next year' (Please mark an X in the appropriate hox.)


BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100%


25-497 1(


INCREASE BY


I I

0-24% 1-9q NO 1-9%k
CHANGE
(3) (4) (5) (6)


WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49' 10-24% 1-91-"

( 1 ) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100%


25-49%


10-247 1-9" NO
CHANGE
(3) (4) (5)


10-24-


25-49,


50-100:1


INCREASE BY


NO I-9
CHANGE
(5) (6)


10-24'

(7)


-5-49

(8)


5 100

(9)


INCREASE BY


1-9


10-24 25-49-7 50-lO0'


(6) ( )


(37)


(8) (9)


(34)












j In the last year has your bus'n e Ts S I _ou.T) % onsided Pk a mark an X in all that appy)
i Moving .a.ay from the city of Itroit (35)
S ii p I xpIndng operations in the city of [avtrolt (36 )
(I Reducing sopc of operations in the city of Detroit (37)
.(I) lling in lieu of going out of business (i e, changing ownership) (38)
6 I)) Going out ol business (39)

5_J (! No, none of the above konsidCreCd (40)
If you ar consILdenng a move, whe r arc y ou thinking of moving to"

....... .....(4 1-4 2)
5(a) Ilas your business made a deCision (even if it is tentative) to

I 4!) Move away from the city of Detroit (43)
4I) Fxpand operations in the city of Detroit (44)
(i) Reduce scope of operations in the city of Detroit (45)
I Sell in lieu of going out of business (46)
() Go out of business (47)
(1 iNo, none of tile above decided (48)
It you have decided to move, where are you moving to?

(49-50)

6 Since 1969, has your finn expanded or increased any of the following?
(Please, mark an X in all that apply.A

S(i) Number of employees (51)
S(1) New line of products or services (52)
S(I) Capital investment (53)

6(a) (IF YOU MARKED AN X IN ANY OF THE ABOVE) What was the type(s) of
financing used for such an expansion' (Please mark an X in all that apply.)

(1) Comminercial bank or financial institution (54)
() Government loan (55)
S(1) Internal financing from retained earnings (i.e., investment of profits) (56)
( State industrial development corporation (57)
(1) Sale of securities (i.e., equity capital) (58)
(1) Other (please specify)

(59-60)

6(b), Is access to capital a problem?
(1) Yes __ (2) No (61)

el(c Is cost of capital a problem (i.e., high interest rates)?
U...) Yes (2) No (62)
0(d) Since 19,1) has sour firm expanded or built a facility elsewhere which performs
the hic functions as your Detroit facility?
(I) Yes (2) No (63)

If so, wh Iere __(64-65)













2 (1 2 ')


0 2 (0-7)

7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in Detroit, are important for your
business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there. Iroin the tul1ov n
list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly encoura!> ,
encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your finn to stay or expand in Detroit (that is, 'Ait ar'
the advantages or disadvantages of staying in Detroit?). If the condition does not apply to your location,
please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR ANSWERS ON YOUR
PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.


Does Strongly Dis- Strongly
Not Encour- Encour- Unim- cour- Discour-
Apply aging aging portant aging aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing


TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


17.4
18.2
1-.7
17.6
43.7
14.3
21.3

35.7
34.5
28.2

15.7
25.3
25.1
25.2
15.1


2.5
9.9
1.7
0.8
0.0
0.8
2.5


15.7
26. 4
2.5
3.4
14.6
8. I4
22.1


4.3 17..4
4.3 22.4
0.0 7.7


0.8
0.0
11. 1
7.0
0.8


9.1
2.5
21.4
20.0
5.9


9.2 7.5 56.7


5.0
6.8
10.7
21.2
1.6
6.6

6.7
28.0
28.0
9.3

E--l
E-l
E---
Lii
E---


14.0
7.7
2.5
2.5
0.0
19.8

18.3
5.1
1.7
1.7


El
[E1.
El1


59.5
36.8
10.7
26.3
13.0
51.2

53.3
23.7
13.6
9.3




ElD


5.0
17.14
14.8
19.3
29.1
10.9
9.8

15.7
19.0
12.8

16.5
lO.8
17.1
23.5
15.1


43.8
23.1
4.7

8.7
46.2
32.8

18.3
14.7
39. 3

41.3
38.3
13.7
18.3
42.0


10.8 12.5


6.6
5.1
5.8
26.3
1.6
10.7

5.8
22.9
18.6
14.4




l


13.2
37.6
44.6
16.1
51.2
17 .4

13.3
114.4
30.5
44.9

F-l
El2
[r2]


15.7
5.0
19.5
10.1
3.9
19.3
11.5

8.7
5.2
12.0

16.5
22.5
7.7
6.1
21.0


(1)

(1)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)

(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)


3. 3 (2'3)


1. 1
6.o
25.6
7.1
32.5
4.i

2.5
5.9
(
20. 3




El


(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)

(3()
(31)
(32)
(33)

(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)
(38)
.(39-40)
(41-42)
,(43-44)
(45-48)
(47-48)


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)


Low interest loans
Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, etc.)
Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.)
Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additional
employees hired.)
Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
Job training programs
Less government interference
Other (please specify)


_(1)
______ (1)
____(1)

(1)
(l)
.(1)
_(I)


(49)
(50)
(51)

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)


(56-57)









40


2 (n-)


S0(-5)
01"W")


" &hat if anI go e !nm nI ograms or a istanc, either local, StIt' e or Iederal
utilze~d b your irn in t row t Plea mark All that apply


Profesonal technlo al assistance
I o interest loans
ILoani (,uaran tee
t rants I t tr iiuii programs ....
(*rants for fa jiltbe e int
lRonation of land
Pro ision ia~ daii>t under eascbac.k arrangement ...
worker t raining


l.esepIent of puhli facilities to meet ',our business
need 1( g. e r system. ae' road

()th e.r (P lease Bie Specific .. ..... ................... .. .


Loalil) State 1)
....... (8 ) .......12 )
(19) .........(21)
.........(1 0 1 ..........(2 2 )
..... .( 1 1) ............(2 3 )
........(12) ...(24)
(13) (2)
(14)
-05) ('
1 16) 2S I


(17)
(18)


(19)


(29)
(30)


(311


has eer been

IFederal (Il)

32)
(33)
......(34)
-(35)
(36)
.. .(37)
.....(38)
(39)
(40)

(41)
(42)


(43)
(44-45)
-~(46-47)


10. ", hat t pe ol government tnax heni relief dms your business get from each level of
goernient (Mark an X in all that app1y.j


Property taa relicti
Accelerated depreciation
Investment tax Iredit
I mploy ment tax credit
Other tax benefit (please specily)I


Local
(1)
........(48)
(49)
50)
.......(51)


State
(1)
..(53)
.. (54)
- ,. (55)
- (56)


Federal
(1)

__(58)
---- (59)
(60)
___(61)


(57)


-02)
(63-64)


I Iin general, i0 >ou hase any further ideas about how the Federal Government might assist
business in urban areas, the Joint I Eonomic Committee would appreciate having them.
t Pie fc Iel free to add additional sheets for your comments )


(656)


P11 AS1 INIl( TF 1111 NAMM KIN TII EPIIONI' NUMB%\R OF T-HF PERSON
()M PI I HlN(; TllS Q[ I STIO N\\ \1RI

NAV I
P 110NI


1-ank yo r m c f !r taking the hM to completee tis questionnaire If you hase an> questions, pleaC
,onta leborah MatI at 2021224-5 1 : Alter I ou have completed the questionnaire, pleas place it in the
postage paid eneope and sendi it to the Joint onomw ( committee, GA 13 )irkwen ilding, Washington,
I)( ,05 I









Congreq of the ?!niteb 'tate5 3 (1-2)
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WAsHINGTON. D.C. oso (3-5)
0 1 (6-7)
SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS

Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation. please either leave the space blank or indicate "n /a"
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of Los Angeles.

1. First, how would you rate the business climate in Los Angeles?
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
1 2.3 (1) Highly Favorable4Q o. (2) Favorable3-6. 93) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
6. 9(4) Unfavorable 3.-(5) Highly Unfavorable (K)
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate?
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
6.5(1) Atlanta 41. 9 (2) Los Angeles 4 3 (3) Pittsburgh (4) St. Louis
1.1(5) Detroit 2(6) Minneapolis 8"6(7) Phoenix 21"5(8) Dallas
(9) New York 10) Seattle (9_10)

2(a). Why?
(11-12)
3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs?
61.2(1) Yes 38.8(2) No(GotoQ.4) (13)
3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?




(14-15)
4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in Los Angeles? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers
are defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers (16-20)
Number of white collar workers (21-75)
Number of clerical workers (26-30)
4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of Los Angeles?
33. -3 (1) Increase 4 ._ 7(2) Decrease 62.0 (3) Keep the Same (31)
4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of Los Angeles expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar, 'A hite
collar, and clerical workers during the next year? (Please mark an X in the appropriate box.)

BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY INCREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9(

(1) (2) (3) (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-97

(1) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)


I

NO 1-97% 10-247 25-497 50-100'
CHANGE
(5) (6) 7) (8) (9) (32)


INCREASE BY


NO 1-9% 10-247 25-497 50-100r
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (33)


INCREASE BY
i6. .7 1
NO 1-9% 10-247 25-497 50-100c
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (34)


(41)














I :} M : .' I h (:) < Angitcs





..... + + + : ) I~a l v. < :, <+ :+h, ............geh~


r t~ m i i t A vc I
(ir Rj 1 11 .W Ip ,10' tI I of \r g ks
MA +I ) TN Ve+) Or 7 f I I his 'A titengngpewnerxhip)


I!~r a nPJ+ r o+sd i~n n< +h+:rx.arc > thiiinking dfmon g to+



ha rlas-- r I 's fli i I made r(- (exen it it e i tentativ e) to
iii +:+ l ) M++ am aIron the it5 01 l,> Angeles
I i 1: a~xpanJ +pcrah un Ii t ite' oi I osAngeles

: H ) Redu e x pe ot opertions in the ity of r ios Angeles
I n L' I yLn It t p i t j I


Ii~o x ai\ k'+:c t


Sirn 1 T+O+ has >our finn expanded or increased an++ of the following?
(Pleasx: I .ark ill ii i:ll that aplyj'

I (\) Nmber ol employ ees
.... .....( I) Ne x line ol pro>d h tx or serri ces
............(I) C apital iP'estmcn t
Ii() dlF \Ut+ MARKIED AN N IN ANY OF Till ABOVE) What was the type(s) of
finanuing usedI Tor such in expansion? tPlease mark an X in all that apply,

.....(1) ( ommnercial hank or financial institution
lI (;osemmrent loan
......... 1 Internal financing from retained earnings (i e., investment of profits)
......( I State industrial developnment corporation
.....( ) Sale >I x&curities (i.e, equity capital)
....... :+ Other i please speuif>


n Ibi I. ~ xx I ~ipitil a prohkni
II) \ex


-. ( 2) No


xs of capital a problem (i e high interest rates)?
it \es i_2)


: Sin1e I\; I I ,i riri n ipan ied or built a faclity elsewhere which perfons
iT xsai e Inifonx as :our Los Angeles facility
(( 2e ) No


li Sl ,x here


(35)
(36)
(37)
(3I
(39)
(40)


(4142)


(43)
(44)
(45)
(46)
(47)
(48)


(49-50)


(51)
(52)
(53)


(54)
(55)
(56)
(57)
(58)


(59-0)


(61)

(62)


(63)
(64-65)







43



3 (1-2)

(3-5)
0 2 (6-7)

7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in Los Angeles, are important for
your business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there, From the
following list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly
encourages, encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your firm to stay or expand in Los Angeles
(that is, what are the advantages or disadvantages of staying in Los Angeles7). If the condition does not
apply to your location, please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR
ANSWERS ON YOUR PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.


Encour- Unim-


Dis- Strongly
cour- Discour-


aging portant aging


aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


28.3
38.3
39.8
40.7
21.3
23.3


25 .8
3. 3
2 3 -9
19.7



5.4
5 .8


11.3
23.-1
31.3
22.4
16-.o


17.9
14. 2

9.7
6.6
13.9
17.2
8.4


39.5
2 0. 0
24.
k37


16.)
19.5
6.1
L,.3


(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)

(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)


66 (23)


11.2
7.3
13.7
19.3
4.8
12.1

11.3
22.8
K.0
17.2


15.2
7.3
6.5
7.6
9. 4


59.2
42.7
29.8
26.9
12.7
1 5.2


5.6
4.8
9.7
29.4
4.0
16.1


53.2 1.6
4 .6 18.7
5 i .7
5. .2


27.
33. 1
14.3
C.3


3-.6-


6.:


zz

El


El
LIZ
El
El
El


El
El
El
El
El


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)
(I) Low interest loans
(1) Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, e
(I) Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc)
-_ (I) Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additiona
employees hired.)
(1) Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
(1) Job training programs
-_.(1) Less government interference
(1) Other (please specify)


I
I
I











tc )


(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)


(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)
(38)
(39-40)
(41-42)
_(4344)
(45-46)
(47-48)




(49)
(50)
(51)

(52
(53)
(54)
(55)


(56-57)


Does
Not
Apply


Strongly
Encour-
aging
















I at iI an, goverI ment rorasT or assIstanI e, either I ocal State or 1deral
Itlized b y our iri i I o Angele? I Plea mark al that tha I pply )


hai ever tkCn


rI
Pr ife\sIunaR tel.mi logia aJvsistarhv
r itrest hoans
Iloan (muarant 'e
( )rants fur training prugram\ ..
t raJ t+ for ticit delopmu~ent
R )Ouuionof Rlind
P 'ion oi |ill>ty under Icas~eback arrangement
Wo rker tramiirg
Sitt 'welc tion a',istan~ e
Ik l ut' n t ofi puh. a,. alitiesu ti: meet ) our hu iness
needs hg ,su. r ste'm~i a. e'vu road)

()ftwur iIPla'c 14+e Spe,+.:fik


+ocal (1) State (I) F ederal (1)
1$) .... 20) ...... (32)
... 9 ) ..............( 2 ) ..... (3 3 )
... tO ... 22) ....... 34 )
.. (II) 4.23 ) ........... 35)
...(12) ....(24) (36)
....... 14) ... 2n ) .... .. 38)
(I5) ...... 12'7 .......439)
,( 6) ....428) 4++ 40)


(17)
(18)

I L9)


(29)
(30)


4(31!


-(41)
-(42)


(43)
(4445)
(4047)


10 What t pe of g ermient tax bne I it, or tax relief d(tos vour business get from each level of
go erInent (Mark an X in all that appl, 1


Pro perty ta relief
Accelerated depreCL.iatIon
Ines-tIenit ta credit
I !nplo, ient tax redit
Other ax benefit (please pe.ih+% )


I 11)

(48)
(49)
(50)
( I)


State
(I)


Federal
(I)


(53) (58)
-(54) -(59)
_(55) __(60)
A56) -(61)


(52)


(57)


(-62)
_______(63-64)


I In general, if you have an further ideas about how the Federal Government might assist
bu'Piess in urban areas, the Joint Fconomic Committee would appreciate having them.
(Pleas,. Reel free to add additional sheets for your comments.)



















(6546)
PII I lDI(CATt I111 NAMI AND TILEPIIONE NUMBER 01 TIii PERSON
( ()MPI I I IN( TllS Q1F S fI ONNA IRF

N A MR1
P N I .. ............ ... . .. .. . . ........ ..... .... ... .... .. .. .. ..... .. . .





Thank you xc'>" much for taking the tiie to complete this questionnaire, if you have any questions, please
Contact D)ehorah Mat at (202) 224-5171 After you have completed the questionnaire, please place it in the
postage paid envelope and send it to the Joint I conomiC committeee G- 133 Dirksen Building, Washington,
DC 20510


3 1I-2)
(3+5)
U (6.7)









(CongrceqS of the UAnitrb *'tateS5 4 12
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WASHINGTON. D.C. 20SlO
0 l -"
SURVEYOF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NIEDS

Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requeste Jn t p
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either lease the- spae bLank or indicte "
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business rert
only in the city of Minneapolis

1. First, how would you rate the business cimate in MinneapolisO
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
.- (1) Highly Favorable 2) Favorable-LL- 3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorabl
2 (4) Unfavorable 5 (5) highlyy Unfavorable
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate?
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
(1) Atlanta (2) Los Angeles (3) Pittsburgh I 4) St. Louis
0.9 (5) Detroit __. (6) Minneapolis (7) Phoenix .L(8) Dallas
(9) New York *"( 10) Seattle (9-10)

2(a). Why'
(11-12)
3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs'
(1 Yes .-.2 (2) No(GotoQ. 4) (13)

3(a). (IF 'YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?



(i4-1 5)

4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in Minneapolis? (For the purposes of this question blue -ollar workers
are defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers 116-20)
Number of white collar workers ( 21-25!
Number of clerical workers (26-3011
4(a). Within the next year. do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of Minneapolis
!L6(1) Increase (j12) Decrease jj(3) Keep the Same 3!
4(b). (IF EITHER "lNCREASF" OR "DECREASE") By about what perentag-e does your
firm in the cit o! icinneapols expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar. vhite
collar, and cleri-al workers during the next year' (Please mark an X in the appropriate box
BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY INCREASE BY


50-100 25 49 10-24 : 1-9 ,

( 1 (2( 3 1 (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100- 2549 10-24- 1-9:

(1) (2i (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY

Li _3
50-100 : 2549 10-24", 1-9 ;

(1) (2) (3) (4)


NO 1-9- 10-24" 25-49- 50-100 ?
CHANGE



INCREASE BY


NO 1-9 10-24 2549 -1
CttAN(;



I ( RI A SE BY

NO 1-9 i0-24 254# 50R
CHANGE
09 U1) (34)


(45)












' In t1e I Ia > sIs, nmJd rkd ihkoa nmark an X ill thatfapph' i
*l ~ i <, IhI )ii of I Mn Apolis

I 1< I
.... ( In c h n Ii I~t o i< ng u. t 'f business (e hanging ownrship I





I t, C I I
..... I7 N p Io : h abo' onsidered
If you are ,

5 0+ Ilts >'~ tI~ n +ad a dccjs+ n (ctn 0ii i 1h tenttise) to:

I (1 ',iosc ax. i from lhe cila of Minneapot)is

f u(I) I pand opcra d u in thw it A of Minnepolis
*, (1 I Reduce sc.ope of operations in fhe ci1> of Minneapolis

P I i Sell i In uf going id tf A d usiness~




7S
(I L (1 )ttof btusincss
I; I( No, noneL1 of Ihe abov V c f.ided
If i> hae dc idcd ton mo5, where are you 1n1O'iflg to?



ce 14Th, his h our finn expanded or increased any of the following9
Please !-rk an n all tC1at \pply
t ) Ntinher of employees
.......(I ) Ncs line of products or sera ices
....... .. (I) ( apital ins estinent

,(a (l Y()U MARKID AN ft\ IN AN\ 01 "Ili ABOVIE) What was the type(s) of
fi n.n ing used for such in expansion7 (Please mark an X in all that apply.)

(I mi commercial Pank or financial institution
1) (ostrnmcnt loan
I I Internal financing from retained earnings (i e, investment of profits)
I. Stat industrial dcelopnent corporation
( SAlW of wcurities (Ic, equity capital)
I.. ( )tr pleasec spefy )


(35)
(36)
(40)
(38)
(39)
(40)


- (41-42)


(43)
(44)
(45)
(46)
(47)
(48)


(49-50)


(51)
(52)
(53)


(54)
(55)
(56)
(57)
(58)


- (59-60)


n b I Is a~ css to ipi Cal a prohlcn11
(I) ')es


(2) No


c)V Is cost of capital a problem (iL high interest ratks)
(I) 'Yes (2) No


itd Sin. c 1 'r) his A our firm expanded or "ut a fA. ilit3 clsewherc hich performs
w samh I WI.tio, s (1i > our Minnapolis aci ilta '
(I) Y es ........... (2) N o


Ifts Y vhem"


(61)


(62)


(63)

(6405)












4 (1-2)

(3-5)
0 2 (6-7)


7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in Minneapolis, are important for
your business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there. From the
following list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly
encourages, encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your firm to stay or expand in Minneapolis
(that is, what are the advantages or disadvantages of staying in Minneapolis?). If the condition does not
apply to your location, please mark an X in the 'Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR
ANSWERS ON YOUR PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.


Does Strongly
Not Encour-
Apply aging


Encour- Unim-
aging portant


Dis-
cour-
aging


Strongly
Discour-
aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate


CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Childrn
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


13.3

31.3
50.7
26.2
11.6
16.3

29.9
22.6
23.-

9.9
15.4
29.1
23.7
8.7


6.7
~2.0
0.0
0.7
9.2



2.8
6.2


0.0
0.0
2.8
1.5
0.0


-.0.0D
3o.1
2.0

36.9
'7 7



1,3.2
9.7

).7
0.7
31.2
25.2
0.7


6.7
17.7
21:.8
29.7
21.3
12.2
12.9


26.0
7 7
2.6
13. 0
5 .7
,192
19 7


9.0 19.4,
8.9 17.1
6.9 46.9


2.6
10.6
15.3
2.0


3.- .94
18.4
25.2
32.7


~73
3.-
16.3

0.7
12.9
2.0
4.9
2.1

317

46. 3
7.8
9.2
56.0


6.0 20.0 68.0 4.7


4.7
4.8
5.4
14.4
6.1
8.1

11.6
29.3
26.8
6.7


23.3
4.1
30.9
18.5
5.-


23.1
6.1
0.0
C7 -


62.0
33.3
49.7
41.1
"5.9


53.1
31.3
6. o

6.-

LiZ
L--Z


4.7
2.0 4
7.4
23.3
7.4 3
5.-

5.4
16.3 1
10.! -
0.

L-IZ

[Z


4.7
2.2
6.7
2.1

2.

6.1
5.0
5.0
5.0


0.7
13.6
0.0
0.7


(8)
(9)
(10)
(II)
(12)
(13)
(14)

(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)


(23)

(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)


(34)
' (35)
(36)
L--Z (37)
(38)
__ (39-40)
__(41-42)
__(4344)
(4546)
__ (47-48)


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)


____(1)
____(1)
(1)
_0(1)


____(1)
____(1)
____(1)
___(1)


Low interest loans
Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, etc)
Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.)
Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additional
employees hired.)
Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
Job training programs
Less government interference
Other (please specify)


(49)
(50)
(51)

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)


(56-57)








48


4(I-2)


0 (b-7)


J What, li any g~erin proams or asistanI, either Ioca, Slate (r I ederal ha ever been
utifizedf b% your I irni in Minneapolis? Pli a' mark all that appla I1
Local (1 I Stale (1I) 1Federal (1)


Pr of evional technoiilogi. al assisance...
Sow' intert Ioans
Loan Guarantee
(;rants for training program
(;rants for facility deaelopment...
TI)oalvn o r land
Provsion o. .a...ity under .ea....k arrangement
'Aorker train....
Site \dee lion asisance
lk- elopruent of public fac ilities to reet y our business
needs I g. weer sa stem, acces~s road)
None
Other (Please Be Specifi


110)
(11)
t 13)

(14)
(15)
( I )
11')



19)


a 20)
.. .. 2 1)

(23)
1241
. .. ... 2 5 )
(2St I
.. 12
....... .... .. 2 )


(30i


.......(32)
..... (33)
........... 3 4 )
a..... (35 )
.......... 3 6 )
I38)
(39)
*40)


(42)


(43)


(4445)
(4647)


10 Whajt ty pe of government tax benefits or taa relief do.'s your business get from each leel of
governmenT (Mark an X in all that appi


Property tax relit
Accelerated depreciation
Investment tax credit
I ployment tax credit

Other taI benefit (pleae specif I


Loch.al
(I)
a48)
(49)
(5i


State
(Ii

....... (54)
... .(55 1
... 15 )


(57')


F ederal
(1)

(....... ... 59 )
(60O)
........... ( 0 )


(62)


(6344)
1, In general, if you have any further ideas about how the Federil (overnment might assist
business in urban areas, the Joint conom C Committee would appreciate having them
(Please feel free to add additional sheets for your comment


















...... ... .....6 54.6 )

Pl ISI INDIC AT! 1 ti1 NAMI AND 1LPIIONI NUMBI R Of II PI RSON
( M L I I V I I IlS QI' STI INNAl R I

NAM I
PII()Nt




IVhank x ou aer) rnuc to taking the time It c~anplete tils questionnaire. If >, ou haae an> 'luest ions, please
contact l)ehurah \lat, at (202) 224 1"1 After ou haae completed the questionnaire, pleas place it in the
p ,stage paid enCelope and send if I the J ont f ononi Commnttee ; 133 DirkCn Building, Washington,
I)( 2051










Congrez of the OAniteb *tatee 5 (1-2)
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WASHINGTON. D.C. 2OSIO (3-5)
0 1 (6-7)
SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS

Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either leave the space blank or indicate "n a"
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of New York.

1. First, how would you rate the business climate in New York?
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
2,6 (1) Highly Favorable24.6 (2) Favorable 3__3j (3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
28.9(4) Unfavorable 0. 5(5) Highly Unfavorable (8)
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate?
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
19.0(1) Atlanta L.6(2) Los Angeles 2.5(3) Pittsburgh -(4) St. Louis
(5) Detroit 1,3(6) Minneapolis 8.9(7) Phoenix 29_!(8) Dallas
27.8(9) New York 3"8(10) Seattle (9-10)
2(a). Why?
(1ll-12)

3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs?
43.4 (1) Yes 56.6 (2) No(GotoQ.4) (13)
3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?



(14-15)

4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in New York? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers are
defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers (16-20)
Number of white collar workers (21-25)
Number of clerical workers (26-30)
4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of New York?
2L. (1) Increase 1-5(2) Decrease 62_._9_(3) Keep the Same (31)
4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of New York expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar, white
collar, and clerical workers during the next year? (Please mark an X in the appropriate box.)
BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY INCREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY
B- I

50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY
2.
50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)


0.Egal
NO 1-9% 10-24% 25-497 50-100%
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (32)


INCREASE BY

F. Em E
NO 1-9% 10-24% 25-49% 50-100%
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (33)


INCREASE BY


NO 1-9% 10-24 7 25-49'- 50-100C
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (34)


(49)








I0


In~~~~~~~ 1 1ai c .i 4 ,' iu k N-~il rtd(~~wi~k~ nalta pl
S o i, I t i ron the it 1 f New York

I (i I Reduc ing p of opc rations in the ity of New York
... Ill Selling inlieu ofgoingm outi buimess Ii e *hanggownerslmp 3
Ijr 1: Il Ll k'n~ c' Sfii hu~

S() No, none the aboke Jonsiderd
Ii you are on idlrllng a n oL, Chere ire you thinking of moing


(41-42)


S p !l3 >our 1 ic' inad a r i t I I e en it it is tentative) to

t I I Move away fro the city of New 'ork
I( I) I xpand operations in the it> of New York

ti Reduce. coPe o operations in th Lity of New York
I i I Sell in lIlu of going out of butsines'
I o) (0 Out ot business
I I((1 No, none oftihe above dei.ided1

If 1o ha ,k deided to imo here ar ou J ing to,



Sin.e 19(9, i)a( I our finn expanded or increased any of the following?
(Piease mark an in aill that appl. )

(I) Number of employ ces
(I) New line of products or services
(I) Capital investment

0(a). (IF YOU MARKED AN X IN ANY OF THE ABOVE) What was the type(s) of
financing used for such an expansion (Please mark an X in all that apply.)

I (1) Commercial bank or financial institution
() Government loan
() Internal financing from retained dealings (i.e., investment of profits)
() State industrial development corporation
( ) Sale of securities (i.e., equity capital)
1) Other (please specify)


(43)
(44)
(45)
(46)
(47)
(48)


- (49-50)


(51)
(52)
(53)



(54)
(55)
(56)
(57)
(58)


(59-60)


0(b) Is access to capital a problem',
S() Yes


- (2) No


6(c), Is cost of capital a problem (i.e., high interest rates)?
S(1) Yes (2) No
6(d) Since 1909, has your firm expanded or built a facility elsewhere which performs
the same Iunctions as your New York facility?
(I) Yes (2) No


If so, where?


(61)


(62)


(63)
(64-65)


(35)
(36)
(37)
(38)
(39)
(40)














3-7}
0 2 (6->}

7. We are interested in finding out what conditions presently existing in New Y ork. are important fr your
business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand iour firm there From the fo)l ing
list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongl\ encourages
encourages, discourages or strongl\ discourages your firm to stay or expand in New York that is. what
are the advantages or disadvantages of staying in New York'). If the condition does not appi to ,,our
location, please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR ANSWERS ON
YOUR PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur,
Does Strongly Dis- Strongly
Not Encour- Encour- Unim- cour- Discour-
Apply aging aging portant aging aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e.. sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


2'


(8)
(9)
(10)
(ll)
(12)
13


-, tlS

(1~'i


.7


12.0
26.1
29.0
P1.3
-87


(18)
(19)
(20)
(21
(22


(24)
(25)
(261
(27
(28)
(29)

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company",
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)


(1)
(1)
(1)
(I)


(1)
(1)
(1)
(I)


Low interest loans
Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, etc,)
Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.)
Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additional
employees hired.)
Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
Job training programs
Less government interference
Other (please specify)


(34)
(35)
(36)

(38)
_(39-40)
41-42)
-(43-44)
.(45-46)
.(47-48)



(49)
(50)
(51)

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)


(56-57)


37.







52


S 0 2)

(Li)
U 3 (67)


9 What, in In government programs or i itan either Ioa t, Stale or I ederal has eer ben
utiiI by l: our irm in NIT York (PleaII mark all that apply )
Io a !,I ) tal 3 t c F dcra (,I )


Prof essional tec.hnologic.aI avsistancv
rowc interest loans
S toan !uarantee
(;rants lot training program
( ;rants tor fa4.ilit development
I )onatj Ion o land

Pr iioI o ia ility under leaseba tk arra1geFlent
Worker training
Site wl c.tlon assistInee
1 )e~ et pment ot public ;liiic h ( tl nwel youtr [tsn
c ted n i t \exw-or stem, a te ri .d
NonS
Other (Plea-iw Be Spe,.ilic)


(.) .. (32)
(9) 21) 33)


(O0)
(IU)
(121

(14)
(I5)
1 6

(17)
(18)


(19)


(22)
(23)
........ (24 )
(25)
(26)
(27)
(281)


(29)
(30)


(31)


......(35)
(16)
(37)
... .(38)
(39)
(40)..


-(41)
- (42)


(43)
(45)
(447)


10. W hat tpe o )crnutI tax benefits or tax relief does our business get from each level of
goernment" (Mark an X in all that apple \)


Property tax reliui
Accelerated depreciation
InveNtmnt tax credit
S Tp1oy meit tax .redit
Other ta\ benefit (pleas 'specifyL


Loc.al
(!)

. ..... (48)
(49)
. ..... ......... ( 9
.......... ( 0
(50)


(52)


State
(!)I

-(54)

,- (55)
-(56)


Federal
(I)
0(S8)
- -(59)
__(60)
- (61)


(57) (62)


-_(63-64)


I I n general. if you have any further ideas about how the Federal Government might assist
business in urban areas, the Joint Economic Committee would appreciate having them.
(Please feel free to add additional sheets for your comments.)


(654-6)


Pl ASI INDI(Alt 'Iil NAI -ANI) 1L 1 EPIION1 NUMBER 0I 1111tPERSON
( OMPLI TING FillS QU STIONNAIRI

N AM I1
PIIONt


Thank you very much for taking the time to complete this questionnaire, If you have any questions, please
contact Deborah Matz at (202) 224-5 171. After you have completed the questionnaire, please place it in the
postage paid envelope and send it to the Joint 'conomic Committee, G-133 Dirksen Building, Washington,
D)C 20510









Congre5. of tie Zfniteb *tate! 6 (1-2)
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WASHINGTON. D.C. 20510 (3-5)
0 1 (6-7)
SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS

Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either leave the space blank or indicate "nia"
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of Phoenix.

I. First, how would you rate the business climate in Phoenix'
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
30. 6(1) Highly Favorabl5 I.7 (2) Favorable' 3 .__3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
1'1(4) Unfavorable -(5) High !yUnfavorable (8)
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate?
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
t4.8(1) Atlanta 6._t2) Los Angeles 2.(3) Pittsburgh. 8 (4) St. Louis
1.6 5 8- 2-,. 0
(5) Detroit (6) Minneapolis (7) Phoenix -(8) Dallas
0.8(9) New York -(10) Seattle (9-10)
2(a). Why?
(11-12)

3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs'
_.4(1) Yes 38.6 (2) No(GotoQ.4) (13)
3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?




(14-15)
4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in Phoenix? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers are
defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers (16-20)
Number of white collar workers (21-25)
Number of clerical workers (26-30)
4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of Phoenix?
50.3(1I) Increase _l_(2) Decrease 45_ii3) Keep the Same (31)
4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of Phoenix expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar, white
collar, and clerical workers during the next year' (Please mark an X in the appropriate box.)
BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY INCREASE BY


I I

50-100% 25-49% 10-24'7 1-91 -

(1) (2) (3) (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-I00 1 25-49 7 10-24"' 1-9

(1) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49"' 10-24 1-9-

(1) (2) (3) (4)


I I~
NO 1-9 10-24r, 25-49 50-100-
CHANGE
(5) (6) (8) (9) (32)


INCREASE BY


NO 1-9": 10-24 25-49- 50-100
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (33)


INCR EASL B Y


NO 1-9 10-24 5-49 50-100
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (34)


(53)












In the last ,vat ha\ +r + u iudan+ c re) m k e ld Pk i mark .n i a all that appl

Momng a 01'> from IT) city of Phoenix (35)
++ I I Lpand Coprationsin thI ?CIA'I of PWiiena (3
"" U Reducing wop. of opera!tions in the eli> of Phoenix (37)
1 ,~ lhn+: n lieu +at goinp out oF utslane' s liC Lhangng ownership I (38)
...In'I out oF tus-,Isf (39)
) No, none o,)i the abose Lo+nsaderd (40)
I +i ou are considering a m,)e, 'herC are y ou thinking of moving to+

.. .. (4142)
a) I las "0ur husa,1ru made A IeJ. asio Icc even i it Is tentatve I to
-++ (1) Mote 1wjafrom the City of Phoenix (43)
c() F pand operations in the t\ of Phoena x (44)
Redu ce sop of (-peraton an the at> of Phoenix (45)
(I Sell In heu olI going out of bness (46)
ii7 ) ,u out of business (47)
....( No, none of the abos e deL aded (48)
If y ou has e deci ded to mos e where are you moving to1


e. Since I 9e 9. has your finnr expanded or increased any of the following9
{Please mark an N an all that apply .1
... .(1) Numiaber of employ ees (51)
......(I) New lane 01" products ort sers ices (52)
......() Capital investment (53)
c~aw (IF YOU MARK[ D AN N IN ANY (0F Till ABOVI ) What was the type(s) of
fi nanc ing used I or such an expansion9 (Please mark an X an all that apply .)
.... (1 Conmmaereaal hank or financial institution (54)
......(1) (;inrment loan (55)
....( I Internal financing from retained earnings (i.e., investment of profits) (56)
(I) State industrial deselopinent corporation (57)
..... () Sale of securities (i~e,. equity capital) (58)
...... 1 O)tiher (please specaf )

_______(59-60)
+ b) hI access to capital a problem9
S.(I) Yes (2) No (61)
(() Is .ost of capital a problem (a e., high interest rates)?
.......(1) Yes 2) No (62)
ONd) Sante IO 99 has your finn expanded or built a facility elsewhere which performs
the same functions as your Phoenix facility ?
.......(I) Yes (2) No (63)
If so whee~ 64-W )


- (64-65)


If so, where"




OO)



6 (1-2)

(3-5)
0 2 (6-7)

7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in Phoenix, are important for your
business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there. From the following
list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly encourages,
encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your firm to stay or expand in Phoenix (that is, what are
the advantages or disadvantages of staying in Phoenix?). If the condition does not apply to your location,
please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR ANSWERS ON YOUR
PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.
Does Strongly Dis- Strongly
Not Encour- Encour- Unim- cour- Discour-
Apply aging aging portant aging aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


27.5
50 7
48 5
15.9
18.1
2L .l'

36.0
32.4
29.6

i6.9


23. 4
15.4


6.9
5.0
9.3
13.6
7.9
7.1

7.0
13.7
15.0
7.0


31.7
r.9
5.1
2 7.9


2.2 8.1

2.2 .
2.2 1.0






1-..9 60.3


9.0


16.4'
2.1-



38.5
l01
.9
2.1


-5.8
44.7
51.-
42.1
14 .3
50.C

46.2


--7

EZ'.


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)


_(I)
(1)
_(I)


(1)
(1)
_(1)
__(1)


Low interest loans
Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, etc.)
Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.)
Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additional
employees hired.)
Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
Job training programs
Less government interference
Other (please specify)


5.1 1C
9. 3.3


(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)

(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)


2-.
27:0

C.
75.-
5.0


2.S

20.7
8.6
C-,. 7


(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)


z
z
z
0~


~1
-.7

]


(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)
(38)
(39-40)
(41-42)
__(43-44)
(45-46)
_(47-48)




(49)
(50)
(51)

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)


(56-57)


2.9

















'" I1Wht, if n government program or ai st ne, ciher local Stale or ,eIeral
utilize I b sour Ijn in P *nix+ (Plea + mark ail that appl)


I
Prfe~ona1 tec hnologic~al a~si'tance...
lt an ( ;uarant .c.

( ,rant% I r failitS deveiopment +
I}Onati~of olan d
Pro,,sion of I am.ilt un hr I 'avisa k arraneent ....
W orker training

I )et pn+ct i a pubhi faii ies to mfl It yodr b '+iiess


( lh i Ptiav. Bie SpccIfk .......... ...........


() 120)
.... (21
(10) (22)
(11) (..... 23)
.. .. 12 ) .... (24)
..............3 (2S)
.....(14) ............126 )
(15) ...........(2 7)
.. ... 16 1 ...........(28 )


(I19)


t 191


1291
(30)


(31


has ever been

IFederal 11I)

1321
133)
(34)
........... ( 3
(361
(38)

(40)

(411
142)


10. What t~ pe f geinent tax benefits or ta relictdes M our business get from
guscrunenti ( \aik Ian in all that apply)


Property tax relief
Ac cele rited depreciat ion

Emnpl ment tax cdit
1ther tr\ benefit pleac pe it)


I A)CJI
(I)
(4~)
(49)
i~u)
(S I)


State
(1)
053)
S(55)
_. ....._5 5)


(4445)
(4647)
each level of

Federal
(I)
(_58)
(59)
.+. _(60)
_ +(61)


(57)


(62)


............ .(63 64I
I, In cencral, ii sou hase ins further ideas about how the Federal Government might asist
busI I in urban areas, the Joint I 1onomi : Committee would appreciate having them
(Plea-- fee! Iree to addl additional sheets for your comments i



















.......... (65.6.

P11 A5! INI( TI T1 N\MI AND TI L1PTIONI NMB R 0FIl PERSON
()MP[I I\(; Tills Q' ()+STI(ONN XRl



PIN ONI




Thank cou e', n I r C kin thI tianc tmo wl c 1 J 1u st Gnnaire If syou hae any questions, pleas
conta Ct Deborah Mati at (202) 114 51 1 AXter s ou Wase ompleted the questionnaire, please place it in the
postage paid envelope and send it to the Joint Ec~onowmi ( ornmittee G+ 1 33 Dirksen Building, Washington,
D)( t0510


6 0121


(3~5)
1) ~ (6~7)









Congrez of the ?Jniteb *tatee 7 (1-2)
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WASHINGTON. O.C. OSO (3-5)
0 1 (6-7)
SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS

Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either leave the space blank or indicate "n/a"
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of Pittsburgh.

1. First, how would you rate the business climate in Pittsburgh?
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space:)
2.8 (1) Highly Favorable 5A.(q2) Favorable 31. 3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
8.5 (4) Unfavorable 2 8 (5) Highly Unfavorable (8)
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate?
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
2A. (1) Atlanta /4-.9(2) Los Angeles 17.__3) Pittsburgh 1.9 (4) St. Louis
(5) Detroit 1.0(6) Minneapolis 7"8 (7) Phoenix 35"9(8) Dallas
3.9 (9) New York 2.9(l0) Seattle (9-10)
2(a). Why?
(11-12)
3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs?
45. (1) Yes 54.3 (2) No (Go to Q. 4) (13)
3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?



(14-15)
4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in Pittsburgh? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers are
defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers (16-20)
Number of white collar workers (2 1-25)
Number of clerical workers (26-30)
4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of Pittsburgh?
3.B__(1) Increase 6_ (2) Decrease 5. .__3) Keep theSame (31)
4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of Pittsburgh expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar, white
collar, and clerical workers during the next year? (Please mark an X in the appropriate box.)
BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY INCREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%,

(1) (2) (3) (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24% 1-9%4

(1) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 2549% 10-24% 1-9%

(1) (2) (3) (4)


II

NO 1-97 10-24 % 25-4%) 50-100(
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (32)


INCREASE BY
2.5
NO 1-9% 10-24% 25-497 50-1005;
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (33)


INCREASE BY


NO 1-9% 10-24' 25-49% 50-100;
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (34)


(57)













S [U ft'd +as +,a.iP f +ur ++sinev~ss ous!b consider red i Plea~cmark an X in althat appl+
ii : + + M +ng ima i ron t?< i~t+ o Pit tsburgh
k I", II, Ipand g'p crItn I I JktJ o17Pi Aburgh

....i+?. i )Rduc ing ++of of opt rations in fe city of Pittsburgh
+ i selhngin ieu I I V I 1 outof 11 in11( 0 + Uharingownershipi

I (oing out of busIneN
(I I No, non I mI aIo t INonsiI rd
It ou are considi ring a move+ her arc >on thinking of mnoving tor


|a) tta wr hines' made a de snI Te1en it it is tentative to
) I Mo ia I nro t f it o Pt tsburgh
........ (Ii I spand operations in the c.ity of Pittsburgh

I2 Redue ope of ope rations n the tit+ of Pittsburgh
L 1 ,wII I i Lu o going out of business
7.* ii) t .0OUt of business

it: () N none of the aboC dcLided
if u have dc idid to moe, where are Nou moving )to


o, Since l9b9. has > our firm expanded or ink reased an> of the following?
tPlea mark ain in all that apple

\(I) Number of emplo) es
.........(1) New line of products or services

( Capital in estment

6(a) (IF YO MARKE) AN X IN ANY OF Tile ABOVI) What was the type(s) of
f-inan ing used for such an expansion" (Pleas mark an X in all that apply.)

( Commercial bank or financial institution
$) LGovernment loan
(1) Internal financing from retained earnings (i.e., investment of profits)
() State industrial development corporation
() Sale of securities (ie equity capital)
() OtIier (pleaw specify)


6(b) Is access to capital a problem"
(1) Yes


- (2) No


(61)


(62)


6.c), Is cost of capital a problem (i.e., high interest rates))
(1) Yes + (2) No
(dI Since 1969, has your firm expanded or built a facility elsewhere which performs
the ame functions as your Pittsburgh facility
(I) Yes (2) No

If so. where"


(63)


(64-65)


(35)
(36)


(38)
(39)
(40)


(4142)


(43)
(44)
(45)
(46)
(47)
(48)


(49-50)


(53)
(52)
(53)


(54)
(55)
(56)
(57)
(58)


(59- 0)







59


-, (1-2)
(3-5i
0 2 ((0-7)

'7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in Pittsburgh, are important for your
business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there. From the following,
list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly encourages,
encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your firn to stay or expand in Pittsburgh (that is, what
are the advantages or disadvantages of staying in Pittsburgh'). If the condition does not apply to your
location, please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR ANSWFRS ON
YOUR PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.
Does Strongly Dis- Strongly
Not Encour- Encour- Unim- cour- Discour-
Apply aging aging portant aging aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


19.5
27.2
34.1
45.6
41.3
19.0
23.8

33.9
32.2
30.3

23. 0
2C.9
22.1
16.2
16.3


4.0
1.6
0.0
5.0
0.8
7.1


5.8
10.2
1.6

o.8
0. z
5.7
1.7
0.0


28.0
11.5

.3
3.8
27.9
28.2
Q.8


13.2
13.6
11.5


13.2
21.3
20.5


397

15.6
19.7
35.8 P


.1 9.4 53.5 1. 12.6 C (23)


7.1
8.1
8.9
16.1
5.7
7.3

8.9
29.5
32.2
12.3

EL

ELi
EL-


7.1
6.5
9.8
15.3
3.3
32.5

18.5
2.5
0.8
0.10


45.5
33.9

51.2


ELi

ELi


4.7
7.3
9.8
25.4
6.5
6.5

8.1
25.4
10.Q
9.0

EL

ELD
EL3


F- 2
L
ELE


E
ELZ


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)


_(1)
_(1)
____(1)
_____(1)


- (1)
-0)
- (1)
-()


Low interest loans
Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, etc.)
Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.)
Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additional
employees hired.)
Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
Job training programs
Less government interference
Other (please specify)


(X)

I (I )
(Ill



(14)


(16)


(18)

tl())
(20)
(21)
(22)


(24)
(25)
(2 )
(2")
(28)
(29)

(30)
(31)
(32)
{33)


(34)
(35)
(30)
(37)
(38)
(39-40)
(41-42)
(43-44)
(45-40)
(47-48)


(49)
(50)
(51)

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)


(56-57)








(A)


U 2

~1~5i
0 3 (6-11


% What k if any, government programs or a.tance, either loal, State or Federal has ever been
utiliied by your lirm in Pittsburgh? (Plea mark all that apply )


Proieional tecnlogal Jvilstanct- (8) (20) 1_+32)
Lo in terest loans ........... l) ...................,(21) (33)
.oan (.u.rant.e (10) (22) (34)
(;rants For training programs ......(11) ....... (23) (35)
,rants bor fac iity de-velopm~ ft ( 12 ) (24) ( 36
I onation ol land (13) (25) (37)
Provision ot tacit under Ieadwback arrangenhent .........(14) (26) .......(38)
IA rker training (15) .......(27) _(39)
3(29)


I~elopmant o I pubic faci lities to meet 'our business
eds k g sewer s stem, ass road
()ther dPicas Be Specific)


(17)
f18)


-29)
(30)


(31)


(41)
(42)


(43)
(44-45)
(44647)


10 Wkhat tye o, government tax benefits or tax relief does >our business get from each level of
goernIent (Mark an in all that appky.)


Property tax rehlef
Accelerated depre.lation
Investment tax credit
I mplo yment tax credit
Other tax benefit (plea' spe" i [


L ocal
(I)I
..........(4 8 )
....(49)
_(50)
(51)


(52)


State
(1)
__(53)
-(54)
(55)


Federal
(I)
-) (58)
S(59)
(60)
__(61)


(57) ___4(62)
____(63-64)


I In general if ou ha e an further ideas about how the Federal Government might assist
business in urban areas, the Joint I economic ComInittee would appreciate having them.
(Please feel free to add additional sheets for your comments,)



















(65-66)

PLI ASI INDICAI lIM NAMI AND TI LLPIIONI NUMBER O 1IL PERSON
(OMPIIIlk,( 11iS Q1ISTIONNAIRE

N AMI[
P11 ON I




Thank you ver) mui for taking th e time t* to1p NII this questionnaire If you have any questions, please
contact Deborah Mat at (202) 2245171 After sou have completed the questionnaire, please place it in the
postage paid envelope and send it to the Joint Ionomic Committee, G-133 Dirksen Building. Washington,
DC 20510









Congret of the ZVniteb *tate
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WASHINGTON. D.C. 20510


SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS


8 (1-2)

- (3-5)
0 1 (6-7)


Please answer tile questions below by marking an X or providing tile information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either leave the space blank or indicate "n/a"
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of Seattle.


I First, how would you rate the business climate in Seattle?
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
3.31 (1) Highly Favorable 49.6(2) Favorable 6.8 (3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
3.8 (4) Unfavorable 1. 5 (5) Highly Unfavorable
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate?
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
4.9 (1) Atlanta 7.8 (2) Los Angeles (3) Pittsburgh (4) St. Louis
__ (5) Detroit 1.0(6) Minneapolis 1L.9(7) Phoenix 21.6(8) Dallas
3.9 (9) New York55.2(10) Seattle
2(a). Why?

3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs?
61.9(1) Yes 38.1 (2) No(GotoQ.4)

3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?


(8)





(9-10)

(11-12)

(13)


(14-15)


4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you presently
employ in your business in Seattle? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers are
defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers
Number of white collar workers
Number of clerical workers


(16-20)
(21-25)
(26-30)


4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of Seattle9
4.(1) Increase 6.0 (2) Decrease 50.0(3) Keep theSame (31)

4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of Seattle expect to increase or decrease its number of blue collar, white
collar, and clerical workers during the next year? (Please mark an X in the appropriate box.)


BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY

El 1.1 E-2 A E:l
50-100% 25-49% 10-24%k 1-9(f

(1) (2) (3) (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY
E P =i5] Ef
50-100- 25-49% 10-24% 1-9'M(

(1) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY


INCREASE BY


1-9


NO
CHANGE
(5)


0.
10 2 4'


F1---
25 -49',,(


(6) (7) (8)


50-100'

(9)


INCREASE BY


NO
CHANGE:
(5)


-9' 10-24', 25-49 50-100O'9


(6) (7) (8)


INCREASE BY


=1 El r -
25497 10-24'I 1-9'1 NO
CHtANGE
(2) (3) (4) (5)


2.(,


10-24'7,


(6) (7)


(61)


(32)


50-100%


(33)


L24A
2 5-49% '

(8)


50-1001

(9)


(34)








62



S In the last year, ha\ your business ,cnousl> conidered (Pklas mark an X in all that apply )
Mor g Ia tr in the city o Settle (35)
I a I pending pJnc rI i the it of Seattle (36)
I. ) Rc'ducing opt. of opcration' in the city of Seattle (3?)

(I ) SellIng Tn lieu of going out of busine(I cie, changing ownership) (38)
( I) (oamg out of busnes (39)
() No. none of the dhove considerd (40)
if you art onsidering a move, where arc you thinking of moving to'

.... (41-42)
5(a j Ias your busies miade a d teisi n (een if it is tentative) to

) I) Moe away from the city of Seattil (43)
I iI pand operations in the uity of Seattle (44)
I) Reduce s1ope of o operations in the city of Seattle (45)
(1) Sell in liu of going out of busine (46)
S(I) (;o out of business (47)

(I No, none ol the above decided (48)
It you have deided to move, where are you moving to?

........ ...(49-50 )

Sin0 e 1 6,1 has 1our finn expanded or increased any of the following?
(Please mark an X in all that appiy.)
(1) Number of employees (5I)
I ) New line of products or services (52)
.. ....(1 apltal investment (53)

6(a) (IF YOt MARKI1) AN X IN ANY OF 111 ABOVI) What was the type(s) of
financing used for such an expansion' (Please mark an X in all that apply.

(I () Commercial bank or financial institution (54)
(I) Government loan (55)
( ) Internal financing from retained earnings (i.e., investment of profits) (56)
(I) State industrial developinent corporation (57)
I) Sale of securities (i.e.. equity capital) (58)
I Other (please specify)

(59Q-0
6(b) Is acess to capital a problem
(I) Yes _(2) No (61)
0(c). Is cost of capital a problem (i e_, high interest rates)?
S(I) Yes ... (2) No (62)

0(d). Sin.e 1969 has your firm expanded or built a tailit elsewhere which performs
the same functions as your Seattle facility?
() Yes (2) No (63)

If so, A here' (64-65)








63



8 (1-2)

- _(3-5)
0 2 (6-7)
7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in Seattle, are important for your
business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there. From the follow-
ing list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly encourages,
encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your firm to stay or expand in Seattle (that is, what are
the advantages or disadvantages of staying in Seattle?). If the condition does not apply to your location,
please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR ANSWERS ON YOUR
PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.


Does Strongly Dis- Strongly
Not Encour- Encour- Unim- cour- Discour-
Apply aging aging portant aging aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate .
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


12.4
28.3
32.0
47.5
29.9
14.8
22.2

35.5
30.6
29.3

18.0
22.2
29.5
29.1
24. 2


8.5
2.5
0.8


2.5
151

6.6
12.1
1.6
1.6
2.4
8.2
4-.3
L r


34.9
30.0
4.9
5.1
33.3
23.8
31.7


12.5
12. 7
29.5
28.2


6.2
16.7




7.1
11.6
10.5
9.8

12.5
9.5
14.8
13.7


9.9 26.7 57.3 3.8


8.4
7.7
8.5
17.8
9.2
10.0

6.1
2 .6
22.8
13.3


i-
I21


26.7
10.0
14.6
15.5
3.8
3 .3


54. 2
38.5
50.8
45.0
38.9
50.8


36.- 46.2

63
2 .3


5.3
3.1
5.4
15.5
I0.7

ii-. 7


ii. 0
12.5


LIZ


32.6
19.2

16. 9
6.o

19.:


8.9
33.3

43.0
42.1
12.3
18.8
26.6


5.,
1.

12.5

5.7
6.o
20. 2


(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)

(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)


0. 1 (23)


4.6
34.6
16.9
3.9
29.2


El~


L-Z


(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)


E-
L--


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)
(I) Low interest loans
-_(I) Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, e
(I) Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.)
-_(I) Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additiona
employees hired.)
(1) Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
(1) Job training programs
(1) Less government interference
-_(I) Other (please specify)


I
I
I
'3
I


tc.)

I


(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)
(38)
(39-40)
- (41-42)
(43-44)
-(45-46)
(47-48)




(49)
(50)
(51)

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)


(56-57)












8 (1-2)

__(3-5)
0 3 (6 7)


What, ii any, government programs or as stance, icthcr local, State or Federal ha- eer been
utiliIed by our firn in SeattIe (Pleas mark alI that app j,


L
Professional te nological as Istance
I oI iterst loans

(rats for training proras I
(;rants for fIIlIt de lopIent
l)onation ol land
)ro s ion of facility under lcaseback arrangement
Worker trainng .
tie ele~t I on asI istan e ....
Des eopment or public faclities to meet > our business
needs (cg., sewer sy stem, ac cess road) ...
None
Other rl l e Spec if ) .. . .


k a j I I State: I I I
(8) ......(20)
(9) ...........121)
(I0) (22)
I) (23)
I4 -.) (24)


(14) .......... (26)
.. ( 16 ) ....... ........ 7


(17)
(18)


(19)


(29)
(30)


(31)


lederail I)
(32)
(33)
(34)
(35)
l(36)
(37)
(38)
(39)
(40)


(41)
(42)


.(43)
(44A -4)
(46-47)


10 What typ of goerninent ta benefits or tax relief does your business get from each level of
goernrment? (Mark an X in all that apply.)


Property tas relief
Accelerated depreciation
Investment ta\ credit
Employ menit tax credit
Other ta-s benefit (please specify)


Local
(I)

(48)
(49)
(50)
_ _(51)


(52)


State
(1)
__(53)
- (54)
.... (55)
-- -. (56)


.(57)


Federal
(I)
_ (58)
_(59)
_(60)
___61)


3662)
_______(63-64)


II In general, if Vou have any further ideas about how the Federal Government might assist
business in urban areas, the Joint Economic Committee would appreciate having them.
(Please eAel free to add additional sheets for your comments,)


(65-66)


P F ASIlND( AII II NAMi AND 1T1LPItONI NUMIB R OF 111 P RSON
( (IPI I [IN(, I Sll (JI I SI IONN AIRl

NAMt.
P I N!P. .. .... .......... ...... ..... .. ..... ....... ................ .. ..... . .. .


Thank Fou ver- mudh for taking the time to [oIplete this questionnaire If you have any questions pleaS
contact leborah Mai at (20) 224-5 17 After sou have completed the questionnaire please place iq in the
postage paod envelope and send it to the Joint I conom mi onmittee, G-133 Dirksn Building, Washington,
DC 0" 10









CQongree of tle Nniteb *tate! 9 (1-2)
JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
WASHINGTot, D.C. 20510 (3-5)
0 1 (6-7)
SURVEY OF CENTRAL CITIES BUSINESS NEEDS

Please answer the questions below by marking an X or providing the information requested in the space
provided. If the question does not apply to your operation, please either leave the space blank or indicate "'
(not applicable) and go to the next question. Please answer the questions as they apply to your business operations
only in the city of St. Louis.

I First, how would you rate the business climate in St. Louis'
(Please mark an X in the appropriate space.)
6.4 (1) Highly Favorable 5.. 1 (2) Favorable-2'. (3) Neither Favorable nor Unfavorable
12.1 (4) Unfavorable 2.1 (5) Highly Unfavorable ()
2. Of the cities that are listed below, which one do you feel has the most favorable business climate"
(Please mark an X in only one space.)
20.8 (1) Atlanta 2.8 (2) Los Angeles"- (3) Pittsburgi-.' -(4) St. Louis
0.9 4.7_6)-
(5) Detroit __(6) Minneapolis L_") Phoenix _(8) Dallas
3.8 (9) New York 11 (10) Seattle (9-10)
2(a). Why?
(11-t2)
3. In the past year, have you had a problem hiring employees whose qualifications meet your needs?
L3 (1) Yes 1 (2) No (Go to Q. 4) (13)
3(a). (IF "YES") What was the greatest problem (for example, not enough workers with
managerial skills available)?



(14-15)
4. Approximately how many blue collar workers, white collar and clerical workers do you present
employ in your business in St. Louis? (For the purposes of this question blue collar workers are
defined as skilled and unskilled laborers, white collar workers are managerial and professional
employees, and clerical includes secretarial workers.)
Number of blue collar workers 1-20)
Number of white collar workers 21 -25 )
Number of clerical workers (26-30)
4(a). Within the next year, do you have plans to increase, decrease or keep about the same
the number of employees in your business in the city of St. Louis?
28.i(1) Increase (2) Decrease 613-(3) Keep theSame (31)
4(b). (IF EITHER "INCREASE" OR "DECREASE") By about what percentage does your
firm in the city of St. Louis expect to increase or decrease its number of blue dollar whit,
collar, and clerical workers during the next year? (Please mark an X in the appropriate box,
BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS
DECREASE BY INCREASE BY


50-100,!, 25-49% 10-247 1-9:

(1) (2) (3) (4)

WHITE COLLAR WORKE RS
DECREASE BY
h -71il

50-100% 25-49% 10-247' 1-9'

(1) (2) (3) (4)

CLERICAL WORKERS
DECREASE BY


50-100% 25-49% 10-24q 1-97

(1) (2) (3) (4)


II

NO 1-9 10-24-f 2549 50-10"
CHANGE
(5) (6 (7 8) 9) (3 2)


INCREASE BY


NO 1-91 10-24 25-49' 50-1001
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) 133


INCREASE BY


NO l-97r 10-24'/, 25-49 50-100
CHANGE
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (34)


(65)












In thc last caj h' n'ci IC I (Phav nark an \, al t app

.... ( M) pndg p~ r.,tU m of. +t ou S'is
414. i I] cui+ i r., iip on' np 1Ka )ons t t Ii~tLo


41 i) hw Ii hu in i+n u! If busiess ( i hanging ownershpI 1


I, I t~ii~ r I ii A i t r .1
.......... ......... .. .o~i ..t.....sW -.
41+ l No, nouc :if 1 the e h if casidored
If s ou are c.onsiderinig a 1no1e hen arc+ )ou thinking or mov ing to



iS |I is % hr buiin~ s made a deson {even if it is tentative ) to
4. I I Mi'i. .o a~a from the city of ~St lonis

t I I I xpand operates li the 'it, of St I ouis
I1 1 ReduIe sI, op ot operation n the its of St. Louis
41 ) 'ell an ti nf going out of business

I (,Ii out Ji L 1snc1's
( t.4 No. nioe. of the abose decidedI
It S on ha~c d.ci 1cd to m110 'lie are ',,iu mosing to')



+ Sin.e I Q, has our I ir expanded or increased any of the following"
4Please ak an t in all that apply.)
........ ......(1) Number of enployees
(1 1 New line oi products r services
.....( Capital III, ves,tiet
((a) (IF YOA MARKI I) AN X IN ANY ()1 If ABOVI IWhat was the t Pe(s) of
financing usd for suih ani expansion? (Please mark an X in all that apply.)
() tonhImercial bank or financial institution
.....(I (;increment loan
(I ) Internal financing from retained earnings (ie., investment of profits)
(1) State industrial development corporation
(I I Sale f securities (ie., equity capital)
.. .......... (I) ()f ier please spe, If)


11 (b) Is a3,css to apital a problem?
(I) Yes


(2) No


0(c) Is cost of capital a problem (i.e high interest rates)?
.. (I) Y es ............... (2 ) N o


I J 4 Sin e I 909 has sour firin epanded or built a fauit> elsewhere which performs
the same functions as your St Louis fai ility "
(I) )es (2) No


If so, 51 hIere"


(35)
(16)
(37)
(38)
(39)
(40)


(4142)


(431
(44
(45)
(46)
(47)
(48)


(49-50)


(51)
(52)
(53)


(54)
(55)
(56)
(57)
(58)


(5400)


(61)


(62)


(63)
(6445)







67



9 (1-2)

(3-5)
0 2 (6-7)

'7. We are interested in finding out what conditions, presently existing in St. Louis, are important for your
business in either encouraging or discouraging you to stay or expand your firm there. From the following
list, please mark an X in the appropriate space indicating whether the condition strongly encourages,
encourages, discourages or strongly discourages your firm to stay or expand in St. Louis (that is, what are
the advantages or disadvantages of staying in St. Louis?). If the condition does not apply to your location,
please mark an X in the "Does Not Apply" column. PLEASE BASE YOUR ANSWERS ON YOUR
PRESENT EXPERIENCE and NOT on what you would like to see occur.
Does Strongly Dis- Strongly
Not Encour- Encour- Unim- cour- Discour-
Apply aging aging portant aging aging


LABOR
Availability of Skilled Workers
Availability of Unskilled Workers
Existence of Labor Unions
Low Education Level of Workers
High Education Level of Workers
Labor Cost at Present Location
Availability of Professional Employees
FINANCING
Availability of Long-Term Financing
Availability of Short-Term Financing
Cost of Financing
TAXES
Local Property Tax Rate
Corporate Tax Rate
Availability of Investment Tax Credit
Tax Depreciation
Personal Tax Rate
CITY GOVERNMENT
Adequacy of Public Services, i.e., trash collec-
tion, fire protection
Adequacy of Public Facilities, i.e., sewers,
transportation, roads
Attitudes of City Government to Business
Quality of Schools for Employees' Children
Personal Ties to Local Neighborhood
Crime Level
Cultural Attractions
OTHER DEMAND AND COST FACTORS
Market Demand for your Product or Service
Availability of Land
Cost of Land
Cost of Energy
OTHER (Please be Very Specific)


17.6
25.7
24.8
34.4
35.7
19.5
26.5

33.8
31.5
26.9

13.7
19.5
26.4
20.2
12.4


12.4

11.0
7.5
11.9
17.6
8.0
9.6


13.3
24.6
25.2
8.2

L-Z

Eli


5.9
8.1
4.5
0.0
2.3
0.0
12.1

10.0
12.3
2.3

3.8
2.3
8.8
8.4
1.6


40.0
34.6
3.7
6.3
28.7
25.6
32.6

24.6
30.8
13.1

22.9
10.9
29.6
25.2
11.6


5.9
12.5
11.2
23.4
21.7
6.8
12.9

15.4
16.2
13.1

12.2
14.1
18.4
18.5
12.4


15.3 48.910.2


16.2
8.2
8.9
6.6
0.7
37.5


20.7
4.5
3.0
2.2

L-Z
LIZ


52.2 4.4
43.3 6.7
37.011.1
44.120.6
21.9 5.1
42.6 7.4


46.7 7.4
25.427.6
10.821.5
13.411.9


LIZ
ELZ


L-Z
LIZ
LIZ


20.7
14.0
28.4
26.6
9.4
34.6
10.6

13.1
8.5
31.5

35.9
38.3
9.6
21.8
37.2


9.6
5.0
23.9
9.4
2.3
13.5
5.3

3.1
0.8
13.1

11.5
14.8
7.2
5.9
24.8


10.9 2.2


13.2
23.1
25.9
7.4
47.4
2.2


10.4
11.2
27.4
40.3


[LZ


2.9
11.2
5.2
3.7
16.8
0.'7


1.5
6.7
12.6
23.0


F-
L
E
E
LI


II
II
II
-j
Ii


8. The Government is considering several possible programs to assist central city business. What
type of government policy, program or assistance would be most helpful to your company?
(Please mark an X next to your top three choices only.)


__(I)
____(1)
_____(1)
____(I)


____(1)
_(1)
____(1)


Low interest loans
Tax relief (i.e., investment tax credit, accelerated depreciation, tax abatement, etc.)
Improved public services (i.e., police, fire, transportation, etc.)
Wage subsidy (i.e., credit on Federal tax payment based on number of additional
employees hired.)
Improved public facilities (i.e., housing, schools, etc.)
Job training programs
Less government interference
Other (please specify)


(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)

(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)


(23)

(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)


(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)
(38)
(39-40)
(41.42)
-(43-44)
-(45-46)
_(47-48)



(49)
(50)
(51)

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)


(56-57)







68


9 (l~2)

(1-5)
0 3 (b~7)


W) aat, k any. !Iernment programs 11 a1sstan\I ,e thcr loa State or I ederal has ever been
utili ed by your iro' in St I ouis (PlaI mark all that apply )


Proievinal t 'hnologcal aistane
L.o interest loans
loanl Guaranlee
( *rant I r trai ing rgra s ..
( grants for lac ilty dtvc )pu nt ...
l)onation of lanid
Pros ison of iaihty uIdeI taseba .k arrangement
Worker training
lka eloprut Iof pubhk fa+ilities to fleet y our business
Seds Ic g, se er Ill[ stei, a ss road i


()tc r Plea. elie Specific I


Ocal fI) State (I)
(8)........ 20
I(9) ...... 21)
........... 1 ) .....(2 2 )
. 4........ ..... ... (23)
.12) (24)
........ 413 ) ......... 2 5)
....... ( 14 ) ............( 2 )
........(IS ) .......(2.7)
.......(16 ) ........(28 )


(19)
(18)


(19)


(29)
(30)


Federal (1I)
(32)
....... (33)
(34)
1'35)
.... .(36)
j37)
(38)
(39)


(41)
.(42)


.(31) (43)
(4445)
(4647)


10, rhat type of g I nemmnent ta enetits or tax relief does your business get from each level of
government (Mark an X In all that apply)


Property tax relih
Accelerated depreciation
Investment tas credit
F:mployment tax credit
Other [as benefit (please spec.ily)


Local
(I)

. ...... (48)
(49)
..........(50 )
...... (5 1)


State
(!)
--(53)
-(55)
...........(5 6 )


Federal
(I)
-(58)
____(59)


(52) (57) __ _(62)
(63-64)
I I In general, if you ave any further ideas about how the Federal Government might assist
business in urban areas, the Joint Economic Cornmittee would appreciate having them.
(Ple' feel free to add additional sheets for your comments.)


















(65-66)

PL 1ASI INDI( ATE 1I1 NAMI AND VILLPIONI NUMBER OF 1iL PERSON
COMPI f TING TIlS QULSTIONNAIRI

NA M
PHONEF__




Thank you ,ery much for taking the tine to complete this questionnaire, If you have any questions, please
contact Deborah Matz at (202) 224-5 171. After you have completed the questionnaire, please place it in the
postage paid envelope and send it to the Joint Fconomic Committee, 6-133 Dirksen Building, Washington,
D.C, 20510.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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