Annual Report of the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens, for the fiscal year...

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Annual Report of the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens, for the fiscal year...
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Canal Zone -- Experiment Gardens
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s.n. ( Mount Hope, C. Z )

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CONTENTS

PAGE
Personnel ---------------------------------------------------------------- 7

The Aims and Objectives of the Experiment Gardens ------------------------- 8

Sale of Plants .------------------------. .------------------------------ I

New Industries Starting in Panama-------------------------------------- 12

Kapok----------------------------------------------------- 14

Teak -------------------------------------------------------- 15

Water Lilies ----. --..- -------------- ------------------------- 15

Keeping the Water Lilies Awake ------------------------------------------ 16

Visitors ---------.. ------------------------------------------------- 17
El Volcan and Boquete .-------- _------------_-------_-._------------- I8

Estimates----------._---------------------------_--------------------- 19

Finances--------------------------------------------------------------- 19

Report of a Trip to Jamaica and Colombia-------------------------------- 21




















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Annual Report
OF THE
CANAL ZONE EXPERIMENT GARDENS FOR 1937
BY
WALTER R. LINDSAY, Acting Director

PERSONNEL
During the latter part of the fiscal year 1936, Mr. J. E. Higgins'
recommendation for the reorganization of the Gold Roll personnel for
the operation of the Experiment Gardens and the supervision of land-
scape plantings in public areas, was adopted.
Under the new plan Mr. Higgins, with the title of Consultant in Plant
Introduction and Utilization, was to withdraw from the administrative
duties at the Gardens and devote himself to certain other important
duties to which it had been impossible for him to devote much time.
Among the many things that he had outlined to do was (i) to aid in a
more satisfactory and permanent labeling of the plants in the Gardens,
(2) to assemble notes for the preparation of a handbook of the Gardens
with ptions of the most important lants, their uses and their
requirements, and (3) to engage in more active pursuit of new plant
ction He was to have his headquarters at Summit, as usual,
where he could keep in close contact with the work going on at the
Gardens and give advice and counsel to the Acting Director as he was
receiving further training and experience in his administrative duties.
Mr. Higgins was also to continue training Mr. Paul Keenan in matters
pertaining to landscape design and was to attend to the inspections in

The position of Supervisor of Cultures created in 1930 and held by the
writer since December of the same year, was to be abolished and the
new position of Nurseryman was to be established. The Supervisor of
Cultures was to advance to the position of Acting Director and was to
receive further training in his administrative duties from the Consultant
in Plant Introduction and Utilization.
r ,- "
The new position of Nurseryman was filled by Mr. E. T. Stanwood
in August 1936. Mr. Stanwood had considerable training in Nursery

7
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8

work in the United States, having worked for the Leach's Nurseries in
New Jersey for several years.
The main duty of the Nurseryman is to devote his time and energies
chiefly to the development of the nurseries and the production and sale
of plants under the Revolving Fund. His work of inspecting and packing
plants for export shipment is also very important as the sales of plants
to Central and South American countries are continually increasing.

THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE EXPERIMENT GARDENS
It is well, from time to time, to review and set forth the Aims and
Objectives of the Experiment Gardens. These were recently very ably
set forth by Mr. Higgins in a memorandum to the Governor and it was
thought advisable to include them in this report.
Mr. Higgins' memorandum is as follows:
Summit, C. Z., February 6, 1937.
MEMORANDUM FOR THE GOVERNOR:
(Through the First Assistant Chief Quartermaster)
THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE EXPERIMENT GARDENS
I. It has seemed that your inquiry as to the aims and objectives of
the Experiment Gardens requires a much more adequate statement than
it was possible to make in the few minutes available at the close of your
recent inspection tour of a number of the more important plantings at
Summit.
2. A general statement of the appropriate objectives of the Gardens
as these appealed to me at the beginning of my work here was set forth
in the Annual Report of the Gardens for the year 1928. The ideals
that I had in mind at that time are about the same as I see them today
and might be stated catagorically as follows:
(a) The establishing of a large and representative collection of
tropical plants, trees, shrubs, and vines growing under natural
conditions.
(b) The testing of such plant introductions, under cultural
conditions in the Canal Zone and, by the placing of a few plants
with reliable parties to determine, to some extent at least, their
adaptabilities to culture in-other parts of Panama where conditions
differ from those in the Canal Zone.
(c) The propagation and general dissemination of species that
give promise of value.
3. The value of such a collection of living and reproducing tropical
plants in this part of the world may be considered from several view-
points.
(a) An out-of-door laboratory always available for the scientific





9

study of such plants and their diseases and other pests. The people
of the United States have very large industrial and manufacturing
interests entirely dependent upon raw products produced in the
tropics and always subject to the hazards of new or newly introduced
pests as well as competition under foreign and sometimes monopo-
listic control, as was demonstrated in the case of the rubber industry
a few years ago. Hence the importance of a tropical plant station,
under the direct control of our Government and accessible for study
by experts in all branches of plant science and related subjects.
In this respect we view the Gardens primarily in relation to their
availability to experts in special fields of plant research.
(b) As a testing ground and laboratory for the use of our own very
limited staff, for the purpose of accumulating data conerning introduced
or domesticated plants and their possible utilization in industry.
This phase of the work has already begun to bear fruit in assistance
to the initiating of a rubber industry and it appears that an abaca
or Manila hemp industry is about to be born. It is understood that
the United Fruit Company has acquired a concession to plant one
thousand acres of this crop. Plant introductions nursed at the Ex-
periment Gardens have been at the basis of both of these new indus-
trial ventures. The Napier grass introduced by the Gardens has
proved to be the foundation and chief support of the Canal Zone's
own dairy industry at Mindi. On the results obtained with Teak
trees at the Gardens an experimental planting of over twelve acres
is about to be begun by a land owner in Darien. The owner expects
to increase the planting.
The coffee industries of the Americas and the West Indies are all
based upon one species Coffea arabica). If at any time the oriental
leaf spot disease should be introduced accidentally it would almost
surely destroy the entire industry which would then have to be
rebuilt upon resistant species as was the case in Java, Ceylon, and
the Philippines. At the Gardens, the resistant species are prosper-
ing and could supply seed at any time.
(c) As a source of propagating material for the beginning of such
industries as have been mentioned. The Gardens have supplied seed
for the new rubber industry and grew about forty thousand seedling
trees for the new plantation. Abaca plants in several varieties have
been placed in many locations. Teek seed for the five hectare
experimental plantation referred to above is to be supplied from
Summit. A large quantity of seed has been sold to Cuba and orders
for more are now booked.
(d) As a plant collectionfor educational value. The general public
and especially the schools of the Canal Zone and of Panama make
free use of the Gardens for educational purposes.







10

(e) As a recreational center. The number of local visitors who
are attracted by the beauty and general interest of the place is
increasing constantly.
(f) As an attraction to tourist travel. As such, the Gardens should
become an important factor in increasing the tourist business and
thus contribute to the traffic of the Canal.
(g) As an indirect influence upon Canalfreight traffic Whatever
influence the Experiment Gardens may have in fostering new
industries will ultimately be felt in increased freight.
4. All of these items growing out of the main purposes of this project
involve the necessity of making the Gardens and all parts of them acces-
sible to interested visitors. The need which you mentioned of good
paths, leading to all the principal parts of the Gardens, I consider very
important and I trust that the very small beginning that has been made
in this direction by means of prison labor may be greatly extended.
More roads should come also in due time.
The utter lack of passenger train service is a very great handicap in
that only those who are determined to sete the Gardens will pay the $
or $1o that is necessary to be paid for automobile service. If trains with
passengers for the Gardens could stop at Summit and if trains could be
flagged here to take on passengers, such service would greatly increase
the accessibility of the Gardens.
5. The methods of dissemination which have been followed are
chiefly by sales through the Revolving Fund. This has proved to be
effective and more than self-supporting. Special plants are also placed
without charge where it is believed they will get the best care.
6. The methods of acquiring new plants have been chiefly through
exchanges with similar institutions in other countries and also through
cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture. Pur-
chases in small amounts are made from time to time and in some cases
this is the only means available. It has been the policy to actively pursue
new plant introductions through personal contacts with other institutions
and several nearby countries have been visited for this purpose. It
became necessary to temporarily suspend this activity during the
depression years but it is desired that the practice may be renewed, as
it is the most effective and in many cases the only means of securing the
needed plants.
Respectfully,
J. E. HIGGINS,
Consultant in Plant Introduction and Utilization.










SALE OF PLANTS
The operation of the nursery as a separate and self-supporting depart-
ment carried on at the Gardens under the Revolving Fund, has been
fully explained in earlier reports. It has proved to be one of the most
important services the Gardens can render as it is an effective means to
get newly introduced plants widely disseminated and established. The
plants are disseminated for slightly more than the cost of production
and in this way thousands of valuable plants find their way into
Panama and the surrounding countries.
Table Number i shows the quantity and major varieties of plants
disseminated during the last two fiscal years while Table Number 2
shows where the plants have gone during the same period.
TABLE No. I
Number of plants disseminated during the fiscal years:
ameof plant 1936 1937 Name of plant 1936 1937
Acalypha ------....-------- 83 1,03o Lagerstroemia sp. ---- 71 96
Allamanda --- 133 171 Lagerstroemia indica.. 315 389
Avocado ------------- 65 265 Miscellaneous items ..- 3,024 1,689
Ardisa humilis 161 250 Mango--. -------- 484 688
Barleria------------ 279 259 Mangosteen---------- 115 122
Banana suckers...-------- 253 121 Orange ...--------------. 1,691 756
Bamboo --.---------- 40 Oleander-------------- 161 36
Budwood-------------- ---- 5,036 Posoqueria latifolia 22 44
Bougainvillea --------- 359 322 Poinsettia ------------- 63 77
Casuarinap.---------- 54 8 Papaya----------409 362
Cassia sp -- .... ----------_ 52 312 Petrea aspera ---------- 109 164
Canangium odoratum_.. 87 89 Pride of Barbados- ----- 125 193
onge .-------------- 68 117 Palms ----------------. 1,162 2,212
Cryptostegia madagas- Pineapple suckers ------ 270 287
cariensis------ ------ 120 135 Quisqualis indica ------- 117 14
Croton ---------------- 542 1,457 Roses----------------- 372 440
Colocasia --------------. 214 257 Ravenella sp----------- 40 28
Chalcas exotica-------- 342 238 Royal Poinciana -------. 62 15
Corotu ....--------------. -- o6 77 Saintpaulia ionantha .-- 49 66
Cuttings--------------3,190 2657 Sanseveria---- ---- -10 682


Eranthemum---------- 590 499 Swietenia macrophylla. __ III 151
Ficus sp.--------------- ..107 314 Soil, sacks ------------ 164 174
Frangipani ------------ 24 27 Sugar cane ..... ------------ 110 2
Ferns ---------------- ...... 454 Episce cupreata ------- 25 28
Grapefruits .--- 131 307 Tangerine----------... 28
Gardenia -------------- 63 222 Thuja sp.-------------- 85 75
Ginger lily -------------20 101 Tabernaemontana coro-
Galphimia glauca ------- 25 182 nlaria---------------- 440 498
Hibiscus --------------1749 2695 Thunbergia erecta------ 474 331
Ixora ----------------- I 186 Thunbergia grandiflora 31 163
Jasmine sp. -------------213 704 Vincas ---------------- 367 187

Lemon -----------------53 151
Lime ----------------- 56 107 Total items ------ 22,734 3 347
I-,ii







12

TABLE No. 2

1935-1936 1936-1937

COUNTRY Misc. & Propa- Misc. & Propa-
Fruit Orna- gating Fruit Orna- gating
ree mentals Material e mentals Material

Canal Zone ----------- 1,537 14,142 2,935 1,138 20,092 3,472
Bahamas ------------- --------------------------------- 10
Colombia ------------- 148 118 -255 139 ---------
Costa Rica---_--- 57 --------- --------- 41 -------- --------
Netherland West Indies --------- - ------- I --------- -
Cuba ---------- -------------- 74 --------- -------- --------- Seed
Ecuador-------------- 157 18 --------- 124 5 12
England------------------------------------ -------------- 6
Germany------------------- ___ 4 ----------------- ---------------
Haiti----------------- 4 --------------------------- 4 ---------
Jamaica ------------------ -- ---------------- I 44 88
Nicaragua ------------ --------- ----------------- 48 --------- 50
Panama ------------- 674 2,002 255 737 3,406 3,875
San Salvador--------- 372 2 --------- 349 9 45
United States ---------21 10 ---- 24 177 145
Venezuela------------ 134 70 ------_ 36 9 ---------

Totals------- 2,104 16,440 3,190 2,758 23,896 7,693


It is worthy of note that the quality of the plants disseminated during
this last fiscal year has been far above average. The greenhouses and
nurseries are also in better condition and the plants have been sprayed
regularly as a preventive against scale and other insect attacks. The
added expense for a Gold Nurseryman, plus spray, etc., has been more
than offest by the extra sale of plants. The average cost of growing
plants and trees during the fiscal year 1936 amounted to twenty and
one-half cents each whereas this cost was reduced to nineteen cents each
during the fiscal year 1937.
Table No. I does not include the 17,000 plants which were propagated
for the new townsite at Gamboa. These plants were ready for planting
out when the rains started in May but owing to the curtailment of the
budget, they cannot be planted until after July I.

NEW INDUSTRIES STARTING IN PANAMA

It is always interesting to see the beginning of new industries, but
it is especially so if that industry is centered around a plant which has
been introduced and tested at the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens.







13

The Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) introduced by the Gardens
from the United States Department of Agriculture in 1923, has proved to
be the foundation and chief support for the Canal Zone's own dairy
industry at Mindi. Two hundred acres of this grass supply the twelve
hundred head of cattle with the only green material they get. Other
dairies in Panama are also becoming interested in this grass because
they are able to cut down on their concentrates when feeding Napier
grass. It also grows so rapidly that they are able to maintain a large
dairy on a limited area planted to grass.
An extensive experimental planting of rubber (Hevea braziliensis)
was started in Panama in 1934 by a large rubber company of the United
States. They located in Panama primarily because of the growth and
development of the rubber trees found at the Experiment Gardens and
other places on the Isthmus where the trees had been disseminated.
The Gardens were able to supply the company with over 30,000 young
seedling Hevea trees in 1935 and have supplied them with the entire
crop of Hevea seeds each year since that time. The average crop
amounted to about 50o,000oo seeds per year.
It now appears that an Abaca or Manila Hemp (Musa textilis)
industry is about to be started in the province of Bocas del Toro, Panama,
by the United Fruit Company. The company proposed to cultivate
one thousand acres of land with an initial investment of $200,000. The
cost of financing the plantation for a period of ten years is estimated at
$500,000.
The United Fruit Company received their first Abaca plants or
sckers in 1925 from Mr. H. T. Edwards of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Mr. Edwards made a special trip to the Philip-
pines to secure Abaca plants for his department and very generously
left a collection of these plants with the Gardens and with the United
Fruit Company. It is interesting to note that the h hPhilippine Legis-
lature passed a law shorty after Mr. Edwards left the Philippines with
this collection, prohibiting the further exportation of Abaca propagating
material.
Representatives of a newly formed company in the United States have
been in Panama for the last few months selecting a suitable location for
ashew (Anacardium occidentale) orchards. After careful study and
many consultations with the Garden's staff, they decided to make trial
plantings consisting of a few acres each. One of these plantings is out
in the Sabanas, one near Chorrera and another at Santa Clara. Each
year the company plans on increasing its orchards and they later plan
on installing a roasting plant in Panama.


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When properly roasted, the Cashew nut is one of the most delicious
nuts grown. The fleshy portion or apple as it is often called, upon which
the nut is attached, is very rich in tannic acid and is reported to be highly
prized for wine making. The flavor of the wine is said to be just as good
as that which is made from grapes.

KAPOK
Renewed interest has been shown of late in the establishing of a Kapok
(Ceiba spp.) industry in Panama. In 1931, Mr. A. M. Rodriguez, backed
by influential business men in Panama, planted several thousand trees
of a Mexican species of Ceiba invarious parts of Panama. This species
is known botanically as Ceiba aesculaefolia and its fiber has been proved,
by careful tests, to be superior to the best Java Kapok (Ceiba pentandra).
Mr. Rodriguez has been absent from Panama for several years and it is
feared that these trees have been neglected. So far as is known, no
careful check has been made of their condition.
This year Captain A. E. Hiddingh, representing the Dry-Zero Corpor-
ation, Chicago, Illinois, made a survey of Central and South American
countries to determine the possibilities of securing supplies of kapok or
related fibers from native stands. Captain Hiddingh reports having
found a few isolated trees of Ceiba pentandra and C. aesculaefolia in the
Central American countries but no quantities sufficient for commercial
production. In Ecuador he found solid stands of a species producing a
promising fiber. As mentioned elsewhere in this report, Captain
Hiddingh kindly supplied the Experiment Gardens with sample lots of
seed of all of these species. The one from Ecuador is probably entirely
new to our collection. Trees of C. pentandra variety indica are already
producing at Summit. Immature trees of C. aesculaefolia, the Mexican
species, are also growing here. The seed was received from the office
of Fiber Investigations, United States Department of Agriculture.
Plants of this species were also donated to the Gardens by Mr. Rodriguez
and are making satisfactory growth at present.
At the present time Java produces practically all of the world's supply
of kapok. This amounts to several millions of dollars annually. The
United States imports over $5,000,ooo worth of kapok annually from
Java alone and has need for more than can be obtained.
Judging from the rapid growth of several species of kapok producing
trees at the Gardens, Panama has an ideal climate for growing kapok.
The trees are very hardy, require protection from fire and cattle for the
first two or three years only, and start bearing in about three years from
the time of planting. It is thought that this should some day be one of
the leading industries of Panama, and the Canal Zone Experiment Gar-
dens are trying to encourage the experimental planting of kapok trees.







15

TEAK
It was stated in last year's Annual Report that a small forest planting
of Teak trees (Tectona grandis) had been set out on a hillside adjoining
the Gardens. One may get some idea of the remarkable growth these
trees are making from actual growth measurements which show that
many of them have increased their height by more than ten feet in the
two months' period since the rains started (May and June 1937).
The trees are now well enough established so that they will need very
little attention in the future except for thinning and fire protection.
This year a small experimental forest planting of teak trees was
planted in second growth forest along one of the streams bordering the
Gardens. The object of this planting of teak trees in second growth
forests was to see if the trees could survive and establish themselves in
heavy shade. The trees were spaced twelve by twelve feet apart and
a three-foot clearing was made around each tree.
It was found that it cost eleven and a half cents to plant each tree in
second growth forests, whereas it cost eight and a half cents to plant
each tree in pasture lands. It remains to be seen whether the trees will
be able to withstand the heavy shade of the forest and be able to prosper
under those conditions until they succeed in pushing above the surround-
ing trees.

WATER LILIES

In March 1937 the Gardens received thirteen new varieties of Water
Lilies from the Missouri Botanical Gardens, St. Louis. The majority
of these represent very handsome day bloomers. A list of the varieties
received with the color of flower and time of opening is as follows:
VARIETY COLOR TIME OF
OPENING
Edward C. Eliot Pink Day blooming
Henry Shaw Light blue Day blooming
General Pershing Pale rose purple Day blooming
Castaliflora Light pink Day blooming
Mrs. Edwards Whitaker, 'ar. marmorata Dark blue Day blooming
St. Louis Viridine yellow Day blooming
M. B. G. I 4 Violet Dark violet Day blooming
M. B. G. ..4Pink Pale pink Day blooming
M. B. G. 147 White Day blooming
M. B. G. 15 Pale blue Day blooming
Emily Grant Hutchings Amaranth-pink Night blooming
H. C. Haarstick Rose Night blooming
Missouri Wh ite Night blooming

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16

The naturalistic water-lily ponds at the Gardens have always been
greatly admired and are one of the main attractions for visitors who come
out to see the Gardens. These new varieties of lilies, with their assort-
ment of colors will be an added attraction. This is especially true since
there are so many colored day bloomers among them.
The variety "St. Louis" is the first hybrid yellow day-blooming
tropical water lily and originated at the Missouri Botanical Gardens by
crossing the white variety "Mrs. G. H. Pring" with the native yellow
nymphea "Burttii." This variety was patented under U. S. Patent No.
55 and is not permitted to be propagated for sale.
Water lilies are very easily grown and give a mass of blooms through-
out the year with very little attention. For best results, however, they
should be kept well spaced and should be liberally fertilized. In temper-
ate regions this is not a serious task as the lilies can only be grown for a
few months outdoors before the water becomes too cold for them and
they become dormant. At this stage the small plants are removed and
the young bulbs are dried and stored until it is time to plant them again
in the Spring. Individual plants are then planted in separate, well
manured boxes and placed in the outdoor pools.
In the tropics the water lilies have no well defined rest period and are
very often allowed to take care of themselves. The stronger varieties
eventually kill out the weaker ones; choice varieties are very often killed
out entirely, and the flowers become small and scarce.
Recently we had one of our ponds drained and every lily plant removed.
A limited number of the most choice varieties were then replanted in
well manured half barrels which were well spaced in the pond. A
marked difference may be noted already in the appearance of the plants
and an abundance of flower buds are appearing. It is expected that the
other three ponds may be attended to in the same manner in the near
future.
KEEPING THE WATER LILIES AWAKE
There are many species and hybrid water lilies that are day bloomers
while others open only in the evenings. The day-blooming types open
early in the morning and close in the evening while the reverse is true
of the night-blooming varieties and hybrids. It is unfortunate that
experimenters have never been successful in their attempts to cross the
day and night flowering lilies as the day-blooming groups has the wider
range of color.
As the flowers of the day-blooming lilies normally close during the
late afternoon, they are useless for evening decorations. This fact led
the Missouri Botanical Gardens to undertake experiments in an attempt







S 17

to overcome this habit of "going to seep." They were successful in the
experiments and published their findings in their Gardens Bulletin for
September 1932.
I: . . .




They found that by using a medicine dropper and applying small
quantities of melted paraffin to the extreme lower portions of the stamens,
petals and the sepals, it was possible to keep the flowers of the day-
blooming water lilies open continuously for several days. The paraffin,
if properly dispersed at the baseof the floral parts, formed a coat which
prevented the normal closing of the flowers. If the operation was
performed properly, and especially if the paraffin was tinted with dyes
to match the colors of the flowers, the paraffin was hardly visible even
at close range and the flowers appeared perfectly natural.
Now that the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens has such a large assort-
ment of colored day-blooming water lilies, it was thought advisable to
try the Missouri Botanical Garden's method of keeping the lilies open
at night. We found that the treatment not only made it possible to use
day-blooming varieties for decoration in the evenings but it also kept
flowers in better condition and retarded the disintegration of the floral
parts. The paraffin treatment had exactly the opposite effect upon the
nigt-tblooming varieties than it had on the day bloomers. The flowers
of this group lack the substance necessary to support the large petals and
the paraffin treatment hastened the death of the flowers.
..VI.. srroRs
The Gardens had many distinguished visitors during the past year.
In December of 1936 we had the pleasure of welcoming Mr. F. D. Richey
E. C. Auter, wh are Chief and Assistant Chief, respectively,
of the Bureau of Plant Introduction, Washington, D. C. This was their
first visit to the Isthmus and they expressed themselves as being highly in
accord with the work being done at the Gardens.

a t tor to the Gardens during his several weeks
stay on the Isthmus in Decem1"ber of 1936. Dr. Sefriz is a specialist in

Mr. G. H. Pring Superintendent of the Missouri Botanical Gardens
spent several hours at the Gardens on January 25, 1937. He makes
f f to visit the Gardens. We
are indebted to the Missouri Botanical Gardens and particularly to Mr.
Pring, for most of the choice water lilies which are now so much admired

During April and May of 1937 Captain A. E. Hiddingh, representing
the Dry-Zero Corporation in Chicago, made a survey of the number of
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18

Ceiba or kapok trees in Central and South America. He was much
interested in various kapok trees growing at the Gardens and left seeds
of three other species of Ceiba for trial here.
The Gardens were honored with a brief visit from Dr. H. S. Fawcett,
Professor of Plant Pathology, Citrus Experimental Station and Graduate
School of Tropical Agriculture, Riverside, California. Dr. Fawcett was
just returning from an extended visit in Brazil where he had been assist-
ing the Brazilian Government with their problems regarding Citrus
diseases. He has also been working on a revised edition of his book on
"Citrus Diseases and Their Control" which was published in 1926 by
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
The Director of the Puerto Rico Experiment Station of the United
States Department of Agriculture, Mr. Atherton Lee, spent about ten
days on the Isthmus. He was much interested in the work being carried
on at the Gardens and spent several days looking over the planting.
He took back many seeds from this region and has sent the Gardens
many interesting seeds and plants in return. He was also very much
interested in the Canal's dairy at Mindi where Napier grass (Penni-
setum purpureum) is being used with good results as a substitute for
alfalfa and other expensive feeds which cannot be grown here.

EL VOLCAN AND BOQUETE

In March of 1937 the Acting Director of the Gardens spent a few days
vacationing in El Volcan and in Boquete. Practically all of the time
spent in each region was occupied by visiting the different coffee fincas,
flower gardens, orange orchards, and by answering the many, very ear-
nest questions asked by the farmers regarding their numerous farm
problems.
There is little wonder that many of the coffee growers in El Volcan
are discouraged over their results with coffee and are eager to try some
other crop. The American Leaf Spot Disease (Viruela) is extremely
bad in this region and thousands of bearing trees are being destroyed
annually. Many coffee growers fear that they are either going to have
to replant with new species or hybrid varieties of coffee which are
resistant to the disease or else give up growing coffee entirely. Many
of the farms are being abandoned as the owners cannot afford to replant.
The coffee growers in Boquete seem to be less concerned over the Leaf
Spot Disease although it exists there and has sometimes been very
destructive. Several of the farmers are growing potatoes, oranges, and
other marketable crops. One farmer is devoting all of his time to the
growing of flowers for shipment by plane to markets in Panama City







19

and the Canal Zone. The wife of another farmer is reported to be
earning more money annually selling flowers from her small flower
garden, than her husband is making from his entire coffee finca.
Mr. T. M. Moniche, a former Canal Zone employee, has one of the
best coffee fincas in the Republic of Panama. He has a beautiful home
with modern equipment in it and is experimenting with all sorts of fruit,
flowers, and vegetables in his garden. Among other things he has some
of the finest flavored peaches and winter avocados that can be grown.
He expects to start growing them for shipment to the Canal Zone and
Panama City in the near future.

ESTIMATES
Estimates were submitted during the past year, to cover the major
building projects and other important expenditures which will be neces-
sary at the Experiment Gardens during the next ten years.
The first item asked for was a new office and laboratory building.
The present office is so dilapidated and termite-eaten that it is not
expected that it will last more than three years. Plans for the new
office and laboratory have been completed. They are for a composite
type of building. The ground floor which is to serve for the laboratory,
one office and a storeroom, is made of concrete. The second floor is to be
made of wood and will consist of three offices and the library.
Some of the other major items called for in the estimae are new roads,
extension to the irrigation system to allow for expansion of the Gardens,
a new propagtion house, glasshouse, storehouse, and toolhouse.

FINANCES
The Congressional appropriations for the Fiscal Year 1937 were
increased to $1,0 and the estimated net income from land rentals was
$7,500; thus the financial status of the Experiment Gardens was much
less strained than it has been for some years past. However, the Gar-
dens have operated this year on the same economy basis as has been
maintained in the depression years with the expectaion that there
might be a small reserve for the the publication of some of the Annual
Reports which have not been published since the year 1930.
Because the Annual Reports have not been published recently, many
institutions of a similar nature, have dropped the Experiment Gardens
from their mailing lists. The only way we can maintain our standing
and keep our library supplied with much needed recent publications is
by exchanges.
s,'1U







20

The Gardens financed a trip to Jamaica and Colombia, made by the
Consultant in Plant Introduction and Utilization. This trip was made
for the purpose of establishing exchange relationships with the Gardens
there, and also to obtain many plants that could not readily be secured
by other means.







PLATE I






v r




































FIGURE 1.-The Talipot Palm, Corypha umbraculifera, in flower, FIGURE 2.-The Talipot Palm in fruit and about to die, having
Hope Gardens. completed its life cycle. Hope Gardens.

. . . .




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ILLUSTRATIONS

PLATES

PLATE I. Figure I. The Talipot Palm, Corypha umbraculifera, in flower. Hope
Gardens.
Figure 2. The Talipot Palm in fruit and about to die, having, completed
its life cycle. Hope Gardens.

PLATE II. Figure i. Hope Gardens, Jamaica. A general view of the main driveway.
Figure 2. Flowering of the staminate tree of the Double Coconut, Lodoicea
maldivica. Hope Gardens.

PLATE III. Figure i. The Double Coconut, Lodoicea maldivica. A small seed of this
rare palm, native of the Seychelles, in the Indian Ocean.
Figure 2. Bamboo as a highway planting in Jamaica.

PLATE IV. Figure i. Castleton Gardens, Jamaica. General view on upper road.
Figure 2. Castleton Gardens, Jamaica. General view on lower road.

PLATE V. Figure i. Tree Ferns, Cyathea arborea, in the Castleton Gardens.
Figure 2. Spraying equipment. Each lead of hose carries four spray
nozzles.
















22








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS IN JAMAICA AND COLOMBIA
By J. E. HIGGINS
Consultant in Plant Introduction and Utilization

Under authority issued by the Governor of The Panama Canal, in
accordance with the recommendation of the Chief Quartermaster, the
writer sailed from Cristobal on Sunday, February 28, on the S. S. Ulua
of the United Fruit Company Line, en route for the Island of Jamaica,
via the principal ports of the north coast of Colombia. The return to
the Canal Zone was made on the S. S. Toloa of the same line, arriving
in Cristobal on Friday, March 26.
The main objective of the journey was Jamaica and the principal
purposes were to secure species and varieties of plants new to the Canal
Zone and to establish plant exchange relations with the Department of
Science and Agriculture of the British Colony which would be to the
mutual advantage of that Island and of the Canal Zone. Observations
of the banana industry as conducted in Jamaica were also included in
the purposes of the travel.
Brief calls at the Colombian cities of Cartagena, Barranquilla, and
Santa Marta, while the ship was in port, afforded opportunity for con-
tacts with a number of correspondents of the Canal Zone Experiment
Gardens who were interested in problems connected with the plantings
that they had made of nursery stock secured from the Gardens and also
interested in making further introductions of plants from the same
source. One large company expressed interest in securing from the
Experiment Gardens advice and plants for the landscape planting of
their extensive grounds. An orchardist in Santa Marta who secured
fruit trees from the Canal Gardens a few years ago is demonstrating the
possibilities of several varieties of orange, grapefruit, lime, lemon, and
avocado in that part of Colombia. Trees planted in 1934 are now in
bearing and trees for further plantings have been ordered, since my
return to the Canal. These and similar plantings of fruit-bearing and
ornamental trees and smaller plants which have been made in several
parts of Colombia will serve as centers from which will radiate interest in
the introduction of species and varieties of economic and ornamental
plants new to the country. This work of plant dissemination is being
carried on without cost to the Canal and its benefits in future years
should be widespread.
23
r~~~ ~~ .^,~~|,!it.y ^.:' *.* ".t:
I;,-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~2~ -: -"*;"' ; ^ ;/;,;;,.3


l -l '":.';~~~~~~~~~i *"-. I .' "" *". > ; ." ' .: '" '







24

The report of an experience in pest control in Colombia was of much
interest. Admiral B. 0. Bell-Salter of the Colombian Navy, reported
great success in the control of land crabs by the use of a "barbasco"
mixed with ripe bananas as a bait. "Barbasco" is a general term applied
to many plants which contain substances used as fish poisons. Several
of them are common in Panama. They contain rotenone or other
related toxins, deadly to fish and to insects but not to man and domestic
animals. It was not learned which of the various "barbascos" had been
used in these experiments in controlling crabs but it is probable that
rotenone in any form mixed with a suitably attractive bait would be
effective. Rotenone is now on the market in many insecticides but
some of these contain also other poisons which are deadly to domestic
animals. As the control of land crabs without danger to domestic
animals has been a somewhat perplexing problem in parts of Panama
and the Canal Zone, the use of rotenone is worthy of trial. In this
country no bait could be cheaper and probably none more attractive
than ripe bananas.
JAMAICA
Jamaica is of special interest to the tropical plant hunter (Plate III,
Fig. 2) not only because of the wealth of indigenous vegetation which
abounds but also because the Colony has been engaged more or less
actively in plant introduction from a very early period in its history.
One of the first ventures was the attempt to introduce and establish the
breadfruit tree as a source of food supply for its slaves which has been
made familiar to everyone by the story of the "Mutiny on the Bounty"
and its cinematographic dramatization. The British Government
early recognized the significance and value of plant introductions and
exchanges and long ago established botanic gardens in many parts of its
far-flung Empire. Some of the most outstanding of these centers of
exchange in the tropical possessions are the gardens in Ceylon, Singapore,
Trinidad, British Guiana, and Jamaica. These and many others have
become the centers for agricultural research as well as plant introduction
and have fostered the great tropical agricultural industries of the
Empire such as sugar, rubber, tea, cocoa, vegetable oils, fibers, and a
long list of other crops. The great Kew Gardens of England with their
conservatories for the care of plants that could not endure the temperate-
zone climates have served as a sort of clearing house or general center for
plant exchanges. From this source Jamaica early received a large
number of species of plants native of various parts of the tropics.
The Government of our own country entered into systematic plant
introduction at a later date than Great Britain but has been pursuing it












PLATE II







































FIGURE 1.-Hope Gardens, Jamaica. A general view of the main driveway.
"r : .-: o























Uo
-4,I















%Al





























A l l"












|i" k
FIGURErrg -i~i H ope G alr dens, Ja a ca en r l vi w oft e ma n d iv w y
































































FIUE2. Fowrng of the Staminte Tree of the Double Coonut, Lodca maldivica.
S HopeGardes.

i: p. 2 4 -a







25

with great activity in recent years. It has made introductions of remark-
able significance which already have worked tremendous changes in
American agriculure but are only forerunners of revolutions in agricul-
tural practice. Some of these changes are resulting from introductions
the full significance of which could not be foreseen. One of these quite
incidental introductions which only now is attracting spectacular
attention is the South African Sheep Bush which came to the United
States 35 years ago as a small package of seed sent in with other col-
lections by the pioneer plant explorer of the United States Department
of Agriculture, Dr. David G. Fairchild, who was collecting in South
Africa and thought this plant might some day be useful in the United
States. The seed was planted at the Plant Introduction Garden of the
Department, in Chico, California. For many years it remained one of
the thousands of species and varieties being maintained for possible
future usefulness but receiving no special attention. "Then," to quote
from Science News Letter of June 12, "came the recent drought emer-
gency, and a small amount of seed was furnished the Soil Conservation
Service for experimental planting under southwestern arid conditions.
So the sheep bush, along with some 30 or 40 other species of widely
varying growth habits, was planted in the Arizona desert.
"After a year or two all of the species thus planted had disappeared,
with the single exception of the Sheep Bush. This is taken as a thor-
oughly convincing experimental result from the point of view of the Soil
Conservation Service."
Thus developments of great significance to the whole of the drought-
threatened Southwest may arise out of the mailing of this little package of
sd in the routine of plant introduction but in the hope that at some
uture date it might meet a need.
As a part of the regular work of the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens
in plant introduction, this recent trip was made to Jamaica. It has been
noted above that in that island is one of the British Colonial centers for
the o of such work. In the year 1859, by act of the Legis-
lature of J aica, a purchase of land was made for the establishing of a
garden which in the year 86 was opened and became the Castleton
Gardens (Plate V Fig. iand Fig. ). The first large introduction was
made about 1870 consisting of some 400 species from the Kew Gardens
including the Mangosteen, Brazil-nut, Touca Bean, Teak, New Zealand
Flax, Bhel Fruit, Carob Bean, Monstera, Cacao, and 32 species of
palms. At about the same time two cases of grafted mango trees were
introduced from Bombay, India, through the Kew Gardens. Unfor-
tunately the small trees of the variety which was destined to become the
one of outstandin imortance had lost their labels in transit and







26

became known in Jamaica as the "Bombay" mango where it has become
famous alike among residents and the thousands of travelers who have
been visiting this delightful winter resort in recent years. The "Bombay"
mango of Jamaica is the variety known in the Bombay region as Paii
of which there are various synonyms such as Pirie, Pyrie, and Paheri.
Thus the Castleton Gardens had its beginning about 75 years ago.
It is located on the abundantly watered northern slope of the mountain
range almost due north of the city of Kingston. Contrary to popular
impression it is not a mountain garden as the altitude is less than 500
feet above the sea. The traveler from Kingston must rise to about
1,8oo feet to cross this low shoulder of the mountain and thus gains the
impression of more altitude than really exists at Castleton. The
Garden enjoys an average rainfall of about 115 inches per year and this
being quite well distributed, there is abundant water for most of the
moisture-loving tropical species of plants. (Plate V, Fig. i.) There
are two brief dry seasons. The mean temperature ranges about 75
degrees Fahrenheit. With these climatic conditions and a good soil,
the Castleton Gardens present a magnificent and varied growth of a
large number of tropical species.
The Hope Gardens (Plate II, Fig. I) are located about six miles north-
east of Kingston at an altitute of approximately 670 feet, reached by a
gradual climb. Thus while they are rather higher than Castleton the
impression is quite otherwise. Being on the south side of the main
mountain range, they are on the so-called dry side of the island and
present a very different although equally interesting collection of valu-
able and beautiful trees and plants. Here are the headquarters of the
Department of Science and Agriculture with its scientific laboratories
and its school of agriculture and farm nearby. Here in the Gardens is the
ever-increasing collection of orchids which has done much to make the
island famous among travelers.
Without attempting to describe either of these gardens, brief mention
will be made of some of the varied plants assembled here which are of
most interest from the standpoint of plant introduction in the Canal
Zone. Through the most generous cooperation of the Director and his
staff, plants or propagating materials of many of these species have been
introduced and others have been offered for introduction as they may
become available.
The Talipot Palm (Corypha umbraculifera) particularly when in
flower or in fruit is one of the most spectacular of all the palms. (Plate
I, Figs. I and 2.) It forms a perfectly straight trunk from 35 to 75 feet
in height and produces leaves of such gigantic proportions that one will
afford shelter from rain or sun for a dozen men. For this purpose they







PLATE III

'P

41







































FIGURE 1.-The Double Coconut, Lodoicea maldivica. A small seed of FIGURE 2.-Bamboo as a highway planting in Jamaica.
this rare palm, native of the Seychelles, in the Indian Ocean.
.... .... .. ..







27

are much used in Ceylon, in the Malabar Coast and other countries
where they are found wild in great abundance and also cultivated.
These umbrella-like leaves which give rise to the specific name umbra-
culifera or umbrella-bearing can be folded and when dry are not too
heavy to carry. Smaller umbrellas made from these leaves are used
locally and also exported. The tree grows for thirty-five to seventy-five
years without flowering and then in one grand effort at reproduction
produces a flower bud in its crown which expands as it opens to a cluster
fifteen to twenty feet high involving the entire top of the tree. The leaves
soon begin to wilt and within a year or or re are lying flat against the
trunk while vast numbers of seeds are produced. The tree has completed
its life cycle with this one fruiting and crumples in death. The ripe seeds
are almost as hard as ivory and are exported for the manufacture of
buttons and also are used for beads and for the making of an imitation
coral. The stem of the tree yields a flour which is much used by the
native people where the species is found wild. Cakes made from it are
said to taste much like those made of wheat flour. The trees shown in
the photograph are said to be about 35 years old. This species is repre-
sented in the Canal Zone by three young specimen trees but it will be
probably a quarter of a century before they will produce seed. Hence,
the desire to get a fresh supply to keep up the succession.
The Double Coconut Palm (Lodoicea maldivica Pers.), also known as
the Sea Coconut Palm is one of the most astonishing representative of the
plant kingdom. Although not a coconut, the stone or nut of the fruit of
this rare palm resembles two gigantic coconuts united into one (Plate III,
Fig. i). They were first seen by civilized man as they were floating
upon the waters of the Indian Ocean near the Maldive Islands and
thus acquired the common names referred to above and the specific
name maldiica because of the belief which later proved to be erroneous,
that the species was native to the Maldive Islands. Later explorations
revealed that this palm is endemic in the Seychelles Islands, being
found in its uncultivated state nowhere else in the world. The tree
is remarkable not only because of its exclusive native habitat in that
far-away isolated group of islands because of several other features
in its habit and life history. Perhaps the most astounding of these
features is the enormous size of its fruit which exceeds that of most,
if not all, of other existing trees or plants. Its fruits are eighteen
inches -or more in length and weigh upwards of twenty-five pounds.
They may require as much as two years to germinate and forty
years to produce the beginning of a trunk which ultimately may
attain a height of one hundred feet The flowering stage of develop-
ment is reported to require upwards of fortyyears while the period from







28

flower to mature fruit is variously reported to be from two to ten years.
The report of the shorter period is probably to be accounted for by the
fact that the natives frequently gather the fruit before it is mature while
the other extreme in the reports have perhaps arisen from the fact that
the fruits may persist upon the tree long after they are mature.
When it is remembered that the species is dioecious and that both
pistillate (female) and staminate (male) trees must exist in proximity
and simultaneously in the flowering stage; and also remembering the
enormous size of the fruits and the difficulties of transportation; and the
further fact that all trees resulting from the planting of many seeds may
turn out to be of one sex; and finally that upwards of a half century may
elapse from sprouting seed to mature fruit; remembering all of these,
some impression will be gained of the difficulties involved in introducing
and establishing in any new habitat this strangely curious and interesting
representative of the plant world. For these reasons it has not been
widely established outside of its native habitat where it abounds in
forest growth from near sea level to the tops of the mountains. But the
British botanists and horticulturists, through their system of plant ex-
changes have succeeded in growing plants in several parts of the tropical
possessions. In Jamaica the staminate tree is represented by a vigorous
specimen shown in Plate II, Fig. 2, a photograph taken by the writer in
March 1937. Unfortunately no pistillate tree of the Double Coconut
exists in Jamaica. Likewise, the Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens
in Trinidad reports in a letter to the writer that no pistillate trees of the
species are known to exist in that Island. If any in their infantile stage
are present, that secret cannot be revealed for many years. So far as
available information indicates, fruit-bearing trees of this representative
of the flora of the far-away Seychelles exist in the Western Hemisphere
only in the Botanic Gardens in British Guiana. Naturally, inquiries
are being made to determine the possibilities of introducing the Double
Coconut into the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens for the education and
interest of posterity. It may, however, prove to be of economic value,
for in its native country various parts of the plant are put to use and
strong claims of medicinal value are put forth.
The Banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis), so widely known and admired
in the tropics appears not to have been introduced into Panama and
certainly does not exist in the mature form in the Canal Zone. Its close
relative, the so-called Chinese Banyan or Laurel de India (Ficus nitida)
is well known here and is one of the most admired trees on the Isthmus.
The two rows which line Roosevelt Avenue in Balboa between the
Balboa Railway Station and Balboa Road are the subjects of enthusi-
astic comment from old resident and tourist alike. It is native to







29

Malay and India The true Banyan is a larger tree, remarkable for its
great spread of branches, some of whichare almost horizontal and are
supported by the aerial roots which they send down to the ground, a
single tree thus affording more shade perhaps that any other tree unless
it beWaringiana fig, another species of Ficus now well established at the
menGardens at Summit and being planted out in various parts
of the Isthmus The Banyan tree gets its name from the fact that its
shade has been used for centuries as a market place for the banians or
wa merchants of India. The banyan is well established in Jamaica
and was in fruit in March, making a very grand display with its thick
leathery shiny leaves and its bright crimson fruits about one-half inch
in diameter, scattered over the entire top of these great trees. Through
the courtesy of the Hope Gardens, two young Banyan trees were brought
to Canal and are doing well.
The nutmeg tree (Myristicafragrans) which produces the nutmeg and
the mace of commerce, like the Double Coconut referred to above, is a
dioecious species and must have both male and female trees in proximity
to yield fruit, ad thus produce the nutmeg which is the seed and the
mace which is the aril surrounding the seed. At the Experiment Gar-
dens the male tree has been flowering for several years; but, without its
mte, it must abide alone, with no progeny to carry on the name. The
Hope Gardens supplied twelve young seedlings among which some, at
least, it may be hoped, will befruit-bearing, either female or, as sometimes
urs, sulied with both male and female elements on the same tree,
an aat of distribution not unfamiliar in the papaya. Thus
it is hoped that fruting specimens of this economic plant whose seeds
are familiar to everyone, may in the not distant future, exhibit the com-
pletie cce among the collections of plants in the Canal Zone.
Victoria regia, the Royal Water Lily or Giant Water Lily of Eastern
th America is one of the most typically tropical of aquatic
plants. Its gigantic leaves lying flat upon the water with a spread
which sometimes exceeds six feet and upturned edges, forming great
trays, are supplied with air cells and passages which affrd sufficient
buoyancy to sustain great weights if evenly distributed. By the use of a
pad and a frame a leaf has been used to sustain mas weight The
turned-up edges, which rise sometimes to height of four inches above
the water, add much to the curious and picturesque effect of the scene.
It might be expected that rain would fill these leaf trays and destroy
their beauty, causing the development of fungi, algae, and mosquitoes;.

The magnificient flowers, which may be twelve to eighteen inches in
1~~ii ~i~~~ 2







30

diameter, resemble those of the tropical Nymphaeas or Water Lilies to
which they are related. They are nocturnal in habit, opening in the late
afternoon and remaining open all night and part of the next morning.
The propagation is chiefly by seeds which at times are quite erratic
in their germination. They are generally preserved by placing them in
water in a tightly corked bottle where they will not germinate. For
planting, they are placed in mud just beneath the surface of water which
must be a high temperature, 850 to 90 F., being regarded as desirable or
necessary. The seed may germinate quickly or may remain dormant for
many months. The Castleton Gardens presented a supply of seed in
water which were planted promptly in a propagating house at Summit
and are being watched hopefully.
The rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) is a fruit tree native of Malay
and highly prized there and in the few countries where it has been estab-
lished. It is related to the litchi which it rather closely resembles but,
unlike its relative, it is strictly tropical in its cultural demands. The
fruits which are borne in clusters are about two inches in length and
slightly oval in form. The edible portion is a juicy, whitish, fleshy aril
surrounding the seed and is of delicious flavor. It is inclosed in a papery
or parchment-like shell, red or yellowish in color and covered by soft
fleshy spines. Many residents of the Occident are familiar with the
litchi in its dried form in which it is often spoken of as the litchi "nut"
because of its shell-like covering. More properly speaking it is a dried
fruit. As a fresh fruit it is handsome in appearance and as much
superior to the "nut" in flavor and texture as a grape excels a raisin.
The rambutan is consumed as a fresh fruit. Two young trees of this
species were supplied by the Gardens in Jamaica. It is believed that
these should prosper under Canal Zone conditions and constitute a
valuable addition to our very limited representation of the rambutan.
Amherstia nobil's is spoken of as the "Queen of Flowering Trees."
MacMillan, in "Tropical Gardening and Planting" says of this: "A
medium-sized tree, native of Burma, considered the most beautiful of
all flowering trees. Its large, graceful sprays of vermillion and yellow
flowers, drooping from every branch and interspersed with the handsome
foliage, present an appearance of astonishing elegance and loveliness.
It is in blossom for the greater part of the year, except during long
periods of rainy weather, the chief flowering season in Ceylon being
from November to April. The tree grows to a height of 50 to 6o feet,
is usually round-topped, with many slender branches and dark-green,
pinnate leaves. A remarkable feature is the long, hanging, brownish-
pink clusters in which the young leaves appear."










PLATE IV
































FIGURE 1.-Castleton Gardens, Jamaica. General view on upper road.



































FIGURE 2.-Castleton Gardens, Jamaica. General view on lower road.





p. 30-a.

",







31

Several excellent specimens of Amherstia exist at the Castleton
Gardens and were in flower at the time of the writer's visit there.
Photographs give an idea of the form of the flower clusters, but without
color photography no adequate impression of the beauty of the flower
and tree can be conveyed.
Unfortunately Amherstias rarely forms seed and such seeds as are
formed are seldom viable. Hence it is necessary to resort to the rather
slow and tedious operation known as marcottage or air-layering in
order to propagate this unusual tree. With characteristic kindness and
cooperation, the Jamaican authorities are thus propagating a tree for the
Canal Zone collection.
Other valuable accessions for which the Canal Zone Experiment
Gardens are indebted to Jamaica should be mentioned. They include
a variety of Bougainvillea new to the Isthmus, three very handsome
varieties of Poinsettia, a hybrid Hippeastrum created at Hope Gardens
and which will be recognized by all Isthmians as related to the much
admired "Barbados lily," and two varieties of Crape myrtle (Lagrestro-
emia indica). Special mention also should be made of several handsome
flowering trees, vines, and shrubs entirely new to Panama and the Canal
Zone. Norantea guianensis has long orange or red flower-clusters
against dark green foliage with a vigorous vegetative growth. Another
is Napoleona imperialis known under the common name of Napoleon's
Crown because of the shape of the flowers. Fragraea obovata is a many-
stemmed tree about 30 feet in height and producing large white or cream-
colored flowers in terminal clusters. The flowering is continuous.
Datura chorantha is a form of the "Angels' Trumpet" having handsome
double purple flowers. Seeds were collected at Montego Bay.
Fortunately, the Experiment Gardens are able to reciprocate by the
sending of seeds or plants to the Department of Science andAgriculture of
Jamaica. These include native and introduced species which do not
exist in Jamaica or in some cases are not producing sufficient propagating
material. Seed of Teak (Tectona grandis) and of the Central American
Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is being supplied in considerable
quantity. Other items ncluded in the first shipment which was made
include Warscewiczia coccinea, Hibiscus hybrids, the Macadamia nut
tree, several species of Heliconia, native to Panama, Synsepalum dulci-
cum or the Miraculous fruit, and seeds of several species of palm not
found in Jamaica.
Knowing, as we now do, something of the aaiaii of desired species
in each others countries and also of the reciprocal needs and having
established personal contacts, the conducting of the work of mutually
beneficial plant exchanges between the Government Gardens of Jamaica







32

and the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens is greatly facilitated and should
further develop. It is hoped that representatives of the Public Gardens
and other branches of the Department of Science and Agriculture of
Jamaica may visit the Canal Zone.
BANANA. PROBLEMS
One of the industries in which Jamaica and Panama are mutually
interested is the production of bananas. The culture of the fruit as
conducted in the two countries is quite different as indeed may be said
of the conduct of this culture in different parts of Jamaica itself. Pro-
duction on the south or dry side of Jamaica under the United Fruit
Company has become a highly specialized industry involving the use of
the most modern and powerful agricultural machinery, the distribution
of irrigated water, the liberal and studied use of fertilizers and the appli-
cation of sprays and other methods for the control of diseases.
Through the courtesy of the United Fruit Company and its many
representatives, all of whom were most helpful and courteous, it was
possible to acquire a very valuable insight into the methods of the
industry even in the few days that could be spent in this phase of the
visit to Jamaica.
One of the problems in banana culture which Jamaica has to contend
with, in common with most countries which produce commercially the
standard Gros Michel variety is the Wilt disease caused by the fungus
Fusarium cubense. Unfortunately this trouble has become quite
generally known as Panama disease although there is probably no evi-
dence that it originated in the Isthmus of Panama and it was described
in Cuba before it attracted attention in this country. However, in the
early part of this century it made its appearance in many parts of tropi-
cal America and the West Indies so that no one country can be designated
as the home of the disease and the origin of the banana grower's trouble
with it. But the story of its presence in Panama and in Jamaica is too
well known locally to need repeating here. It is mentioned here because
of the methods of attack which are being pursued in Jamaica to dis-
cover satisfactory means of control. The United Fruit Company is
approaching the problem from the standpoint of rotation of crops and
also that of soil treatment. The organism causing the disease being a
soil-inhabiting fungus, direct treatment presents great difficulties. The
company is diligently pursuing experimental work with the use of a
large number of chemicals. As a practical means of reducing to a mini-
mum the destruction caused by the disease, the rotation of crops thus
far has been most effective. Fields that have become seriously infested
with Wilt are transferred to the culture of sugarcane which crop is not









destroyed by the fungus. It is too early yet to determine whether a pro-
longed use of the land in this crop will again fit it for bananas. In
any event the company seems to have no great difficulty in producing all
the bananas that the markets require.
The scientific staff of the Department of Science and-Agriculture of
Jamaica is approaching the problem of the control of banana Wilt
disease from the angle of the plant breeder. Some varieties of banana
and soeother species of Musa appear to be practically immutne to the
effects of the roat-inhabiting fungus. None of them, however, quite
satisfy.the demands of the trade in bananas and hence have not found
favr. as substitutes for the standard Gros Michel variety. By the
hybridizing of these resistant varieties and species with the Gros Michel
it is hoped to develop a variety combining immunity or a high degree
of disease resistance with the characters demanded in a market banana
that can be cheaply produced and economically shipped. With these
two great oraniations approaching the difficult problem from so widely
different angles and yet with consistent methods, the results may be
looked forward to with great interest.
Mention has been made of the intensive methods which the United
Fruit Company is following in banana culture. Deep soils are selected
and these are thoroughly prepared to a depth of two feet by the use of
eavy subsoilers and disks drawn by 90-horsepower tractors. Surface
till in established banana plantations has given widely different
re varying with te soils, the climatic coditions andthe skill with
which it has been applied. In climates with a rather continuous and
heavy rainfall for many months of the year banana roots have a strong
t ey to multiply near the surface of the soil and the soil being too
we for se of tillae implements, the plants become surface rooted.
ll condition, surface tillage iplements are applied in drier
weathera large part of the feeding roots are destroyed and banana plants
are greatly damaged. The same result occurs in an
irrigated field unless the tillage implements follow irrigation as soon as the
surface soil is dry enough and thus prevent the development of surface
roots and induce deep rooting. The United Fruit Company has
developed a skill in the application of irrigation water and the use of
surface tillage which is manifested in the magnificient growth and pro-
duction of the plants. r
It has been found profitableto useirrigation waterindouble the
amount allotted for this crop by the Goernment water-distribution
system. The company has its own wells which supply its fields with
one-half the total water used which is about i,20-acre inches per year.
:iJ







34

Fertilizers are used liberally but judiciously, a system having been
worked out for their frequent application in small quantities to the
young and developing plants.
Systems for the arranging of the plants so as to achieve the maximum
profitable plant population per acre have been carefully worked out.
Up to a certain point the number of plants per acre can be profitably
increased if the spacing method referred to is followed and if irrigation
and fertilization are properly applied. Beyond this point, although the
number of bunches per acre may be increased by increased population,
there may be too high a percentage of small and unmerchantable
bunches. Even the spraying of the plants which a few years ago would
have been thought entirely impracticable on a plantation scale is being
successfully applied by the company (Plate V, Fig. 2). Thus by a
careful balancing of all factors, a highly specialized system has been
developed for the profitable continuance of the banana industry through-
out the many years of its history in Jamaica where this great trade had
its first beginnings.









PLATE V






























FIGURE 1.-Tree Ferns, Cyathea arborea, in the Castleton Gardens.







































p. 34-a.
I IUr2-paigEupmn.Ec edor oecare orsrynzls





















Annual Report of the

Canal Zone Experiment Gardens

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
1938














'" 'l . '' 'w

















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


CANAL ZONE EXPERIMENT GARDENS,
Summit, Canal Zone, 'July 9, 1938.

SIR: I present herewith and recommend for publication a condensed
Report of the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1938.
Respectfully,
WALTER R. LINDSAY,
SActing Director
Mr. Roy R. WATSON,
Chief Quartermaster,
Balboa Heights, Canal Zone.

Through Mr. J. H. K. HUMPHREY,
First Assistant Chief Quartermaster.
















36





















CONTENTS
PAGE
Introductionf--------------------------------------------------- -- 39
P easonnel --- .-----------........- 39
Publication of Annual Reports-------------------------------------- 40



ld ings -------- ------------.....--------------- 49

Paths ---------------------------------------------------------------- 49
t~ k---------------------------.-----------------------..------------------ 49so
Teak ------------------------------------------------------------- so
Lecythis zabucajo --------------------------------------------------------- 53
Macadama .Nuts.--------------------------------------------------------- 53
PiliNuts---------------------------------------------------------------- 54
1onka .Beans------------------------.------------------------------------ S5


WaterLies-------------------------------------------------------------- 55
Victora regia ------------------------------------------------------------ S6
ip to Costa Rica -------------------------------------------------------- 56
--------------------------------------- ---------- ---
Ag Trip totheInteriorProvnesofPanama---------------------------------- S8
Talsby theGarden'sStaff------------------------------------------------ 59
Flower ----------------- 5..
ll^^ai^ S9






















ILLUSTRATIONS

PLATES

PLATE I View of plantings at House 131 Gamboa made less than a year ago.

PLATE II Typical view of houses at Gamboa before they were landscaped.

PLATE III Partly completed path leading up Garcinia Hill.

PLATE IV General view of one of the paths which was surfaced with oil.

PLATE V General view of 31-year-old Teak trees planted in an experimental forest
planting.


PLATE VI Sapocaya Nut (Lecythis zabucajo) showing urn-shaped fruit with lid or cap
and seeds.

PLATE VII Figue i. Victoria regia and other waterlilies.
Figure 2. Sugarcane, said to represent seven months growth from planting.


















38








PLATE I






(Al






i:: w::: : ;o a 1 Ga ba m l a y a.










































View of plantings at House 131, Gamboa, made less than a year ago.
.. .. . ... .. ... ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. . ... .. .. .. ..







ANNUAL REPORT OF THE
CANAL ZONE EXPERIMENT GARDENS FOR 1938
BY WALTER R. LINDSAY, Acting Director

INTRODUCTION
The Gardens were fortunate this year in getting a little extra money
by thI unexpected abolishment of the Revolving Fund. They were
thus under less financial strain than they have been for several years
past and were able to arrange for the publication of all Annual Reports
to date; construct approximately one mile of paths; and build a new glass-
house and a toolhouse and work shop.
newly formed Landscape Unit, under the direct supervision of
Mr. P. Keenan as Jnior Landscape Architect, very ably handled
the landscaping of the new townsite of Gamboa and other landscape
in the Canal Zone. All tree pruning work in the Canal Zone
was also turned~ ver to the Landscape Unit and was done in a manner
more economical and effcient than has been possible under any other

Sintduction and dissemination of plants was carried on as usual,
pt on a slightly larger scale, and several instructive talks were given
by the Garden staff before local organizations.
PERSONNEL
In Aug Mr. J. P. Keenan was transferred from the District
Quartermaste Division to the Experiment Gardens where he was
placed inrtsupervision of the work performed by the newly formed
Sunder the direction of Mr.J. E. Higgins, Consultant in
P t Io tion and Utilization. Beside his previous college training,
has een receiving further landscape training for the past
six yes uner t guidance of Mr. Higgins.
Mr. Robertwelle, a young man who was raised and received his
pre lin the Canal Zone and later took up three years of
Landscape work at Iowa State College, was chosen to assist Mr. Keenan

been to supervise the tree pruning and landscape work as outlined by
Mr. Keenan. He has not only proved to be very adept at his work
very valuable practical experience whi should help


39
r'sssR~8 iiiii~i~ui *s.9,.1 s







40

PUBLICATION OF ANNUAL REPORTS
Due to curtailment of expenses during the Fiscal Year 1937, a small
saving was effected out of the Annual Allotment. This was obligated
toward the publishing of the Annual Report for the 1937 Fiscal Year.
A portion of the money in the Revolving Fund was also authorized to be
spent for the publication of the other Annual Reports from the Fiscal
Year 1931 to date. These Reports are being sent as they are published
to individuals and institutions on the regular mailing list of the Gardens,
with an invitation to resume exchange publications.
NURSERY SALES
The dissemination of plants by the Nursery Department of the
Gardens was carried on in a similar manner to that of the past. The
only difference lay in the manner of accounting for the Department.
It has been explained elsewhere in this report that the Revolving Fund,
established in 1929 to care for the nursery operations, was abolished in
December 1937 upon the recommendation of the Comptroller. The
proceeds from the sale of plants and fruits will henceforth be credited
directly into the general allotment for the Gardens and the Gardens and
Nursery alike will be financed from this joint account.
It will be seen in Table i that the sale of certain plants has increased
considerably this year over that of the two preceding Fiscal Years while
the sale of other plants has dropped below that for 1937. There has been
an increase in practically all items over that of 1936 and the gross returns
have been practically doubled for this period.
TABLE I
Plants disseminated during the Fiscal Years 1936, 1937, and 1938

No. of Plants disseminated during
Name of Plant
I935-1936 1936-1937 1937-1938

Acalypha ----------------------------------- 831 1,030 ,2
Allamanda --------.-------------------------- 133 171 157
Araucaria excelsa----------.--------------------- ------- --- ------- 54
Ardesia humilis --------------------------------- 161 250 417
Artocarpus communis --------------------------- ---------- ---------- 72
Bambusa sp. ------------- --------------------- 40 II S
Barlaria involucrata----------------------------- 279 259 1,209
Bougainvillea sp.-------------. ------...- ------- 359 322 323
Budwood-----------------------.------------ ---------- 5,036 1,337
Caesalpinea pulcherrima ------ --------------- ---- 12 193 178
Cassia sp...-----------. ---------.---------- .- 152 312 168
Casuarina equisetifolia------------- --------------- 54 28 I,
Canangium odoratum -----------.---------------- 87 89 49
Cestrum noctorum------- -- ------- .------ -.------------------. 36








41



Plants disseminated during the Fiscal Years 1936, 1937, and 1938.

.No. of Plants disseminated during
Name of Plant
1935-1936 1936-1937 1937-1938

I..ngea t___entosa 68 117 24
dum sp.--------------------------------------- -542 14577 732
ca ----------.-- ------------------ 214 257 88
Chaicica ------------------------------- 342 238 55
Crptos a madagascaenis ------------__ 120 135 62
Cutngs ----------------... ------.-- 3,190 2,657 1,730
trssp -------------------- ----------- ,951 1,349 147
Sacenasp.----..---- ------------ ----- ---. ~276 284 65
e plume -------------- ------------ 202 58 416
.Delanix. re.a --- .. 62 15 43
Episce cpreata---------------------- 25 28 35
Erantheiu s.----- ---------- ----- -- ----- 590 499 263
a pcherma---------------------63 77 135
ics .--o I07 314 60
Galpiigauca _-... .25 182 1,917
Garnian m tana --,----- ------ .-122 78
; Gardenia:6 -- -- ------------ -- 63 222 176
edyii ----- -------------------- 20 10 64
I e ia ---- _- ----- 61
Hi e biscussp--.- -.... ---------1,749 2695 3,847
Ikenya foa -- -- 170
i H ousep ants - --__ .......................- - ..... .-- -o6
Iora.... p III i 186 276
ines ------------------------------- 213 704 1,166
st3a s reginea -._. 71 96 66
st aindica ----------------------------- 315 389 459
SMangiferai484 688 379
e 'ane ite -------------------- -------- 3,287 1,807 989
usasp -- 253 121 68
inoleaner 161 36 215
Nephrolepis sp- 6 3,454 5,030
Papaya11 ------ ------ --------- 409 362 152
,Palms 1162 2,212 1,320
Peda___ntus vegata------------------------- ---------- 34
Persea grassia 165 265 290
Petrea spera ------- 109 164 161
Pineapple suckers 270 289 124
Polytas prae sa--------------------- 700 1,355 7,025
Posoquea lafolia --------22 44 32
Phyanthus rosea pictus--- ------ 43 77 --------
Saint paullia ionantha ---- 49 66

Soilsacks --- -- -- -- -- --- 164 174 224
+:+ ++++:+:+++:+ +: +:++ :++ +:+:L ++ + ++ + ++++++ ++ + ++ ++ 9 + + + +++








42

TABLE i-Continued.
Plants disseminated during the Fiscal Years 936, 137, and 1938.

No. of Plants disseminated during
Name of Plant
1935-1936 1936-1937 1937-1938

Spathodes sp.------------------------------- o6 403 136
Swietenia macrophylla_ --------------------------_ I 151 74
Sugarcane-- --.----------------- --------------- 21 20
Ravenella madagascariensis ----------------------- 40 28 8
Rosa sp.------------------------------------ -- 372 440 460
Tabernmontana coronaria ------------------------440 498 525
Tecoma stans -------------..------------_------ --------- ----98
Tetrastigma hernandii--- --------------------------- o----------
Thuja sp.-------------------------------------- 85 75 I86
Thunbergia erecta--- ---------------------------- 474 331 1,0o8
Thunbergia grandiflora--------------------------- 31 163 183
Vincas_--------------------------------------- 367 187 52
Warscewiczia coccinea --------------------- -------------------I 29

Total items------- ---------- ------ 22,734 34,347 38,734


Table 2 shows the principal countries to which the plants were shipped.
TABLE 2

1935-1936 1936-I937

Misc. Misc.
Country Fruit and Propaga- ruit ad Propaga-
tree Ornamen- ing tree Ornamen- ting
tals Material tals Material
tals tals

Canal Zone ----------- 1,537 14,I42 2,935 1,138 20,092 3,472
Bahamas----------- ------------------------------------ ---------
Colombia------------- 148 118 -------- 255 139 ---------
Costa Rica------------ 57 -------- --------- 41 --------- --------
Dutch West Indies----------------- --------- 5 -------..
Cuba-_------------------------- 74 --------- ------------------ Seed
Ecuador-------------- 157 i8 --------- 124 5 12
England -------------- --------- _--------------------------------- 6
Germany ------------------- 4 --------- -------- -----------------
Haiti ---------------- 4 ---------------------------- 4 ---------
Jamaica ----------____-_-- --- ---------------- i 44 88
Nicaragua-------------------------------------- 48 --------- 50
Panama -------------- 674 2,002 255 737 3,406 3,875
San Salvador---------- 372 2 --------- 349 9 45
United States--------- 21 o --------- 24 177 145
Venezuela ------------1. 34 70 --------- 36 9 ---------

Total ------------ 2,04 16,440 3,190 2,758 23,896 7,693








43


1937-1938

Country Miscellaneous
SFrut and Orna- Propagating
Tree e material
menta ls .

Bahamas-------------------------- --------------------------------
Canal Zone--------- --------- ------------ 378 29,190 1,294
SColombia ------------------------------- 57 5 -----------
Costa Rica ------------------------------- 68 61 450
Cuba------------------------------------------------------------ 2o10
Dutch West Indies ------------------------ 6 31 ---------
Ecuador------------------------------ 57 ----------- -----------
Haiti------------------------------------ ------------ ------------ ------------
Hawaii ---------------------------- ------------------------- 175
Jamaica -.------------- ---------------- ----------- 17 ------------
Nicaragua-------------------------------- 93 6 -------
Panama_ .-.-------------------- ------- -. 819 4,457 918
Peru ------------------ ------------- 25 ----------- -------
Porto Rico -------- --------------------------- 9 ------------
San Salvador ------------------------------210
Sumatra----------------------------- ------------ ----------- 20
Tahiti -------------- -- -------------------- ------ ------
U nitedStaes - -----.--------------- 3 9 ------------
Venezuela---,----- -------------------- ----------- ------------ ---------

Tota k- 1,176 33,951 3,o67


The establishment of the Landscape Unit on August I, 1937 with
the direct supervision of all planting in the Canal Zone placed under one
head has made it possible for the Nursery Unit to get advance notice of
jobs that are to come up and to concentrate on the propagation of such
plants as may be desired for these plantings. This has never been
possible in the-past as planting plans were never drawn in advance and
no estimates were available as to the number of plants required in each
district. Under the past handicap the nursery might end the year
heavily stocked with many items for which there would be no call and
would be short on other items. The chances for this under the present
arrangement are very slight.





j~: ,:
~~:. ": ~:ii!~ I1~: ,I

;, id ;;9







44

THE LANDSCAPE UNIT
By J. P. KEENAN, ~unior Landscape Architect
On August I, 1937, a Landscape Unit was organized in connection
with the Experiment Gardens and under the direction of Mr. J. E.
Higgins, Consultant in Plant Introduction and Utilization and under the
supervision of Mr. J Keenan, Junior Landscape Architect. In order
to more fully understand the reasons for the organization of such a
Unit it is considered advisable to review the developments of landscape
activities on the Canal Zone.

DEVELOPMENT OF LANDSCAPE ACTIVITIES ON THE CANAL ZONE
After the completion of the Panama Canal and the establishing of
permanent townsites for the housing of the maintenance and operating
forces of The Panama Canal, considerable thought and effort was given
to the establishment of attractive landscapes. Many gratifying results
have been obtained from these efforts. Some of the landscapes have
become widely known as in the case of the Royal palm (Roystona regia)
planting on the Prado in Balboa and the living tunnel effect of the
Chinese Banyan trees (Ficus retusa) planted along Roosevelt Avenue.
Some sections of the towns were laid out by landscape architects or
persons well versed in landscape plantings. However, no drawings
of the initial landscape plantings o of designs for future landscape
developments appear to be on file.
After these pioneers in landscape work had left the Isthmus, there was
a period during which there was no trained and unified supervision of
landscapes and the responsibility for care and development fell into many
hands. Residents and organizations frequently planted without refer-
ence to a plan. Dr. Paul C. Stanley, author of the "Flora of the Canal
Zone" and other well-known botanical works, stated in the year 1927,
"There is probably no region of Central America which exhibits so
mediocre a selection of horticultural or ornamental plants as does this
part of Panama. The wholesale plantations made by the
United States Government about the Zone towns consist of monotonous
repetitions of hibiscus, bougainvillea, crotons (Codiaeum) and Noth-
opanx."
When the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens (then known as the Plant
Introduction Gardens) were opened at Summit, a step was taken towards
the improvement of landscape conditions by appointing the Director
of the Gardens to act in an advisory capacity in relation to all matters
of landscape plantings within the Canal Zone. The next development
under this plan was the creation of a position in the classification of





PLATE II





































Typical view of houses at Gambo before they were landscaed.




Typical view of houses at Gamboa before they were landscaped.







45

Agricultural Aide and under the Director of the Gardens. The duties
of this position were to supervise all pruning and general care of trees
and shrubs throughout the Canal Zone, and in addition to draw land-
scape plans for all new planting developments and to supervise the
execution of such plans. This new arrangement helped to increase the
efficiency of the maintenance work. The designing of landscape plans
and the supervision of the planting began to effect much needed changes
in the development of landscapes. In 1934 when every possible curtail-
ment in Government expenditures was being effected, it became neces-
sary to abolish this new position just as it was getting well under way.
Arrangements were made, however, to assign the duties of Agricultural
Aide to the Gold Foreman of the Care of Grounds Forces of the Balboa-
Ancon District. For three years this arrangement was carried out.
Under this direction a separate gang of tree pruners was organized
in the year 1935, to do all of the pruning work throughout the Canal
Zone. This naturally increased the efficiency of handling the tree prun-
ing k and the results were very gratifying. However, this arrange-
ment placing double duties and responsibilities upon the Gold Foremen
of the Balboa-Ancon District could not be considered as other than an
e gcy measure. The project for the planting of the new townsite
SGatun in 1936 emphasized the necessity of an organization of trained
Ipesnnel to handle landscape problems.
When the building of the Gamboa townsite was approved and it was
known that complete landscape planting of the town would be necessary,
Mr. J. E. Higgins recommended to the Chief Quartermaster that a
Landscape Unit be organized. This recommendation met with the
approval of the Chief Quartermaster and was authorized by the
Governor. The organization of the Landscape Unit became effective
August I, 1937.
Ori ization.-The above review has endeavored to present the events
d stances which pointed out the necessity of establishing a
Organization on the Canal Zone. The purpose of the estab-
lishing of the organization was to centralize the supervision of all work
rto the designing, establishing and maintaining of the landscapes
of the Canal Zone in an organization trained for that work. No less
important is the fact that this organization can devote its entire time to
landscape work, thus enabling a more efficient handling of the establish-
ing and maintaining of the existing landscape and a congruent develop-
ment of all future landscaping.
Duties.-The duties assigned to the Landscape Unit were as follows:
(a) The designing of all landscape plans (subject to the approval of
the Chief Quartermaster).







46

(b) The execution of all approved landscape plans.
(c) The supervision of the final grading around all buildings, in
townsites and public areas.
(d) The pruning, training and general care of all trees throughout
the Canal Zone.
(e) Inspection of all maintenance work in the landscapes.
(f) The inspection and supervision of work relating to the control
of all plant pests.
Personnel.-The personnel of the Landscape Unit is made up of the
supervisory staff, and the labor forces, which are presented as follows:
Supervisory Staff.-Mr. J. E. Higgins, Consultant in Plant Introduc-
tion and Utilization. The Landscape Unit is under the direction of Mr.
Higgins in addition to his other duties with The Panama Canal.
Mr. J. P. Keenan-Junior Landscape Architect. Mr. Keenan has
direct supervision of the Landscape Unit. It is his duty to design and
draw all landscape plans; to direct the execution of such approved plans;
to inspect the maintenance work being done in the various Quarter-
master Districts; to recommend changes or improvements in landscape
work.
Mr. R. L. Dwelle-Foreman. Mr. Dwelle has supervision over all
of the labor forces of the Unit. He is responsible for carrying out
instructions from Mr. Higgins or Mr. Keenan with reference to general
landscape work.
LABOR FORCES
Pruning Gang.-This gang is composed of eight silver employees who
do all the tree pruning work throughout the Canal Zone.
The Landscape Planting Gang.-This gang is composed of gardeners
and laborers who do the planting of all major landscape projects. The
average size of the gang during the past year was approximately twenty
men. The size varied with the number of landscape projects under way.
The Report of the Activities of the Landscape Unit.-A great deal of
landscape work has been accomplished by the Landscape Unit since it
was organized on August I, 1937. To better picture the activities
during this time it is proposed to present a detailed report of the work
done under the specific headings of the different branches of the land-
scape work, as follows:
(a) Pruning
(b) Landscape design and drawings
(c) Landscape plantings
(d) Inspection of maintenance work, etc.
(e) Tree removals.







47

Pruning.-During the past fiscal year approximately ,8oo trees were
pruned by the Pruning Forces throughout the Canal Zone. Immediately
after the Landscape Unit took over the tree pruning work, a systematic
pruning program was begun. Each Quartermaster District was divided
into convenient sections, and each section was considered a pruning
project. The pruning in each section was carried on to a conclusion
before a new project was begun. In this way a more convenient pruning
job was done, and the loss of time involved by moving men and equip-
ment from one single job to another was eliminated. Another benefit
of this arrangement was that record was kept of the exact date when each
project was executed. From this data recorded over a period of several
years, one could tell at a glance when each section was in need of pruning.
Most of this pruning work was done in the Quartermaster Districts and
along the Canal Zone highways. However, considerable pruning advice
was given to the Army and Navy organizations on the Canal Zone.
Landscape Designs and Drawings.-During the past fiscal year ten
landscape plans were made and approved for the landscaping of a portion
of the new Gamboa townsite. In addition to the above mentioned plans
there have been ten smaller ones and several sketches, executed for the
plantings in the different Quartermaster Districts. These smaller plans
and sketches were usually for small areas. There have been several
plans made for landscape plantings around buildings and areas for other
departments and divisions, namely:
(i) "Plan for the Mechanical Division Gas Plant Grounds"
(2) "Plan for the New Transportation Division Garage and Shops
at Ancon"
(3) "Plan for the Administration Building Grounds for the Dredg-
ing Division at Gamboa"
(4) "Plan for the Nurses Quarters at Corozal Hospital"
The Army and Navy also called upon the Landscape Unit to furnish
plans. Three plans were drawn for the Naval Ammunition Depot,
and one for the landscaping of the residence of the Commanding
al at Quarry Heights. In all a total of twenty-eight landscape
plans were designed and drawn by the Landscape Unit during the past
f year. It may be stated also that eight preliminary plans of future
landscape developments have been made during this time.
Landscape Planting-The major portion of the landscape planting
work has been concentrated in the townsite of Gamboa. To date
thirty residences and the surrounding public areas have been planted
in grass, shrubbery and trees. Lawns have been established around
twenty-five additional houses. Plate I shows a representative planting
of the houses at Gamboa, while Plate II illustrates similar houses before
planting was started.







48

Other landscape planting which was completed during the past fiscal
year includes the following:
(i) The planting of the Mechanical Division Gas Plant Grounds.
(2) The planting of a number of high banks at Gamboa with soil-
binding plants.
(3) The planting of grass and shrubbery at the New Transportation
Division Garage Area at Ancon.
(4) The landscape grading and planting of grass at the Christian
Science Church at Ancon.
(5) Supplementary plantings and general maintenance and ferti-
lizing at the Junior College at Balboa.
In addition to all of the above the Supervisory Staf of the Landscape
Unit acted in an advisory capacity in a number of planting projects which
were executed by forces other than the Landscape Unit.
Inspection of Maintenance.-The Supervisory Force of the Landscape
Unit in addition to their other duties, inspected the landscape mainte-
nance work being carried on by the District Quartermaster forces.
Periodic inspections were made and recommendations regarding the
maintenance work were submitted whenever advisable. In addition
the District Quartermasters called on the Landscape Unit for advice and
sometimes action on the part of the Units forces to expedite certain
phases of the e landscape maintenance work which should be carried to a
swift conclusion. The Landscape Unit is always at the service of every
organization in rendering advice on landscape problems. During this
past year there were many cases where such service was rendered.
Tree Removals.-Due to the previous training of the Tree Gang and
their ability to efficiently handle the removal of trees in the close
proximity of buildings, highways, and electrical lines they were called
upon by the District Quartermasters and other Departments and
Division of The Panama Canal to remove over 300 trees during the past
fiscal year. In many cases these tree removals involved considerable
hazard. However, during this period there was only one small accident
of negligible damage.
Summary.-A summary is presented of the landscape activities
during its first year of being, together with reference to its future
development and established usefulness in the Panama Canal organi-
zation.
Although this unit is less than a year old, it is believed that the report-
ed activities as presented will bear out the statement that it has already
demonstrated the need of such an organization. As is true of any
newly-formed organization, the Unit has developed changes in practice
as needs have appeared.











PLATE III




























BAr









































Partly completed path leading up Garcinia Hill.








p. 48-a.


IP' Is " . '







49

In the future the Landscape Unit will function much as it has in the
past year. However, its the intent of the Unit to further develop
several phases of the landscape work. One of the most important
developments will be to design and draw all landscape plans for future
landscape developments as far as possible in advance of the time of
execution, so that the Nursery Unit will have on hand at the time of
planting sufficient well-established shrubs and trees to meet all require-
ments. The Landscape Unit will also endeavor to carry out a training
pruning program of the desirable trees throughout the Canal Zone.
This type of pruning work has been neglected for a number of years
because of lack of funds and the desirable trees have suffered accordingly.
The Landscape Unit intends to foster the interest of the residents of
the Canal Zone in the landscape work. Without the cooperation and
interest of the residents, the development of landscapes and the estab-
lishing and maintenance of them will be seriously hampered.
We are fortunate in having available for landscape planting pur-
poses, some of the most attractive shrubs and trees which may be found
anywhere in the tropical world. Some of these plants are native and
many others exotics which have become naturalized. With this wealth
of plant material at hand, we should take advantage of the opportunity
to present in our landscape developments a display of the attractive
plant materials available. The Landscape Unit intends to put forth
every effort in the development of such landscapes on the Canal Zone.
REVOLVING FUND
During the Fiscal Year 1929 the Nursery operation of the Gardens
was placed on a self-supporting basis by the setting up of a $5,ooo
Revolving Fund. Details of this plan have been outlined in earlier
reports. The plan worked very satisfactorily and thousands of plants
have been propagated and disseminated each year without cost to the
Gardens.
Over the period of years since the inauguration of the Revolving Fund
a slight surplus or profit has accumulated. During two or three years
of the depression this small margin of profit was sufficient to absorb the
deficit in the regular operation funds for the permanent development
of the Gardens.
In December 1937 the Revolving Fund was abolished by the recom-
mendation of the Comptroller as it was considered not to be in accord
with the general practice of finance of the Canal.
BUILDINGS
Upon the abolishment of the Revolving Fund, several thousand
dollars was made availablfor the use of the Gardens during the Fiscal
MR 62583- --4







50

Year. Four thousand dollars was authorized for the construction of a
new toolhouse and work shop to replace the present toolhouse which
was in such a deplorable condition that it would not be economical to
repair it. The new building is 20 feet wide by 6o feet long and is
divided equally into three rooms; one for the storeroom, one to store and
sharpen the tools, and the third is to be used as a carpenter shop.
Five hundred dollars was authorized for the construction of a new
glass house in place of one of the existing greenhouses. The concrete
platform from the old building was in good condition and the Gardens
had a sufficient supply of glass on hand, thus we were able to get a house
41 feet long by 15! feet wide for this small expenditure.
PATHS
Many of the principle economic and ornamental plants in the Gardens
are growing in plots not readily accessible to visitors during the major
portion of each year. For this reason we have long felt the need of
paths. It was not until July 1937 that labor, in the form of the prison
gang, was made available for this work. In the five weeks the gang
was assigned to the Gardens, paths were made around the No. S and
No. 2 lily ponds and another path was made down to pond No. 3.
The paths are approximately four feet wide and are made of slag
obtained at the rock crusher at Summit. (Plate III). They were
made with a high crown, so that the water would run off readily, and
were tamped and rolled to form a hard surface. The prison gang
returned to the Gardens in September and again in May for a total
number of 33 days, to continue making paths. They have completed
5,748 feet of paths or approximately half of the estimated present
requirement.
In March the Municipal Division was called upon to experiment with
different surfacing of the paths and accurate figures were kept on the
various materials used. Six hundred and eighty-one feet of paths were
surfaced with Emulsion Asphalt and fine rock screening at a cost of
eleven cents per foot. The remaining 4,265 feet of paths, completed
at that time (Plate IV), were surfaced with crude oil and rock screening
at a cost of two cents per foot.
After it is found which type of surfacing will hold up best the rest of
the paths will be surfaced with the same material.
TEAK
Much has been written in earlier reports about the rapid growth of
Teak, Tectona grandis. In June 1936, about 2,000 one and a half year
old seedlings were planted out on a hillside adjoining the Gardens.
The trees were planted in rows six feet apart each way. The trees
made very little growth the first year, probably not over three or four










PLATE IV







































All"























General view of one of the paths which was surfaced with oil.







p. 50-a










inches per tree. They became dormant and dropped their large leaves
when the rains ceased in December and remained in this dormant state
until the first rains started in April.
Table 3 shows the monthly growth record, from May I, 1937 to April
I, 1938, of twenty-five trees picked at random and conspicuously
marked so that they were easily found. Weekly growth records show
that light rains during the latter part of April 1937 broke the trees' rest
period and they continued growing until after the heavy rains had ceased
in December.
The monthly growt per tree is shown in Table 4 and the average
monthly growth, together with the rainfall record for the corresponding
months, is shown in Table 5.
TABLE 3-Monthly Growth Record (in inches) of Twenty-Jive Teak trees

Height of Tree No. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

May------------- 13 36 47 36 23 53 57 40 64 46 34 47 36
Ju ne --------- 25 64 6i 50 38 79 79 6o 83 73 59 60 49
July-------------- 47 98 98 89 63 io8 107 94 119 107 92 99 99
Aus --------- -6 I119 125 109 78 133 134 113 6 23 136 1238 1 18
September --------. 73 137 142 134 99 145 151 125 151 132 123 139 139
October ---------- 83 145 152 141 io8 i66 173 1 40 16o 161 143 1262 154
SNovember ---- 89 171 205 152 120 86 184 152 168 172 I6o 165 162
December- -------- 94 197 227 156 131 234 225 163 177 179 185 181 I68
S-ary-----------.-. 98 198 230 16o 136 237 226 163 178 181 192 193 174
Febiuary- --------- 9 202 234 164 151 244 236 164 178 191 192 193 193
.March ------ 123 204 237 167 153 248 240 167 18o 193 192 195 195
April ------------124 204 238 167 153 249 240 68 is8 193 192 I97 196

TABLE 3-Continued

Height of Tree No. 14 15 i6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

May.----------------- 36 39 48 20 39 25 36 31 36 26 26 43
Ju------------------- 50 52 71 35 54 31 49 42 54 35 35 59
July-------------- -- 93 93 98 63 92 67 93 80 87 52 57 97
A t ------.---- 9 117 83-108 83 109 100o o6 56 73 113
September ---------------27 129 133 89 132 95 129 134 117 63 79 118
O r ----------133 142 147 93 145 96 138 135 125 64 81 119
emer---------------6 162 168 95 149 107 141 142 129 72 82 125
December ----------------8o 170185 96 56 113 148 148 135 80 83 131
January ----------------- 88 175 186 96 156 121 148 148 136 86 84 134
February --192 180190 97159 28 151 151 140 92 84 137
March-------------- 193 18o 190 99 16o 131 153 153 143 94 84 138
April ,-93 1 191 99 16 131 153 153 144 94 84 139

r~II B~ tl~~~; '~~~~i~;;;; ::;;~;;Bi; il ~' ,2 ;;I- iI Fl








52

TABLE 4-Growth Per Month (in inches) of the Trees Shown in Table 3

Tree No. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13

May _-------------- 12 28 14 14 5 26 22 20 19 27 25 13 13
June .-----------. 22 34 37 39 25 29 28 34 36 34 33 39 50
July--------------- 14 21 27 20 15 25 27 19 17 16 15 19 19
August.----------- 12 18 17 25 21 12 17 12 15 9 6 1 21 1
September-------_--- 1 8 Io 7 9 21 22 15 9 29 20 23 15
October------ 6 26 53 1I 12 20 I1 12 8 II 17 3 8
November----------- 5 26 22 4 II 48 41 1I 9 7 25 i6 6
December----------- 4 I 3 4 5 3 I 0 1 2 7 12 6
January-----------_ 21 4 4 4 15 7 O10 I 0 1 I
February----__------ 2 3 3 2 4 2 0 0 0 o o 18'
March -------------- 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 2 0 2 2
April --------------- I I o 0 I0 0 1 0 0 0 2
TABLE 4-Continued

Tree No. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

May-------------------- 14 13 23 15 15 6 13 II 18 9 9 16
June------------------- 43 41 27 28 38 36 44 38 33 17 22 38
July ------------------ 6 16 19 20 16 16 16 20 19 4 16 16
August ---------------- 8 20 16 6 24 12 20 34 11 7 6 5
September---------------8 13 14 4 13 1 9 I 8 I 2 I
October ---------------- 21 20 21 2 4 11 3 7 4 8 1 6
November---------------24 8 17 I 7 6 7 6 6 8 1 6
December-------------- 8 5 1 0 0 8 0 0 I 6 I 3
January----------------- 4 5 4 I 3 7 3 3 4 6 0 3
February-------------- I 0 0 2 I 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 I
March ----------------- I 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 I
April----------------- o I 1 0 o0 0 0 0 1 0 I
TABLE 5-Average Monthly Growth of the 25 Trees and Rainfallfor
the Corresponding months

Average
Month agRainfall
growth

Inches Inches
May ---------------------------------------------------16 16.69
June-------------------------------------------------- 34 7.04
July-------------- --------------------------- ----- i8 8.02
August------------------------------------------------- 16 10.84
September ------------------- ------- ------------- I 12.06
October-------------------------- --------------------- 12 16.47
November------------ ----------------------------------- 13 10.02
December------------------------------------------------ 3 25-53
January--------------------------------------------5 .40
February---------------------------------------------- 2 .16
March_ ----- --- ----- -- -------------------- --- --.-.. .... .... .
April----------------------------------------.------ 0.8 3.56





PLATE V







































General view of 31-year-old Teak trees planted in an experimental forest planting.







53

The exceedingly rapid growth of the trees at the beginning of the
rainy season may be characteristic of the growth of teak trees but it
might also be traced to proper moisture conditions existing at this season.
It seems reasonable to suppose that the heavy rains which fell in May,
after four months of dry weather, was absorbed by the parched soil
but that an excess of water in the soil was not reached until sometime
near the end of November. Growth was gradually retarded as the
soil became more saturated with water until it had dropped from 34
inches in June to 3 inches in December (the wettest month). The
rainfall was negligible in January and tree growth practically ceased due
to a deficiency of moisture in the soil. It is quite probable that cloudy
weather during the wettest months also helped to retard the growth of
the trees during that period.
If data were available, it is believed that direct correlation could be
traced between plant growth on the Isthmus and rainfall. It is the
writer's belief that many growth failures of plants introduced on the
Isthmus is due to an excessive amount of water in the soil with the
exclusion of air between the soil particles, thus causing what is known
botanically as "Physiological dryness." (The inability of plants to
absorb moisture due to the lack of air between the soil particles.)
Plate V shows a general view of the Teak trees referred to above. The
photo was taken in June 1938 when the trees were three and a half
years old.
NUTS
Lecythis zabucajo.-Trees of the Sapacaia-nut or Monkey-pot, Lecy-
this zabucajo, have flowered for several years at the Gardens and have
produced two fruits. They are closely related to the Brazil nut,
Bertholettia excelsa, but superior to them in flavor. The oblong, wrinkled
nuts, about two inches long, are enclosed in a very large, brown, woody-
shell (Plate VI). The shell is furnished with a large lid, which becomes
detached when the nuts are ripe allowing the seeds to fall out. Owing,
therefore, to the difficulty of collecting the nuts, they are less common
and command a higher price than the Brazil nut.
All of the seeds produced by the trees at the Gardens have been planted
with the view of disseminating the seedlings for trial in various parts of
Panama.
Macadamia Nut.-The Macadamia nut, Macadamia ternifolia,
indigenous to Qeensland and New South Wales, Australia, has been
introduced into the Experiment Gardens several times within the last
twelve years. At the time of this writing one tree, from seeds introduced
from Hawaii in 1929, has eleven nuts on it. Another tree from the same
lot of seeds, flowered this year for the first time but failed to set fruit.
s ''"'"s. "I8 1 r1 i~ ~, l^~~ ~~ .lln a'.~ J"II ~ "|^:""r! .." ****.. ."~~~r:r; "o 'ctt ^.^ ""i







54

The Macadamia tree is moderate in size, about 30 to 50 feet high,
with dense, dark green shiny leaves with rather prickly margins (like
holly leaves). The smooth, hard, round nuts, about one inch in
diameter are produced in clusters. The nuts are protected by a two-
valved leathery exocarp which splits when the uts are ripe, allowing
them to drop to the ground. The nuts have a very agreeable flavor and
are much relished by those who have eaten them.
Although it is not likely that Macadamia nuts will ever be grown on a
large commercial scale in Panama, due primarily to the fact that the
trees are shallow-rooted and require rich, well-drained soil, while most
of the soil in Panama and the Canal Zone is heavy, poorly drained clay
which is quite unsuited for shallow-rooted trees, it is recommended that
these nuts be grown as extensively as possible to meet the local demand
for nuts.
Pili Nuts.-The Canariums are large handsome trees much cultivated
for shade or ornament in Java and elsewhere. They produce large
pendulous clusters of fruits, about the size of small plums, almost all
year round. Many species produce edible nuts. The famous pili nut
of the Philippines are produced by Canarium ovatum and are exported
in considerable quantity from the Philippines. The nuts of this species
are very rich in oil and when roasted have a delicious flavor. They are
served in the same manner as almonds and are considered by many
people to be superior to the latter. The nuts are also used in considerable
quantitites for confectionary purposes.
The Gardens were very fortunate in receiving a shipment of forty
seedling pili nut trees from Mr. J. H. Permar, Manager of the United
Fruit Company's Station in Almirante, Panama. Several other species
of Canariums are already well established and fruiting at the Canal
Zone Experiment Gardens and a few trees have been used recently in the
different landscape plantings in the Canal Zone.
A valuable resinous product called elemi is obtained from the trunk
of many different species of Canariums. The best quality elemi is soft,
sticky, opaque, slightly yellow in color, has a very agreeable resinous
odor, and burns with a smoky flame.
A considerable quantity of elemi, under the name Manila elemi, is
exported from the Philippine Islands. Some of the resin is shipped
from Manila to Europe for use in preparing medicinal ointments and to a
smaller extent in the manufacture of varnish. Much of the Manila
elemi is sent to China where it is used for making transparent paper for
window panes, in place of glass. The volatile oils in the Manila elemi
are suitable for many purposes for which ordinary turpentine is used.
The growing of Canariums in Panama, for nut and elemi, may some
day reach commercial importance.





PLATE VI








































Sapocaya Nut (Lecythis zabucajo) showing urn-shaped fruit with lid or cap and seeds.







55

Tonka Bean.-One of the outstanding introductions of the year was a
package of twenty-seven Tonka bean seeds, Coumarouna odorata, from
Dr. T. J. Pound, Department of Agriculture, Trinidad.
The Tonka trees are large trees of the forest and plains of Venezuela,
the Guianas and the lower Amazon Basin. The fruit is plum-like and
fleshy, containing one long (I to I inches) black seed with the pro-
nounced odor of vanilla and sweet-clover. The fragrance is removed
from the seeds by soaking them in alcohol. The extract is used in the
manufacture of a cheap vanilla substitute and for flavoring and scenting
not only chewing, but also smoking and cigarette tobaccos.
Venezuela has had a monopoly on the world's market of Tonka beans
and has recently passed a law prohibiting the export of propagating
material of this valuable tree. Fortunately seeds had been widely
disseminated before the embargo took effect and young Tonka industries
arebeing developed. The industry in Trinidad profited by the internal
unrest in Venezuela together with one or two crop failures in that
country, and is now one of the world's leading Tonka bean producers.
Panama may well look to the growing of Tonka beans as a new
industry.
SYZYGIUM SYZYGIOIDES
On June 20, 1931 we received four plants of Syzygium cymosum
from the Bureau of Plant Industry and Foreign Plant Introduction,
Washington, D. C. These plants have made very excellent growth and
commenced flowering in November 1937. As the trees did not seem to
represent the true S. cymosum, flowers, fruits and foliage were sent to
Washington for identification. They were found by Drs. Merrill and
Perry to represent a new species of Syzygum which they called S.
syzygioides.
Seeds of this handsome tree were sent to correspondents in Hawaii,
Cuba, Washington, Florida, Trinidad, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Colombia,
Jamaica, Chiriqui, and Tahiti. Many seeds were retained for planting
here. It is expected that this Syzygium will become one of the out-
standingly beautiful trees on the Isthmus for shade and street planting
purposes.
WATER LILIES
--.,! .-" 'rtijB': ... i .. .." I .. . *** "

The water lilies, Nymphea sp., have long been greatly admired at the
Gardens but little attention has been paid to their cultural requirements.
The tubers were planted in the muddy bottom of the lakes and allowed
to grow and multiply with a minimum amount of attention being given

were thinned out and three or four yards of stable manure was thrown
into each pond.
s N m e t w







56

In April 1937 a representative collection of the choicest varieties of
lilies were planted in a very well-manured soil in half vinegar barrels.
The barrels were spaced sufficiently far apart in one of the ponds to allow
ample room for the growth of the lilies. About a quarter of a pound of
commercial fertilizer was placed around each plant every six months.
The lilies responded very satisfactorily to this treatment and produced
an abundance of blossoms which were considerably larger than any these
plants had formerly produced. It was with considerable concern that it
was noted, after several months of continuous blooming, that several
of the plants were disappearing. Upon investigation it was found that
many of the original plants placed in the barrels had died but were
being replaced by young plants produced by the parent plants before
they died. Further notes are being kept to determine the average life
span of each variety grown at the Gardens.

VICTORIA REGIA
One plant of the Royal water lily, Victoria regia, grown from seeds
received from the Castleton Gardens, Jamaica, in March 1937, com-
menced flowering in February 1938 and has flowered quite regularly
every two weeks since that date.
The beautiful flowers, which are about one foot in diameter, are
nocturnal, opening on two successive evenings at about six o'clock and
remaining open until the middle of the following morning. The flowers
are creamy white the first evening and exhale a fragrance somewhat
like pineapple. On the second evening the petals spread wide open and
the color changes to a deep rose.
The really remarkable thing about this plant is its huge, round,
floating leaves (Plate VII, Fig. i) with margins turned up at right angles
to the water surface to a height of three inches making a tray-like object.
A single leaf may sustain a weight of one hundred and fifty pounds if
this weight is distributed equally over the entire surface of the leaf.
Nature has provided these gigantic leaves with countless tiny depres-
sions, in each of which is a small hole through which water from rain or
other sources may drain. All portions of the plant with the exception
of the flower petals and the upper surface of the leaves are covered with
stout fleshy prickles.

TRIP TO COSTA RICA
In January, the writer spent about three weeks vacationing in San
Jose, Costa Rica. Much of this time was spent visiting coffee fincas
and private gardens. A combination of the Costa Rican's great love of







57

flowers and their ideal climate and rich soil make San Jose a garden
spot. Even the poorest peon has a flower garden containing a few
roses, dahlias, poinsettias and other flowers. The more wealthy families
have larger and more elaborate gardens with formal walks and flower
beds and usually a nice collection of orchids. One private garden
worthy of note contained, among other things, over three hundred
varieties of roses, and an a experimental orchard of approximately six
acres planted to various varieties of citrus, mangoes, peaches, avocados,
apples, and other fruit trees. It is surpising to see the number of
tropical and temperate-zone fruits and flowers that are growing and
prospering together in San Jose.
Over fifty varieties of plants were brought back for trial at the Experi-
ment Gardens. A few of the more promising of these are as follows:
Two species of citrus which are used as stock for choicer but less hardy
varieties of citrus; three varieties of Azaleas which give promise of
flowering at low elevations in the tropics; four species of palms including
two hundred seeds of the beautiful Cocos weddlandiana; a Summer lilac,
Buddleia japonica with beautiful erect panicles a foot long, of small lilac
flowers; three varieties of Bougainvilleas; a pink, a yellow and a very
erect, double red poinsettia; three plants of Spirea cantoniensis variety
lanceata, a semi-tropical shrub with small pale pink flowers on rather
loose corymbs; and the Egyptian Papyrus, Cyperus Papyrus, a very large
handsome sedge suitable for planting on the margins of the lily ponds.
COFFEE
Coffee growing is one of the leading industries of Costa Rica and some
of the world's best coffee is grown there. It is only natural then that the
cultural requirements of coffee has received considerable attention.
Government agents travel from farm to farm giving advice as to the
proper fertilizers to be used, methods of pruning, cultivation and solving
other problems that may arise. The writer was very fortunate in being
able to visit several coffee fincas with one of these Government agents;
a graduate of the University of Oxford, England.
It was gratifying to see coffee being grown in Central America under
clean cultural methods. Although coffee diseases have been present
to some degree in most fincas for many years, there are no abandoned
fincas in Costa Rica like there are in the Volcan region of Panama.
The American Leaf Spot disease of coffee, Viruela, which is destroying
the coffee industry of Panama, has long been held in check in Costa
Rica and is now considered to be of only minor importance. It has
been found that the disease is not prevalent in clean orchards where
there is roer draina and the ror amount of shade. Several of







58

the shade trees now being grown in the Volcan region have been found
to be hosts to the Leaf Spot Disease in Costa Rica and it is probable that
a close study of this problem would reveal that they are also hosts to the
disease in Panama. Some species of Erythrina are now replacing the
Ingas as shade trees. They have been found to give just as good shade
as the Guavas (Inga spp.) restore nitrogen to the soil and are resistant to
certain insects attacking the bark of the Ingas. Their main advantage,
however, lies in the fact that they are not hosts of the Leaf Spot Disease.
The common banana, Musa sapientum variety Gros Michel, has been
found to be a very satisfactory shade tree providing that commercial
fertilizer is applied to the coffee each year. This is necessary as the
bananas are gross feeders and soon exhaust the soil. The banana
fruits are often harvested and sold to the fruit companies or used as
stock feed.
The standard method of cleaning the coffee fincas in Costa Rica is
essentially as follows: The grass and weeds are cut off just below the
surface of the soil and piled close to the roots of the coffee trees. It is
then covered with a light layer of soil and allowed to decay. The pro-
cedure is reversed when the orchard is cleaned the second time; that is,
the weeds are coverd with soil in the center of the rows of coffee. The
decaying grass and weeds add much-needed humus to the soil and prevent
soil erosion.

A TRIP TO THE INTERIOR PROVINCE OF PANAMA
During the past ten years the Gardens have introduced, tried and
disseminated many varieties of sugarcane that were better adapted than
the old varieties for Panama.
In February 1938, Mr. Higgins inspected a few of the leading sugar
plantations of Panama. He reports that many of the varieties of sugar-
cane disseminated by the Gardens are now the principal varieties in
new plantings, The most promising of the new varieties for conditions
in Panama are P.O.J. 2714, P.O.J. 2878, P.R. 803 and some of the
Mayaguez and other Puerto Rican varieties. Plate VI, Fig. 2, shows
one of these new varieties, said to represent seven months' growth from
planting, on the alluvial soil of the plantation of Mr. Delvalle Henriquez.
Mr. Henriquez expects to make 40,000 tons of sugar this year. This
includes that from his own plantings and that which he buys from small
neighboring farmers who rely on large plantation owners to buy their
crop. The output of Mr. Henriquez's mill is composed of three grades;
a white granulated, a light-colored soft sugar, and a darker soft sugar.









PLATE VII





























FIGURE 1.-Victoria regia and other water lilies.





























FIGURE 2.-Sugarcane said to represent seven months growth from planting.




p. 58-a.






59

Mr. Higgins also visited the "Granja" of the Department of Agricul-
ture of Panama at Divisa. This newly acquired tract of land is located
along the west bank of the Rio Santa Maria (Plate VII, Fig. 2) and is
traals by the Rio Cafazo. It composes some I,5 hectares of
which about 50o hectares are believed to be of the alluvial type of soil.
It apas to be excellent soil, very deep and well drained, and could
ly be irrigated with water from the river. The Department of
Agriculture expects to develop a portion of this tract of land into a large
Agriculra Experiment Station and demonstration farm.

STALKS BY THE GARDEN'S STAFF
t has been the plesure of the Garden personnel to speak to different
Canal Zone organizations during the past year.
Mr J. E. Higgins, Consultant in Plant Introduction and Utilization,
spoke t a group at the Army and Navy Young Men's Christian Asso-
"The Work of the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens."
Mr. P Keenan, Junior Landscape Architect, spoke to the Young
Me's Christian Association on "Forestry," and to the Gamboa Women's
Club about "Landscape Planting."
Mr. Edward Stanwood, Nurseryman, spoke to a group at the Balboa
Union Church on the "Propagation of Plants."
The ng Director spoke to the Pedro Mguel Woman's Club about
"Some of the Unusual Fruits Grown in the Canal Zone."

FLOWER SHOW
On February 138 the Panama Government sponsored its first
w and offi ly adopted the Holy Ghost Orchid (Perristeria
elat) as the Nat l fower of Panama. Many very beautiful flowers
were brought from all parts of Panama and the Canal Zone to make this
the history of Panama. Much credit is due Mr.
A Gener of the fower show, for the successful
and effcient manner in which the show was conducted.
SC Z Gardens exhibited, in a noncompetitive
way, tropical water lilies, a collection of hybrid hibiscus, African violets
(Saintpaulia ionantha), and many potted economic and house plants.
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