Annual report of the Federal Communications Commission on the effect of Public law 93-107, the Sports antiblackout law, ...

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Title:
Annual report of the Federal Communications Commission on the effect of Public law 93-107, the Sports antiblackout law, on the broadcasting of sold-out home games of professional football, baseball, basketball and hockey
Physical Description:
v. : 24 cm.
Language:
English
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United States -- Federal Communications Commission
United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Commerce
United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print Off.
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Washington
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annual

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Subjects / Keywords:
Television broadcasting of sports -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )

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1st (1974)-
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"Printed for the use of the Committee on Commerce, United States Senate."
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"Printed for the use of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation."
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CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 74 S262-8, CIS 76 S262-11 (Y4.C73/7:Sp6/976), CIS 77 S262-17 (Y4.C73/7:Sp6/977), CIS 79 S262-2 (Y4.C73/7:Sp6/978)

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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
aleph - 020759431
oclc - 02638199
lccn - 76646677
issn - 0364-4588
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ddc - 384.55/4/30973
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Full Text




95th Congress 1
2d Session f


FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF FEDE
COMMUNICATIONS COMMISS -N T]
EFFECT OF PUBLIC LAW 93" sETB
SPORTS ANTIBLACKOUT LAW, ON1I
BROADCASTING OF SOLD-OUT HOME
GAMES OF PROFESSIONAL FOOT-
BALL, BASEBALL, BASKETBALL,
AND HOCKEY




SUBMITIED TO

Hox. HOWARD W. CANNON, Chtairman

COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE,
SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION

UNITED STATES SENATE


DECEMBER 1978


Printed for the use of the
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1978


35-989 0


I






































C( MMI JTTEI: ( )N CO MN1I I CE. S( 'I NCI-:. AND TRANSPORTATION
O'iWARD W. CANNON, Nv-val.i. (C'hairrnan


WARKI:\" G. MA(;,NI"-ON, W^,l!:,izt,-,i
RU--I: L1I, B. LONG, Loutsiana
F RN .L -I F. IIOLLIN ;-. .Lui li 'arqi.;ia
DANIEL K. INOUYE. Il .iL..
ADLAI E. I-'i!-:\.N.S > ll, .
KF N IEL1L II. 1-1t1RD, Kientucky
J1 'N A. D) I' KIN, New ll.iin1h.4re
;IW\AKI>'. ZOIIN.-KKY, Nulhra.ka
1)I N .\I. IA \V. RI E'GLE. J).. M;.- ,h.a.i


J.\A.MI., B. I'AI-Io., Kwnsas
IutBi RB T P'. I.I FF1IN, Mi,'higan
TEI) STEVEN., Alaska
BA It RY ;( LD\VATE I. Arizona
BOB PACK\W(OOD, Ore.gon
hA RSI.1- N II. SCil.MITT, Nvw Mrxivo
JOHN C. DA.NI-'FORTI, Missouri


At REY I. .- \R\i .'szaff J)lirctoT and Chifrf Cointel
EiL\\m K. II \.T.. f'i ;, n(ral Counsel
MI l.cti[.M N. B. -"'Tl. IKiLTT, MinurilY S:afaf rIirctor
(II)











LETTER OF SUBMITTAL


FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION,
Washington, D.C., July 5, 1978.
Hon. HOWARD W. CANNON,
Chairman, Committee on Commrcrce, Science, and Tranrs.portation,
U.S. Senate, Washiiigton, D.C.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: I am pleased to transmit herewith the Fifth
Annual Report of the Federal Communications Commission on the
effect of Public Law 93-107, the sports antiblackout law, on profes-
sional football, baseball, basketball, and hockey.
I trust this report will be useful to your committee.
Sincerely,
CHARLES D. FERRIS
Chairman.
Enclosure.


(III)



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013













http://archive.org/details/reportoffe00unit











CONTENTS


Page
Letter of submittal--------------------------------------------- i
Executive summary---- ------------ -3
Introduction--------------------------------------------------- 7
The effects of locally televised home games on professional football
franchises- -- --------------------------------------_ 9
Introduction-------------------------------------------------- 9
The effect of Public Law 93-107 on professional football: An overview
of NFL locally televised home games, ticket sales, "no shows," and
audience ratings-------------------------- 10
An overview of sold out and locally televised games: 1970-77--...-- 10
Ticket sales: An overview 1972-77--------- 11
"No shows": An overview 1972-77---------------- 14
Television audience ratings: An overview 1972-77------------- 14
The effect of Public Law 93-107 on member clubs of the National
Football League--------------------------------------------- 21
Introduction---------------------------------------------- 21
Atlanta Falcons--------------------------------------- 21
Baltimore Colts --------------------------------22
Buffalo Bills --------------------------------- 23
Chicago Bears---------------------------------------- 24
Cincinnati Bengals------------------------------------- 24
Cleveland Browns------------------------------------- 25
Dallas Cowboys_ ------------------------26
Denver Broncos--------------------------------------- 26
Detroit Lions----------------------------------------- 27
Green Bay Packers------------------------------------ 28
Houston Oilers---------------------------------------- 29
Kansas City Chiefs ------------------------ -- 30
Los Angeles Rams------------------------------------- 31
Miami Dolphins--------------------------------------- 31
Minnesota Vikings------------------------------------ 32
New England Patriots--------------------------------- 33
New Orleans Saints------------------------------------ 34
New York Giants--------- --------------34
New York Jets---------------------------------------- 35
Oakland Raiders-------------------------------------- 36
Philadelphia Eagles------------------------------------ 37
Pittsburgh Steelers---------------- --- 37
St. Louis Cardinals------------------------------------ 38
San Diego Chargers------------------------------------ 39
San Francisco Forty Niners--- -------------- 40
Seattle Seahawks --------------------- 40
Tampa Bay Buccaneers ------------------ 41
Washington Redskins---------------------------------- 41
The effect of Public Law 93-107 on NFL playoff games, 1977---- ---42
Complaints----------------------------------------------43
The effect of Public Law 93-107 on professional baseball ---- -- 45
The effect of Public Law 93-107 on professional basketball --------47
The effect of Public Law 93-107 on professional hockey-------_ 49

APPENDIXES
A. Statistical analysis of "no shows" for individual NFL clubs---------- 51
B. Statistical analysis of NFL season ticket sales 1970-77-------------- 67
C. A summary of NFL pro forma income statements 1969, 1972, 1975-- 73
D. A week-by-week summary of NFL televised games, 1977-------------- 750
E. NFL data on ticket sales and "no shows" for the 1977 regular season__ 77
F. Television stations subject to the NFL's home territory blackout policy- 85
G. Summary of NFL clubs which share revenues earned from the sale cf
concessions and parking---------------- 87
H. Correspondence from and to the FCC regarding Public Law 93-107--- 89
(V)











The Effect of the

Sports Anti-
Blackout
Law
Federal Communications Commission
FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT
June 1978



< 3 o, r1 .


(1)


21 -~c
14~



























T




-J




a














EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


In September 1973, Congress moved to limit television blackouts of
professional teams' home games in their franchise territories by enact-
ing Public Law 93-107 amending the Communications Act of 1934.1
Public Law 93-107 provided that any professional game telecast by
virtue of a league contract with a television network could not be
blacked out if all tickets were sold 72 hours or more before the game.
The amendment also provided for its own expiration, on December 31,
1975, and for the FCC to study the effects of the law and report the
results of the study annually to the Congress.
After expiration of the law, the NFL agreed to continue to observe
the provisions of the law through the 1977 season and the Congress
has asked the FCC to continue its reports.2 This is the fifth such FCC
report since enactment of Public Law 93-107.
This report follows the same format as the fourth annual report,'
although in the interest of brevity some of the background material
relating to Public Law 93-107 has been omitted here.4 As did the
fourth annual report, this report concentrates on the National Foot-
ball League (NFL) because the other pro-sports leagues broadcast
far fewer of their games by way of a network contract and have not
formally agreed to abide by the provisions of Public Law 93-107 since
its expiration. Also, the NFL has again supplied the FCC with the
data necessary to conduct the analysis reported here. The other sports
leagues provided less extensive data and the analysis of those leagues is,
therefore, less extensive.
The fourth annual report found that lifting the blackouts on sold
out home games has had an adverse impact on season ticket sales, but
that any revenue lost over the period since Public Law 93-107 was
enacted was relatively small. The previous analysis also found that
the local home game telecasts have increased the percentage of ticket
holders who do not attend games ("no shows"). Again, however, the
threat to the league's financial vitality was not found to be a serious
one, except possibly for the Atlanta and Miami franchises. On the
positive side, the previous report found that the removal of blackouts
on sold out home games provided an opportunity for a significant
number of fans to see otherwise unavailable games.5
The results of this fifth annual report do not change the previous
conclusions. The enactment of Public Law 93-107 is apparently
associated with the start of a decline in season ticket sales which con-
tinued in 1977. Total season tickets sold has declined 14 percent from
1 47 U.S.C. 331.
2 The letter from Senators Magnusori and Hollitigs to FCC Chairman, Richard Wiley, September 28,1977,
reiufstinw this report is inlud'd in Ai-prrdi%: H.
3 Fourth Annual Report of the Federal Communications Commission on the E t.-i of Public Law ,..3-1'7,
the Sports Anti-blackout Law, On the Broaidc.acitiiig of Sold-out Home Games of Professional Football,
Bas,&_all. Basketball and Hockey. U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, S,.i., and TraIiFir:i"tatii:i.
Committee Print, July 1'.P77.
4 See fourth annual rr'iort op. cit. pp. 4-8 for a discussion of the legislative, 1,'---kroii'Ld.
5 Technically, available only at very high cost, i.e. the cost of traveling l..-' uid the geopraphic limits of
the blackout.
(3)








the lev-l in 197,:, tli' yeir 1Ifiw vVI' (vTI" t lt pli't thrli' *'i (1975 77), totul icket salt's
(:,.-Et1 t, k t-. ilt- pe,.r zaii1i, tirket-) have 11h iliitc. w iliiin a fairly
Ili iY'()\\ I'lei;'I.t', \% itII t ti' 1977 totalI d \\ (it zLl.
Sillut' P1.7"', V I''I .' 11 -'taHid i li clipacit y has1- in rea'i' ei- 4I pe.-l cent. h'r le
.oiilbJitnl lt',e.t of lii'. it er ivei''il, ..,t admii caplicit" y nl lower aiiveragei
ticket -"iles' lits i',-iilt'l ill i leclitne in tilie pei ('(ntaLre oif ( ivelralgel
-,tadium c(iipi(ity -,old, from 94.6 )'percei'lit in 197,1 to S l)erc'eilt inll
1977. A _a iii. I I wew ve v r, tic l 1 t tt I Iee n i'ii.", I s ii Iv'' I 'i t iI little c IIanpe
(%,.7 lHir',iit in 19.175, ss.2 pei.rcent in 1976, s.S I)euleint in 1977). 'T'his
stmi'liin c(i!ici (ty soI frin 94.6 pr'entt ill 1973 to 5.5. percent in
1977. A'Ziilni, Iio\t'.\-er, t hie 11i-t t ill'el se soll Ils I!ive sAlmiowl little (' ch lngie
(.N%.7 i)re'l iit ll 1975, w.."2 ipircent inll 1976, ss.O ier'cn('lt ill 1977). This
hick 4of major Clzil'('t iilliy indict' thlit wliihatever tlte effect of tie law
on ticket -.ilt., the -ituation is qal)!ilizill.,i aind the lealuie 11avy 6. at, or
,ippl)oi tcliiiL,, a iiiwv j equilibrium level in terms of tot il tickets sold. The
level plilpil. to 1) all)oit 5 jeer'ent below tihe points reached in 1973.7
TiNhe tne'\ low er level re )rt'se nts lost revenue of about $4.6 million per
,yea il> u(1lollaIretl to the 197:' level. 1 tis rel)presenlts al)ipproximnattely
2.4 percent of the $192.4 miillion total leaoitue revenue reported ili
1975, the latest fli'ure available. Sul)sequeilt analysis sui',es'ls that a
..1.,'t.a1ntial )Pop)lortion of this lost revenue lli Vay be due to locally
televised home ziames.
It appears also that the problem of "no shows" has stabilized since
tihe lteat,:"e averau'e lilha reainaliled very ineallr 8.5 p)erlent of seats sold
over thle last 3 years. This is about 2.5 percentage points above the
alveral,,ei for 1972, the year immediately prior to enactment of Public
Law 93-1(07. An increase in average "no shows" occuri-ied in 1973 and
1974, coinciding with enactment of Public Law 9:1-107. Thus, it would
ppei talir t t til he increased level of "no shows." is associated with the
lifting of the TV blackouts. However, the average percentage of
ticketholders not showinl- drol)p)ed somewhat in 1975 and( has aip-
pariently stabilized. For televised lramens, the app)Ilarently stabilized
level of "no shows" over the past three seasons is only about 1 per-
cent2 nontelevi(.d .inLimec, remains about 3.5 percentage points above the
1972 level is not clear.
In 1975, revenue from programs, concessions, films and royalties
111,ld' l1 p only 1.9 p)erCi'rnt of total leau,,e revenue (see appendix
(C). Tli erefore hlie increase ill "no shows" of one percentage point
(or 713 additional people per televised 1_rame) that niiilit be directly
altrilbulted to local telecas.ts of home ,!:11Hes would(1 apllear to have
milinilial filnalicil impl)iCt.9 Accordling to available inforimnaition, fans
'jlt aot clt 14.50 per p)(*,Or eilsoi p aimle on "Pro" i'mapiziine and con-
Ctession ".10 Th"I'e additional "'no shows ait televised Lranies avieraigedI
* P'liwi Law ti '0e3-iui7was o so l tos the strt of the l, '.'71 lseAor i..Se|ll : ,r) thlat virtually all season
tickets had :il.1 '.P.I l -ii}, Tlii Io-ilr .iTri of Public Law' 3-117 onil ickel salis would hiave been delayed
nini iir11,- 1171 mason
7 Tinll ar "l-ai. .x, liden '.a. ipu l ld Sil t tlc, the two 1most I cViii xiej)aiision teanis, which siaricd play in
the l'17G6 suo1.
B1 ed oeni the L\,.r 11'' i1, k,'r price of ;'.'.*, for 1'1"..
l twever, tlhis uiii i would not be evenly il" ,l iiiid Linionig 1i'aLiiw. Aiil idi t ; ',lhow%; the teams lhai
share iii ci i i i revenues.
1 -, I li ..,i li'r -f tlhe F, ,I i.,til i,1 C iii U,,ii" rii Cm iii-irln on the Ef:ivc of P'ublic Law
, ",-1i7. 11the, :t,,,r AtJi-i,4.1, k,,lil Law, oW 1 Ihl I r,,,tI l, .1- r 1 .1 of HiM -out tom e o i.iinw- oif l'.iftssinial Foot.
, il. -.,.1 ill, H t-k-.i I.,ll and 0Ii k,. I. I.S.. ii.I'. Coin nit1eeon li 'uiiii i, u.. '.I Ii (, and Trii'is rlal io11.
( Ou iJinJJ.tI I'l Lil;., JtJir. 1'71, at ,,i1ii 'li\ E .






5

over the past three seasons and compared to 1972, translate into
lost revenue of $91,000 per year for concessionaires, stadium owners
and those teams that share in concession revenue.
The NFL has also expressed concern that televising home games may
overexpose the sport and create a long-term apathy that will translate
into lower gate receipts and lower revenue from television rights.
The data available tend to refute that supposition. Nationwide TV
audiences for the network broadcasts of football games have not
diminished over the period 1972-77, nor have audiences for the locally
televised home games diminished.
Recognition should also be made of the recent signing of a new 4-
year contract between the NFL and the three television networks.
That contract reportedly provides $5.775 million for each team each
year starting in 1978, a 136-percent increase in revenue per team
above the approximately $2.442 million of 1977.11 Thus it would appear
that the NFL has successfully offset any loss in gate revenue that may
result from home game telecasts by an increase in the revenues from
the sale of television rights.
The benefits of the provisions of Public Law 93-107 are significant.
The lifting of blackouts on sold out home games has made available
to a substantial number of people games that they would not otherwise
be able to see. On the average, one-third of the homes in NFL fran-
chise cities view the locally televised games, almost twice as many as
view other football games not telecast at the same time as a game
involving the home team. Given the choice of watching a home team
game or another game on TV at the same time, viewers choose the
home team game by a 5-to-1 margin.
In conclusion, the available data indicate that locally televised
home games are very popular with the viewing audience. On the other
hand, Public Law 93-107 may have reduced NFL revenues from lower
gate receipts and concession revenues by as much as $4.7 million per
year. The effect of the law seems to have stabilized, however, so
that further revenue reductions from extension of antiblackout
legislation should be very small. Also, it appears that the NFL has
been able to negotiate a very favorable contract with the networks
over the next 4 years. This should lessen concern for the financial
vitality of the league. Although the uncompensated losses that the
NFL seems to have incurred as a result of Public Law 93-107 do not
appear to be a serious problem, any consideration of extending the
provision of Public Law 93-107 to permanent legislation should give
them appropriate weight in comparison with the benefit derived by
television viewers in the NFL franchise areas.
" See: Broadcasting Magazine, Nov. 14,1977, p. 5 where it is reported that the television networks paid the
NFL .646.8 million for the television rights over the next four seasons. That total, distributed among 28
teams over the four seasons, results in a $5.775 million share per team per season.













INTRODUCTION


The Congress, in September 1973, enacted Public Law 93-107
amending the Communications Act of 1934 to require the lifting of
television blackouts of any professional home game broadcast p)ur-
suant to a network contract and sold out 72 hours in advance. The law
also required the FCC to study the effects of the law on the profes-
sional sports leagues and periodically report the findings of those
studies to the Congress. Although the law expired at the end of 1975,
the National Football League (NFL) has agreed to abide by its
provisions through the 1979 season,12 and Congress has asked the Com-
mission to continue its reports.13 This is the fifth such report.
As in the previous reports, the analysis and discussion in this report
concentrates on the National Football League (NFL) because all
NFL games are broadcast pursuant to network contracts and therefore
the effects of the law are potentially significant for the NFL. The other
professional sports leagues have a far lower incidence of network tele-
vised games and are thus less likely to be affected by antiblackout
legislation. The NFL has again cooperated in this reporting effort by
supplying a substantial amount of data for the necessary analysis.
Comparable amounts of data were not available from the other sports
leagues and the analysis for those leagues is therefore far less extensive.
This report follows the basic format of the Fourth Annual Report
except that some of the background information relating to the leg-
islation has been omitted for the sake of brevity.13a
12 The other professional sports leagues have not formally made such an agreement, but since so few of their
games are telecast via the networks such agreements would be of little importance.
13 See letter from Senators Magnuson and Hollings to FCC Chairman Wiley, Sept. 28,1977, in Appendix H.
13a See: Fourth Annual Report of the Federal Communications Commission on the Effects of Public Law
93-107, the Sports Anti-blackout Law, on the Broadcasting of Sold-out Home Games of Professional Football,
Baseball, Basketball and Hockey. U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, Committee Print, July ij77,
pages 4-8, for a discussion of the legislative background of Public Law 1'3-1J7.
(7)













THE EFFECTS OF LOCALLY TELEVISED HOME GAMES
ON PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL FRANCHISES
INTRODUCTION
Professional football is a major source of entertainment in the
United States. On an average Sunday afternoon during the season,
one can expect to find over 730,000 fans in the stadiums at which
games are being played. At the same time, fans in about 22,000,000
households around the country are watching one of the games on
television. Television, therefore,. provides access to the sport for a
large number of people, and televised football has become a popular
source of television entertainment. That popularity, in turn, is a
significant source of revenue for the football league itself.14
However, the NFL has viewed televised games as potentially
harmful in those cities that have an NFL franchise. Until 1966, the
NFL would not allow any football game to be televised in the home
territory of an NFL franchise when the team was playing at home.
That policy was changed when the other league then in existence
(American Football League) began to televise their games in NFL
franchise cities. However, the NFL still would not allow home games
to be televised in the teams' home territories, even when the games
were sold out. The NFL was forced to lift the local blackouts when,
just prior to the 1973 season, Congress passed Public Law 93-107.
That law amended the Communications Act of 1934 to provide for the
local carriage of games that were to be telecast pursuant to a league
network contract and that had been sold out 72 hours prior to game
time.
The NFL was concerned that the requirements of the law would
have adverse effects on the financial strength of the teams in the
league. Specifically, league members thought that the availability
of home games on television would have a depressing effect on season
ticket sales. Further, they believed that when home games were
available on television, a greater number of ticketholders would
choose to stay home thus diminishing the revenues gained from
concessions and contributing to a negative psychological effect induced
by empty seats. Finally, the NFL argued that locally televised home
games would have a negative long-term effect by overexposing the
sport and causing fans to become satiated and grow weary of it.15
As a result of these concerns, Congress asked the FCC to study
and report on the possible effects of the law. This report, the fifth
in the series, is in response to that request. The following sections
provide an overview of the trends in locally televised games, season
14 Appendix C shows the N\FLpro forma income statements for 1969, 1l72. and 1975. In those st at-nients,
revenues from the sale of TV and radio rishtq accounted for 28 to 33 percent of total revenue. A r IyrT- 1,
signed contract between the NFL and the TV networks incr-Fasedi the revenue per team by 136 pIerce.nt
over 1975. See note 11, supra.
S5 Some commentators say that this happened to professional baseball and boxing. See: James A. Micliener,
"Sports in America," New York: Random House, 1'.'t6.
(9)







10

ticket stiles, raiie atten lance and television audllience levels. These I
M..t1'tios at.r followed by It team l)y team analysis which examines
the l)possil)le' effects of tit' provisions of Ptublic: LaW 93-107 on the
individual N FL1 teams.

'lHEt EFFE'rT oF POuIL I. AW 93-107 (ON PR()OFESSIO)NAL F O'OrBALI:
AN ( )VERVIEi.w OF NFL LOCA)(AI.IY IEI.EVISEI) 1HOME (AMES, TICKET
S.u.I.1s. 'No SO kW. A N A) A I)DIEN(E: RATINGS

AN ()OVERVIEW OF SO()LD OUT ANI) L()(CAI.I.Y TELEVISED) GAMIES,:
1970-77

In 1973, the year that Public Law 93-107 was enacted, 60 percent of
the home games of NFL teams were sold out 72 hours in advance of
gamjln tillte (table 1). In Slubsequlent years, the number of games
that have been sold out 72 hours in advance has been hovering around
45 percent. Data showincr the number of home gamines sold out 72 hours
in al'dvance are not available prior to 1973. Table 2, however, shows
that the percentagee of games sold out at any time prior to start of
play was running above 55 percent for the 1970-72 period.

TABLE 1.-SUMMARYOF THE NUMBER OF HOME GAMES LOCALLY TELEVISED BY INDIVIDUAL NFL TEAMS BETWEEN
1973 AND 1977

Percent
televised
Team 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1973-77

Atlanta --.......---------- 7 7 0 0 1 43
Baltimore.. --- ---------0 0 1 2 3 17
Buffalo....-----.------------. 3 4 2 0 0 26
Chicago --......---------.----.---------- 7 6 2 5 7 77
Cincinnati.-------------------------- 6 7 5 5 3 74
Cleveland.--------------.------------ 2 1 1 1 1 17
Dallas --....--------------------------- 3 0 1 5 5 40
Denver....--------------------------... 7 7 7 7 7 100
Detroit .......------.------------------- 3 0 3 1 1 23
Green Bay.-------------------------- 7 7 7 7 7 100
Houston .....----------.----.------..-------- 0 1 2 2 1 17
Kansas City...------------------------ 6 0 0 0 0 17
Los Angeles----.....--.------------------ 0 0 1 1 2 11
Miami.......---------------- ------------- 7 3 0 0 1 31
Minnesota.-.-------------------- 7 5 7 7 7 94
New England ................------ 2 5 2 2 3 40
New Orleans-------.........-----....----------- 0 0 0 0 0 0
New York Giants------........--.------------ 6 0 2 6 6 57
New York Jets ---------------------- 4 4 4 0 0 34
Oaklaqd ...-----..---..------------------- 5 4 5 7 7 80
Philadelphia ------ ---..... -... --- 7 7 7 7 2 86
Pittsburgh ...--..-_...... -------8 7 6 7 7 97
St. Loui .--------------------------- 1 4 3 3 6 49
San Diego..---------.---------.-------- 0 0 0 1 0 3
San Francisco..------------------ 4 0 0 1 1 17
Seattle -----....---------------------. NA NA NA 2 1 21
TlampaBay...------------------------ NA NA NA 0 0 0
Washington....----------........------------ 7 7 7 7 7 100


Total games televised.......---
Total games played............
Percent of games locally televised.....


109 86 75 86 86 ............
182 182 182 196 196....
60 47 41 44 44 ...- ...--






11

TABLE 2.-GAMES LISTED BY THE NFL AS SELLOUTS BETWEEN 1970 AND 1972

Percentage sold
Team 1970 1971 1972 out, 1970-72

Atlanta....----------------------------------------- 4 7 7 86
Baltimore.--------------------------------------- 7 3 2 57
Buffalo---...-------------------------------------- 2 2 3 33
Chicago ----------------------------------------- 7 7 7 100
Cincinnati ---------------------------------------6 7 5 86
Cleveland.. --------------- 5 3 0 38
Dallas ...------------------------------------------ 0 3 0 14
Denver -----------------------------------------7 7 7 100
Detroit --- --------------------------------------7 7 7 100
Green Bay----....----------- ---------- 7 7 4 86
Houston.....----------------------------------------- 1 1 0 10
Kansas City....-------------------------------------- 7 7 0 66
Los Angeles..-------------------------------------- 3 2 0 24
Miami...------------------------------------------ 0 3 6 43
Minnesota. ---------------------------------------7 7 6 95
New England. -------------------------------------0 4 7 52
New Orleans-- --------------- 0 3 0 14
New York Giants..----------------------------------- 7 7 6 95
New York Jets.......-- ----------7 7 4 86
Oakland ....------.----------------------------------. 7 7 7 100
Philadelphia.......------------------------ -------------- 0 7 5 57
Pittsburgh.. ---------------------------------------3 2 5 48
St. Louis ---------------------------------------- 2 4 0 29
San Diego----........----------------------------------- 0 3 1 19
San Francisco..... -------------------------------------0 6 4 48
Washington......--------------------------------------- 7 7 7 100


Total games sold out...


103 130 100 -------..--


Percent of total------ -------- 57 71 55....

Although the pre-1973 data are not directly comparable to the data
for 1973 and after, it seems (1) that the league as a whole has shifted
to a new, lower plateau in terms of number of sold out games, and (2)
that the shift occurred rather dramatically after the passage of Public
Law 93-107.
This decline in the number of sold out games appears to reflect a
decline in demand for professional football tickets. Stadium capacity
has increased 2.4 percent since 1973 while season ticket sales have
declined by almost 14 percent. These two opposite trends mean that
more tickets are, on the average, available for purchase on a game-by-
game basis making the likelihood of a sellout more dependent upon
the characteristics of the individual games (such as the individual
teams, the weather, and the importance of the game in relation to the
playoffs). Such effects apparently have reduced somewhat the propor-
tion of games sold out for the league as a whole.
The NFL contends that the trend in demand for tickets, as reflected
in the downward trend in season tickets and in the reduction of sold
out games, is directly attributable to the effects of Public Law 93-107.
The analysis of the next section deals with that contention.

TICKET SALES: AN OVERVIEW 1972-77

In reading the following analysis it is important to remember that
Public Law 93-107 was enacted in September 1973 after most, if not
all, season ticket sales for the 1973 season had been made. Therefore,
any effect of Public Law 93-107 on season ticket sales (which account
for a substantial portion of stadium capacity throughout the league)
would not be evident until the 1974 season.





12

A number of facts can be gleaned from table 3. The average number
of ti(ket- -old per ,.aine ii 1977 was 5 Iercenrt below the average in
1973.; thle nminber of ,ei-oi, tickets. sold waits down 14 percent. lHowever,
tlie av'ern.te irtumber of tiickets sold per ,i..une hl. s tail)ilized over the
p).a'-t four .eaii-oi-, rginiihL ;lirhjtlv above 5.,( 0)M. The percentage of
,-.tnd il ,'i capity sold hia., declined( from nearly 95 percent in 1973 to
., ercelt in 1977 reflecting an increase in stadium capacity and a
dec liie iii tickets sold. However, the percenttage of t aidiuni capacity
.-old hl- chaied (,onl' sli',ltlt'. over the past three 1 ea.-'ns. These data
,iLte- .t llat, altolluig.l there has been a decline in demand relative to
stadium ircpa'ity since the enactment of Public ,Law 9:3-107, there
seems to be a levelini_ off of any downward trend.

TABLE 3.-SUMMARY OF TICKET SALES AND "NO SHOWS" FOR NFL TEAMS 1972-77


1. Total tickets sold.........


1972 1973

P'10, 445,.8271
.... 27 2 10, 730.933
9,569, 9881


Percent change from pre-
vious season ...........................
2. Average stadium capacity-...... 58, 355
3. Average tickets sold per game:
(a) All games ........... 56,964
(b) Locally televised
games .........- ... ... ..-........
(c) Nontelev' sed games. 3 56.964
4. Total "no shows. ............ 579, 294
Percent change from pre-
vious season ............................
5. Average "no shows" per game:
(a) All games........... .'3, 447
(b) Locally televised
games.........................
(c) Nontelevised games.. 3, 447
6. Percentage of seats sold not
show, ng'
(a) All games (percent)... 6.1
(b) Locally televised
games (percent)................
(c) Nontelevised games
(percent).......... 6.1
7. Percentage of stadium capac-
ity sold :
(a) All games (percent). 97.6
(b) Nontelevised games
(percent).......... 97.6
8. Total season tickets sold ...... 1,264,058
Percent change from previous
season.................................
9. Average number of season
tickets sold per team........ 48,618
10. Number of locally televised
home games.....---..---- 0


2.7
62,135
58,946
59,522
58. 089
1,035,831
78.8
5,691
5,911
5,363

9.7
9.9
9.2

94.9
89.9
1,314,389
4.0
50, 553


1974


2 10, 236, 322

-4.6
62,453
56,255
57,023
55, 567
1,124,879
8.6


6,181
6,411
5,974

11.0
11.2
10.8

90.1
83.6
1,232,459
-6.2
47,402


1975


10, 207, 041l

-0.3
63,249
56, 083
57,087
55, 379
874,733
-22.2


4,069
5,323

8.6
7.1
9.6


1976


10,308, 734

1.0
64, 217
56, 641
58, 161
55,338
942,654
7.8
4,841
4,251
5,346


88.7 88.2
83.0 81.6
1,168,710 1,158,363
-5.2 -0.9


44,950
75


44,552
84


1 1976 and 1977 figures exclude the Seattle Seahawks and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.
2 Indicates figure given in NFL annual reports.
3 Figure excludes the Dallas Cowboys and the New Orleans Saints.

What appears to have happened is that a number of fans, when
Public Law 93-107 pres-ented them with a potential alternative way
to see the most popular gamines, felt they no longer needed the insurance
of a season ticket. This effect inmay have been magnified for those teams
with expanded stadium capacity. The result has apparently been a
shift of some fans' preference from season ticket purchases to game-by-
game purchases. In that sense then, the enactment of Public Law
93-107 hias had an effect on season ticket sales.
It is- al-so likely that total ticket sales have been affected by the
latw as some marginal fans, who only bought tickets to a few games,
chose not to purchase any tickets because of a preference for watching


1977,


10, 198, 149

-1. 1
63.,645
56, 034
58,969
53, 461
868, 542
-7.9
4,772
4, 161
5, 308


88.0
79.8
1,129,954
-2.5
43, 479
85




13


TV when and if the games were telecast. This effect is even more
pronounced when one considers that total ticket sales were increasing
prior to 1974.
For teams that are playing poorly, an increase in the number of
fans making game-by-game decisions can present trouble since fewer
and fewer fans will purchase tickets for the individual games. Declining
season ticket sales for these teams could also be exacerbated by Public
Law 93-107 as more fans chose to watch the one or two popular home
games on TV rather than invest in a pass for the entire season. This
effect is probably not too severe however since the teams that are
playing poorly generally do not sell out and do not televise many
home games.
A statistical analysis of season ticket sales from 1970 to 1977 for
18 teams,16 reported fully in appendix B, indicates that for any given
team, the win-loss record at the end of a particular season is significant
in predicting the season tickets sold for the following season. The
analysis also reflects the trend in season tickets over time, finding that
there were significantly more season tickets sales in 1971, 1972, and
1973 and significantly less in 1977 than in 1970. Season ticket sales
for 1974, 1975, and 1976 were not significantly different from the 1970
level, but that in itself reflects a reversal of the 1970-73 upward trend.
A variable measuring the number of games televised in the previous
season was also significant in connection with season ticket sales. The
statistical analysis suggests that the greater the number of televised
home games in one season, the higher the season ticket sales in the
following season. That result seems to directly conflict with the NFL's
assertion that more local telecasts will cause a decline in season ticket
sales. However, the conflict is more apparent than real. The number of
games televised may not be a cause of increased season ticket sales,
but may only reflect the real cause: more sold out games.17 An increase
in sold out games in a season reflects heightened interest in the team
and is likely to cause more people to want season tickets in the next
season so as to be assured of a seat in the stadium.
However, an increase in season ticket sales following a season with
an increase in sellouts may not be enough to offset those fans who
choose to switch to game-by-game purchases because they now have
the additional option of watching the most popular games on TV.
That possibility, taken together with the downward spiral in season
tickets for teams not playing well, could explain the apparent incon-
sistency between the downward leaguewide trend and the positive
association, for individual teams, between season ticket sales and
number of local telecasts in the prior season.
In summary, total ticket sales have not grown since the 1973
season, and in fact have declined by 5 percent. However, the decline
in total ticket sales has been moderate since 1974 (0.4 percent).
Further, the percentage of stadium capacity sold seems to have
stabilized at about 88 percent and the number of sold out games at
about 40-45 percent. This suggests that the effects of Public Law
93-107 have moderated and that demand for football tickets has
16 Seven teams were excluded from the analysis because the percentage of stadium capacity sold as season
tickets has been consistently very high. One additional team was excluded because it had moved to a number
of different stadiums over the period being g analyzed and because the data would not be consistent. Tampa
and Seattle were also excluded because data were available for only 2 years. See appendix B.
17 It is possible, however, that to some extent, additional exposure to the sport by way of television may
heighten the interest in the sport and thereby widen the market for season tickets.






sta )bilized. A(dditionial effects from any extension of Public Law
93-10)7 should, therefore, l)e very slight.
Ncv ertheles.-, tihe 5-,' ITent ,lecline ill to-tal tickets sold between
117;3 arid 1977, reflect in,: a 14-percent decline in season tickets sold,
is t lc ss to thIt NFl, that sliould b)e considered in comparison with the
bnt't'fit.- that thle fans dlerive from ithe provisions of tIhe law. If total
ticket snlits have stabilizeti at a level 5 percent below the 1973 level,
tlils sizst -s Ilo.s of 530),o())( ticket purchases per year relative to 1973.
At tlit averaLe, 1975 ticket price of $S.8S the aOpproximately 530,000
ticket sales lost each year translates into an annual loss of $4.6 million
or about 2.4 percent of 1975 league revenue (see appendix C).
"NO N SHOWS : AN OVERVIEW 1972-77

The N FL It as exlpresse(l concern that if a home game is televised in a
teal's fralnclise area, a larger tilllan usual number of ticket holders
wolldl choose to stay lholnie. If that occurred, states the NPFL, revenues
from tlie vaIriouls conicessions associate d with the game ("Pro" maga-
zine, food, parkingn) would drop. Teams slitharing in concession revenue
would thus stiffer 1a directt reduction in revenue.'8 Those not sharing
concession revenues might still be affected if the stadium owners (who
1do share in concession revenue) began to charge higher stadiutim rent
to offset thle reduction in concession revenues.
Table 3 indicates that since an initial increase in "no shows," from
6.1 percent in 1972 to 11 percent in the 1974 season, the rate of "no
shows" lias stabilized at about 8.5 percent. Further, the average level
of "no shows" for televised games since 1974 has been 21i percentage
points below tlhe average level for nontelevised games.
The latter may be attributed( to the fact that the televised games are
the most popular. Hence, for those games, the fans who have purchased
tickets are less likely to stay away from the stadium. The reasons why
the percentage of "no shows" for nontelevised games has remained
about 3.5 percentage points above the 1972 level are not (clear.
These data suggest that the direct effect of televised home games on
tlie level of "no shows" has been sli.ght. The average percentage of no
shows at televised games for the past three seasons is only 1 percentage
point higher than the 1972 rate when no games were televised. Some
individual teams have suffereil mnoro than others, but unfortunately
individual team financial dlata upon which an analysis of financial
impact couhl be based is not available. However, assumling that an
average of $1.50 )er fan per game is sl)ent on "''Pro" magazine and
concessions,'8 the increase of 1 percentage point translates into
about $91,000 per year lost to concessionaires, stadium owners and
those teams that share in the concession revenues.

TELEVISION AUI'I)ENCE RATINGS: AN OVERVIEW 1972-77
Local telecasts of sold out home games provide a large number of
people \with an opport unity to see a game they would otherwise not be
able to ,see. The available data indicate th'iat, on the average, the
televised lionle games reach al)out one-third of tlhe homes in the team's
SAppeiidix G indicaips those tea s that share in concession revenue and the extent of the sharing
arrangements.
See note 10 supra.










television market (table 4).19 A comparable, although slightly smaller,
number watch the home team's away games.

TABLE 4.-AUDIENCE RATINGS FOR NFL TEAMS: 1972-77
AMERICAN CONFERENCE

Ratings for other games
Home games Away games Competing rioncompeting


Baltimore Colts:
1972. ------------
1973...------------------
1974..- ----------
1975.-- ---------
1976 -----------
1977. -----------
Average ratings -----


NA NA
(0)----
(0)----
(0)----
(1) 34.8
(1) 39.0
(2) 36.9


37.4
23.1
25.7
37.0
38.8
33.9


(12) 32.7


(7)
(10)
(10)
(9)
(9)
(10)


(12) 5.7


14.2
16.8
14.0
13.1
16.8
17.3


(55) 15.4


Buffalo Bills:
1972 ------------------
1973...------------
1974.------------
1975--------------
1976.-------------
1977.------------


NA NA
(2) 45.5
(1) 41.3
(0)---
(0)----
(0)


Average ratings -------


(3) 44.1


Cincinnati Bengals:
1972------------
1973------------
1974..-------------------
1975-------------
1976------------
1977 ------------
Average ratings


NA
(1)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(1)


(11) 36.3


NA
19.1
30.4
34.2
30.9
20.3


(9) 29.0


(9) 4.9


32.3
28.6
29.4
34.8
36.7
27.9


(11) 30.8


(57) 20.0


(7)
(9)
(7)
(10)
(9)
(9)


(9) 4.0


19.2
16.1
12.7
14.5
13.9
14.2


(51) 15.0


Cleveland Browns:
1972.....---------
1973.-- --------
1974......-- ----
1975............ . . .
1976 _, . . .. . . .
1977.....-------
Average ratings... . ..-


NA NA
(0)----
(1) 29.5
(0)--
(0)----
(0)---
(1) 29.5


34.2
32.3
35.8
24.7
33.8
41.0


(13) 32.8


(0).--
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)


7.8
5.0
6.2
6.1
3.0


(11) 5.7


(8)
(8)
(9)
(9)
(10)
(10)


22.5
24.5
20.2
19.8
21.3
21.5


(54) 21.6


19 Local audience ratings of NFL telecasts differ, of course, depending on the size of the market and the
popularity of the teams involved. Specifically, audience i al inies for all types of prol',r.ims including NFL
telecasts tend to be lower in very large markets such as New York, Los AiizFi'lv. ai lii i] .( 2 Since viewers
in these cities enjoy a larger number of television iprogra.n from which to choose, the total audience is spread
over a larger number of stations and the average pftri,_(i,1lag,-ofall households vatliiiz a given li,)cranl is,
therefore, lower. Audience ratings for locally ielevi.ed honit, games also vary dt-peiiIiig on the popularity
of the home team.
These percentages are based on local audience rat i igs for NFL gamit- collected from the Arbitron Corp.'s
4-week fall audience sweeps of 1973, 1974, 1,'77., 1q7C. and 1977. Audience rLtiiL,' for 25 NFL markets were
analyzed. This number does not coincide with the number of teams because I ,. New York Jets and Giants
as well as the San Francisco Forty-Niners and Oakland Raiders share :niktP -., while the 1,r,.',' Buy
Packers play home games in Green Bay and Milwukf... both of which represent separate television
markets. The figures presented in the subsequent tables i oprest-.ir average audience i.ati11 z for home a tiJ
away games played by the home team during each of the 4-week periods.
Specific dates for Arbitron's October-November audience sweeps are as follows:
October 24 to November 20, 1,73.
October 24 to November 19, 1974.
October 29 to November 25, 1975.
November 7 to November 29, 1976.
November 2 to November 29, 1977.
Because ARB ratings are recorded in half-hour segments, it was necessary to compute an tv,.ra'c ca Mni
figure by summing these half-hour poriodq and diviiiiii. by six or seve, I'liopeding on perceived hlenih of
the game). It was assumed that most games A ouldl run 3 hours and anly 1, 1iil ,.l'.II.i -I were split oirili .'ly,
after the first six ?egin'iits. All ratings were counted from an on-lhe-hour o, Liii point with any pl.-ramr,
segment (for xamiIe, a 12.30 p.m. rating) excluded. A N-ragp, figures were (i.i ,iiii'.il, for each home and away
game involving the local team. Next an average for all home i.'anie, and an a',.r.L., for all the ax _iv ga;m.1
of the team were calculated. It was further assumed that American Football Conference teams tavc lic ir
games carried on NBC while the National Football Conference .,niem are broadcast onl CBS. In the case
of an initercoife n ce game, the visiting team's network would broadcast the contest.


32.0
30.7
48.7
39.7
32.8
30.9


5.6
10.1
1.3
4.0
3.3
3.0


(6)
(8)
(9)
(11)
(12)
(11)


23.1
22.4
20.1
20.3
20.0
16.3






16

TABLE 4.-AUDIENCE RATINGS FOR NFL TEAMS 1972-77-Continued
AMERICAN CONFERENCE-Continued


Home games


Ratings for other pgmes

Away games Competing Noncompeting


Denver Broncos
1972 ..........................
1973 ..........................
1974 -- -- _ ------------ -
1975 ---- -- _ -------- ---
19 76 - - - - - - - . . -. .
1977 ..........................
Average ratn s .............


NA
(1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)


NA
36.8
41,4
37. 6
34 7
50.8


36.9
36.6
35.0
37.1
38.9
49.2


(9) 40.6 (13) 38 8 (10)


6.1
4.8
3,4
3,6
5.8


t7)


(10~


25.5
27.4
22.0
26.6
21.2
19.6


4.6 (49) 23.3


Houston Oilers
1972 ---------------------.....
1973 --------------- --------
19 74 - -- -------- -----------
1975 --------------------------
19 76 --- - ---------------------
1977 --- -- ---------------------
Average ratings ..............

Kansas C.ty Chefs:
1 9 7 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19 73 .---- ------------------- _
1974 -- - - ---------------- ----
1 9 7 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19 76 - - - ---- --- --- ---- -- ---
19 77 - - -- -- ---- -- --- ------- -


NA NA
(0):: .......

(2) 39.8
(0) ........


(2) 39.8 (13) 25.1 (11) 13.9 (57) 22.7


NA NA
(2) 34.6
(0) ........
(0) ........
(0) ........
(0) --------


A .eraie rat ngs --------------

Miami Dolphins:
1972 - - - --- -----------------
19 73 - - - -- --- --- ----- --- ---
19 74 - - - -- --- -- ---- --- -- --
19 75 .. . ....................
19 76 - - - -- - - - -- -- - -- --
1977 -- -- --------------------
A-,erage ratings --------------

New England Patriots:
1 9 7 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1973 - - -- -- -- -- ---- ..-- -- ...
1974 --------------------------
19 75 - - ---------------------
19 76 - - - - - . - - - - - . .
19 7 7 - - - - . - - - - - - . .


(2) 34.6

NA NA
(1) 35.7
(1) 34.7
(0) --------
(0) --------
(0) ........


(11) 32.3


(8) 6.7


40.7
41.0
35.2
37.3
32.5
30.8


6.2
6.4

6.8
4.5
7. 7


(59)


(7)

(81)
(2)
(10)
(11)


16.7


25.3
22.9
17.0
19.4
20.0
20.4


(2) 35.2 (12) 36.1 (10) 6.3 (49) 20.6


NA
(2)
(3
(1
(1
(1


NA
21.0
38.4
18.1
29 3
24. 2


12.3
20. 3
32.8
20.0
32.0
24.4


14.0
5.6
2.2
7.7
3. 1
2.3


(8)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(9)


14.8
16.9
12.0
11.9
13.7
12.2


Average rat ngs --------------


(8) 28.6


(11) 23.5


(11) 5.4


(51) 13.4


New York Jets:
1972 -----------

1975.
1976 -----------
1977 ------------

Average ratings.

Oakland Raiders:
1972.....
19734.
1975 ------------
1976 -.- .-----
1977.. . . .

Average ratings.
Pittsburgh Steelers:
1972 ......
1973 ------------
1974 ------------
1975 .........
1976.. . . .
1977 ------------
Average ratings.


NA NA
(3) 11.6
(0) . .
(1) 18.1
(0) --------
(0) -......


23.8
17.9
11.7
17.8
8.8
11.8


15.9
10.7
13.5


(8)
(10)
(11)
(10)
(12)
(11)


17.4
16.8
14.6
14.6
13.9
14.3


__ (4) 13.2 (6) 15.3 (4) 14.0 (62) 15.1

NA NA (2) 26.3 (0) (8) 19.7
(3) '20.1 (1) 9.8 (2) 189 (6) 18.2
(0) (1) 19.8 (1) 3.4 (10) 17,1
(1) 231 (2) 24.8 (1) 2.8 (10) 19.0
(2) 20.7 (1) 22.7 (0) ..... (7) 22.3
(3) 27.2 (1) 24.8 (1) 9.7 (7) 20.7

(9) 22.9 (8) 22.4 (5) 10.7 (48) 19.3

NA NA (1) 34 5 (1) 7.8 (7) 22.4
(3) 36.3 (1) 40,7 (0) .. .. (10) 18.6
(2) 33 3 (2) 31.6 (1) 5,8 (10) 17.8
(2) 32 7 (2) 39 0 (1) 5.5 (9) 20.3
(2) 41 7 (2) 41.7 (1) 10.2 (9) 22.3
(2) 40.2 (2) 40.3 (3) 4.5 (7) 23.2


(11) 36.8


(1(I) 38.0 (7) 6.1


(52) 20 5


See footnotes at end of table.


25.0
17. 1
25. 1
35.5
27. 5
24. 4


(8)
(9)


7.0
17. 1
13.5
8.2
16.8
20.5


20. 8
23.4
21.7
25.2
23. 8
21. 1


48.5
37.8
33. 6
30.0
30.0
22.0


5.0
7.6
11.0
2.3
5.7
7.0


(7)
(9
(11
(10)


19.2
19.3
15.6
16.0
16.1
15.2


i
r


----------







17

TABLE 4.-AUDIENCE RATINGS FOR NFL TEAMS: 1972-77-Continued
AMERICAN CONFERENCE-Continued
Ratings for other games
Home games Away games Competing Noncompeting

San Diego Chargers:
1972---.....-------------------- NA NA (1) 32.3 (1) 4.7 (6) 17.2
1973.------------------------ (0)...... (2) 27.6 (1) 17.2 (11) 22.0
1974-.--------------..---------- (0)_--- (2) 23.7 (2) 6.5 (10) 20.3
1975-----...------------------- (0)---.- (2) 16.5 (1) 5.8 (11) 15.8
1976.------.....------------------ (0)....... (1) 19.2 (1) 6.7 (11) 18.4
1977 -------------------------........................ (0) -------- (2) 15.9 (2) 7.3 (10) 19.7
Average ratings--------------...............-- (0).....--------.. (10) 21.9 (8) 7.8 (59) 19.0
Seattle Seahawks: 2
1976.------------------------....................... (0)---- (2) 15.5 (2) 6.7 (10) 20.6
1977 -------------------------........................ (0) -------- (2) 24.4 (2) 4.1 (10) 19.3
Average ratings --------------- (0)--...... (4) 20.0 (4) 5.4 (20) 20.0
CONFERENCE AVERAGE
Home team games Other games
Non-
Home rating Away rating Competing rating competing rating
1972 --------------------------------------------- 32.2 6.2 20.0
1973 ------------------------------- 29.0 28.0 10.0 20.4
1974.----....--.----------------------- 35.6 29.8 6.2 17.3
1975.-------------..------------------ 29.1 30.3 4.7 18.2
1976----.....-..----.------ ----------------- 39.9 30.9 8.5 18.7
1977 ------------------------------- 34.7 29.5 5.9 18.1
NATIONAL CONFERENCE
Ratings for other games
Home games Away games Competing Noncompeting


Atlanta Falcons:
1972.....--- -------------
1973-... ----------
1974
1975....... . . . .
1976...----------
1977............----------
Average ratings.


NA NA
(2) 36.3
(1) 34.4
(0)----
(0)----
(0) 35
(3) 35.7


(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(13)


27.5
30.1
25.3
21.9
19.9
26.0
25.2


1.7
5.8
5.5
8.2
10.0
4.8
6.1


(6)
(9)
(11)
(10)
(11)
(10)
(57)


19.4
18.6
15.2
17.6
18.5
19.0
17.9


Chicago Bears:
1972.---------.-----------
1973 ---------
1974...------------------
1975.------------------
1976.......------------------
1977......------------------
Average ratings.....- ---
Dallas Cowboys:
1972------------------
1974.......................
19735-
1974 - - -- - -- - -
1975 ......---- --------------..
1976. ---------
1977.----------
Average ratings.-----
Detroit Lions:
1972 -----------
1973-..-----------...................
1974 .......................
1975..- ------------
1976-------
1977.......... ..
Average ratings


Green Bay Packers:
at Green Bay:
1972 ---------------
1973 ----------------
1974----------
1975 .... ..
1976-----------
1977-- ----- --- -......--
Average ratings ----


NA
(2)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(9)


NA
19.2
24.3
28.8
29.8
27.2
25.5


(1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(11)


25.8
27.0
23.9
18.1
27.8
24.9
24.5


(1)
(2)
(3)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(12)


2.3
6.4
6.1
14.5
4.2
4.9
5.9


(7)
(8)
(7)
(10)
(8)
(7)
(47)


19.8
15.2
15.2
14.4
17.1
19.5
16.7


NA NA (2) 43.9 (2) 3.2 (7) 24.2
(0)------- (2) 41.3 (2) 2.5 (10) 25.5
(0)--- (2) 40.1 (1) 10.2 (11) 22.2
(0)-- (2) 50.5 (2) 3.3 (10) 26.3
(3) 47.0 (1) 50.1 (1) 3.0 (11) 25.7
(1) 58.6 (3) 51.8 (1) 1.5 (11) 23.5
(4) 49.9 (12) 46.4 (9) 3.6 (60) 24.6

NA NA (1) 33.2 (0) ----..- (8) 16.9
(0) (2) 27.5 (1) 4.0 (11) 17.6
(0) (1) 25.2 (1) 5.8 (11) 15.9
(0)----- (2) 29.0 (1) 3.6 (11) 15.1
(1) 22.1 (2) 24.5 (2) 6.9 (10) 13.9
(0) ---- (1) 20.3 (1) 5.0 (12) 15.7
* (1) 22.1 (9) 26.7 (6) 5.4 (63) 15.9


NA
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(11)


NA
41.2
48.3
44.8
47.0
50.7
46.5


(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(12)


50.6
45.4
46.0
45.6
46.8
47.3
47.3


(3)
(3)
(3)
(4)
(3)
(2)
(18)


(5)
(7)
(8)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(44)


26.0
22.7
22.2
21.4
23.9
22.1
22.9


See footnotes at end of table.







18

TABLE 4 -AUDIENCE RATINGS FOR NFL TEAMS 1972-77-Continued

NATIONAL CONFERENCE-Continued


Home games


A*af games


Ratings for other games
Cornmpet:ng Noncompeting


Geen Bio Pacie's -Con'i "ued
at M Iwauiee:
19"2 ...............
1973 ............ ....
19"4 . ... .. . ......... ...
19"i
1 9'6. . -----------------
19 -7 -- - -

AI e'3ge ral s ...... ....

Los Angeles Rpms:
1972
19'73 ........................
19 4 -...........................
19 5 .... .... -.. ......... . ...
19'6 ....... .... .............
1977...........................

Average ratings......-. ......
Minnesota V 1,ngs
1972...........................
1973. .....................
1974
1975 ........................
1976 ... .....................
1977...........................

A.'erage ratings .. -.. ....
Nev Orleans Saints:
1972.-.. . .. ....
1973 ....--.- -- ....-- ...........
1974...........................
1975.....- ..... ....... .... ...
1976...... .. ......
1977 ...---.-..---....-......-


Average ratings .........

New York Giants:
1972.......----.... ... .....
1973 -.-------------------
1974 .....-------.--........
19745...........................
1975...
1976................----.
1977..............- ..- ......


NA
(2)
(2)
(2)
3)
(2)


N A
44 3
37. 4
41 7
37.3
35 5


47.8
38 3
38 1
38 7
38 8
38 7


58
56
66
4.2
4.8
2.6


25.1
22.0
18.2
19.7
16.7
18.0


(11) 39.1 (iI) 40.2 (17) 5.1 (46) 19.6

NA NA (0),..... (0)........ (7) 17.8
(0)........ (2) 31.4 (2) 6.3 (10) 20.1
(0)........ (3) 25 6 (2) 5 1 (10o) 16. 6
(0)...... (2) 23 4 () 3 0 (10) 15.8
0) 23.3 (2) 26.7 (0)........ (11) 16.9
(0) ...... (3) 21.8 (1) 7.7 (11) 16.8


(1) 23.3


NA
(3)
(2)

(?)


(12)


N A
37.4
32 8
37. 1
40.9
31.8


(11) 36.1


NA NA
(0).......
(0)........
(0)........
(0). . ......
(0)...-----

(0)- -

NA NA
(1) 14. 8
(0) ---
(2) 17.0
(3) 15.0
(1) 17.7


25 4

39. 2
45. 8
38.6
40. 7
47. 7
47.8


(10) 43 5


(6) 5.6 (59) 17.3


(0)........
(0) . . -
(3) 8.3
(2) 5 1
(1) 4.8
(2) 1.5


17.3
17.2
16.6
18.8
18.3
21.3


(8) 5.4 (49) 18.3


38.4
47.2
39. 8
31.0
35.9
33.6


(12) 37.9


16 9
17.1
18.5
15.4
16.5
16.4


(5)
\11)
(11)
(11)
(10)
(11)


(9)


(0)
(2) 8.9
(0) .....
(1) 7.3
(0).....
(0) ......


27.4
25.9
22.8
23.4
24.3
20. 1


(59) 23.6


(7)
(7)
(11)
(8)
(4)
(9)


17.6
17.0
13.3
15.7
11.8
13.2


Average ratings ----..........
Philadelphia Eagles
1972..........................
1973...........................
1974 ...........................
1975..........................
1976 ........---.-.-. .... -....
1977...........................
Average ratings...............-


(7) 15.9 (10) 17.0


NA NA
(3) 28.6
(2) 29. 7
(2) 26.3
(1) 26.2
(1) 25.0

(9) 27. 7


(1) 22 3
(1) 35.7
(2) 23.0
(2) 21.9
(3) 24.8
(2) 23.5
(11) 24 5


(3) 8.4 (46) 14.8

1) 8.3 (7) 22.9
(1) 6.7 (8) 24.4
(3) 4.6 (7) 18 2
(2) 6.8 (9) 17.6
(2) 5 4 (8) 208
(2) 4. 7 (9) 18.2


(11) 5.7


(48) 20.2


St. Louis Cardinals
1972 ......... .-................
1973 ..........................
1974 ... -.....................
1975 ......... .... ........
1976...........................
1977..........................
Average ratings..... .. ...

San Francisco Forty Niners:
1972.... .................
1973 ...........................
1974 .........................
1975 -.......... ..... ...
1976 .. .. ..... ... ........
1977..........................

Average ratings .............


NA
(0)_
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)


NA

32 2
29. 1
31.3
27.8


14.0
20.4
34.0
25 0
37.2
33.9


11.9
6.5
3.9
3.8
31
6.3


(6)
(10)
(9)
(9)
(10)
(11)


17 ,8
16 7
16.0
18.4
16.7
15.4


(6) 30 7 (11) 26.5 (11) 5,9 (55) 16.7

NA NA (1) 22.7 (1) 5.3 (7) 22.9
(0) ...... 31 22 7 (2) 13,9 (7) 21. 4
(0)........ (2) 19 6 (1) 10.0 (9) 16. Z
(0)....... (2) 15,9 (1) 8.3 (11) 20.5
(1) 26.2 1) 20 7 (0)........ (9) 22.0
(1) 39.7 (2) 16 7 (1) 24.8 (8) 24.2

(2) 18.0 (11) 19.6 (6) 127 (51) 21.1


See footnotes at end of table.





19


TABLE 4.-AUDIENCE RATINGS FOR NFL TEAMS 1972-77-Continued
NATIONAL CONFERENCE-Continued

Ratings for other games
Home games Away games Competing Noncompeting

Tampa Bay Buccaneers: 4
1976--------------..---------- (0) -..-... (3) 22.3 (2) 14.6 (10) 19.5
1977..------------------------ (0) ...---- (2) 25.2 (1) 8.5 (11) 18.7
Average rating ...---------------- (0) (5) 23.5 (3) 12.6 (21) 19.1
Washington Redskins:
1972...--------------------.. ---- NA NA (1) 18.7 (1) 11.0 (7) 18.7
1973.------------------------ (2) 34.1 (3) 44.0 (1) 4.3 (9) 22.8
1974..------------------------ (1) 45.3 (3) 38.3 (3) 3.8 (7) 19.6
1975-----------.................------------- (2) 44.4 (2) 38.6 (0) ...--------... (10) 16.7
1976-------.. ----.. ....--.----------- (1) 41.8 (3) 42.1 (1) 3.0 (10) 19.1
1977.------------------.. ------ (2) 42.4 (2) 38.8 (1) 3.3 (10) 20.5
Average ratings---....---..--------- (8) 41.1 (14) 39.1 (7) 4.7 (53) 19.5

CONFERENCE AVERAGE

Home team games Other games
Competing JN:ncompeting
Home rating Away rating rating rating

1972 ...--.------------------------------------------- 33.1 6.0 20.7
1973 ------.------- ----------------- 32.0 33.9 6.2 20.5
1974..-----.--- ----- ----------------- 35.4 31.1 6.1 17.7
1975 .....------------------------------ 33.7 29.7 6.2 18.7
1976--...--.--------- ----------------- 34.0 31.2 5.3 18.4
1977 ------------------------------ 34.3 31.8 5.2 19.3

LEAGUE TOTALSs

Home team games Other games
Home Away Competing Noncompeting
Number Rating Number Rating Number Rating Number Rating

1972......----------------------------------------- 39 33.9 30 6.0 187 20.4
1973......--------------------------- 30 30.5 55 30.9 53 8.1 232 20.5
1974......--------------------------- 26 35.5 F2 30.5 48 6.2 251 17.5
1975---.......------------------------ 25 31.4 53 30.0 42 5.5 258 18.4
1976 -- ------------------------- 34 35.9 53 31.1 40 6.7 276 18.6
1977......--------------------------- 25 34.4 57 30.8 42 5.5 282 18.7

1 Includes 1 simulcast game carried on CBS on Nov. 4,1973 with Oakland and San Francisco sharing average rating.
2 The Seahawks were in the NFC in 1976.
3 This game was opposite an Oakland TV game that had greater significance for the playoffs.
4 The Bucs were in the AFC in 1976.
5 Ratings were obtained from Arbitron's annual fall 4 week sweeps of TV markets with the following dates: 1972, Nov.
5-20; 1973, Oct. 24-Nov. 20; 1974, Oct. 24-Nov. 19; 1975, Oct. 29-Nov. 25; 1976, Nov. 7-29; 1977, Nov. 2-29.

The local team's televised games, both home and away, are much
more popular than the televised games of other teams. The data in
table 4 indicate that if viewers had a choice between watching a game
involving the home team or a game involving other teams and televised
at the same time, the viewers would, on the average, choose the home
team game by a 5 to 1 margin. Further, only about 19 percent of the
viewers choose to watch other NFL teams play when there is no home
team game available, as compared to about 34 percent who watch
the home games and about 31 percent who watch the home team play
away games. All of these figures provide evidence of strong viewer
preference for telecasts of games involving their home teams. The
additional games made available to those viewers who strongly prefer





20

them is the primary benefit of the provisions of Public Law 93-107
apiminst % hiirh ilhe, costs of the law should be compared.
Tlie NFL has .t.iN igeste vi, 1,owever, that locally televised home gamnies
will overexpose the sport and result in a lon.-rtz apithlv and dlis-
interest among thie fans. If that were the case, one would expect to see
1 .L'v'ind dviowlward trendI in television viewers for tlie league as a
whl, Tiv avail leb l ,t da ti do nt pro(vidte any e'vilien'tie of overexposure,
ait mt for the observed 6-year lperiodI (1972-77 ). Data in table 4 show
no diist'ernirble decline in the average percentage of homes in NFL
franchise markets viewing football g-ames. whether the game involves
lie honime team or not. Data in table 5, showing average national net-
work atildie 'ees, reflect no discernible downward trend in either the
proport ion of houselioldls or the number of households viewing football
L.am11'-. Thus, it is difficult to see, in these data, any basis for con-
(cldilg that Ihe NFL's argument of overexposure has merit.

TABLE 5.-NATIONAL TELEVISION AUDIENCES FOR PRESEASON NFL GAMES: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

ABC
Rating ..................................... 17.1 13.7 14.0 10.2 10.3 9.9
Total households (thousands)................ -------------- 10.620 8. 880 8.977 6,955 7, 302 7,137
Percent change..................................... -16.4 1.1 -22.5 5.0 -2. 3
CBS:
Rating. .. . . . . . . 12.8 18.2 11.2 12.0 10.2 9. 8
Total households (thousands)---.------------ 8,053 12, 020 7,410 8,287 7, 123 7,000
Percent change-..................................... 49.3 -38.4 11.8 -14.0 -1.8
NBC:
Rati'-i .. ....------------------- -- 12.2 13.2 12.4 11.9 12.7 13.1
Total households (thousands)...... ------.--- 7, 600 8.555 7, 893 8,223 8,877 9. 433
Percent change ..------------.-----------.. -------- 12.6 -7.7 4.2 8.0 6.2
All network:
Rating .................................. ------- --------- 13.2 15.3 12 5 11.5 11.0 10.9
Total households (thousands)----.......--..--------- 8,226 10.006 8, 093 7,930 7,721 7,785
Percent change....... .......................... 21.6 -19 1 -2.0 -2.6 0.8
American Football Confeience-NBC, 1st game
Ratn ................................... -------------------------------11.5 11.9 12.6 12.3 11.5 11.2
Total households (thousands) -...-----......---------. 7,456 7,901 8,646 8,620 8,191 8, 222
Percent change ..------...----------.........----------------.. 6.0 9.4 -0.3 -5.0 3.8
2d game of doubleheader
Rat ng .-.. ............................ ----------------------------17.3 15.3 16.4 17.1 16.9 17.4
Total households (thousands)................ -------------- 11,212 10. 097 11, 246 11,951 12,043 12.672
Percent change .....-..- --...-..-..-----------...-. -10.0 11.4 6.3 0.8 5.2
National Football Conference-CBS. 1st game:
Ratng. .e ............................... ---------------- 14.6 15.1 14.2 13.8 17.0 15.9
Total households (thousands)................ --------------- 9,480 10,014 9.746 8,916 12, 171 11,627
Percent change.........----------------.......-------.....--------- 5.6 -2.7 -8.5 36.5 -4.5
2d game of doubleheader:
Ratng ..-----------------.......................... 14.6 13.0 12.1 12.5 18.0 16.0
Total households (thousands)---------------................ 9, 410 8,590 8,256 8, 698 12, 879 11.670
Percent change .........---..--.........----------. -8.7 -3.8 5.4 48.1 -9.4
Monday Night Football-ABC:
Rating ................---...............----- 20.7 21.3 19.5 20.2 20.6 21.1
Total households (thousands)..........--------------.-.. 13,423 14, 015 13,320 14,080 14,668 15,466
Percent change .........------------.....-----.....--------------- 4.4 -5.0 5.7 4.2 5.4
AFC divs onal playoffs:
Rating ...............................----- 23.1 21.7 23.8 23.0 25.3 23.8
Total households (thousands) ............. --------------14,935 14,365 16.300 15,970 17 980 17,350
Percent change .........-------.-----..---.---..------------- -3.8 13.5 -2.0 12.6 -3.5
NFC divisional pla offs.
Rating ..........--------------------------- 22.5 22 7 22.7 23.1 25.8 27.5
Total households (thousands) ....-...-..- 14,550 15, 030 15,500 16,045 18 370 20.010
Percent change ................----- ...--------- 3 3 3.1 3.5 14.5 8.9
AFC championship:
Ratng ... ........................ 27.1 30.1 28.4 30.6 29.6 35.6
Total households (thousands) .--------------....... 17,560 19.930 19,450 21. 300 21,080 25.950
Percent change..........-------------.......----..-------------- 13.5 -2.4 9 5 -1.0 23.0
NFC championship:
Rating ......------------------------- 31.0 29.7 31.0 33.3 31.0 35.0
Total households (thousands) -.-- -------- 20,090 19,660 21,240 23,180 22.070 25.520
Percent change -----.....------------...---.------------2 1 .0 9.1 -4.8 15.6
Super Bowl.
Rating.. 41 6 42.7 42 4 42.3 44.4 47.2
Total households (thousands) ..............27,540 27,670 29,040 29,440 31,610 34,410
Percent change-----........... ....-------- 0.5 5.0 1.4 7.4 8.9







The audience for televised football tends to be very desirable for
certain kinds of advertisers and therefore has value to the NFL. The
most recent pro forma income statement of the NFL (appendix C)
indicates that the revenue generated by sale of broadcast rights to the
networks came to over $2.4 million per team, about 33 percent of total
revenue. The NFL has recently signed a new 4-year contract with the
networks to start in the 1978 season. That contract reportedly pro-
vides over $5.775 million per team, a 136-percent increase over the
reported 1975 level.20 It is not clear whether the audience from the
additional 85 local telecasts of home games had any bearing on the in-
creased revenues gained from television rights.2 However, it is clear
that the increased television revenues, negotiated by the NFL for its
member teams, is substantially above any financial losses that may
have occurred to date as a result of Public Law 93-107.
THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC LAW 93-107 ON MEMBER CLUBS OF THE
NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE
INTRODUCTION
Past analyses of the sports antiblackout law have generally con-
cluded that the legislation has not imposed substantial costs on the
National Football League as a whole. The Federal Communications
Commission's First Annual Report on Public Law 93-107 noted that
locally televised games have had a "minimal economic impact on the
26 member teams of the NFL in its first year of operation." The Com-
mission's Second Annual Report arrived at similar conclusions, noting
that local telecasts did not appear to appreciably affect live gate at-
tendance or concession sales for the league as a whole. However,
since individual teams may have been affected differently, a team-by-
team analysis was included in the Commission's Third and Fourth
Annual Report. Consequently, once again, a team-by-team analysis is
included in this report. Attendance, "no shows" and season ticket
sales data are provided for each team along with an analysis of same.
A complete discussion and results of the statistical analysis referred
to in the individual team writeups can be found in appendix A.
Television ratings information for each individual TV market where
an NFL franchise is located is included in the television audience
ratings overview section. The conclusion for each market is generally
the same: large numbers of TV viewers watch the local team and
prefer to view its games as opposed to televised games involving other
teams.
Atlanta Falcons
At first glance, it appears Atlanta "no shows" have been severely
affected by local telecasts of their home games. In 1973, with all 7
home games televised, "no shows" averaged 9,194, whereas a 5,787
"no show" average occurred in 1972 when the blackout was in effect.
Again, when all 7 games were televised in 1974, average "no shows"
jumped to 20,498. However, the tremendous increase in "no shows"
for 1974 corresponds with a Falcon downturn in quality of play from a
9-5 record in 1973 (second place) to 3-11 in 1974 (fourth place). During
20 Broadcasting Magazine. Nov. 14, 1977, page 5, reports a total 4-year league contract of .-646.S million.
Distributed over the 28 teams, the amount per team is $5.775 million per team per year.
21 No local home game telecasts were required at the time of the previous contract lcu0Lt alt io0s.




22

the next two seasons there were no televised games and the "no show"
figures, remainecI relatively ligih. But in 1977 "no shows" declined over-
all and tlhe "no shows" for tlie one televised game were less than one-
half thle average "no shows'" per nontelevisetil game for 1977. In fact,
''ino shows" for 1977, for the first time since 1972, averaged lower than
the league average, coincidtling with a Falcon return to the .500 mark.
These fact.-, imply that Falcon fans are sensitive to the quality of their
team's play anti umay explain why the TV variable in the statistical
analysis is not significant. Indeed, the statistical analysis shows home
team win percentage and standing, along with cold weather, as
significant factors associated with thle percentage of "no shows."
Season ticket sales also appear to be influencedl by team performance.
Tlile ear after the 1974 fourth place finish, s-eason ticket sales dropped
2S percent. However, -,ince all seven games were televised in 1974, fans
may lIave expected I gae[es, to be televised in 1975; in tils instance TV
na;y have alfT'cted se-ason ticket sales. A s li.lt improvement by the
Falcons, in 1975 may account for the slight increase in 1976 sales;
hlowevelr iltis infre,.1s niay alsu o reflect fli anticipation of continued
lhome-,am1ne blackouts in 1976. However, it appears that TV cannot be
ir-lM re-s,)onsible for tlIe decrease in 1977 sales, for no games were
televised in 1976.
SUMMARY OF ATLANTA FALCONS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capactj............................ 58, 950 58. 850 58 850 58.850 60.489 60,489
2. Total seats sold ..----- .....---.- .... 403.678 406.624 402. 393 343.977 341,396 367,038
Percent change from previous season-................ 0 7 -1.0 -14.5 -0.8 7.5
-3. Average seats sold per game ...-........ .. 57,668 58,089 57, 485 49. 140 48, 770 52.434
-4. Total 'no shoQ.s .......---..--.---- 40,506 64. 631 143,488 65. 244 85. 590 25. 208
Percent change from previous season..------------- 59 6 122 -54.5 31.2 -70.5
-5. Average 'no shows" per game............... 5.787 9. 194 20.498 9. 321 12.227 3.601
-6. Percentage of seats sold not showing........... 10.0 15.8 35.7 19.0 25.1 6.9
7. Number of televised games .. .. ..... 0 7 7 0 0 1
- 8. A erage "'no shows" per tele ised game..---- ...---.- 9,194 20.,498 .--..--.-...... 1,481
- 9 .Average "'no shows" per nontelevised game .. .. 5,787 .................... 9,321 12.227 3. 955
10. Season ticket sales ..- ..-------..-.-------------......... 49,872 53.037 53,278 38.426 40, 110 31 740
Percent change from previous season-..----..-----..- 6.3 0.5 -27.9 4.4 -20.9
11. Percentage of games won ........ 0.500 0.643 0.214 0.286 0.286 0.500
12. Divisional standing...........---.--- ...- 2 2 4 3 3 2

Baltimore ('ilt.
The Colts turned the corner rather dramatically in the 1975 season,
finishing, first and remaining in first the next two seasons, after poor
finishes in 1972, 197:), and1 1974. Thlis turnaround is reflected( in
increases of total seats sold as well as in additional season ticket sales.
In the last three seasons, more Colt games were sold out 72 hours in
advance, allowing one, two, and(l three games respectively, to be
televised. There had been no televise(l games in the 1973 or 1974
seasons. However, "no shows" did( increase in 1977 substantially dlue
to 18,500 fans not attending the final game, although the contest was
crucial to the Colts' playoff bid. This 18,500 figure accounts for almost
all of the increase in total "no shows" for the 1977 season. Since that
trame was televised, it caused the substantial difference between
"no shows" per TV game anti average "no shows" per nonteleviseul
game in 1977 shown in the table. The statistical analysis suggests that
atten(lance is significantly affected by temperature anti the Colts'
winning percentage rather than by televised home games.





23

Since season ticket sales increased in the last two seasons when
more home games were telecast, televised games do not appear to
have affected season ticket sales. Further, since the Colts' performance
also improved in the last two seasons, it appears that gate receipts
are directly related to team performance rather than to the effects of
local telecasts of home games.

SUMMARY OF BALTIMORE COLTS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity.------------------------- 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,00) 60,020 .,3, 320
2. Total seats sold ..----------------------- 392,320 375,572 -269,806 328,394 363.818 3.,, 16,0
Percent change from previous season..--------------- -4.3 -28.2 21.7 12.3 3.1
3. Average seats sold per game... --------------- 56,046 53,653 38,544 46,913 52,688 54 309
4. Total "no shows" ...--..---------37, 962 56,977 36,018 9,623 12,216 32, 068
Percent change from previous season--------- 53.7 -36.8 -73.3 26.9 162.5
5. Average "no shows" per game......-------------- 5,295 8,140 5,145 1,375 1,745 4,581
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing.....---------- 9.4 15.2 13.3 2.9 3.3 8.4
7. Number of televised games.----------- -------- 0 0 0 1 2 3
8. Average "no shows" per televised game. ----------------------- 1,141 1,491 7,358
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game.--.. 5,295 8,140 5,145 1,415 1,847 2,499
10. Season ticket sales-.. ----------48,315 47,233 32,593 27,377 35,606 36,010
Percent change from previous season ------2.2 -31 -16 30.1 1.1
11. Percentage of games won......-- --------0.357 0.285 0.143 0.714 0.786 0.714
12. Divisional standing.............------- 3 4 5 1 1 1


Buffalo Bills
Despite the team's move to a new stadium for the 1973 season,
increasing seating capacity from 45,748 to 80,000, Buffalo sold out and
televised 9 games during the 1973 through 1975 seasons when the Bills
had winning records. In contrast, no games were televised thereafter
as the Bills' record fell to 2-12 in 1976 and 3-11 in 1977. Not only
were "no shows" for televised games far below league averages for
1973-75 seasons, but the statistical analysis also reveals that TV
was not significant in predicting "no shows." However, temperature
and the Bills' division standing were significant in the "no show"
analysis. Poor play on the field in the 1976 and 1977 seasons accounted
for plummeting average seats sold per game but the "no show"
average was still below the league average.
Season ticket sales have declined in the last 3 years. Fans may have
expected more games to be televised in 1975 after the Bills attained
playoff status in 1974. In this respect televising home games may have
contributed to declining ticket sales. Since then, however, it would
appear poor play accounted for the continuing drop in sales.

SUMMARY OF BUFFALO BILLS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity----------- 45,748 180,000 80,020 80,193 80, F,. 020
2. Total seats sold -------------- 309,814 544,772 555,496 537,619 405 5.:' 3' h 418
Percent change from previous season-.------------ --75.8 2.0 -3.2 -_'4 6 -- 9
3. Average seats sold per game ---------44,259 77,825 79,357 76,803 57,95 93 8S
4. Total "no shows".... .... 8,310 17,964 12,047 27,137 24.3, 22, 1:.,
Percent change from previous season................ 116 -32.9 125.3 -1'. 4 -9.1
5. Average "no shows" per game------- --- 1,187 2,566 1,721 3,877 3, 47' 3,158
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing.......... 2.7 3.3 2.2 5.0 6.0 7.3
7. Number of televised games. ---- 0 3 4 2 0 0
8. Average "no shows" per televised game..--------- - 2,813 1,723 1,5'2 - ..--.-
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game -- 1,187 2,381 1,719 4,827 3,472 3, 158
10. Season ticket sales-...--. ----- 24,700 52,474 54, 182 43, 1S 33, S" 20,624
Percent change from previous season-........ .. 112.4 3.3 -20.3 -22.9 -38.1
11. Percentage of games won -------------- 0.321 0.643 0.643 0.571 0.143 0.214
12. Divisional standing.... ------------------------- 4 2 2 3 5 4


I Buffalo moved to a new larger stadium in 1973.








Chicago Bears
Chicago has sold out and locally televised 27 of 35 home games since
1973. After poor records in 1972-75, the Bears achieved a .500 win-loss
percentage in 1976 and made the playoffs in 1977 with a 9-5 record.
Although ('hicago sells out easily in a metropolitan area of over 7
million people, "no shows" over the years have been higher than the
league average. "No shows" where relatively high in 1973 and 1974
when 13 of 14 games were televised, but then dropped off in 1975 and
1976 when 7 of 14 games were televised; they reversed form again in
1977 by increasing about 32 percent with all 7 games televised. The
1977 "no show" average would have been substantially lower (ap-
proximately 26 percent) than the 9,288 average were it not for 23,802
ticket holders that did not show when Chicago hosted Green Bay in
extremely cold weather on December 11, even though Chicago was on
a winning streak that eventually culminated in a playoff berth. Indeed
the statistical analysis revealed attendance at the Bears' games is
sensitive to precipitation as well as temperature. Televising games
may have contributed to "no shows" in 1973 and 1974 but does not
appear to be significant in subsequent years since "no shows" averaged
more for nontelevised games than televised games.
Season ticket sales have fluctuated but have maintained a 47,000
bottom threshold in the 6 years analyzed. The 1976 season record of
7-7, after several poor seasons, probably accounts for the 5 percent
increase in season ticket sales in 1977.
It appears that Public Law 93-107 has probably negatively affected
attendance in 1973, 1974, and possibly 1977, but not in 1975 and 1976,
and has benefited those not able to attend the games by allowing the
izames to be televised.
SUMMARY OF CHICAGO BEARS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity ....- ..- ....-- .- ...-- .... 52, 500 52.,500 52,701 57, 455 57,359 57,359
2. Total seats sold........---------. -------.------ 385,906 385, 715 385,852 382,126 396,004 396, 397
Percent change from previous season................ -- -------- 0 0 -1.0 3.6 0.1
3. Average seats sold per game------...........------ 55,129 55,102 55,122 54, 589 56,572 56.628
4. Total "no shows"..........------ ---------------- 24,828 71,102 100,056 63,020 49.311 65.013
Percent change from previous season................ -- ------- 186.4 40.7 -37 -21.8 31.8
5. Average "no shows" per game................ 3,547 10.157 14,294 9,003 7,044 9.288
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing ........... 6.4 18.4 25.9 16 5 12.5 16.4
7. Number of televised games..-.. ........... ----------------- 0 7 6 2 5 7
8. Average "no sho,,s" per televised game................. 10. 157 15,498 7,245 6,027 9,288
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game..-. 3,547 .......... 7,068 9. 706 9,587 ..........
10. Season ticket sales....----------------------........ 49,124 48,996 51,525 47,070 47,116 49,.534
Percent change from previous season................ --------------- -0.3 5.2 -8 6 0.1 5. 1
11. Percentage of games won....--------------- 0.321 0.214 0 286 0.286 0.5 0. 643
12. Divisional standing........................-------------------------.. 4 4 4 3 2 2

Cincinnati Bengals
The Bengals have had relatively successful seasons, finishing first in
their division in 1973 and second in 1974 through 1977, resulting in
two playoff appearances. Cincinnati fans, however, may be becoming
increasingly complacent about that second place finish (always to
Pittsburgh); although average seats sold per game have remained
fairly constant, "no shows" per grame over time are increasing and are
high by league comparison. for televised home games, of which there
were 26 of the last 35, "no shows" exceeded the "no shows" for non-
televise(d games in three of the last five seasons. The statistical analysis,
however, implies that precipitation, temperature, and visiting team






25

winning percentage are significant in explaining "no shows," whereas
TV is not.
Season ticket sales have remained above 85 percent of stadium
capacity but have declined slightly each year since 1973. This sug-
gests televised home games may be contributing to the continuing
decline, but not enough to threaten the financial vitality of the fran-
chise. Apparently, televising home games has had some effect on the
Bengal organization, but the effect appears to be slight.
SUMMARY OF CINCINNATI BENGALS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity ..--------------------...--- 56,000 59,754 59,754 59,754 56,200 56,200
2. Total seats sold.. -----------------------403,616 407,500 404, 112 399,166 400,511 398,838
Percent change from previous season. --------------- 1.0 -0.8 -1.2 0.3 -0.4
3. Average seats sold per game..-------...-------- 57, 659 58,214 57,730 57,024 57,216 56,977
4. Total "no shows"..---------------------- 21, 789 26,059 41,084 44,669 43,067 82,602
Percent change from previous season.----.-----.------ 19.6 57.7 8.7 -3.6 91.8
5. Average "no shows" per game---.....----------- 3,113 3,723 5,869 6,381 6,152 11,800
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing........... 5.4 6.4 10.2 11.2 10.8 20.7
7. Number of televised games... ------------------. 0 6 7 5 5 3
8. Average "no shows" per televised game ..------....--------- 3,829 5,869 5,691 6,913 13,170
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game- -_ 3,113 3,085 ---------- 8,109 4,250 10,773
10. Season ticket sales--------------....----.---. 53,634 53,610 53,424 51,310 50,130 48,048
Percent change from previous season ---------------- 0 -0.3 -4.0 -2.3 -4.2
11. Percentage of games won....------------------ 0.571 0.714 0.500 0.786 0.714 0.571
12. Divisional standing ....--------..----------------- 3 1 2 2 2 2

Cleveland Browns
The Browns, after finishing second and making the playoffs in 1972,
could do no better than third in the central division in subsequent
years. Relatively poor seasons since 1973 account for only 6 of 35 home
games selling out in time to be televised. Having one of the larger
stadiums in the league may also have contributed to the low number
of sold out games Although the average "no show" percentage for the
Browns has been lower than the league average in 4 of the last 5 years,
there is no discernible pattern in "no shows" for either televised or
nontelevised games over the same five seasons. The statistical analysis
suggests that "no shows" are directly affected by temperature and
visiting team standing rather than by television.
Season ticket sales, after increasing in 1973 (following the Browns'
strong finish in 1972), have steadily declined since 1974. Again this
does not appear to be attributable to TV games as only 6 of 35 have
been televised over the past 5 seasons. Therefore, the provisions of
Public Law 93-107 may have affected the Cleveland franchise only
minimally, if at all.
SUMMARY OF CLEVELAND BROWNS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity. -------------79,282 79,282 79,282 80,165 80,165 79,891
2. Total seats sold ..-----------------505,247 520,903 464,760 406,679 486,384 495,916
Percent change from previous season ------ ----- 3.1 -10.8 -12.5 19.6 2.0
3. Average seats sold per game--------------- 72, 178 74,415 66,394 58,097 69,483 70,845
4. Total "no shows" ----------------------30,094 38,787 52,266 28,177 21,136 26,225
Percent change from previous season.-- -------------28.9 34.8 -46.1 -25 24. 1
5. Average "no shows" per game-.------------- 4,299 5,541 7,467 4,025 3,019 3,746
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing ----------- 6.0 7.4 11.2 6.9 4.3 5.3
7. Number of televised games--- ---------------- 0 2 1 1 1 1
8. Average "no shows" per televised game.--- ------------ 9,717 2,029 6,848 4,525 1,412
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game --. 4,299 3,871 8,373 3,555 2,769 4,136
10. Season ticket sales-- -------- 48,901 49,670 48,542 42,252 37,986 37,387
Percent change from previous season..---------------- 1.6 -2.3 -13 -10.1 -1.6
11. Percentage of games won ------------------ 0.714 0.571 0.286 0.214 0.643 0.429
12. Divisional standing... ------------------------- 2 3 4 4 3 4






26

Dallas Cowboys
I)allas has. been one of the more consistent teams in the league,
making the plavotffs every year since 1972, except in 1974 when the
('owho.s' record was S-ti, their worst over the t6-year period (1972-77).
Indeed, 1no i..anwes were sold out in 1974. indicating that Dallas fans
are infllut-tnced 1by successful play. (O)n thle other hand, in 1976 and 1977,
when Dallas finished first, five of seven games were sold out and tele-
vised each year. 'The "no show" average for locally televised games is
much hihier thlan average "no shows%" for nontelevised games in each
of the last 5 years, indicating that TV is a si .nificant factor in keeping
fans home. The statistical analysis shows that attendance is influenced
by Cowbl)oy winning percentage and visiting team standing as well as
ITV. Average seats sold per game has increased each year since 1974
and average "no shows" per game has been consistently lower than
the league average each year, suggesting that Dallas' attendance is
healthy in spite of televised home games.
Season ticket sales seem to coincide with team performance, although
TV also appears to he significant as a determinant of season ticket
sales. The fact that three home games were televised in 1973 may have
led some fans to believe more games would be televised in 1974, espe-
cially in view of Dallas' first-place finish in 1973. Such was not the case:
No games were televised in 1974. After the 1975 season the Cowboys
returned to form and season ticket sales increased in 1976 and again
in 1977 although five of seven games were televised in 1976. All of this
implies team performance is a more important influence than televised
home games. Therefore, although local telecasts of home games may
increase "no shows" somewhat and may influence fans' (decisions to
purchase season tickets, it appears doubtful that the provisions of
Public Law 93-107 have seriously hurt the Cowboy organization.
SUMMARY OF DALLAS COWBOYS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity-----------.............-..--.-..--..------- 65,000 65,000 65,111 65, 101 65,101 65,101
2. Total seats sold............................. --------------------------NA 424,030 384,785 404,627 433,206 435,413
Percent change from previous season.......................... -----------------------9.3 5.2 7.1 0.5
3. Average seats sold per game----------------................. NA 60,576 54,969 57,804 61,886 62,202
4. Total "no shows"............--....- ...- NA 28.309 19,855 11,661 32 518 14 105
Percent change from previous season.......................... -29.9 -41.3 178.9 6.
5. Average "no shows" per game...-----------.. NA 4,044 2,836 1,666 4,645 2,015
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing.......... ---------- NA 6.7 5.2 2.9 7.5 3.2
7. Number of televised games....--..---------- 0 3 0 1 5 5
8. Average "no shows" per televised game................. 5,614 ----.-- 3,361 6,063 2,256
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game-... NA 2,867 2, 836 1,383 1,100 1,412
10. Season ticket sales.......................... ----------------------35,256 36,053 32,.297 29,000 36,814 39,039
Percent change from previous season............... 2.3 -10.4 -10.2 26.9 6.0
11. Percentage of games won ..................------------------ 0.714 0.714 0.571 0.714 0.786 0.857
12. Divisional standing.......................... 2 1 3 2 1 I

Denver Broncos
Finishing second in their division but out of playoff contention from
1973-76 did not seem to dam pen Broncos fans' enthusiasm as all
games have been sold out and televised. These sellouts occurred despite
increasing seating capacity (by 20 percent in 1976 and again in 1977
by another 18 percent). Bronco fans were rewarded in 1977 with a
phenomenal 12-2 season, finishing ahlea(l of Oakland for the first time,
and by a playoff performance which culminated in a trip to Super
Bowl XII. Denver has consistently had fewer "no shows" per game







than the league average and in 1977 had thle lowest of all the teams in
the NFL with an average of 144 ticketholders not showing. Thus, it
seems as though television hlias had little if any effect on attendance.
The statistical analysis reveals temperature and( precipitation as being
consistently significant in predicting "no shows," although again this
figure is very small by league comparison.
Denver has consistently sold in excess of 90 percent of stadium
capacity as season tickets in spite of the increase in capacity the last
2 years. Given the popularity of Bronco football, it is reasonable to
say that the local telecasts of home games has not affected the Denver
franchise and has benefited those fans who could not attend the games.
SUMMARY OF DENVER BRONCOS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity ------------. .----------- 50,000 50,000 51,70S 52,702 63,500 75,087
2. Total seats sold---....-..--..-------------...----.. 355,693 356,364 356,494 363,525 438,704 519,603
Percent change from previous season................ ---------------- 0.2 0 2.0 20.7 18.4
3. Average seats sold per game--------------- 50,813 50,909 50,928 51,932 62,672 74,229
I. Total "no shows" -...--..--..-. ---.. ---. 12,150 5,615 14,420 27,682 8,939 1,077
Percent change from previous season -------------- -53. 8 156.8 92.0 -67.7 -88.0
5. Average "no shows" per game --..---..---------.. 1,736 802 2,060 3,955 1,277 144
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing..... ---------- 3.4 1.6 4.0 7.6 2.0 0.2
7. Number of televised games. ------------------- 0 7 7 7 7 7
8. Average "no shows" per televised game-----------------................. 802 2,060 3,955 1,277 144
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game --. 1,736 --------------- ---.. ------ ---.... --------
10. Season ticket sales.---..--.- ---------------- 48,000 48,000 49,000 49,000 61,287 73,089
Percent change from previous season. ---------------- 0 2.1 0 25.1 19.3
11. Percentage of games won.................... ------------------ 0.357 0.571 0.536 0.429 0.643 0.857
12. Divisional standing.---...-------..--------------- 3 2 2 2 2 1

Detroit Lions
Detroit has finished second in the central division in 4 of the last 6
years and third the other 2 years. Relatively consistent play (hovering
around the .500 mark) for those six seasons helps explain the consistent
average "no shows" per game from 1974 through 1977. 1975 marked
the year the Lions moved to a new, larger, domed stadium in Pontiac,
Mich., which had 54 percent more total seats. The novelty of the new
stadium as well as its larger capacity probably account for the 56
percent increase in total seats so(l for the 1975 season, as compared to
1974. Even with the larger stadium capacity and no apparent improve-
ment in team performance, the Lions managed to sellout and televise
three home games in 1975 after having no televised contests in 1974.
In 1976 only one game was sold out and televised, followed by one
televised game in 1977 with interconference rivals. The percent of "no
shows" has been lower than the league average for the past four
seasons, with no discernible pattern regarding televised games versus
nontelevised games.
Televised home games may be significant in affecting season ticket
sales. In 1974 and 1976, after three games were televised each p)rece(ding
season, season ticket sales declined 12 percent and( 9 percent resp)ec-
tively. After each of two seasons of no televised games, se,:,on ticket
sales went up 2 percent and 25 percent in 1973 and 1975 resp)ectivelv
(the latter figure probably enhanced by the move to the new stadiumi.
In this respect, local telecasts of home games may have influenced
season ticket sales. Ilowever, there is not a defihntlive relationship )
between the two beatve 1)77 season ticket sales were down 11 percent
following a 1976 season with only one televised game. A thiri d place
finish in 1976 and the waning novelty of a new facility may account
for the drop.
35-9S9-78---1







SUMMARY OF DETROIT LIONS ATTENDANCE DATA


1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Slaj urn capacity ............................. 51.082 52?.418 52.418 80. 638 80.638 80. 638
2. Total seats sold ....... ............... 374 053 372 75 344,977 53( (*2 500. ,74 479 .9W9
Peicent change from p'eious seasn ........... 0 4 -7.4 55 6 -6 7 -4 1
3 A eraie seats sol pe ame ........... .. 53 43f 53 239 49 282 7A f(,6 71.525 68. 567
4. Total no shoAs ...... ..... .......... 21 895 50 102 32 289 34 776 29.901 31. 183
Perce-it ch3l:(e from precious season .............. l28 8 -185 6 7.7 14 4 3
5 Average -n- sho*s per game............... -- 3 177 7,157 4. F,13 4,968 4.272 4.455
6. Percerntaie of seats sold not shotini ......... 5.9 13 4 9.4 b. 5 6.0 6 5
7. Number nf telesed games ..- ................. 0 3 0 3 1 1
8. A.era(e "no sho.s per telev sed game .............. 6. 1h9 .......... f, 424 2 596% 2.0(.
9 Aheraie no sho w per nontele.sed jame... 3 177 7,899 4 F13 3. 876 4.984 4.853
10. Season tcet sales . ....... .. ....... 44. 742 45 5V0 40 019 50 000 45. 307 40. 320
Percent Chanre from previous season -............... 1.8 -12 2 24 9 -9 4 -11 0
11. Percent.aie -jif a.mes *on.................... -------------------- 0 607 0. 44 0 500 0.500 0.429 0 429
12. Divsional stanj nj ------------------------- 2 2 2 2 3 3

I The Lions moved into the new Pontiac Metropolitan Stadium in 1975.

G--- Bn/)1y PIacker.r
Green Bay lias -olhl out and televiseol all 35 home niimes since 1971.
in .-Tite of tl1t, Packecrs falling, from fir',t pIl,'e in 1972 to thlir I p)laci
in 1973 and 191741 and finally to fo irtil place illereafter. "No show\\"
tt IP'.cker ramss are consistently bll wl ,,e lilU1 v('r1eS(.2s e10ch year
\ ithi tlie ec.'\Cptions of ain's pli.ved at Gieern Bliy in 1975 (the Packers
split home galle-, 4-3 Ib'tweein sta(liiiuis ait G'''reen Bay anin1 N.Iilwatkee
rej-lpvctivuly) and tile ,'a iles aUt MIilwauke in 1977. Thei latter could,
N, explaitel by (14 l)4t' pl.it of total NI il\\waiikee "ino shows" for the
sea..(sOI o''ccurriri, at thlie la-t rame of the s-eason l)etwee1 two non-
(onti t enters. The st atitic'l aiti ly.-i., would blame the cold temperatures
for the albberat lions in 1975 and 1977 as lemlpertiure was tlhe variable
witli the most significance. TV appeared to be insignificant in the
same analysis.
NothIing seems to deter season ticket sales as 96 percent of Green
Bay's stallium capacity ilas been accounted for by season tickets
everW yearl' siice 1972 and N1 ilwaukee lhias also consistently sold 90)
percent or better of its stadium capacity as season tickets since 1972.
These figures could be influenced by the fact consumers are mnorle
willimr to purchase a three or four ticket package dependingg on which
city) at a lower price than they would a full seven game package.
In any case, the local telecasts (do not appear to have hIarmed season
ticket sales and may only have affected "no shows" marginally.


1972 77






29


SUMMARY OF GREEN BAY PACKERS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77


1974 1975


1976 1977


1. Stadium capacity:
At Green Bay----- ------- 56,263
At Milwaukee -----.---------------- 47,826
2. Total seats sold:
AtGreen Bay -------------.. ------- 220,861 2
Percent change from previous season .--_-_-_---
At Milwaukee- --------------. 140,441 1
Percent change from previous season-.--------
3. Average seats sold per game:
AtGreen Bay ----------------------55,215
At Milwaukee.----------------------- 46,814
4. Total "no shows":
At Green Bay 6,103
Percent change from previous season -. -.......
At Milwaukee------.-. . ... 2,074
Percent change from previous season ---------
5. Average "no shows" per game:
At Green Bay 1,526
At Milwaukee------------- ------ 691
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing:
AtGreen Bay...------------. ---. 2.8
At Milwaukee-. . ..- -- - 1.5
7. Number of televised games ---. --- 0
8. Average "no shows" per televised game:
At Green Bay---------- - - - - - - -
At Milwaukee ...-----------------------------------
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game:
AtGreen Bay....-----------. 1,526
At Milwaukee------------------------ 691 --
10. Season ticket sales:
At Green Bay-..--------------------- 54,155
Percent change from previous season--- --
At Milwaukee . .- 46,699
Percent change from previous season---------
11. Percentage of games won.------------------ 0.714
12. Divisional standing------------------------- 1


56,263 56,267 56,267 56,267 56,267
47,826 47,826 52,607 55,896 55,896


20,668
-0.1
40,658
02


220,623
0
139,389
-0.9


220,506
-0.1
153,904
10.4


220,950
0.2
164,089
6.6


55,267 55,156 55,127 55,237
46,886 46,463 52,301 54,696


9,375
53.6
3,239
56.2


12,190
30
4,369
34.9


27,633
126.7
4,328
-0.9


3,481
-87.4
6,755
56.1


2,344 3,048 6,908 870
1,080 1,456 1,443 2,252
4.2 5.5 12.5 1.6
2.3 3.1 2.8 4.1
7 7 7 7


2,344 3,048 6,908
1,080 1,456 1,443


54,129
0
46,694
0
0.429
3


54,144
0
45,374
-2.8
0.429
3


54, 200
0.1
47,748
5.2
0.286
4


870
2,252


54,241
0.1
52,900
10.8
0.357
4


219,653
-0.6
162,364
-1.1
54,913
54,121
12,800
267.7
14,759
118.5
3,200
4,920


3,200
4,920


54,160
-0.1
52,322
-1.1
0.286
4


1 The Packers play three regular season home games at Milwaukee.
Houston Oilers
Total seats sold for the Oilers generally fluctuate with team per-
formance. In 1975, when the Oilers were making a strong bid for the
playoffs, seats sold were up 28 percent over the previous year. Surpris-
ingly, a 10-4 record earned them only a third place finish in a four
team division. The following year, the Oilers slipped to a 5-9 record
and total seats sold were down slightly. In 1977, total seats sold
increased again by 3 percent, coinciding with an improved(l 8-6 record
and a second place finish. "No shows" follow a similar pattern:
Decreases when Oilers were playing well and increases when they
played poorly. "No shows" at televised home games (6 of 35) were
generally lower than "no shows" at nontelevised games with the lone
exception of the only televised game in 1977 when "no shows" excee(iedl
average "no shows" for nontelevised games by about 1,150. The
statistical analysis shows that Oiler fan attendance is apparently
sensitive to cold temperature (undoubtedly attributed to travel
rather than to actually being at the game as the stadium is domed([
and climate controlled) and Oiler winning precentnage, but not to TV.
Season ticket sales are also sensitive to Oiler performance. The
season after an improved winning percentage produced an incirmse
in season ticket sales. A decline in winning l)percenitae p)ro(lduce' I a
decrease in season ticket sales for the following venir. Given the few
number of home games that were televised, it is doubtfull that the
telecasts have seriously affected the Houston franchise.


1972


1973








NLIV'MARY OF HUUbLISTO' OIL iS' AT '.D.-V.': DATA: 1972 77

1972 19:" 1974 1975 1976 1977

1-. 'L .1; i C00 1) ) 10 l 0.) 55. 5'' 4 50. coo 50. 000
S .6 sea .I'Jl .t i .,: i" 19 j,b. "b7 3 :-. 79 333.373
i', *' i", l from i .in.s ... ..31O t -,5 4 ..' 7 8 3 0.8 3 0
A ..... ... .... 36. 46 bA 46. ?48 47 6,5
.. hM3 . .. .. ....... t 989 5 9 6 5; 541 26. 76
i'.. .T 37.,',. 1m i, .,u' s son j79 7.7 -722 9 111 9 -39 7
5 A ... ., r sh ws [ir .i .rr 5, 2.3-1 7, .'.') 3, j0. .' 9 3 6 220 3. 754
6. ,"' ', at d no > F.",.,.. ...... 13 4 9 5 1055 t 3 13 4 7, 9
7. ',..,r ,' f i.e e. ed ,r'. 0 0 1 2 2 1
f. a.- .- '* shows r .' televised I am,.. 3. 05 2. 257 4. 28d 4. 714
S. ,' ..It' shows rs i Intee se ,ame b. .,;8 7, :'5 3,936 3 '2u7 6.993 3. 594
1l .*, r.et s .es. .. ...... .. 7 2b, U. L'5 435 26 179 3. i3) 29, 607
.;'." i;e om tI r us season .. ... ... ...... 4 -19 4 7. 1 22 8 -7 9
11 F'I .I,:. (f ...* '. WOn .....- .... ,, 1 071 0 500 0. 71 0 357 0 571
'. . s,., .. .4 4 3 3 4 2

KIti-a f ; fy Oc'f, fK

'I'ie (1 ie's' i i-rortune.s om the -,liivi iu fi,,li Iare rellc'ted in tlir
ntt,,ti~l~tn'.(T lirii'-.. 'l'lir'1 lm;>s tx'cn a decline in ilie ('iief's' qualitY
of playt since 1972 a1ml total ,(':its sold 11i. i dropped ,'Cll year. KantSIsIS
('it, aivelIIred 10 or, "'110 "11o\w-" p)er z I I iI,, than tlie lIItIe...II atverlte,
wit h lithe exception of ithe 1975 season iII which lin ii nt Cit*y itinac'ount-
:I)ly d ver.iV C .d only 3,,S(1 "no sli \\." versus 5,328; for tlie lea(iie
1v-r:i,_eL. In 1973, -ix of seven ganies were sold out and tele'ise(d ut
averi',,il only 9,100 "no shows," compared to the 89,200 that did not
.,low for the nontelvV-i.t'd home finale. In no other season since 1973
did K..ins..s (City sellout or televise a home ga tme. TIlese facts explain
wIIv the TV variable did not show up) as significant in tilhe statistical
a2n y.iV-. Temper'iture was the only variable that was significant in
accountMing for "no slowss"
S,,t..,n ticket hles liave also exp)eriine(d a decline that parallels
the (Ci'iefs' play on the field, \\witli the 11rget perIentage (irop s occur-
ring in 1975 and 1977. TIhese re(ductions in sales likely are not at tributa-
l)e to TV wts 110o ",lllis were televised in either 1974 or 19761, after
which .eas-on ticket purejlnases in 1975 and 1977 would have b)een most
influenced. Public Law 93-107 apparently is not a factor in declinintr
s(,i>on t i.ket s:l(,s, altholughl it may liave had a iniiimal effect oil
"no tl()-.hows" in 1973.

SUMMARY OF KANSAS CITY CHIEFS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stan.um capac't 1. 77,472 77,472 78.000 78,099 78,000 78,198
2. Total seats ,olri ... .. ....... 546, 124 538.891 515,438 442.663 415, 020 397,212
Percent chairing from previous season ...... ... -1.3 -4.4 -14.1 -6.2 -4. 3
3. Avera-e seats sold per ,ame.. 78,017 76,984 73.634 63, 2Z38 59.288 56, 745
4. Total "no shows ea--- ...---. 68,363 93,910 109.940 27, 166 45.681 49.305
Percent change from previous season- ....--.. 37.4 17.1 -75.3 68.2 7.9
5. Average "no shows" per game ....... 9.766 13.416 15.706 3,881 6.526 7,044
6. Per eniaRp of seats sold not showing ... 12.5 17.4 21.3 6.1 11.0 12.4
7. fu.ihger of televised games 0 6 0 0 0 0
8. A eia,.e ''",io shows' per televised ame .. .... .. 9,099 .. .. ..--..... ....... .......
9. A.c rae "no shows" per nontelevised pame 9.761 39, 314 15,706 3. 881 f. 526 7.044
10. SeaULn ticket sales 72, 85 70,555 65 564 17, 370 45.251 40. 500
Perc'.it ;d'n;e from p[Ievious season -3.2 -7.1 --27.0 -5.5 -10.5
11. Pp. centaR of games won .. ......-----. 0.571 0.571 0.357 0.357 0.357 0.143
12, [ visional sla dii, ...... .. .. ... 2 2 3 3 4 S






Los Angeles Rams
The Rams have finished first in their division every year siluce their
third place finish in 1972. Despite this success, the Rams rarely sellout
in time to televise a contest; only 4 of 35 games have been Sol(d out,
2 of them in 1977. One reason for this is that the 91,000 plus seating
capacity of the Los Angeles Coliseum from 1974 to 1976, wa.s the
largest in the league. Only two games were sold out and televised
prior to the reduction in seating capacity to 71,432 for the 1977 se.,eon.
Apparently Ram ticketholders are either very sensitive to the TV -ictor
or to undesirable seats since "no shows" for TV games were siibstan-
tially higher (300 percent) for the two early TV games in the larger
stadium and about 10 percent higher for the two 1977 TV games than
for nontelevised games. The statistical analysis shows that TV is the
most significant factor in predicting "no shows." Judging from the
1977 experience for televised game "no shows," both televised and
nontelevised game "no shows" now appear to be approaching the
league average. Sellouts could be more frequent considering the reduc-
tion in seating capacity, especially if the Rams continue to win their
division. Therefore, local telecasts in the future could affect "no shows"
at individual games. But with only four observations of home-tele-
vised games, as of 1977, it is difficult to assess the possible impact of
the telecasts.
Season ticket sales have hovered around the 46,000 mark since 1973
and with only two televised home games prior to 1977, it is not likely
that televised home games have affected season ticket sales sigonifi-
cantly. It is possible that fans could have anticipated more televised
sellouts in view of the reduced capacity for the 1977 season which
resulted in a 5.7-percent decline in season ticket sales.

SUMMARY OF LOS ANGELES RAMS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity--------------------- 76,000 79,281 92,000 91,038 91,038 71,432
2. Total seats sold------------- ----------- 473,914 510,923 501,744 470,867 476,981 402, 2'0
Percent change from previous season---------------- 7.8 -1.8 -6.2 1.3 -15.7
3. Average seats sold per game--------------- 67, 702 72,989 71,679 67,267 68,140 57,463
4. Total "no shows" ----------- 31,397 18,547 34,159 54,441 65,618 40,935
Percent change from pre ious season----- ---- -41.2 E5 1 59.4 20.5 -37.6
5. Average "no shows" per game- ------ 4,485 2,637 4,880 7,777 9,374 5,848
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing ----------- 6.6 3.6 6.8 11.6 13.8 10.2
7. Number of televised games-----_ ------- 0 0 0 1 1 2
8. Average "no shows" per televised game---- ------ --------21,649 26, 340 6, 95
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game--- 4,485 2,637 4,880 5, 465 6, -.6 5,669
10. Season ticket sales- --- --.-- ----- 50,037 45,917 46,251 47,413 48, 2-5 45,500
Percent change from previous season. -------- -8.2 0.7 2.5 1.7 -5.7
11. Percentage of games won ---------- 0.464 0.857 0.714 0.857 0.750 0.714
12. Divisional standing ------------------------- 3 1 1 1 1 1

Miam i Dolphins
Miami has sold out and televised 11 of 35 home games since 1973.
Seven of the eleven were in 1973, the year after the Dolphins' pheno-
menal 17-0 record through the Super Bowl; 1973 also pro(dtu(ced( a
Super Bowl winner with an outstanding 12-2 regular -ea;on record. In
1974 MIiami was againii a division winner, and had three televised
sellouts, but the Dolphins were eliminated in the first game of the
playoffs. Miami finished second in 1975 and did not make the play-
offs despite a 10-4 record. No games were televised in 1975 or in 1976
when the Dolphins slipped to a 6-8 record. Miami improved to a 10-4




32

r,.,,rl in 1977 and hadI one ,oldI out and televised irame. All of the
te!,Vi.-.l ia, had Illir "Io s]how1'" a\veries tl"an noiintelevised
.*asilt'.s in t1leir nrwepective yveears. Indeed I, it would appear from past
l ata that Ml .amn1 iius letnll onIe (if thhe tle niost severelv affected teams
inl tile "41o ',," citeitorv1 ad11 ouhl eNxpe1)ritice .sinilar tiLres in the
future riven l ollphin fan'l app i rent sensitivityv to a number of factors.
'The ne tt'levi-ed sellout ill 1977, however, iili'tites thie severity of
tile TV factor as "11no siow,.' ,xeei Iev t tlie iiont'levisedi "no slow"
+i\'cbyL:e 1 only 1.2,s7. Tll, ,,tatii.tical analysis shows the TV variable
to )t. vi'ry s-niifica'lit iln c.xllninln il "no sliow\.,." 'TI lj)prature and(
V,-:til,, tein X% liiuinLr ''centiren alo are .-ijnifirajllt in tlhe analysis.
Ill MN l in i's I a.se, Public I.i\\ 9:--107 niny very well have hiad a dletri-
ni1ital (vifef't bv i1ncfewi11.i "lno .itlows" for televised lniuies ts comIpared
to l l(vis'd LJins.
Sci-oin ticket :=ll's do not ippelwlir to lian've sci a definitive relation-
-i*ip to tlie number of teler'I., of liome 4,_n1,4's. Sidles ldeclinedl after
t'os1 in which h 2il i were t(levi.-ed a11141 aftc'r selsonls with no
I levis'd L.'i1lne-. NSld,. went down in all ci1-,,ce when tile winning per-
ci'nt i ,.' declliled from Illie previous se1C-on, inldicatinn. season ticket
s.l1'..-- are se!1itive to tciin i )ciforniance ratier t llin to televised games.
SUMMARY OF MIAMI DOLPHINS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity ..----------------....---------. 75.385 80,.050 80. 050 80,050 045 75.449
2. Total seats sold....---.-. .......... ------ 544, 162 551. 000 537, 418 487,758 404, 356 369,218
Percent ,,' ire from previous season..------------ 1.3 -2.5 -9.2 -17.1 -8.7
3. Average seats sold per tame .. -----.--- 77, 737 78,714 76,774 63.680 57,765 52.745
4. Tcial ,o shows". .......................... 20,567 117,611 88,131 41,414 53.041 37.701
Percent change from previous season...---------------- 471.8 -25. 1 -53 28.1 -28.9
5. 'A.f;ae 'no shows" per game ... .. 2,938 16.802 12, 590 5,916 7,577 5.,386
6. Pe-.,.ntage of seats sold not sho ing.......... ---------- 3.8 21.3 16.4 8.5 13.1 10.2
7. i umber of televised games-.----..------------- 0 7 3 0 0 1
8. A e:a.e no s.1cws" per televised game .. 16,802 16,742 -------------------- 6,489
9. Averae "no shows" per nontelevised game -..-- 2,938 .. -. 9,476 5.916 7,577 5,202
10. Season ticket sales........---- ---. --. 69. 303 74, 961 67,322 50.000 44,494 34,838
PLrcent change from previous season..-------------. 8.2 -10.2 -25 7 -11 -21.7
11. Percpnetae of Rames won ---- ------ 1.000 0.857 0.786 0.714 0.429 0.714
12. D so'unal stanJing-------.........------------------- 1 1 1 2 3 2

Mtii ft .*sria I T'k nq After tfi1i'sin,- third in 1972, the Vikings have won their division
eaich year. '1'ot al seats -old live rerniained constait over the 6 years
obh-''rved, 1972 to 1977. "No shows' per garne have remained con-
sistently lower than tile lea;_iue avern re dev pite tlie fact that 33 of 35
L1i inc lhave beten televised Iin(ce 1973. The two W(_ames not televised in
Z1974 produced an tuveraLre of 930 "no slioxws" as co[i)111lhed to a 1,218
"no -1,ow" avcrai..e for 5 televisedt. ities tliat year. This fact, accounts
for thlie TV vrialble sl-lwiI,_r up 21s -iLnificant inl tlie statistical analysis
adtholflh temli)ertiture 1ii1d plJei')ltiion are also significant. Since
l"no -hlows" lre hi.ghler in evch of the last 3 years tian in 1972, tlhe
ye, r' the bl;ckout provisiol wns in effect, TV seems to have marginally
,flected live ratee attendiince. 'loweveril, as lon. ,s tlhe Vikings con-
tiaue to play ~wll, thliere is no reason to believe flthat televising home
-iriis will lbe harmful to the franchise.
In addition, sa25son ticket sales (10o not appear to be affected by
televised I;ziines. Fluctuations ili sales between tlie years average less
thin 1 percent altlioili nea'lv ni all gaies have l)een televised There-
foi-,, it appears Public Law 93-107 lias not affected season ticket
salv-.







SUMMARY OF MINNESOTA VIKINGS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77


1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity...------------.----------- 47,693 47,693 48,503 48,446 48,446 48,446
2. Total seats sold.--- --------329,037 331,898 332,503 333,802 333,380 333,634
Percent change from previous season..-------------- 0.9 0.2 0.4 -0.1 0.1
3. Average seats sold per game------.......--------- 47,005 47,414 47,500 47,686 47,626 47,662
4. Total "no shows"--- -...-----------10,393 8,293 7,949 15,786 13,377 17. 551
Percent change from previous season ....---...--. -- -20.2 -4.1 98.6 -15.3 31.2
5. Average "no shows" per game---.....----------- 1,485 1,185 1,136 2,255 1,911 2,507
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing---------- 3.2 2.5 2.4 4.7 4.0 5.3
7. Number of televised games .------------------ 0 7 5 7 7 7
8. Average "no shows" per televised game --------------- 1,185 1,218 2,255 1,911 2,507
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game---- 1,485 ..-- -... 930
10. Season ticket sales.....--- ----------- 41,984 41,500 41,500 41,500 40,831 40,987
Percent change from previous season.-------------- -1.2 0 0 -1.6 0.4
11. Percentage of games won ------------------ 0.500 0.857 0.714 0.857 0.821 0.643
12. Divisional standing.----- -------------------- 3 1 1 1 1 1

New England Patriots
The Patriots have sold out and televised 14 of '35 games since 1973;
5 of those 14 occurred in 1974, when it appeared the Patriots were
playoff contenders by winning 6 of their first 7 games. They lost six
of the next seven games and finished the season at the .500 mark.
The two games televised in 1973 and the five in 1974 had a greater
"no show" average than nontelevised games for those same years. The
seven televised games since 1975 averaged fewer "no shows" than non-
televised games. Results for the analysis of the complete 6-year period
1972 through 1977, were therefore mixed. The TV factor apparently
affected "no shows" prior to 1975 but not thereafter. The statistical
analysis shows TV as insignificant in predicting "no shows" but pre-
cipitation and Patriot winning percentage (lid emerge as significant.
TV may have affected "no shows" when it rained or snowed; however,
this compounding effect was not isolated in this analysis. In any case,
Patriot "no shows" were lower than the league average each year and
appear only marginally influenced by the provisions of Public Law
93-107.
Season ticket sales on the other hand, do not appear to be affected
at all by televising home games. If they were, sales likely would have
gone down after the year with the most televised games (1974). Sales
actually increased in 1975 by 6 percent as a result of the Patriots'
better play in 1974 and the promise of a better season in 1975. As it
turned out, however, only a 3-11 record was tallied in 1975, after the
7-7 finish in 1974. The result was a 33 percent decline in season ticket
sales in 1976. In 1976 the Patriots had their be-t finish in the 6-year
period, 11-3. Once again, season ticket sales increased (38 percent) for
1977. Therefore, season ticket sales appear to be dependent on the
quality of Patriot play and appear not to be adversely affected by the
televising of home games.





:34

SUMMARY OF N[W ENGLAND PATRIOTS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77


1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stad urn capacy.......................... 61.043 61,279 61. 279 61, 279 61,279 61, 279
2. Total seats sold .. .. 421,243 403, 922 415, 157 404,47 364,027 408.725
Percent change from evous season .............. -4. 1 ? 8 -2 5 -10.1 12.3
3. Average seats solid per game 6.......... 0. 178 57, 703 59. '03 57, 8-5 52. 004 58. 389
4. Total noshows'. ........................ 19 358 6 232 2M 396 13.892 1,601 10.521
Percent change from prew.ous season ............... -67.8 355 6 -51 I -88 .5 557.2
5. Average no sho*," per game ........ 2. 765 890 4,057 1,985 228 1,503
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing ......... 4.6 1.5 6.8 3.4 0.4 2.6
7. Number of tele.sel games 0 2 5 2 2 3
8. Average "no shjs per telev sed game, -- -....... 2,183 4,2241 526 167 476
9. Average no shows' per nontelevised ame.... 2. 765 3/3 3,590 ?, 568 254 2,273
10. Seasonri ticket sales........................ 55,007 47,938 44.319 46.967 31,.381 43. 402
Percent change from previous season........-...... -12 9 -7.5 6 0 -33 2 38 3
11. Percentage of pames won.................... 0 214 0.3571 0.500 0.214 0 786 0.643
12. Uvsioial stand.ng ..................... 5 3 3 5 2 3


,\ A "I Or/ -It an .1 S i n /,
\\Witli oil( of the ]larrei s1 (diiiis in t1 le1p _rlie, ti(1 wiilio lt it wiN-
11I111 season .-iice 1972, New ()1.allIs lins, yVet to sell onit (r televise t
Silile hlion(le Luifle. Addition liv, with New Orlenns' best record of 5-9)
over the pi].,t six spe:sons, it i- not strj)li-iii t l1 tl "no show-'." alt Saints
rZtIIjI's verL d higher tlj tlje cm'n, aw riie, ''Iept, for 1977 wlien
the St] its no s.how" tVrl..,e w s s ,li -itlv lower. \Without V rsa
factor, "no slto\\s' S re appla ) renly I v Ilost a fl'et ed by Ovlonsist ently poor
pl y andl temperitir1e alircorf dinL to tlhe statistical n11111ysis. Moreover,
season ticket sales hlave been decreasing, pirestrnallly attri)iitble)I to
thle same poor p)ly. This, there is no evidence thliat the provisions of
Public Law 9:;-107 have affected the New Orleans franchise.

SUMMARY OF NEW ORLEANS SAINTS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77


1972 1973 1974


1975 1976 1977


1. Stadium capacity............................ 80,997 80,997 80, 997 74,704 72.000 71,330
2. Total seats sold .....-.........-......---....- A 445, 108 444, 590 389.209 391, 396 351,483
Percent change from previous season ................-...--. -0. 1 -12.5 0.6 -9.4
3. A~eraRe seats sold per game----------------.................. NA 63, 527 63,.513 55.601 55.91A 50. 6-.0
4. Total "no shorts" ----------------------.......................... ----NA 48,619 59. 132 76.945 40. 775 29. 277
Percent change from previous season----------------------.......................... 21.6 30 1 -47.0 -28 2
5. Average "no shows" per game---------------............... NA 6, 946 8,447 10,992 5.825 4.,182
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing ................... 10.9 13.3 19.8 10.4 8.3
7. Number of televised games------------------..................- 0 0 0 0 0 0
8. A..erage "no sh0,%s per televised game ........................... ... ......-.. ..... .....-......
9. A.'erRae "no shows" per nonteleised game ... NA 6, 9'II 8, 47 10,992 5,825 4,182
10. Season ticket sales.......................... ------------------------53.,319 50.005 49,252 465.,000 40,093 33. 00
Percent change from previous season................ -----------------6.2 -1.5 -6.6 -12.8 -16.2
11. PercentaRe of games won.................... --------------------0.179 0.357 0.357 0.143 0.286 0 214
12. Diisional standing .......................... ------------------- 4 3 3 4 3 4


-I ?/,' York 7// ;al.
After playi ,': in sevew'il different home stadliilms1 ,inc'e 1972, the
Giantl finally -e'ttl,,d into Ginnts' Stadiiin in Ea in 1976, p1rovidiwi. a seat linz cnpa city of over 76,00)(0). The 14 ganirs
played there over tle hia t 2 se n.. s priodluced 12 tll('vised -welloits, in
spite of poor records 1 oth yeatst Only in 1972 did the Gidn IOe ply
slightly better tlin .500 (8 6). Over 1l1e entire 6-year pIlriodl there
d,,e'- not seem to be a dlefinitivxe relation shipI 1.,,tw,,.n iea l- sold andl
te.mr record. Nor i- there a definitive r1lation-hip b)etwveen "no -how',"
and televi-#- .,i ,.m,-. Although in the 1;i-t Iwo seV-I In- "'no -in ow-" for
televised !m2eTl' s were hihler than for nolIteleviseld ,flrl es., tl-e reverse
is true prior to 1976. 'Thle moves to tlhe different stildliimns man y il ve




35


clouded any discernible patterns in the data. However, the sta t istical
analysis suggests that temperature, precipitation, and the (quality of'
the visiting team are significant and not TV in explaining "no shows'."
In any case, "no shows" were higher than the league average in each
of the last six seasons (1972 through 1977).
Season ticket sales decreased in 1973 and 1974 then increased in
1975 and 1976; 1977 sales matched the 1976 s;les response to the nIew
facility. Televised games may have influenced season ticket sales in
1974 (a 24 percent decrease) since 6 games were telecast in 197..
After the 1974 season, in which no gaames were televised, fans expecting
all games to be blacked out in 1975 may have purchased( sufficient
season tickets to account for the 36 percent increase for that year.
Again, frequent moves to different stadiums could also be affecting the
data. Consequently, Public Law 93-107 may have affected season
ticket sales initially but likely not after 1974 when at least 90 percent
of stadium capacity has been accounted for by season tickets (96 pet'-
cent over the last two seasons).
SUMMARY OF NEW YORK GIANTS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity ------------.------------ 63,350 164,892 70,874 60,416 76,891 76,500
1 70,200
2. Total seats sold ---- --------------------439,669 470,273 373,096 414,808 527,698 529,561
Percent change from previous season 7.2 -20.7 11.2 27.2 0.4
3. Average seats sold per game --------------- 62,667 67,182 53,298 59,258 75,385 75,652
4. Total "no shows" .------------.. -.. ----. -..- 26,881 59,991 59,759 62,836 55,071 72,092
Percent change from previous season--------------- 123.2 -0.4 5.1 -12.4 30.9
5. Average "no shows" per game ------------- 3,840 8,570 8,537 8,977 7,867 10,299
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing .....----------. 6.1 12.8 16.0 15.1 10.4 13.6
7. Number of televised games ------------------- 0 6 0 2 6 6
8. Average "no shows" per televised game.---......----- 7,551 ---------- 4,930 7,932 11,335
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game-..--- 3,840 14,688 8,537 10,595 7,481 4,080
10. Season ticket sales...--------... ------------- 57,214 52,686 40,007 54,294 73,511 73,488
Percent change from previous season ----------------7.9 -24. 1 35.7 35.4 0
11. Percentage of games won.-----..-.....--......---------- 0.571 0.179 0.143 0.357 0.214 0.357
12. Divisional standing.......................... ------------------------- 3 5 5 4 5 4

1 The Giants used both Yankee Stadium and the Yale Bowl (New Haven, Conn.) for their home games in 1973.

New York Jets
The Jets, after placing second in 1972, have finished fourth in a
five-team division for five consecutive seasons. Total seats sold have
remained fairly constant (adjusting for only six home games in 1973)
until an 8 percent drop occurred in 1977. "No shows" have fluctuated
over the years and have been consistently higher than the league
average each year. Twelve games were televised in 1973, 1974, and
1975 (four each year) and none thereafter. In the 1973 and 1975
seasons, "no shows" averaged higher for nontelevised games; in the
1974 season the reverse was true. Televised games, therefore, likely
cannot be held accountable for New York "no shows." Indeed, the
statistical analysis shows climate conditions, if anything, are mainly
responsible for "no shows."
Season ticket sales have experienced only slight decreases over the
years until 1977 when an 11-percent drop occurred. This drop may be
attributable to fan response to the Jets' continuing fourth-place
finishes. In any case, since the Jets televised no home games in 1976,
Public Law 93-107 appears not to be responsible for the large decrease
in season ticket sales in 1977.







SUMMARY OF N[EW YORK JETS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1917

1. Stadium capacity........................... 60. 000 60.000 60.000 60.416 60.000 60.000
76. 500
2. Total seats sold ...... 430. 412 355. 718 411,442 413. 103 399.771 368, 008
Percent change from pieious season ............ -17.4 15 7 0 4 -3 2 7 9
3. Average sets sold per game ................ 61. 492 59.286 58. 777 S9.015 57. 110 52. 573
4. Total "no shows".......... 32. 597 56. 836 71. 865 60. 225 78, 469 61.456
Percent change from previous season ............... 74 4 26.4 -16 2 30.3 -21. 7
5. Average "no shows" per game ......... 4,.657 9. 473 10.226 8. 382 11.209 8. 779
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing ......... 7.6 16 0 17. 5 14 2 19 6 16. 1
7. Number of televised games. ............. 0 4 4 4 0 0
8. Average "no shows" per televised game ............ 8. 568 12.056 6. 382 .......
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game ... 4.657 11.283 7,880 11. 566 11,209 8. 779
10 Season ticket sales ........................ 58.226 56. 500 56. 500 53, 500 52, 825 47.000
Percent chang from previous season ............... -3 0 0 -5.3 -1 3 -11 0
11. Percentage of games won.................. 0.500 0.286 0.500 0.214 0.214 0.214
12. Div1s'onal standing ......................... 2 4 4 4 4 4

I For six games.
3The Jets played one home game at Giants' Stadium.

(Oakland I aii, l'r.
)Oakland, for the fil-st lime since 1971, did not finish first in tile
western division but did ,-:i to( the playoff,, in 1977 as the wild-card
team, with the second best record in the c('onfeiencce. Oakland fans have
enjoyed exceptiominal play in revlrulair season competition b)ut have been
disalppointedi in playoff competition until thle 1976 season, when tlle
Raiders completed their season witli a vi('toriy over the Minnesota
Vikings in Siiper Bowl XI on Jalnuary 9, 1977. Since 1973, 28 of the 35
home names have beeni televised. Indeed, in 1976 and 1977, all Raider
home &ames were 01(sold out and televised.
With sc('h Slu(.c.ess over tihe years, Oakland hlas lad fewer "no show-;"
than the league avei'ae ea('h season; but "no shows" were higher 'for
televised games than nonltelevised gajies. However, in the past two
seasons, when all home rajrnes were sold out and televised, "no show-'"
fell to the same level ais nontelevised rarnes in previous seasons.
Indeed, the "no shows" for Oakland home amnes over the last two
seasons were about one-lhall' the leaaguie average. The statistical analysis
reveals "no shows" are somewhat affe('ted by televised games but
pre('ipitation is probablyy more significant in keeping tile fans home.
Oakland lhas aiad no trouble in selliill season tic('kets. Ninety-six
percent of stadium ('capa('ity hias been accounted for by season tickets
over the past six seasons. It can theireforoie be concluded( that Public
Law 93-107 has not appri'eciably affected season ti('ket sales. Ho\\ever,
the law may have affected attendance at televised paines in 1973, 1974,
and 1975.
SUMMARY OF OAKLAND RAIDERS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity................... 53.800 54,041 54,041 54,037 54, 037 54,615
2. Total seats sold........ ................. 367,078 390, 367 369,465 369,948 367,692 372,337
Percent change from previous season........... 6.3 -5.4 0.1 -0.6 1.3
3 Average seats sold per game -.......--..- 52.440 55,767 52.781 52,850 52.527 53. 191
4. Total "no shows"...... ..... ......... 21, 507 31,796 27, 112 31, 598 17,417 16.011
Percent change from previous season-................ 47.8 -14 7 16.5 -44.9 -8 1
5. Average "no shows" per game............ 3,072 4,542 3,873 4,514 2.488 2.287
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing ......... 5.9 8. 1 7.3 8.5 4.7 4.3
7. Number of televised games ------ 0 5 4 5 7 7
8. Average "no shows' per televised game..-.-.......... 6,015 4,791 5,231 2,488 2.287
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game 3,072 860 2.650 2, 720 .........
10. Season ticket sales ..................... 50.793 50. 802 50,840 51.107 51. 121 51,657
Percent change from previous season................ 0 O. 1 0.5 0 1.0
11. Percentage of games won............-- ........- 0.750 0.679 0.857 0.786 0 929 0.786
12. Divisional standing.......................... -------------------------- I 1 1 1 2





37


Philadelphia Eagles
After 4 years when all 28 of Philadelphia's home grnames were -1ld
out and televised only 2 games were sold out in time to be televi-.d in
1977. It may be that Eagle fans are finally tiring of weak firi.he,.- in
the eastern division. Although "no shows" for the four seasons when
all games were televised avergeild higher than in 1972 when no -,
were televised, the "no shows" for the two televis-1d rigames in 1977
were substantially below the average for nontelevised game-. (O)ne
could conclude that TV has had some effect on live gate attendance,
but the 1977 data mentioned above makes this conclIuion more tenrta-
tive. The statistical analysis puts temperature and p)recipitation a-
being significant rather than television in explaining "no shows." How-
ever, the fact that a particular famine is televised could influence game
"no shows" when bad weather occurs.
In the last 2 years, season ticket sales have declined, after hovering.
around the 64,000 level. TV may have contributed to this falloff, as all
seven games were televised in the previous season. However, the de-
cline has been very slight until 1977, when other indicators (higih "no
shows," fewer sold out games) point to a higher level of fan dicsati>sfac-
tion. Thus, while the provisions of Public Law 93-107 appear to have
had some negative effect, the degrree of the effect appears to be slight.
SUMMARY OF PHILADELPHIA EAGLES' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity-----------------65,000 65,000 65,954 66,095 66,052 65 052
2. Total seats sold --- --- --------455,013 453,082 456,502 455,555 451,924 :G 7P8
Percent change from previous season ------------ ---- 0.4 0.8 -0.2 -0.8 -2.5
3. Average seats sold per game-.-------- 65,002 64,726 65,215 65,079 64,525 62 961
4. Total "no shows" ------ ----- 31,000 44,417 42,032 33,075 65,754 78. 717
Percent change from previous season--------------- 43.3 -5.4 -21.3 98.8 19.7
5. Average "no shows" per game..-------------- 4,429 6,345 6,005 4,725 9,393 11.245
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing--- --- 6.8 9.8 9.2 7.3 14.5 17.9
7. Number of televised games ---------0 7 7 7 7 2
8. Average "no shows" per televised game.- -- 6,345 6,005 4,725 9,393 2.645
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game .... 4,429-------------------- 1' 685
10. Season ticket sales -------- 64,106 64,001 64, 361 64,300 62,605 59. 452
Percent change from previous season.--------------- -0.2 0.6 -0.1 -2.6 -5.0
11. Percentage of games won----- ----- 0.179 0.393 0.500 0.286 0.286 0.357
12. Divisional standing.--------- 5 3 4 5 4 4

Pittsburgh Steelers
The Steelers have won their division every year since 1972, ex(,ept
in 1973 when, although Pittsburgh and Cincinnati had identical 10-4
records, Cincinnati was awarded first place by virtue of tie-breaker
criteria. Still, the Steelers went to the playoffs, therefore not breaking
a string of six consecutive playoff appearances. Two of tho, appearances
resulted in Super Bowl conquests of NFC teams. Total seats sold have
remained constant since 1972 (after adjusting for an eighth home rame
played in 1973). The first year Public Law 93-107 was in effect,
Steeler "no shows" increased 400 percent, as all eight home g;.iin-
were televised. It appears that televising home games has caused an
increase in "no shows" as compared to nontelevised games, but with
only the 1972 figures and one nonteleviseod game in 1975 as a basis of
comparison to televised game figures, it is difficult to w:-.ess Public
Law 93-107's impact on Steeler attendance. However, "no shows"
have remained consistently below the league average over the ycVirs,
in spite of the fact that 35 of 36 home games have been televised. The
statistical analysis shows bad weather and the quality of the vi-iting





3T


tc'lllt.. I,-l it'ilo -i llt'H-lil, t III dI,'tl lilliilii "nt, .'i vI-, ,ki l zlo n1 i\ it111t111-1 c litti ,diiiK V inll 1: lill in N% i\ li Na N \\ .atll1.r, 11 lit this
ffTvc 'l lmis ni(it liv 'ii i.--dltv'd in Oil .111111N .,
%"41.1II Ii ukri l;csii 1973, rvfvtlcctiifi~rtin StcevlerC ^liiit showincr
inI 19721 -PIcaiie hy ,9 pen vcnt, h) over 44,()o. 'hint f.lci's ti.2re 1iaS
i(1'iii.!l' d u'tl lll-| int dvl pilt :-15 t1'lcVI'-,'d -'..anlics %iricv 1973. It aIppears,
therII'V] ', II tIit Piibli, Iw..,\ 9:; W7 1uts niot ifl'uci'ld .-en-on ticket .ales.
SLI VMARY OF PITTSbURGH -J EL[fRS' ATTENDANCE DATA. 192-77
1972 1973' 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Sta(iIum ca! art ......... ................... 0 066 `10 112 50,112 50.350 50.350
2. Total seats sold ............ ................ 5. j. 9;, 299 347,228 34, 221 347. 819 348,486
Percent change fr eas o n.__e_ .... 18 5 1? 6 0 3 -0 1 0 2
3. A.e aRpe ,eats sold rer .an.e .............. 47, 05 49.662 49,604 49. 747 49.68 8, 784
4. Total *no shows" .... ... ... ....... 5, 011 25. 591 26, 5l41 11.627 22. 183 15.964
Percent change from pre;ic.us season ........ 410 7 3.7 -56 2 90.8 -28 0
5. Aeraje "no shows" pe Lanme .......... 716 3,199 3, 792 1,661 3.169 2,281
6. Pe;centaje cl seats sold nit sho ng ....... L 5 6.4 7.6 3.3 6.4 4.6
7. Number ot televised gane 0 8 7 6 7 7
8. Ave'aLe "no shows" per tele,,'ed game -- -........... 3, 199 3, 792 1, 740 3. 169 2. 281
9. Aleage "no shows" per nontelevised came.... 716 .-......---.-.... 1, 190 ...............
10. S son ticket sales.......................... 28, 159 44. 844 44,531 44, 902 45.540 45,813
Percent change from prev;.Lus season ...-......- .. 59 3 -0.7 0.8 1. 4 0 6
11. Percentage of games won ....- ............... 0.786 0 714 0.750 0.857 0.714 0.643
12. D. signal standing ......................... 1 2 1 1 1 1

SFor eight iames.

St. L.,' .'_s (irI';i,,i
Seventeen of the ('r.irdiml ]' 3.': home a nes ha;ve eviI televised( in
tle i);ist 5 s.easit. Nix of th'od' /, Iieis oc' ir'd in 1977 wlhell "no
.slio(\\." il.creaseld by about 150 i 'r-ent from 1976, \hen onl\ three
!l 1'ins were t(l(v;:Vd. Tlis in<.l'(.lrtS in "no show-," itl 1977 i'lso co-
incidlc's with a ni mairk-d decreas-,e in Ci( 'ardinal playing quality as the
teaii fell to a 7-7 recrd aInd thlir ld place after : conmsecutItive years of
beinm in playoff c(.ntention, a rin thit included two divisional crowns.
Although "no showsm" per name were lower than the le:iiite averan e
*everP ye 'r since 1973, "''no shows" for televisedl ramles were generallyy
subtantially higher than "no sliows" for nontelevi.-Ced ames. "l'ie
st.ti-t ical ( n1alyisN however, (I)es not show TV as Ibeiil,., .-iirificunt
in explailin"g "no shov.>"; old weather and the quality of the visiting
teami are sLrnifcir nlt. TV not beifn si!fnificantt could e exp)laine(I by
the fact avera,_e "no shows" for 1972, when no games were televised,
exce(,le(I the averaile "no shows" for televised games for each year
since 1972, although Cardlinal play improvement should be taken into
account here.
Total seats sold do(- not appear to be affected by TV fis sales have
remained fairly stable with only small fluctuaations. However, 'TV
may have affected se:aonl ticket elespe, escecially when considering
that sales should have 11onel up in 1975 after a division crown in 1974
(at complete revers+,l (,f form from 1973). But after four anmes were
1 elevisedi in 1974, fasu may hiave expected i more to be televised in
1975; therefore sea-.on ticket sales dropped 3i percent. Unnaccoiintably,
season t icket sales went up by 71' percent in 1977, perhaps reflecting
fan expectation of only three amev- bein., televised after 2 consecutive
years of three televised games, or beau',e o)f fan expectation that a
p oorer season ahead would result in fewer 72-hour sellouts andi there-
ore fewer televised _:.inies. In any case, the local telecasts of home
games may have had a arrginal effect on season ticket sales.








SUMMARY OF ST. LOUIS CARDINALS' ATTENDANCE DATA; 1972-77


1972 1973 1974


1975 1976 1977


1. Stadium capacity -- --..---- -------49,818 49.818 51,186 51, "2 51 392 51,392
2. Total seats sold...----------------- ---- 337, 545 32 ,, 33c, 459 333, 521 37, 3'3 35 908
Percent chance from previous season ....----.... 1.5 -1.2 5 .5 4.2 2.5
3. Average seats sold per game ---------------- 221 48,955 48, 351 47, 646 49, 626 50, 844
4. Total "no shows"' .... .- ------- -------- 3F. 808 20,091 20,088 17,314 10,2-, 25,.4
Percent change from previous season....-- -------- -48.2 0 -13.8 -40.7 148.7
5. Average "no shows" per game. -----.... .. 5,5 44 2,870 2,830 2, .3 1, :,. 3,648
6. Percentage of seats sold not shovin. ---------- 11.5 5.9 5.9 5.2 3.0 7.2
7. Number of televised games ---- 0 1 4 3 3 6
8. Average "no shows" per televised game-- ------ 2, : 3,507 4,125 1, 4, "4
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game--- 5,544 2,977 2,020 1,235 1, 1 1, ':'i?
10. Season ticket sales.-------.. ---------------- 41,332 40, 72 39,006 37,516 38 ,7T 41, ;.7
Percent change from previous season -1.6 -4.1 -3.8 3.3 7.5
11. Percentage of games won . .. 0.321 0.321 0.714 0.78r; 0.714 0.500
12. Div;ional standing.. 4 4 1 1 2 3

San Diego Chargers
The Chargers had finished below .500 every yvear since 1972, before
achieving a 7-7 record in 1977. During- this period, they had finished
either third or fourth in the western division, generally d(ominatedl
by Oakland. Total seats sold decreasedd in 1973, 1974, an(l 1975, then
increased in 1976 and 1977 probably because of the Chargers' improved
performance on the field. Only one game has been sold out an(l tele-
vised during the 5-year period. "No shows" have fluctuated over the
years but have declined during the last two seasons. In spite of San
Diego's relatively poor showing each year, average "no shows" per
game have been substantially below annual league averaLres. In fact,
their marked improvement last year resulted in San Dieg ) expei'lenc-
ing the second lowest average "no shows" per game in the AFC. In
1976, when the Chargers had their only TV sellout, only 2,02:3 "no
shows" were recorded (700 over the average 1,30)0 "no shows" for
nontelevised games that year). If the Chargers continue to improve,
more sellouts may occur and the TV factor may come into play. Until
this happens, it is apparent Public Law 93-107 will not al'ect tlihe
Charger organization.
What holds true for most teams also applies to the Chargers:
Season ticket sales generally are dependent upon the previous sea-on's
quality of play. Only after their 1976 improvement to a 6-8 record
(from 2-12 in 1975) did the franchise experience an increase in season
ticket sales from the previous season; this was the first such instance
since 1973. With only one televised game since 197:1. it can bo col-
eluded that Public Law 93-107 has not materialiy affected tlie
Chargers' season ticket sales.
SUMMARY OF SAN DIEGO CHARGERS' ATTE'cDV;,':E DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 19-5 1976 -77

..Stadium capacity------------------------- 50, 00 54,5 52, -2 52,572 52,-" 52 '_
2. Total seats sold -------------------------347,349 330,722 2, 2'.9 2 124 2:. 22 307. -
Percent chang? from previous season ---- -- -4.8 2 1 -13.7 14.1 t 4
3. Average seits sold per game..---------------- 49,621 47,7. 37,753 J_ -- 37. 174 .?
4. Total "no shows" --- ---2,149 22 217 14. C-',- 15 1'-: 9. 2 67..'
Percent change from previous season 83.1 -37.0 8.1 -.-- 1 -29.6
5. Average "no shows" per game --------------- 1,736 3,178 2, C',1 2, 164 1. : 989
6. Percentage of seats sold not sho'n, ....- 3.5 6.7 5.3 6.6 3.8 2 2
7. Numbe" of televised games --- ------ 0 0 0 0 1 0
8. Average "no shows" per televised game -------- -------..---------------- -- ----- 2.0 ....0- .
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game 1, 7 3. 3,17 2.001 2.164 1.303 919
10. Season ticket sales .....---------------------......... 3. 310 39,681 29,595 22,2.0 19 716 21... 7
Percent change from previous season---------..........---... 9.3 -25.4 -2. 7 -11.5 10.8
11. Percentage of games won--------------------................... 0.321 0.179 0.357 0.143 0. 129 0. 90'J
12. Divisional standing.......................... -------------------------- 4 4 3 4 3 3






40


S.ill !7rar;(, !';,rty-.\'infr
l 'i, Forty-Niner, drlioll)pedl from first place in 1972 to fourth place
i" 197;.. and total "ni s "ow-," increased 20U p(erce(lt. Total tickets
Mo)1l, hotwever, increased d I p)i'r(tent anil four s-.11llots %%ere televised
in 197",. TV Ili I ti .l. i s" for televi.ed l .I MincV- w',e- virt ally e( (piall to avera)u1e "no shows"
for ii(inTtelev i-,ed Lrlle,... The Fort y-NiT1ersC (limbedl)l back into second
pli,, in 1971 and Ieimllaineld there until 1977 he11('n they drop)petI to
tliird pl:ae. Total "no .-.1o ) followed a ,Ll tern th1t i)paralleled the
tv;iin1's p)''f'ir'lnli '. \\i'en tili It' ieaIll inli)rov'(ld, total "no shows"
wevi.nt di)W 1 ;1nd1t vi,.e 'Vt,'-.F Sic.,e (o1ly one ,.'inv wv;is ,Ielvised in 197f6
:11 "itlo ini 1977 iftvr none in 1974 and 1975, ITV wolld not alpplar to be
s '_'liicailt for tht,' yN>rnt s. Ilndlee(d, "'no s.o\'-" for (,ll (of t(liof.e two
t i',v -t,,l Z; e-. \N ere lo\\er than the "no -.how'" av(ri.ze for non-
tci,.vi-t',. ; (".tt in t'ich of tltcir 1(,-)c.,fti\e yvvtr.". The stlt istical
s t-olm v insiL"1i(fi<',-t but l)rci[)intion tol nd the
,ii:liltv of the vi-itinle. tuil* re ..-i,1iifil'lint in explliTinLr "no showss."
S.1,-o)n ticket ..ilet-, reflvtctin the F(o rt v-Niner..' st ron 1972 finish,
,.lo'.v ,i .t sanilll inl'i,.-e' in 197:1 l)it declined ste.ldilv until the slight
2-j),iirn't i''in<'.-';e (1,',ur'1(I il\ 1977. Tlhe re>!,,')Lenv itn fan interest
I-.i Ulidilo.blcdi*v -pirkedI by tilt Fortyv-Nin.rs' first better than .500
0rerdi .- ic-e 1972. IndeidcI, I. I dls ;ip )P.;ir 1to bv pl'J tiii(llirly sensitive
to ii ,.n l'),rforniiiice nitlier tlain to TV. Altlioiiwulh San Francisco's
biL.u.-t drol) in s..I.. oc'I,'rleId after fou)'r tt2lIl's, were( te(levised in 1973,
ti lit, Forty v-NinITs' litirp dIn)op to foutitli pls(.E, in 1973, fter winnini.r
tcjir divi ion, in 1972, \\ is prubalv of -'reiter irnil)owrtaince. T'V may
li;iVc' ex.acerl(i11e tithe 1974 decrease inl sales thatt was induced by poor
ply, but a-ipaIrently liis ha;id no effect after 1974.
SUMMARY OF SAN FRANCISCO FORTY-NINERS' ATfENDANCE DATA: 1972 77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. S'ad L m capacity ..----------------.................--..------- 60,000 60.000 61,249 61.252 61,000 61,246
2. Total seats sold .......- ....... --.......--- 410, 811 414.517 372. 432 330. 430 360,473 335. 722
Percent change from previous season....---...----- 0.9 -10 2 -11.3 9.1 -6.9
3. L-crage seats sold per game....------..-..--- 58.687 59. 217 53, 205 47,204 51,496 47.960
4. Toal no shows"..--.. -------------16, 464 49. 963 37,685 40,269 20. 166 47. 718
Percent change from previous season..----------- 203 5 -24.6 6 9 -49.9 136.6
5. A~erage no shows" per game ...... .... 2,352 7,138 5.384 5,753 2,881 6.817
6. -rp'uetape of seats sold not shoo in; ........ 4.0 12.1 10.1 12.2 5.6 14.2Z
7. r.,umber ct televised games ..- .. 0 4 0 0 1 1
8. Average "no shcvs per televised game................. 7,0 .-..-- ...------------..... -----. 2,614 4,265
9. A.eraFe "no shows" per nontfrle'sed game-- ..- 2. 352 7,068 5.384 5.753 2, 925 7,242
10. Season ticket sales ........-- ....... 53,876 55,506 47,649 41.409 38.090 38. 904
Percent change from previous season. . .. 3.0 -14.2 13 1 -8.0 2.1
11. Pec.:e itagr of ,ames won ... .. ..0.607 0.357 0.429 0.357 0.571 0.357
12. D i anal stand ig. .......................... --------------------------1 4 2 2 2 3

S1111 S~l ~((llo(Lirks
The novelty of thle ,new tam iind stadium in Seattle hbad perhaps
W,11,m Off iff iil' tly sifter thle 1976 season. A poor 2-12 record min 1976,
not unusual, for ,I first-yeir ,expnsion teani, ipr)',b) bly ilso contributed
to :i fall-off in seson ticket sales of 12.5 percent in 1977. However,
toti)l e.ats ,sol(d (Id i|)eI only 3.3 1)eri(ent from 1976 as fans responded
to an improved 5-9 rec('()i ili 1977.
()Inly thilc< f .j hcs \\(r' e televised, in Setittle's initial two seasons.
"No -1io\\.-" for those nes \\ere ()only sli!..htly hi.,her (2.S percent
on the averie_) ihan "no sliows" for nonte devised (games. With only






41

three observations, it is difficult to a,-,ss televised home anme.'
impact on ticketholders' decision to actually attend a game, but tilhe
impact appears to be minimal.
Adjustment to the reality of an NFL franchise j)robably b,-t
accounts for the changes in ticket sales and "no shows." Inference-
about the impact of televised home games would be tenuous ldue to
the lack of experience regarding Seattle.

SUMMARY OF SEATTLE SEAHAWKS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1976 77

1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity..---------.... --------------------------------------------- 65,000 64,752
2. Total seats sold .----------------------------------..------------------- 440,096 425, 704
Percent change from previous season...------------------------------------------------.................. -3.3
3. Average seats sold per game ---------- ---------------------------------- 62,870 60,815
4. Total "no shows" ------------------------------------ ---------------------- 23, 577 24,827
Percent change from previous season.------------. ----------- - --....--....--.. -... --.. 5.3
5. Average "no shows" ,er game----------------------------------------------- 3,368 3, 547
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing --------------------.. ---.---------------- 5.4 5.8
7. Number of televised games -------------------------------------------------- 2 1
8. A'.erage "no shows" per televised game---.--------------------------------- 3,456 3.576
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game -------------------------------- 3, 333 3, 542
10. Season ticket sales--------------------------------------------------------- 55,623 48,681
Percent change from previous season-----_--------------------------------------- -12.5
11. Percentage of games won.---------------- ---------------------------- 0. 143 0.357
12. Divisional standing--..---.--.. -------------------------------------------- 5 4


Tampa Bay Buccaneers
No home games have been televised in Tampa's 2-year history.
Season ticket sales dropped 16 percent in 1977 probably because of the
dismal 0-14 1976 season; however, total se.its sold increased almost 19
percent indicating fan desire to see individual games is high. Also the
number of "no shows" decreased from the 1976 season by about 25
percent. Perhaps this figure was reduced by the unlikelihood of any
/ames being televised and the anticipation of Tampa winning their
first game which did not occur until the end of the season when Tampa
won its last two games.

SUMMARY OF TAMPA BAY BUCCANEERS' ATTENDANCE DATA: 1976-77

1976 1977

1. Stadium capacity----------------- --------------------------------- 71,000 71,600
2. Total seats sold.- -- ------------------------------------------------ 325,284 385,884
Percent change from previous season ..----....--..---------------......------....---.--........------------- 18.6
3. Average seats sold per game........-------------------------------..-----------... 46,469 55. 126
4. Total "no shows"...---------... ---..-..--------..----.----------------------- 38,039 28,664
Percent change from previous season...--..------------------------------------- --. -24.6
5. Average "no shivs" per game.-------........---..------ ------------------------- 5.434 4,095
6. Percentage of seats sold not showing .....------...-------------------------------- 11.7 7.4
7. Number of televised games----------..-...------------------------------------ 0 0
8. Average "no shows" per televised game..--...--.----.----------------.. ..------ ...-... .
9. Average "no shows" per nontelevised game.------------- --------------- 4.'4 4,:. 95
10. Season ticket sales-..-------------------------... .. .----------------------- 35,114 29,400
Percent change from previous season --...----..--------------------------------------- -16.3
11. Percentage of games won .....----- ..--------------------------..------ 0 0.143
12. Divisional standing....---------------------------------------------------... 5 5


lW7ash ington Redskins
Since 1972, Washington has been in the playoffs four of the six
seasons as a res-ult of one division crown in 1972, four second-place
finishes, and one third. The 1972 regular ,eason record of 11-3 was
the Redskins' best during the period and culminated in their only
Super Bowl appearance. All of Washincton's gamines are sellouts and







42


ar, therore telev'i,.el. "No -how-" linve ivenr,_ed lower than the
Ievii-ie ;i veri,,..e every year. However, beraii-e -ill of t Ilie l verx',e are
higher tln Tir le 429 per I'Lnie tlnt lid not .-how inl 1972 when Wl IvkouLts
were ill ifet, TV womld appear to be -i~niii't ill rxlhlnin^ "no
o-hw." telirt,:efter. TV d"h. nppn'ir ii- -.iiniificit iln lie steal kieid
:anilyv-i- it-, doe- t(epllel)(.ltiIre irid pretcipitutiii ; however, biet'it-.e the
tit.al "no -.oIws" ,are extretnely low by lea tni(h oinl);ri..ii, TI*Vs ecitt
likely i-. iiiiiiii l liere. TV ini t j ,fln 'cit, ticketholder.' dlecisioii to
;tlenf l ,i ZnLtilo( ill lbid W i'.tltiKlr, o n j In< ()[It zit .s eft' !l-t 1t
ln,''t isoltItt', in the -titi-,ti,' l lilt-;l.-i-..

P':ait'tlv bccaii'i- of its lnivit.'r oni oef i it -niz.illvr NIFL -tatdliiis, \Wash-
iII1ton I.i-. -.old at leIi-t .t 95 ere',tI of -sta diti ii c'iii.ciIV in tlie foriii of
(,i-o ticket ;t-, sinc' 1970. D)ii, iid for -'n(.-on tickt-, aIpp)i reitl "
c:ilitot 1)(e iet in the X';.i-*111to0n11 1re, evevi th,()u1I linil r. hI(is nre
tlevietI. T1111-, it app),:Ir- tlit Pulblic Il,"w 93-107 Ia-.. not hId aI
- iztitietiit cfTl,,t on ,.i-oi ticket sidle,-.
SUMMARY OF WASHINGTON REDSKINS ATTENDANCE DATA: 1972-77

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

1. Stadium capactv............................ 50.COO 5.000 5-4. 380 55,00.1 55,004 55,004
2. Total seats soil ...................... 365, 346 374,993 375.003 380.527 380, 603 380. 753
Percent change from previous season .. 2.6 0 1.5 0 0
3. A'e'aee seats sold per game ................. 52, 192 53,570 53.571 54.361 54. 372 54. 393
4. Total *"no sho s ............ ........... 3,000 8. W06 3. 333 8,499 21.020 5.484
Percent cl ane from previous season ---..-......-....- 196.9 -62 6 155 147.3 -73.9
5. Average '"no shows" per game ........ 429 1,272 176 1,214 3,003 783
6. Percentage of seats sold not shcv,,n ......... 0. 8 2.4 0.9 2.2 5.5 1.4
7. Number of televised games -------- 0 7 7 7 7 7
8. Average "no shows" per televised game.------------....... 1,272 47r1 1,214 3,.003 783
9. Aerare no shows' per nontelevised game.... 429 .. ..................................................
10. Season ticket sales-.................-- ..- 51,076 51,969 52.049 52,400 52,529 52,660
Perent Lhange from pie.iousseason...... ..-- ---- 1.7 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.2
11 Percentage cf ;armes won -. .---.. ------- 0.7H6 0.714 0.714 0.571 0.7 0.710 643
12. Cii:'Oii3l1 stan ing ......................... ------------------------- 1 2 2 3 2 2

E-I -CT OF PU I-LIC LAW 93-107 ox NFIL, PLAYOVV (-'r GA\ki 'i- IIl.
1977 SEASON
In the 1977 pl .ivofls, tvwo of 'ven r-ines wer,'e not lo,.dlv televised :
()0aildanld at B:iltiimore *itnd Minn'.-ta at I.o).. Ali. .'1eb-. Since 1972,
I.o-. A "les'.', wi hih hl io-tedl four piyoffl L'.i., l';t.-> televi-,ed otlk
one of tho-e cI ont,.-ts. Thilis :i 1)robnbly b,, a)ttribtited to thI lret
-eating el Ci1)City of the I.o(),. At'l,-, (1oliseum 9(0,0)(L) pl)I'.,) tllat
e.i-td l as of the 1975 p)layol's. 'I he capacity ,xv w- rcdluncd to 71,4:;'2
for the 1977 bu'-ii- l)ut \\was not .oild out in time to lift i blackout
when !,.oI-. Aiel.-. lo-ted Minine.-ota on I)eceinher 6, 1977. Indeed,
it rained the day of the anle and 12 peticilt (f paidl attendaic'e did!
not -hoiw. The two non1e1 ( vi.':i :.Iv ;1i aver:-.'ed. ..S l.' percentt "no
:-lho\\.-" ,Is -, ,I)e!'-eit of pliid atteni,,'it (wei,.'e ,',avily by vthe 12
p)ere'nt "nof, -.hios" > for the Mii ,,..sot a at Lo.- A\niel, T'Ihe five elevi-d ,'aniires, incldlinl;. the S,11ii1 PBowl, m lad only a.
1.4-perl umt 4"no( show,'" ave,'ragei It is 1 pplarent that telvisin. playtil
gZme1-1 lo,:ldlv dlidI not d, lversely Ifect atteiliaitl'- \\hicii is ile stle
con('l-ion drawn ill till- Foutrth Atimiul IRep)ort which provid(ied a
4-'e;l o'erv ew of the playoffs (1I97;; 76).









Percent no
Seats sold No shows s ws

NonteleviseJ:
Oakland at Baltimore.- 59, q 321 0.5
Minnesota at Los Angele ---.......----------.... ----.- -........- 70,203 8, 501 12. 1
Non-TV total ---------------------- --------------------- 130, 128 8,822 8
Televised:
Pittsburgh at Denver --------------------------------------- 75,059 48 .06
Chicago at Dallas ---------------------------------------- -- 63,260 1,838 2.9
Minnesota at Dallas .-------------------- 64,293 2,783 4.3
Oakland at Denver. .---- -------- ------- 75,044 62 .
Dallas versus Denver at New Orleans Super Bowl ----------------- 75,804 143 .2
TV total --------------------------------------------- 353, '60 4,874 1.4
Playoff game totals 1973-76:
Nontelevised (4) -----------------------------------------293,584 9,970 3.4
Televised (24) ------------------------------------------ 1,347,218 48,968 3.6


COMPLAINTS

In the period from April 15, 1977, through April 14, 1978, only
three written complaints were received. All referred to professional
football. One of the letters objected to the "veto" exercised by the
Houston Oilers to prohibit the televising of Dallas (C'owboy games in
Houston on days when the Oilers are playing at home. Such "veto"
rights are permitted by the league. The other letters were concerned
about the telecast of professional football exhibition games on Friday
evenings early in September, and their impact on interischolastic
games played at the same time. However, for the purposes of the anti-
trust laws, title 15, United States Code, section 1293, d(Iefinfs the
interscholastic football season as beginning on the second Friday in
September. No information was received to indicate a violation of the
antitrust laws. Further, counsel for the NFL informally advised the
Commission's staff that the NFL had passed a resolution to the effect
that league :ames would not be televised on Friday, September 9
(the second Friday in September) in an NFL team's hometown if it
would( adversly affect college or high school gamnies. The three written
complaints received for the most recent season compare to four com-
plaints received in the 1976-77 season.


35-989-78----4
















THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC LAW 93-107 ON
PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL

Of approximately 2,100 regular season games in 1977, 93 were
network telecasts (4.4 percent). Of those games, 2 were sold out 72
hours in advance.1 Since the latter figure represents only one-tenth of
1 percent of all regular season game:, it must be concluded that the
provisions of Public Law 93-107 have not negatively affected pro-
fessional baseball. Furthermore, as a matter of policy, baseball's
major events are telecast locally whether or not sold out.

SSellouts of baseball g.-in-, at any time, not only those occurring 72 hours prior to game time, are ext( ini I ly
infrequeri. Traditionally, many fans purchase their t tickets at the gate just prior to game limnie. Additiolially,
by comparison to oiliher spoils, there are relatively few season tickets sold by baseball clubs. Letter from
James J. Fitzpatrick to Charles Ferris (May 12, 19)78). See appendix II.
(45)















THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC LAW 93-107 ON PROFESSIONALS,
BASKETBALL
After five seasons, there does not appear to b)e any clear evi(lence
that Public Law 93-107 has adversely affected( the National Bi-kIetball
Association. Throughout that term, the leaIgue has poole(I its giame
telecast rights for less than 6 percent of all (,ames )playe(l. Furthermore,
based on leaguewide figures, no more than 2 percent have ever been
televised in the locality of the home team. These figuiiies lead to the
conclusion that the league has suffered no adverse impact; there
simply have not been enough games telecast locally.
Focusing on the 1977-78 season, and thereby updating last year's
report,' 902 games were played during the regular season. Pursuant to a
league contract with the CBS network, 17 national games were to be
televised. A single national game can be made up of two to six regional
games. Using these figures supplied by the NBA 2 and counting each
regional game as one unit, there were 22 locally televised games for
which the figures for total tickets sold and "no shows" were available.
"No shows" for those 22 games averaged 3.3 percent of total tickets
sold or 439 "no shows" per game. Moreover, 10 of those 22 TV games
were televised according' to the provisions of Public Law 93-1 07.
The remaining 12 games were voluntary waivers of the blackout,
televised locally for promotional purposes. For the 10 games televised
pursuant to Public Law 93-107, "no shows" averaged only 37 per
game. The 32 other televised games, blacked-out locally, averaged
a 10.3 percent, or 1,082 "no shows" per game. It is evident that
televising home games has not al)l)ppreciably affected attendance.
SSee Fourth Annual Report of the Federal CommunicatioIns Commission on the rif,, i of Public Law
93-107, 213-214 (1977).
2 See letter in appendix H from Georv- Faust, director of Broadcasiing and Operations of the NBA to
Charles Ferris, Chairman, Federal Communications ('mi--i i,,. May 10, P'.,7.
(47)














THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC LAW 93-107 ON PROFESSIONAL
HOCKEY
Public Law 93-107 does not appear to have adversely affected the
National Hockey League; 600 games were played in the United States
during the regular season. Of those games, 20 were televised pursiuant
to a league contract (3.3 percent), 14 of which were televised locally
(2.3 percent). With less than 3 percent of all games being telecast
locally, it must be concluded that there has been little impact on
NHL gate receipts.
With one exception, the "no show" figures for the season were not
provided by the league. A snowstorm resulted in a 70-percent "no
show" figure for one TV game in which TV may have exacerbated the
"no show" statistic.' However, no conclusion can be drawn from this
lone statistic. Consequently, Public Law 93-107 seems to have had
little or no influence on live gate attendance.
I See letter in appendix H from NHL attorney Philip Hochberg to Charles Ferris, Chairman, FCC,
May 10, 1978.
(49)













APPENDIX A

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF "No SHOWS" FOR INDIVII)UAL NFIL CL( is

1. INTRODUCTION

The purpose of the subsequent discussion is to explain the statistir.l techitiques
used to analyze "no shows" experienced by individual NFL tc.tmr- from 1972
through 1977 and to list the results of those analysc.s which c(:in be found in the
tables below.
The objective of the analyses was to ascertain whether and to what extent
various factors such as local telecasts of home games, weather, and team's per-
formance influence the proclivity of NFL ticket holders to attend gaiiic-. A specific
explanation of the econometric model employed for this purpose follows.

2. METHODOLOGY

The model used to assess the impact of Public Law 93-107 on the number of
"no shows" experienced by individual NFL teams between 1972 and 1977.

THE VARIABLES
While there may be a number of factors which influence a ticket holder's
decision on whether or not to attend an NFL game, it is likely that most decisions
will be influenced by a relatively small number of factors. Specifically, it can be
assumed that the number of "no shows" will be sensitive to the following con-
siderations:
(a) Televised games: According to the NFL mandatory local telc:i-sts of home
games increase the number of "no shows." A variable indicating whether or not a
game was televised was incorporated into the model to test the validity of this
argument.
(b) Temperature: Ticket holders are assumed to be less inclined to attend games
on a cold day than they would be if the weather was mild. The variable employed
in the analysis reflects the temperature during the game.
(c) Precipitation: Ticket holders are also assumed to be less inclined to attend
a game where it is raining, sleeting or snowing. The varial le utilized in the anal-
ysis indicates the presence or absence of some form of precipitation during the
game.
(d) Attractiveness of the home game: Whether or not ticket holders attend
NFL games is expected to depend on the perceived attractiveness or "importance"
of the game. For example, fans are expected to be more inclined to attend games
if the home team is having a winning sea-on or is in contention for the divisional
championship. The same could be true if the visiting team is having a "good"
year. The attractiveness of the game is measured by both the won-loss records
and the divisional standings of the contestants.'

Consequently, three separate analyses were done on the "no shows" of each of the '26 NFL teams. The
first analysis utilizes the "won-loss" perenrt'1,e of the home and visiting team as a measure of tI he attractive-
ness of the game. "No shows" are expected to decrease as the percetiLtxe "won-loss" record of the home team
and/or the visit in teams increases.
The attractiveness of individual NFL ga m.s could also be reflected in the divisional sl.ii'liI', of the home
and/or the v iitiiig team. If one team, particularly the home team, is in contention for the divisional ch:anpi-
onship, then "no shows" would be expected to be lower than if one or both teams had no chance of i.,; i r1,
into the playoffs. The second analysis of "no shows" utilizes the divisional st-iii'liiis of both teams as a
surrogate for the attractiveness of the game.
A third measure of the attractiveness of particular games was also defined. This was done by !simply
multiplvyiii the "won-loss" percerntaes of both home and visiting teams and iiiri',rilriTiL' that variable
into the model. This particular measure yields an overall indication of the quality of i I g 1 i0 i by 14kLI,. I1'-'
the combined success of both teams. This measure of the quality of the game wa-. usutl in II I third analysis
of the number of "no shows" experienced by each NFL team
It was thought necessary to do the three separate analyses since attendance fluctuations nmay be more
sensitive to divisional st ,idings than to"won-loss" records. This is particularly true if a team in one division
ranks hi ghlr in the division.&l standing-s but has a poorer "won-loss" record than a team in another division.
Additionally, fans in other markets may be more sensitive to the measure of overall at tract iveness of the -'.!ii'
than they are to the home team's or the visiting team's prior victories. If so, this "quality of the -_'.tII''"
variable (i.e., the product of the" won-loss" JW('TrL ,-aiesof both t vni. ) should proveto be the more relevant
determinant of" no shows."
The "won-loss" iereenl ages and divisional st andiiings for g;.,e.s l:.ivv'l di uriw, the first three weeks of the
season used in the analvis are the final "won-loss" percentages and divisional si.iiiiiL' from the previous
season. The rationale for those measures is based on the I:.-:Lsuni|phioii that the fans' r I''tli ions of (\h'' it'ld
team success are determined to a large extent by the teams previous season record, at least for the first three
weeks. It was assumed further that after that timre, fans would have a g;_,'oil idea of actual or potential team
performance for the current season and would, accui dingly, make their game attendance decisions.
(51)






52


e,) .ea- Tn 'T'rt-: Kee'pling in Tnind that -,lbzeqV.' ,Tnt :LIl:,I.-:',- Ii rf,,r'mivI on
in li.i i l:ul NFL -':hti :ire arv1-ae'd wi homegarna' et plave3I'd ,iring l.72, 1973, 1974.
l971)., I'l,,. imii, l'177 -.i,.->, n-I, it i- iil -tL,,tt:a 1t t accoitnit fr \v:iriatiinf in "no
-h',.w.-" wli.Ih v.iII I.- attriiated to( individ'iual Aa:,,ri.. s a r.-ult, each analysis
iT' It-t 'rat.- \:IIi:i1 1,.- ,l.'-itln:t iiig whether mr itt g:LameL wa- pljaved in 1973.
1974, 19t79.1. 197,7'. ,r 1977. Inr ilii-in of th,'s' varial.,es allow ,,, (mi* tIo iest whether
,, i' it ,11 it -hI\, -" %e .,r.i -iLz'nitica:i tlIv rieater, all either fhing- I,'ing equal, during
:i-lv If the p:-! Ite, -e.:-, ,n- than ihey were in 1972, the year prior to the implemnen-
t ati, n of th' -Iport arnti-I lack,,ut l:iw.
F iliy, "n, -hw-, w1.4re c('oipuiited as the rati, of "no shows'" 1o total tickets
-,'hl. 'lii- il,..-ii r', \\:i- ij-,,l in-t,.'aI ,f tIhl- : ,1 inolt i' nltf,,r of "tno howss," ;iner
it :iiV.'iint-; f -r r-la:itivo' ticket .-al-,'s ,itfsrvi'r,.. and. as a r,-mllt. 1,i tter reflects the
I *l:,tivi, impirtialicer of "no, -hAiws" t) in'lividliiil t"ain-. By 'Itrining "no) -how,"
:1i- ;i p ri'tr tn1'if tick t,.s -i i, w' ;Lre :11 i tl to in':vL-lirv th. rila i\v' imin )irtance oIf
iII, ii:pIirt o(f 1,,icj I.;aw L 93' 107 (,n t1':L %i which h:iv,' lif,'Tri.nt s..ating capacities
i I Inch sul,-,' liiri'itly -'<11 ,liflT'r iit nuiIil,'r-. of tick'k, to thi-ir hb ,nt' ga:niIr-.
It -h,,,ild lc W ItI- 1r-tII,, it h:it "iLt -11,) 1 \'-." w ill :;l-; lik,'P] V iW iiflifl,.nV,.,I IV fi t ol"r,
ot(ll, r tli:in ll,,-," cl'irt ,',! in Oh m o ,(t f,,inI th l1d:iytNltIT- ,l irtin the l:itt,'r pIirt of the i :a-nIn. "no h,,wv-" rould in'rer:,a'.
\tt''ti',ti ',' NII:CV :i al-,o ,m', til n t inh ntilth. ,i:V :W n'ld or tiin, of the gatie. Fans,
m1:y 1%. iiiol, iicliri,., to : l0'14ril 4 :u1 t ". during ltI .il lv p):Lrt uf Ihe "':e,'on. Th 'ey
ii,.,v l-o In' nii,. \villir. to ;ttlnid a anit' which are playI., in the early aftvrnnmon
i.e., 1 p.m.) insl.r:,d of l:it-r in the' l:Lv (i..., 4 p.m.. '"No Iw-" C(lldi alsI-;, depend
I'll witli,.r th'- ,.::,ie' ti-k pl:iy"ed on a M i ndavy niLht.
St:,,n,. ri:,ili"-is or tlih :aiili'arance of :.lp)'rsta'r- -tcTh a- 0. J. Sinmponp could al.,o
:iffvet :,I --nIl:unv'.. Similarly, '"n- o *",,wll riw :y i.pepiind ,n how wNll Ilh' telamn has
dei,," in th,. p:-t. The N FI., for 'xallll)],', 1l,'ii'V- that attnrldanve i- ilbject to a
T',ti ,i It ,,-'r'' of fan loalty which gf-ncrialy r.-.lt-t fr(m out :tinling l)p'forlnces
I tile t.r-:iii and or .-1di.ctt .'1 pIltycr- inll pa.t \ve .rs.
Fin:ily, "no show-." could dip.nd t iln the av.ailaliilty of other types of enter-
t:iirin elit, includiilm, ,th,,r pr,,fi,--iinll ziw( rt-. Pr,,f,--iM:d Iia-eliall, I1,sketliall
:iiid h, 'key -,:-,n- ov'r'lap with the pI',f,-'-.i, na:l f, ,itl i:ill :a-on. Con:%,ql'ntlYv,
:,tt'-,,i:11c'if. at footl)all gii. ni v may be :tff,'cted l)y atIndali'v ait o(Ither '.4)rtilng
ex t,-. Sinil:r1Vy, f:ans rr'.idling iin certain cities may have nlir,, re-r'reation:tal op-
i)t -liiti .- and, as :a cI M(nsqeTInce, Ceo Uld lI' lv-s inclined to attendrul NFL ganie,.
t'nfortunatelv, m'i,-t of th-.e factors are highly (iaUlitativ'. in nature. As a result,
ti(vy c, ruld not 1i, quanntitatively mea-ured and wern therefore not incorporated
into th,. rti indl. lE'vn so, the mt.thoilogv employee I in Ithe "no ;hows" analysis
sh11ll provide an accurate' aWC.-.'-1-1ent of the impact of Pulilic Law 93 107 on
live 1 :;it, attetndlatIce at NFI, ganie-.
T1lE DATA
Diata on the number of "no shown" tickets sold, and whether or not the game
w:u- tvlei-,kvd we.re iitained from the National Footlball League. I)ata on tempera-
tn,' an'id precipitat ion wer- al-o obtained from the NFL. When whether condit ions
we !, triit r,.iported by tt.ann-. thi- information was obtained. fr im the Nat.ional
\kadh,'r Service,. Datta on divis'mional standing. and "won-lohs-" percentages were
t,-it:,ind from the Sp',rtinct News, the New York Tirnme. the Washington Post, and
IthI' NFL. Finally, "no -howv-" at Seattle and( Tampa Bay were nit statistically
:in.uldzcdl ,ii' to inlsuficint dlata.
THEi STATISTICAL TEC-HNIQ'E
Mull ivariaie ',grev--ion anal-si- was empl)lovedl to mnvasure the extent to which
I :'h f th,-e fact,,r- influenc,- the percev'ntages of ticket. holders. who do not attend
W1Til'-.. Brieflyv, this particular statistical techniqoIme permit- one to ascertain
w\i-t he-r aTl Ito w hat extent a change in one varial:ii.- -"'no how-'" in this instance-
i- inifluen'i'ed by ch:an,-,s in any orI all of the otlier v:iriTal1d- (i.e., tI.mpe.rature,
li,,.i'i)it:tion, "won-I-s" records-, etc.) which are inclui ,e' in the model. The
:0t:i,1*- v- empirically :a-sv--s the impact. the sports anti-blackout law has had on the
nti ,ll T.' of "no -hI ws" experienced by each of the 26 NFL club, over the 5-year
1,.ild .fffected hy Publie Law 93 107.
FInTll:tly, th,. rei.lcr -hliuldl niteo that "F values" listedl on the tallies below simply
i]aiicatf- wh,0th,.r particular varialles, or groups of variali-;es significantly influence
"nti -hows-." If the F value is followed by1 an asterisk, then it can he assumed that
th,'- v:riaible or variables had an impact on attendance. The term "It2" listed for
,:c'h .quation refer, to the proI)mrtion of variation in the ratio of "no shows"
to t ital ticket- -nold which ik "explained" or accounted for 1y the independent
varialle- defined in the equation. For example, if R2 equals 0.80, then one can







53

assume that 80 percent of the variation in "no shnws" were explainedd by the
independent varialehps, i.e., local tl,'ca-:ts of home g:tni'-, ws..ther, team
perforniance-, etc.
RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF ATLANTA "NO SHOWS": 1972-77


Independent variables


Equation 1-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.82113; F(10, 31) equals 14.23089:1
Televised games.------------------------------
Temperature----------------------- ---------------------
Precipitation. ----------------------------
Home team's win-loss percentage----------------------
Visiting team's win-loss percentage -..-----------------------
1973-
1974-------------------------------------------------
1975 ----------------------------------------------------- ---..------------
1976
1976-------------------- -- -- -- --
1977---------------------------------
Constant------------------------------
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.79116; F(10, 31) equals 11.74389:1
Televised games................. ..
Temperature_------------------------------------- --------------
Tremiperature.......................................................
Precipitation --------------------------------------------
Home team's divisional standing__---------------------- ---------
\ sting team's divisional standing--..-- ------------------- --------- -
1973 -----------------------------------
1975-4
19765
1976--------------------------------------------
1977 -------------------------
Constant.--.------- ------------------------------
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.78;26; F(9, 32) equals 13.15746:1
Televised games.-----------------------------------
Temperature
Precipitation-..-----------------
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage-.----------------
1973------------------------------------
1974..----------------------------------
1975
1976
1977
Constant ---------------------------------


Regression
coelic,'erts


-0.00938
-.00982
.09048
-.40191
-.04292
-.04366
.17331
.08952
-.00688
-.010(166
.91099

-.01760
-.00969
09265
.06025
.01035
-.03345
16455
.05732
-. 05897
-.01894
.55272

03297
-.00973
08864
-.30093
-.04828
16801
.04592
-.09814
-.06727
.82336


F values


0. 018
163.864
1 4.410
110.977
.462
.800
2.342
.634
.011
.035


.024
152.134
3.855
1 5.177
.627
.394
1.751
.216
?F3
.(38


.088
53.2387
3.675
16.293
.850
1.876
.147
3.174
1.444


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF BALTIMORE "NO SHOWS": 1972-77


Equation 1-Dependent variable: The rati (of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.64422; F(10,31) equals 5.61326:1
Televised games ------......................-----------------------------
Temperature----------- ----------------------
Precipitation------- ------------------------------------------
Home team's win-loss percentage---- ----------------------------- -
\ Voting team's win-loss percentage .-...-----------------------------
1973 ...--------------------------------------------------------------------
1975....
1976 4.........----------------------- -.----.-
1975_
1976---------------------------------------
1977----------------------------------------------------
C o n sta n t - - - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - -- - - - - - - --
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R-' equals
0.59424; F(10.31) equals 4.539c5:1
Televised Games . . . .
Temperature ..............................................-------------------------------
Precipitation-___-----------------------------------
Home team's divisional standing ---------------------- ----------
\isitng team's divisional standing.. . . . . .
19 7 3 ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1974..--. . .
1975.. . .. ..----- --- ---
1 9 7 6 -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977 -------------------------------------------------------------
Constant -------------------------------------------------
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.60735; F(9,32) equals 5.49981:1
Televised games.------------------- ----------------
Temperature ------------------------------------------------------
Precipitation...............................................
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage................--------
1973 .--------------------------.---------------------------------
1974 ....---.-.----- ..---.---------------------------------------
1975 .....--------- ---- --------- ----------------------------------
1976.---.....-..............----------------------------
19 77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Constant --------------------------------------


0.01661
-.00228
.04777
-.14367
-.02114
-.02833
.03330
.05373
.01829
.04957
.26920

.01268
-.00226
.05461
.00557
00'63
.00451
.09871
10713
.08361
.04347
12998

.01913
-.00228
.05065
-.06749
.00754
.10344
.11068
.09029
.04760
.17003


0.335
112.072
2.856
14.,23
4. f.?
.626
.443
1.493
1.533
2.829


.144
1 10. (14 R
3.300
.167
.186
.012
2.708
4.081
3.765
1.917


.355
1 11. ?01
3.007
1.328
.059
1 9.599
111.363
17.676
2.246


See footnotes at end of table.







-I

RtS.'LTS OF THE RLGRE.;SIO'I ANALYSES OF BUFFALO "NO SHOWS": 19;2-77


I.,' -'e-i Jeni var aIbles


Regressiun
c oefficenrl


F %alues


tauttion 1- en !enl .3rit'lr: The ratil) of 'o shoms" to total tickets sold r equals
9' I; F 2)eIua3ls 5.2 j52:
Telvid ;a .....................-..........9....................... -001, 0
Trc~s,~ m ---------------------------------------------------------- 0.0 19 '1..71
Tepi.e.t.jre........................- ................................ -------------- 19.719
P,e". -,:,. ............................................................. -L1 1I41 .090
H"e team's winlois er enla--( _......................................... O76S3 3. 131
',1-, team's win loci, ,-e ; rn a,
193 ---------------------------------------------------------............................................................. f095 139
19 ........................................................-----------------------------------------------------------...... --,11719 .381
195 ---...--.................................................... ----------------------------------------------------------. n2C5 .871
19 ---- -------------------------- ------------------------------------- -.04893 15.569
19>7.- ---- --.-- -- - -- --.--.---.----.--.-_--.------ -- -- _-.01825 .635
Constant ---------------------------------------------------................................................................... .20091 ..............
[quation 2 --[ie e'i lernt variabl!I Th. ratio of !io shows" to total tickets sold R: equals
C ,2 F19. 12) equals 139:
Tele.isel pames .......................................................... -----------------------------------------------------.01547 .854
Ternm;-.eralure ------............................................................... ---------------------------------------------------.002(.3 122202
Pr-:, i- to, ................................................................ 01)527 .155
Home team s *fi.i ional stan ling. ............................................ 01995 1 5.667
V'is''iri team 's ivisio'al standii.'. -. .. .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. .
19-3, .......--------------.....................----------------------------------------------.................01573 .415
13 ..................................................................... -.01113 .182
1;75---------------------------------------------------------------------- -.01353 .337
I1,5....................................................................... --+013S? .33
19- ----------------------------------------------------------......................................................................-- -.04991 16.364
1977,...................................................................... -.02-119 .883
Constant-.......-.................-........... ........................ 10255 .............
[Qua',io 3- Derendent variable: The ratio uFr no shovsA'" to total tickets sold R.' equals
0 5',541. Fi9. 32) equals 4...3-i21: I
Tele.ise.! Fames............................................................ -- 0'5) .204
Tern ;,e3tuie............................ -------------------------------------------------------- -.00193 118.420
Preciitation ----------------------------............................................................... 00807 .310
Home win-loss percentage times victor s win-loss [ ercentage.................... ---------------------.03158 .546
1973...................................................................... ---------------------------------------------------------------.01205 .283
197.1 --------------------------------------------------------------....................................................................... -.04305 3.296
195 --------------------------------------------------------------....................................................................... -.0405? 3. 360
197....................................................................... --.03972 3.673
1977..................................................................... --.00369 .029
Constant ............----------------.......-----..----------------------..----------------. 17721 ............


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF CHICAGO "NO SHOWS": 1972-77


Equation 1-Denenjeit variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold P ; equals
0.5,411: Fi.9.32) equals 4.241318.1
Televised Rames ...-------.----..-..- ------....--- -- ------------.
Ternrerature ...........-. .--..--------- ..---------------------
Pre:iitation ------------.................---.-------------------...----------.....
Home team's win-loss rercerta -..........---..-..-..-......-..............
Viliting team's win-loss percentage.........-- -- -......... ...------------
1913 .....- ......................---- ---.......-....-................------
1974-------------------------------
19 ,15 ---- -- --- ---- ------ ----- ------- ------- --- ---------- -- ----- --- -- ---- ---

197 ......................................................................
Constant.....-- ------------ --.......------------.--..-..------....
EQuatirin 2-D. e,'ije t variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R- "quil,
.'5Q-1; ,F(1i.31) equals 43Qc315:I
Televised games---.......--------------------------------------------
TepT reralure... --.............................---...------- --....-
PIP'i 1131101on .............................--..--.------- -.--.--.--...-....
r;o-,p team's divisional slanJinp ........................----------------------------------.......---.....
vi 'tinp. team's divisional slar d ....---------..............----...--------
1973 --................................................. ..........---- ---
19".1 ------------------------------------ ---------------------
------n-. ---..............------ ....... .........--------------

9i ......................................................................

0.5791q F, I ID .ual- 5.:- ''j-:I
Televised games ...-.- ..........................---------..---------------.
T,-r, erature ...-.............-........- .............................-------
Prf.\, i'.-' -..................................- ..- .... .- ...- ......---
Home win-loss percentage times s"' win lo s l'er F 'tj -..........................
1973 .. -.....--.........................-- ...-.....-...-- -----.-...-...
1974-----..............-- .........-.......-...---- --- .........- ------...-...
195 .......................................................................
197......................................................................
19 ,....................................
19761;-------------------------------------------------- -----------
----------------------------------------------------------------
r.onstant ......------------------------......--------------...--------------

Sep footnotes at end of table.


-0. 07699
-. ,44.
r:8133
.17233
-.( -5903
f,954'i
17647
+1"9 77
-.13721
I I 11"



-. 13062
- 1r 491,
i'i7337
ri73:3

19 1.. i
1956'
C- 9342

5e_ 802


1.636
'14.693
14.831
.551
.549
1.623
3.528
1.521
3.925
056


14.251
S19. 3i5
'4.481
3. 44
1. 5.7
2.958
S6. 859
1 4.638
1. 775
.528


--1f7 i9 1. 710
-- iI1409 1 7. 709
r'545 14 473
Llr., /. 1 1.210
".'^'^""""iiio
212h4 1 4. 405
.i' 7335 1 639
-.13450 3.921
.(i2817 .236
.39628 ..............










RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF CINCINNATI "NO H(C',S": 1972-77


'Independent variables '
Independent variables f ,: .p," e pr, i^


Equation 1-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 qu.Ils
0.77802; F(9, 32) equals 12.46190:1
Televised games ------------- - --------- - - --... . . .-----
Tem perature................. ..... ... .... ........ .. ...... ... ..... .. ...
Precipitation -........ .......... .......... -. .............. .................
Home team's win-loss :,ercenta.ee 2_ ... ...................... ...
Visiting team's win-loss -,er,:entgge............. .
1973 . . . . ............................................- -
19743..-......--- ..-.. . .
19754....-.-................. .. ........ . ... .. .... ...
1976.-.- ---..- -----....--- -.-- -
1977 .......... ...........-.. ......... ...-...... ............
Constant ------.-.. -----.. -.-----.. --.-......- ... ......
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no. shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.76915; F(10, 31) equals 10 ;: ;:
Televised games--.. .-. . . . ... ...... ...... ....
Temperature...-------------......- ........ .... .. ... . . .. .
Precipitation ------.------------- -- ----------
Home team's divisional standing........... ....... .....
Visiting team's divisional stand n -..... . ... .. -
1973---.-----.-- -------... -............. .... .-.....
1974........................ . ..-. .. ...... -..
1975 -... .. . .. ..
1976- .-...-----.-------------.....-. .. .
1977 -. ..- . .. ...
Constant... .. .-- -.. ....-.- --- --
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.77422; F(9,32) equals 12 19266:'
Televised games-----------------------------------------------
Temperature . .. .. ..-.
Precipitation--..------ --------------------------. ----------.---
Home win-loss percenta. a times visitor's win-loss percentage-------------------
1973 -..---------------------- ----------- ---.------------ -
1974-.....--.--------- ----------------------
1975..--.------------------------.----------------
1976 -...........----------..--- -----.-- --- -----.-..---
1977--- --.....-- .-- - - - - -- ------------------........... .----
Constant. -------------------------------------------------------------


- 00986 0.172
-..r'ro r30.286
.08596 I21.32

-.07125 14.795
.DJ51? .877
.03332 1.392
.02122 .570
--.d- 2.037
.11053 115.340
.24821-------------

-.02103 .678
--.W?; 128.656
.09106 118.597
-. (00174 .015
.01329 2.859
.01656 .346
.03109 1.054
,2-1 .383
-.05255 2.484
.09861 8.2 )J
.19400------------

-.00564 .050
-.00267 '29.301
.08558 120.956
-.09618 14.176
.0:016 1.224
.02628 .827
.01059 .141
-.05106 2.658
.09675 112.318
.24535 -. -- --


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF CLEVELAND "NO SHOWS": 1972-77


Equation 1-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.36142; F(10,31) equals 1.75453:1
Televised games..------- ------------------------------------- -
Temperature.-----------------------------
Precipitation ------------------------------
Home team's win-loss percentage--------
Visiting team's win-loss percentage----------------------
1973--------------------------------------------
1974----------- ---------------------- ------
1975-.--- ------------------------------
1976----------------------------------------------------
1977-.-------------------------------------------------
Constant--------- ------------------------------------- --
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.41210; F(10,31) equals 2.1730,::
Televised games-------------------------------------------------
Temperature.-----------------
Precipitation --...------------------------------------
Home team's divisional standing ... . . . ..------------------------
Visiting team's divisional standing ....----------. -----------------------------
1973 .. ..------------------------------ -
1974 .. ... . . . ..---------- - - - - -
1975------- --- - -- ---.. . . . ..-- -- --- - ---.---- -- ------
1976 ----------------------------------------
1977--------------------------------------------
Constant-------------------------------------
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of '"no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.33378; F(9,32) equals 1.78131:1
Televised games.-------------------- -------------------------------------
Temperature ------ --------------------------------------------------------
Precipitation ---------------------- -- -.-. -------------------------- -
Home win-loss percentage times visto's win-loss ie.:entae-_
1973_ . .. .....-----------------------.
19 74 __ _..-.--.. .. .. ..--. . . .
1975__--- ----------- - - - - -- - - - - -
1976 ----- ----------------------------------------------------------
1 9 7 7 -.. .. . . . .. . . . . . . -
Constant_----------


0.00679
-.00270
.03176
-. 03026
-.09162
05879
S105I1
07161
02516
05398
.21637

002,1
.0,691
-. iij2tM

.02218
02698
0%:
10363
.08167
051-70
07 '- I
.01486 .

00874
-. 2'bl
-.11 Fi-

.U <..I
";1'
181* ,'O
.18102 --..


See footnotes at end of table.


F values


0.CS
7.875
0* '
w..S
.u^
2.541
1. 190
' 4.352
1. '93

1. 108


.256
1 8. ::':
1. ct
1. 926
'4.962
1.653
S4. 775
3. 111
1. 151
2. :9


016
17. I

1.241
7 :'I
3.
2. V',
1 lJOS








'-'4;


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF DALLAS "NO SHOWS : 1972 77


Regress.on
cueflicienl[


[Luat on I Depe-de.it arable The ratio of "no show to total tickets sold R equals
C 535i.'7- Fd 2',) equals 3 743?2, 1
Tele. se.l gam es .. ....... .................... ..... ............. .... .....
I m perif.j e ...... .... .. ..... .
Pie pilat rin .........
H m. team w.n-loss percpnige........ .. .. ... .... ..... ..........
vsI~ --; 1,eam s v% n'I*IL :-ece-i I 3je
19 '3.-- -- -
197..

Cl'3stant vi. The rt o of "no to . R equals
quatic" 2 -De'"1,t variable at o of sho total tickets dR equals
0 4?:- r(?( 2' e'i ,als 2.57-',9'. I


0 05736
-.00058
-.00448
-. 15054
-.07518
-.02585
-.01137

-. 02455
.22 305


Televsd ;.ames ............... .. ............ ................ 04120
Tmpera' .'e.. -- . -. 00062
PrF-,p:tat 'n - -.00524
Horni team s di'is'onal stf.rdinR .......... ... .... ................. ...... 01089
Ss It team's divisional stand; ............ ...................... ....... .01015
1973 .............. .. .... ..... .. .... .... ...................... .02569
1971: -- - - - - - - - - - --.. ..... ......
1975 ........... ....... .................... ................ ........ 00945
1976 ................................. ...... ......................................
1977 .............. .. ................... .. ......................... 03725
Constant ..... .. ........... ........... .... .... ........ ...... ...... 03742
[quat.on 3 Deopnrdent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R equals
.49-03 Fi 9 2P equals 317333 1
Televised games ......................... ....... ..... ..- ................... .04940
Temp .alture............................................................... .00065
Pre<,pitaton ....... ... ........... ....... ...... ................... 00158
Home win-loss percentage times ,isitoi's win-loss percentage .................... -.09452
1973 ... ................................................................... .01974
1974 ..........................................................-. ...... .01232
1975 ..................................-................................ .01417
197 -................................................... ...............................
1977 .................................................................... .03035
Constant ................................................................. 70287


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF DENVER "NO SHOWS": 1972-77

a[Qui-,n 1--D-penment variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
r0.7?053 r(9 3) equals 9 16679
Televised games .....-......... . .... .. .. .. 0.01013 0. 15]
Temperature --....-.....-. ........... ..... .... ... ...... --------------- .-- 00210 1 36 897
P e-ipit'ion ... ....................................... ................... 05751 16.778
Home team's win-dss percentige............................................ -.09059 1. 357
Visiting team's win-loss percentage ..............------.-------------------.- -.02878 1.720
1973 .... -.......--... .. ...................... .....-- .-- .....- ....- .02951 2. 227
1974 ............ -.-.. .... .----.. -.......--...... ............. - .00706 .120
1975 -..............- .---...- ..... . ---------------- ---------- - .. .01335 .A26
1976). -----------------------........................... .... ... .. ............................
1977... ..... -... ........-- ...- ..--.- ..................---- -------- .03354 1.451
Constant .18861 ..............
EQ'.a'in 2-?-DepePn lent variable- The ratio of 'no shows" to total tickets sold R, equals
0 75720 F(9 1?) equals 11.08822:-
Televised Rames .... ..... -.......- ......... ....... ... ... .. ...-----. .03172 1,260
Temperature . --..................... ........... ---. ... -. 00222 144.416
Prerp,!'ati n ----- --- .05275 6 886
Home team s di.ision.,l stanlin _ -- - - - - - - - .02748 15 0' 5
Vi',iing team 's diision.3i standing .- - - - .. . .-. .00712 3 166
1973 ---- -- -- .0nf 78 4 571
1971 .01355 .509
1975 -------------- --01310 .459
lq7Gi
I 176 I, . . . . . . . . ------ -- -- --. . -- --. -. - .----- - -- - - -- -- --. .- .
1977 ...................................................................... .03107 2. 163
Constant -- - -03060 ..-.. .......
Eau3'nn 3--)eppndent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R3 equals
0.7n?9? F. .3,i erials 9 75997'
Televised games I .--- --------------------------- ----------.---...... --.....
Temorature .----- p'i'7 1 3' A87
Pre-iDrtliion 0'913 17.316
Hnmp Ain-loss percenla;e times visitor'ss win-loss percentage .........-..-...-.. -.05467 3 110
1973 ----- ----- 0 95 2. 781
.70
19~ .. . . . . . ... .. .. .. ...... ........ ..... ..... .. .90 .%5 177
19 75, r,"97 .L0
1976 ....... ....-.......... .. ........... .................. 90545 A. 77
1 -477 O- 0-380 .430
C-^n.ta", ..................... ....... .... ... .. .. ... .. .. ........ . I e .'L-^ 8 ..............
See f:ta ', at end of table.
See footnotes at end of table.


Independent vaiables


F values


. ..........


19 844
2 (42
.091
16 667
19 008
2 205
283

L963



,5.453
2 3 '
.107
1. 374
14 213
2.140
.271
i 3 731



17.271
2.867
.010
,7.28
.881
.310
.521
2.533







57

RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF DETROIT "NO SHOWS" 1972-77

Regretsion
Independent variables coefi ients F values

Equation 1-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.48094; F(10,31) equals 2.87329:1
Televised games.-----------------------------------------.............-------............ -0.00939 0. 191
Temperature-----------------------------------------------............................................................... -.00041 774
Precipitation----------------------------------------------- .04854 1 9. ','4
Home team's win-loss percentage.--........--- --........................... -.04779 .86
Visiting teams' win-loss percentage-....-----............---- -.---------.-... -.03120 992
1973-----------------------------------....................................................................... .01671 ,i.
1974--------------------------------------------------------- ....................................................................... .0103 .190
1975...................................................................... .07202 8. ..I
1976...................................................................... 00---------------------------------------------------------.746 07
1977------------------------------------------------.................................................................. -. 00010 0.
Constant.-------------------...... .......................................... 11164 ---- .....-
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.47549; F(9, 32) equals 3.22330: 1
Televised games-------------------------.....---........--....-..- -.01033 .257
Temperature..----..---------------..-...---------------------------------- -.00046 .953
Precipitation ---------------- ------------ --- ------- C,036 1 9.7-
Home team's divisional standing .--------------------------------------- .00391 ,
Visiting team's divisional standing ---------------- ------------------------ .00663 1. 294
1973...................................................................... 00911 19
1974...................................................................... 00664 .059
1975 .............................--------------------------------------------------------- .06948 1 9.390
19762- -----------------......... -------------.........-----------------...........................----------....................-...................... ...
1977......- -------------------------------------------------------- -.00251 .014
Constant------------------------------------------- .05247 ------------
Equation 3-Dependent variables: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.47126; F(8, 33) equals 3.67651:1
Televised games.-.....------...-... ---..--...-----------------------------. -.01000 .234
Temperature............................................................... ---------------------------------------------------.00040 .779
Precipitation.......---------------------------------------------------- .04889 1 9. -5S
Home won-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage.------..---.-------- -.05657 1.088
1973 ..-------.......-----....- ---. ----------------------...---------------........ 01233 .365
1974 ---------------------------------------------------------............................................................... 01145 .314
1975---------------------------------------...........................................-...-------..-----------.......... 07305 1 12.821
1976 --------------------------------------------------------------- .00473 .050
19772 ................................................................................ . . . .
Constant------------------------------------------------------ .08714 .........

RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF GREEN BAY "NO SHOWS": 1972-77

Equation 1.-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.47017; F(9,32) equals 3.15519:1
Televised games2--- .-------...---- .-.---.----.... ..-----. . ....------------.. .-- ...------ .
Temperature....-----..----------------------------------....................---------------- -0.00159 112.085
Precipitation-.--.. -----------------....-------.... .............. ------------------- .00963 .204
Home team's win-loss percentage .-----. --------------.........--------------- -.03268 .301
Visiting team's win-loss percentage .--...------------------.. ------------ -.05769 2.421
1973 .-....-------------------------------------------.. -----..--------- .06065 14.890
1974 -- .. ---------------------------------------------------------............ 03910 1.650
1975.......... --------------------------------------------------------- .02582 .740
1976 ---------------------------------------------------------....................................................................... 01654 .281
1977 ---------------------------------------------------------.................................................................. 03890 2.074
Constant.--...---------------------------..................----------------- .13067 ------..-......----
Equation 2.-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.43028; F(9,32) equals 2.68529:1
Televised games..-----...- ------------------------------...........------------------... 00491 .025
Temperature..-----..---------.--...------......------ .----------------- -.00164 112. 112
Precipitation.... -.-- --------------------------------.----------------- .01300 .343
Home team's divisional standing... -------. --------..----------------------- -.00318 .113
Visiting team's divisional standing-...------. ------------------------------- .00350 .265
1973-----.... ---------------------------------------------------- .05285 3.728
1974 ......... ..--------------------------------------------------------- .02016 .480
1975 ...........--------------------------------------------------------- .00638 .047
19762.-. . . ........--... .- .... ... ... . ..-.... .. ....- ... .. .. . .. . . ..---- -- -------
1977 ---- ---------------------------------------------------------- .03632 1.694
Constant..-....-------------....----..----.......--...---.------------..------------- .09769 .......---...--
Equation 3.-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.43529; F(8,33) equals 3.17964:i
Televised gamEs2.----------------------------------------------------------------------
Temperature....- ------------------------..-------------------------- -.00163 1 12. 39
Precipitation--------..--....---------------------------------------- .01231 .328
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage----.. ---------------- 0:056 .733
1973 ----.---------------------------------------------------------. 052,6 3.850
1974 ------------------------------------------------------------ ........................................03043 1.014
1975 ------------------------------------------......--------------- .01914 .424
1976 .------------------------------------------------------------- .00839 .084
1977----------.. ----- ..---------.------------------.----------------- 0362 1.623
Constant -------.-- -------.----------------------------------------- .108!0 ..............

See footnotes at end of table.









RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF HOUSTON "NO SHOWS": 1972-77

ReRression
In',eprndent variables coefficients


quji'i n I :jipin.ie'it va iable ITpe rla'io of "no shows to total tickets sold RI equals
0 1.19 F(,0 .1) equaL3iS 6 6 'R- I
Televised games ........ ..... ........ ............. ..................
Tern "Iff .3ta l e .---...-.---.... .... ........ .... .... .. ..... ........
Pre ,' lal ,in .... ......................................
H inp le.Ir',..'s win-loss percent e .e .....................................
V, I i' teams's win-loss 1.e, entage -- .........
19 '3
19 1 ......... .......... .
19 ) . .. . ..... ... ... ...... - . .. . -- -- - -- -- - - -- - - _-.. . . . . ..
19'6 . .
Constant .. .... ..... ..
[QviT,,--1 2 ripenle i' va able IThe ratio of "no sho*s to totl tickets sold R? equals
n ;7I1 F" q )'j equ Is 4 '952b:i
Teleu,.sod james -- - - - - -- - - - - -
Teleiwsed r ames ...... . .. .. .. ..... .............................. ...
Tern, ratuie
Pie(', Tat'on 2 I. . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . .
Home teams's divisional slandi ng -- - - - -- - - - - - -
V %-t g; team 's di, isional standing. ... .................. .............. .. .
19"
19'3 ............ -.-.-.-. ..... .. .... ..... .-. ... ..-....... ....-.... .... ...
1975 ....... _... ... ... ..... -.. -.....-..-............ -......- ........ ....
1976 ..... .. ..............................................--.............
1977......................................................................
Constant -- ............. .. .. . .. .. .......... ......-. .-....... ...............
[aua'ion 3-Dependent variable The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0 55175, F(8, ') e juals 5.07756-
Televised games 2 .............................................................
Temrnperatuie ...........................................................
Piecipitaton. ...... --
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage ..... - ........... --
1973 .......... .. .........................................................
1974 -- ............ .....................................................
1975 ......................................................................
1976.....................................................................
1977-------......................................................................
Constant ........... .......................................................


0 01074
-.003?5
-. 01801
-- 31517
-.02145
-.05830
-.11086
-. 08903
-.14370
-.056?2
.56899


0 097
S20 026
I %9
1 17.500
.267
2.709
1 7.495
2. 943
1 9 623
1. 742


-.03948 1. 481
-.00261 11. 112
...- I .......... .-
.02081 2. 157
.00712 .553
-.07509 4. 133
-.03939 .963
.05010 1.543
-.03858 .900
-.02514 .418
.25078 ..............


-.o00313 1 14. 373
-.02307 .439
-.17837 6.163
-.05768 1.990
-.03726 .921
.03502 69
-.04411 1.12
-.02586 .4
.40457 --------------


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF KANSAS CITY "NO SHOWS ': 1972 77


Equition I-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R equals
0594418; F(lri 31)equals 4 544r: -I
Televised :ames ... ......... ...............................................
Temprneralture. ...--------------................................................
Precipitation .. .. .......................-................................ ..
Home team's win-loss percentage ...........................................
Visiting team's win-loss percent .-... .....................................
1973 ....................................................................
1974....................... -----------................................................
1975 .... ........ .. ... ......... ...........................................
1975 -- - - -- --- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1976 .. ... ..... ...................... .. ....... .. .. .. .. _... ...
1977 .....................................................................
Constant ... ......................................................... .. ..
Equation 2-Deppnient variable; The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R. equals
0571143 F(9 321 enuals4 74078: 1
Televised gam es .... .... ..-.. ................................. ..............
Tem perature ..............- ...... ... ......... ... ................ .. ......
Precipit.o tion - - - - - - - ..........................
Home team 's ."vision il standin ....................... .......... .........
V'siting team 's dlmional stli injin .................... .......................
1973 ........... ................... ...... ....... ........ .. .......
19 7 4 -- - -. . . . ..- - - - - - - - --.. . . .
:9 75 ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
1976 ....... ........... ...................................................
1977 ............................................ ..... .... .... .......

Equation 3 Flenandent variable: The ratio of "no shows"'' to total tickets sold R: equals
0 51"119; F(9 32) Pqii.3is 4 52981: 1
Telev sed aim ps .... .--.... .. .. ..... .... ..... ......... ...... ....
Temperature -----
Prpc niit.nn .r....... -- - -
Hri-n- win-loss ppirrentige times visitor s %in-loss per l .. .... .. ...
1973.
1974
1 9 74 .................... .-.. .. .... ...
1 9 7 5. .. . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . .
1971
.. .. . ...Constant ....... .... ........... -
Constanl t . .. ... ....... ... - -- - - - _- -- -. - -----. -. ----


-0.22289
-.00389
.03122
-.27606
-.01315
-.01870
.09810
.32847
.05153
-.00765
.42812


3.630
114.211
.322
2 583
.042
.106
1 941I
17.551
.466
.017


-.22161 3.523
-.00401 t 13.222
.06580 1.464
.02686 .660
-.00914 .495
-.hAR,9 .054
.n6963 .862
.30483 '6,163
.02313 .058

.25943 . .


-, fl1'2?4
U5558
-- 01591
-- ,M.Ai0


027990
07734914
.34914


? 541
' 16. 75s
1.041
.()15

.5n4
15 V`98
.193
249
US..
.504
'5 298
.183
.249


See footnotes at end of table.


F values









RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF LOS ANGELES "NO SHOWS": 1972-1977


Independent variables

Eauaft:n 1I-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R'- equal-
0.60453; F(10, 31) equals 4.73878:
Televised tames...----------------------................ ..........
Tem perature -.-.............. ....... .. .... .......... .. ........... ..
Precipitation ..- -..------------------ -- ---.. .. ....... ...........
Home team's win-loss percentage ----------------...------------------------..............
V ',;,ting team's win-loss percentage---....-- ...-------------
1973 ------------------------------------------------------ *. ----
1974 ............------ ---------------.--------... -. .--
1975 --------- -...----------------------.----.--..- ....---.....
19 76 .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .... .. ... . .. . . .
1977 ...---------------------------------.--..--...........--....
Constant--------------------------------------------------------
Equation 2-Derendent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.56874; F(10, 31) equals 4.08832:1
Televised games ... ... .....
Temperature.---------------- ---------------------------. ------- -
Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . ... ...........
Home team's divisional standing . .. .... .... .
'visiting team's divisional standing .... .. . ... ... .. .
1973 --------------------------------------------------
1974... . .... .. .. .. ..
1975- ---------------- -------------.......
1976 ...----------------------------------------------------------
19 77 .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Constant -----------------------.----------------------------
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.58232; F(9, 32) equals 4.95704:1
Televised games ---------------------------------
Temperature-----------------------------------------------.-
Precipitation--------------------------------------
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss .:'ercentage .-.. ...---- .---.-
1973 -------------------------------
1974 ....... .. .. ... .. .. . . . ... .. . .
1975----------------------------------
1976....-------------------------------------------------
1977----- --------------- ------ ---
Constant.. -----------------------------------------------------


pc-.,rr ,n
C,"ei t I "- -,


0. 17'4
-.00104
05343
-- 0,': I;;
-.9' -V
-.07040
-.01037
- ..'I' C
-.06105

-. Ujl3


.0'2?1
-.00120
.05227
.02140
.01003
-.00121
-.01913
-.06955
-.04178
-.02090
.13395

.10793
-.00107
.05011
-. 099U1
-.01330
-.03152
-.05265
-.04040
-.03274
.21463


F values


111.469
1.546
2.302
2.034
3.702
.191
2.078
1 6. -52
3.313
2.473


110.046
1. ''^
2.075
2.492
2.335
.030
18.297
2.815
.716


13.094
1.597
2.046
1 5.440
.325
1.824
1 6.949
3.031
1.847


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF MIAMI "NO SHOWS": 1972-77

Er ja',ion 1I-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.73j24; F(10, 31) equals 8.39186:1
Televised games -------------------------------------------------------- 0.08382 16.608
Temperature --...---------------------.---.......----------------------- -.00364 111. -:7
Pre,:ipii-tion..... --------- ------------------------------------------- .04763 4. 110o
Home team's win-loss percentage--..----------------------------- ----------- .02940 .119
Sv:,iii ng team's win-loss percentage .--------------------- ---------.-------. -- '.,1. 117.742
1973... ------------------------------.------------------------ -.05715 2.981
1974. --------------------------------.------------------------..------ .C'9S .565
1975......----------------... ---. ---------------------------------------- --- .C847 .G28
1976 .--.-----..-----.---.---...---..---------- .... -------------------------- --- .12450 16. : '.
1977--------------------.............. --- --------------------------------- --.04026 1.J
Constant------------------------------------------------------------- .47501 -----
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.65569; F(10, 3i) equals 5 9ii361 :1
Televised games ------ ------------------ ----------------------------- .05409 2.149
Temperature------------..............---.--------------------------------------- -.00337 17.101
Prezip:!ttion ---.......-....-. .--.------------------------------- .147 3. 'I
Home team's divisional stand r,............................................. -. 01316 o
Visiting team's divisional standing---------.-------------------------------- 01896 1 7. -
1973 -----------------------------------.--------------------------.06981 3.-
1974................. ------------------------------------------------------------- -.' 9
1975 .--------------------------------------------.... ------------- .175
1976.................................------------------------------------------------------------- -.115 19. -'3
1977-------.......---------------...................---------------------------------------.03831 1.394
Constant------------------- ----- ..---------------------------------- .'9 ------------
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows"'' to total tickets sold R" equals
0. o1?5; F(8, 33) equ:is 9.82273: 1
Televised imes------------------------ -------------------------------. 1. 17. -
Temperature----...--....--------------------------------------------- --- -.. 1 ._ j-'
Pre:i:'; t lion ...- . . .......... .... . . . ..--. . ..------- - ---- --- --- - _". 3.
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss rpr:enf,-". -i------------------ -.1 14.
1973... ------------------- --.. ------------------------------ -. ; 1. :
1974 ------------------------...-------------------------------------------.----------------
1975 ----- --------------------------------------------------------- 03515 1. 131
1976 .-----------------....------------------------------------- --- --- 3 7.I
1977..----------...-- .---.-------------.. ------------------ '. -
Constant-----..-------------. ------------------------------------ ----- .4 ....--.......

See footnotes at end of table.
35-9','-1-78- 5







0O

F';S' T'TS OF THf P,';q7iSSIflN AN'ALYS[S OF P,'IiN[SOTA "dO SHOWS.: 1972 77


I !-' 1 1 S


I- -.',"., r ate Th r i n "i n -i show's" t to total lt'c t sold R equ.ils
"'.., | ." ..l'+ [ 1 I'" .* !
T.. -*' .. ... ... .... ..-... ........ .....- .. . ......... -- n0 1193 4.915
T . .. .. .. .. . . .... ...... .................. r l iI16 41.388
F n .. .. .... ...................................................r 3 12. 2 I76
Hone te~ms $ ~ ilos$ : ,.;1 q... r,!i ,I, ?rj
l *' ** ~ ... ..... ........ ...... .... .. . ......... -. ilS+ .4?
te*m $ 1 r *" *- ,t, .,+ ... .. ........... ...................... -- 17l 5 1.388
S." .. ... .. .... . ... .. .... ...... ....- ........... .... 138 ,015
I. -" ..-.-.-- -.. .-..-.. .. .. .. ......... ...................... rtn715 .571
-1 -- ---.-0-79 .587

i 1~-".. ,OYUD 1.L e- -. .. .^,\ "t t^ 'i3 t, .753
Te *e** .,: .., ..., .. ..... ,... ,..... -..-............... ...... 0 99............ ? Gs 4 .35
J. it ;; *[,, 1 bIn shos rtottlt ckets sold Rs' eow"le'Is 09

T. sI J *rii .. 1 14 356
----- ----------------- 11) 1I9 t 347 594
T ... .* .... ... ................. .. .......- .....,..,.................... -- .riill9 H47.59,
F n ... ....... ................................................... 9. 16.238
H me teim's ,1 ;. I ,' I ." ..... ... ..... .. ........... .... .......... 129 .007
S' tems.1. 'iI stii In ......... ................................ ,03rJ3 1.206


1 -- -........... --.....----------------...-..... ...... ....... .... ... -.00977 1.059
2 - - --
-77 ----------t --- ------.-. ----------- ------ ------------------------- ---------. .,0Iri6 3 1.. 213
.0636~7 - - - -
S. l.... ",;'i variable: Th ratio of "no h .s" to total tickets s ld R' equ.als
7;.-" :},,-.. ,l;,14+. ?\'i?
T ed",............................................................ 0,211]2 1 6. 660
ree se n~--------------------------------------------------------- ml1 aI 5
T+",'.' r ,['*..........................................................-..... -.01116 45 353
P:. I .n.... ..................................................... P'753 1 15.483
Home w n-loss [.,e;..'A -ik' times '..s t-ir s win-loss percp e................. -------------------- 12041 1 7.:0
1 1------------------------------------- -----------------------....... f. 88-
l" "4 ....,.................................................................. --. or"n3] ".8lo
1 7--------------------------------------------------------------- ...................................................................... -.00875 .930
Cosn ....................................................................... ..............
--- ---------77. . .. ------970------------------------------ .089 1.026
Constant-------------------------------------------------------------- .07327

PmiJLTS OF WHE P RESSIO 4 ANALYSES OF NEW ErJGLA!ID -"\0 SHOWS": 1972-77


Equ.- -1- p1,1 P,,t variable: Thp ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.7 :'73: F(10 31) eiuals 7.69311: 1
Televised --mes-------- ..-------. ------------------.-.------------- 0
T'-:ip'at!' re................................................................ -
P'..vtin.. -----------------------------------------------------
h-rTP If I S -.111 ILIS pprcenl~a e -- ------ ----- ------ ------ ----- ---
; team's win-loss r -i'nfa --...- --- --------------------- -------
19 .--------.-......................- ..-.....- .........-.....-- .
197,1" --- ---- --- --- ---- --- --- --e .........--............- -........... -.....
| 9 --- -- - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - -
197C .......................................................................
197 ......................................................................
1977.......................................................................
Constant-------------------------------------------------------...................................................................
{[qi-. 2r,-- "i. m,,0nt va'iable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
r(5:97 Q'43-.') eq.3ls 6 .573j i
Televised ;.-ms............................................................ -
Temperature..------- .--------- --------------------------------------- -
Pr' ,i,+a +,n. .
H ,m, nv- terns ,i.i,,ijnl q.tanlir,"
,. ..--------.-. ----.. --.-.-.....-.--.--.-.------
-------------------------n'1'*,,: .----- - -- -------- ----------. -----. ------.
'., ''i' team's \'i.i- 'I-' i i o lni............................................
w n <.'.... ......Z .-..-.......-.... .........................................
197 ............. - - --.......... . . . . . . . . . . . .
19 : ... ..-... -----......... ..... ---...-...-- ---------.------ --- ------...

19"........................................................................
197
Constant ......... ... ..... . . . . .....-. -. -. .
Vr(;', .- :.i't variable: The ratio of "no sho.-..s to total tickets sold R1 cn,,.'m.s
,. r .:..,; F '-' r equals 1', 7 .
Tele ise Igames.--.-.---..--.---------------.. .------------------------
T.r., (, T;..i ' .............................................................. -
Tr-: p,'" .' .i --..--- ..........-... .. ------. .. -.......-- ..- .... ..----
Home win-loss \ -'-''i,.- inr. visitor s win-loss ,'"'.; ... --- -


S -----...---...- ......... ...------*.----------.--------- .

Constant-..-----.------ ------..-------------------------------- ----


See footnotes at end of table.


Re;rc einn
c De ici ents


F v.ilues


00492
.00019
08496
.06022
.0?734
.00162
. 05805
.01134
.0914
. Oqo,
.07312


.003.10
ON) 14

0.0"~, 7f
. nFr
orrO;7

. nq7
.05533

rq..7n
C. ;6! 3

Srn)1.49
+C ,1'3

or, 0 0.. 3

,OL.2 3
S' 99

(r,' 1 q
rti18


0.219
1.963
S31. 101
16.604
3. 125
.013
1 17.374
.566
14.606
.464


.093
?. 191
129. 857
1.PK9
.00'9
.511
S17.023
.8043
,197


108
n8
1 33. 478
4. 960
.837
18.0 5


.2773





61

RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF NEW ORLEANS "NO SHONS": 1972-77

Regression
Independent variables coefficients F values

Equation 1I-Dependent variable; The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.41323; F(7, 27) equals 2.7133. I
Televised game2 mperature-------------------------------------------------------................................................................ -7 ..
Temperature:. 2 -------------------------------------------------- ----------0. .....1
Prec, P-1,:-[,on 2-..
Home team's win-loss percentage-------------------------------------------- -. '. 2. -.,1
Ss ;,:i team's win-loss percent e 2...--------- - ------------------------------ ------.. -----------------..
1973 ...............--....- ----.. ---..-.... .... --... -..-.-. -. ...... ....--. CI9:3 2.899
1974..-..-------------------------------..---------------------.---------- .05234 1.556
1975 -------..--..- ------------------------------ --------- . 14 2
176 2........-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1977--- ------ -------------------------------------------------- -.01354 .125
Constant -- - - - - --- - - --- - - - - - - - -- .34335-----
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.':904; F(7, 27) equals 2.2,,-Ji:.
Televisedgames- 2 -....- .---------.-------.---------------------- ----.----...... .... -....-
Temperature. -------------------------------------------------------. 00244 5.111
Prec pitation 2........
Home team's divisional standing._-- -- -- --. 01il .227
V', ; :in team's divisional stridin--.-------------- --------------------- .'' .4 .447
1973.........................................--------------------------------------------------------------. 08338 4.008
1974...-------.. --.-.. --..--------------------..--------------------------- .02202 .287
1975-..........................................................-------------------------------------------------------------- .02527 .32
l -.. --------------------------------------------------- ------- --. -.7 .301
Co sa t . .. . .. .............. ..........- - -- ......-- - .. ..........- .._ .. 2 ^ 3^ 7 0
Constant.. ------ .2-J'--
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.39,:'51; F(7, 27) equals 2.47129:1
Televised games2---------------------------- --------
Temperature. ----------- ------------------------------------------- -.00230 14.9
Pr.: p, i n...... ----- ------------------------------------------------- .00941 .
Home win-loss pe.!cent.;e times visitor's win-loss percentage-..-------------------- -.18873 1.449
1c73 -- .........--- --_..-- ----- ----- .07657 3.488
1974..................... --------------------------------------------------------------.04557 1.156
1975 --.... ------------------------------------------------------------ .02642 .431
19--.72..... . . . . . ........................._..._..................................... .: .24.372
1977----------------------------------------------------- -."':24 .372
Constant -........... ----------------------------------------------------------- .29629 ------

PES'JLTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF NEW YORK GIAr;.TS "N!O SHOWS": 1972-77

EL'at,'-.n I-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0 C '- F,.'I, 31) equals 3.96059:1
Televised games.----------------------------------------------------- 0. (i1'94 1. 1:')
Temperature.................... ------------------------------............-----------------------... --. 00330 10.475
P..' a n.- ............. ..................... .......-- .........-.....- .... 15441 i 17.410
Home teamr's win-loss percentage ----- ----------------------------------- -. i33 ] 1. 193
': .. team's win-loss ercendaie----------------------------------------- 10639. 5. '"
1973............... ..-------------------------------------------------------------- 19330 1 7.493
1 -74...............................-------------------------------------------------------------- .21375 i 8.
1:-.--. .......... .. 1 5 -----------------------------------------------------------4.
1 76...................................................... --------------------------------------------------------------. 1449 2.
1977__ 0 ;-3 2.E,4
Constant--------------------------------------------------..........................................................---. .217 3
Eqation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.52233: F(9,32) equals 3.88791:
Televised ares...... ----------------------------------------------------- 0?0 .330
Temperature ----------------------------------------------------- -- -. 341 11.
Precipitation.....--------------------------------------------------------- 1.,uJ9 14.372
Home team's di. i.jnal standing 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------......................................................................
\ :. ;, team's divisional sa-'d -------------------------------- -------- .0 'I
\^ '3 . . . ., ,d .. . .. . 0!.. .144 1 _. 5 ".91
19 7-45.--------------------------------------------------------------- .1 1 912
,1974,.............. ...........................18
1975 -------------------------------------------------------------- .09200 3.304
17 --------.--......-....--.................................... ..-------------------------------------------------' .
1977 ....................................................................... .O-"0:9 i. 1:'5
Constant--------------------------------------------------------------- !-F1Il') 1
Constant -- - - - - - - - --.....-..................................... 1: 10 .-.--.------..
Equation 3-OD';'.ndent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R' equals
0.58005; F,.9.32) equals 4.91105:1
Televised games.----.---..------.. ...------------------------------------- .04305 7
Temperature ..--------------------------------------....----------- -.0,)0 1 13.2
Pieclpiati.n n................................................................ '"9.; 1 21. :.03
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage.--..----..---------- -- 32824 7. 793
1973 ..................................--------------------------------------------------------------. 010 11. 7240
1974 ..................................-------------------------------------------------------------- .21854 1 10. 860
1975 .........-------------------------------------------------------------- 13083 1 6.986
1976 ..........---------------------------------------------------.............----------- 15615 4.563
1977--------------------------------------------------------------....................................................................... 10192 1 4.486
Ccnstanl. .......... .........------------------------------ ............................................... 1-,73 -.----------

See footnotes at end of table.






62


RES'JLTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF NEW YORK JETS "NO SHOWS": 1972-77


Re.rle'.on
1 '- .ent variables coefficients


,.'.' 1 nip. p,, .nr variab le The rati of "no shows" to total tickets wold R. equals
L' .' L I I ) e 1l,1 31 : "I
T -q '
I,, ) s v i,' I )'L .. ...................................................... I..-

,-t a w rls ,-:,, 1.'( ....... ... ....... ... .. ...... .. .......... ...
. . .'. .'.e. . .t. . .. . .e.:.. .. ... . . ... ... . .... .....
*1 e
tem* wa -ls ''r i' .


Constan ...................................................................
f variable Tnrie ratio of no s'. is to total tickets sold R: equdls
T ol z F - ., ) -'--. 3l-, .. :-...- -
TeleseJ. ...............................................................
T.--- itur,.? ...............................................................
Home ta 's i.: .r". .. ... .... ...............................................
team 's ili ..,- als* t- n^. .. ...... ... .... ............... ... .... .... ....
-. team's i.Ii: al s"j ---n.'. .


S.......--.-..-...---....-.-...-....-...-.................................


aLI 'on .- [.'. 'i .r,! variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
S*. F i 'I C e4J-ls 3. 13,'3: I
Televise vrre. ..............................
T^.:r-" .'*.lt'ij" p^ .................................................. ............
P'" : p ---------.. --.. -.- --- - -- - ---------..-----... . --. ---.- .---------
H *- -. win-loss er.-?'ita..,e times visitor's win-loss percentage....................
i--i.---------------------------------------.--.----W------------.------.---
-'--'4-----------------..-.-.-.----------------.------...-....-........

C t .*
Co --stant-------------------.-.----..- - ---- --


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF OAKLAND "NO SHOWS": 1972-77


EQuat on I r-''enident varable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R" equals
f i '. r li I -l) e? uals 6 b:21 : 1
Televsed games.------ ------------..------------------------.-.---
Tempratre ..........................................................
rr, '. -;n .. ......... . .......i.. .. .....i.. .....i... ....... ..
Home team's win-loss percentage.................. ........... ......
\ team's Vwin-loss pe:.LL;ta.e ...........................................
1 "4 "
i^.- ---------- .----------------------.-------------.--------.--
--- ...--.----------------------------------------.----.-----.-.---

Constant ----------- ---------a-------------------------a-- ------------
[Qu.It 2-" n variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total ticket, sold R'equals
;. ;,.,'. h "1 ,) equals 6.71 ".':2 I
Telev-se aames ----------- ----------------------------------------
Tele ^''-ed'}'i ..es............................................................

H" nme team's ri ..s oinal stamjrln.i ............................................
I team's d .-^nal iiandui .-
r'. t a .. . . ..:.ra --;,.n . . . ...........- .- -- .-- .- . -..... ... -...
..- --......-... ..-------.- --- -------------

\r^' ........................................................................
1 '4
-- .......- ..................-.-.--- ------- ------ ....-- ..-- ..-- ..---.
1'.,77
Constant -.......---.--.---.----------..-.---------------.--------------. -
Friuii. n 3-Dei.'nil'-nt variable: The ratio of "no shows"'' to total tiLket so ld R- equals
S,'. ;.; F-i.' 2) equals ,.uL a:s.:
Televised ames ..------------.....----------------.---------.-----.--------------
Tpn, r 'tijre.......................... ...... ........ ... .... .............
PrP,- i, !at.on --..-....--...-....-.---.. -.....-----... ---. ----..........-
Home win-loss percentage times 5.'itoi's win-loss percentage................
1\73........................................................................

-..-.....................................................................
1977 .......................................................................
o n ..-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Constant ------------------------------------------------------


See footnotes at end of table.


F values


0.04161
-. Dj571

-. O514Vi
-.01613
-f 1235
--.rl ? S
- ri, i

.4V337

n.3253
-.O'57l
.095nI
-.02.117
-, f~ilu '
0-, 012 19
-. 0495,
--.5218
1-. loI124
--.14?25
-.'11914
.5h053


.03122
-. UJSl
lOnsI
-. 03073
-.04541
-. 04925
-.09040
-. 08n79
-.04264
.45363


0.709
18. 545
1 7. 2f7
.072
.011
556
.746
2.146
.473
643


.517
* 18.994
S6.5 70
.512
.049
.819
.866
2.542
2.397
.937



.720
119 481
17.626
.057
.731
.797
2.3n6
2. 054
.735


0.03395
-.00133
.07763
-.13181
-. (i02fi6
,0F67
.04039
.007/8
-. 00431
.00636
.22277


.03769
-.00094
.05900
.07817
.00968
.0.1.181
.01414

.02166
-.110.'69
00.'23
O04n


.03789
--. 00n150
.07726
-. 07040
.04222
.01696
.03094
.01449
.00970
.11784


14.167
1. 928
124.883
2.451
1 4.938
1. 73/
14. 173
.077
.081
.122


15.454
.923
111.812
4.026
t 4 454
S5.637
15.480
2. -116
715
.155


15.178
2. 351
123.541
16.231
S4.512
5. 755
2.455
.297
.272











Indepei


63

RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF PHILADELPHIA "NO SHOWS": 1972-77


dent variables Cue liLI iils


Equation 1-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.68858; F(10,31) equals 6.85442:1
Televised games ---- --------------------------------- -----.....
Temperature...---------- -----------------.-..-..... .-.. .... .... -.....--.
Precipitation -.............--------------------------
Home team's win-loss percentage--- -----------------------------
Visiting team's win-loss percentage. --- ------------------------
1973 ................-------...--.....--...........................
1974 ...................................................----------------
1975........---...-.........................---.........----------------...
1976 .............--.---... .............-------------------.
1977...-------------------.------------------------------
Constant-...----------------------------------------------------.
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.65725; F(10,31) equals 5.94438:
Televised games---.----------------------.-. --------------...
Temperature......---------------------------.----------------
Precipitation....------------------------------------.---------
Home team's divisional standing--- -------------------------------.
Visiting team's divisional standing--...-----................................
1973-----.................------------------------------
1974 ---------------------------------------------------
1975 ....---..........------------.------------ ---------
1976...----------.---------.-....-------------.------------.
1977-...--------------------------------------------------
Constant--- ----------------------.................................................
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.66119; F(9,32) equals 6.93882:1
Televised games------ -------------------------------------
Temperature --------------------------------------------
Precipitation...-----------------------------------.--------..
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage---------------
1973....----------------.-------------------------------
1974 ........................----- ------------------------
1975-..............................................------ ..--.....
1976 ..................------. .------------ -------------
1977-.---------------------------- ----------------------
Constant ------------------------------------.................................................


-0. (19530
-.00577
.16956
-.12378
-. 17811m
.01892
-.04',16
-.04594
-.18455
-.06054
.64363

-.14092
-.00571
.16805
.01126
.02157
.02404
-.04090
-.02893
-.20652
-.07172
.43383

-.11607
-.00557
.17306
-.35174
.00713
-.03570
-.03846
-.20696
-.05708
.57369


F values


1.133
125.578
119.447
.;25
16.250
.124
70
.730
3.363
.575
--------------

2.324
1 22. 295
1 16.937
.209
3.072
.176
.494
.268
3.605
.709


1.585
'23.293
19.257
3.585
.016
.444
.485
4.083
.484


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF PITTSBURGH "NO SHOWS": 1972-77


Equation 1-Dependent variable: The ratio of ;;no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.60205; F(10, 32) equals 4.84119:1
Televised games ------ ----- -------------------------------- 0.01080 0.074
Temperature.--------------- ------------------------------ -.00121 110.201
Precipitation-.-- ----------------- --------------------------- .04326 1 8.991
Home team's win-loss percentage--- ----------------- -- -.09475 3.754
Visiting team's win-loss percentage --- ------------------------------ -.07486 17.886
1973-.------------------------------------------------------------- 04291 2.423
1974..-------------------------------------------------------------- .04624 4.258
1975.....------ --------------------------------------.------ ------- .05379 14.730
1976..---------- ------ --------------------------------------------- .01256 .073
1977 ......------ ------------------------------------------------- 02041 .965
Constant.....------ ------------------------------------------------ .16702 .-----------
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.54615; F(9, 33) equals 4.41242:1
Televised games2- ----------------------- ------ ----- -- ------------ ------------------
Temperature----- ----------------------------------------- -.00137 112.136
Precipitation......------------------------ ---------------------------- 03802 1 6.499
Home team's divisional standing.----------------------- .00405 .227
Visiting team's divisional standing-...-------------------------------------- .01363 1 6.095
1973..-------- ------ ------------------------------------... -------- .01191 .295
1974 ...--------. --.---------- .----------------------------------. .03436 2.433
1975-.--------- --..------------------------------------------.. ---- .03080 1.753
1976.......---- ---- ----------------------------------------------- -.00364 .024
1977 ------------- --------------------------------------------- ---- .01988 .679
Constant ------------------------------------------- ----------- .05480-----------
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.57435; F(9, 33) equals 4.94759: '
Televised games ...----- -------------------------------------------- .00546 .019
Temperature ---- ------------------------------------------ -.00116 1 9.073
Precipitation......------ ---------------------------------------------- .04004 17.739
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage------------------- -. 10673 1 8.861
1973 .---------------------. -------------------------------------- 02964 1.583
1974 --------------------------------------------------------- .03749 3.403
1975-...-- ------------------------------------------------- .04194 3.973
1976------------- -------------------------------------------------- .00218 .002
1977-.-------------------------------------------------------------- .01611 .592
Constant ----------------------------------------------------------- .11151 ------------


See footnotes at end of table.







C4

PfSULILTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF ST. LOUIS "NO SHOWS": 1972-77


,er 4ent v.Ti,.iblI coRefiier n alu
I r, e[,e'i .'e;n v'v;.bles coeffcients F alues


[ Cut n I Pererdfrl ariatbe: The rat o of "no shows" to total tickets sold R: equals
0.65185 F(9 32) equals 6 652? 1
Tele%'sed ames .. ... ...........--..--- ....................... .....
Temperature...---...........................-.......- ........-......
Prer pi.tat o'-i
Home team s win-los .ercePintae -- ..- .....
,s I tn team's w n-ioss i ercenlage e

1974 -------......................................................................
19 75 ..... .. . .. .. .. ..- -- --- -- -- -- -- -- -.. -- - -- -- -- -- - - - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
1976 -
1977
1977.......................................................................
Constant ......... ................... .................
[quaton 2- Deriendent variable: Th ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.62346 F(1031)equals 5 13285: I
Televised games ........ ..... ..................
Temperature...--..- ........................ ..........
Prec i pt3t,'on.. ....... ......................... .........................
Home team s divisional standing . .. .. ....................
Visiting team's divisional standing.......- .........................
1973 .....-- --..--- ...... ....... .... .... .... .... ...... ........ ...
1974 .............. ..................................................
1975--------------------------..............................................................
1976 --- ....-- - - - - -- .----- - --.... .--...--- ..- .....-
1977.......------------------------................................................................
Constant .................................... -............
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.64527: F(8.33) equals 7 50360. 1
Televised games .......... .............................................
Temperature .................. ....... .... ...........
Precipitation .......... ..- -------------------- - --........
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage............---.....
19732 ..............-...............---.- ......-...-- ...---...-...- ......-
1974.................................................................._..
1975......--------.....--..--. .---------.-----... .------------------
1976.........---------------------..-----.....---..........-----.-----.----------------..
1977...........................-......................................
Constant... -----------------------------------------------------..


0.02388
-. 00263
.06458
-.05929
-. 08062

-.00266
.00479
.02164
.00643
.26071

.00847
-.00254
.08483
.00694
.00961
.01018
.00437
.01854
.03545
.02700
.13240

.02655
-.00265
.06016
-.12254
--.600286
.00493
.02152
.00318
.22170


0. 90
132 786
1.500
1.215
5.407
.013
.038
.601
.060


.141
128.637
2 367
.480
2.366
.149
.025
.398
1.165
.906


1.296
1 34, 568
1.299
15 108
.016
.046
.726
.016


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF SAN DIEGO "NO SHOWS": 1972-77

Equation 1I-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0. 81822. F(9, 32) equals 16 00393:1
Televised games ...--------------------------......................................................... 0.02079 1.002
Temperature .... ..----------. ........--....- .......-- .--- ..-..-.....-.....- ...................... .....
Precipitation ...-----------------------------.......................................................... 17425 1 77, 463
Home team's win-loss percentage .........----------..............---------......... -.04343 1 4 942
Visiting team's win-loss percentage........................................... -----------------------------------------.05621 1 16. 702
1973 .---------------------------------------------------------------.................................................................... .00846 .525
1974...------------------------------------------------------.................................................................... .00149 .019
1975...................................................................... ---------------------------------------------------------------.00987 57
1976...................................................................... ---------------------------------------------------------------.01078 1.087
1977..................................................................... ----------------------------------------------------------.01327 1.619
Constant.--------.--..--.......--.....--------------.......---.........----------..........-- .09266 ..............
Equation 2-- Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0. 78395; F(9. 32) equals 12.90155 1
Televised games .......................................................... 02911 1.352
Temperature -------.......--.....-----------------------..........----------------------.............. -.00036 .258
Precipitation.. ... ...................................................... 17173 1 56.859
Home team's dilsionl standing .............------- -..........--- .------------... ... 00906 2,858
Visiting team's divisonal standing .......................................----------------------------------------- .00881 1 10 616
1973.................................................................... .0404 2.041
19742 .... .... .... .........................................................................
1975...................................................................... --------------------------------------------------------------.01020 .966
1976...................................................................... ---------------------------------------------------------------.00999 .905
1977...................................................................... ---------------------------------------------------------------.01962 1 4.218
Constant .................................................................. --------------------------------.02196 ..............
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R: equals
0.76110. F(9, 32) equals 11.32736.1
Televised games ------------------------------------------------------............................................................ 02958 1. 344
Temperature............................................................... ---------------------------------------------------------.00026 130
Precipitation -- .................. ............................................ ------------------------17312 1 52 710
Home win-loss percentage times siltoi's win-loss percentage ................... -.08735 1 7. 264
1973 ---------------------------------------------------------------...................................................................... 01405 1. 137
1974 ..................................................................... .00298 .057
1975................................................................... ---------------------------------------------------------------.00668 .263
1976.............. ..................................................-------------------------------------------------------------- -.01033 .685
1977----------------------------------------------------------....................................................................... -- -.01224 1.095
Constant....---------------............................................................... 08067 ..............

See footnotes at end of table.






65


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF SAN FRANCISCO "r0O SHOWS": 1972-77


r e2; f.'. I,
.ej': e,,ts F values


Independent variables


Equation 1-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.67243; F(9, 32) equals 7 29865:
Televised games 2 --------------------.. ---------..---------------------
Temperature-..- --------------------------.--------------------------
Precipttin. .----- ----------------------------
Home team's win-loss percentage--------------------- -----------
Visiting team's win-loss percentage....---------------------------------
1974------------------------ ---- --------------------------------
1974.. . . . .
19765 -
1977 .............................................................
Constant ----------------------------------.---------------------
Equatmn 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.70601; F(10, 31) equals 7.44441:1
Televised games.-
Temperature.._--- -------- ------- -------------------------
Precipitation...... .........................................

Visiting team's divisional standing....---- --------------------------
1973 -------------------------------------------------------------
1974----------------------------------------------------
19754_.
1976__.
1977 --------------------------------------------
Constant ............................------------------------------------
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.60874; F(9, 32) equals 5.53186: 1
Televised games --- ----------------------
Temperature...---------------------------------------
Precipitation_.......---------------------------------
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage....-------------
1973 ---------------------------------
1974 ------------------------------------....................................................
1975--------------------------------
1976
1976
1977 ..---.-------- -----------------------------
Constant--.----------------------------------------------


-- .i 'i 54
I., .-,

-.10702
.04426
.05500
.06579
-.-5370
.08074
.17195 .

.00992
-.* 1,3
.0'1151
.02636
.06336
.06431
.05553
-.04788
.08722
.02471


-.00591
-.00045
.07796
.15421
.04216
.0 rl
.06351
-.05085
.07416
.12660


'8.356
1.312
S14. '" A
2.738
4.283
17.081
1 4.581
18.055


.190
2. 1'39
4.819
2.004
20. 35
7.443
17.424
1 4.549
4.048
i13.166


.0.%
1 6.833
S9.016
2.873
3.663
S5.847
3.569
1 9.035


RESULTS OF THE REGRESSION ANALYSES OF WASHINGTON "NO SHOWS": 1972-77

Equation 1I-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.84716: F(9,32) equals 19.70716: 1
Televised games------------------------------------------------ 0.03037 1 7. "6
Temperature. -------------------------------------------------- -.00056 17.900
Precipitation ---- ------------------------------------------ 679 1 85. 95!
Home team's win-loss percentage----------------------- .02592 57
Visiting team's win-loss percentage ------------------------------------ -.01359 1.911
1973 -- ------------------------------------------------.02087 15.128
1974-- ---------------------------------------------- -.02382 16.436
1975 ----------------------------------- -------------------- --.' 78 1 6.438
19762--- --------------------------------- -------------------------------- --
1977 ----------------- ---------------------------------- -.02844 19.471
Constant ------------------------------------------------------ .02425
Equation 2-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.84521; F(9,32) equals 19.41436: 1
Televised games.-- ------------------------------------------ .03804 1 8.4 27
Temperature. ---------------------------------------------------. 0C,56 7.8 8
Precipitation -- ------------------------------------------ .08781 1 80.748
Home team's divisional standing --------------- ------- ----------------- -. 00726 1. '07
Visiting team's divisional standing ..-.------------------------------------- 00089 .227
1973--------------------. ------------------------------------------ -.02256 16.0 7
1974--------- ------- -- ------------------------- -.02754 7.861
1975------.--- ------------------- -------------------- -.03249 17.424
1976 ----.-----------------------------.. ..---------------------------------------------
1977 ---------------------------------------------------------. 03272 12. ':,4
Constant ---------------------------------------------- -------- .04464 --.---------...
Equation 3-Dependent variable: The ratio of "no shows" to total tickets sold R2 equals
0.84537; F(8,33) equals 22.55178: 1
Televised games ------------------------------ ------------------. (.2S7 1 6 665
Temperature-.-----. --------------------------------------- -.00057 1 8. 325
Precipitation....----------------------------------- ----- .08362 187.937
Home win-loss percentage times visitor's win-loss percentage.- .. . -.01914 1 882
1973 ------------------------------------- ------------------ -.:C''09 15220
1974.--..-------- ----.--------------------------------------------- -. 00:07 6.99
1975..----------..........------.... .. .. ..-------------------------- -.02199 15.902
19762. .. . ... ... .. . .................
1977 ...-..------------------------------------.-------------------- -. 029F6% i11.016
Constant ----------------------------------------------------- .04685 -----.----


I Indicates the equation or independent variable is si.-' ifirant at the 0.05 level of confidence.
s The independent variable was not forced into the equation due to an exceedingly low F value.












APPENDIX B

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF NFL SEASON TICKET SALES 1970-77

The purpnzo of the following analysis is to asse-.- the impact of Public Law
93-107 on NFL >-,ason ticket -al,.. The League l:i-; coiii-tcntly maintained that
locally televised home games adver.-:ely influence demand for s,:,-,in tickets
because fans become less inclined to purcha- e tickets and attend games when the
contets are televised locally. The NFL's assertion c:in be evaluated empirically.
The empirical approach taken here, including the model described below, ba-ically
follows the approach developed for the Fourth Annual Report.
THE MODEL
Demand for season tickets may be subject to a number of considerations, many
of which cannot be quantified. However, some of the factors which may influence
st-ion ticket sales (i.e., the team's performance or local t.bl-eits) c.an be empiri-
cally examined. For the purpo.-es of this analysis, se:ion ticket sales are a.-s'imed
to be influenced by the following factors:
(1) Locally televised games: This particular variable is expr,"--,d in terms of the
number of home games which a tra-in locally televised during the previous season.
If the NFL's as.,ertion that Public Law 93-107 has adversely influenced gate
receipts, season ticket sales should be inversely related to the number of g;imes
locally televised during the previous season. That is, if more games are sold out
and locally televised then season ticket sales should decline, all other things being
equal.
(2) Expected team performance: It is also reasonable to aisime that demand
for season tickets will be sensitive to the expected quality of a team's performance.
If fans believe their club will have a good year, season tickets sale- should incr.a-e.
Conversely, if the fans expect a poor season, season ticket sales should decline. For
the purpose of this analysis, fans' expectations are assumed to be directly cor-
related with the club's won-loss record for the previous season.
(3) Ticket prices and effective household buying income: Demand for an NFL
season ticket, like most other commodities, may differ depending on its price and
the ability of the consumer to purchase the item. Accordingly, average ticket
prices and median effective household buying income were incorporated into the
analysis in order to estimate the effect of changes in price or hou-,.hold income on
demand for tickets. Both variables were adjusted by the Consumer Price Index
for the franchise city and are, accordingly, expressed in real terms. If expectations
hold, demand for tickets should be inversely related to their price, but directly
related to changes in household income. That is, if prices increase fewer people
should be willing to purchase tickets. Conversely, if household income incr,.:I-es
then larger numbers of fans should be able to afford tickets and demand should
increase.
(4) Population of the home team territory: It is al-o reasonable to suppose that
demand for NFL season tickets should be stronger in very large cities than in
smaller markets because there are more potential purchasers for every available
seat in lar-Ter markets. The population variable is expres-ed in this analysis as the
ratio of total persons in the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area in which a
team plays to the number of available seats in the stadium.
(5) Sreasonal variations: Seaisonal variations in NFL season ticket sal,. were
accounted for by incorporating variables which reflect the season or year in which
tickets were sold. Specification of seasonal variables is advantageous in that it
permits the estimation of trends in sale, whei-n all other factors incorporated in
the model are taken into account. In this instance, the seasonal vai ial les allow an
aizessment of trends in season ticket sales before and after the enactment of
Public Law 93-107.
(6) Market variations: A seriess of variables were, also specified to account for
variations in ticket sales which are peculiar to individual NFL markets and inde-
pendent of other factors incorporated in the model. This is advantageous in that
it reduces the probability of obtaining biased or incorrect estimates of the effects
of other variables on season ticket sales.
The variables specified in the model are by no means indicative of all factors
which influence demand for NFL season tickets. It is likely, however, that factors
under consideration are responsible for a large proportion of the variation in season
ticket sales experienced by NFL teams between 1970 and 1977.
(67)






68


It -h0'nl 1 1- f r n t id th:tt 41, maiud f.-? NIFL -aintivkets i-Z 1APre-^ed as a
.,ti ,1 t t :LI "l II -& l 'I i t', 1 *-. .- b I y it li\ idti :, I, 'ii 1( u I- I1 -t :'( ,16 t' v 11-,Ia it v, "rhiq
1( '.11 *:,'l: t, :, il,'- an :i l... riate m'! --1r, ,,f Ito eit %l r.' 1i thil tn'm er if
ti 1.. I -- r:iI-. F 'il'till. a ijll I of4 I hi- 1ifm I 'I hI r:i %tionA dai 1P t I n i I cket
i'-al b i ndir if tI '1 1 1 ':a1n I -tivi'ir i.1 1 ;ii*\ri-i r 1'-''n. The- coh ficicent s,
lh\rIfiTri l,'. I 11: 11 ily i, I. (At :i ; 1 .1.:, 1 'iil i t i'-' ,f ti'ki -t "-a to Ih,' factom s

I 'l .y, 1,i'i tril (I) r.'1<' 1, ri .T In |:i, .h Ti lll .>lt a, N.eW Yof i k .iant',1 lPhill-
, 1, PlV i. li ltt-i. iiin ut. (-)mil 1U.. T :,i iini. S<-.it t l,., .i iI \\ I- ilin t -n iii) \vr,'l'r I filledd
Uf' I -11 ti- ; :il. t -. 'I'lh -,' 1':iii Ni l h it .tii\- ',iil,'i, if liu u ',<;i nt(', 1rlT a npf nn([
,i' t -i l -,l= :,1 1 r i i, in :ui :i ll- :,i 1 !:l( 1 i n'],t ( :ii1,, :i('c,,rrilin*l'*, h:ih 'r not
I ,2, 1 : lv I. :;trr'ctr .i l i I ,lv. v lil.ivw W'; 1(i 7. By o i .' 1 lRit-:ti t ft7, 1 1 e1 c il t. itt n-
ti,1 7 i i .r" fui l' !i ,,n t ( i,'~iu -ni \\fo'- 17,t7 was vui pt- tin:ly h ,i\ bei.en in1li ntceit

THE -T'TI-'rirAL T1I C[ I.,IQ l.
I I V'-:1-i' ii i 11*:1--ii 7 : 1 iii1'. -i- %\ low- IN -1 1 to h nll T-1.I in l i-xt 7 -nt ITn %,%r hihr l
b it rf tiL "" f:;l'tltr- in l l d1', ,1 -,.i-,n t ,ki ,l -;1,-. 'I' 1' c1iT, lli lipl I .-i'iit l ine- to)

:1" Y t.ill f \ ,'i:i l*, i-t,',l :il j, ,. '' I -i !t-' f l l h ei, :onfil ux-i ar. r i',,rt ld 1,ieln w .

T ill: : i:.- t" I rttS
T* "-' firilit nc-' I ,l1,rtI ,,i in th.- fll,\it\\i i:1, 1, t. in tie:,t t-hi t 1le.n t: I1 f',r sv: '.r n
to l.., ts i- lti r,: iiril ,I o, 1-tr Ii v ll ,., bY IhV. ,u I 'IIItc ;t- wi l ,l,.I.,t il,. it-; w nm -
1,'i i,-c. ,rd f,, r Il )i, \. i,,is .r -,,i. A. s i"*i\']1' ,1, *'1t- ,,]i licK. tl ,l.. iner(ase
f, !:,'..i l l, ;,It impii,,\,.i.i- i t in t. t'.-ni n's p,.rfril:n ,.iL t. Ci ,vI'Vl ,r -,l' .-il rsC fall o-ff
1Al, 1, i t .ri ii i ,i, not I d I v \,'l. N ,na <'f thi.. .4 p:itiiitil:,rl' r ri-i,'. vA tram 's
w .I-,-~F 1 r.ciirl at .,,.t.,, -' .fi li l h ip fiti ( .XII 'f'tittii, of him, w ,.i l l ho elt l. w ill
l1.i 'i n iv ih,- Iii'l-i'( (Int ~-;i-, G i\',.t; l:l.rn 1li :it sp ii c i k .*t, ;i :,,ll o wvll in a l\;ince
I,' t ill* A;-, 7. it i- in, iTr-t :h,:i1Il,. that f:i 'ut w ,il 't \, i el- 'll l \]c t IO 1rfrm )n e
,f a ch1, +,,.fori, piirchT-i~itii :i tickc.t.
'I'll"' F,.-Ili ;].,, ithlic l tl i -,.:i ic,1 t '-:il,'< in p -w h:rii ( 'T r ,-1 hir hnr in 1971,
'972, ;in.l ha't it ci m in ll'.>7i. T hti, c ,,' ,ii'tl of oI f t v.iriral > -, f,,r 1974, Vi.7-5, and
lPyl71 wto r.I:l i i\ I, but tl ot -i,,t il ic:tintly different firni t i, 1070 cl -.flicicnt. 2
lI ,.ou tvr, ihil '.-ilt i i,-,If it ipli,- :I i, t' -, in -i i( 10-t .nh.- from the
1'171-73 il'gilI 'l, ci 'liviinit for 1 77 wasvi -.Liii' t'.irI.nt :ind iiwa,:u tive indieating
1tl..t- t-', ,t licktt -:;il.- il 19'77 \\,.r,, .-i'.irili(;tn v l\ low,.r t h:mn in 19)70). Th,,-, results
r :1. -, 'll, g(i',i:-:d trend in d --.'r -.-itm, ., t-,n ,ik t t-i1,. ( -,nt in h p.in Txm.i l totals.
On t-, o ti LT : f,1, th,' a-','licin'rnt ,11 th, num l- r of it.I .vi. .,1 ,i'.d .n in the
p vi. -eii ui- n is aI]-,) .-i.t o ificri:it, but l)-,itiv,-. Tlii i-; (i"itetl rn to I( nct tionl'
,'l m ol the ( I T"fiiieu i i f ii '" \ "L :ii d -1u'h-'NF-tl ihat f I- n1 7r7' h iL1-M V 0t e Lri' solt
,,t : ld ,.tio- ,.,-f in oiu -,t.i.-ke n, -;ti,- t ,f sai i i (ick) 't-i will in rfa -r, in hlic n nxt
,-,i.:, i. A i'>- n tii i ui. :y at 1'ii -rt tlhr i' -i iin" wei to l iiit rM ilict the im plicaitions of
ih treni d fii1d in thi e y,.thr v :ri'iill-,, ti e' ('t"ilIt ljLictisItl may bie niorce apparent
tha n if,.:1
T, '.. vi-,',cl '.i*. n .< at y inir,.,','r expa ,,sionr. oif ther, sport onrd aiy h i iitpni the in-
t, !. -t ,.f .-,,le vi,\\,rr- in a. \ :\y that ,',in iraj;,.- till-Ii to b'uY -,.:-,,i tickets. It. is
i ,,r'n likely, h ,1 r,\.ver, i llit th,, -iLitii.ic t x,.iii i\, c w1,.l!ic'it oln the. TV gp tnm \vari-
:;III h ,- 1111 r,.- .t a dil,. f <.: -:l r,.latii -iliip. ore ,lra.:llY t .lf.vi-:-d. gnm .s
r, ll-', t n,,,ir 72 hi, r -,lliii,, -z WliCh. ill turn, r, ,.t a : I -.i, with nmore. I>t-pulnr
,',,I -. The -,llwiut nw,;:t ,l:it -qtne lc ,f' St1 th,' That f:I ct, (I,).i!ipo d with .the, t ln)p1ilnrity of t11w 1:1tran which fl u g a nt eight
", t,,',' to a 'v o\4.r. to li xt -,':., ^ ,\ill indnic, 1lri- l ,i) p[,1 to Iivy -,. n tick 'ts.
Th'u-, tli, TV \-:,ri:;l i~l r,.il1y c':tiltt.- ti,' 4.fTects of tami pop larity antd number of
-'1d1 o-it 9:1itl1 1 -il lw-,q ent fa: 1,,lr :vior.
"l'}\- ;ir1,9l i,.t1it 1":1 Il, r.1,,lcii ,.,1 with Ilr ,nrn l liltoiwnward trnrd in season
li.l" -t -:,1,- follo,1 \\iltg till- 1.97., s. :i-,n. Th n inlwr (if :Idditin13t i)W',,i!r indice~d to
b-,'. -, :I-,Il tick-ct.: followill'.t n -, :i-,on ith \01 ,,rf TV ,"ii tm iv Iw fe-we.r than the
71, ber,(.1. \0ho ,he-cid,,e nolt to puIrc'hae:,- n ,:v. by the v,,4ll'icH.nt-; if thb \variable-. T1"e c',.tlicit,.tt fr 1977 indlicats that. the
e'\pl <'ti,', ra:tiol (if vna ,on ticket -.:-i,. to t.t:diim capacity, hfli.r factors hlild con-
E-ta:yt, wuld be S.3 percenta-g,. plint-, e1,,\ what it wIs in 1970. On the either hand,

'I !.. ii1i,; we*re( <,\Vl.r...,l hocttua<+ ih., troam har vavrl in ihlirm, p,|,.-ji' o vi iiiis nvr.r I!li perind nf
analvmis: N Iw Ynrl" Ncw ]rL'i nN. ('w+ia ; I.il thI (I.:and I ; III; srl' i11:1 M,'1li, I ,rls, N J. ']'hr'.'sr ha snge,
vWO lld iij, l++ss ;:!i ,r: ': ; iii ,.. ""TJitiiil .tiam Sri't1 l,' w ere expa sI on~ ( lt inl ]r ',,and therefore d.IAI; are a v .i]..la ,lorti~ only

In the lIogarithln.ic vcrsimi of the mi,d.-l, the varial1, n,.in-rs,'nting., l' ;. was Just signifi'nilt.






69

each locally televised home g:nme in the previous season adds 1.5 percentage points
to the ratio of season ti(k',t s.tes to sta(lium (capj):iity above what the ratio would
have been without those televi-'o I games. Therefore, televio games in 1976 would
only offset the gener:il downward trend in 1977 if at least six more iLmies w',re
tel,.ri-t in 1976 than in 1975. Furthermore, some teams that t.lvi,-, very few
games may be lo-ing season ticket sales faster than tlhc, tr,:i,-; that '_:,in -,'-on
ticket z:iles and therefore are contributing to the overall downward trend reflected
in the League totals.
A variable which did not appear to be significant in this analysis is the ratio of
population to stadium capacity. This result may reflect a lack of independence
between variables. Since the ratio of population to stadium 'tparitv seems to be
associated with some of the individual team variables.3 In the logarithmic
ver-ion of the model, the coefficient on this variable is significant and positiv,--, a
result that conforms to prior expectations.
Ticket price; and consumers' buying income, after adjustment for inflation,
do not appear to have any influence on s,,:iton ticket sales. This suggests that
money is not, in g'-neral, important when fans make decisions to purchase ,'a-ron
tickets after all of the other influencing factors are considered.
The-o results are essentially the -iriie as tho-,. found in a revis,-d analysis for
the 1970-76 period and reported in attachment B of this appendix. Appendix B
of the Fourth Annual Report contained slightly different results bhe:,use the data
for the N.Y. Giants, believed to have been excluded, was inadvertently included.
The revised rei-lits reported here do not change the conclusions rozarding the
impact of Public Law 93-107 on season ticket sales that were reached in the
Fourth Annual Report.
In summary, it appears that Public Law 93-107 has had some nc.ative effect
on sr-aion ticket sales for those teams that do not typically sell all or nearly all
of their available tickets. The effect is mitigated somewhat when the teairi, have
a good year and sell out most of their games.
ATTACHMENT A
RESULTS OF SEASON TICKETS SALES ANALYSIS
Multiple linear re:res-iin
Equation 1-Without natural Equation 2-W.th natural log
log on selected independent on selected independent
variables: R2 =.862; variables: R2=.864;
F(29,114)=24.570 F(29,114)=25.017
Regression Regression
Functional form coefficients F value coefficients F value
Population to stadium capacity------------------------ 0.0)161 3. 226 --------------- --------
Ln (population to stadium capacity).--------------------------------- -------- 0.10131 5. 125
Real effective household buying income ----------------.00001 .426 ---- -------- -- ----
Ln (real effective household buying income).-------------------------------- 18050 .778
Real weighted average ticket prices------------------- .02135 1.673 ---------------------------
Ln (real weighted average ticket prices).------------------------------------- .11016 1.615
Won-loss percent in previous season -------------- ---- .6315 1 54.294 27390 57.112
Number of TV home games in previous season.--..------- 01534 1 10.716 .(1'95 1 10.291
1971 ...--------------------------------------- .05496 1 7.555 0,_` 17.157
1972 ........... ----------------------------------- --- 11661 1 24.459 .11269 i 23. -'5
1973 ... --------------------------------------- .13784 1 29.770 .1.5 1 29.5
1974 --------------------------------------- .04266 2.2-.5 .04035 2.134
1975 ---------------------------------------.03016 1.312 -.03137 1.463
1976 -------------------------------------- -.04461 3.159 -.1:.T 3 3.92
1977 ------------------------------------ --- ":17 1 9.782 -. "3 .I4 1 1.352
Atlanta.............-------------------------.....------------- .03834 .673 -.0:i 3 .157
Baltimore .............-------------------............----..-------- --.08125 2.161 -. 1." 4.871
Buffalo ........................................ -------------------------------------.311 121.336 ,-., l24.756
Chicago ---------------------------------------. 0.;5 .043 -. ,3' .451
Cincinnati.............. .......------------------------------- ----- .12527 .541 03 7 3. 128
Cle-eland. ------------------------------- -.14919 1 10.15, -. _: 14. 574
Dallas ----------------------------------- --- .59 141.994 -. :. :.." i .7
Detroit ------------------------------------- 13097 3.425 -. 21289 5.
Houston ------------------------.--------- -- l 1 ?;614 -.20837 1i0.-
KansasCity .....----------------------------------- .03647 712 .09805 .:
tos r--es ------------------------------- -- 1 5.. -. 5 1.40
Miami 0831---------------------------------4 5. .. 7.-
r. i,-, -.- -l-n-l .nd-- -. 07114 1.514 -. 1 3.
New York Jets --------- ----------------------- -.'. .041 --. 1'. .
St. Louis------...........--------. ----------------- -. -. 1114
San Diego ----------------------------. 1?;9 18.692 1 11. 133
San Francisco.------..--------.-------------------- -. 2 .953 -.1 3.182
Constant.-----...---.......-- - ----------.-- 260j ------------ -1. 5 .-- ------
Indicates the regression c ,ici.nt is sig ificant at the 0.05 level ot :On', i; ke.

SWhen two or more individual independent vivi s ar related in sr'1 wav to e- h th ,r. I r, Ii iV ;-ion
procedure may not be able to sort out the individual '".. s. The result muyv be i .- W coI icit1' S
xvlr..i, in reality, the variables do have a :.- 1'i:i' i, on tthe d,..,.;i: i, variable.






70


ATTACHMENT B
R-,.iD PiL'.'JLTS CF ZA..' TICKE[IT; 'AL3. A'

Multirle linear ievression
F ul* 'n 1 'hlt"nut nilural Equal on 2--W th natjirl lIg
logi on s.lectF.-.f in,,',iprn lent on sledled independent
I.' I'. I R- ,, 'a. ia.lies. R- .BR62
F<.'d.a?; 1 ,.-.-,b i' F(2' 97) -21.70& '


Rearps'.oon
LueNtIt,',l


Functional storm


Regresion
F value coel11.ients


Pei ,.t. t "n to ita,!,um ,i .i,.a< ,ir ,..
P L n ;ul. i t0 .1U 11 , ,) .. .. ... ..........
Real e:'' .e '..ehol ,iR income...............
Ln (rieal w"* h useh-l I',,'-i; inconip) .... .
cil I hotel P' e e i'i s . ............. :..
Li i ieal .',eil'te. a.era;.e ticket j:.LCj,) ......... .... .
Won-loss "I'pe"tlie in previous season................
Nu 1 bef of I, h_,ime ,.ar:,e' l in r1i.'':us season........
1< 71 ... ..... ... .... ... ... ...... ............. ...

I .......... ........................--------------------


---.---------- -- - - -- - - -
lana-. - .
Cl9 d ......... ... .............. .................
19^,am ............ ... ...............................
PIa' ore ...........-- ..............................-


I e t. o rt -- - - -- - - - - - - - -
PC l h -r2g; .. .... . . .. .. .. ... .. .................
nc.- l rm a --.-. -. .- ------ ----------..---------------
lCh"a.lt ...........................................
Ch'[ a t.. .........................................

Cleveland.....--.....-..--...----..--.........-...
[Jlllr.,. .............................................
Detoit ........ .....................................
Houston ..........................................
Kansas C t ........................................
Los e'. eles ......................................
r.' rln .............................................
New i, l3n ni.......................................
New F'i.i ndk J -ts....-- ...- .....-...-- .----....--...

St. Lous ..........................................
San [iego ........................................
San Francisco-------------------------------.......................................
Constant.-------------.-....--.- ...----.-..... ----.


0. 00092


0. 801


0OOUJ2 .q 9

0.)3J36 .L'.2J3


0! 0l3

06 98
I L' '?

0 J95
-.O'!')
, U36 7

-.0 60
-.1530?
0.11 ;3
142?55
1528
-.30138
OT- 0'38
-- 1395
.04775
-.26:85
-.O.IU42
-.03A; (3

,0?18'
-.093r0
-.030'4
.25357


S48. 680
'4 551
S7. 193
23 761
2 '. 2 75
2. 747
(i?
2.8 5
1. 130
.721
14.280
.121
S9.977
1 8.931
i 3'.944
1. 529
1 6. 686
1. 096
S11.755
3. 8h64
.305
.215
.161
1 4. 754.1
.229


0 06805 1. ,919

'V 75298 I 201
....+...^ + + +..........^ +
.01972 .234
2 '469 1 50.441
.01063 1 4.441
.0624? '7.014
.11339 t 23.672
133?5 28 144
.01815 2.876
-01 5 .662
-.015 18 3 376
010.1 .061
-.088?5 1.907
-.17823 1 15. 111
-.01308 .012
10978 14.243
-.19094 1 11.359
-. 35070 1 28 322
-.16221 2. 760
18654 6.840
.02437 .250
32970 1 11. 737
-.09628 1 922
-.09917 1.272
.04575 .115
-.03666 .233
-.13287 1 5.625
-.09133 1.204
-2.05306 .............


' Indicates the regression coefficient is significant at the 0.05 level of confidence.

ATTACHMENT C

SEASON TICKET SALES


Team 1970


1971 1972 1973 19


AiA ta 1 -......-- ....--------
Bal'.m o e ------------------
Buffalo ....................
Ch..:aio ..................
C,nLinnit,..i................
Cleveland-------...--....-
Dallas ...-------------.....------
D etre"t ....................
Detre f --- --------------
Green E],..................
/'.'dauee ------......-----
Houston----....------........------
Kansas C -................
Los Anle'.. ------------.....-....-
Ma ..............
We.' F 'sIaidi -------- -
Minnesoa ....; ...........
Ne.-. r"lpnd ...............
Nf,,% Orieipri. ...............
Newv York Giants.......---.-

New Yrirk Jets.............
Oa'.ian I ...................
Pt- iI .r' I ............
PI-; ',J',Fh ..................
St. I ,', .... ......
San rI p;n ...-...
San Fr,. o .. -- -.......
Was'', ; t.n ...... ..........


F value


1975


1976


1977


40. 110
35. 606
33. 308
17, 116
50, 130)
37, 986
36, 814
61,287
45. 307
51, 196
41. 301
27, 911
4,2. (3i1

2. 31.
.,9. 91t+
21. 572

57, %o0

.*.'I. + '.1*
?1 p I -
') pi .
3, 712


49, 530


43 771
49. 367
21,671
48,883
c 1. 000
08, 450
31 000
47, 813
12. 165
51.260
4l. 320
2' 214-1
41,986
,1:. 2t6
.'.1. P31
41, S78
,'. 493
'1. 751
*.A. 502
fi 137
' t-', ; r,..
2l, 1t6
40. ")9
2r r0:5
41. ?,',
52. 003


49, 8'2
48, 315
21 70]
49, 121
51.614
48. 901
3'. 2'.6
48. 000
44, 742
54, 155
46.6'39
?7, 460
72, .5
1, 037
CA. 303
41.984
55, rin
'. 319
57,214

. 226
r 1, 6.
;'P 1P.9
^ '.I =.2
'<, 310
'.3 876
51, '+.*6


53,037
47, 23
52. :4
48, 996
53.610
49, 670
36. rIL3
44. 00r)

54.1 129
46, 694
30. 325

45, .17
71, $61
41, ',,'3
./i '1 '..
* O ( ,It'>
55 ("!
5:q r.oo
'.6. ,0n

C '. firl
44. 1:

LI m,',
1,969


53.278
32. 593
54, 182
51. 525
53,424
4, 5. L12
32.2q7

40 019
5.1, 114
415, 37.1
2', /.35
.;6.7 ',1

6., 322
41, 5(0
.1I : la
.14 110
t,) 252
4(,. u07
r.r,. r'no

J ; r. I
44, l
"ii iin6

52, 049
52,0.;9


38, 426
27, 377
.13. 181
A17,070
51. 310
42.252
2'J. 000
49. M0')
50,000
54,200
47, 748
26, 179
4/, ?n
47, i413
50.000
41. 500
46. %67
46, 000
51,291

">1 lii?1
'. 300
44,902
37, 516
22, 280
1!1. ..(l9
52. 400


40, 110
35.606
33, 308
17, 116
50, 1 O30
37, 986
36, 814
61. 297
.,5. n 7
41. 241
5. 9o00
.' 135
,'5 251
48. 215
44. .194
4n. Rl1



402. P28
'!1, 3P1
'.r, 093
73, 511



.68
1., 540

19, 716
^M, ii'jn
52, '_.29


31,740
36,010
20.624
49. 534
48.048
37,387
39. 039
73,089
40, 320
54,160
52. 322
29.607
40.500
45, 500
34, 838
A0, 987
3. 302
33,600
73, 418

47,000
51,657
59.452
45. 13
t 1.667
21,847
3, 904
52.660





71

ATTACHMENT D
STADIUM CAPACITY'


Team 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

Atlanta----------.------- 58,850 58, 850 58,850 58,850 58,850 58,850 60,489 60,489
Baltimore--------------- 60,020 60,240 60,020 60,020 60,020 60,020 60,020 60,020
Buffalo ----------------- 46,206 46,206 46,231 80,020 80,020 80,020 80,020 80,020
Chicago------------ ----52,500 52,500 55,701 55,701 55,701 55,701 55,753 57,359
Cincinnati--------------- 56, 200 56,200 59,509 59,754 59,754 59,754 56,200 56,200
Cleveland---------------- 79, 282 79,282 79,282 79,282 79,282 80,165 80,165 79,891
Dallas -------------72,500 65,000 65,111 65,111 65,101 65,101 65,101 65,101
Denver ----------------- 50,500 50,500 51,656 51,706 51,706 52,217 63,500 75,087
Detroit ------------54,082 54,082 54,118 54, 118 54, 118 80,343 80,638 80,638
Green Bay --------------- 56,263 56,263 56,317 56,267 56, 267 56,823 56,823 56,267
Milwaukee------------ 57,823 57,823 47,826 47,826 47,826 52,583 55,963 55,896
Houston--.-------------- 50,000 50,000 50,254 47,754 47,754 47,754 50,000 50,000
Kansas City -------------- 49,002 49,002 79,033 78,097 78,097 78,099 78,000 78,198
Los Angeles-------------- 76,000 76,000 80,089 79,281 91,040 91,038 91,038 71,432
Miami------------------- 75,385 75,385 78,952 79,968 79,968 80,045 80,045 75,449
Minnesota---------- 47,900 47,900 48,503 48,503 48,503 48,446 48,446 48,446
New England------------- 42,500 62,000 61,114 61,279 61,279 61,279 61,279 61,279
New Orleans ------------- 80,997 80,997 89,023 80,958 80,958 74,203 72,000 71,330
New York Giants--------- 62,892 62,892 63,350 70,874 70,874 60,416 76,050 76,500
63,350
New York Jets -------60,000 60,000 60,405 60,418 60,416 60,415 60,000 60,000
Oakland ----------------53,825 53,825 54,041 54,037 54,037 54,037 54,037 54,615
Philadelphia------------- 65,000 65,000 66,011 65,954 66,052 66,026 66,052 66,052
Pittsburgh--------------- 50,000 50,000 54,041 50,112 50,112 50,112 50,350 50,350
St. Louis- -------- 50,492 50,492 50,696 51,456 51,392 51,392 51,392 51,392
San Diego--------- 52,000 52,000 53,222 49,422 49,462 49,462 52,568 52,568
San Francisco ------------- 45,000 45,000 61,245 61,247 61,252 61,252 61,000 61,246
Washington-------------- 50,366 50,366 53,041 54,381 54,395 54,754 54,398 55,004

1 These figures for stadium capacity were taken from ticket sales information provided by the NFL. Variations between
these figures and the individual team tables occur due to different sources used for team tables (i.e., 2d Annual FCC Report,
NFL weekly reporting forms).
ATTACHMENT E
RATIO OF SEASON TICKET SALES TO STADIUM CAPACITY

Team 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

Atlanta'.. ------------------- 0.744 0.744 0.847 0.901 0.905 0.653 0.663 0.524
Baltimore. --------------- .831 .820 .805 .787 .543 .456 .593 .600
Buffalo-..----.------------- .488 .469 .534 .656 .677 .540 .416 .258
Chicago-- ----------------.692 .931 .882 .880 .925 .845 .815 .861
Cincinnati----------------- .869 .961 .901 .897 .894 .859 .892 .855
Cleveland ---------------- .631 .611 .617 .626 .612 .527 .474 .468
Dallas-------------------- .428 .477 .542 .554 .496 .446 .565 .600
Denver ------------------.863 .947 .929 .928 .948 .938 .965 .973
Detroit-------------------..................... 718 .787 .827 .837 .735 622 .562 .500
Green Bay-----.----------- .963 .964 .962 .962 .962 963 .964 .963
Milwaukee -------------.743 .801 .977 .976 .949 908 .945 .936
Houston.------------------- 559 .544 .546 635 .512 548 .643 .592
Kansas City.---------------- 858 .857 .922 903 .840 613 .580 .518
L os Angeles --------------- 592 .595 .625 579 .508 521 .530 .637
Miami ------------------.375 .595 .878 937 .841 625 .556 .462
Minnesota------------........ 823 .868 866 855 .855 857 .843 .846
New England--------------- 508 .653 900 782 .723 766 .512 .708
New Orleans--------------- .643 .639 658 617 .608 616 .557 .471
New York Giants----------- 921 .930 903 785 .564 899 .967 .961
New York Jets-------------- .969 .969 964 935 .935 886 .881 .783
Oakland....------------------ 940 .940 940 940 .940 .946 .946 .946
Philadelphia--------- ------ 761 .871 971 970 .974 896 .948 .900
Pittsburgh----------------- .456 .502 521 894 .889 974 .905 .910
St. Louis------------------- .747 .800 815 789 .758 .730 .754 .811
San Diego ------------------ .537 .578 .682 802 .598 .450 .375 .416
San Francisco --...------------.432 .916 .880 906 .778 .676 .624 .635
Washington--.----. ---------- 983 1.000 .963 956 .957 .957 .966 .j57


35-989-78--6






72


DATA SOURCES FOR FOOTBALL SEASON TICOT SALES ANALYSIS


Variable Descr ipt:on Source


Slad um cnaciPt'...............
Average t iket p'lice.........

Won-loss percent................

Number of tele.'sed home games.

Plaoff dLmmy ................
Metropol tan area popLIlalon.....

Household income...----...----

Consumer Price Index...........
Real average t'cIet pr e. ....
Real pe' capita income -...-.....
Populal-on to capac t -).......---..

Year dumm, "i"................
Team dummy i' ...............


Number of seats avalale ...............
A~eiage of all I':-.t p; es : %e tIed b, number
of tickets avadible at each p .e.
Won-loss pe'centaige of home team at end of
pre ,.,us season.
Number Li home iames telev sed locally in the
pre ;ous season.
Value f I tf team made playoffs, zero other-
wAise.
Est mated population for relevant SMSA .......

Average effective household buying income.
Pers,,al income less taxes.
Average annual CPI for relevant SMSA.........

Average t:cket price divided by relevant CPI....
Per captla income d,.'ded by relevant CPI......
Populat ,i of metropolitanarea divided bi rele-
%ant stadium capacity.
Value of I if relevant Vear (is 1971. 1972, 1973,
1974, 1975, 1976. or 1977), zero otherwise.
Value of I if team "i," zero ot.erise.... .....-


NFL.
Calhulated from data provided by
NFL.
Wast'ngton Post. New York Times,
pic-,i:hng News. and NFL.
NFL.

Wash'neton Post, New York Times.
:; ,'lt r', News, and NFL.
Sui.e, of Buyinig Power. Sales
Mar'aEement, Inc.
Do.

Statistical Abstract of the Un'ted
States.
Computled.
Do.
Do.

Do.
Do.








APPENDIX C

A SUM MARY OF NFL PRO FORMtA INCOME STATEMENTS, 1969,1972, 1975

NFL PRO FORMA COMBINED STATEMENT OF INCOME FOR THE 1969, 1972, AND 1975 PLAYING SEASON

IDollars in thousands


1969
Total average


Percent


1972
Total average


Percent


1975
Total average


Income:
Ticket sales-preseason and regular season...............----------------......-------..
Television and radio............-----------------------------------
Parti ir'..iting teams' shares of postseason games ----------------------. -
Distributions fom postseason games ------------------.. --------------.
Piogi.iris, concessions, films and royalties----..-...-----------------------...
Miscellaneous-------------------------------------------------------.......J

Total income........................................................
Operating expenses:
Player costs:
Preseason.----------....--- ......................................
Salaries, bonuses and deferred compensation---------------------..
Postseason ........
Posteas n.. ... ................................................
Player insurance trust..---.-................- ......---......... ...
Medical expenses, workmen's compensation, and payroll taxes---------

Total player costs-........-------------... -----... -------.------
Team exIi-. **'. including coaching, scouting, travel, training camp, uniforms
and equipment-.......................--..- ....--.--........-... ....
St,. '. costs- ------... .. ........-.- ..........................
Box 'h(' and other services-.------------------- --.. ---. ------. ----- J
LfI, ,,in and council assessments, including officiating, security, publicity,
Ilk,'l. and professional fees -----. .-.----..... --- ..--- ......---- .-
Generald and irnriiini .iti.i.e including front office salaries, rent, utilities,
ii .wr.iiwc. charitable contributions, nonplaying employees' pension plans,
professional fees, publicity, and promotion..---..-..---- .......-----.-

Total nr.r:r,itin,' expenses -----. ---------.--.. .. -....... --....- ...-
Operating profit ..................................................
Other income (expense):
Interest income (expense), net -- - -- --- -- - - - - - -
O llihe .- - --- --..- - - --... .. . .....---- -.. ....--.. ..---- ....


Income before income taxes and extraordinary items.
Provision for income taxes -......-- .... ..-. .. .


63,035
29,817
9,610


2,424
1,147
370


102,463 3,941


NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
61,875 2, 380


9,457

19,372

19,372


90,705
11,758


61.5
29.1
9.4


92,420
42,374
S5,988
5,117
2,834
1,360


3,555
1,630
230
197
109
52


100.0 150,093 5,773


60.4


3,253
45,205
3,455
4,964
3,129
60,006


9 25,081
9.2 { 9,065
1 6,841


3,489
452


(?0) (5)

U6, '64 254
3, 31 .' 127


18.9

18.9


88.5
11.5


(. 1)


26,963

26,963


127,956
22, 137


(870)
446


125
1,734
133
191
120
2,308
965
349
263
1,037

1,037


4,922
851
(33)
17


21, 713
10, 1't


61.6
28.2
3.9
3.4
1.9
1.0


109,253
63,487
6,351
7,190
3,558
2,538


I0.0 192,377


2.2
30. 1
2.3
3.3
2.0


6,450
65,078
3,523
1,710
4,790


39.9 81,551


16.7
6.1
4.6
18.0


33,542
12,359
8,468
6,373


18.0 27,817


85.3
14.7


170, 110

22,267


(.6) (2,281)
.3 6 ----
14.4 19,980
7.2 9,990


4,202 56.8
2,442 33.0
244 3.3
216 3.7
137 1.9
98 1.3
7,399 100.0


248 3.5
2, 503 33.8
136 1.8
66 .9
184 2.5
3,137 42.4


1,290
475
326
245

1,070
6,543
856
(88)

768
.^, 1


17.4
6.4
4.4
3.3

14.5
88.4
11.6
(1.2)

10. 4
5.2


1e1 income 3,301 127 .1 10,857 418 7.2 9,990 344 5.2


Percent


.1 10,857 418 7.2 9,990 344 5.2


'let income.


3,301 127


















APPENDIX D

A WEEK-BY-WEEK SUMMARY OF NFL TELEVISED GAIES FOR 1977

A SUMMARY OF NFL GAMES TELEVISED DURING THE 1977 SEASON

Week
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Total

Atlanta .......... X ----- X ------------------ TV X X ------------X ------ X 1
Baltimore--------------- X X -------- TV TV .------.. X ------------ X TV 3
Buffalo---------- X ----------X X X -----------X X ------X--- X --------- 0
Chicago-------- TV ...... TV TV ------ TV -----------TV TV .-...---------- TV - 7
Cincinnati.------. TV X---------------- X X -------- TV X ----- TV 3
Cleveland ----------- X TV X ---------- X X------------ X -- X 1
Dallas-----..--------.. X X ------ TV ------ TV ------.. TV ----------- TV ------ TV 5
Denver -------- TV TV ...... TV ............ TV TV ----------- TV------ TV ...... 7
Detroit------.......------- X X -----X .-------- X ------ X X ---------- TV 1
Green Bay---..-------- TV ...... TV ............ TV ...... TV ------ TV TV ------... TV 7
Houston-------......- X -------- X X ------------ X ------------X TV------ X 1
Kansas City--- X X ----- X -------- x ----- x ----- x X ------ 0
Los Angeles--------- X X ----- X TV .------. X ----------------TV X ------ 2
Miami..--..----------------. x ------ X X X ------ X ------------TV ------ X 1
Minnesota------.. TV ...... TV TV TV ----------- TV TV ----------- TV ------------ 7
New England -.. X ------- X ------ TV X TV ............----------- X ------ TV ...... 3
New Orleans-----. X ------------X ------------X ------ XX ------X ------ 0
New York Giants- TV ............ TV TV ----------- TV ......------ X ------ TV ------ TV 6
New York Jets-------- X X ------------X ------ X X ------ X ------ x ------ 0
Oakland-------......... TV ---------------- TV ............----------- TV TV ------ TV ...... TV TV 7
Philadelphia--...--- X ------------------X TV ------... X TV ---------------- X X 2
Pittsburgh------ TV TV ............ TV TV ----------- TV TV ..------.. TV ----...-------- 7
St. Louis------------- TV ------. TV ...... TV X ------------TV TV------ TV ---.- 6
San Diego --------------.........-- X ------X X ------------X X -----X ------X 0
San Francisco.-------.....- X ------ X ---- X X ------------ TV X ---- X ----- 1
Seattle--------.... X ----- X -----X ---- TV ----------- X X ------- X 1
Tampa Bay.--..-------- X ----- X ----- X ----------- X ------ X X ------ X 0
Washington..----------.......... TV TV -----------............ TV TV ----------- TV TV -----..------. TV 7
Weekly totals of
televised
games.------. 7 5 4 6 5 7 7 6 7 6 5 8 6 7 86

Note: TV-local blackout lifted; X-blackout.
(75)










APPENDIX E


NFL DATA ON TICKET SALES AND "No SiiOWS"

Paid Tickets
TV or no attendance distributed


Game


FOR THE 1977 REGULAR SEASON

In house Percent of
No shows attendance no shows Weather


1ST WEEK
Sept. 18:
Baltimore at Seattle..--------------------------------- No----------- 61,162
Cleveland at Cincinnati...---------------------------- TV.. -----------... 55,289
Dallas at Minnesota....------------.------------------ TV----------- 47,703
Detroit at Chicago...--------------------TV---.-------- 56,663
Green Bay at New Orleans-----------.- ---------------- No----------- 58,689
Kansas City at New England..------------------------ No----------- 57, 358
Los Angeles at Atlanta.---------- --------------------- No--.--------- 57,499
Miami at Buffalo..----------------------------------- No----------- 78,048
New York Jets at Houston..--------------------No----------- 41,320
St. Louis at Denver ..-------------------- TV.----------- 74,246
San Diego at Oakland ..------ ----------------------- TV----------- 51,964
Tampa Bay at Philadelphia-- --- ----------No----------- 62, 311
Washington at New York Giants-.-----------------T- TV....--- 75,582
Sept. 19: San Francisco at Pittsburgh-.------------------TV---------- 49,435
7 TV games...-------------------------------------- 410,882
7 non-TV games...-------------------------------------- 416,387
Season totals:
TV games---....------------------------------------------
Non-TV games ------------------------------------------------------


61,828
56,029
48,446
57,359
59,891
58,288
58,498
78,596
42,149
74,896
52,960
63,214
76,544
50,075
416,309
422,464


2,837
3,182
768
5,829
3,641
103
2, 849
2,499
2,661
84
1,938
1,665
458
2,029
14,288
16,255


58,991
52,847
47,678
51,530
56,250
58,185
55,649
76,097
39,488
74,812
51,022
61,549
76,086
48,046
402,021
406,209


4.5
5.7
1.6
10.1
6.5
1.7
4.8
3.3
6.7
.1
3.6
2.7
.6
4.0
3.5
4.0


Light rain, 64, domed.
Sunny, 78.
Partly cloudy, 71.
Rain 80.
Domed, rain, 87.
Clear, 78.
Sunny 80.
Rain, 65.
Domed, clear, 90.
Clear, 75.
Partly cloudy, 75.
Clear, 82.
Sunny, 80.
Light rain, 70.


Average in house for 14 games............-------- -------------------------------
14games--- ----------------------.-- --------- 827,269
1st week...-..--------------------------------------------------- 827,269


838,773-
838,773


30,543
30,543


2D WEEK


Sept. 24: Minnesota at Tampa Bay.. --------------
Sept. 25:
Atlanta at Washington --------------------------
Baltimore versus New York Jets at Giants Stadium ------
Buffalo at Denver..-----------. ..--------------------
Chicago at St. Louis.----------------------------- -
Houston at Green Bay-.----------- ----.. ------------ -
Miami at San Francisco.------- ------------
New Orleans at Detroit...----- --------------------- -
New York Giants at Dallas .. . .
Oakland at Pittsburgh..... . . .
Philadelphia at Los Angeles.. -----------------
San Diego at Kansas City.---------------------------
Seattle at Cincinnati---------... . .------------------
Sept. 26; New Eiingland at Cleveland.. .. ... . .
5 TV ....--..-...--.------------------------.-----
9 non-TV .. .. .


No .------
TV---------
No.--------
TV-----
TV -------
TV -------
No--.-----
No.-------
No....---- -
TV .------
No-----
No---------
No ------
No---------


67,867
54, 424
52,283
74,280
50,894
55,173
45,560
56,466
63,443
49,966
48,991
57,502
51,893
76,724
284,737
520,729


69,137
55,031
53,509
74,926
51, 342
56 236
47, 116
57,854
65,023
50,614
50,809
58,863
52,604
77,910
288,149
532,825


4,865
0
10,070
189
1,464
1,165
6,613
6,396
808
216
4,778
2,717
7,025
1,492
3,034
44,764


57,731
808,230
808,230


64,272
55,031
43,439
74,737
49,878
55,071
40,503
51,458
64,215
50,398
46,031
56,146
45,579
76,413
285,115
488,061


- 3.7
3.7


7.0 Rain, 75.


0
18.8
.2
2.9
2.1
14.0
11.0
.1
.4
9.4
4.6
12.4
2.0
1. 1
8.4


Cloudy, 74.
Rain, 65.
Sunny, 80.
Cloudy, 71.
Cloudy, 71.
Clear, 68.
Sunny, 75, domed,
Sunny, 98 '.
Cloudy, 650
Clear, 80.
Sunny, 78.
Sunny, 71.
Clear, 65.


















NFL DATA Iox T1(K.IIT SAI.S ANI) "No Snows" Fr, rIm 1977 sRiwAI SA , (,onti ii l


Paid
TV or no attendance


Game


Season totals:
12 TV ..................................................................
16 non-TV ..............................................................
AverTSe in house for 28 games.-..------------.....------------.--------.
14 games ..-...-- ..-- ..... ..---------.-------------- ------ ----...-----
2 wks ...-.-----......--..-....-........-........---........---.-.----.
3D WEEK
Oct. 2:
Buffalo at Baltimore....................................... No...........
Cincinnati at San Diego.................................... No...........
Denver at Seattle.. .. ...................................... No...........
Green Bay at Minnesota........-- .......--------- ..----.. TV ...........
Houston at Miami ......................................... No.... -......
New England at New York Jets.........................-- No...........
New Orleans at Chirajo. . ................................ TV...........
Ne* York Giants at Atlanta ............................... No..........
Philadelphia at Detroit..................................... No ...........
Pittsburgh at Cleveland.................................... TV...........
St Lou s at Washington ... ............................... TV...........
San Francisco at Los Angeles ............................... No ...........
Tampa Bay at Dallas ................................ No...........
Oct. 3: Oakland at Kansas City.................................. No...........
4 TV.......................................................................
10 non-TV .................................................................
Season totals:
16 TV ..................................................................
28 non-TV -.............................................................


695.619
937, 116


805.466
1,6j2, 135


48, 381
39.,928
56, 715
47,714
50. 764
49.067
56.483
47,998
59,722
79,233
51.426
57,148
55.553
62.051
237,856
527,327

933,475
1,464,443


Tickets
distributed


704. 458
915.289

8R20.974
1, 659,747


49. 224
40, 892
57, .103
48,446
51,973
50, 225
57, 359
48,974
60,842
80,433
55.031
59. 142
57, 332
63, 393
211, 269
539,400

945.727
1, 494,689


In house Percprit of
No shows attendince no shows Weather


17,322
61,019


47,798
78,341


1,507
504
4,295
1, 303
2,354
11,948
5.871
2, 800
3,965
1,412
0
3,.676
2,016
2,709
8,586
35, 810


687,136
894.270
56,479
773 176
1,581,406


47,717
40, 352
53. 108
47, 143
49.619
3F.277
51, 4188
46,174
56.877
79,021
55,031
55. 166
55.316
60.684
212.683
503,590


45 7
4.1


3.0
1
7. 5
2.7
4.5
21 0
10 2
5.7
65
1. 7
0
6.2
3.5
4.2
3.6
6.6


Clear. 70'.
Clear, 78 .
Sunny. 59'.
Sunny. 57'.
Sunn,, E\.
Ra'n. 69 .
Rain. 54'.
Clouds. 80'.
Domel, sunny, 55).
Rain. 53'.
Sunnb. 76',
Clear. 74'.
(.l-nud. 70 '
Clear, 62 .


25.908 919.819
96,329 1,.397,860


42 game average...................................................... --
14 games............................................... --.............
3 week ................................................ ............


57,093
765.,183
2,397,918


58, 105
780,669
2,440,416


2,922
44. 196
122, 737


55,183
736 273
2,317,679


......... ^...
5.7
5.0








4TH WEEK
Oct. 9:
Atlanta at San Francisco--------.------------------- No....----..
Cincinnati versus Green Bay at Milwaukee- --------------TV.....
Dallas at St. Louis ----.-- ------........------.....-----------... TV.........
Detroit at Minnesota --------------........--...----------..- TV ---......
Kansas City at Denver----.....-----------------------....----- TV-.........
Miami at Baltimore-----.. --------..---.-..------------- No...........
New York Jets at Buffalo.---...--..--------------------------..... No.........
Oakland at Cleveland ------.-- --------------.-------. No-----
Philadelphia at New York Giants---------------------------- TV ------
Pittsburgh at Houston -.----....---.------------------ No -.......-
San Diego at New Orleans---------.---------..--------- No--.-----
Seattle at New England ---- -----........---------------- No-----..-.
Washington at Tampa Bay-----.......---.---------------- No --.---..
Oct. 10: Los Angeles at Chicago----------.. ..--------------- TV--.-----
6 TV.--........... .....--- .......-.. ..--...-...-... ... ... ....--- .---
8 non-TV -...................---- ---- .------ ............ ....-----
Season totals:
22 TV --...--- --..........-- ....--...- ......- .......... ...--.
34 non-TV .-.. ...... .............-----------..--.- ------....
56 game average....-................--.--.---.----------- .------
14 games-------- ----------------------------------------
4 weeks------ ------------------ ------


5TH WEEK
Oct. 16:
Atlanta at Buffalo....--------- ------....... --.------------- No......
Baltimore at Kansas City---------- ------------------- No .------
Chicago at Minnesota..-------------.----------------- TV...........
Cleveland at Houston......-------------.---------------- No ..-------
Denver at Oakland......------------------------------.................. TV....--....
Green Bay at Detroit------------------------.-------.- No .-------
New England at San Diego -----------...------------.- No --------
New Orleans at Los Angeles..-------------------------- No----------
New York Jets at Miami---- --------..---------------- No.-----
St. Louis at Philadelphia-------------- -------.-----.- No-..........
San Franciso at New York Giants-------- --------------- TV--.---..
Tampa Bay at Seattle----------.-...- -----...----------. No.--------
Washington at Dallas ---------------------------- TV ..........
Oct. 17: Cincinnati at Pittsburgh.---....-----.---..- -----------........ TV.....-----
5TV -.-. . . . . . . .............. . ..--.... . .. ...--
9 non-TV..............................................................---


42, 584
54,687
50, 893
47,717
74,269
56,829
34,253
79,272
75,604
49,416
55, 882
53,366
59,728
56,672
359,842
431,330


44,174
55,968
51,352
48,446
74,926
57,752
34, 820
80, 445
76, 569
50,217
57,291
54, 363
61,167
57,359
364,620
440,229


1,293,317 1,310,347
1,895,773 1,934,918


56,948
791,172
3,189,090


28,976
67,569
47,683
49,300
53,613
79,141
50,195
49,841
45,048
63,143
75,623
58,712
63,241
49,811
289,971
491,925


57,951
804,849
3,245,265


29,659
68,924
48,446
50,127
54,598
80,273
51,147
51,965
46,138
64,082
76,575
59,452
64,994
50,435
295,048
501,767


6,165
2,315
1,233
2,586
208
747
2,774
1,267
27,745
2,440
3,349
8,436
2,596
5,947
40,024
27,774


38,009
53,653
50,129
45,860
74,718
57,006
32,046
79,178
48,824
47,777
53,942
45,927
58,571
51,412
324,596
412,455


14.0
4.1
2.4
5.3
.2
.1
8.0
1.6
36.0
4.9
5.9
15.5
4.2
10.3
11.0
6.3


65,932 1,244,415
124,603 1,810,315


3,402
67,798
190,535


2,311
5,848
738
3,250
982
2,186
820
5,920
2,692
3,547
6,209
4,669
2,879
2,485
13,293
31,243


Sunny, 68.
Cloudy, 49.
Sunny, 55.
Sunny, 47.
Clear, 67.
Cloudy, 65.
Rain, 390.
Cloudy, 49.
Rain, 62.
Domed, clear, E0.
Clear, 74, domed.
Rain, 63.
Sunny, 85.
Rain, 60.


5.0
6.4


54,549
737,051
3,054,730


27,348
63,076
47,708
46,877
53,616
78,087
50,327
46,045
43,446
60,535
70,366
54,783
62,115
47,950
281,755
470,524


7.8
8.5
.1
6.5
.1
2.7
.1
11.4
5.8
5.5
8.1
7.9
4.4
4.9
4.5
6.2


Rain, 40.,
Sunny, 62,
Sunny, 530.
Fair, 75, domed.
Cloudy, 62.
Sunny, 44.
Clear, 79.
Clear, 76.
Sunny 79.
Cloudy, 62.
Cloudy, 62.
Domed, sunny, 59'.
Clear 67'.
Clear, 38.


Season totals:
27 TV...............................-- .................--- .......
43 non-TV.........................................................
70 game average.........-..........----------------------...
14 games---- -.. . ..-----------------------.--------
5 weeks...............................................................


1,583,288 1,605,395
2, 387, 698 2,436,685


56,728
781,896
3,970,986


57,744
796,815
4,042,080


79,225 1,526,170
155,846 2,280,839


3,358
44,536
235,071


54,386
752,279
3,807,009


-------------
5.6
5.8







NFL I)ATA ,N '() SAI.I.S ANI) "No INOWS"' FOR TIlE 19771


Game

6TH WEEK
Oct. 23:


Paid
TV or no attendance


Atlanta at hca ) .........................................
Bal in -,re at N.: r la ... .. ... ......................
Cl'vpl.inj at FR.jtf i ......................................
DalIas at Pr e 3 ......................................
Dpiver at Ci'n, in ati ........ .... .......................
Detroit at San Francisco -.......... .......... .
Green Bay at Tamnp.i, Biv...................................
Hnuslon at rilts!'urih ............. .... .............
Kansas Ci't at Sin D'egu .................................
New Orleans at St. Louis...................................
New York Giants at Wasington............................
Oakland at New York Jets...................... ....-------
Seat'le at Miami..........................................
Oct. 24: Minnesota at Los Aneles .............................
7 TV ..........................................................
7 non-TV.....................................................
Season totals:
34 TV ...................................................
50 ioo'-. V .... ..........................................
P4 game av erage ........................................


14 games .....---.-
6 weeks.............


7TH WEEK


Oct. 30-
B,-ffalo at Seattle .............. .. .... .. TV...........
Chicago at Green Bay..---.-------------------------------- TV.....--.---
Detroit at Dallas ..-- ............. .....- .........-- .- .. TV .......-..
Houston at Cn-nnali .......... ... --..-. -......--.. No.----------
Kansas City at Cleveland.... .- ----- -- ---.. -----..----- No .....
Los Angeles at New Orleans .......... .. .... No .........
Minnesota at Atlanta... ...... .. ............. .... TV ...........
New York Jets at New ['iglanrd ..... .. ............ No ...........
Oakland at Denver...................... ..... .. TV......--..-
Philadelphia at Washington ......................... TV ........
PittsburRh at Baltimore ....---.-.--..........---.....---------.... TV.....-..
San Die.o at Miami ................... .. No ...--.
Tampa Bay at San Francisco.--- -..--..----..------------ No.........
Oct. 31: New Yoik Giants at St. Lou's......-----------------------............... No..........
7 TV................................ .... ......................
7 non-TV ....,..................................-............-..............
Season totals:
41 TV......... .... .
57 non-TV ... . .... ....... .... ... .... ....... ....
98 ramp average....._........ .....
11 gam es ... ... ...... . . .
7 weeks.....-.... .. .............................


.......... 56,667
---....-- 60,358
.......... 62.999
.......... 65,020
-. ...... 58,855
..... 44,564
...-...-.- 49,401
........-- 49,759
...-.--... 32.986
....-.-.. 50,807
......... -54.338
--..-..... 59. 344
.......... 38.961
.--- --...... 69,795
..--.-... 406,744
.......... 347, 122


Tickets
d'slrinhuted


57, 359
61, ?97
63,613
65,927
59,590
46, 143
50, 677
50,418
33,943
51,352
55,031
60,268
40,060
71,039
412,423
354 294


In house Percent of
No shows attendance no shows Weather


7,952
321
2,708
420
5,195
6,751
3,042
1,901
933
2,935
1,128
3,534
10.202
8,625
23,282
32, 365


1,990,032 2,017,818 102,507
2,734,8?0 2,790 919 188,211
56. 248 57,248 3,461
753,866 766,717 55.647
4,724,852 4,808,797 290,718


64,066
55,183
63.410
58,777
60,792
60,015
59,752
60,154
74,197
54.,409
59.962
47,525
41. 728
50.876
430,979
379,867


2.421.011
3.11-14.687
'6. 487
810.,846
5,535,698


64.756
56.236
65,004
59, 531
62,098
61,264
60. 738
61,297
74,866
55,031
60, 763
48. 752
43. 392
51,352
437,394
387.686


2. 455.212
3. 178,665
57, 489
825.080
5,633,877


3,576
234
1,844
6,337
1,717
2,241
1,481
255
79
0
538
8,082
8,642
1.029
7, 752
28 303


110. 259
216.514
3, 335
36. 0'5
326, 773


49,407 13.9 (
60.976 .01
60,905 4.3
65, 507 .01
54,395 8.7
39.392 14.6
47,635 6.0
48,517 3 8
33,010 .03
48,417 5,8
53,903 2.0
56. 734 5.9
29,858 25.5
62,414 12.1
389,141 5.6
321.929 9 1


1,915,311
2, 602. 768
53,781
711,070
4,518,079


61.180
56.,002
63,160
53. 194
60.381
59.023
59.257
61,042
74, 787
55,031
60,225
40.670
34,750
50.323
429. 642
359, 383


Cloudy, 50'.
Sunny, 54 '.
Sunni,, 54.
Sulin,. 55 '.
Sunny '59'.
Cloudy, i".
Sunni, 78.
Sunny. 52?.
Clear, 75'.
Cloudy. 65
Sunny. 61".
Sunny. 50.
Rain. 76 .
Clear. ;3".


5.1
6.7

7.3
6.0


5.5
.4
2.8
10 6
2.7
3.7
2.4
.4
.1
0
.8
16.5
19.9
20
18
73


DomEd, rain, 54',
Cloudy. 52.'
Rain, 76'.
Sunny. 58'.
Sunny. 64 .
Domed, clear. 77,.
Cloudy. 58':.
Clear, 56'.
Clear. 66.
Sunny. 64'.
Sunny. 58.
Cloudy. 81',
Sunny.65.
Cloudy, 66.


2.344,953 4,4
2, A2, 151 6.8
654.54..............
789,025 4.3
5,307,104 5.8


R I:(; LAAKI%'


ISA!\sov-C()l(lfillcltd







8TH WEEK
Nov. 6:
Buffalo at New England----------------------------------- TV...........
Chicago at Houston--------------------------------------- No...........
SCincinnati at Cleveland------------------------------------- No-----.-....
S Dallas at New York Giants---------------------------------- TV-----.....
Green Bay at Kansas City----------------------------------- No...........
: Miami at New York Jets-.---------------------------------- No...........
New Orleans at Philadelphia..---..-.---------------------- No......
Pittsburgh at Denver--------------------------------------- TV...........
St. Louis at Minnesota------------------------------------- TV.--........
San Diego at Detroit..------------------------------------- No------...-
San Francisco at Atlanta.----------------------------------- No ---...........
Seattle at Oakland ..------.------------------------------- TV...........
Tampa Bay at Los Angeles--------------------------------- No-----....
Nov. 7: Washington at Baltimore-------------------------------- TV...........
6 TV...............-- -- ----------------------------------------------------
8 non-TV-----... ..--------------------------------------------
Season totals:
47 TV....- -------------------------------------------------------------
65 non-TV -.........-------.. ...----------- -------------------
112 game average---.------------. -----------------------------
14 games--------------------------------------------------------------
8 weeks--.------------------------------------------------------


9TH WEEK
Nov. 13:
Baltimore at Biffilo..............---------------------
CilLinii ati at Minnesota..- ------ ------------------------
Cleveland at Piltsluigh........----------- ---------
Denver at San iego- -. ---------------------------
Detroit at Atlanta ........---------------- -------------
Houston at Oakland .--...- ---------------------------
Kansas City at Liii, go -...- ..- ..--.. -------------------
Los Angeles versus Green Bay at Milwaukee ..-----. -------.
New [igl lil at 'laini .- -----------. .. ------.. ------------
New York Giants at Tampa Bay..------.---------------.----
San Francisco at New Orleans ------------------------------
Seattle at New York Jets.............-- .... ........-- .---
Washington at Philadelphia.---. .--. --------.-------------
Nov. 14: St. Louis at Dallas.......--.---------- ------------


No.-
TV-
TV .
No
No
TV.
TV
TV
No
No
No_
No-
TV -
TV-


60,159
49,451
82, 067
75,870
64,356
53, 698
61 908
74,252
47,458
74,673
49, 024
52,814
50, 200
59, 841
370,394
485,377


61. 137
50,223
83,285
76,862
65,655
54, 573
62,885
74,906
48,446
75,967
50,357
54,027
53,318
60,763
376,141
496,263


874
3,986
1,353
2,330
2,968
2,248
9,403
119
1,380
3,719
3,780
3,098
7,825
3,023
10,824
35,282


60,263
46,237
81,932
74, 532
62,687
52, 325
53,482
74,787
47, 066
72,248
46, 577
50,929
45,493
57,740
365,317
460,981


1.4
7.9
1.6
3.0
4.5
4.1
14.9
.1
2.8
4.8
7.5
5.7
14.6
4.9
2.8
7.1


Cloudy, 56.
Clear, 80.
Cloudy, 75.
Rain, 51.
Cloudy, 57.
Rain, 53.
Cloudy, 55.
Cloudy, 62.
Cloudy, 51.
Domed, rain, 60'
Rain, 63.
Sunny, 68.
Clear, 68.
Rain, 500,


2,791,405 2,831,353 121,083 2,710, 270 4.2
3,600,064 3,674,928 251,796 3, 423, 132 6.8


57, 07
855,771
6,391,469


-.-.--- 42,322
..-.-.. 47,665
.-.---. 49,920
-..--.. 45,387
.------ 50,069
------- 53,594
-.-.... 56,575
-... .- 54,598
-.----- 66,743
---- -- 51,773
------ 45,912
....... 49,229
-..--.. 64,548
- -..-- 63,323


7 TV -....--...- ....-......---....-.-.- -.....------.-.-.-...-------------.
7 non-TV.--....-------..------------------------------------------------
Season totals:
54 TV ......... .... ----------- - - - - - - - --------. --------
72 non-TV-.... .---....----...-----.---... -------------- -----------
126 ganre ,.' i -- -- -- - -- --- ----
14 g.imee .. ......--- -- -------- -----------..--.-. - - --....-..- ----
9 weeks-- -------------------- ----------------------------


390,223
351,435


58,092
872,404
6,506,281


42,946
48 446
50,565
46,364
51,143
54,598
57,359
55,936
67,907
53, 142
47,092
50,223
65,572
64,888
397, 364
358,817


3,329
46,106
372,879


3,502
3,075
3,510
1,153
4,002
931
7,816
2,988
405
6,624
5,528
6,250
4,870
850
24,040
27,464


3,181,628 3,228,717 145,123
3,951,499 4,033,745 279,260
bt,, 614 57,639 3,368
741,658 756,181 51,504
7,133,127 7,262,462 424, J83


54,763
826,298
6,133,402


39,444
45,371
47,055
45,211
47,141
53,667
49,543
52,948
67,502
46,518
41,564
43,973
60,702
64,038


5.2
5.7


8.1
6.3
6.9
2.4
7.8
1.7
13.6
5.3
.5
12.4
11.7
12.4
7.4
1.3


Cloudy, 36.
Cloudy, 39.
Snow, 30.
Sunny, 70.
Clear, 48.
Sunny, 63.
Sunny, 36.
Cloudy, 40.
Cloudy, 74.
Clear, 73.
Clear, 65, domed.
Cloudy, 41.
Cloudy, 37.
Clear, 64.


373,324 6.0
331,353 7.6


3,083,594 4.4
3,754,485 6.9
54,271 ..............
704,677 6.8
6, 838,079 5.8







NIL Dr.ATA ON T('KET SAlJS .ANi "NO SiOw.s- JIR 'rill


Paid
TV or no attendance


Tickets
distributed


In house
No shows attendjdice


Perceuit of
no shows W-.ilher


10TH WEEK
NOV. 20:
Atlanta at New Orleans.................................... No.........
Cleveland at New York Giants ..----- No......
Dallas at Pittsburgh ....................................... TV --...
Denver at Kansas City......-------------------------------........ No ...........
Houston at Seattle- ...-----------------------------.............................. No ---------
Los Angeles at Sai Francisco............................... TV ...........
Miami at Cincinnati -..---------------------------------...................... TV.....---------
Minnesota at Chicago ................................ TV ....-------.-..
New England at Buffalo.. .. .....N............... No -----------
New York Jets at Baltim ore -.-.---.......... O .-- .- --
Philadelphia at St. Louis --...----..---------..--------------.......... TV......----------
Oakland at San Diego- ............................. No.
Tampa Bay at Detroit.................. ------------------------------- No .----
Nov. 21: Green Bay at Washington------------------....................----..-..... TV......---
6 TV.............
8 non-TV ................... Z:::':ZZZ:::L'::ZZ:.'::-:::::ZZ

Season totals:
60 TV............
80 non-TV......................
140 game average.. --.----......................-..................
14 games...................................... . ..--------------.-- ..
10 w e e k s .. ..-- -- -.. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . .

11TH WEEK
Nov.24:
Chicago at Detroit................................----------------------------------.. No.....---...
Miami at St. Louis ----------------------------------TV
Nov.27:
Atlanta at Tampa Bay...................................... ----------------No...----...----
Baltimore at Denver............................---------------------------------. TV .........
Dallas at Washington................................TV ......
Kansas City at Houston ................................... No ..
Los Angeles at Cleveland ................-------------------------- No ...,
Minnesota at Green Bay ................................ TV..........
New Orleans at San Francisco............................-------------------------- No .......
Nev York Giants at Cincinnati--------.......................----------------- No -
Philadelphia at New England ........ ----.................. N ---------
Pittsburgh at New York Jets--------------------------................................ No ....
San Diego at Seattle............. ---------------------------------No ....
Nov. 28: Buffalo at Oakland ..............................TV ...
5 TV
5 -TV-..........................---- .---- ----.----
9 non-TV .............................. ...........................


48. 464
75,646
49, 901
56. 278
63, 120
59, 365
58, 710
56,677
30,620
50, 147
50, 749
51,173
57,029
54, 328
329, 730
432,477


49. 644
76,656
50,610
57,6S1
63,874
61, 044
59,544
57,359
31, 157
51,058
51,352
52. 127
58, 393
55 031
334,940
440. 590


3,511,358 3,563,657
4,383,976 4,474,335


56,395
762,207
7, 895, 334


73,758
50,855
46,783
74,217
54, 420
45.606
72, 199
54, 773
42,344
56,437
57. 001
54.590
58.346
53,324
287,589
507,O64


57,414
775,530
8,037,992


74,984
51,352
48,088
74,864
55,031
47,682
73,.445
55.821
43,926
57,239
58.192
55, 627
59,260
54.598
291,666
518,443


6, 509
4,080
849
3, G31
2, 355
4, 265
12,811
7,796
3,559
1,101
2,.584
1,240
9,039
3, 533
31. 838
31,514


43. 135
72. 516
49, 761
54, 00
61. 519
56,.779
46, 733
49. 563
27,598
49,957
48. 768
50, 887
49, 354
51,498
303, 102
409.,076


13. 1
5.3
1
6.3
3.7
69
21.5
13.6
11. 4
2.2
5.0
2.4
15. 4
6.4
9. 5
7. 2


Clear, 80'.
Clear, 43.
Cloudy, 61 .
Lloudy, 49 .
Lleai. 35 .
Cloud y, 58.
Rain. 49 .
Ran, 550.
Cloudy. 40'.
SurinV, 58'.
Cloudy, 61.
Sunny. 73.
Ra.n, 412-.
Ra.n, 56 .


176,961 3,386,696
310, 774 4, 163. ',6L


3,484
63. 352
487, 735


3,812
1,0S3
4,496
147
0
4,748
3,093
5. 821
10. 224
24, 534
299
8,242
3, 922
3.040
10.091
63, 370


53.930
712. 178
7,550,257


71.172
50, 269

43.592
74, 717
55,031
42,934
70.352
50.,000
33. 702
32.705
57, 893
47, 385
55.338
51,558
281. 575
455.073


8.2
6.0


5.0 rCloudy. 38 '.
2.1 Cloudy, 37.


93
.1
0
9.9
4.2
10 4
23 3
42.9
.5
14.8
6,6
5.6
34
12.2


Sunny, 70'.
Cloudy. 48'.
Cloudy. 36.
Domed, clcjdy. 80 '.
Cloudy 24'.
8 in. snow, 26' (turnstiles froze).
Fair. 55'.
Snow, 23.
Sunny. 35'.
Sunny. 34.
Rain, 45.
Clear. 58.


Game


>~l: V-i 'N


1917 ] ,n I'Li:


(41 M t 1111 '1 l








Season totals:
6S TV...--.----...- -.. ..........-- ..--- -....------ ..-- ..----.. --. ---
89 non-TV.-. . .....--- ---- .--- ....-- -- ....-- ..- ..---- ...... ...... .


3,798,947
4,891,040


3,855,323
4,992,778


187,052 3,668,271
374,144 4,618,634


154 game average......-- --- ...-...-... ..-- ...-----..------------..--.
14 games-. .......--------- .-------.--------------------..-------------.
11 weeks --------------------------------..----------------.-----------


12TH WEEK
Dec. 4:
Chicago at Tampa Bay...-. .... ..
Cincinnati at Kansas City -------------..-----------
Cleveland at San Diego....... .......
Denver at Houston...----.- --------------------------------
Detroit at Green Bay.. ..........................
New Enkland at Atlanta .. .--. -----
New York Jets at New Orleans..--...------------------
Philadelphia at Dallas.. . ... . .
Oakland at Lcs Angcles .. . .. ... .. .
St. Louis at New York Giants...... . ......
San Francisco at Minnesota.----- ----------------------
Seattle at Pittsbuirgh .......-.-- ..-- .----........ .------
Wash'~n[on at Buffalo ................................
Dec. ~'. Baltbmoie at Miami . . . . . . . . .
Dec. -Baltimoie at Miami---------------------
8 l V .. .. . . . . . . . . .... ..... - - - - .- . -... .
6 non-TV- - --...........-. ..........------- .-- .. ..---- ....

Season totals:
73TV................................. .. ........... .. ...
95non-TV-----------.......----.---..---...


56,428
794,653
8,689,987


No .--...--------- 51,286
No.-.....-- 46,962
No --....--------- 37,317
TV --....---.------ 49,379
TV ..----..------- 54,524
No ......--- 59,683
No---..-------- 44,027
TV----......------- 62,904
TV---.....-------- 69,818
TV.--..--------- 75,610
TV --....--------- 47,694
TV.--...----.. 49,694
No----------- 27,200
TV.--..----- 74,316
... . . 483,939
.. . . 266,475


57,455
810,109
8,848,101


52,629
48,358
38,287
50,228
55, 580
60,738
45,236
64,695
71,039
76,622
48,446
50,403
27,726
75,466
492,479
2/2, 974


4,282,886 4,347,802
5,157,515 5,265,752


3,644
73,461
561,196


3,681
9,870
975
4,714
5,580
2,827
4,772
4,406
3,964
4,796
7,701
4,974
4,751
6,489
42,624
26,876


53,811
736,648
8,286,9 05


48,948
38,488
37, 312
45,514
1 50, 000
57,911
40,464
60,289
67,075
71,826
40,745
45,429
22,975
68,977
449,855
246,098


229,676 4,118,126
401,020 4,864,732


9.1
6.3


6.9 Sunny 80.
20.4 Fog, 32.
.03 Sunny, 72.
9.4 Domed, cloudy, 80.
10.0 Snow, 10'.
4.7 Cloudy, 66.
11.0 Cloudy, 78, domed.
6.8 Clear, 70.
5.6 Sunny, 74.
6.3 Clear, 41.
15.9 Snow, 15.
9.9 Sunny,34.
17.1 Cloudy, 32.
8.6 Cloudy, 79".
8.7
9.8

5.3
7.6


168 game average ..... ...
14 games...---.-------------..-..---.----.
12 weeks.......................


13TH WEEK
Dec. 10:
Pittsburgh at Cincinnati.---.- -------. ---------
Washington at St. Louis-.-------------. --..-----
Dec. 11:
Athlinta at los Angeles-...................... .
Buffalo at New Yerk Jets ... -............. ..
Detroit at Blimniore. ... -- ..-- .............-- .- .
Green Bay at Clicdgo... ........--- ..-----....
Houston at Cleveland -................... .......-
Miami at New 1n;land -...-.... ---------. ----..
Minnesota at Oakland ---- ....---...-----..-.
New York Giants Pt Philadelphia.. ---.- ----- -- _
Seattle at Kansas City ...... ...-. -----------
San Diego at Denver..-------.........--....--.-.-..
Tampa Bay at New Orleans ..........-- --- -- .
Dec. 12. Dallas at San Francisco . ..... .. ...
6 TV
8 nc n-TV ... ----....... ...-- ..... ... . . . ...


STV ..........---
_ TV V...- _--


...... No.
-No
-..-- TV,
...... No
. ... TV
-.--.. TV.-
. .. No
---- No
. TV
No
No


56,193
750,414
9,440,401


58,877
50,834
56,447
49,797
45, 121
56,660
45,629
60,329
53,596
62,540
42, 494
74, 142
1,494
59, 577
354,438
,0.1, 099


57,224
765,453
9,613,554


59, C51
51,283
58,721
51,093
46,040
57,359
46,789
61,297
54,598
63,530
43,824
74, ,.t,6
43, 1.1
60,906
4 4, (r .1
414,264


3,755
69,500
630,696


23,518
15,216
6,147
19, 164
6,639
23,802
15,891
233
1,827
15,799
21,562
181
3,237
5,058
64,777
93,497


53,469
695,953
8,982,858


36,133
36,067
52,574
31,929
39,401
33,557
30,898
61,064
52,771
47,731
22,262
74, i05
40, 124
55,848
.'4, 277
320,767


39.4 Clear, 2.
29.6 Snow all week, sunny, 14.


10.5
37.5
14.4
41.5
33.9
3.3
24.9
49.2
7.4
8.3
18.0
22.6


Cloudy, 64.
Sunny, 22.
Sunny, 28'.
Below .i0 all week, cloudy, 10'.
Sunny, 9".
Sunny, 14'.
Cloudy, 580.
Sunn, ;2.
Cloudy, 42'.
Sunny, b62 .
Cloudy, 10 domed.
fair. 55 .


Footnote at end of table.











N L. IA).A ox Ti'Kl, r SA.Ns AoI N Si ,\vs" Fo l r: 1977 E(;I'LA: SA N-(' iiii


Paid
Game TV or no attendance


Tickets In house Percent of
distributed No shows attendance no shows Weather


Season totals:
79 TV......................--.....................------....-....-...
103 non-TV........ -...........................................-----.


4,637,324 4,706,856
5,560,514 5,680.016


294,453 4,412,403
494,517 5,185,499


182 game average --...-.......-..--.-.................--.--..--......
14 jamnies .........................---..-----...........---------
13 weeks ................................. .......
14TH WEEK
Dec. 17:
Los Angeles at Washington................................. TV ...........
Butalo at Miami .......................................... No..........-
Minnesota at Detroit..................-----------------...-----..-------. TV...........
Dec. 18:
Chicago at New York Giants................................ -------------------------TV...........
Cinrinnati at Houston...................................... -----------------------------No...........
Cleveland at Seattle...................................... ------------------------------No...........
Denver at Dallas-.............--------------------..........------------ TV-.-.......
Kansas City at Oakland.....- ----------------------.........----- TV...........
New England at Baltimore.------------------------ TV...........
New Orleans at Atlanta...............----------------------------...... No...........
New York Jets at Philadelphia ......--------------------...........--- No--------...........-
Pittsburgh at San Diego.................................... No...........
St. Louis at Tampa Bay ..-----------.................-..----........ No...........
San Francisco versus Green Bay at Milwaukee -..------------ TV...........
7 TV .................---------------------------------.....---------------...........
7 non-TV................................................................
Season totals:
86 TV.................................................................
110 non-TV ..........................................................


56,033
757,537
10,197,938


54,408
45,855
79,180
75,626
48,901
63,583
63,539
53,432
59,879
43,013
61,258
51,006
59,040
53,079
439,143
372,656


57,071
773, 318
10, 386, 872


55,031
47,103
80,364
76,626
49,740
64,756
65,054
54,499
60,763
44,044
62,254
51,992
60,282
54,358
446,695
380,171


5,076,467 5,153,551
5,933,270 6, 060,187


4,335
158,274
788,970


823
7,477
2,066
26,474
4,477
3,173
1,302
4,195
18,513
7,469
43,013
1,265
3,360
9,456
62,829
70,234


52,736
615.044
9,597,902


54,208
39,626
78, 298
50,152
45,263
61,583
63,752
50, 304
42,250
36,575
19, 241
50. 727
56,922
44,902
383,866
309,937


7.6
20.8
7.6


15.9
2.3
34.5
9.0
4.9
2.0
7.7
30.5
17.0
69.0
2.4
5.6
17.4
14.0
18.5


Cloudy, 45'.
Cloudy, 75 .
Domed, cloudy, 36,
Sleet, rain, 31'.
Clear, 72-', domed.
Rain, 50 ', domed.
Clear 79.
Cloudy, 54o.
Cloudy. 37 ,
Clear, 53'.
Rain, 36'.
Cloudy. 62.
Clear 67 -'.
Cloudy, 40 .


357,282 4,796.269
564,751 5,495,436


196 game average...........................-------------------------------....--------
14 games.._....................................... ...........
14 weeks---------...... -------.-.-....-.-.... .. --... -.................


I Estimated.


56, 172
811,799
11,009,737


57,213
826,866
11,213,738


4,704
133,063
922,033


52,509
693,803
10,291,705


8.2
16.0
8.2


I Estimated.

















APPENDIX F

TELEVISION STATIONS SUBJECT TO THE NFL's HOME TERRITORY
BLACKOUT POLICY

TV STATIONS SUBJECT TO LEAGUE HOME TERRITORY BLACKOUT POLICY

Home city In city stations Others

1. Atlanta -------------------------------- ABC-WOXI------- None.
NCB-WSB ---
CBS-WAGA-------
2. Baltimore.--- ------ ------------ABC-WJZ------- NBC-Washington, D.C.-WRC.
NBC-WBAL------........ CBS-Washington, D.C.-WTOP.
CBS-WMAR ----.. ABC-Washington, D.C.-WMAL,
NBC-Hagerstown-WHAG.
NBC-Harrisbarg-WGAL.
CBS-Harrisburg-WHP.
CBS-York-WSBA.
ABC-York-WTPA.
CBS-Lancaster-WLYH.
3. Buffalo --------------- --------------- ABC-WKBW------....... ABC-Rochester-WOKR.
NBC-WGR-----...-- NBC-Rochester-WROC.
CBS-WBEN------ CBS-Rochester-WH EC.
ABC-Erie-WJET.
NBC-Erie-WICU.
CBS-Erie-WSEE.
CBC-Toronto, Canada-CFTC
CBC-Toronto, Canada-CBLT.
CTV-Hamilton, Canada-CHC.
4. Chicago-----------.------.--- ABC-WLS------ South Bend Rockford proviso-
NBC-WMAQ "Bears shall retain right to re-
CBS-WBBM examine the South Bend-Rockford
situation in the event that Bears
attendance should show a sig-
nificant drop below capacity."
5. Cincinnati--. ----- -- ---------ABC-WKRC------...... ABC-Dayton-WKEF.
NBC-WLW---- NBC-Dayton-WLWD.
CBS-WCPO------- CBS-Dayton-WHI 0.
ABC-Lexington-WBLG.
NBC-Lexington-WLEX.
CBS-Lexington-WKYT.
I N D-Springfield.
6. Cleveland-..---... ..--------------.. ABC-WEWS.------ ABC-Youngstown-WYTV.
NBC-WKYC------- NBC-Youagstown-WFMJ.
CBS-WJW.------- CBS-Youngstown-WKBN.
ABC-Akron/Canton-WAKR.
7. Denver------------------------------------- ABC-KBTV..------ ABC-Pueblo-KRDO.
NBC-KOA-------- NBC-Pueblo-KOAA.
CBS-KMGH ------ CBS-Pueblo-KKTV.
8. Dallas..------------------------------------ ABC-WFAA------- ABC/CBS-Waco-KWTS.
NBC-WBAP------....... ABC/NBC-Tyler-KLTV.
CBS-KDFW------... ABC/N BC/CBS-Sherman-KXII.
CBS-Wichita Falls-KAUZ.
NBC-Wichita Falls-KFDZ.
9. Detroit..---- --------------------....------ ABC-WXYZ------- NBC-Lansing-WILX.
NBC-WWJ---.....----. CBS-Lansing-WJIM.
CBS-WJBK ------ABC-Toledo-WDHO.
NBC-Toledo-WSPD.
CBS-Toledo-WTOL.
ABC-Flint-WJRT.
CBS-Saginaw-WEYI.
NBC-Bay City-WNEH.
CBC-Windsor, Ontario.
10. Green Bay---.----. .--------------ABC-WLUK' .----....- ABC-Wausau-WAOW.i
N BC-WFRV .------- CBS-Wausau-WSAU.i
CBS-WBAY i.------- ABC-Milwaukee-WlUI.2
NBC-Milwaukee-WTHJ.2
CBS-Milwaukee-WIN.:
11. Houston -------- ---------------------------- ABC-KTRK........ ------ABC NBC-Lufkin-KTRE.
NBC- KPRC------ ABC/CBS-Bryan-KBTX.
CBS-KHOU..------ ABC-Beaumont-KBMT.
NBC-Beaumont-KJAC.
CBS-Beaumont-KFDI.
See footnotes at end of table.
(85)








S6


TV STATIONS SUBJECT TO LEAGUE HOME TERRITORY BLACKOUT POLICY -Cnt'nued

Home city In clv stat ons Others

12. Kansas City ....... .......................... ABC-KMBC ..... NBC-Topeka -KTSB.
NBPC-WDAF CBS-Topeka- WIBW
CWS-KCMO ...... ABC ---St Joseph--KQTV.
N BC-Pittsbuilh-KOAM,
13. Los Angeles...................................... ---------------------------ABC-KABC........ ARC-Sar Dieio-KCST.
NBC- KNBC ...... NRC--S.in lieo-KOGO.
CBS-KNXT........ CBS-San Diego-KfMB.
14. Miami ......................................... ABC-WPLG ....... ABC-Wesl Palm Beach-WEAT.
NBC--CKT...... NRC-West Palm Beach-WPTV
CBS-WTVJ..----...... NBC-Fort M')e;s-WBBH.
CBS--Fort Myers-WINK.
ARC-Naples--WEVA-Ch 6.
15. Minneapolis St. Paul............................... ABC-KMSP-- ..... CRS-Mankato--KEYC.
NBC-KSTP ..-.... CRS-Mason Citv-KGLO.
CBS-WCCO........ NBC-Alexandria-KCMT.
NBC-Re hestef- K ROC.
ABC-Auslin-KAUS
16. New Enland....................................CPS-WNCAC ...... AP.C-Pro,.irence-WEV.
NbC-WBZ ........ hBC-Piciience--WCAR.
ABC-WCvB ....... CBS-Providence-WPRI.
ARC- Manehesle'. N H -WMUR.
17. New Orleans...................................... -------------------------------ABC-WVUF........ ABC CBS-Baton Roue---WAFB.
N RC-WCSU ....... NBC--Hilon Rcue-WBRZ.
CRS-WWL ........ IND-Baton Rouge-WRDT.
18. New York---------------------------------........................................ AFC--WAFSC ----........ None.
NBC-W'iRC......
CBS-WCBS ..
19. Oakland........................................-----------------------------------.. AfiC-KGO ......... -------ABC-Sacramento-KOVR.
NEC-KRON -------....... NBC-Sacremento---KCRA
CBS-KPIX........ -------CBS--.crmnnto-KXTV.
NEC CBS-Sacramentc-KTXL.
N PC-Salnas .'conterey-KSBW.
CPS-Salir.as Mcnterey-KMST.
ABC-San Jose- KNTV.
20. Philadelphia...................................... ABC-WPVI-------........ Harr:sbuqF Lancaster Lebanon.
NFr C-KYW -------- ABC-WTFA.
CBS-WCAU........ NBC-WGAL
C6S--WLYH.
Scranton-Wilkes Barre.
ABC-W':EP.
NBC-WBRE.
CBS-WDALI.
21. Pittsburgh........................................ ---------------------------------ABC-WTAE........ NBC-Altoona-WIAC.
NBC-WIIC ........------- CBS-Alloona-WFBG.
CBS-KDKA------- CBS-Jrchnsfnwn-WARD.
ABC CBS-Whepling-WSTV.
NBC-Sl uben. ilIe-WTRF.
You n Fstov. n.
APC--WYTV.
NBC-WFMJ.
CBS-WKBN.
Clarksburg Weston.
NBC-WBOY.
CB--WDTV.
22. San Francisco--------- ------------------Same as Cakland.
23. St. Louis..........----------------------....--.---------- ABC-KTVI ........-------- None.
N BC-KSD
CBS-KNOX
24. San Diego....--------------------------------- ABC-KGTV........ -------ABC-Los Angelrs-KABC.
Nr PC- C ST ........ NBC-Los Angekls-KNBC.
CBS-KFMB ------- CBS-Los Angeles-KNXT.
25. Seattle........................................... ABC-KOMO....... ----CBS-Bellingham-KV US.
NBC-KING
CBS-KI RO
26. Tampa --..----.--------..---..------.-----..------. ABC-WLCY ---........ ABC-0-lando-WFTV.
NBC-WFLA ....... NBC-Winter Pa'k-WESH.
CRS-WTVT-------........ CBS-rlan.-io-WOBn.
27. Wasingcn....................................... ABC-WJLA........------- ABC-Billimcre-WJZ.
NBC-WRC ......... NBC-B-iltrmoFe-WBAL.
CBS-WTOP........ CBS-- Rallimore-WMAR.

I Not backed out when Green Bay plays in Milwaukee.
2 Not blacked out when Green Bay plays at home.
















APPENDIX G

SUMMARY OF NFL CLUBS WHICH SHARE REVENUES EARNED FROM
THE SALE OF CONCESSIONS AND PARKING

CLUB REVENUE'SHARING FROM CONCESSIONS 1

Yes
Food Beverage Paring
Club None (percent) (percent) (percent)

AFC:
Baltimore Colts .---. ------------------------. ------------- 20 220 -------------
Buffalo Bills -------------------------------------------13j 13 -------------...-
Cincinnati Bengals.--------------------------------------------------- () No
Cleveland Browns --------------------- 6 20 20 No
Denver Broncos ----------------X----------- -----------
Houston OilersX------- X-------- --------------
Kansas City Chiefs --------------------------------------- 42 42 100
Miami Dolphins-- ------------- ------------ ---- (6) No
New England Patriots ------------------------------------- 12 12Y No
New York Jets ------------------------- X --------------------
Oakland Raiders---- --------------- X---------------------
Pittsburgh Steelers--------- ------- X---------------------
San Diego Chargers ---------------------------------------10 10 10
Seattle Seahawks- X-----------------------
NFC:
Atlanta Falcons---------- -X---------------------X
Chicago Bears----- -----------------------------X
Dallas Cowboys ----------------------------------------- 16 16 No
Detroit Lions --------------------------- X -----------------------
Green Bay Packers--- ------------- X-------- --- -----------
Los Angeles Rams ----------------------------------------- 16h 16% 16-
Minnesota Vikings -------------------------- X
New Orleans Saints ------------------------------X
New York Giants 7 --------------------- -- X
Philadelphia Eagles ---------------------------------------15 15 No
St. Louis Cardinals -- ------------- X ------------- -----------
San Francisco 49ers -----------------------------X
Tampa Bay Buccaneers
Washington Redskins ----------------------------X

All figures are taken from the commission's 3d annual report on the effects of Public Law 93-107. According to the
NFL, concession revenue sharing arrangements did not change in 1976 or 1977
2 May be 30 percent if lease negotiation makes this retroactive to 1975.
8 33.2 percent of gross receipts on sale of food and beverages; 33.6 percent of gross receipts on sale of alcoholic beverages;
13.2 percent of gross receipts on tobacco sales and vending machine sales; 32.2 percent of gross receipts on sales or rental
of all other products; less 10 percent this total amount retained by city of Cincinnati.
Cleveland Browns, Inc. does not have any ownership interest in the concession operation. Concessions, however, are
operated by Cleveland Stadium Corp., which is owned and controlled by Arthur B. Model who also owns Cleveland Browns,
Inc.
5 Approximate.
City of Miami receives 30.5 percent of the gross revenues from concessions. The concessionaire, Restaurant Associates,
articipates in 50 percent of the profit after payment to the city of Miami and amortization of equipment. The Dolphins
eep the remainder.
7 The Giants currently retain of all concession receipts.
I The Bucs receive 50 percent of concessions and parking after a certain minimum amount for the year has been received
by the stadium authority.
(87)


35-9S9--78--7































s














APPENDIX H

CORRESPONDENCE FROM AND TO THE FCC REGARDING PUBLIC L.Aw
93-107
U.S. SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION,
Washington, D.C., September 28, 1977.
Hon. RICHARD E. WILEY,
Chairman, Federal Conmmun ications Commission,
Washington, D.C.
DEAR CHAIRMAN WILEY: As you are aware, the professional sports anti-black-
out law (Public Law 93-107) expired on December 31, 1975, and the 94th Con-
gress adjourned before renewing legislation was finally acted upon. It appears
certain, however, that the Committee will again consider such legislation in thi1
Congress.
It is, therefore, requested that the Commission continue its monitoring and
study of the television blackout policies and practices of professional football,
ba.-eball, ba:-ktball, and hockey -o that the information and data necessary for
appropriate legislative action will be available. In this regard, it is further re-
quested that the Commission transmit a report on such monitoring and study
by April 15, 1978. Should the Corn ziki-ion encounter any difficulties in complying
x ith this request, the committee should be so advised.
The Commission's assistance in this matter is appreciated.
Sincerely yours,
WARREN G. MIAGNUSON,
Chairman.
ERNEST F. HOLLINGS,
Chairman, Communications Subcommittee.


FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION,
Washington, D.C., February 9, 1978.
Hon. HOWARD W. CANNON,
Chairman, C 'mmi, trc on Commerce,
U.S. Senate, Wash inglon, D.C.
DEAR SENATOR CANNON: I am writing in regard to the Commission's fifth
annual report on the effects of sport, anti-blackout hl-gihl:ttion. As you may know
this year's report is being clone at the committee's r,.quest since the enabling
leyi;lation, Public Law 93-107, expired on Dtcenmber 31, 1975.1 While the Conm-
mission is pleased to provide asi'.tance in this matter, we believe it would be
advantageous to defer delivery of the report until June 15, 1978.
Unfortunately, data needed to analyze the effects of locally televised gamines
on NFL season ticket sales will not be available until the latter part of April.
Consequently, if the Report is to be delivered on April 15, 1978, as initially re-
quested, it will not addre--~ this particular issue. Additionally, the professional
bas-ketball and hockey seasons run through the end of May. A thorough review
of current television blackout policies regarding regular and post---.:ton bz,-ktball
and hockey games will necee-siate a June 15 submission date. If this do( s not meet
with your satisfaction, the Commission will deliver the Report on April 15, 1978.

1 See attached letter from Senator Warren G. Magnuson and S. nat.)r Erne;t F. Hhlli ;gs to Richard E.
Wiley.
(89)







90

Titii, p-rrittitig. tlii- y.:r*s ,-tudiy aill pr,'vi,\ i upda trltte uIIt r f the
fIr tlii :ttiiual r.i-p irt. SpiCit:ic iy, m I int Ii ,I to a: il lvz,. tite i lm pict if hw':l
ti l.\ i-.,d I6':TIli 411 N F L "YI, -l ItI -,% .- -':tl-,,ll tirk .-t h-;,lf. : drtl I'i # t4l-\ | In
:;iilii,'n'- r:k itiii-. \Ve fuirtlu'r lihit1, to i pr \ idIe (',iiir,"-. with :iln a.:,-,--sm rit uf the
vitTect ,f Publi' I.:,w 9; '> ;, o tWi tiv :,i ci:tl \;ili, ,f N FL t,.I,.vi im right-.
W e l, Ii.,ve ;il tlii- iifr, :il -ti.n t i it lp '. til ,r t to the sp)(rt, anti-blickoiit
i^uc;id o ~i Li~~lit\ I~r'o ;l '.II'" ni ti- i cn onsnidtr. I f i h rt-
;ire m y I bt(i'r i-1i1- or iirn-tiu'- V Ill' i -iil \% -1lnnild 1.. a'lilrr- 'I in tlir 1 Iport.
pIhl.-, f,,1 frv t, rti-, tlil.n. \\ V will do ,ur l).,t to provided a thorough ru...pou u,.
Blf.-t pr-,,i.,l r.'L :,!l..
C,,,-,LF:s D. Fvitrzs, Chairmua.
At l :iclllti..llt.
FL). II:\L CfMMI'NCATIIN.SN ()MMIS.SIOSN
W+.intoilt,, D.C., April to, 197S.
r,,m, C -., I.,
14Wa.'hi,,l't, D.JC.
)i v\K Mt. Wmi.i -Ims: Thi Ci,,(mii--ion i- curre.ttly preparing the fifth annual
report ,i tihe et.'i't-< of t1,,1.vi-ion 11l:;ck<,it policif-, atnd practice si oni prifes'siotial
fiitl'ill1. 1a:1--).:lPl, h.l -kt1i'ull, :itid hi,'k.y. TIh NFL h:u 'r gritci i-lyv provided [niio t
of tin linftmrni:1it'ii ni.'tdl,'l t1. coiil)1 tfi. hiN, yv.ar's stud ly. unc, again we ask your
a--i-t:,iinu' in oltt.iinlinp the foll,,\iii. :tidl iti'n i:i1 d:1t:L:
(1) Ti- nu;nlitr ;intl itllar value nf .-.:-, ticket< ,frif'rld for .si:Ile bylv bench
initlu'r club anMitl the number of s,.:.-,_n tickets .:.ilt during tlihe 1977 football
bC""i OI1.
(2) ('Cortc,-.-iuinr revenues (*;arn.l by1' iniliiduli:l NFL team during 1977 regular
s,. .-. 'ii ;g:,mt.-. PI,.i-u list revemnic- .: r1'i.l fr( il t he s:ie of "'ro" inmagazine .el)a-
r:,t<.ly..- Alo d-ign:Lte ;iny clihng,- in lthe pi reciut;ge (if ciic.in s:ilhs which
acru,.ii to indivi' ii:il 1:ini-. during the' 1977 1e:u' ,n a:- I)ppi<(-d to the 197i s:iamon.
(3) P.rking r.\cnurs .are'd by idlividu:i1 NFL t:,ins. during the 1977 s'a:on.
AI,'] list thl prlr.-itAi during th. 1977 -..:i-oti.
(4) I{H.tv ,i. s irrir I, by in(iix ii 1111 clul :' from tlh .-:hle of t ,I1 iS-ion exhil)it iorn
right- to pIr'-.i-'oii, rigllar, aind l,'-t-'.'.-,i'i g:i ln- diiuring the 1977 :,;.-(.
(5) t.tViulc'., t.trn.i c iinit\i, dual clul-, f inm the .alv (of radi') rights .to prr-
s4.:i.-on, rt.vular, atl I, pi-t-r:i-(,n g:,tiii. (duriiig the 1977 :-.i-ion. Also include any
reiuat,.- pl:iI'l to -t:atiolz (dIril..i tlise years.
(6) Pro formina comin ined ilnolir -,t'-miivintli for N FL te:llls for 1976-77.
(7) Nationdal TV r:tti g- fri,,i Nit.l-ein of all ltItvi-cd N I. gaie(s for 1977-7g.
Sitrr', tthi- \ :ir';s :t.ly I111u-t Ice tran-in-itted on or befNre June ., 1978, we ip-
tli:it ti e r'iUi'-t,'ld dilt;:i (c.i l I submitted i'- :.mn :is convteiiently uu.'.ilhlt or by
May 10, 197,, :Lt tll' lti'-t to c.n-L-re tiit,' for na%:l .-is and iliclusion in the
report.
As in the. pdi-t, you tre weltonie to forw:ird oithcer infoi-rnintion Ahiieh the NFL
lay ',,i'n:i,,r r.l'.\ t' iit ) to t' CI',llui-:iorj's study regardiiig the fet'ct of locally
tclhcvi>.,.,d g~ ,." (il ptf,">-iolal footh:,ll.
Sl,,ild v,', ,:ive any qu,-tii,, concerning tlhi- r.ql,.-t, ,luse contact Mlr.
I.arry LaIa,- or Mr. S..c',t I ,10,i'rt- of thl (',o'i1mi--io's Br-,:,d.ea-t Bureai (202)
(i.'' ." 'li2;ink v ,u for y,'ur contilluilIg .1--i.alIt' i t tilte ('oiio o behalf
of tli NFL.
>Sincr're'ly,
CIARI.I1)s D. FI.H1iS, (Chairman.



F.i.mlAL C()MMI'NICATIONS C'(MMISSI(N,
W4UahilLtfun, D.C., Api il t, 1978.
JAMI-.. F. FITZ'ATRICK, L.-(.,
A, rp,,,t find IPorIt r,
Wl shiyt,,i, D.C.
l)i..\!{ Mil FIT/PIATI:CK : The Commis.-i,-n i- currently lpr,'p:iring it, fifth nnun l
rip rt 1> (',i, i'r--- on ilr effects l):ill. lI:-.ketl,.,ll, f,"uulr:il, ;miel ho(k,'v t':t-ii-. As y ,ii kn \w, ,,ir *-at.ul n'r rl)p ruling
reiqiii',-.iiit- pur-uu:arit to I'ildic Laix 9:1 107 e'xiir',d 1), '-iiilx.r 31, 197l5. How-
ev.rI T .'i:Itoi- .N : Iv lII'.rI .i. n d H: i lli a..s iave :i-k,.,l the ('''iti1ii-'-i',n to -.uiinit a
liftlh i study to (',t'r'--. We sh:al oLl ply with Ithi- r''iiie-st <-'i tlw' 'i,,litiin that
tili \t. rioti. prf,.--i,'ii:l -l,,rt-. l':,'n,'- :'ilim it tli' i,.i',.-.ir inform Lti in. o('Tn-
..'i. ,wnitly thi. C1, ,nu1ii--.in must again r.pvu-t your i:--i:-tanc'v as citln-el for






91

Major League Baselball in providing the following dlata for the 1977 ba-.eball
(1) The total number of games played during the 1977 :...n (breakdown by
prese:i: ,n, regular, p,-stseason, all star, etc.);
(2) The nunmher of ganes in the 1977 season which were '.h.r-tluled for telecast
pilir-:iant. to a league television cont rw't and the number of gie.s which were in
f:w't so telecast (breakdown )by prcsa,.t-on, i,.gular, postseason, all star, etc.).
Pleose indicate the home and visiting te.inm and date for ,.teh game, and the name
of party with which Major League B:,el: ll contracted for tIl.c.i'st. If any games
-0hehduled for telec.,-st pursuant to league contract were not in fact televi:e.,l, pli-a.,e
indicate the re:ions therefore;
(3) Of the games specified in (2) above, the gmirnes for which a local blackout
wzi, lifted. Also indicate the number of locally televised games which were sold
out 72 hours in advance of game time.
(4) The seating capacity figure for the home stadium of each Major League Base-
ball team. If the stadium capacity figure differs from the bas-e number of tickets of
admission employed in determining seating ticket availabilities 120 hours before
gawile time, plea-se also provide the latter figure. If any of the games specified in (2)
above were played in other than a Major League Ba.-vhall team's home stadium,
plpa-e provide similar information for that stadium;
(5) The means used by the respective teams to inform the public of the number
of tickets available during the 120 to 72 hour pregame period;
(6) The number of "no shows" at those regular and post.-eason games which
were locally televised and those which were blacked out in the home team's terri-
tory;
(7) Club revenues from television for game rights (pres.::on regular, and post
season);
(8) Club revenues from radio for game rights (preseason regular and postseaon)
including any rebl)ate. paid for 1977 season.
Since the Commission has committed itself to deliver the report by June 15,
1978, I hope that the requested information can be provided an, soon as convenient-
ly possible, or by May 10, 1978, at the late-t, to insure time for analysis and inclu-
sion in the report. You are, of course, wet.lcome to provide any other information
which Major League Baseball may consider relevent to the Commission's study of
the effect of locally televised games on profes-ional baseball.
Should you have any questions concerning this request, please contact Mr. Larry
Eads or Mr. Scott Roberts of the Commission's Broadcast Bureau (202) 632-6302.
Your cooperation and assistance on behalf of Major League Bae.Ieball will be greatly
appreciated.
Sincerely,
CHARLE.-, D. FERRIS, Chairman.


FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION,
RUSSELL GRNIK, Esq., Wash i.gton, D.C., April 6, 1978.
RUSSELL GR\NIK, Esq.,
NBA Legal Counsel,
Neu, York, N.Y.
DEAR MIR. Gp \x-IK: The Commission is currently preparing its fifth annual
report to Congress on the effect of locally televised games on professional baseball,
basketball, football, and hockey teams. As you know, our statutory reporting re-
quirements pursuant to Public Law 93-107 expired on December 31, 1975. How-
ever, Senator Warren G. Magnuson and Senator Ernest F. Hollings have asked
the Commission to submit a fifth study to Congress. We shall comply with this
request on the condition that the various professional sports leagues supply the
n.-ce-ary information. Consequently we must again request your a--i.-tance in
obtaining the following data for the National Basketlball Association's 1977-78
season:
(1) The total number of game- played during the 1977-7S season (breakdown
by regular season, playoff, and all star);
(2) The number of games in the 1977-78 season which were scheduled for tele-
cast pursuant to a league televiion contract and the number of g:_e.s which in
fact were so tleecast (breakdown by regular sea-on, playoff and all star). Please
indicate the home and visiting team, the date for each 'zaiine, and th, name of
p:irty with which the league contracted for telecat-4. If any gaiLu.s schedule for
tele(.cat pursuant to league contract were not in fact televised, please in, licate the
reasons therefore;





92


(:3i (If the egamr', Q1pcific-'l iln (2) :h ,'ve, thfiv which were locally tvhi-visd.t and
th-., which wr,. Il;ackeil ,,ut in h, ht'i, tfanm's territo'rv. With ir, gard I to game
w her. th' hlack,,u 'l.t w:.s. not lifted, 11.p i a..e indliica:te whcthter :in- of these game's
w',re, s,',11 ,,it 72 hi ir-. iin al\:inc.;
(4) [Th,'l ,1:iti! Vt t'ap:Lcit'y liVzuri f(ir the home arona (if r"ach I,.ai',e tearn. If the
ar''i:t ta'p):iity 1"im'r. ditfcr-. fromi h' ,a-. numrber of ticktt.s of Il Iai-iorn riployei(
in i,,triTiiiI i-,1 tifL tiickrt :v'iil:aliliti,'- 12(1 hliir,; prir to g:iint- time, plase
:tl-o Ifr,,vii' tit'- l:att'r ligre. If an ( of the h1g:.m. .-pecitiedl in 12) above were
pL:iy. It t Ih,.r th:in a i:rg ii : teii'shL hIrii I;tii-t, l'i:-' t)r l provide simil:ir inforima-
Gicll fmr th:it :r'e'Ti:L.
(.7) l'il -t:ih N BA tP:ITi 1th ttla] numrner of "no show.-" at pre.reas.on and
re.iizl:ir -':i-,,n i.:,ii -.. If dIo--iib,, :,l- I,-ign:ite the -Iv r:ii r a iiiinu ber uf "no
^tn~v-' ;t IbW.illy tclIVVi.lrd aind blatkout hutime gniii('--
(6) 'TIw iii*.:,iii- e-,'1 iv th,. ic'-pic.tive I'ainv, to inform th, public of the1 number
of tik,1t' :6v:il:hl, ,lurinTi thr 1211 to 72 hoir pr','iamr pe-riodl;
(7) (C lh r-,\.1,'c,. -':i rntl frimi th, -zalt of ri:Hiu right- to pre-'a.son, regular,
andl pi-,e:-ii N l ..'A g:,III ;
(i) Cliih r'vui,-e (.m:rn',I from the s;le of radio right-4 to pr-e'.,eai-on, regular,
an,1 pit--'.:,-,,n N 1BA g.atne11'.
Ian!'',.:- f,,,.1 fr,. to pv,',vi',f. a;n other inf, rmitition th:it you h,.liev to be relevant
rg:ir'li ii ilhe effect 'If 1, cavIIv tfl,.\i-,il g:Ine ('i n iemilr tclub- of the NBA.
Sn,.r. tl,, C,,iiiii'. 1i-C-if ha-o 'oIiiliti it-'-lf to proviihe the report by June 15,
1975, we w, 1 l, :i])ifrfiait. receiving thik informi:ition from\n you by M.iy 10, 197k.
\\e hope, ilhit yi, will -e'nd :a-, much of the ne-cvs-arV :iv:,l:iil ,i 'it a as po--iblp
to The (Crflli+iiII to ;illbmw linif, for :;i;1:l-i- %k ail inricl-iin in thik r.eport.
Sh,,lI vou have :any ci e'-ti, n- c',nc'rning thi.- iequ.-t, ple:t-v conttact M r. Larrv
EIal- or Mr. S.-,)tt Rt lbi rt of4 The, Coumi-.-in's Broia li-t Burcau i 1202) 632-630o2.
Y,,our c(riitin ii'l c<('o])t'raition antd ,-;-i-talncc on ibe'half (of the National Basketball
A--,'ititinm will be' greatly :tIppieciated.
Since',ly,
CIIARi.Es D. FERRIS, Chairman.


FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS C)MMI.S.SION,
Wa shi,,ybim, D.C., Ipril G, 1.,S.
Mr. ItO\VARD BAXLhT ,
Pr, .*,'., 0,, W,irlil Ilocky A.' ocrti,z t-,,n
Hartff,,rdJ, C',i,.
I) EA. fR. BA .L )\ : The Ccinmiin i- kviiurri'ntlyv prr'-i:1ring it.; fifth :mniT.l
mri~i-'t on t~he tvft-4t 4f lI':i11y tf f',,>(1: nll. In i hi'ckv I,.'i-. A-; vi'ii u ai:iv know, our -t.itnft Y .v *l,. iilti ri'(1i'ir,-
ii.it pi),!%':i.t 11 IPublic Lawv 93-107 expir.l on ),.',.rnler 31, 17i.',. Ifo\-\,'r,
<,'inf,,] M :i.ii: o-,,n .:tIia, H .lc,li ,.iL have :,-k: d hI (", ii.isi,,n to u ,u' it. :t fifth
sti'ilyi to C',, n! '--. W e -l1i ill v' u-iplv \\ilh their r,(|uhi,-t ,,on Ili,' l ', iliii,,n th-it lilt
'ar:ious ir,.f,.-inal ,.l',,rt-1 1.: ii,- sipl)ly the 9M' ','--itryX iifo,'I:ljiii oi C(',Ts1'-
qulafntlv, we 'l-.t :,i, iui Tr,-iieuS1t VN'ur .it-i fIr t ., "\, 'orld 1I,''kev .\ r.iti t 's 1977-7, -,. .,ii:
(1) T 'l- totl il i'Iiil, ."r' 4f L,:i!i: to bie l'l:vv.l ,lirinL, the 1977-7.S ,,,:i. n (i 'raok-
d,,.\r nTi n, pr-,.<:!~,Ti. r1')viile';, pust-,.:. n, l star. ft'r.);
'2) Til'l n-,'i.'r of L,,. T .- in tli' 1977-7 ', -..- n r \'hich :-arr -rOh iidlel for t1.l,'ar;t
p'lir-':Tit to le:,lui' i 1! '-vi-iT ci,, :,1it :0ndl the niim l,.-r .f t!:t \06-' hiil :ire in
f: I I so fi i I T i'; IK t I',' i 1y ,, .i ,-011. 0 I i ilar, po,-t1 :1-1.l u :i11ll stir, ,t'.) :; al-.
1.,l ". in icatc* tho 1, )p :m .1 vi-iIII ff t :i InI- :aInd I itE( fIt i 1~i' h L':1.1 :iP. :adI t1h1
nanm of j',rtv with hi.h \VII.\ rVi',:ipt''d for tel,...-t. If :iy L':Iilt'- v,'hi'lldl,
for til'-'":i-l ;c'ir-'; t, to :t. 1.c-ii1ir ec'nfr;]rt ane nit( in fact (f1e\ i-i''l, pule':ef.e idirii:rtC
th ," ,':l-,,ni th',.r- f, ,,h
(:'*' C) f the I 0,- I l,', 'ifi'dl iTI (2) 11'VoP, til-;i' fIr I hich a 1,o':dI l :la ('l-:oitI \:vn.
]ifl ,-. :, id ,1 \|1 i I I v. IIy ti], -,' '., i,, s wI ,, ti, i," dI I.. ,,I' Ivy ;
(4, T'Jl. -,.:'titm! ,>e',,cifv for tl h hTi',- ",vT'i of "i'clh \\IIA tr'-it. If the nrrna
rc:,t,'itv ,.ii'. ,IifT,.- fr'Ii, il o, l: S lMtlii. i',,, of ti'lIts uf :1, ili-.i., T ,Ii ,'l.' 'pd in
],'r ,'r 'rriir'ii ,_1 -,' ,fin --! ti,--.:, :t\ :ii I -l:; iliti,.- 120 lwiurs 1, f pr'rvi l, tl, f i 1'r" f w'ILT'ir. If 'inv of Ii ,._:i', '- -.p 'ifi 'rd ill I l'2 al'o\' e' :r pl:vi-'" :It
other I ha:tn a WVTI .\ f,.:o'f :ir''n:i, 'l:,-,' p l'\ idle &iniilar infcrrmit i, for that arr-na;
(o Thipk l m.i":r1 ed l vr 1 I hi''-ti\ tr-:-'is to inform the puldi, of the nu-mpn-r
of ticket- available during Ilth p:iml foir- vfa-oif;






93


(6) The number of season tickets sold by each WHA team and the average
attendance at each team's ganie.. during the past. four seasons;
(7) The total number of "no shows" experienced by individual WHA teams
during the past four seasons. Als-o designate the average nuimlber of "no shows"
for those games which were and were not televised in the home team's territory;
(8) The extent to which the WHA plans to comply with the intent of Public
Law 93-1C7 through the remainder of the 1977-78 season;
(9) Gross concession and parking revenues earned by individual WHA t,:atm
through the remainder of the 1977-78 season;
(10) Annual gross receipts earned from the sale of radio and television rights
to WHA games between 1972 and 1978.
Please feel free to provide any other information that you believe to be relevant
regarding the effect of locally televised games on the member clubs of the WHA.
Since the Commission's report to Congress is due on June 15, 1978, w'- would
appreciate receiving this information from you by May 10, 1978. We realize that
the World Hockey Association's full season of play will not be completed by this
time, but we hope that you will supply as much of the necessary available data
as possible to the Commission in time for analysis and inclusion in this year's
report.
Should you have any questions concerning this request, please contact Mr.
Larry Eads or Mr. Scott Roberts of the Commission's Broadcast Bureau (202)
632-6302. Your continued cooperation and assistance on behalf of the WVorld
Hockey Association will be greatly appreciated.
Sincerely,
Sincerely, CHARLES D. FERRIS, Chairmia?.



FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION,
Was1iingon, D.C., April 6, 197S.
PHILIP R. HOCHBERG, Esq.,
O'Connor and Hannan,
Wasf in qton, D.C.
DEAR M'R. HOCHBERG: The Commission is currently preparing its fifth annual
report to Congress on the effects of locally televised games on professional foot-
ball, baseball, basketball, and hockey franchises. As you know, our statutorrv
reporting requirements pilr-uant to Public Law 93-107 expired on Decenm .r i1,
1975. However, Senators Magnuson and Hollings have requested that the Conm-
miision submit a fifth report to Congress. We intend to complly with their request,
on the condition that the various professional sports leagues make the necessary
information available in a timely manner.
Consequently, we must again request your a-si;tance, as counsel for the Na-
tional Hockey League, in providing information relevant to this year's study.
Specifically, I hope that the following data will be provided for the National
Hockey League's 1977-78 season:
(1) The total number of games to be played during the 1977-7S season with
breakdowns in regular season, playoff and all star categories;
(2) The schedule of the 1977-7s National Hockey League games to be telecast
pursuant to a league cont r., et;
(3) A list of National Hockey League games televised pursuant to a 1 **.ue
contract a. of March 1, 197-. Phl.ase designate which of these ,_;,is \\,.i'e !'l out
72 hours in advance and specify those which were and were not locally tclevi-e;
(4) The extent to which the NHL plans to comply with the intent of Pu'I lic
Law 93-107 through the remainder of the 1977-78 sea-on;
(5) The zoziting capacities for all NHL arenas;
(6) The ext'rnt that the seating capacity fiiire-, sought in subpara-'. 'ph 5
above, exceed the number of tick.trs available 120 hours before gmie tim':
(7) The means by which the respective teams inform the public of the numi'1-r
of tickets available during the 120- to 72-hour pr',.g:iie period;
(8) For eaich NHL team:n, the total number of "no shows" at r',u1:ir seasn
gain',, the average number of "no shows" at locally televised L.,iies, andt the
average number of "no shows" at games which were not locally t.l',vi,.,:
(9) Gross concession and parking revenues earned bv individual NIlL teams
through May 1, 1978;
(10) Annual gross receipts earned from the sale of radio and television rights
to NHL games between 1972 and 1978;
(11) The number of season tickets sold by each NHL team and the avcra-e
attendance at each team's games during the past four seasons.







P'lir, f.4.l fro,- to pr,,'ivi'i,- ainy otherr informvition that you b-lit-vP to In he relevant
r, i-"r.liil l,- .;fr,,t of locI.llv tl.dvi.-eI g.Lnrs un nmeier clubs of the National
I lrkevy I.':-agu .
.i i *I th,' (C',nmin.,ion h:ts vornmimitt e, its,-lf to dlliv'r the rep.,rt lv June 15,
17',, wev would -tipplri:it r,.,,iving tllii- infrnmatioin ,by l vy 10, 197S, at the
l:It.-t. I h.,pil' th: 't v,, i will pnr vidl, ;i nui'h of tho n,.f.-ir. .r l*.rv :ill he dat.-i ias
1| -ilh, :;iil tli.it it will 1,, t r:tn-zinittel tn the Cuni iis-ion in tinim e for UnaIlysis
.z', inlln iiin in thi V,:ir's r.p'rt.
-11dhl 1 1 O ,,l h:ive :i ny < -1ti,,ri'- ,i t,,'irning this r,'v ur'.lt, pl'a.se contact M r.
I.:irrv I:oi'-- ,r M r. S.,ott 0Il1iart- o(f th' (',iim!rni':-in's Bri:i',l:ist Buiriun (202)
t.;2 ';:3)2. Y tiir critintiiii .1 (, np,.raitiie ;nl l as-i.st:azi e on be'h:lf of the National
I ,,.rke.v I.,.:ti, will Ili, gr,:ilv ; )prtccii:Ltcdl.
Sinctrr ly,
Cl.tu.r:s D1). FERRIS, chairman n



FhFDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COM-MIssION,
( iamhingtiTn, D.C., April 17, 1978.
Cnrmmissinn.r PETE RO/FI.oLF,
NXt'i,.,i(l Ft,'nill League,
Newi York, N.Y.
DIv.,R. Mi. RnOZ:LI.F: Inlo-,,l is a: cnpy of my April 6, 197S, letter tn Thomas
C. i\\ illi.L .s, E .rq, N I-L W :t.ihingt.',n c,,in-i-l r(Uii.vstting ad:liti,,nil information
r, lvint to the Cmnis-icn's fifth annual ..tudly of the effect of Ilcially Itl",visui
u.ln,-i ,nt the i<-110iir clubs (,f that Natin.'l F-thdall I.,agiuE. As you know, the
C(ti.n.-i'inm's -,t:ttut,,rv authorit v to r.iqui-st this infirTiintion expired on Do-
<,,n1,,ir 31, 1.T75. Howver Senattrs Mngnus in nd H,'lling- h:iv' asked the C(orn-
nission ti siilinit a fifth Atudly to Congre--ss. We shall c ,niplv with their request
ii th, rcindlitiin th:it th- ntf'-d-: itry (t: t1; i voluntarily madi availallhc.
Mr. Williaml.' :i-;.i.;t:iric (.anmd' ; I r office's cooperation is greatly appreciated.
Best ptr-on:L regar ls.
Sincerely,
CHARLIES D. FI:RRIS, Chairman.


FEDERAL COMMr-NIC4TIONS COMMISSION,
Mr. Bow KUHN, Washington, D.C., April 17, 1978.
.Mr. BowlIE KT'HN,
(',?mmi.f' i,,ner of Ba,,elall,
New York, N.Y.
DEAR MR. KuHN: Enclosod is a cripy of my April 6, 197S, letter to James F.
Fitzpatrick, 'a.q., Wa-hingtoin counsel fir Major L.eagueo l:aselall, requesting
inf,,r:iatinin relevant to the Comi-ni-4i'n's fifth annual study(i oif the effect of locally
tolpvisedl genies (in professional baseliall. As -ou know, the Commission's statutory
authority ti roquee.t this information expired on )ecenmber 31, 1975. However
Senatfirs M:agnuson an(d Hollings have asked the Conrnmission to submit a fifth
studyv to Congress. .We shall comply with their request on the condition that the
llnce'osarv d(iata is madle available.
Mr. Fitzp:trick's asistance and your office's cooperation is greatly appreciated.
Be,.t prs,,'n:il regards.
Sinceroly,
CHARLES D. FERRIS, Chairman.



NATIONAL B.ASIKFTBA LL A. O'IATIoN,
N' Mr. T.RRT FEAns,
( 'hi'if1 P,,lirv A.lnanijs;. Rrnvrh,
F,',,ral Crampi rations C',rfmnis.Rinn,
W,'i hhigton, D.C.
Dlv Mi 'ii MIs: This is to confirm mour phone conversation of May 2, 1978,
whroein I advice yonv that, rlii, to thf fact that w a:re in the minidt of oit anniml
pl '-infl'., it will n,,t lie wpossiblle to fully conmpily with Chairman Ferri,' request for
information by May 10.