China enters the post-Mao era

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China enters the post-Mao era
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Mansfield, Mike, 1903-
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Letter of transmittal
        Page v
        Page vi
    Letter from President Ford
        Page vii
        Page viii
    I. Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    II. The state of U.S.-China relations
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    III. Chairman Mao Tse-tung's legacy
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    IV. Observations on the current scene in China
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    V. Concluding comments
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Appendix A. Chronology and map of the visit
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Appendix B. Mutual security treaty with the Republic of China
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Appendix C. Texts of proposals made during 1955-56 negotiations with the People's Republic of China
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Appendix D. Lists of countries which recognize the People's Republic of China or the Republic of China
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Appendix E. Text of speech by the late Premier Chou En-lai, January 13, 1975
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Appendix F. Compilation of local population statistics for China
        Page 64
    Appendix G. Text of report to the Committee on Foreign Relations by Senator Mansfield following his 1974 visit to China
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
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        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 108a
        Page 108b
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
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    Back Cover
        Page 159
        Page 160
Full Text
h


94th Congress
2d Session


CHINA


E E C 196
E NT ER S -L' tI): P( ) ST-MI[;
2" ... -='K


A REPORT
BY

SENATOR MIKE MANSFIJEIA)
MAJORITY LEADER
U.S. SENATE
TO THE


COMMITTEE
UNITE



REPOt


ON FOREI(
D STATES


N VA fBEi


RELATIONS


SENATE



THREE


NOVEMBER 1976


Printed for the use of the Committee on


U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE


WASHINGTON : 1976


,RA


--I


-T I I -, vxf


CO0M MI T T E .ntoINT


7


- j I ,


ForehinI{Relatio)ns


79-1080O


































COMMITTEE OF FOREIGN RELATIONS


JOHN SPARKMAN. Alabama, Chairman
MIKE MANSFIELD, Montana CLIFFORD P. CASE, New Jersey
FRANK CHURCH. Idaho JACOB K. JAVrIS, New York
STUART SYMINGTON. Missouri IHUGHt SCOTT, Pennsylvania
CLAIBORNE PELL. Rhode Island JAMES B. PEARSON, Kansas
GALE MCGEE, Wyoming CHARLES H. PERCY, Illinois
E)RGE S. M'GOVERN, South Dako(ta ROBERT P. GRIFFIN, Michigan
hU1TBERT hi. HUMPHREY, Minnesota
D)ICK CLARK. Iowa
JOSEPH R. BII)EN. JR., Delaware
PAT M. HOLT, Chief of Staff
ARTHUR M. KUTIL, Chief Clerk
(II)















CONTENTS

Page
Letter of Transmitta .... v
Letter from President Ford vil
Text of Report.. . ...... .
1I. The State of U.S.-China Relations ..3
A. Tiw Untying the Gordian Knot ........ 4
B. Trade and Exchanges 10
III. Chairman Mao Tse-tung's Legacy .13
IV. Observations on the Current Scene in China 19
A. Agriculture 19
B. Other Aspects of China's Economy -23
C. Foreign T rade .................................... ...27
). Education-Praetical and Ideological2
E. Population- 31
F. -Medical Care ..2
(U. Xinjiang (Sinkiang)" Strategic Borderland and Land of
MIany Nationalities 35
VI. Concluding Comm_..ent ... 39
APPi:N DIX ES
A. Chronology and map of the viit -41
B. Mutual Security Treaty With the republicc of China 45
C. Texts of proposals ,nade during 1955-56 negotiations with the Pe l(,
Republic of China ... .. 49
1). Lists of countries which recognize the People's Republic of China or
the Repub lic of China-- ... ..53
E. Text of speech by the late Premier ( 'hou En-lai, January 13, 1975-.. 56
F. CompiIation of local population statistics for China 641
G. Text of report to the Committee on ForeignR Relations bv Senator
Mansfield following his 1974 visit to China ---. 65


(III)



















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013













http://archive.org/details/chintm00u nit












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


NOVENIBER 18, 1976.
11on. JOHN SPARKMAN,
Clirman,i, Coinmittee on Foreign Relations,
U.S. Senate, Wash ingtan, D.C.
DEAR -R. CHAIRMAN With the Comnnttees approval, and the
support of President Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger, I visited
the Peoples Republic of China from Sel)teiiiber 21, 1976, t rough
October 12, 1976, as a guest of the Chinese People's Institute, of For-
eign Affairs. Transmitted herewith is a report of that trip. A confi-
dential report was submitted to President Ford when I met with him
on November 5th.
This visit was my sixth to China; it was the third since, the new
relationship was begun by President Nixon in 1972. A span of half-a-
century between the first and the most recent provides a basis for
perspective.
While in China in late September and early October, I had the
opportunity to travel widely, covering some 9.,00 miles by plane,
trai, car, and boat. Through the courtesy of my Chinese hosts, I was
privileged to enter areas in China not visited .1nce 1949 by Anerwans.
such as certain localities in the Xinjiang (Sikiang) Region. and
other places not visited by any official American group as, folr ex-
ample, parts of Jiangsu (Kiaiigsu) and Guangod(g (Kwangtung)
Provinces. The Chinese people were warm and gracious in their hos-
pitality, anxious to accommodate and to display local accomplish-
ments.
China is a vast, underdeveloped, resource-rich l and of industrious
and talented people who comprise some one-fourtli the population of
the globe. Chinese influence on the vest of the world, alt'eady substain-
tial, will increase greatly in the decades ahead. It is .-;seiitial that
U.S. policy be shaped to that reality. I know of no greater service
that I could render to the Amterican people in the timile remaining in
my third of a century of service in the Congress than to contribute
to bringing about better understanding of the People's Republic of
China and a normalization of relations with t hat lintioil.
I was accompanied on the trip by Senator ,John ( Ileun and his wife.
Anna, bottI of whom contributed greatly to the miissioni. I wish to
express my appreciation to the Department of State ii WVashigton
and in the fiel( for assistance, in arrangements thllrougli(ut the cottiVse
of the trip; the Department of thle Air Force foir trausp)rtation to
and froiii ('11ina: I)eptv Assistant S ,ecreta av Of S4IteVictorI ikeos
for his efficient hand ling )f logistics and l(,her details ltii1 tHie
trip; my assistant Mrs. SalpeeSahlia(,iail. an d Selator len 's secre-
tary, Miss Kathy iProsser, foi tleir abl)lc al ille Il)at all times,
Dr. Thomas Lowe of the Navy Medical Corps for Ills services and lis








assistance in studying the Chinese system of health care; Mr. Francis
R. Valeo, "e(IetfIrv of the Senate, Mr. Charles R. Geilner, Senior
Specialist in Foreign Affairs of the Congressioial Research Service,
Library of Congres and Mr. Norvill Jones of the staff of the Com-
mittee on Foreig1n Relat iHs. for their assistance.
To idame Kang Tai-sha, Mr. Cheng Wan-chen, Mr. Fan Kuo-
h siang. Miss Tsung Chui. Mls. Ku Yi-jen, and Mr. Yung, of the
Pe)ples Inst, itte of Foreirn Affairs who acmolal)anied( my group
during its travels in China, go mv sl)e(Qial thanks. Their great kind-
Bess, wI'11it i, a(I good humor typifv the people of China.
I also wish to (Xpress special appreiation to my wife, Maureen, for
her usual helpful advice and good cheer throughout the trip.
Sincerely,
MIKE MANSFIELD.












IIKTTIER i Fv(o r n FRI" sI I I: NiT F )IPI)


II- I.t ;I,/t&I#. .jldy .)'. 19>;.
IHoll. A[iilv I[ANmSFIIm)
l!.N ('i oI'.1 .

DEAR MaIKE On1 of the most liellt 1)f I aslets of the resllli },t ion of
friemtllv contact withI the People's I e)t1lll ic of ('111 ia hat> Ie l the
close collaboration bet ween the Exeutive Branch amid1theC(on,'res
and the cOmlllete bipartisanship which has cliaracterized the under-
taking. As Majority Leader of the Senate. vou anI1 the M inoritv
Leader have beeIn principal paIrticlipants in this process from the
outset.
It has been almost two years since your last visit to the People's Re-
public of China. and I ampleased to hear that you have a- ,in been
invited to visit that country. Your trip- will provide a renewed den-i-
onstrat)ion of the bipartisan support in Congress foi -)nr police of
improving Sino-Amencan relations. ()f equal si ,h ihcance is the fact
that vou will be the first MAlem!er of congresss to nitake three trips to
the P people's Republic. This back round makes you an iiiually
lualiie( observer. anl I would find it most ueful to "T iVe another
report front you containing your lateN1 t impression of development
in the People s Republic of China and your recolllendat.i 11s con-
cernincr. those policies which you feel miay le most aplprolriate at
this tine.
The I)epartmnents of tie IExecutive Branchi will. (f course. b e pleased
to a vst lu III every appropriate way Inconnect lolwith yori\sit,
Sincerelv.
(GrrPALD R. Foun.
fVII)













I












CHINA ENTERS THE POST-MAO ERA


I. INTRODUCTION
I returned to China on Septeml)er 21. 19N fori lie sixth tim, I w le
the nation wav still it deep inourini no' over t lie deatl. on Septem!ber 9.
of (liailman Mao Tse-tutng. J01o three wecks, I travelled approxiiiiatelv
9,000 miles within the country. by plane, train,. car and boat
'Whlile there I had an opportunity to talk to many Chinese leaders
on the commune and factory and the national level. I had extensive
discussions on foreign affairs anld other matters with Vice Premier Li
Usien-nien. Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs NVang Hai-jung, T'ang
Wen-sheng. Deputy I)irector of the Aimerican an(l Oceaniali Afairs
Department of the ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Chou 1Pei-vuan,
Vice Chairmatn of the People's Institute of Foreign Affairs. and. at
th ])rovicial level. with Mr. Isinavil Avnat. Vice Chairman of the
Xinjiang (Sinkiang)2 Region's Revolutionary Committee and Mr.
Feng Kuo-chu, Vice Chairman of the Shanghai Municipal Revolu-
tionary Committee.
The Year of the Dragon has been a year of upheaval for Chinat. Both
its landscape and the political scene were shaken by earthquake(. I te
year 197f6 witnessed the death of three giants of the Chinese Hevolii-
tion, all comrades on the Long \Iarch, Premier Cliot En-lai, Marshall
Chu Tell. and the architect of the new China. Chairman Mao Tse-
ting. It saw also the cashiering of Vice Premier Teng HIsiao-peng, the
rise from obsciuritv of II la Kuo-feno, Maos successor as party clhair-
man. and the denunciation of a number of leaders of the party. ()nce
more political events in Clhina have surprised the outside experts .
Although the official mourning period for Chiaii Mao ended oi
Septeil)er 1 vilde;pread moflicial mournimo" continued until ()ctoher
1. China's national day. and beyond in somde areas. Fromi Pekinu" to tle
rural areas of remote Xinjiang (Sinkiang) Rerrion. the manifesta-
tions of loss were everywhere. In citv and- colllltrv-lt e. hund(ds of
millions of 1ilack arnlamis were worn duinm the mourning period.
Factories, stores. school-. (oninune (rates-practicallv every pii 1li
facility-bore posters eXl)i.)essinaig grrief at lli missing. (0rel)(l 1).lpe
svllbols of mourning adorned trucks, tractors, alnimw al> and carts. Never
have I seen sucl(. widespread iucl )li(, ma ifestations at tiw dei(tl of a
political figure. Tlle personal loss olbvioslv felt by so mn1y was ili-
trated )v the reaction of a veteran interpreter ac-loipliig l" M)l r "'roup
wolse voice Iwoke on a nuimiber of occazlons when i ramilnt i C" coiI-
ients colicernin \Iao*s passing. WIlierever oulr groUlp went fvi n flai-
See Appendix A for a chronolo y and map of the visit.
2 Throughrot this report the oficIal ('iine'st spellin- of place namnew Is u ,1. followed in
t renthese, if necessary for clarity, by the spelling commonly used In the West.
(1)








tory, coiiiiuine and a tionial leaders we heard tlie refrain. "We shall
tiull gief ilo st rll t l ].'"
'I'llroUglllot i V sta., I saw o manifestations of civic uriiest or
political (Iiol'ier, alt ,ioigli I tlero appeared tob e Ilion' military per-
solliel oni t lie treess of Beijing (PIekiIlig) tian hai been tlie case in
1974. Wlile I was in ('lina, it was ilade kitowvii that Premier tiia
htio~Ienr ha bei eectedl to Sulcceed! Mao as ( 'htairnian of the Central
(olliiiiitt(e of tle ('hllinese ( oininunist Party an(l as ( chairman of the
Militalrv. ('Oiilllissioln wlliell controls tll ie al'lld forces. I)uring tle
days prior to my del)arture froim the country, wal posters al)peared
cali Ii for jliblic support of tile, partys decision.
Both Nh-en I left W\ ashington and as I energed from China the news
media wer'e engaged in another round of speculation about political
naneuverings within the Chinese leadership. In the report to the
Senate followinglny 1974 visit to Clina, I said:
The constant speculation over what will happen in China
after Chairman Mao Tse-tung retires from the scene, in my
opinion, is largely an exercise in irrelevance. It,ignores the
depth and the reality of the revolutionary changes which
have take place in China during the last quarter century.
Mao is esteemed almost to the point of reverence because he
has pointed the way and his leadership has restored Cina's
self-confideice. Mao's precepts can be expected to guide
China's destiny for a long time to come. "Serve the people"
and "self-reliance" are more than slogans, they are the guide-
posts of Chinese society for the present and future.3
It is ljighlv unlikely that, for the foreseeable future, it will make
any significant difference who controls (hina insofar as United States-
( Ijina relations are concerned. "If we are, to carry on the great cause
of Chairman Mao, one high Chinese official said to me, "it means our
internal and foreign policy will not changee" ihe Mao legacy is large
and no ( iiin ese political figure will be able to stray far from the broad
outlines of lhis policies, at home or al)road.. Iie decision to build a
niemorial hall in Ieking in which 'aos body will be enshrined will
aid in perpetuating that legacy.
What is important to the American people about China is not the
makeup of its leadership or who is on the way tip or down. The sig-
nificance of China's political scene is that the system Chairman Mao
created for (China is working. It is bringing about rapid advances
throulghout the land. It has harnessed the talents of 800 to 9, 0 million
people as never before in1 China's history to achieve coinon goals.
These are the realities which carry great meaning for American for-
eign policy and the future course of the world.
I returned to the new China for this third visit in an effort to gain
a deeper understanding of the meaning of the changes taking place
in China. As the first American official to meet with Chinese leaders
following Chairman Mao's death, I was there at a significant time for
the course of American policy toward China in the months and year's
ahead. I came away with a, strengthened conviction that America can
and should cone to terms with the realities of China without delay.
3 "China- A Quarter Century After the Founding of the People's Republic," Report to
the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, January 1975, p. 1. See Appendix G.








11. THE "44ATE OF I .S.-( 11NA RELAT1P)Ns
What is past Is )rologueI"" alld a comprllellen-io of tlie St ate of
U'.S.-Clilla relatioIIs tod.ay requires all iiiile(r'-tai mi("2 of tile p:-l.
AillericaIl il ia're> of ('4hin hlave flueteaed and shitl, ted Iover tie
years. In a I1(;8 speech at the 1-niversity of Montaima. I saii:
There has been the image of tli ( eCima of Marco Iolo
Pearl Buck, ( harl e Chat, amd heroic resist aice to tile Japa-
nese durilig World War 11.
On the other lal(d there has been tie i tmaze of thie Clina
of cruelty, barbarism, Viollle. and faceless h ordes.This
the China of drumhead trials, stimmarv executions, Fu Mai-
Chu, and the Boxer 1-ebelliomi-the ( hina that is st'iiimied up
by the phrase. "yellow peril."
These images of ("hina have alternated until to(av. Since t!le be-
1111111 o' of United States contact with (,Illa tw o centi-e> a". Allieri-
cans feelings have been ilmbivalent. ( eierat11ns (of flis- I a lies. t rad-
ers, teachers, and travelers have created 4t I strong -entiiliwilt ala t1l i-
meats to China which. oil the one lamd. i)rovide a rese'Voir ()v f or o(-
wvil and respect and, on the other, an attitudile of superioirity Vowar tie
Chinese. Paternaiis,1 1has been the hallmark of Anerican experienCe iII
China. Most Anericans did not go to ("'lina to listen andl learn but to
preach, teach, and trade. They vere the superiors. the ('linese tlie in-
feriors. Humanitarianis in was mixed with a heavy blend of big2otry
ancl greed.
Missionaries, not traders. did the most to shape American at-
titudes, toward China. It has been estimated that in 195 there were
5,000 American missionaries in (hiina. Their lnifluenc went far be-
vond their mlbers. holding as they did key positions for tle sp read
of western ideas and culture throutliout the land. For decades until
World War II. the pulpits of churches across Anerica ran each un-
day with pleas for funds to feed, clothe, and save the Souls of hundreds
of millions of tlie "heathen" in China.
In the aftermath of World War II. admiration and affection turned
to disapl)ointmnent as the forces led 1by Chiaii" Ka -shek and M na ) I se-
tOng reumed tlhe civil war. American disappointment becan ieIhotilitv
when thte .S.-supported Kuomintang atries were forced to retreat I()
the island of Taiwan in 1949. One consequence of this defeat was thle
poisoning of the American 1)olitical systeml. A bitter )ersomial debate
i)eg!an avi il laste(l for years on the (ue(tio)n" 'Who1, olost ( 'hil .a "" The
ramifications were such that it resulted in a 1)olicy based oin an ()flicia l
view that saw China as ai airressive. Soviet-(loniiated and iire ted
giant posing a clear and present danger to its Asia ii neighbors. (ecre-
tarv of State Dean Acheson. in releasing the I)epartim ent ), 1>Sates
White Paper, said:
"'Tie (onmmnist leaders have foresworn their (hiine-e heritae and
have publicly announced their Subservience to a forei 1 )( )Wer.

As late as 196(). in a Itelevision debate with IJo n iF. Keimnet 'v. thith ii m
Vice Iresilent Nixon deseribe(l the tIhreat from ('hi na m i wlxay"
4 Letter of transmittal from Seeretaryv of State Achii I t, President Truman. "Inited
States Relations with China," Guvernment Printing Office, 1949, 1). XVI.








Now what do the Chinese Communists want?
They doi't want just Qucinoy and Matsu. They don't want
just Formosa. They want the world.5
This distorted and mistaken view of China led directly to the Mc-
( ;arttivr era which after a quarter of a century still afflicts American
foreign policy. United States relations with China today are on a
plateau, reached more than three years ago witi the opening of diplo-
izitic liaison offices in P eking and Washington. President iFord has
rePeatedtly stated that the Illited Sates is deternmined "to complete
the noiiialization of relations with the People's Republic of China
on the basis ()f the Shanghai Comniunique, I However, steps to do
so have been taken with great reluctance. In my judgment, there has
)een a policy of avoidance. With the principal antagonists in the Cil-
nese ivl war now gone, it would seem to be a most propitious time to
wipe the slate clean, to fulfill the promise of the Shanghai Com-
Iiunique by completing the process of normalizing relations with the
People's Republic of China.

A. TAIWAN: UNTYING TIE GORDIAN KNOT
"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it,"
George Santayana wrote. That is especially pertinent to the position
in which the United States finds itself concerning the normalization
of relations with the People's Republic of China. An understanding
of how United States policy came to be what it is today is essential to
finding a solution to the current problem. There is only one obstacle
to normalization. It derives from the events of 1949 when the forces led
by Mao Tse-tung drove Chiang Kai-shek from the Mainland to the
offshore island of Taiwan." In the final years of that civil war the
United States poured $2 billion of aid into a doomed cause. It was
an intervention in China's civil war and it persists today through
continuing U.S. recognition of the Republic of China on Taiwan,
through the furnishing of that government with military advice and
arms, through the conduct of joint maneuvers with its armed forces,
and through many ties between America and the Nationalist govern-
ment which are designed to preserve Taiwan as an entity separate
from the Chinese mainland.
President Truman announced in early 1950 that the United States
would "not provide military aid or advice to Chinese forces on For-
mosa" or "pursue a course which will lead to involvement in the civil
conflict in China." 8 That policy was reversed six months later, fol-
lowino the outbreak of war in Korea, when President Truman ordered
the U.S. Seventh Fleet to prevent a Chinese Communist attack on
Taiwan and to stop Nationalist attacks against the Mainland. Inter-
vention by Chinese forces in Korea in November locked in American
support of the Nationalist regime. In his 1953 inaugural address
President Eisenhower "unleashed" Chiang Kai-shek's forces, stating
]Television debate with John F. Kennedy, October 10, 1960.
6 Speech at the University of Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii, December 7, 1975. See also
President Ford's letters of April 11, 1975 and September 9, 1976, congratulating Hua
Kno-feng on his being named Premier of the People s Republic of China and of condolences
on the death of Mao Tse-tung. respectively.
7 Called Formosa by the Japanese who governed the island from 1895-1945 after being
ced(l the island in the Treaty of Shimonoseki which ended the Sino-Japanese war.
I Press Conference, January 5, 1950.






5

that the U.S. Seventh Fleet would no longer be "emp l loyed to (si1 |l
(Comninlst ( liia Sllortlv thereafter tile Naf Iioimlists IwCai heavv
fortificlatiol o f Quellitoy, Mat situ. an lI iTac ll i, sl lall isliallIs wlli hl
lie several l miles off tie (,1liinese Mailland.
In early 19.5.5 forces of the Peo)ple's I eplblic seized a siliall Na-
tionalist held island near lie 'laclien groilo)panl l)eoall a l) bIollmi iiellt
of the 'acheiis. Fliits action )led IPresidetFt' Ei se nliower lto ask ( l i t'ess
to approve the ,Foriioosa Resolutlion, which, inI eft'eet. was a Iblalk check
for tlie President to wage war to de feldl( Fortiiosa t li escadoles. aInd
other islands then in Na tionia lists lhands. Secretary )ulles. iII lp'eselit-
ing the Eisentiower Adlliilistrations case to a joint sessioli of tlie
Senate Foreign Relat ions nid Arliled Services committeess. stressed
that teidefense of tornosa w as Iimpoat( tiesec ity of the
United StatesLand denied any intenitioil to intervene in (1lia s con-
tmnngn civil war.
We say that the Island of Formnosa and ti Pesetadores is an
area which is vital to the interests of t(e Inited States, and
that we are going to do wlt we can to see that it remains in
friendly hands. If we were not there, if there was no other
interest in this situation except that of two CIinese regiimes,
probably it would be considered to be purely a civil war.
It does concern far more than them. It concerns the Tinited
States, and once we are in lie situation t len these
things that the two Chi ese regimes argue about become (flute
unimportant. . 0
As presented byDulles, the alternatives to defending Foiiisa by
risking war with ( liina was that".....we wil -I e drivenn out 01 this
wlle Asian area( and will fal I b)ack to the Inite(l States. Itat is the
choice we have (ot toface.' Thie blank check resolution f)resvte(
by the Eisenlhower Adninistrat ion and sup1))rted by the Joint ( hiefs
of Staffi as essential to protection of Am erica's vital itc'Pesls. 1 assed
both Houses of congress s by overwhelming mllarginls. It was Not 1111 1i
1974, that the resoution was repeealed by (onogress.
Two weeks after p1)ssage of the Formiosa tesolutiton til"e Seite
approved a treeatv with the Natioi list oeri- tnpledig l ie
IUnite I States to defend Formosa and the I 0escad res. aifier Ieii"
presented with the saliie national security rationale iused to ol)tnil
approval of t(le resolution. Secret ry Iv)ul les., testtifving for t lieat v
in executive sessio before the Foreign IRelat i s ( ommittee laimite
a bleak pictitre of what would litappen if tlie treaty were int a ll>p ved.
"If we,"' he said to tile (1oili ittee, -allow tlint islall clain I lohc
brokell through the ( oiliuuisIts taking" Formosa. i ty ,,pinion. t11c
'liire ishul w chi Ievitably go. ,!,jlaai will suelv hYe lost. Ylt
will have a combinatonlo of 1)o\wer there of lususia. ('tii:t al(,l ,al,
wvhieh will be niore,. a far more, serious threat t haIl ahixtlni. w have
eTer envisageol in tlt part oft the world bef ore. ad ouil' VI Ic-
ftensive l osition wNill1 have to be pulled back verv close t t)het l I icit
nainland"12

SStae of the Union Address to Congress, February 2, 1953.
UInlpblished hearings hetort' a joint meeting of the Senate Cotlliltee( lt lori-I
Relations and Arined Services, January 24, 1955, pp. 115--69.
1 Ibid, 138.
12 I'nlblished lihearing before the Senate Committee oil Foreign Relations, February 7,
1955, p. 45.








Tihe Committee's report on the treaty adopted the national security
rationale pressed by tile Eisenhower Administration, stating that the
treaty ". . does no mliore than formalize a policy which our govern-
ment has followed for several years, to maintain Formosa as an es-
sential anclhor of our western defense chain." 13
Time has proven that the justification presented to Congress for
the defense treaty with the Nationalist regime was based on a dis-
torted view not only of Ainericas long-range interests in the Far East
but also of the nature of the People's Republic of China. America's
security was not involved in the future of Taiwan. The specter
of political consequences at home, not military probabilities abroad,
were the prime factors in distorting United States policy toward the
Chinese civil war and in subsequently consolidating the distortions.
Concerning the Taiwan question, the Shanghai Conmunique stated:
The Chinese side reaffirmed its position: The Taiwan ques-
tion is the crucial question obstructing the normalization of
relations between China and the United States; the Govern-
ment of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal gov-
ernment of China; Taiwan is a province of China which has
long been returned to the motherland; the liberation of Tai-
wan is China's internal affair in which no other country has
the right to interfere; and all U.S. forces and military in-
stallations must be withdrawn from Taiwan. The Chinese
Government firmly opposes any activities which aim at the
creation of "one China, one Taiwan," ".one China, two gov-
ernments," "two Chinas," an "independent Taiwan" or
advocate that "the status of Taiwan remains to be
determined."
The U.S. side declared: The United States acknowledges
that all Chinese on either side of the Taiwan Strait maintain
there is but one China and that Taiwan is part of China.
The United States Government does not challenge that posi-
tion. It reaffirms its interest in a peaceful settlement of the
Taiwan question by the Chinese themselves. With this pros-
pect in mind, it affirms the ultimate objective of the with-
drawal of all U.S. forces and military installations from Tai-
wan. In the meantime, it will progressively reduce its forces
and military installations on Taiwan as the tension in the
area diminishes." (Italics supplied).14
Although the number of U.S. military personnel has been reduced
substantially since 1972, there are still some 2,000 American service-
men stationed on Taiwan, including a military advisory group. Only
this year the remaining U.S. military advisors were witlldrawn from
Quemoy and Matsu, islands not covered by the security treaty. The
Indochina war, the "tension in the area," to which the language in the
Shanghai Communique referred, is long since over. The bulk of the re-
lilaining Aiiierican forces on Taiwan are engaged in activities which,
if Americans put themselves in Chinese shoes, would be considered in-
tolerable, since the activities are carried out on China's territory.
1', Senate Execntive Report 2. 84th Congress, 1st Session. February 9, 1955.
1 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, February 28, 1972, p. 475. The
communique is reprinted on pp. 39-41 of appendix G.







United States military involvement wit i te Nationalist govel--
meut through the supply of m military eqnil let IrIacs acceleraIe si
1972,1 not lessee(l. By tthe ei1d of tile current fiscal y ( a tot a l 1o f' Sllt
$1.1 billion in military equipment and imaterial will hIave hee ilpro-
vided by the [.S. to tie goverilteiit oil Ta w llce lie Shanghai
Couiinuique wxas issued, .,,, lmillioi of that oi a grajit or credit(lt a. l:.
Additioia military salc, of several lhundred liillions (if (tollatis are be-
ing plalld for tlie 1948 fiscal year.
Official stimillus to economic ties contiites. It is 'business as ulia"
with U.S. private inveAients still flowing ill, maily plotectedt ,v I'.S.
governmeint gumrantees tiiroiggl the Overseas I)evelopilielt I vesti ilelit
Corporation. A titlorizationsof direct loans and ga raidtees by the
U.S. Export-Import Bank to finance sales to Taiwaln totaled $1.2 bil-
lion in the 1972-75 period. United States fitils are engaged in a niajor
program which will make Taiwan dependent oil nuclear power for
half of its energy requirements by the early 1980's. No goverminment
agency has received new policy directions t'oinierimig tlie adj tstn111(1t
of U.S. relations with Taiwan in the light of thel Shanghai
Communique.
China's position on Taiwan is the same as it has been since tlie sign-
ing of the Shianghai Communique. It expects the United States to
sever diplomatic relations with Taivan, terminate the defense treaty,
and withdraw all military forces from the island. "Any one principle
missing won't do", a Chinese official said to me.
The Chinese refer to the application of the so-called Japane-.se-for-
mula as a basis for full implementation of the Shanghai (Conimuni-
que. Since 1972, when it severed relations with Taiwan and established
liplornatic relations with Peking, Japan's trade with and invest ments
in Taiwan continue at high levels. Japanese affairs relating to the is-
land are looked after by a quasi-official office called the Japanese Inter-
change Association. Taiwan nmintains a similar mon-diplotilatic office
in Tokyo. Other countries having diplomatic relations with (hilna op-
erate in Taiwan under similar arrangements. So could, apparently,
United States private ecoInic (i and cultural ties with Taiwan. Tlere is
no give, however, on the principle which the Chinese see involve(l
Taiwan is a part of China and when and how it will be absorbed into
the life of the mainland is an internal affair. "Thev deal in principle.
gentlemen, one thoughtful American in Pekimnr observed. The first
message issued by the Chinese Communist Party and otlier leader-
ship organs after Chairman Mao's death reiterated tHie priiiiple "'We
are determined to liberate Taiwan."
The answer to the Taiwan problem is not to be found in 1Pekitg but
in Washingtoni.It is a domestic problems for the United States. -I f tlis
issue is not resolved and is prolonged. the responsililitv is 11 t oil our
side but on yours," said one Chinese official. Another afded" "'l one
who ties a knot iinst untie it."
In the public report of mv 1974 trip to China I said"
The fact that mltst be faced is that we -\ an-not l iave it 1)otl-h
ways. We cannot strengthen our ties with a ciaiiant gover-
iment of China on TIaiwan and. at tlhe same telin, expect to
advance a new relatioslill) wil I e ( le g 1vernielit i tle IePo-
ple's Republic of China. The Shianghai (o nuniue was







desi gne d as a transitional arrangement;- it did not predicate
an indefinite ambivalence in oilr China polliCy.15
Much of the anlbiquity concerning the Taiwan l)roblem seems
to stem from the hole that with sufficient delay, the problem will
go away. A (evic in this connection, is the insistence that China re-
notince tl use of force in reward to Talvan. As far hack as 1955,
China was prepared to agree to a joint statement renouncing the gcn-
eral use of force to settle (ispuites with the U.S. bit woilodl not renounce
its use specifically against Taiwan.6 To appreciate wvhat is involved in
the renunciation of force question. the issue should be examiined from
the Chinese perspective. As the Chinese see it, Taiwan is an integral
part of China and, tnder the Shanghai Communique, the IUnited States
does not dispute this contention. While there is no reason to assume
that the final withdrawal of U7.S. forces will lead to the use of force
against Taiwan by the mainland, there is also no reason to expect
China to formally renounce its possible uise against wN-hat it regards as a
Cllinese v" province. Indeed to do so would be to cast a doubt) on the valid-
itv of its claim to sovereignty over the island.
Taiwan is a point of itmost sensitivity in China's new national con-
ciousness. Together with certain border areas along the frontier with
the Soviet Union it is the last vestige of China's humiliation at the
hands of outside powers. Equivocation over the Taiwan problem has
continued far too long. Ambivalence has created a danger rous situation
.1nd further delay could bring about serious long-term consequences
for Anerican policy in the Pacific area. For more than six years we
purisled a war in Indochina in the name of an illusive, undefined "peace
with honor." a quest which resulted in tragic losses of American and
other lives. Now there are signs that the same chiniera is creating a
similar situation concerning the resolution of the Taiwan problem.
1)elav has created new pressures for retention of the status quo, even
in .apan. References are maide to an "easy-way out" of a "two-Ger-
nianv 's" formula.
Stagnation is the enemy of a sond. constructive foreign policy. and
indecision in policy-making about Taiwan is providing political im-
petus for pushing citizens into choosing sides. There is a strong hint
of a, resurgence of the divisiveness of a quarter century ago that led
to the current policy dilemma. The internal problems of China in
the wake of Mao's departure could create conditions in both countries
where the mutual interests now sustaining the relationship will be
weakened. The delay, for example, may well strengthen the hand of
the elements in the Chinese leadership seeking to restoregreater
comity with the Soviet Union even at the expense of the U.S. relation-
ship. The failure to face Ul) to the Taiwan issue Will only make the -i-
evitable decision more difficult, controversial, and divisive.
It should be borne in mind that, if full diplomatic relations are
established with the People's Republic of China. the treaty with the
ReDnllic of China will fall. There can hardly be a continuance of a
defense treaty with one faction in a civil war while formal re-
lations are maintained with the successor. When Japan recognized the
People's Republic of China in 1972, its treaty of friendship with
1 "China" A Ouarter Century After the Foundina of the Peonle's Republic". report to
the ,Sonate Committee on Foreign Relations, January 1975. p. 23. See Allpendix .
See Apponlix C for the texts of the series of proposals and counterproposals during
these negotiations.







Taiwan automatically lapsed. So wil the U.S.-Taiwan security treaty.
It has been urged that the treaty issue be handled by serving one-year
notice of our intention to terminate the treaty, a right reserCVe( to each
under article X. This course would only further confuse tie principle
at issue. If Taiwan is a part of ('h ia,-as the concerned jXrie s now
agree, serving a one-year notice to terminate the treaty means only
additional deiay in reconciling our official diplomatic posture and our
national policy.
There is also the argument that for the United States to disengage
from a military commitment to the Republic of China will suggest a
weakening of American resolve about other defense obligations
abroad. Unless the national interest controls foreign policy rather
than vice-versa, this nation will be placed in al increasingly soilocat-
ing straight jacket with the ratification of every treaty. Treaties are
not forever. They are national commitments subject to adjustnm ent
in the light of changing international realities and clearer perception
of the national interest. The treaty was based in great part on U.S.
security needs against a Moscow-directed axis with Peking, which is
now seen to be a distortion. Moreover, the government of Taiwan
claims to represent the people on the unainlaii(l, but it (toes not. It has
ruled the island of Taiwan by martial law since 1949 in order to con-
tinue the trappings of a government for the entire Chinese mainland.
Only 86 of the 1,28,8 seats in the National Assembly of the Republic
of China and 49 of the 436 seats in the Legislative Yuan are held by the
Taiwanese.
Some observers warn that Taiwan may either declare, its independ-
ence or turn to the Soviet inion if the Inited States severs its treaty
relationship. These arguments ignore the fact that Talwan"s li feblood,
until it is absorbed into the economy of the Mainland at some time in
the distant future, is continued trade with the United States and
,apan. These are not realistic alternatives for Taiwan but in any event
were sonic such improbable situat ion to develop it would be a (Iinese
problem and not one for this nation.
Although it is unrealistic to expect that the Chinese government will
renounce the use of force to regain control of Taiwan, there is reason
to expect that the Chinese will not rush the process of absorbing
Taiwan into the life of the mainland after the normalization of rela-
tions between China and the United States has been accomplished. As
the Chinese see the problem, acceptance of the principle at stake and
the practical incorporation of Taiwan into the People's Republic are
two different matters. The Chinese are impatient with regard to un-
equivocal acceptance of the principle, which stands in the way of (o1-
plete normalization of relations, a process initiated by thelianciai
communique. "I think we have been patient enough," one official 'pit
it, "we have waited for more than twenty-seven years now." 11 ven il-
patience over principle, however, can be. tempered by priorities. Inter-
national "issues," for example, meaning largely problems concerning
the Soviet U!nion, receive first attention. Insofar as Taiwan is con-
cerned, timing does not, appear to be a pressing problem. While the
process of absorption is regarded as inevitable it nay well take many
years.
On the basis of my conversations in China, I believe that satisfac-
tory arrangements can be worked out, concerning the landlinc of our
tor ala ,mens anbeworedou cne rn, t!elm 1li7 o u


7'-1 8 () 2





10


residual relations with Taiwan, as has ben the case with Japan and
other countries, wlich will safeguard legitimate interests of U.S.
citizens in that island. Moreover, I am persuaded that the Chinese
know full well that any unprovoked ml1tary action in the Western
Pacific would be a seriously unsettling event in Asia which could set
o0l grave reipercussiolls in the IUnited states and JapaiI, to say tIle least.
it would undermine a basic element in present. inle se foreign policy
toward the soviet Union. The peaceful melgl ,' rig of Talwan with the
mainland, therefore, would s eem to be the implicit practical element
in working out diplomatic arrangements between the People's Repub-
lic and the United States.
Congressional action may be necessary to arrange for continuation
of trade and related ties to Taiwan to accord with a U.S. version of the
'Japanese formula". In the spirit of bi-partisanship which has mnarkled
support of U.S. China policy since the Shanghai (Communique, Con-
gress should be prepared to take such action, as the Senate did
in 1971 in approving S. Con. Res. 38 giving ". ... full support to
the President (Nixon) in seeking the normalization of relations with
the People's Republic of China." 1
It is important that a dialogue begin without delay between the
People's Republic and Taiwan. The Shanghai Communique states that
America's goal is "a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question by
the Chinese themselves." Leaders of the People's Republic have re-
peatedly expressed their willingness to engage in peaceful relations
with Taiwan and have made gestures to underscore the point. United
States policy should do nothing to discourage the Taiwan government
from responding in kind.
All of the NATO allies, not to speak of dozens of other nations
including Japan, have recognized the reality that the People's Repub-
lic is the rightful sovereign of all China, at no loss of their prestige in
the world. One wonders which among them would label as an "aban-
donment", a 17.S. policy of the same kind. There is not likely to be
official collaboration with China oin matters involving stability in the
Pacific, disarmament, or other major world issues as long as the present
state of affairs exists. The world applauded Nixon's trip to Peking.
Whether or not it. al))lauds the completion of the journey he started,
it is essential in this nation's interest, in my judgment, that we move
promptly in that direction.
B. TRADE AND EXCHANGES
Despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, trade and per-
sonal contacts between the United States and (China continue at a
nominal level. Through these media the two nations are gettilig to
know one another after a gap in contact of more than two decades.
China has neither opened its doors to consumer oriented trade nor to
the entry of the countless Americans who are fascinated by the aicient
myth of a mysterious Cathay. China's lriciple of self-reliance negates
the former and a traditional "(isinterest in the outside world plus the
absence of extensive tourist facilities does the same for the latter. The
early expectations of many Americans of a new market of more than

17 S. Con. Res. 38, 92nd Congress, 1st Session, passed the Senate by voice vote on
August 2, 1971.






11

800-950 million customers and an exciting new international tolirist;
attraction have now subsided to a niiore realistic I ulterstal( 1 i)r)f t ie
situation.
1. Trade
United States trade with China has plunged from t heIhigl level of
$934 million in 1974, when Cina 1)olglt large aioiits of Ameriu'ai
grain, soybe',()II anid cotton ii.to 4S, iillio)in i197-5. ]Th elop-si l seven-to-one ta Iance in the LUiite(l States' favor was redICe( to (A l tote
reasonable ratio of less thanii t o-to-oe. IriTeade in 19 \(\ -iI total at t )lt
$400 million, with U.S. exports at.,.'22() illion lanld i 1111p)ts f loii
China of $1SO)million. Data concerning bilateral tirade for 1971 1-91)6
are shown in the table below:
UNITED STATES-PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA TRADE 1971-76
[In millions of dollars]
U.S. imports U.S. exports Total
Calendar year-
1971. ..-------------------------------------------------.4.9 ( ) 4.9
1972. ..------------------------------------------------32.3 60.2 92.5
1973. ..------------------------------------------------63.7 689.1 752.8
1974-----------------.-------------------------------------115.0 819.0 934.0
1975. ..------------------------------------------------158.3 303.8 462.1
1976 (January-June).. . . . . ..------------------------------- 89.6 119.6 ..............
1976 (total estimate) ------------------------------------- 180.0 220.0 400.0
Nil.
Since 1974 there has been a significant change in the composition of
U.S. exports to China. WVith the exception of cotton. China did not buy
any appreciable quantities of American farm l)roldctts in 1975) or thus
far in 1976, reflecting the improved state of Chinese agriculture which
has built up sizable grain reserves. For such imports as it requires,
moreover, China has returned to reliance on traditional import sup-
pliers, Australia, Canada and Argentina. The value of U.S. agricul-
tural exports to the People's Republic dropped from $(665 million in
1974 to $79 million in 1975. In 197,59 60 percent of K_.S. exports were
manufactured goods and technology, the range rmnning the gamut
of American industry with )rimary emphasis on high technolo-v items
and data.
1.S. imports of Chinese goods have increased steadily. but not spec-
tacularly, from $5 million in 1971 to an estimated $180 million this
year. Last year tin was the major import, making up nearly ;0 per-
cent of the total value. A great variety of goods have eome into the
United States, many in small quantities. Chinoiserie, apparently. holds
tho public fancy.
American businessmen and Chinese traders are fast learn ing each
other's needs and problems. The prospect is for a steady. l)ult iin-pec-
tacular increase in trade. unless political relations acralin 51 .,I'o
lesser difficulties, the claims-asset problem and the lauck of miost-
favored-nation treatment for Ch inese goods. impede noria Izat 1on
of trade relations. No progress has beeiimlade oii either since ll V 1 974
visit to China.
During the Korean war $76.5 million in (hinese assets in the Inited
States, primarily bank deposits, were frozen by U.S. Government ac-






12


tion. On the other hand, the Foreil Claims Settlement Commission
has oil tile claims totaling 196.9m illlion by L.S. citizens against C'Cina.
The llajority are Lou rsilall ailOtmuts, only nine arc for nore than 1
million. As long as this diSpLute colltiiues direct banking, shiing,)1)11j
or aniy other activity which would result in tChi'Lesc-ownCd assIs be-
ing present in the UCnited States are not feasible. Any Chinese prop-
erty in the United states, including Ships, planes, or Cven a trade ex-
hibit, is subject to being attached uy a claiiant against tie country.
The ten Boeing 707s ,oid to China cannot land at a L .5. airport, and
China Hlag vessels cannot call at out ports to pick uj) goods Aitiericant
exporters have sold to the country. All financing of trade transactions
have to be carried out through b raiciies of third country banks in the
United states. Another serious iiniiediate consequence is that there
cannot be an exchange of trade exhibits, which handicaps trade in both
directions.
China's goods are not extended most-favored-nation tariff t reathient
by th United States. "Most-favored-nation" is a misnomer. It is not
a favor; it is the normal basis of trade between nations of the world.
Of the many nations with which this nation carried on trade last year
only 15 did not receive this type of tarilt treatment. Under tile 1974
Trade Act, most-favored-nat ion treatment can now be accorded to
China as well as certain other Communist countries, after a bilateral
trade agreement is concluded and various conditions are niet, including
approval of the trade agreements by Congress. As long as this dis-
criimination against China exists, importers must pay about four or
five times the duties oil Chinese imports that would apply to goods
brought in from most other nations. It has been estimated that it Chi-
nese goods received MFN treatment, imports front China would in-
crease by as much as twenty percent. A basic trade agreement, more-
over, would cover matters such as arrangements for settling disputes,
patent and trademark protection, and trade promotion activities.
Agreement inlprinciple was reached on the claims assets problem in
1973, but that question has not been pursued nor 0do the ChilIese appear
interested in loving forward on a trade agreement until the matter
of diplomatic status has been settled.
2. ELclanges
Tile mutual learning process through exchanges of persons is pro-
ceeding satisfactorily although, as with tirade, the balance is in the
United States' favor. Approximately 12,000 Aniericans have visited
China since the Shanghai Conimunique but as of November 194-6 only
932 (leise have come to the Inited States. Of the Americans going
to ( China, only about five percent went through government facilitated
exclianges, liichi, except forc osts of iliteriational travel, are financed
by tle host government.
In the "facilitated" category, the United States has sent to China
visitors such. as most (-'ongressional groupIs, state governors, scholars,
sports teams and cultural groups. China has sent groups of technical
experts, athletes, and performijig artists, such as the Slheyang Acro-
bat ic andl the Wushu troupes. About half of the participants from both
countries ill tie govern ent-t0- rover i ient exclia nges Itave beeln mem-
bers of sl)orts teams or performing arts groups. Significant ly, the
exchange of political leaders has been a one-way street. China will not








send officials here so long as the United States recognizes the govern-
mlent on lTaiwan.
Tile Taiwan problem inevitably gives rise to friction in the official
exchanges. In 15, tile planned visit by a Chinese perlorinlg arts
group was cancelled because a song was added to the approved pro-
grain selections which contained the lyrics "we must liberate Taiwan."
Later in that year theiChinese objected to the presence of the Mayor of
San Juan, Puerto Rico, on a list of U.S. mayors scheduled to visit
China and the trip was cancelled. Ostensibly tile objection was in line
with Chinese support for a UN resolution favoring independence for
Puerto 1Rico, but it may well have also been a tit for the earlier tat
over the U.S. objection to the program selected by their performning
arts troupe.
Most Americans have traveled to China not as official visitors but
under private arrangements, either on their own or through member-
ship in an organization. The U.S.-China. Friendship Association. within
branches operating in somie 70 American cities, has sent many groups
of interested Alnericans to China. It is not known, exactly. how many
Americans have gone to China through unofficial channels, but prob-
ably the majority are Chinese-Americans, encouraged by China to
make return visits to the land of their forebears. I visited in south
Quangdong (Kwangtung) Province which is the place of ancestry for
a large number of Chinese in the United States. In the village of
Taishan, I found a large new hotel for overseas Chinese and a second,
more modern hotel under construction. The private visits to China are
essentially a one-way street. Only several hundred Chinese have come
to the United States on this basis, mostly technicians coming over for
training in the use of American equipment and technology, as was the
case following the sale of ,07s by Boeing and of fertilizer plants by the
M. K. Kellog Co. Some Chinese have also come to visit relatives living
in the United States.
As to tourism, the outlook is unchanged since my visit in 1974. Other
than for visits by overseas Chinese. I did not detect any interest by
Chinese officials in opening their country to large numbers of Ameri-
can tourists. In turn, the Chinese show little curiosity about the out-
side world. A usual justification for large-scale tourism is to earn for-
eign exchange. As indicated, Chinese facilities for handling tourists
are still severely limited bv a lack of hotel accommodations. interpre-
ters, automobiles, and other amenities for international travelers. I saw
no evidence anywhere in my travels of new tourist-type hotels being
constructed or of any newly opened. The situation regarding American
newsmen is also unchanged. Newsmen continue to be admitted as idi-
viduals but the Chinese position that permanent Anerican news bu-
reaus will not be allowed until after full restoration of diplomatic,
relations remains.

III. CHAIRMAN M_[AO TSE-TUNG'S LEGACY
It is difficult for one who had not personally seen the misery, sorrow,
and degradation of life in old China, as I did as a I .S. Marine in the
early 1920's and twice as a Congressman in the 1940 s, to' understand
the significance of Mao Tse-tung to the Clii nese people. 17est(or'e
China's pride as a nation was one of Alao's major goals. Itnder hiis








leadership, there has comie into beinr for the first time in modern his-
tory- a N-IZ, inese state uiidjer whicl th basic n eUIs of the ( 'inesw peo-
ple-fi)o(l clothing, shelter, and health care-ale llet. In line with
that flindamental achievement, the transtolIattion of ('1hina into a
itioderti iIndustrial nation has been set ill motion.
Although st ill a ioor country )yV I .S. iwasiire, (hum is well Onlthe
\,v to acliiex'iia place of pret ie in tie world coiiimlunitv. One hun-
dred and tell nations have tilloiniatic relations with the Peoples Re-
111lic of China. (O)nly twentv-six still recoiiize the RelibliC of
(,hina.t Tie United States is the only major nation which still main-
tains forinial dillonmatic ties with t he iepniblic of ('11ina on Taiwan
ratliei than with the Goverlnitent in Iekin g. (hina is looked up to by
inny nations in the so-called Tlird World as an exaliple of what can
be achieved by self-reliance and independence.
As to Mao's social goals, the basic nee(ls of the people. as noted, have
been met. Food and clothing stl)1)lies are alple and low in price,
housing is adequate, though primitive by our tandar"lss particularly
ill remote rural areas. Itealth care is available to all. Briningy social
benefits to the people--quantity--now has priority over quality, a
Chinese leader told me. Quality, lie said, will come in time. Relativity,
in the Chi'ise con text. is the kev. I remember quite well that in the
American depression a generation ago, when practically everyone in a
still largely rural America was pool,. one did not feel poor relative to
his neighbors. Compared with the past. said a local leader in Shih Ho-
tsu. a new city in remote Xinjiang (Sinkiang), the Chinese people are
doing well. "Our situation is excellent," he l)ut it simply.
Hinder the social system molded by Mao, the stress is on service. The
heroes are those who work to get'rid of the dry-rot in traditional
social order and who contribute unselfishly to the long-range goal
of improving the community. whether it be the comimine, the factory
or the nation. Mv observations, strongly suggest that the Chinese peo-
ple have been imbued with the precept that there is a direct link be-
tween personal conduct and national goals. "Americans," one Chinese
said, "may have put the first man on the moon but China will be the
fiIst to create a new man." "Serve the people" is not merely a slogan.
it is a way of life reaching into the most remote parts of China. As
with other aspects of Mao's doctrines, the principle has strong roots in
Chinese tradition.
Stress is now placed on the "three-in-one" approach to leadership,
combining the old, the middle-aged and the young,. Another principle.
"making the past serve the present." was exemplified by the preserva-
tion of several sand dunes in the Turpan (Turfan) depression. In an
area where since 1964 hundreds of sand dunes had been leveled, turned
into Productive farm land, and stabilized by the plant ing of massive
windbreaks, a few dunes had been retained. not only to show coming
generations how bad the past used to be, but also to serve as a local
spa for the treatment of arthritis.
From Shanghai in the East to V~rumqi (T:rumchi) in the West,
from Beijing (Peking) in the North to Taishan in the Souith, wherever
I visited there were impressive examples of efforts by individuals and
groups working toward common goals. Material incentives are present
"I See appendix D for lists of the countries recognizing each.








but they appear to be of less signiicance thall the desire to achieve inI
terls of grol( objectives. St llty sessions ill factories and1 coli1iiilies
serve a an ilimortant Ilink between every day conduct. or perforIlaul(e
on the job anId natimtoal goals.
One of ato 's nost ilportait legacies is the doctrine of "se lf-reli-
ance," a principle applied at every level of the goveriiiiient aid to
the international scene as well. The eimiphasis on local initiative carried
out under basic policy guidance tfroni the central government. called
"walking on two legs, has been a key factor it tHie developieilt of
China's econoily. Again, there are historical as well as practical roots
for the stress on self-reliaiice. The ( hinese are acutely sensitive to past
huniiliations suffered at the hands of outsiders culiiiiiiating in the
Soviet withdrawal of aid and technicians in t1960. This event led1 to a
determined effort to minimize China's dependence on foreign sources
for modernization an d to apply this principle throughout every layer
of government. "Rely mainly on our own efforts," Mao wrote, "while
making external assistance subsidiary, break down blind faith, go in
for industry, agriculture and technical and cultural revolutions ide-
pendently, do away with slavishness. ... .
Adherence to the doctrine of self-reliance has insulated China's econ-
only froni the vicissitudes of the world's economy to a degree not
found in any other major nation. One recent example of self-reliance
at work, was China's refusal to accept oiers of outside aid after the
devastating earthquake at Tangshan last August. The Chinese depend
on the outside world for few raw materials, and with vast unexploited
mineral and other resources, may eventually be completely self-suf-
ficient. A pril e benefit fromil self-reliance is that China, with its indils-
try dispersed throughout the country, is in an excellent position to
defend itself from outside attack. lDecentralization of industry is
being carried out bothI for practical and for strategi( reasons.
Front the rodtictioin team of the comiune to the national level, self-
reliance is pursuedI religiously. The old Chinese tradition of e nation,
following the good example set by the leader, is an important eleiiiemt
in making the system work. i every commune visited there was a
recital of the local unit's deterniilation to "learn ifromn t'achai" a
inodel brigade of a coimmune which has achieved reliiarkale 1 results
in creating new productive lanl out of arre" hillsides in
Province. iI the smallest an d time largest factories, there was a ,(et ica-
tion to "learning from Taching," a major oil refinery whose success is
largely due to the initiative and ingenuity of the refinery workers.
At each level there are model factories and co(mitmnes, not to iIlpress
foreign visitors since there are few, but to spur otler local tuits to
greater efforts. In the Xinjiang (Sking) regions for exa mil fle, tlre
are 1,233 model farml units based on iTaclii1 anld 182 model facto(,ies
for learning from I aclnng. The I ua-lhsi lBrigade, near Wux i (AVIISli)
in ,Jiangsu (Kiangsu ) Irovince, wliich I visited was a la ri1elv self-
sUlficieit io(lel brigade. It, liad acmieved ren arka!le results irri a-
tion and in rationalizinr use of its land by consoli~lation a 11(1 levelyi
so that niany of the far ii operations cot iI e mclitanized. In Tai"ha
County in G'uangdong (Kwan gtiing) Provinice, I visited a small trac-
tor factory which originally was a farm niacii nerv rei air so. ( lpst
year it began producing 60( and 24 horsepower t .ac ois 1sijc IIlachl lies
made primarily by its own workers in shops which they had con-






16


structed. It will turn out 200 tractors this year and plans to increase
production to 3,000) uits by 1)8').
The Xinjiang (Sinkiaiig) region provides anot her example of self-
relian(e i o)eratioll Ht ti e 1)()xVinc(ial level. Vintil 1949. Xinjiang was
a vast, thiX-ly populated la1d of five nilpion p)le scattered over a few
oascs and settlements, eking out a subsistence tIvough 1)rilnitive
farming and animal husban(drv. Today its population of eleven
million work in factories or on well-nianagedt fa r 1, mnany of them
mechanized. It i7 building a strong industviral base to exploit the area's
vast natural resourc(es, with )lants already turning out steel and iron,
petrochiemicals, paper, textiles and other products.
It is also a province of significant geopolitical importance. The
3,000 miles of borders on live countries includes a long frontier with
the Soviet nion that has been closed silce 196-2. Many IHan Chinese
have come into the region from the coastal areas ini recent years but
unlike past migrations, the rapid economic progress and an enlifht-
ened minorities policy has permitted their absorption without undue
friction. Similar progress is being made in other remote parts of
China, creating a more unified nation, while retaining the stress on
local initiative.
An interesting aspect of the emulation approach to leadership is
the fact that it has not resulted in coiiipetition between units. In no
place visited did I hear ally comparison between the brigade, the
factory, or the province and a comparable unit. Competition is not
intramural, it is with past performance. This attitude extends to the
international scene as well. There is no indication that China is
interested in engaging in competitive races with the outside world.
Its self-confidence to date is free of arrogance.
Mao Tse-thng set out to create a unified China where traditional
social and economic differences between classes, city and country,
industry and agriculture, and mental and manual la)or were elimi-
nated. The meaningfulness of the task to the overall goal is stressed,
not compensation. There. are wage differentials but they are
minimal. The avera/re factory worker in Shanghai. for example, makes
approximately S25-30 a month,: the chief brain surgeon in a major
local hospital in the same city makes $40 a month.
The local commune or factory l)artv cadre, the managers in China's
society. are expected to work closely with the peasants and workers.
Bureaucrats are assigned to do manual labor periodically. This policy
is put in practice most widely through the "May 7th schools." where
cadre from governmental units at all levels combine farming with
political study for a period of as long,/ as a year. Attending such a
school is not punishment but a normal part of training and discipline.
"It chases awav bureaucratic a irs and teaches humility." one soplhisti-
cated Chinese bureaucrat said. Indeed. the techniques for keeping
bureaucrats in touch with the grass roots nay seem unusual to Ameri-
cans. but the basic concept is hardly inimical to the preservation of a
democratic society.
More than 12 million of China's middle school craduates, called
"educated youths" lave been sent from the cities to settle in remote
or mountainous regions. The object is to carry out a two-way educa-
tional process, the voung people pass on to the peasants any formal
learning they have that can be applied to local problems. In turn, the







young acquire basic skills and practical knowledge from tihe peasants.
Itow well this svstein1 will work out i11 tile lon (r11I relllaiinS to be seen,
although both the young people and local leaders wNi tlil whoNl I dis-
cussed tie matter desc'ri)e the results to date in ,lowinlo terms.
The legacy of ideas left by Chairman M ao w\1ill continue to be felt
not only in China but thrioughout the world for decades to collie.
China does not project its influence abroad by military means: it has
no troops outside its borders. Rather it does So tljroult the projection
of a cohesive culture and a coherent, viable society with great mean-
ing for many nations of the world. China is self-confident and self-
sufficient, able to take the long view of history. I-ow (lina uses the
tremendous power it is likely to possess a generation from now
will be one of the most important factors in the world situation.
In the Slianolhai Communique the 1United States and China agreed
that five principles should guide relations between states: .. respect
for the sovereignty and territorial integritv of all states. non-aoggres-
sion against other states, non-interference, in the affairs of other states.
equality and mutual benefit. and p)eaceful co-existence." As a prescrip-
tion for conduct between nations, the formula is not controversial.
Problems arise, however, in the application of these principles to
specific situations. The Chinese Communist Party is firmly committed
to the belief that revolution is the means of bringrina" about basic social
change in any country. China also takes the position that party and
state actions are separate matters.
China's basic foreign policy objective is national security. It has a
2,600 mile border with the Soviet Union, a border which liha- been
the source of much conflict over the centuries. In addition, seem-
ingly of greater current importance to China, are ideological differ-
ences which exacerbate the traditional animosity. The Chinese are
confident of their ability to meet any attack from the Soviet Inion.
A leader in the border area said to me :'We have no fear of them and
are prepared. We will oppose a war of agresion. Justice will )e oi
our side and we are bound to triumph."
The resumption of friendly Sino-V.S. contact stems at least in part
from the Sino-Soviet dispute. Absent a settlement o fthe Taiwan issue.
this expediency sustains the V.S.-China relationship. M-aos legacy
of ideological animosity to the Soviet U-nion. at least for the present.
will also be a restraining influence on Chinese accommodation with the
Soviet Union. There are indications, however, that steps nav be taken
to settle tle disputes and return Sino-,Soviet relations to a more nor-
mal state of affairs. A thaw is possible and when it comes it is iii-
perative that our relations with China be in good repair.
Nationalism is a driving force in China. Mao's stress was not on
projecting China's influence externallya but on restoring., Chiii s
traditional role as a model society to be emulated by other nations.
China remains pre-occupied with internal problems and that i likely
to continue for the foreseeable future. China rejects su )er 1poxver staIt us.
associating itself with the developinlcr countries. Whl1at it sliow- to the
Third World is an alternative to becomingr tied to either of tl super-
powers and a model for the effective handling' of (evelopieiit )1rol)-
hens on a national basis. Clhinese leaders deIny ally -U,2etlion that
they are the leader of the Third World. saying that'such a role would
violate China's principle of "never seekintr hegerlony." By putting





18

agriculture first, China has succeeded in feeding its vast population
without outside aid. This accoinllislulenit has not gone unnoticed by
tle tood-poor nations of the world. There can b~e little doubt that
China's example will be of growing sigilificane in the years ahead
in an i ternat iona1l conillllunit vhose attention is increasingly concen-
ti-ated on problems of reso Irce allocation and socia development.
Mao's goal for ( Illna. stated tlii 'o ll (hiou E11-lai, was to build a
comprehensive, independent iiiustrial anl ecolmniic svst em by 1980
and, in the second stage, to modernize its ecoloml ,v so tlat by the end
of the century China's "economy will be advancing In the front raoks
of tlie world." O ln the hasis of miv ol )servations in three visits over the
last four and a half years, I believe that (li1a11 is well on its way
toward a(chieving its initial goal. It has solved he food problem and
has made remarkable strides in popitlation control. The standard of
living, although 11ea1er )v our stilada rds. is constantly improving.
Human muscle power is still more the rule than the ex((eption In m10
of China's day-to-day development. But ('hina is not a bwikward na-
tion. It has capitalized on the ingenuity of the Chinese people and is
proceeding on the thesis that nations, as well as humans. must learn to
crawl before they can walk. What is of significance is that China has
growing self-confidence in its capacity to leap-froc" to the status of a
modern industrial state. "Even if the sky should fall down." goes a
Shanghai worker's slogan, "we will shoulder it,."
There are problems ahead for China to he sure. The enormity of its
problems, one Chinese bureaucrat said, could be appreciated from the
simple fact that if each person ate another spoonful of rice a day. it
would take an additional one million tons of rice each year to meet the
new demand. Maintaining the revolution bv avoiding the growth of
elitism within the party bureaucracy is likely to be a continuing prob-
lem. Keepin, the young, who have no personal memories of the "bad
old (lays." filled with zeal may be another. There are also centrifugal
forces at work between the 'provinces and the central government,
between the army and elements in the party, between north and south,
and between the old and the young. There is also the danger that
human greed will re-surface in Maos new man as the Chinese reach the
stage where larger amounts of discretionary income are available. Not-
withstanding these potential difficulties. -Mo's pre<'e()ts of self-reliance,
serve-the-people, and his goal of abolish in," basic social ineqilalities are
likely to guide the country's leadership, whatever its make-up, for the
foreseeable future.
Mao Tse-tunc was one of the political giants of this age. He probably
had a direct, personal, and positive impact on the lives of more people
than any man in modern history. From a prostrate ,(1nd( divided c01-
try, under his leadership has emerged a unified nation of confident,
self-reliant people whose pride in the past has been restored and who
have a vision of a bright future. By any measure. China is a nation
which must be increasingly reckoned with !y the U-nited States and
the world. China has overcome vast obstacles in the short span of
twenty-seven years. It is now in a position where, wit!h ellective leader-
ship, its rate of progress can accelerate rap~idlv. By the turn of the cen-
tury. China could be a ,giant. not only in human and natural resources,
1,ut also in its capacity to inifluence the world.
"'See Anpondix E for Premier Chou En-lai's speech of January 13, 1975, summarizing
China's policy and objectives.








TV. OBSERVATIONS ON TIHE CUnTIN'I' SCENE IN CHINA
A. AGRICULTURE
China's economy is keyed to agricutltmvi. It has the larye.St unibeer
of people and livestock to feed in the world. It lea(ls in t le I)rll- of rice, hogs (one-tlhird of worlds total ) and lpoul 1Y, and ranks sec(lld
or third in wheat, corn, soybeans, cotton, sleep. li orses anid eggs.
China's agricultural i)roblem can be pierceive(l in tle stark st atistics of
its arable land. It is aiming to feed its 800-950 inillioi people in a
country whose arable land totals only a)oult 2('5,())0,(')0() i(cis. hi at
figure compares with 435,000,000 acres in the T Iited States wit I only
one-fourth as many people to feed. Even India, wit i. ()osiderably
less people, has about one-third more arableI land.
As a matter of national policy, agriculture is the foundation" of the
economy. Some 80 percent of China's population lives in the country-
side and agriculture contributes about 70 percent of the raw materials
for China's light industry, which has priority after agriculture in
development policy. All inhabited areas outside of cities and towns,
except for a small percentage taken up by state fainis, are divi(led into
some 50,000 communes. Communes vary in population from 10.000 to
80,000 and are divided into production'brigades which are sul)(livided
into production teams. This smallest working unit consists of about 30
to 40 households, totaling 150 to 200 people, which is responsible for
farming about 50 acres. A brigade might embrace five to ten produc-
tion teams living in one or more villages. The commune today is pri-
marily an administrative unit, day-to-day economic and social life
enters in the production bri(rades and teams.
In an area like Xinjiang (Sinkiang), a border land with difficult
climate, soil and terrain conditions, the approach to agricultural orga-
nization varies from the norm. 'Whereas the commune structure, essen-
tially a cooperative system based on people who already inhabited the
area, is typical of most of China, in Xinjiang (Sinkiang) there are also
state farms which operate on a different principle. State farms ac-
count for 35 percent of the cultivated land and produce more than
one-fourth of the area's grain. After 19t9, units of the People's Libera-
tion Army (PLA) were sent into the area to establish farms. ,Onwhat
had been barren land. The PLA enterprises, have eX llinto st,/ e
farms and the soldiers have long since been demobilized. New people,
primarily Htan, mnicrratincy to the province have swollen the popula-
tion of tle state farms. The Number 143 State Farm in Shili ITo-
tzu, which I visited, has expanded many times since it was estab-
lished. In the beo-inninc it consisted of about 1.000 people on (,50- '00
acres of land. It now has 40,000 people on 34,000 acres. TalT (ito its
population is made up of young children a-tn students. The birth riate
was once twenty per thousand, bult is said to be delininu as a result
of efforts to promote fail planning. Onlv part of t, ipopul 1at ion ill-
crease on the farm is attributable to the high( birth riate, mulci' stes
from the influx of Han youth from outside the } province .
On state farms such as Number 143. the State is t!ie over and cn-
plover, whereas on communes the land is owned in icomnionb b the
residents with their income coming pr-ima rilyv froni sale of tlie l}r()ulee
of the commune to the state. One significance of the state farms. which






20

control *---10 percent of (i s iagriult ural land. is that they are vehi-
elos for developing lpreviolsl V illlrodulct ive land in remote regions,
thus l rovidliig a livelihood for new settlers. On the Numb1hel 143 State
lVa i' t]i ii ieworlke s caroi wages averagig al IoIt 5 1an (-25) a
month. T'Fl( have no Il)ivate plots as on communes. They construct
their own houses, make their own imlpilements. 'and provide for many
of their otler needs. (Onlv a single cro1 a year call b~e cultivated there-
maize,. wheat, cotton aid sugar !beets. Pigs, sh eep and poultry are also
rai ed. Foml lproce -siiig is -n important adjunct of agriculture.
(lina has been able to push its grain harvests upwards each year
by stressing a national policy of "taking train as the key link." In
alll ication, this means. first, improving and exI)aildingt by "rural
capital construction". Ciiina liimited arable area. Vlat is Involved is
levelilg, terracing, and reclaimingc millions of acres of previously un-
productive lanid every year. and improving the irrigation and drain-
age of cultivated land. This requires the back-breaking toil of a
hundred million peasants or more each winter season. I saw
im1ch leveling anld terracinm goinc on ol I traveled through the
countryside. It is work that obviously cold be performed more
expedi tiously and on a larger scale if more earth-moving machinery
were available. The manitide of the largely human-labor effort,
however, can be seen in the achievements registered under the Fourth
Five-Year Plan (1971-197'). Over 80 million acres of land were
leveled, a process essential to mec!ianization and use of irrigation.
'Iwentv million acres were brought underr new or improved irrigation,
albouit 17 million acres were protected from waterlogging and about
eight million acres were terraced.
Multiple cropping is being increased as a means of expanding out-
put. New strains of grains with shorter growing seasons and higher
yields are being developed. In Jiangsu (Kiangsu) province a typical
sequence is two crops of rice followed by one of wheat. The Yunghe
Production Team of the Tuanfen People's Commune in Taishan
County. Guangdong (Kwangtung) province, which I visited, regu-
larlv I>roduces three crops and now gets four in several of its fields.
Witlh azricultiire the top priority, industry directs its efforts to sup-
porting it by producing machinery, fertilizer and insecticides. To
achieve mechanization "in the main" by 1980. as called for by now
alrtv Chlairmn,/ and Premier I + K~ulo-fenl,20 il tle fall of 19'.-
industrial inputs on a vastly increased scale will be necessary. I saw
iflflv iV )re.sive exami i>les of local efforts to meet this goal.
Turpan (Turfan) County in the Turpan Depression in Xinjiang
(SinkianY) Province is an'unusual example of the massive effort to
improve arricltinral production. Tile Tirpan I)epression drops to
more than 500 feet below sea level. It is a place of intense heat in
summer, fierce winds, and virtually no rainfall. It was once kmown
as t e land of fire." For tbe summer months the temperature averages
abo t 14) decrrees and often goes as higl as 116 degrees. The ground
smiface tenperature reaches 160 deg.iees-. Rainfall averages one-third
of an inch ler year. but the annual evaporation rate is about 75 inches.
The winds are so stri'oi2 that in tile 1,'Ist ,rolS have sinllily blown away.
Tn thiis inhospitable environment of ai(dity. sa d, and wind. self-
help lprogra is have b een organized to fi(!lt the sand hines and the
i tba was then a Vice-Premier and a member of the Politburo.








wind, and to create a prosperous agriculture and new industries. The
leader of tle Forward Briga(le of tie Five Star tPeople%, ( ominmle
described how windbreaks were built to 1)rotect the land froii wind
and drift iIi2 samil. Winl(Ielts col)ose(l of 10 rows of poplar trees in
five tracks vith irri "ation ditche s)eiween have been planted 1inder a
long-tern 1rwgrIII sta rted in 1964. The Iliain wind il*rier was three
kilometers long" with about 400,000 trees. Two other sitiilar belts of
trees have I een ('o11l)leted and two lIjore are playnned1 by the I rigade.
Within thle Ibelt fI-lit trees and grapevines have been p1lante~. In adli-
tion, there are lesser b elts aroum i iidivi~tial 1)lots of cultivated lan(.
Altogether in the Tur1pan area some 850 miles of windbreaks have been
established.
Th key to local agricultural success has been the increased avail-
ability of water. 1his has been brought about by three methods. First,
the people of Turpan built 400 miles of canals to tap the waters of
diistant snow-covered mountains. Secon(l, they diig soihe 600 tradi-
tional wells. The third method is l)v what is called the 'Karez Well," a
system consisting of a series of wells sunk to an underground water
flow which starts at the foot of the distant snow covered mountains
with the wells decreasing in depth as they approach the apriciiltuiral
area. This ingenious system is designed to'keep the ground water from
being dissipated in the sand. There are about. 500 Karez Wells in Tur-
pan Countv, all interconnected with the canals.
Turpan County covers 4,000 square miles, with 50.000 acres of culti-
vated land. The population of 139.000 lives in ten towns- seven
communes, and one state farm. Until about ten or so years aco. the
sand drift in Turpa was so relentless that houses and villages were
sometimes buried and ninny people forced to move from their homes.
The drifts have now been blocked. Over 1,000 sand dunes have been
leveled and turned into productive farni land. The sand drifts and
dunes have been controlled by windbreaks, flushinoi, manual spreading
,nd tractors. Sand has been carried away to improve barren land and
the composition of the soil elsewhere.
Before 1949 "the people led a miserable life," a local leader said.
Now the area under ciltivation has doubled and crop yields have
greatly increased. In the past grain was short : now the county
sends (rain to the state. The living standard, we were told, has im1-
proved so that the production teams now have large grain reserves.
money in the bail, and the people "wear woolens and silks and have
bicycles, radios and! watches."
In 1964 Chalrman M[ao (leclare Taclai is a production brigade in Shanxi (Shansi) province. which
achieved an imipressve record in turnin arr
riII ) ar 1 e mlountainloulster-
rain into p)ro(tlctive land while overcoinin difficult obstacles of morale
and weather. "Learn from Tachai," is a constant refrain in the coun-
tryside throughout China. with Tacbai held up as a model for all coi-
,"unes, brigades and teams to emulate. At the 1975 arfriCiulti'al con-
.,ence, the then Vice-Premier I-ua Kiuo-fengr set forth as a o'oal that
more than one-third of China's counties should become "Taclt ai-type'
counties by 1980. More than 300 counties had already so distinguished
themselves, he declared, but at least 1010 more "Iaclai-type counties
should be added anmmnallv for the next five years.
An example of "learninor from Taclai" is the Iua-lis Brirade in
Jiangsu (Kiangsu) province. This advanced brigade lives in a neatly






22


laid out village. It contains 1026 perons in 85 households, who farm
14( ) acres. Before 194 9 the area consisted of many small, unproductive.
plot s of irregular land. traIn l)roductioi was about 100o) pounds an
acre. II I 1)lthe lerigade adopted a fifteen-\year (hvelol)nient plan to
increase production to G tons an acre. The goal was achieved in eight
years. in 1,75 the two crops of rice and one of wheat grown by this
brigade amounted to about 7.5 tons an acre. The increase was made pos-
sible primarily by the consolidation and leveling of 1-')(0 small uneven
plots into 4(A) larger plots. and by increased mechanization.
'ieliviIr standards of the brigade immemimb have risen substan-
tiahey during tlis j)eriod. Avera(e annual income is now nore than
douiblethat of 1!) and every family has money in the bank and grain
reserves. Ihe peasants have moved into new homes, including some
yew two-story houses which, although modest by American standards,
ale markedly more conlfortable than the older housing. The brigade
has preserved one house and a small plot of land from the old (lays to
make young people understand how the present compares with the
pasl. The brigade provides services such as a tailor, barber, bath-
house, shoe repair and a variety of small stores. Private plots are
farmed colletively and fresh vegetables delivered daily to each house-
hold. There are free primary and middle schools for the children as
well as a nurserw and a kindergarten. Several barefoot doctors operate
a small clinic. The economtiy of Itua-hsi has been diversified. Earlier the
brigade concentrated on glowing rice. Now it has orchards, fisheries
and raises stock animals. Half of the brigade's income cones from
occupations other than raising grain. The Hua-hsi Brigade is now pro-
cee(lding under a second economic plan that seeks by the early 1980's to
accomplish such goals as production of ten tons of grain an acre, diver-
sification, complete mechanization in agricultural production, and the
provision of a new, two-story dwelling to every household. The plan's
success depends heavily on niechanizat ion. On all farms I visited there
was some degree of mechanization and plans for more. Mechaniza-
tion can be applied to planting, plowing, harvesting, irrigation,
ing, transportation and other operations such as the processing of food.
How fast China can fabricate and put into fields the machines for these
purposes depends on many factors. It depends on the competition for
available iion and steel and on local factors affecting the production
teams and brigades, including personal initiative, topography, soil
conditions and finances.
I)espite continuing advances in agricultural output, there is still
rationing of grain, cooking oil and cotton goods. Mixtures of cotton
and synthetic fibers are not subject to rationing. Replacement of cot-
ton with synthetics is encouraged to release cotton acreage for other
crops. Increased use of synthetics is also in lhrmony with China's ris-
ing petroleum output.
After centuries of stripping the forests, wood has been a scarce coni-
modity in most parts of China for a long time. Concrete is used for
many purposes where wood would normally be employed in the United
States. for example. in electric poles, railroad ties and small boats.
One of the most significant agricultural achievements since 1949 has
been in tree-planting. Virtually everywhere there were immense plant-
ings of trees, often in niultiple rows, along the roads, rivers, canals,
and irrigation ditches. While it was difficult to get comprehensive fig-






23


tires. I was told that in the citv of Na aiiji i (Naiikiiiur) alone. for ex-
ample, 2(6.)0.000trees had l-eii 1laitted slce 1il)eratioll. A ffolh"4at ,i 01
progralnis have beell ichl liilel in ta 11 11 aiolal 1 i 'b" a gric tilt re t, )V' u1te
past two decades al fronn v o)bservatilolls. it w()ldh seem Ithat \V ittI-
in a decade ("liia naV be able to satisfY coi Illet l its ice for'wood.
In fact, paper anid 1)Ivwood laVe bee slgiliticailt exports (t1iring1 tthe
past several years.

B. OTHER ASIECTS OF (IINA S ECONO NY
"Take agriculture as the foundation and industry as the leading
factor" suns up priorities for developing Clla's economy. Agricul-
ture comiies first, followed by light industry and, last. heavy 1li(d ustry.
Light industry and agricultureare (los ely linked because'two-thirds
of the raw nmiterials for light i iustrV come from ag(ricult ure. Growth
in the agricultural and liglt industrial sectors provides the basis for
financing as well as the market for heavy industrv, which in turn pro-
duces the maclijery, transport and so on that sustain progress in agri-
culture and light, industry.
The performance of the economy ill 1975, the, last year of the
Fourth Five-Year Plan and the latest year for which genrliza
can be made, advanced China another step toward immediate and fu-
ture goals. Value of indu4rial production rose about ten percent over
19"74, a year of lesser itains. Large increase were, recorded in produc-
tion of such item-s as radios. watches. bicycles. sewing machines,
cameras, yarns and textiles. Judging by the goods ob served i depart-
ment and other stores in I ri ii (1runcli) Beijing ( eking). Guang-
zhou (Canton) and Shanglai. there seem to be adequate Supplies of
these items for domestic consumption. Stores are well stocked anid
jamnied with (ustomej-s.
The emphasis placed on light industry over heavy industry has
clearly helped to met the iweeds anl desires of thepeople. Liglit in-
dlustries. Itoreover, include tlhose th(at happen to harmonize with tra-
ditional skills of the ('hinese an(1d are cap able of earning forel'n ex-
change. During nv visit I toured several small factories whuici illis-
trated the practical approach to Chinas industrial (leelopilen t. The
August First Woolei Mill in Shilh IIo-tzu in Xinjian (Sinkiang)
province. was established to process the wool from ll(e sheep that are
raised in the area. This factory was started in 195S on a stretch of des-
ert. With 5;.).000 spindles and 2.500 workers in seven w workshops, it n()w
turns out piece goods and varns that are exported to te iicomitries. ill-
eluding, soMe in Eastern Europe as well as Korea. Vietnani, ('uba. Eu-
wait and liong rKonr. I also toured the July First Cotton Textile -Mill
in Urumqi (1lrimichi) in the same 1)rONInce. Although!: iXnl iang (Siln-
kang) produced cotton in 1949, cloth and thread w ere then ade only
(1 1-11jej) star1to( tte ll(111N11J
by hand. A PLA unit in I runmpi (IrunchiI) s th ml which
went into production in1952. It now has 100,0001)spindles amd ".*,00
workers.
Another example of local initiative is the small factory I observed
in IHsinthi, Guang(long (Kwangtmig) Province. The Artistic Ialm
Products Factory lhas ca)italized on the palmi tree whAich is iative
to H-sinhui. In 1958 local workers ia(le the iiacliiies for processing
the palm leaf and the factory now has 5,00 emIployeIs turning out a
variety of products such as mats, fans, hats, curtains and baskets.






24


Still another example of light industry which has capitalized on an
ancient Chinese skill and local resources is the Taishan Porcelain
F actory also in Guangdong (Kwangtung) province. It produces china-
ware and porcelain products for both domestic use and export. The
factory was established during the "Greap I*ap Forward~ in 1958.
No sutic industry had previously exlted in 1'al shan County. It
now produces about 20 different pottery products and forty percent of
its annual production of 10 million pieces is exported. I saw saucers
destined for Africa, bowls for Thailand and Malaysia and teapots for
Southeast Asia. Small local factories like these, keyed to local needs
and resources, can be seen throughout China. They constitute the basic
foundation of China's industrial development efforts and are not only
significant for internal consumption but are often foreign exchange
earners.
Top priority is assigned to industry which aids in expanding agri-
cultural production. The increase in production of large and walking
tractors and farm related diesel engines, in 1975 over 1974, for ex-
ample, was stated as 40%. The walking tractor is a versatile machine
especially useful in rural areas in the present stage of China's develop-
ment. It is a motorized, hand or foot guided machine that can accom-
modate an assortment of attachments, including wheeled carriers that
convert it into a means of transport. I saw thousands on the streets
and roads of China, filling a gap between large trucks and bicycles or
push carts. The primary use of the machine, however. is in the fields.
One can plow an acre of ground in an hour. From a small shop with
13 workers set up in 1956 to make hand tools such as hoes and sicklks,
the Farm MNachinery Factory in Hsinhui County has developed into
a factory with 750 workers that in 1975 turned out 7,500 "worker-
peasant Type Ten walking tractors and expects to produce 8.500 this
year.
As China's economy develops it can be expected that heavy industry
and energy will receive more attention. Indeed, a trend in this direction
is already detectable. Capital construction in 1975 was up perhaps
twenty percent over 1974, including for example, expansion in such
industries as electric power, petroleum, coal, motor vehicle, fertilizer
and sugar refining. An example of heavy industry which came to my
attention was the Shanghai Electrical Machinerv Plant in Minhang,
a satellite city of 80,000 people in the Shanghai Municipality. The fac-
tory builds turbo-(renerators and electric motors. With 800 workers, it
is one of a number of plants located in this Shanghai suburb.
The Electrical 'Machinery Plant cane to Minhang in 1951 with a
couple of hundred workers. In 1954 it turned out a generator of 6000
KXV. u ing a foreiszn design. Emplovimo local eno'ineering and design
skills, the plant turned out successively larger generators until now it
produces generators with ratings as high as 300,000 KW. Although
many of the workers learned techniques and engineering skills through
practice and stu(lv at the factory, it has engineers from universities in
many parts of China and one received training in the U7nited States.
Production in this plant in 197.5 was said to be eight-fold that of 1965.
WVhile generators of various capacity are produced, two or three each
year are of the largest size. 300,000 K1V'. Presently progiamed is a
600,000 KV generator.






25


A weakness in China's development effort exists in the iron and steel
industry. Out put is increasing slowly, and ililorts are still ne(essarv.
In the early ift es (" hinas pro(incti m of cride steel was only a few
million metric tons a vear: i1 1971. it was 21 million tolls. After fluc-
tuating, it increase to only v26 111,illiol niletric tons in 1975. A fiirther
increase in capacity call be expected Nxlien ne w plants supplied by
Japanand Germany come on the line in 1978.
Even in heav v ib 1list ry. the It ress vil ta is ol self-rel iaue e. he
Yangtze Ilv'er Bridge at Nalijincg ( Nailkill') is aII example of' ad-
vanced e1'inie ri ig a l (,oplex steel cast i n ac( I !0iiilisliet )yv (,li ese
teclnicians. It is l)otli a railroad and hiighway span. a ke(v tranij)porta-
tion link between iiortli and south ( hina. Ihe n"iway portion of the
bridge is over 22.000 feet. with the span rutning more than a mile over
the water. (hina had not previously made the special steel required in
construction of the l)ridle ....and la( C'o ntracted with th-e Soviet Union
to supply it. When the !break camie with Moscow, China was thrown
back on its own liemliitv. te Anshan Iron and Steel Works in North
China came uplt with tile required steel and the bridge opened on
sehedtle in 1968. The econoinic importance of the bridge. although
it is not the only bridge over the Yangtze. is shown tby the traffic
which it carriers. About 120 trains cross each day, compared with about
40 a day by the old ferry method.
During my recent visit, which carried me to distant parts of China,
I observed that electricity had become available virtually everywhere.
Even the humblest dwellings in rural areas had electric lines running
in to them. During the quarter century of the existence of the People's
Republic, China, has become a major producer of energy-third in the
world in coal production. sixth in natural gas and thirteenth in pe-
troleum. Iydroelectric power is still a ninor source.
The following table shows comparative growth.
CHINA: PRODUCTION OF PRIMARY ENERGY
Total Coal Oil Natural gas Hydroelectric
Million metric tons of coal equivalent
1965 --------------------------------- 198 169 16 12 1
1970 --------------------------------- 306 233 43 28 2
1974 --------------------------------- 428 289 98 38 3
Percent
1965 --------------------------------- 100 85 8 6 1
1970 --------------------------------- 100 76 14 9 1
1974 -------------------------------- 00 67 23 9 1

China has large reserves of coal., with some in virtually every
province. In the past the best deposits were IIt the -Northi aIId'tN)tl1-
east and there was tliouglit to b!e little elsewhere. III re('et veart s l e
discovery of stibstantial deposits in Hile Soiitli has greiatlv ii)rove0t
national availability. Slhortag(s iII coal 1ro)d teliol wittil thIe 1 as!
several years, have cawued pro)lelis for the Iron alb11 steel i (ahistry.
the railroads and fertilizer pro iict it. ('oal prodii ctioi li(l beeii :1
a slumIp for several years, paril. lbecalls etju il)VieIlt 811(1 1f1Id11
troubles )ut pro(ldcti(b) gains were 1(, (rtc red in I 975 witIt (Wit! t at
about 430 million nietric tons, cOmlp)are( withI aliiist 590 nillo 11111 netrie






26


tons in tile United States. A nati onal conference' on coal was held in
Beij i1g 1( eng) in late 1,)7 at \Nhich al program for iehaniization
and tle du clopiuentI of new capacity was unveiled. It will take several
years. ho\e\er, for tils to ilear Iriit.
C hina Cs exploitation t1 its peth aoleun resources has resulted in rapid
increases of its prodcttloll, iII recent sears. New fields have beei dis-
covered and oil fields ha\ e been more intensively worked. Production
has been expanding at a rate of 20 percent a year and in 1975 was
about 60 inilliojin metric tolls. Tis COiipiares with almost, 420 million
metric tons in the iUnited States in the sanie year. Last year China
publicized the (hQ-elopineIit of %)l slOre drilling capaqit in shallow
waters of the GiI If of Pohai. 1o' reasons not aIt ogetther clear, the rate
of increase in oil product iou diuiiiniislied it 1976 and exports declined.
Although (ltuna h1as relied to some extent on foreign equipilelit, it
rejects lore in participation in the exploitation of its oil resources.
At present there appears to be no intention to permit any foreign
copllpany to receive exploration, drilling or similar concessions. Proc-
essing capabilities lag behind potroleumni output but this gap could be
narrowed or eliminated when new refineries In eastern cities come
into operation in the near future. As to the future, problems in stimu-
lating coal productions make it doubtful that the rate of increase in
energy output can be maintained let alone accelerated. As a result
demand for energy may mount faster than the supply. Such a develop-
ment would both affect petroleum exports and nake hydroelectric
power more attractive. Water power has been a minor source of energy
and by its nature cannot become a major challenger of either coal or
oil. Nevertheless, in niountainous China hydro power is a promising
ouI rce.
I visited a hydroelectric system in the Kutou Mountains of Guang-
dong (K.aiigttilni) province. This enterprise was started in 1958 as
an afforestation and tree fariiiiing project and beginning in 1970 a
complex of reservoirs, water chanels and power stations was added.
The tree farms were expanded, fruit trees planted, and the reservoirs
stocked with fish. The centerpiece of this complex is a system of ten
reservoirs, dams, channels and hdrogetierator stations at descending
levels of thie mountains. The twenty "small-sized," as they were de-
scribed, hydroelectric generators add up to ttotal capacity of only
T000 KAV. A plan is being put into effect, however, to expand the
capacity of the generators to 10,00() KAI but. judging by the volume
of the water, and the length of descent, the potential is much higher.
A principal sigfliiicance of the system is that it was built from scratch
by local labor. It was an impressive example of the doctrine of "self-
reliance" iii practice.
Recent figures for the first half of 1976 indicate that the Fifth
Five-lear Plan (1976-1980) is off to a good start and is continuing
the long-term growll t rend. The gross value of industrial output was
lip percent over the first half of 1975 and the machine building
industry is reported to have fulfilled more than half of the 1976 pro-
du(ction plan in the first half of the year. Coal, gas, and electric power
were all up, but it is notewortliy that the increase inioil l"iction
in the first half slipped from the 20 percent level achieved in recent
years to about ten percent. In certain industries the completion in
1976 of the first contingent of two billion dollars worth of imported






27


plants and equipment under ibte F)urt ih Five-Year PIaNn will adl to (ie
cal)ital base, particularly i i' a it ti peti ct( u, i, lielliicaI 1 (, SYlth
fiber industries.
Attaining success ii (le ci Itl lFive-Year |Hian (197-19S()) is criti-
cal for ad v,u.In toward OleIlliiid-terl(-) oals of "'ihdepell(leul( a'Ind
"relatively comp relticisiv" de xe l )I)ient b t e i( 1 )Ss all holigl Hie
specific goals of that plan have iiot bee disclosed. 'I'lle political prob-
leIs of lie past year, the first year of that t)IaIl, 1iudolibtedlv absorbed
an undue amount of the ()overlitlhelt-s attel(ijiol I)it repolits at tlie
end of October were that ie overi ii ent pes h as aoaiI" stressed
former Premier (hollts goal of nI)o(llerlzIg t(e ecoloi oli.
It seems that tle question of how mucn h priority industry will re-
elive wiIeI depend oi the po)gr(ess, iiiade agriciIlttire. Progressithe
later has lheeii so rapid that a point could be approachii at which a
decision to allocate higher priorities to industry might be taken. This
could become one of the salient features of the Fifth Five-Year Plan.

C. FOREIGN TRADE
China's foreign trade is controlled by the Beijing (Peking) govern-
ment and is not subject to decision by lesser authorities or by private
individuals. Since it is so mucli an instrument of national policy, for-
eigi trade is responsive to the political philosophies that compete
within the party hierarchy.
The power of the principle of self-reliance in molding the economic
effort of the (hinese. people has been described ea lie ie this report.
It is a particularly influencial principle in foreign trade policy. But
self-reliance does not stand in the way of trade that can be conducted
on a basis of "equality and mutual benefit, trade that does not lead to
dependence on foreigners. A principle of Chinas trade practice is that
economic aid and loans, other than normal supplier credits, should not
be accepted from abroad. China is proud that it is in debt to no one
and evidently it intends to maintain that course. The New China News
Agency recently explained:
Ae stand for independence and self-reliance. This does not
mean we decline to study foreign experience, neither does it
mean that we lock our door : a wa.inst the world aild refuse to
develop foreign trade or to introduce from abroad certain
techniques and equipment really useful to China.
It is a matter of profiting from, and not becoming dependent on. for-
eign technology" and equipment.
Commerce with other nations contributes only marginally to Chinass
economy. Therefore. the debate bet ween the niod(eates" and
radicals" over how much stress to place on foreign technology, relates
only to a marginal, but significant, conmponent of the national economic
structure. Briefly, the "moderates" favor increased trade withI other
countries to obtain the sophisticated technology and equipment China
needs for (levelolInient, vi iile tle r"a(lieals, ass rmi (gr at er X we i rlit
to ideology, are reluctant to increase Chins ( 'lependenice on external
sources and also fear that such trade relations would stimulate growth
of a technically oriented bureaucracy remote from the people. The
surge in (hina's trade since 197-2 reflects the philosophy of' the "n'od-
crates." The years 1973-1975 were marked by several notable develop-






28


ments-the orders for whole plants and machinery from abroad as a
spur to heavy industry, the mushrooming sales of petroleum, and the
ulw urring, of a large deficit followed by efforts to bring trade once more
into balance. Self-reliaiice has remained a potent factor, however, so
that Chi1na has advanced technologically without a massive input of
foreign technology. Repeatedly in my travels 1 was told in factory
after factory how the workers had built their own machines, often
iriodeled oil others, but in many cases improved by indigenous innova-
tions. imported equipment makes up only a small portion of the ma-
chines in China's fields and factories. Thei' qualitative input from for-
eign imports, however, could be of key sirnificance in particular situ-
ations,. such as in the case of the purchase of prototype plants and
advanced computers.
China's trade began a rapid expansion in 1973, increasing to $10 bil-
lion from $6 billion the previous year. In 1974 trade soared to nearly
$14 billion but the deficit also climbed from $170 million to $810 mil-
lion. The trade deficit was cut to $400 million in 1975, not by changing
the general pattern substantially-but by selling more to developed
countries and importing less from developing countries. In 1975 the
direction of trade shifted more towards Japan. Hong Kong (which
respectively rank one and two as China's trading partners), Western
Europe and Rumania, and away from the United States and Canada.
More than four-fifths of China's trade is now with non'Communist
countries, but trade with Communist nations provides China with a
substantial market for commodities, unsalable in the West, which can
be exchanged for industrial goods. Imports of agricultural products,
such as grains, cotton and soybeans, were reduced, because burgeoning
harvests have built tip China's reserves. Imports of machinery and
plant equipment increased by 30 percent, mostly in fulfillment of whole
plant contracts made in 1973-1974. Contracts for entire plants, such as
petrochemical and metallurgical complexes, reached a peak of $1.2 bil-
lion in 1973, dropped to about $850 million in 1974 and to less than
$400 million in 1975. The policy of buying whole plants was justified
in the face of China's policy of self-reliance on the grounds that such
imports would in the long run advance that principle. China's 1975
exports increased over 1974. Athough traditional exports, food, tex-
tiles, and handicrafts, receded somewhat because of the slack world
economy China more than made up the difference with petroleum ex-
ports whIiich rose to about olne billion dollars. Visible trends in 1976
show some slackening of trade expansion, primarily because of a de-
crease in oil exports, but there could be some increase in traditional
Chinese exports due to improvement of the world's economy and more
effective )romotion of exports.
Hong Kong is a special situation in China's external trade. In an
economic sense, British-governed tlonig Kong is an outpost of China
and its principal contact with the capitalistic world. Hong Kong is a
prolific earner of foreign currency for the People's Republic. This
helps to explain why Peking shows no haste in reasserting sovereignty
over the British-ruled enclave. This city of 4.4 million pople, almost
all Chinese, is China's second largest trading partner, behind only
Japan. In 1975 China exports to Hong Kong totaled $1.4 billion dol-
lars while only five million dollars of goods were bought from the






29


colony. Chlina's favorable balance witl I tong Kong is almost twice its
deficit vitl ,Japan.
Although Clhiiia is I)lilosoplically opIosed to forein'n i'Ivc-41 Hel4tl
oil its soil it llas niot hesitated to invest inh I long o ng. ( hina. iII a (dis-
play of I lat I ias cell callc c collie rcializedc I 1 1lmll1isJil" has mIad(e
investments in a great variety of tii is andI([ Iete'rises I ii I 1o(Y Kollg
which bring a rich return, i icldimhing banks, depart I m"t ] tioret, coim-
inercial ageiicies and distribu tors llanu facturimilg ti 'n is, wa liiss
and inlsralce companies. Profits lioii these ill vest i11]iti'
from Beijing (1Ieking) -owned or controlled bmks,) aid reii ttances to
China by Chinese in IHong Kong amount to perhaps an additional 600
million dollars. Pragma tically, the foreigI exchange which Itong
Kong provides helps Cliiiia to acquire tile high technology andl ma-
chines it needs from abroad to achieve the goals outlined by Premier
Chou at the Fourth National Con(_ress. In turn, I1ong Kong with its
millions of inhabitants Nvold find it dificult, if not Inpossible, to exist
without. the food, fuel, textiles and even water that China supplies. The
colony cannot be self sufficient nor can it easily shift to other suppliers.
China derives a number of auxiliary benefits from the Hong Kong
connection. For instance, Ioong Kong serves as an important port for
China which has a shortage of harbor facilities. It is a neutral site
where businessmen from many different countries can ake contact
with the Chinese to explore matters of mutual interest. Itong Kong
has channels of information about economic, financial anld other world
developments which are of value to somewhat isolated (lijese officials.
Finally Hong Kong is, in a sense, a school for China's officials to learn
worldwide trading and marketing techniques in a supply and demand
environment. These techniques may be of increasing benefit as indus-
trialization proceeds in China and it aspires to greater participation in
world trade and finance.

D. EDUCATION-PRACTICAL AND IDEOLOGICAL
In China today education takes place on a mass scale. One-fifth of
the population is in school at the primary, middle and university levels.
Add to this the many millions who are in factory, vocational and other
short-term training or are taking correspondence courses offered by
the universities and other educational institutions and one can reason-
ably estimate that one-third to one-half of the Chinese people are
engaged in full-time or part-time study of one kind or another. Thisis
a far cry front the massive illiteracy of pre-1949 China.
China's educational system was drastically transformed during the
Cultural Revolution. "Education," Chairman Mao declared, "mist.
serve proletarian politics and be combined with productive labor." In
the judgment of party leaders, stiileits in the educational system had
been isolated from the life and labor of the workers and peasants and
were learning "by rote" subjects of social irrelevance. raduates were
thought to be incapable of assuming the tasks of China*s socialist
society and to constitute an intellectual elite out of touch w itIi. tie work-
ing class. Changes were instituted to end those conditions by chlianging
the educational process to give priority to rIrevolutiona ry purposes.
At present, the normal sequence for study is five yea's of primary
school followed by five years of middle school following which grad-






41A


uates go to work ill factor), or commune. But throughout there is much
exiposure to practical work XJ)erieflce. The re forms in education in-
stitited (luring the cultural revolution are exemplified in the Teachers
College at Nanjing (Nanking) which I visited. The cultural revolu-
tion brought about a change in tHie philosophy, cuirricula and adminis-
tr:ltive procedures of the school in order to conform with Chairman
Mao's principle that "e(ducation must serve a proletarian purpose.
The spirit of the political transformation of the system i is evident in the
new criteria for admission to tle school. Previously acceptance for en-
rollment (lepen(le(l on graduation from middle school and receiving
groo marks in national entrance exa minations. Now applicants must
have at least two Nyears of experience in factories or communes and
be recoinnumended by their local revolutionary (oinittee. College offi-
cials asserted that priority is given to the "political conscousness" of
the apzlirants as slhown in their work. IUnder this policy, most enrollees
are still riddle school graduates. but some are not. In the interest of
making the curriculuml more practical (tile earlier "theoretical" nature
of education is condenined) the four-ye(,ar curriculum was shortened to
three and the students now spend three months of each year working
in factories or communes. The principal subjects taught in the teachers
college do not appear unusual-Chinese language, foreign languages,
the art of teaimi(r. l)olitical education, music, fine arts, mathematics,
physics. chemistrv. biologv. and geographv. It also conducts courses
for factory workers and l)eople in rural areas. About 3,000 students
attend( sht )' cou rses and 4.000 take correspondence courses. in addition
to the +2.400 regular students.
Tmiran ing in primary and middle schools is tied to day-to-day
life. Schools have a close relationship to work on farms and in fac-
l~~e viand lx'lv combinle learning ih" -)"
tories and ccwth practical exelience. Military
training is also stresse(d. A vivid exain-)le of this approach in practice
was seen at the 'unber Five Municipal Primary School in 'rumqi
(17rumchi). One of the features of this school of 1.80 stmlents was a
small rug weaving operation in which the students obtained 1)rac-
tical training and. in the process, earned somde $20,000 anmally
for the school from sale of the rugs. Another feature was a rifle team
of thirteen-year-old boys and girls who gave an impressive demon-
stration of marksmanship.
Several of the factories I visited had "July 21 IYorkers' Colleges."
These are schools initiated by a 196S directive of Chairman Mao de-
signed to improve the technical knowledge and political consciousni esis
of the workers. China needs many highly skilled teclnicians and, in
tile vieo of tle orovernmenlt. tlese teeli< ians should be inbued with
a socialist. proletarian consciousness. Workers' Colleives are designed
to fulfill these requirements. They are run by factories and aitiled at
training ordinary workers to become skilled teclnicians. The students.
dc'(CC)l i112r to recei t fimires. nowv number almost eight hundred thou-
sand in 15.000 such colleges. The courses range from several noonths to
as long as three years, concentrating on engineering. physical sciences
,nd nathematics. Other subjects such as liberal : ,ts and edicine are
also taught. Instructors are frequently workers from-i the factory. but
sonetiimes enineers and technicians from othve schools. The courses
are tied closely to practical experience in the factory but also include a
theoretical content. The graduates froin these schools are sig ificantly







raising the standards of (ecliology ill (!ll nas factories al id may \\el]
be breaking (lowli (listictions between technicians ain!d workers.
A special kind of s,,ool, ilteid(ldt for tita itlters ((,(Tlie) illb othI
grover i t a I a in I 11011- :g r)V P e11(a11 1(cu1 at i() 11, a 'e "a "MaySevenit I"
schools, initiated l)v a directive issued bv ( 1liainlall AI ao)on i lay T,
196)t. The Ala vSev(eltl school I visite( \vas tlvpical. F' ,.Al] )iliste( It
tl.n('1(ll'es i i tle 1l15aste1' I)ist rid ( t e of foii lliiliicil1 (listricts)
of IBeijing (P'ekilli) ii la(3 00())sti(lells (Iraxvli fromigoiernillt
orgalllzati l)lis. fact()ries. los) itals, stnopws aild school.. e T urp 1) oseoI)s )
t he Ma. Se venth scii()ol is 1'ilv political, 0Hto ( l()ctr11at leaeles
Wvitl sOCialist ideology---MIarxiills, Lneifis1:111(AL()s ttli lit -a1(1
to give thein l)et te'r xareiess of the needs (1 ttdssi)in-itim(is ( f 'tlte )e( -
ple. le yea 's (ou rse is (o01nprise| of t h reep arts th e st o f of la 1x.
Lemn id(L \lao.)p(1ticpatlonI n work Oithe fan hinids of' lte school.
an(l a month of wvork in a proi lctioli briradle of a local coliiiimie. ITh
latter to- are intended to give the cadre a feeiiilm for the l)t of t* te
peasants so they will serve thle people more willingly when they return
to their regl la r jobs. A saying, ill tle school (oes :"After voi ca rv
the shoulder pole (of the 1)easants),halfyour lIIlelLIC~at ic aiis wil
be swe)taway." All cadre in the country, i iclding g b igl ()ffi(ials such
as government ministers an(l nbliassa(lors, are expected to attend( a
May Seventh school. Exceptio0s are (oly for those who are too old.
who are not p)hysicallv fit, who have unusual faiii ly reqiirement s, or
who cannot be spared from their jobs. Every government minister ylias
a Mlay Seventh school as does the (," ieral ()fice of the Conminist
Party's Central Comiittee.
The reforms in education introduced at the tine of the cultural
revolution huave repeatedly been termed "experimental," ilicating
that additional cluianges coul(I( ,ome. The reforms have reflected more
the ideological teindencies in the party than a pragmatic approach to
learning. AVWhether (current political trends will in time b)e translated
into chances in the educational system remains to )e seen. Vith in-
creased emi)lasis on industrialization China miav well have to place
greater enp)lasis on technical and scientific training.

1. POP LATI( IN
Chinese officials usually refer to their country's population as "SO0
million. The last census, in 1954, came ui) witlh a total of 'S2,G0,U17
for the ma iland(. Without evalliations" how accuratee that census 1]aV
have been, the population of China liis grown iareatly sin(,, aT(I(l t here
is mu1ch ll(ertai uty al)(llt thIe raIte of increase. ".fli( .i l 5rei i(i11 lit
tint "800 million" is (luestiona Itle. On il r(,eceit visit a i:hI hW (1 mattl
said that the Alinistrv of Coll illnerce use(l the figrle 9))millioll 1)lit
a(l(le(d that tiis total was probably ex- 2o-,erated.
Ill hiis report to tlhe Fourth iNat io1ial Pe(les Co(nres ill .1 aiil'rv
1975 Premiier (lThou lu-lai sid that C:ina's populat im h ad iIRc(i:Ise(
sixty 1)(ecellt Silice lei)rtio l I ..heU.S. l)()al ,tie (1t' ( oi ,rr. Ils
coite 111) \wit Ii I \V() Sll~~eesti lites (oI*( 11u cturml ouali
TI Ie Bureau of JIth ele 1e,4Ill (1 ;publicatihmn entitled Wl~'h/I Polmbl
tbmi: Pf estimatests I lie mid(- 197,5 putin i :it S ~12.:) 1 :').00.At n 1Flt e
increase, (41 ai 1 it1 '2.00,)1 t)(-) a ve I. which d it bo)fls. tllis v l il lmea : a
'i') llaliS' S 1.)0)())(0)( i ,,i -19);. But ti e Fc i-u Dei YI)lraltic






32

Aiailvsis I)ivision, in tle same I )epartillent. estimates China's popu-
lta ion, as of Jainiarv 1. 19TC, at 95e3,107000. l Oe ()rleans, an authority
in the Iibrarv of Congress on (hiia's population, estiirates the Jan-
nary 1, 1976' total at T(3,0 0. Iwo other recently published esti-
mates of (C'lina's population have been made )y the Environmental
Fund and by the Worldwatch Research Institute. The former places
the iiid1l-9 i poIlilation at 9G14 million and the latter estimates the
(,iret 1)Ollilation at about 823 mihilon--a (lifference of about 140
11illion.
Whatever the figure, the policy of the Chinese Government is to
restrain the growth rate, except among the minorities. China encour-
ag_.es late iliarruiages, at least age 28 for the men and 25 for women.
Ihe government promotes the use of birth control devices, contracep-
tives being supplied free through medical facilities throughout the
nation. Education and social persuasion are used to induce couples to
limit the number of children to no more than two. But one official
aclnowledged that birth control was difficult, especially in the country-
side. Many people were still influenced, he said, by the Confu an idea
that it is desirable to have many children. The government's goal is
to reluce by 1980 the growth rate to 1.5 percent, from the current level
of some two Percent. Promress is being made, however, as indicated
by 1 .9 peiveit growth rate in tliltlua-hsi Brigade near Wuxi (Wu-
sli). Hard. (omirehensive statistics are a rarity, however, and only
time will tell how effective the control program is in practice.
China's concern for population control is motivated, it is said, not
i fear tlat polulat ion will olutstril) food but in the interest of more
National planning. and of expanding the standard of living-nmore for
everyone. I etter health. easingy of burdens for parents, more work
opportunities for women and superior education for children. Al-
though the central government persists in applying the figure of
"'80O million" and has not itself pul)licly adopted the method of using
local population estimates, observers in Hong Kong noted that the
condolence messages published on the death of Chairman Mao state
thle 11u111ber of l)eople livinfT in each province. These fimuires total 855
n million. However, one Cl-inese bureaucrat said that provincial
l)opation fiui('-es must also be taken with a grain of salt.

F. MEDICAL CARE
Medical care in China can be seen from two frames of reference.
First, and most important, is the socio-political view. Here the
measure is a comparison of health conditions in China before 1949
withi those of today. By this standard the achievements are remark-
able. Twentv-seven years ago no widespread system of medical care
even exite(l. Malnutrition and starvation were everywhere, many
diseasess vere raiiipant. and dr(og addiction and prostitution were
1o141111011. 11lro l (, I le p)blic iea ltni measti yes. general improvements
in tle !ta (1ard of li vi,, a1l the provision of medical care for all.
pl-ese 1)obleni s have l)eei e(1un inate(1 or. in the case of a few stubborn
I iseaes. (lo, elv( l (olitolle(. h!d other )e-s1)ective is to look at how
('1ina m eo(l ic:1 care systeiii stanl(ls to(lay qualitatixvely by Western
standards. On the basis of that Ftandard China's medical system
See appendix F.






33


le:kVS 1111)(h ilt be (lesireu. Bit. as with any applaisa I() fbow ( hiina's
SNxstenIi'-m)kilil0%'Use Ofan,('Xtl-nala(lar(t ) (isss(te i o)olitical
ti r 1)k.
Barefoot doctors, now one afind a I] f n million strong., are lte priIarv
deliverers of lealth Icare in (ina. ( ene)allv, the are yon:1. eeen all]
wonlen, sel('('cte(l by local (.o)olllilmitY leU(l)'s, w h r(,(,(,ye ,)Ilt
three months of training on the (15 'ict level I)e fore returilg.to their
CoMiniMi Fe W factorTh. Ie t vle t)(l aultlti(( of t(ainn', \varies with
local needs, but tra ill lie u1se of al1lincuipi e1 and (Chinese Il erl)a1
remedies. plus solni Western antibiotics, are co)m11 ion to all lora)ns.
Seal l)Urefooft (loctors thae t rie Feslo)0Isi!ilities for l he ) 1si, oca
of SO) to 1,500 people. A barefoot doctor functions in a sen i-aitono-
1os fashion. le is visited two or three tines a year byr me(lical
(octors front the districtt hospital and can call on their hielp: a( anl
time. His duties include ivinf Ygeneral plvysical examinations. emier-
gency care, general immunization, distrilbutingr birth control (deICes.
follow-up care for chronically-ill patients as deteri inedi I ) I edli(cal
doctors. an(1 general public health su rveillalice. His annual sceC(lule
generally consists of six months of work in providing health services.
three months of work in the fields, and three months of cont inilimu
medical education at a medical facility. In actual p "ractice the routi e
vries greatly depending on available relief, the type of facility ,land
the needs of the comiliunity. The key to progress in tlis svstemi is
continuing inedlical education. While imilprovemienits are I)ei)" made.
there is a difficult problem in this respect due to shortages of adequate
facilities and trained personnel. Molbile medical tenis Of vari'li
sl)ecial ities drawn from the (listrict-level hospitals constant lv tour
facilities at lower levels on a rotational basis to upgrade local teclh-
niqies and abilities. It was said that about one-fourtIi of the doctors
li a lar'e city hospital would le working in rural (r relmiote alas
at aIi given time.
Medical doctors now receive three years of formal traiinc. but-
consideration is lbeino given to shortening" tl' e 1 icroram to two
All medical 5(110015 teach both traditional Chinese miediciie and West-
erni medicine, with each school va ryin2" iin its empa)lsis. lep)enIding" on
past orientation. The imeldin of tie best, of both svste'ms has vet t( 1e
accomplished, but research efforts are beni
p i italv tra 1111111 "has ><,been s lioret e l (o m1to Usiz' t li e avail-
al ilit v of (,are. For exa nlple, tle natiolual 1.(])a 1f r i iet r>siir2o'( His 1'S01ne
for every pe prefectmtire (10_-1:. counties in a p)refectulre) so tlie nait"(>oal aI
ap lpiears attainal)le. n is h.as )een accoimnl)1ished ).y redcli le ( 1' ie
of train ino for neUrosurj'eons to tlree.\ears of i)medi':,a scl. years of (general siirgerv and one year of neirosii'i'ei'v. After tlsii. tile
(loctor is capal le of plerfolIlin "sillmlle "ieurost I i'Lcal pu>wd t1m Ce.
i Id in I Ihis ()wn capacity to handle mre co)lllplicite('l (> er1)ti us.
Shioiloleli (,lesi1e to liai(ldl' m:oe (lifli(a(lt -Iery. lie ner',al1y learns
(liroti !h another s i'ri', not t]lr(otjIi for'Iial (r t i)iim". Like all v-
Crn)hli1eit functionaries. mnedicpal I)ersonnel a re' 'e(l ( o keep in t IIt'
with the needI a d asl)ir'ati ois of the1 l)e()l)le 1(I l)t)'(>i('ahl\ -I)('li(l
six mllolhs to a year i a r1raI a rea. *'ither M in 11a1a11 Ial)(> m. iin tie
case of doctors, aiding the local medical person nel.
At present venereal disease, leprosy, hala-azar, ch(olera tal d ioid a mid






34


[olio Ir sai(I to he non-existent. ll1belllo"is and malaria are quite
rare ndl ~lnaaia is localized to certajn low-lying areas. Schistosomia-
s~niI) a devastat ig diseasee inI the past, has been closely con-
tirll(i an 11no ew cases have leen reported recently. Alcoholism and
(111vs are 11v,4 I )m)t )l",ell. Mental illness is quitee rare, although there are
soIe saIIat)rIlinIs for treatIIent. Tremendous strides have been made
11 'ont rolling tises through improvements in the standard of living,
a ggres~siye pulic healtl measures, st press on physical fitness, and all
effe't ive healthl care system.
AcuI)unctnre both as a curative measure and as an anesthetic con-
I inues to enjoy a major position in Chinese medical care. As an anes-
thetic,. it is said to b9( 90 percent successful. Its benefits include low
cost. minimization of side effects, ease of administration and the pa-
t ient 's rema ining conscious durin surgery. As for the curative power
of a(itpun (ture, much scientific research is needed to come up with
It IdIea-11sOsuc as choleithiasis
(leliit ive findings. (aims of cures for diseis,
tie louloireux and deafness are but a few. Acupuncture kits are
readiily available to anyone for" less than thre (llsad cpntr
is frequently lpraetieed by ordinary citizens. Research into both how
and whyac lpli lcture ,works an( new usages is quite active at this time.
Many (iuest ions remain unanswered, Chinese medical persominel admit.
There are three levels of medical institutions in the cities. First is
the neighborhood or factory clinic which is responsible for routine
care and emergency situations. It is usually staffed by several bare-
foot doctorss. In the cities each large factory normally has its own hos-
1)ital. For examIple, the July First Cotton Textile Mill Hospital we
visited in Xinjiang (Sinkiang) province had 54 doctors manning a
"()-l)e(l hospital that served 8.300 workers and their families. While
the laboratory and surgical facilities were somewhat rudimentary, a
laser for opthaamologic work had been in operation for a year, one of
tree in use in the Province.
Next are hospitals at the district level. Here as many as several
huln(dred health workers handle the more (lifficult cases, including
(oml)l icated surgery. The education of physicians, barefoot doctors
and other health )ersonnlel is handled in these facilities and some minor
research is carried out. The provincial level hospital is larger and its
staff is responsible for administrative and other matters for the prov-
ince s medical system.
In the communes, each production team has health workers with
somewhat less training' that the barefoot doctor. The brigade level has
a, clinic staffed by several barefoot doctors, and at the commune level
there is a small hospital. usually with a staff of about 40, including at
least one fully-trained medical doctor, where minor surgery, limited
hospitalizations and continuing medical education are carried out. A
network now exists throughout China where every citizen has ready
access to some type of medical facility.
le(lical care for factorv workers and government functionaries is
free and (olimune members pay only a nominal fee. I)ependents of
workers and functionaries may join anmedial (cooperative for .50 cents
to S1 peir veal. or )ay 50 percent of tleir hospital bill. I)ailv care inl a
hospital fom those few who must pay, costs approxinately 0 cents per
day, complicated brain or heart surgery runs $18-$20, and an appen-






35


decton~l is h. TIi c a vera.e I av folr (otos InIa lll [ l -
2O~~illuelt Ilti liiit (f li I)-h Ilees ili l i1 ioar l }e)s il w
pt)1er lllt ttl.
A ll med~ic'al I'esearch l llSt he apl-m()ed I'm- rt' llt(tlla r1) .v fit'' cclittal
I*()xV(,Ileve n s 't l (\\ I' '11 !e
miore al)btIt 8c1iltnctureand& ( 'lillose lieihl mc illelt. LJab;l L~~iI Ii.
Ilo) ev .isV )i eii t owar { l { IIIe diecta 81(1 slii) ei't 'ii),t II I I ,tlt
care. Tlreh have l),ei inotalile medical advalces il (n 1 ina. In ) II'nu
tilerauNl)vI for example use (f a salve 1ad(e1' rIwiii a If*( l: ha 'll-
,d pat \ets \\-]it 9() pe)t'I I it iii'ii ltol s luvlIVe allied IIIie I)TO-5ll i-W
I eilniqte-, for ie-i1iiiplaitat l ofsve rd'(l i 1111s. ti iL'eiish 8. Y I toes lv
(Cliniese se117rgeohs Ii Venc e rated great interest inlt he A i e ii ( ii'ie'. Ii-
Cal colllllllilii v.

G. XIN JIANG (SINI,IANG) STRATI1(IC R)El,:Ik N-I) AND LANI) (If
MANY NATIONALITFIES
TheaXinjiuang !'ygr ( Sinkianc !-i~lhur) Att(), Mi is I~eion.
located in far ni-rtlwest (hluia, is their nation's rest provil ,i. cm)n-
prising one-sixth of the total land area. Because of its size. resources
and location, Nxinjia g is of gren t geopolitical S12iiicance. Its 1*ilt li
position in Ielat ion to tie Ilail l n())tation centers ( 'China : its :1)JO0
miles of ordersrs with tle S;oviet U iion. IndiaA fgliiisan. a kistan
and Mongolia: tle Knraiiai oil field : tile ntclear test site at Lop Nor:
the presence of nany noii-ttan nationalities, sonie ()f' wli'tch >tnead
across the l)ol'der into the >oviet -1 110) : the l istorv of Soviet e t()Irs
to exert influence or control in ttii reriom in the past : and the ricliies
of still undeveloled mineval resources all con!)iune to make this an area
worth special unent ion. I N*i ted jangfor a week.
The province is divided from East to West y)v the Tienshan 111t1-
lain range. The I )zn ga r basin to tle north m0 (ves sniinev r a in-
fall and is ideal for griazim-l land. There is also a ,reat (leal ofI iri-
gated farm land. I visited the capital. VTrn71i (1Uminichi). Shli tIo-
tzu and thle Turpan (Tuirfan ) I)epr;ession in the central part (f lite
Region. South of the Tienshan rni'e, tle Iarimi I asi n contains Takla
Makan. one of the driest deserts lin tie world. -Normal fa-mil,, is
carried(l (o1 insinali oases along" tile motntain escarpilt',it in tire s('mtll
and around the other margins of th le basin. lit tile, )ltlhwest a Fe tie
Pamir mountains called the "Roof of the World. TlTe vast exlpa1ses
of mountain and desert in tite e((yion are i nhospitaifle to set tletent
by large numbers of people. Nevertheless, about eleven itnill10 u1 110W
inhab~it the vregion and tie total is 1i-uing duie hot Ii to iiIn)sIM "Pl'-
lation growth adl an influx of Han fromi wther )alts of ()f2iina.
There have been incidents along the border with tihe Soviet I ti101
from i me to time and Soviet a('ents pelletrate o bu8,101iallv. 1ut at
present tle l)order is relatively calli. Itoweye '. 11111 itarv l)re1rat( 111
are constant iit the reo .nlld officials are oiifi dent (4 t lie i ra)ilit1y ()
dealN with any t-hreat.
Tra(litioniallv iIIlmljian"s econoiiiv lha.s .4,been lasNO l n a-ic'nlctIre
and lherdin'lT. le elois livestock inlcinttles olie- 1011l <) (4 hina>S
shhee), VieldingVZ Iiore tian (;( of Ihelieat io),s wol. State f'at nii.
whose paid elnhwees are often Ilai ('eiicse fi)'( itSI(I ont e. (,ie)li)y
about 3'- )pe)",ent of the cult ivated land and prolce Iliire thIali I lt(iatrt-
or of the grain. Five hundred state farms. e11,tin" in aricttlttire






36


animal 1usbandrv and afforestation, have been set up by the central
goVeIlneit. (Gr'ain and cotton ar ii imoitant crops. Others include
1)otatoes and the famed fruit of Xinjiang, melons, grapes, peaches and
.p)Pliots. (Train lpro(dhtion, I was infoened, has tripled over that of
1949. cotton has multiplied nine times since then, and livestock has
mnor'e than doubled. Irrigation is vital to agricultuire and numerous
NVells have been sunk and ingenious canals built. to carry snow runoff
from the mountains. Much of the massive winter-spring drive to im-
prove farmland consist of clearing stony areas, converting desert
a reas into cropland, and exl)anding irrigation works. Before 1949
t l ie', was such little industry, local officials said, that even matches
and nails had to be brought in from the outside. Now hundreds of fac-
tories and other installations produce ironstee, coal, petroleum, elec-
tricity, nonferrous metals, machinery, leather, chemicals, textiles and
food products. Available data show that in 1975 steel production was
five tiles that of 1955, oil output double 1965, and fertilizer output
eleven times that of 1965. Total industrial production in 1975 was
termed an all time high. Output this year is said to be running ten
percent a)ove 1975.
The remoteness of Xinjiang from China's population centers and
the scattered nature of its population make adequate transportation
critical to development. Railways connect Xinjiang with Beijing (Pe-
king) and 12,000 miles of highway link all parts of the region. Bus
service goes to every county. Air service links Urumqi with towns in
the region and with the national capital.
The central government, as a deliberate policy, helps develop the
region's economy by preferential financing, by encouraging Han
from eastern China to migrate there, and by various other means.
Xinjiang is authorized to keep all local revenue for its own use and it
also receives large subsidies from Beijing (Peking). Between 1955
and 1974 these subsidies amounted to 53% of the region's total reve-
nue. The accelerated development policy for Xinjiang has a double
aim: to strengthen the region as a national defense measure, and to
integrate the local nationalities into Chinese life by allowing them to
share the fruits of improving standards of living.
In my last report I described the general status of minorities in
China, pointing out that non-Han peoples are concentrated in five
Autonomous Regions, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia Huizu
("Ningsia Hui), Xinjiang Iygur (Sinkiang Uighur), Xizang Izhiq
(Tibet), and Guangxi Zhuangzu (Kwangsi Chuang). China asserts
that it grants equality to all nationalities while simultaneously op-
posing Ifail chauvinism and local nationalism. The constitution per-
mits minority nationalities the right of autonomy and under national
law an autononious region can enact supplementary regulations in po-
litical, economic, cultural and educational fields in accord with the
cha racterist ics, interests and needs of its nationalities.
In Xinjiaiig the status of the nationalities has many characteristics
similar to those described for the areas covered in my earlier report,
b)ut there are differences. Historically the races and cultures of Sin-
kiang have sprung from a blending of many different peoples but to-
day in Xinjiang the following nationality groups are identified. (See
also the accompanying map).











jhiNg 1A N




S I N 111,1A N C,


NJ


ALTAIC*
TURKIC
1 U ghu,
2 vaza'h
3 rg, z
MONGOLIAN
7 l'-,#,',.3a-g
TUNGUSIC
10 COorchon
11. Sbo


SINO-TIBETAN
4a HAN (CH NESE
5 ,Lzbe HUI (CHINESE MUSLIM ,

8 Til.orgor)
9 Dasr
. 2 [.'enki


INDC-EUROFEAN
Ii. TADZHIK


The Uygurs (Uighurs), a Turkic-speaking group, populating the
central alii southern porti iS of Xinj iang, have fori many vars beln
immerically dominantt. The Kazaklis are relatively inimerolis in the
northern and western i)ortion of the region, including areas adjacelt
to the Soviet and Mongolian borders. Other nationalities are inter-
spersed in the central area aid the nortliern a idwester ii)VrllIer-
Inis. They include tui (('hiiiese Mosleii), Moniyuls. lKialkhldas. Ki r-
gbhiz. Zibo, M[anciu, Tadzhik, Russian, 1Uzbek. Ta rtar a ml Tibetan na-
tionality o'ol.)s II Ian (iliinese, who liistoricall V were heavily
out-niuim1bered by tie other national itlits have ('tereI'O( w le Rnion il
Il'rge n llllll)e rs slice 1949 ai1id eslpei a lv si lice 19( ). Ti lic iiifl ix is C(oli-
t in 1 ryo a id ]Iia s ha iiged( niarke liv tie etlii i balance( of, Hie ICt, 1 .
Part of the llflux is due to the p)rogrami sp1onsore(l 7rnerally through-


Groups


1- -- -"/






380


out (liia fr educatedl youth "toL go to tie coutryside, to the
mountaIiIs and to tIhe borderlands. I Irmqi the followii official
tiguc- slowed the dis )tribution of poI)puatiol in the Region in 1975:
Percentage of region'8 total population
Nationality group"
Uygur i Uighur)--------------------------------------------45.7
an -----------------------------------------------------41.4
Kazakh ---------------------------------------------------6.4
-ui -------------------------------------------------------4. 1
-Mong ----------------------------------------------------0.9
Khalkhas--------------------------------------------------0. 5
Ziho ------------------------------------------------------0.2
Tadzhik ---------------------------------------------------0.2
Others ----------------------------------------------------0.3
This l)reakdown shows the I y ui as still the most numerous group.
But it would not be surprising, if the inflow of Hans continues at the
rate ()f recent.years. that they would soon become the majority group
in the Region. Itowever, there is no indication that Hlan ethnic domi-
nance would have adverse political or economic effects on the other
nationalities. ()n the contrary, it appears that all nationalities in Xinji-
ano have henefitted without discrimination from the progress achieved
in tle )ast quarter of a century. Before 1149. the culture of the nation-
alities was on the verge of extinction, with illiteracy immeMnse, the level
of living very low and conflict among the groups not uncommon.
The nationalities seem now to live in harmony and to benefit equally
from the Regionis economic progress. Certainly my observations in
I ruiqi. Shih-ho-tzm. and Turpan. lead Ime to believe that the various
nationalities do intermingle, live and work together peacefully and
without discernible discrimination. Cultural differences are outwardly
most evident in the dress of some non-Han nationalities, particularly
the women. Their colorful garb contrasts sharply with the standard
blue and green clothing worn by the Han. I was told that the nationali-
ties intermarry and from my visual impression of racial mixtures.
this would seem to be true. In the sensitive matter of birth control,
the PRC does not direct its program at the minority nationalities; in
fact. it encourages large families and permits marriage at an age ear-
lier than that applicable to the Han.
-se of their own languacres by the nationalities, as guaranteed in
the national constitution. is implemented in Xinjiang for four national
groups. The Han. FUygur. Kazakh, and Mongolian languages are in
lse in local schools, publications, and radio. To illustrate, signs in
-runiqi were in both TUvmir and Han and the regional daily news-
paper is published in all four lancruages. In the Number Five Munici-
pal Primary School in l-rumai, for example, there were separate
classes for the 1Vvgur and the Han students, with each group being
taught the other's lanmage as a second languae. One of the results of
this practice is that many of the minority nationals are bilinmal and
some are trilingual. At Turran, however, the leaders who received me
(lid not understand Han and we communicated bv an interpretation of
!Vyrur to flan to English and back again. At theuniversity level I was
told that Han prevails although some classes are conducted in other
language-.
One reform that I have not been able to evaluate is the recent intro-
duction of the Latinized alphabet for ygur and Kazakh. A new
alphabet is also being prepared for Mongolian. The Latinized alpha-





39


bet is a substitute for older Arabic scripts anl is one part of a general
novemient for language reform t tlroughout ('11ia. Since L'at iizt ion
is based oi tie iiw ( 'timese plhonetic sys(emi. the re-.iIi tas heejl
characterized' as tw oW I IcvN\ tlrlma a('S a ca 1) o ""o))I l e (,' il g i(r l e511 (() )((1 llot
easily Vlearied by )tll the iatiolalities aniet I 1al. Ail(ot lhe restilt
would be the creation of a written.I lguistic )attle)' etVi'elileliibens
of the sane llatliollal ity groltl)S 1nw separate(d1 by the closed Soviet-
('hinese border.'l The new all)habet is III u e. I Nit 01ily about lIalf ilI('
school children have learned it and nany adults have not yet received
instruction.
Ihe governing body o f in j Ian'g is authorized toorganiize local pill)-
lie security forces, ma iage local Iinance, ani eiiact legal regulations
but it is still subject. to ()celltral e (vemml (It. II )ltr(ol l a(liii llist ratioll.
planning iii ilitarv, e(lliational and proj)aga i(la matters as are
other Chinese provinces. The local government lmaV draw uI) statutes
and regulations, but tley can lbe vetoed lv tle stanlliig ( oiomittee of
the National People's Congress (Nl (,) in Beijing (Peki lg). The na-
tional minorities of Xinjiang, however, are rel)resented in tlie NI'(.
It was reported in 1975 that (7 percent of Xinjialgs (lel)lties to tie
NlPC were from minorities. The Sanding ('oCommittee of the Peoples
Congress has three members fromi Sinkian&'S minorities. Minorities
were also represented substantially among the ieniers of the regional,
county and municipal governing bodies whom I met in Xinjiang. In
fact, Chinese sources say that minority nationalities occupy the major-
ity of seats in Xinjiang's People's Congress and revolutionary coni-
mittees at all levels. An indication of the political status of the na-
tionalities is their participation in the Party. Saifudin, a lygur, is
First Secretary of the Region's Communist Party, an Alternate Mem-
ber of the Politburo of the Chinese Comnmunist Party, Chairman of the
Region's Revolutionary Committee, and the Political Commissar of
the Xinjiang Military Region. Although absolute figures were not
available to me, I was told that the number of minorities in the re-
gional party has increased sixteen times since 195. Clearly, the au-
thorities desire to demonstrate that the minorities enjoy a substantial
slice of political power.

VI. CONCLUDING COM3MENTS
China is a vast land of talented and industrious people. with a rich
recorded history going )back more than three tl iousand years. It is old.
We are. young. There is much that we can learn from one another. The
beginning of wisdom is to understand how little we know. 'Ilhe track
record of the China "experts" in thw post-1949 period leaves 11('l1 t1o I)e
desired. Moreover, concentration on China's leadership p st rugg'les has.
unfortunately, distracted attention from the all-import ant fact that t lie
immense power of China's people and resources lhas 1teen liarmles.ed" as
never before in history.
We are vastly different, countries in our (ilt ire. lauiiage. 1)0liti'a 1
ideology, andl in the way we view oselves ar( the nts](le world. We
lIave a tendency to filctuate to()extre ,ie att it m1(les I)a ( i tlie, ('li iese
as w ith )lier people abroad. I.. ax 1 stblisiedriemilivculit'at
need not -o overboard on (l hina. Tel ( le hiiese have nom nee(l for it: nor)m
(do we.





40


Nor s10o(1 Chinese society be judged by American standards. It is
a disciplined S-ietN with ip people siljected to unreittillyprpa-
gandla froii an a 1 -I)ez valve Vi? rty-goverinent applaratus. WVesterners
note the absence of individual freedoms in China and the subservience
to n al-I)OINelful state. On the other hand, the (1hinSe e1 our society
as w asteful and disorganized. In fact, present. conditions in the two
nations alr so different that to compare the two is to compare apples
and oranges.
To weigh the United States-China relationship in a reasonable con-
text, Americans must look at common interests, not at our differences.
That is what has brought the two countries together, almost in spite
of themselves, in an official but unorthodox relationship.
We are both greatlv concerned about the Soviet Ulnion and its
intent ions.
We both have a need for better mutual understanding to avoid future

Ve have a common interest in the moderation of tensions in Asia
and in seeing that the nations in the, area remain free of domination by
outside powers.
We both desire a viable Japan free of the danger of militarism.
We both seek a better world for the future generations in our respec-
tive countries.
The initial stage of China's revolution against warlordism, corrup-
tion, and outside domination was concluded twenty-seven years ago.
"'When people are poor, they will work harder for change; when
people are oppressed theyA will strive for revolution. Two hundred years
ago your people also understood such experiences," a leader in Shang-
hai said to me.
For more than two decades the United States closed its official mind
to China and the channels of effective communication between the
two nations were blocked. The consequences of this period of know-
nothingness still linger. Miscalculations about China may well have
been the main factor in the involvement of the United States in two
major wars in Asia in a single generation. Pressures are at work which
could cause another major miscalculation over Taiwan.
The national interest is deeply involved, in my judgnient. in moving
without further delay to settle the Taiwan problem. Gambling for
more time ? For what ? Further delay could well prove to be another in
the long series of disastrous miscalculations which have afflicted U.S.
foreign policy in Asia since World War II. Solving this problem will
pit tlie United States in a unique position in the triangular relation-
ship). If we act more wisely than in the past, we will act now, not on the
basis of emotional catch-phrases, )ut on the basis of rational contem-
porary American interests in the Western Pacific. Fundamental to
the safeguarding of these interests, is an open diplomatic door between
the government of what will soon be a billion Chinese, organized in a
dynamic technological state, and the government of the people of the
United States.












A PPENDIXES


APPENDIX A
CIIRONOL,OGY OF TIE VISIT TO TIlE PEOPLE'S EPUBLIC OF CHINA,
SEPTEMBER 21-OCTOBER 12, 1976
Tuesday, September 21, 1976
Morning" Arrived Shanrghai by air from Guain. Received by rep-
resentatives of te iiinese People's Institute of Foreign Affairs who
OlltlinlCdl itiei-ai- ta I(l aedalhlalie( the n-ission tlnouliout the visit.
Afternoon : Travelled by train to Wuxi (Wu-hsi). Givel boat tour
of Lake Tai-hu.
Wednesday, September 22, 1976
All day: Visited Itua-hsi Brigade, a model farm iniear Wuxi
(Wu-hsi).
Thursday, September 23, 1976
Morning: Left Wuxi (1Wu-hsi) by train. Arrived Nanjig
(Nanking).
Afternoon: Toured Yangtze River aboard a People's Liberation
Army boat. Visited and wfis briefed on Yangtze River Bridge. Visited
mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yet-Sen.
Friday, September 24, 1976
Morning: Visited Nanjing (Nanking) Teachers College. Observed
various class (lemonstrations and performances by students.
Afternoon: Left Nanjing (Nanking) by commercial airline
(CAAC). Arrived Beijing (Peking).
Evening: Briefed at U.S. Liaison Office by Ambassador Thomas
Gates and staff.
Saturday, September 25, 1976
Morning: Left Beijing ( Peking) by CA AC. Arrived Vrumqi
(1rumch)ii)" capital of Xinjiang Ivygur (Sinkiang" Figiur) Autono-
mous Regioni. Received andb )riefed by representatives of Revolution-
arv Comlittee of region.
Afternoon: Visited the Exhibition of the Twentieth Anniversary
of the Founding of Xinjiang Uygur (Sinkian- 17icglur) Autonomous
Region.
SlIfida?/, Sept.,)e 20, 1976
M[orninu- Left Urrunuqi ( Urumb hi) by1ato. \I-rived Slib lTo-tzi.
A afternoon. Visited August First Woolen Mill and A ugust Finst
Sugar Refinery.
(41)


79-1080 76 4





42


to MIly. September 27, 1976
Morning. Visited Numlber 143 State Farm.
A ft ernoo(n: (Wi i'()xNersation with "e(ducated youth." Departed Shih
I 10-tz11 1)v auto.
E venilig : Arrirved Urnmqui (Urumchi).
T"4 sd .p n ,t 28, 1976
Aforni: Visited ulv First Cotton Textile Mill.
A ftenIoon :Visited the Exhibition of historic and Archaelogical
Fitts of Xinjiang ygu r (Sinkiang Pighur) Antonomous Region.
Evening" oured department store in Urumqi ( Urumchi).
TV' (fe/, ",(ltU/. AS()tf ib( tY,. 29. 1976'
Mofroing" I )-Departed I-ruinqi (I rumchi) by auto.
Afternoon: Arrived Turpanj lurfan). Briefed by the Vice Chair-
1aii ()f the Revoluntionary Comnittee of Turpan (Turfan) County.
Visited Five Star Commune.
Thi zu.day,., Scptm ber 30, 1976
Morning: Visited the ancient ruins of Kaochang City. Visited the
Wine and Fruit Factory of Turpan (Turfan)
Afternoon: Visited the Grape Commune in Grape Vine Valley.
Left Turpan (Turfan) by auto.
Eveninig Arrived I-rumqi (l-rumchi).
Fr;dy. O(tobr 1. 1976
All day: Visited Tien Chili (Ileavenly Lake) in the Tienshan

Evening: Dinner with officials of the regional Revolutionary
Committee in 1 rumqi (Urunehi).
f 1f&Ia y1i0/. r(tobc ir2. 1976
Morning: Visited Number 5 Municipal Primary School.
Afternoon: Left Urumqi (Irumchi) by commercial air (CAAC).
Arrived Beijing (Peking).
?11 ?day. October 3, 1976
Morning: Left Beijing (Peking) by commercial air (CAAC).
Afternoon: Arrived Guangzhou (Canton)) after stop over at
Iangzhou (Ilang-chou). Leftfor Taishan by auto.
Evening\:Arrivxed at Taishan in Guangdong (Kwangtung) province.
io flday. October 4, 1976
Morning: Visited the Yunahie Production Team. Nan3vang Produc-
tion Bricrade, Tuanfen Peoples Commuine. in an area from which in
the Iast many Chinese have emigrated to the -nited States.
Afternoon: Visited the Number One Farm Machinery Factory and
the Taishan Porcelain Factory.
Evening: Attenided volley ball gaies played by Taishan champion-
sli ) woien s and eis teans.
lU( N (lvI (,' -5 1.976
Aforli~g" Left Tain t by auto for IIsinhui. Enroute inspected the
Ii V(lro-electrir 1)rojetU(t il t lie Kimtllo Mountains.
Afternoon: Arrived lsinhui. Visite(l the tIsinhui Farm Machinery
Factory, and the Artistic Paln Products Factory.






43


Evening: Attended training demonstration by yoting people's
swimming school.
Wednesday, October 6, 1976
Morninig : Left IisinhII i by auto.
Afternoon : Arrived Guungzhou (Canton). Left Gtiangzhou (('an-
ton) by air' for Beijing (Peking).
Evening: Arrived Beijing (Peking).
Thursday, October 7, 1976
Morning: Met with Ambassador Youde, British Ambassador to the
People's Republic of China.
Afternoon: Met with Vice Foreign Minister Wang Hai-jung.
Evening: Informal dinner with Madam Vice Foreign Minister and
Dr. Chou Pei-yuan, Vice Director, Chinese People's Institute of For-
eign Affairs.
Friday, October 8, 1976
Morning: Visited the Great Wall and Ming Tombs.
Afternoon: Met with Dr. George Hatem.
Evening: Attended dinner hosted by Mr. David Dean, acting head
of the -U.S. Liaison Office in the absence of Ambassador Gates.
Saturday, October 9, 1976
Morning: Visited May Seventh Cadre School for Eastern District
of Beijing (Peking).
Afternoon: Met with Vice-Premier Li Hsien-nien in the Great Hall
of the People.
Sunday, October 10, 1976
Morning: Traveled from Beijing (Peking) to Shanghai by com-
mercial air (CAAC).
Afternoon: Visited Tienshan Workers New Residential Area.
Evening: Attended dinner hosted by Feng Kuo-chu, Vice Chair-
man of Municipal Revolutionary Committee of Shanghai.
Monday, October 11, 1976
Morn in : Visited and observed ocupuincture anesthesia surgery
performed in Huashan Hospital of Shanghai. Some members of mis-
sion visited Slhanghai Turbo-g'ener ator Fictorv in NfIniian(.
Evening: Hosted dinner for escorts from Chinese People's Insti-
tute of Foreign Affairs.
Tuesday, October 12. 1,976
Morning: After inspection of central city of Shanghai departed
China by air.

















Ii~~
9tddie4zu


A


I


fiOIA


ITINERARY OF VISIT
TO THE
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
September 21 October 12 1976


44


v SA5R


C
2


7

7-


M1G40UA












APPENDIX B


MUTUAL DEFENSE TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Signed at Washington December 2. 1954: Ratti(1tii ad-
vised by the Senate of the United States of Aiuericaii Feb-
ruary 9, 1955; Ratified by the Presideit of the United
States of America February 11. 1935: Ratified by tte Re-
public of China February 15, 1955: Ratificatiojns exchange(
at Taipei Mareh 3, 1955; Proclaimed bv te Iresident of
the United States of America April 1. 1955" Entered into
force March :, 1955
The Parties to this Treaty,
Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of the
Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace witl
all peoples and all Governments, and desiring to strengthen the fabric
of peace in the West Pacific Area,
Recalling with mutual pride the relationship which brouglit their
two peoples together in a common bond of sympatliv and mtual ideals
to fight side by side against imperialist aggressioil during the last
war,
Desiring to declare publicly and formally their sense of unity and
their common determinations to defend themselves a ga inst exteiriial
armed attack, so that no potential aggressor could be under the illisiin
that either of them stands alone in the West Pacific Area, and
Desiring further to strengthen their present efforts for collective
defense for the preservation of peace and security pending the( de-
velopment of a more comprehensive system of regional security in tle
West Pacific Area,
Have agreed as follows:
ARTICLE I
The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Clharter of the United
Nations, to settle any international dispute in wlich tlhev may t)e
involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international Ico-
security and justice are not endangered and to refrain in their iliter-
national relations from the threat or use of force iin any iiarnner i-
consistent with the purposes of the United Nations.

ARTICLE II
In order more effectively to achieve the objective of tlis Treaty, tile
Parties separately and jointly by self-lielp and1m1,tu'al aid will nNi--
tain and develop their individual ald collect('(Ie la1pac'iItv to resist
arlned attack and conmnist stitbversive ad ivit jes (irecte(d flroll wit li-
out against their territorial integrity and political ability.
(45)






46


ARTICLE III
T I c P art iv' ti I Id t:I tI (,trc tIIn their free istiititut ions and to
co()peI'ate wit Ii cacti o(t her iII t ie(ledVelo)iient of ecoiumlic pI'roess
al~ti -ot'ial xvc1eilii anl tI f)ttrthier t ier iindividual aid collectiVe
cffI )it t\varPtis t Ils en-dc i s.
ARTI'CIE IV
TII Ia rtIs. t lrNul i tIi r Foreign MiinisterIs (i' their Idepiles, vill
mi'nilt together froml line to tiue regIrlirding tli ivimlllvleetatiOn of
this Treat v.
ARTICLE V
tach Party vrcornizes thl'n an armed attack in the West Pacific
Are:l directed a uin'the territories of either of the Parties would be
an~ze 'ous to its owNI peace and safety a ml declares that it would act
to bleet tile 4olliliOi diatiger in accordance with its constitutional

A nv sali ar-lied attack ad all measures taken a-s a result thereof
shall be iiiue(iately re)orte(l to the Secuiritv (onCeil of the Inited
Nations. Such lleasures shall be teriiinated when the Security Council
lias taken thle measures necessary to restore anl iiaintain international
peace and security.
ARTI'ICLE VI
For the )urposes of Articles II and V, the terms "territorial" and
"territories- sliall imeani iII respect of the Republic of China, Taiwan
a(d tie Pesecadores: and in respect of the I nited States of America,
the island territories in the West Pacific under its jurisdiction. The
provisions of Articles 1I and V will be applicable to such other terri-
tories as may be determined by nmtual agreement.

ARTICLE VII
The Government of the Republic of China grants, and the Govern-
inent of the United States of Aimerica accepts, the right to dispose
sucl U nited States land., air and sea forces in and about Taiwan and
the Pescadores as may be required for their defense, as determined by
mutual a(rreeiiient.
ARTICLE VIII
This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting
in any way ti e rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter
of the IUnited Nations or the responsibilit of the United Nations for
i lie maintenance of international peace and security.

ARTICLE IX
T1 is Treaty shall l)e ratified by the I nited States of America and
the Republic of Ciiina in accord< ance witli tlieir respective constitu-
tioial lroI)s'e;es and wil Icoie into force wheNl instruments of ratifi-
cation. t iereof have been exclianged by them at Taipei.






47


ARTICLE X
This Treaty shall remain in force in(lefinitely. Either Part V 4y
terminate it one year after notice has b)een I lVgIve to tihe Otler Iartv.

Statements by and Exchange of Notes Between Secretary of State
John Foster Dulles and Foreign Minister George K. C. Yeh Upon
the Occasion of the Signing of the Mutual Defense Treaty
Between the United States of America and the Republic of
China at Washington

STATEMENTS MADE DECEMBER 2, 1954
Secretary Dulles:
It is a great p)leasure to welcome Foreign Minister Yeh, Am-
bassador Koo. and the members of his staff here this afternoon
for the signing of this Mutual Defense Treaty between the
United States and the Republic of China. I wholly concur i
what President Chiang Kai-shek said in his message to me
yesterday. that a necessary link in the chain of Far Eastern
defense has now been forged." It is my hope that the signing
of this Defense Treaty will put to rest once and for all rumors
and reports that the United States will in any manner agree
to the abandonment of Formosa and the Pescadores to Com-
munist control. The siming of this treaty is not only an ex-
pression of the good will and friendship existing between the
Governments of the United States and of Free China. but also
of the abiding friendship of the people of the United States
for the Chinese people.
Forei~on Minister Yeh:
It has been my privilege and honor to be associated with
Mr. Dulles in the making and signing of this Treaty of Mu-
tual Defense between my country and the United States of
America. I am happy to recall'that throughout the neffo-
tiations for this treaty, conducted at Taipei and Washington.
we have been (-uided bv the principle of mutuality and the
spirit of friendly cooperation.
It is the hope of my Government that this treaty will serve
to promote the common cause of freedom. particularly at this
juncture of the world situation.

EXCHANGE OF NOTES
DEPARTMENT OF STATE.
WT7(7sbi'qto. ,T ,") nh r 11, If5.J 0
His E-,cellencv GEORGC.E K. C. YETI.
ilf~n)*stei ForivqPA ffa-s of fPc Remthba r of ( /1/U.
EXCELLENCY: I have the honor to refer to recent con versationsI be-
tween representatives of our two Governments and to con firm t lie
understandings reached as a result of those coliversat ion. as follows"






48

'The lelubli C of (liiia effectivelv controls boti the territory de-
uribe, t ilt Article VI of the Treaty of Mutual 1)efenes between the
lteIl)l ic of (1liina and the 17nited States of America signed on Decem-
hcr 2. 1P )i. at WVashin1gton iaid otlhr teiritorv. It po.ssses with re-
sljeIt to 1ll territ o'v now aId hercaft er under its c(iit rol the inherent
rigrlit of seIf-dcfen'e. In view of the obligations )f the two Parties
umler the aidl Tieatv. and of the fact t hat the use of force from either T
of t he areas 1y eit licl of the Parties affects the other, it is agreed
Shat such use of force wvilI be a nIlatter of joint agreement. subject to
atct iPln of aI eilWrgenelv character wl ih is clearly an exercise of the
ihiiewieit rigit of self-ilefense. Military eleiieuits which are a product
f joint elort and cmt ribut ioll bv t le two Parties will not be removed
frmiili the ierrit ones- dei.be(I in Article VI to a degree which would
>l st altijal ly diminish ttle defesibilit y of such territories without
llllit 11,1 ,1 agreement.
Accept, Excellency. the assurancis of my highest consideration.
/s/ JoHN OSTER DULLES.
Secrtaiy of State of the United statess of Ameerica.

DECEM1BER 10, 1954.
His Excellency Joitx FOSTER DULLES,
,CliHtar9y of ,Stat( of the United States of America.
EXCIELLENCY: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt or Your
Exce lenc's Note of today's date, which reads as follows:
"I have the honor to refer to recent conversations between
representatives of our two Governments and to confirm the
inderstandings reached as a result of those conversations, as
follows:
"Tlhe Republic of China effectively controls both the terri-
tory (lescribed in Article VI of the Treaty of Mutual Defense
)etween the RepIublic of China and the lnite(l States of
America signed on December 2. 194. at WYashington and
other territory. It l)OSsesses with respect to till territory now
and hereaft under its colitrol the inherent right of self-
(lefense. In view of the obligations of the two Parties under
the said Treaty and of the fact that tile use of force from
either of these areas by either of the Parties affects the other.
it is areed that su<,(1 use of force will I)e a matter of joint
acriveelient. subject to action of an eiuerencv character which
is clearly an exercise of the inherent rig fht of self-defense.
Military eletnents which are a 1)ro(lit of joint effort and con-
tribi tion 1)v tile two Parties vill not )e rel(oved from the ter-
n'itories (lescril)ed ill Article V1I t() a degree which would
il ist anti all v tdiliisl the (lefewilil4itv of such territories

I h ive tile Iiouior to confirm, on behalf of my Government. the under-
standing set f''( it ill Your Excel(encys Note under reply.
I tvail oV-Pt of this O{l)lort1liitv to convey to Your Excellency
tite aso' '11 o n liglest consideration.
(7oT[;(;E K. oC. Xr-ar.
i/',itcr o,'Fo~ a/~ I f 4 PtH pI? blir of Ch;H7.












APPENDIX C


TEXT OF PROPOSALS DURING 1955-56 NEGOTIATIONS
CONCERNING THE RENUNCIATION OF FORCE
1. United States Statement and Proposal ov Zenitnciatio of Force,
October 8, 19.55
One of the practical matters for discussion between us is that each
of us should renounce the use of force to achieve our policies when they
conflict. The United States and the Pt(I( 'People's Iepibiic of (' la 1
confront each other with policies which are in certain respects incom-
patible. This fact need not, however, mean armed conflict, and them nost
important single thing we can do is first of all to be sure that it will not
lead to armed conflict.
Then and only then can other matters causing tension between the
parties in the Taiwan area and the Far East be hopefully discussed.
It is not suggested that either of us should renounce any policy objec-
tives which we consider we are legitimately entitled to achieve, but only
that we renounce the use of force to implement these policies.
Neither of us wants to negotiate under the threat of force. The free
discussion of differences, and their fair and equitable solution, become
impossible under the overhanging threat that force nay be resorted to
when one party does not agree with the other.
The United States as a member of the United Nations has agreed to
refrain in its international relations from the threat or use of force.
This has been its policy for many years and is its guiding principle of
conduct in the Far East, as throughout the world.
The use of force to achieve national objectives does not accord with
accepted standards of conduct under International law.
The Covenant of the League of Nations, the Kellogg-Briand
Treaties, and the Charter of the united Nations reflect the universal
view of the civilized community of nations that the use of force as an
instrument of national policy violates international law ,constitutes
a threat to international peace, and prejudices Ihe interests of the en-
tire world community.
There are in the world today many situations wlich tempt those -,vlWo
have force to use it to achieve what they believe to be legitimate policy
objectives. Many countries are abnormally divided or contain what
some consider to be abnormal intrusions. Nevertheless. the responsil)le
governments of the world have in each of these cases renouice(l the lise
of force to achieve what they believe to be legitimate and even u.ront
goals.
It is an essential foundation and prelilminarv, to the success of the
discussions under Item 2 that it first be male clear that the )arties
to these discussions renounce the use of force ito) ia:ke t ll( olicies of
either prevail over those of the other. That particildarlv aplies to the
Taiwan area.
(49)







Tile accept anle oft his prlncip)le (oes nt( iin vol ,e lird i)artieS, or the
jistrice or injistice of conflicti lins. It only invol ves recognizing
an(l alzree1in t o, aIbide Iy ,' acI)tcd stalldrtlrs of inteiat ional conduct.
We ask. therefore, as a fir -t maticr for dJiisssion under Item 2. a
deca rat ion that your side will not resort to tii ilse of force in the
'Ia iwan aret eXceI)t (iefernsively. Tie I iite. st> ates Vwil! )e l)epared
to iake a orrespon(Iing leclarati(on. These leda1ratiP1 will make it
aI)ropriate for 11 to pass on to the (lisclission of other matters with
a t )et te1 mlope of coing tIr on()lstr1u1(ct ire coj sions.
2. ( I,;n s I.*,a ft J) ircflo, on lPen1, iati Iro of 1'or,. (ctobcr 27,

1. AmblassadoIr Wang Ping-nan on behalf of the Government of the
People's Republic of China and Ambassador U. Alexis Johnson on
bIehalf of the Government of the United States of America jointly de-
clare that,
2. Inl accordance with Art ice 2, Paragraph 3, of the Charter of the
United Nations, "All members shall settle their international disputes
by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and se-
cir ity. and justice, are not endangered" and
3. In accordance with Article 2, Paragraph 4 of the Charter of the
United Nations, "All members shall refrain in their international
relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity P
or political independence of any state, or in any other manner incon-
sistent with the purposes of the United Nations"; I!
4. The People's Republic of China and the United States of America
agree that they should settle disputes between their two countries by
peaceful means without resorting to the threat or use of force.
5. In order to realize their common desire, the People's Republic of
China and the United States of America decide to hold a conference of
Foreign Ministers to settle through negotiations the question of re-
laxing and eliminating the tension in Taiwan area.
3. United States Draft Declaration on Renunciation of Force, Novem- ,
ber 10, 1955
1. The Ambassador of the United States of America and the Am-
bassador of the People's Republic of China during the course of the
discussions of practical matters at issue have expressed the determina-
tion that the differences between the two sides shall not lead to armed
conflict.
2. They recognize that the use of force to achieve national objectives
does not accord with the principles and purposes of the United Nations
Charter or with generally accepted standards of international conduct.
3. They furthermore recognize that the renunciation of the threat (r
or use of force is essential to the just settlement of disputes or situations
which might lead to a breach of the peace.
Therefore, without prejudice to the pursuit by each side of its
policies l)y peaceful means they have agreed to announce the following
declarations"
5. A ambassador Waang Ping-nan in formed Ambassador U. Alexis
.Jolnson that :
6. In general. and with particular reference to the Taiwan area, the
Peoples R1epill)lie of Clhina renounces the use of force, except in indi-
vidual and collective self-defense. >


50








7. Ambassador I. Alexis Johinson in formed Aimibassador Wa iig
Ping-nan that:
8. In general, and with )a rticular reference to thIe IWaii a l'(,tile
U lfited States reinounces the use of force. except iI I (t ividilal a I(,col-
lective self-defense.
4. Ch;,wst e )iift Count( t)rO/)OpsalO /fo1 A t/ (1 Iou ha lit
December 1. 1955
1. Ambassador Wang Ping-nan, on i)ehalf of the (OV1venin1 0 of tle
People's Repiublic of China, and Aiibassa(lor Ahxis Jolinsoul. oil be-
half of the Government of the United States of America, aTr(e to
announce:
2. The People's Republic of China and the UVnited States of Aiilerica
are determined that they should settle disputes l)etwecii their two
countries through peaceful ietrotiat i10llS without resort illg to the l reat
or use of force;
3. The two Ambassadors should continue their talks to) -eelk: 1)'i(a1 ,, ,
and feasible means for the realization of this common desire.

January 12. 19J6
1. Ambassador Wang Ping-nan, on behalf of the (GoVxemInent of the
People's Republic of China, and Ambassador V. Alexi's Jol'ln-on. on
behalf of the Government of the United States of Amerwa. agree to
announce:
2. The People's Republic of China and the United States of Anerica
are determined that thev will settle disputes between l tem throulh
peaceful means and that, without preiudice to the inhlerent ri,hit of
individual and colelctive self-defense, they will not resort to tile threat
or use of force in the Taiwan area or elsewhere.
3. The two Ambassadors should continue their talks to seek practical
and feasible means for the realization (f this common desire.
6. Uiitcd Sfatc. D)aft Popo.tal for n.!ounreml itf of ..';1 19. l9.76
1. Ambassador 17. Alexis Johnson. on behalf of the Governmeit of
the United States of America, and Ambassador Wang Ping-nan. ol
behalf of the Government of tile Peol)le's Republic of China. tree,
without prejudice to the pursuit by each side of its policies by lYeaceful
means or its inherent right of individual or collective self-defense.
to announce:
2. The U-nited States of America a 11(! the Peol)le's Rewbli c of ( 1i l a
are determined that they should settle dislmtes l)etweeni their two
co entries tilro l I)eacefiulI neg(ot iatiol xvit li t re ort i,,'g t ( ) t I ti iveat
or use of force in the Taiwan area or elsewhere.
0. The two Ambas-adors should contin e tlwir talks to 'eek I )-ractica I
and feasil)le means for the realization of t hi:s -common desire.
7'. Chivese Dra 'ft Cottntcrju oposal J0or an ;1qP(1 :1 _4?o11/icf mn.
Ma?/ 11. 1956
1. Ambassalor 11Wa ,n3 Pin-nan, oilelial f of th, Governmelnt o f Ile
People's Republic of China. and Anltibs,,ad' I' ,Alexis Johinwon. onl
behalf of thle Government of tile n ited States of America. a.aree, .vitli-
out rejudice to the prinlcip1les of 1nuitial respe t for t errit(iaI ill-
te-ritv and sovereignty and non-interference in each others internal
affairs, to announce:






o2


2. TPe leoile s ReIlluic of (lIina and the Ulnite(d States of America
ari'e ulet crliiii-ed that tlley shold set tle dislput es l)et wee1 their two coun-
tries in tlie Ta i wan area t l ogll ljaceful negotiations without resort-
I t (t lie threat Or m, of force agaist each other;
T! e t\w() a iibaadors slmuld continue their talks to seek and to
cf,"11\%1 11it1in two omntlis pratIcal adll feasible means for the real-
i/zati ( ) (f t111 co- n Oi desire, including the holdiiig of a Sino-Ameri-
(an c,Iference of the foreign nliliisters, and to lliake specific arrange-
lii eiits.f

S+,urces. 1-5 Department of State Bulletin, Jan. 30, 95 pp. 166-167.
qj ~r~1rnwn ~fSt~ t~ Iii1#~t'~ nn' 2.) l 56+w,. 10170.
7. New China News Agency Bulletin No. 1579, June 13, 1956, pp. 7-8.










T
B
B
C
C
D
E


H
H
Iv












APPENDIX D


DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF ('IIlNA
AND THE PEOI)LE'S RE'PUBIC OF ('IIINA
As of August 30. 1976.,26 countries liave (Iiplpolatic rel"ti Ilsw ith
the Republic of China and 110 have established or lave lllOnled
establishment of diplomatic relations with the 1 eop1&' thJ)ll)Ili, of
China. A list of the countries which recognize andl or hllave ofti(:ial
relations with the two governments follows:

1. REPUBLIC OF CHINA
A. COUNTRIES HAVING DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH THIE REPUBLIC OF
CHINA (ROC) (26)


Barbados
Bolivia
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Guatemala
Haiti
Holy See
Honduras
Ivory Coast
Jordan
Republic of Korea


Lesotho
Liberia
Libya 1
Malawi
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Saudi Arabia
South Africa (April 1976)
Swaziland
Tonga (April 1972)
United States
Uruguay


B. COUNTRIES HAVING CONSULAR RELATIONS ONLY WITII TIE REPUBLIC OF

Nauru (August 1975)
2. PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CIIINA
A. COUNTRIES HAVING DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH TIE PEOPLE S REPUB-
LIC OF CHINA (PRC) (110). WIT-1 DATE OF TILEEsTABLIShMENT uPFRELA-
TIONS
Afghanistan (Jan. 1955) Bangladesh (Oct. 1975)
Albania (Nov. 1949) Bel-iuin (Oct. 1971)
Algeria (Sept. 1958 with Provi- Botswana (,an. 1975)
sional Govt.) Br-zil (All. 1974)
Argentina (Feb. 1972) Bid1raria (()ct. 1919)
Australia (Dec. 1972) B1rl11a (June 1950)
Austria (May 1971) Binruidi (resimied Oct. 1971)
1Libya has unilaterally announced recognition of the PRC but retains relations with
the ROC.
(53)






54


( inbodia (,! uly 195 ) Mei~co ( Feb. 1972)
( 'a itiri on ( M arelh 1971 ) Mongolija ( ()Xi. 19)19)
( 'anad, ( ( )ct. 190) Moro (Nov. 1958)
("Ipt, 'ap~de \<111 slpnlP.)176;) %)zambique (11,une 1975)
( 'ef Ira! Ifri'an l)1u)li(- (le- Nepal (Aug. 9.)p)j
sunjed A\ug. 1976) Netherlans ( NOV. 1954)
('had Nov. 1972) Ne ,Zealan(l ( l)e(, 1972)
('l1ile ( I)ecI. 1970) Niger (J uly 1974)
(Coiormo Islan(Is ( Nov. I)75) N1geria (Feb. 1971)
( onto B(razzavi le) (Feb. 1964) North Korea (Oct. 1949)
(')a ( elt. 1960) Norway (Oct. 1954)
('yprus (Jal. 1972) Pakistan (May 1951)
Cze,(,hoslovakia (Oct. 1949) Papua New Guinea (Oct. 1976)
I')ahomey (resumed Dec. 1972) People's )emocratic Republic of
I)enliark ('May 1950) Yemen (Feb. 1968)
E(YvI)t ( May 1956) Peru (Nov. 1971)
Equatorial Guinea (Oct. 1970) Philippines (June 1975)
Et llopia (Dec. 1970) Poland (Oct. 1949)
Federal Republic of Germany Romania (Oct. 1949)
(Oct. 1950) Rwanda (Nov. 1971)
Fiji Islands (Nov. 1975) Sao Tome and Principe
Finland (Oct. 1950) (July 1975)
France (JTan. 1964) Senegal (Dec. 1971)
Gabon (.arch 1974) Seychelles Islands
Gambia ( Dec. 1974) (June 1976)
German I)emocratic Republic Sierra Leone (Julv 1971)
(Oct. 1949) Somalia (Dec. 1960)
Glhana (i'resimned Feb. 1972) Spain (March 1973)
Greece (June 1972) Sri Lanka (Feb. 1957)
Guinea (Oct. 1959) Sudan (Dec. 1958)
Guinea-Bissau (Sept. 1974) Surinam (May 1976)
Guyana (June 1972) Sweden (May 1959)
Ihungary (Oct. 1949) Switzerland (Sept. 1950)
Iceland (Dec. 1971) Syria (Aug. 1936)
India (April 1950) Tanzania (Oct. 1964)
Iran (Aug. 1971) Thailand (July 1975)
Iraq (Aug. 1958) Togo (Sept. 1972)
Italy (Nov. 1970) Trinidad and Tobago (June 1974)
JTamaica (Nov. 1972) Tunisia (resumed Oct. 1971)
Japan (Sept. 1972) Turkey (Aug. 1971)
Kenya (Dec. 1963) Uganda (Oct. 1962)
Kuwait (March 1971) United Kingdom (,June 1954)
Laos (Sept. 1962) Upper Volta (Sept. 1973)
Lebanon (Nov. 1971) USSR (Oct. 1949)
Luxembourg (Nov. 1972) Venezuela (June 1974)
Malagasy Republic (Nov. 1972) Vietnam (Jan. 1950)2
Malaysia (May 1974) Western Samoa (Nov. 1975)
Maldives (Oct. 1972) Yemen Arab Republic (Aug. 1956)
Mali (Ot. 1960) Yugoslavia (JTan. 1955)
Malta (Jan. 1972) Zaire (Nov. 1972)
Mau-itani (Juilly 1965)Zambia (Oct. 1964)
Mauritils_(Apriil 1972)
2 Prior to the formation of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (July 1976) PRC had
separated relations with North Vietnam (Jan. 1950) and the Provisional Revolutionary
Government of South Vietnam (June 1969).






55


B. COUNTRIES HAVING ('ONSTITLAR RELATIONS (CNI WIT II TI Il, : I I 'I 1-s
REPUBLIC OF CIIINA (1) WITI I 1)ATE ()F ESTAB11SI II"I.NTi1I' 1I,,%1I1 ()Ns
San Marino (May 1971)

C. COUNTRIES WIIICII REC()(1NIZE, BUT IWTAVE NH, RIIATI()N WI I!, T!I
PEOPLE'S REPUBIC O)F (IIIFNA (5) WITII )ATL ()I' ( NITI iN


Bhutan (Oct. 1971) 3
Portugal (Jan. 1975)
Indonesia (April 1950)


Israel (Jan. 1150)).
Libya (Ju1ne ( Su
footnote 1, p. 1)


D. COUNTRIES WHICH TILE PRC HAS UNILATERAIA iU(TNIZLI),T 81IIA\ l
NO RELATIONS WITH TIE PRC (2)
Brahamas (July 1973)
Grenada (Feb. 1974)

3. COUNTRIES WItlCI NEITHER RECOGNIZE NOR HAVE RElATIONS WITH
TIE REPUBLIC OF CHINA OR TIlE PEOPLE, S REPUBLIC OF' ('IIINA (1()


Angola
Bahamas
Bahrain
Ecuador 5
Grenada


Ireland
Oman
Qatar
Singapore 6
United Arab Enmirates


3 Recognition based on vote In UN to admit PRC and expel ROC.
4 Israel has not been recognize(] by the PRC.
1 Ecuador has broken relations with the ROC but has not formally recognized tho I(.
1 Singapore has permitted the ROC to establish a trade mission which also timndles
consular matters. Singapore does not consider this as reogZition aild has 11o mission
on Taiwan.
Source : Department of State.













APPENDIX E


SI)EC BYII IY PIE IIII 110 (II( EN-LAI
IE:Ir)RT ( )N TIlE WOJRK ()F TIE (iVFNxMENT
(Deliveredl on January 13, 1975 at the First Session of the Fourth
National Ieoples (ongress of the People s Republic of Chilna)
Fel low Deputies'
In accordance with the decision of the Central Conummiittee of the
Coniniunist Party of China, I shall make a report on behalf of the
State councill to the Fourth National People's Congress on the work
of the croveInn-lt.
Since the Third National People's Congress. the most important
event in the political life of the people of all nationalities in our coun-
try has been the Great l'roletarian Cultural Revolution personally ini-
tiated and led by our great leader ( airincan Mao. In essence this is a
great political revolution carried(l out l) the proletariat against the
!o)lirgeoisie and all other exploiting classes. It dest roved tle bonrgeois
headquarters of Lin -haoclhi and of Lin Piao and smashed their plots
to restore capitalism. Thie current nation-wide movement to criticize
Lin Piao and Confucius is the continuation and deepening of this great
revolution. The victory of the Great Proletarian ('ultural Revolution
has consolidated the dictatorship of the proletariat in our country,
promnotel socialist construction and ensuIred that ourcount ry would
tand on the side of the oppressel people anl oppressed nations of the
world. The cultural revohition has provided new experience on con-
tinuing the revoltion under the (lictatorshlIp of the l)roletariat; its
t ist orical significance is great and its influence far-readling.
In the coure of the greatt Proletarian (ultural Revolution and the
movement to criticize Lin Piao and Confucius, our people of all na-
tionalit ies have unf()lded a liuass iovelieiet to studtiv Marxism-Lenin-
ism-M1ao Tmetung Tlomght and tIls leigltened (their awareness of
(as, struggle an(1 the Struigll e 1)(etweell the two lines, and stiirggle-
crit icism-t raisfoumlat io ii tle >l1 perst iucture has achieved major sue-
Cess(es. The tilree-itt-oIe revolutionary conmm1ittees ,oil>o()seI If the old,
the liddtle-aged and tle voing have frged <(loser links with the
masses. Successors to the caused (f tte lprol(,tarian revol ution are ma-
t urn ig in 1arre n mnutl s. The prolet arian evolution in literature and
art exei ,iit lied 1v the n)del rexv )l tionary theatrical works is develop-
ig ii el)t "lI'V r'evoltioln itI e(|(llatio01 al n ill health ,work is thriv-
ilig. Tlbe riet'(' 1 Workers arc perervemniigo lteMaY 7tli road. Over a million
1)arefoot (l ('to' are )ecomi) uto11e ('olil)etent. Nearly t(.1 itillion
sliool mramdiats ha\e gone to Iilolltaitio)us a(lo Iother r ral areas. With
(56)






57


the participation of workers, peasants and soldiers the M-arxist theo-
retical contingents are expanding. The emergence of all tles( e
things has strengthened the al-round (I ictatorshi) of tle prol eta1iat
over the bour~reoisie in the real of the slperstructnl re, ;i (t ltll] ft llr
11. 11,1(.
helps consolidate and develop tlh socialist (noniliLase.
WAe have overfulfilled the Third Five-Year Plan and will success-
fully fulfill the Iou~rtih Five-Year Plan in 19)75. Our coont rv has won
good harvests for thirteen years running. The total value of agricul-
tural output for 1974 is estimated to be 51 per cent higher than that
for 1964. This fully denionSirates the siii-'p it- of the people's COIi-
mune. While China's population has increased 60 per cent since the
liberation of the country, rainn output has increased 140 per cent and
cotton 470 per cent. Tn a country like ours with a population of nearly
800 million, we have succeeded in ensuring the people their basic needs
in food and clothing. Gross industrial output for 1974 is estimated to
be 190 per cent more than 1964, and the output of najor prodlctsh has
greatly increased. Steel has increased 120 per cent. coal 91 per cent,
petroleumi 650 per cent, electric power, 200 per cent, chemiical fertilizer
330 per cent, tractors ,520 per cent, cotton yarn 85 per cent and chemi-
cal fibres 330 per cent. Through our own efforts in these ten years we
have completed 1,100 big and medium-sized projects, successfully car-
ried out hydrogen bonb tests and launched man-made earth satellites.
In contrast to the economic turmoil and inflation in the capitalist
world, we have maintained a balance between our national revenue and
expenditure and contracted to external or internal debts. Prices have
remained stable, the people's livelihood has steadily im uiproved and
socialist construction has flourished. Reactionaries at homie and ,iaroad
asserted that the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution would cer-
tainly disrupt the development of our national economy, but facts
have now given them a strong rebuttal.
Along with the people of other countries, we have won tremendous
victories in the struigle against colonialism and imperialism, and in
particular against the hegemonism of the suiperpowers. W~e have
smashed imperalist and social"-im-"perial isiencircienient.blockade.
aggression and subversion, and have strengthened our unity with the
people of all countries, and especially the third world countries.
China's seat in the United Nations, of which she had lonc been illegally
deprived, has been restored to her. The number of eountrie> having
diplomatic relations with us has increased to nearly 100. and more than
150 countries and regions have economic and trade relations and ciil-
tural exchanges with us. Our strmrgle has won widespread sVlinpatliv
and support from the people of all countries. WVe have friends all over
the world.
Tempered in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and the
movement to criticize Lin Piao and Confucius. our people of all nation-
alities are more united and our army has i.rown maer. Onrreat
motherland is still more consolidated. All our are areat
victories for T hmrTloi -(11" orelIr
vicoris fr i[arxi sin-Lenin isi-\[ao Ts~et ing TI o ith a md fo~r Ctia ir-
man Mao's revolutionary line.
Fellow Deputies!
The Tenth Nalion~al Con rress of our Party a ain elu idated the
Party's basic line and policies formulated bv Chairman Iao for the
entire historical period of socialism, and pointed out even more clearly


S) -






58


tle orientation for coln ing the revolution under the dictatorship
IlI I,(, J)f()leta1i:at. Ilder t de leadtersli) of the Plarty (11 mental Com-
I,,ittIcc i,~hkt l by ( hairnii Mao. tlHe p)eop)le of all nut' nationalities
fio11 I I1it( :-A ll )re ch) el v, a(hIere to h tlI Iarty'Is basic line and
1()l ir.e,. i ,: ler to fl ill t i e various ighIt I-g tIIsks sIt fo rthII I the
I I I v Iit I ( l)nl ess, c( s()I i Iate a ,I itI I (..a1e te vW It Iries of the
11(e1t I 11ndeta'ian ( nltitural Bevol it ion and strve for new victorie
Ii socialist revolution and soialist cIo1struet ion.
()ur nivla," task is to col time to broaden, deepen and(l persevere
in the lioveIent to crlitlize Ln Piao and (onfuci. The struggle
ltMewee llihe two (lasses, the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, between
ilt, r s thesoalist and the capitalist and between the two
lines. tle Marxist and the revisionist, is long and tortuous and at times
even le,oniew, vc acute. We must never relax our criticism of Lin
Piao and ('onfucs because of the big successes already achieved in
this niovement. We should go on deepening the criticism of Lin Piao's
revisionist line and the doctrines of Confucius and Mencius, and in
line with the l)rinciple of making the past serve the present, sum up
the historical experience of the struggle between the Confucian and
the Legalist schools and of class stiggle as a whole, build Ul) a vast
Marxist theoretical force in the course of struggle and use Marxism
t) occupy all spheres in the superstructure. The key to the fulfilment
of this task is for the cadres and the masses to study works by Marx,
E*gels, Leniii and Stalin and by Chairman Mao assiduously in order
to arm tlienielves with the basic theori( s of Marxism. Through the
critiicism of Lin Piao and Coniifuius, we should further advance the
revolution in literature and martin education and in health work, pro-
inote struf gie-criticisni-t transformation on various fronts and support
all the new things so as the better to keep to the socialist orientation.
Under the leadership of the Party, we should strengthen revolu-
ti()arv ''onini ittees at all lvels. Leading bodies at all levels should
l)ecome more conscious of the need to imi)lement Chairman Mao's
relu()!tionary line and should niaintain clo er tics with the masses.
We shoiild uiake active efforts to train young cadres, women cadres
anid minority na tionality cadres, and make a point of selecting out-
standiji(r workers and 1)oor and lo)wer-iuiddle peasants for leading
post_ We should have better stair and simpler administration with
fewer levels. New and veteran eadhes should learn from each other
an(l strengtle their unity. and they should l)e ready to work at any
j)(st. li-h () Ilow. persist in collective productive labour and whole-
lieartedly serve the people.
Ae.,- lottld strictly (1istinlmilI bet ween the two different types of
cont Iad ictionls and h1aidle them correctly, implement the Party's poli-
cies conscieniouslv and ensure that the task of consolidating the die-
tat orship of the proletariat is fulfilled right through to the grass-roots
level. We should rely on the broad masses to deal steady, accurate and
lhard lows at the hand fiul of class enemies, with the emphasis on ac-
('i racv. We sh10ul(1 earns 1 strive to do wNell in resolving contra(he-
tions among the people with democraticc methods in accordance with
tile prirci pe of unity- criticisni and self-criticism-unity, and thus
give full )l(ay to the masses' enthusiasm for socialism.
The unificati)n of our country, the unity of our people and the unity
of our various nationalities-these are the basic guarantees of the sure






59


triumph of our cause. We should strengthen the gre:t unity of the
people of all ou1r nationalities. We s1l0ht wllolelearte{tlv rely ,i tlie
working class and the poor and lower-niddle pelealant. 1 unite witiliet{
other working people anld tile InyU linelectitals and turtler hlevelop
the revolutionary united front which, led bv t lieworkhig e- a l and
based ol the worker-peasant alliance, includes th ti patriot ic ,deilorat iC
parties, patriotic personages, patriotic overseas Cline ,e and 1u coi-
patriots in longkong and Macao. We s!hol(l1 unit over 95 per cet of
the cadres and the masses and unit with all the forces that ca1 be iinited
with in a joint ellort to build our great socialistmoflierland.
Socialist revoltuion is the powerful engine for (Ievelo)ping tile Social
productive forces. We must a(lhere to the principle of grasping revolii-
tion, promoting production and other work and preparednessagnainst
war, and with revolution in coinnmand, work hard to increase prdluc-
tion and speed up socialist construction so that our socialist systenI
will have a more solid material foundation.
On Chairman. Maos instructions, it was sllggested in tie report on
the work of the government to the Third National 1eop)le s Congres>
that we might envisage the development of our national e(onomv in
two stages beginning from the Third Five-Year Plan: The first stage
is to build an independent and relatively comprehensive indhs t a
and economic system in 15 years, that is, before 1980; the second stage
is to accomplish the comprehensive imodernization of agriculture. in-
dustryi, national defence and science and technology before the end of
the century, so that our national economy will be advancing in the
front ranks of the world.
We should fulfill or overfulfill the Fourth Five-Year Plan in 1975 in
order to reinforce the foundations for completing the first stage be-
fore 1980 as envisaged above. In the light of the situation at hom-e and
abroad, the next ten years are crucial for accomplishinc what has been
envisaged for the two stages. In this period we shall not only build
an independent and relatively comprehensive industrial and economic
system, but march towards the splendid goal set for the second stage.
With this objective in mind. the State Council will draw up a long-
range ten-year plan, five-year plans and annual plans. The ministries
and commissions under the State Council and the local revolutionary
committees at all levels down to the industrial and niininc enterprises
and production teams and other grass-roots units should all arouse the
masses to work out their plans through full discussion and strive to
attain our splendid goal ahead of time.
In order to keep on expanding our socialist economy, we init per-
sist in the general line of goinff all out. ain ig liih and achieving
greater. faster, better and more economical results in 1,uilding ocial-
isin and continue to apply the policy of takin. a.,riclture as fihe foun-
dation and industry as the leadinc factor and the series of policies of
walking on two lelsN. We st1olld work out the national economic plan
in thi order of priorities agriculture, light inidust v. ]eavy indivtry.
We should five ll play to the initiative of1 hotI}centr'a Ita1d1loial
authorities under the te> unifiet )plalnl i g. We -hIld iinplelniit
the (]iart{e of thee Ans]ian Iron amnd Steel (% oianv 'iill l eter' and
deepen the mass movements-In industry, learn from Ta.chinr and In
agriculture, learn from Tachai.






60


WVinile t arkling 2 ooic tasks, 011,r lea1n1 coraes at all levels
inst 1lay Vlose at tention to tie e ial ist revoltionI in ti e realm of the
IulwrsIt I Ilint le and keel a ii rasl) on class st rnAk)e and the struggle
I )Ie lie when\ e do well in revolution is it pos-
sib)le to well in i)1ition. We should t lioroughl crit icize revision-
11i4. criticize, c1,apnitatt teni Is an( criticize such erneou-s ideas
riim IvIves of work as servility, to things foreign t e IIoctrine of trail-
a Lr 1)(im at a snail's s)ace,, an( extravagance aid waste.
( 111airi:a11 iMao points ]It) (eIvI mainly on oIr ovn efforts while
I Ia k I external assistance subsidiary, )reak dlown hdll faith, Lo in
for iii(thist vV, a2ricultuIi1e and technical and cultraI revolutions inde-
Id(1(1Itl. (oaway with slavislnes l)ury (logmIat ism, learn from thie
ooI exp erience of other counties conscientiously and be sure to study
Sl iV l)ad exl)erience too, so as to dlraw lessons from it This is our line."
Ibis line has ena)led us 1o break til iml)erialist blockade and with-
stand -ciai-inlIiial is( prie-sire, and the ))ogress of our economy has
e(1n sound an(l vigorous all along, regardless of economic fluctuations
and c'ises in the capitalist world. We must always adhere to this line.
Fellow I)eputies
The present international situation is still characterized by great
di-order under heaven, a disorder which is growing greater and
greater. The capitalist world is facing the most serious economic
cr-isis since the war. and all the basic contradictions in the world are
sliar )eni)0. On the one hand, the trend of revolution by the people
of the world is actively developing; countries want independence,
)at ions want liberation. and the people want revolution-this has
becoine an I)resistible historical current. On the other hand, the con-
ten ion for worl'o etemonv between the two superpowers, the nIlted
states and the Soviet Union. is becoming more and more intense. Their
('onteItion has extended to every corner of the world, the focus of
tleir contention being Europe. Soviet social-imperialism "makes a
feint to the east while attacking in the west." The two superpowers,
the nitedl States and the Soviet Union, are the bioogest international
o)ppressors and exl loiters today, and they are the some of a new world
war. Their fierce contention is bound to lead to world war some day.
Tl people of all countries must get p)re Iared. Detente and peace are
bein# talked about everywherein the world: it. is preci ely this that
!)Wvs t !)eIW is no deten te, let alone Iast 1 ng peace. in this world. At
J)resent, t]le factors' for both revolution and war are increasing.
WIlether war gives rise to revolution or revolution )revents war, in
(either case the international situation will develop in a direction
favoulral)le to the pe ople and( the future of the world will be bright.
We shuIld cantin to illenient ('ha it man Mao's revolutionaW
line in foreign a affairs, always keep the peoI)le in iin(l, place our hopes
IeIIi do oiii' extern11 work better We should 1)ho(1 l))oletarian
inlteriiatioIalisii aid -t rer'thle('i11 oIr iiity with tle socialist countries
adll til e oI))1'e('( 1)eolle I]Id op)ree(di ations of the worl, with








each sllpportinj(e ohe Other. We should7e J ally ojlj( I wve wial 1-h to
in the world that ant h1 allied with to (co. ili! ,(' iatl i i 111114 ,i I
isin Uandl above all >u1)erlpower 1ie~relliI>i. Wk. '11-cVettn v te -Iid 111i
or dcveo)p relatioiis vitl 1 all )Cl11 'si, OIL l l )atile i ,t 1 (e li I l-
ciples of 1ea e futl (doexistelce.
The third V 1 oIhl is tie ,eIain force in (lOlfl)at11ii(Y 42,?I,)lhI ln 1111
perialisnm and lieenioi sm,. (hlia is a develo)pilir 'o a l wi-i l )vl
belonging to the third v:orldl. Xe .shoull enllianee Ou11' 111i1,v v xith t
countries and people of Asia. A frica aiail Lat in A lmeri i )a 1 1 dle lv
support them in their st rHlg('e to will or sa feriar(l )1:1 i)Moil1 i)l dice, defend their 4tate sOVNTi'42 gIIty. pI-oteet I (i I- i:it 10-1;i I 142011
and develop their national econowV. We fimlsIv ippt>(toi) th, jii,t -Ari _-
gles of the people of Korea, VietNman( iii. I ) 1: mt -I lid
the Arab )countries as well a> ount ie> i isthe Aaolltller ll
the co tries and people o i the ;-ecoid worl i iii"I 1'Ili t 1-i41
stiperpower contro, I Ii)'eat andl I llyinlg. We .oippovr 1 ipe lt, Iti l I
West European countries to j(et lv1iie(t In11iin > rtw)tr e. V 0!I(.2t1 .v e ,
to work together with tle ,lalanese (roeIlII1 aii( ll4e to j)I 0-
mote friendly and g0oo.I-nei lihourlv re at ion Ietwx eel i 14 c ci
tries on the hba.is of the Jino-,alalie, l ,oint 1 ''tlelit
There exist fundaiiieltal ditleren -e, betxweetl ( 'lia a "I to t e I itc
States. Owinr to the joint elor'ts Of f1)o1 i ile.-h the )elati11)4 42(, ,
the two count vies ha ve impr moved t '>somi e extell 1t1, l :it' tI,'<,(. 1 I
and cmoiacts Ietween til ewo w people hav(i'develei. T1e w Ii
between the two countries will ontim111, to iiI}))OV(e >1)14)1, i}1' 11
('iples of the Sin)o\Aleri*an Sl(aiigiii ( iitii ,1142 rAllied 0111
in earnest.
Thetovlet leading clique heave l)etraved a10x1(iieninVIn. aiid
otur debate with tlhen on t-at ter>of prilicie will t fcar a mII-(r
time. However. we h ave alw,.x, v le4ld iat l his ;leate,- 10)1 ll 4)1 (A)-
striuct the niaintenaice of ifoviil stat elaionll) 1Vetn
the Soviet LUion. The Soviet leadhjjrhlI) nlave 1ab.el 't: t Eoe-, 01 '-4"
wo 'sen the ril at ion 1)e x,,veejI tle I wo co l e ti 2 ) (', ( l11) (I ii \ -V \ e
activities, ia l;1;i4 our couti-tLv, Id even lI)', k42 a e 't )0)1
th-le )Or"er. In violate io Of ("erstallI Lk i'ie I 'he
Prenijer- of China an( lie)let I iola earl v >i ,). 1,v Il'i-w
to i(rll trle A ( ,I'e l, j4lt i 111li iiI I I eI L e f t () I I t I it t11. ( I i e} '
_)Order, tiI lheventio l Of aumed cl ilicli aild 1142 (d2122 ~ I ii1w
aiiied focc'ee-!Olf thet\\ o -,*dle- in t 1i'dj Imtet lvl an a()nt I. !wk. 'Iti
aogreemeit wifch ineluiW ti>the 11111142otIv'e i' .-(rIi e nj idip.1 1 I '
nuitial o11i~g'I'e>i1d biie the]w e2(41ll ()t11c i U -'\A
IOlnda' v ( l t Oliliav 42 ) a iied('' V i, v e bl d e a' > i ',l le ev e cli t( i'
existence of tHie tl0 l'te1 l ','eas o)n( i'e >:io -o( i',l)l)V, II 41 i ,
even i-cfln-e ,to do iy1 11)m loit -0i llal ter'- a:V111(i1w121
of the aruiiiedvi (,e'-O l the I () .ide iII tbe liIpoled 1 : -, A V42 hi, 4P
anii([ ie h e Pl'''i'fitlo 0i O arri t )Iitead t wlN i- a], V ix A Y it








nion-affrer-on. So what can their real intention le if not to deceive
t e soviet iIeople an w((orld p1)1lic opinion "VWe wish to advise the
Iov iet 1eadriI)iIt to sit Iown and negotiate hoIIet lv. do something to
solv a !hit o>f the p roIlefli and1 -401) lplavin,.z, slue!b deceitful tricks.
( ~i~a irm~n MIao teaches us. "1)i tuInnels deep. store grain every-
where, anldl never seek .egemony. ..le prepared ag,.,ainst war, be pre-
pared a-ainst natural disasters, and (lo evervthin_ for the people."
We jhoul(l inaiit:In1VIgil-ance, stienlrten- ou+r defence and be pre-
pared against war. The heroic Peoples Liberation Army shoulders
the lIorious task of defending the motherland. The whole army should
res t-renrttlen the ar my and enhlance preparedness against war. We should
build the pople militia con-(,ientiouslv and well. Together with the
people of all our nationalities, the People's Liberation Army and the
masses of the people's militia should be ready at all times to wipe out
anv enemy that dares intrude.
WC'are deterniined to It1berate Taiwan! Fellow countrymen in
Taiwan and people of the whole country. unite and work together
to achieve the noble aim of liberating Taiwan and unifying the
lmotherland !
Fellow Deputies!
In tie excellent situation prevailing at home and abroad, we should
first of all run China's affairs well and strive to make a greater eon-
trimtion to humanity.
We must bear firmly in mind Chairman Mao's teachings and grasp
ma!or iss5ues, grasp the line, and adhere to these fundamental prin-
ciple. "Practise Marxism. and not revisionism,- unite, and don't split;
1be open and aboveboard, and don't intrigue and conspire."i
We mist resolutely support the centralized leadership of the Party.
Of the seven >ectors-industrv." agriculture, commerce. culture and
education, the Army. the government and the Party-it is the Party
that exercises overall leadership. We must put all fields of work under
the unified leadership of the Party committees at various levels.
We must carry forward the glorious tradition of observing dis-
cipline. concientioislv practise democratic centralism, and, on the
hIsi of Chairman Maos revolutionary line, achieve unity in thinking,
policy plan. command and action.
We must persist in the mass line: From the masses. to the masses;
we must have unshakable faith in the vast majority of the masses and
lirmly rely on them. Both in revolution and in construction. we should
boldly arouse the people and unfold vigorous mass movements.
We mus.t work hArd. build the country and run all undertakings with
diligence and thrift. W'e should maintain the same vieour. the same
revolutionary enthusiasm and the same daring, death-defyving spirit
we diszplaved in the years of revolutionary war. and carry on our
revolutionary work to the end.
WVe must uinhold proletarian internationalism. and (ret rid of great-
power chalivinism resolutely, thoroughly, wholly and completely. We
will never >eek hegemony : we will never he a superpower; we will






63


always stand with the opI)r(e(sse peo ple aiid ol)re)(( t
thirmol Xhollt the world.
Under te leadership of the Cent ral( Coiiniittee of te l'le(' I wlia(I(
)v Cliairmai i .[ao. t ie (Chi(1 eh a)v)e I are \V( ,'lk ik e i yi'irtllalv. >11'
Mounted all diflicultiQe alnd ha zar(ls. and turell ,d a overt' v-1 vik(I
and backward ('oultry into a socialist one with t I ,,ii !,ni(in' of
prosperity ill olv tweity .ye"Irs a11d mo t nWecall ('laiilIv I illt
China into a powerful modern Socialist o'olnirv in am i lie 1 1 t,,,litvy
years and more beforee the end of the rent ury. We >lioiilol continue to
work hard, carry forward dour Vachieveinents ad ,(.) ovel(ol ()11 I.' SZort-
comings, be modest and I)rudent, guarda.,a'ilsif arrogance a nd rash-
ness an(d outijulie ou I.rilllnl)hlant advance. I nler the ,mialitice, of
Chairman Mao's revolutionary line, let us unite to win 4till reater
victories !















APPENDIX F

China's population by provinces (in millions)


Pro riflcS8
Anhei 4----------------
( 'hekiang : 33_
l.'kie :more tha'n 9Q0
Hleilungikiang : 82-----

I JoIvlh moree t han 40
Hunan: 40----------------
Hupeb: 40----------------
Inner Mongolia: 8.6_
( A Mongols)
Kaimu: 18-----------------
Kiangsi: 28---------------

Kirin: 23-----------------
Kwangsi : 31--------------
Kwangtung: 53.5----------


Kweichow: 24-
Liaoning: 33--------------
Ninghsia : more than 3
Peking: 8 ..
10---------------
Shansi: 23
Shantung: G 8
heni: 26----------------
Sinkiang: 11 (41.4% Han)----
Szeehuan : 80_
Tibet: 1.82 .12 Han)
Tieni : 7-----------------
Tinghai: more than 3--------
Yunnan: 28---------------
Total population ... 854.92


Source
September 19, 197(--Provincial Broadcast (PB)
September 29, 197-PB
April 15, 1976-PB
September 11, 197I-Peoples Daily (ID)
September 20, 1976--PB
June 6, 1975-Peking Review
September 17, 1976--PB
September 17, 1976-PB
October 6, 197T-Asian Wall Street Journal.
Told Schlesinger group by Chinese officials.
September 12, 1970-PD
September 19, 1976-PB
September 20, 1970C--PD
September 19, 1976--PB
April 13, 1976-PB
i)erived from a July 16, 1976 P) article stating
that 26% of the people in Kwantung, 13,910,-
000 swim.
September 29, 1976-PB
September 11, 197G-PIB
April 9, 197--NCNA Domestic Service
September 10, 1976-PD
September 18, 1976--City Broadcast
September 20, 1976-PD
September 20, 1976--PD
September 30, 1976--PB
October 6, 1976-Asian Wall Street Journal
September 20, 1970- PB
Oert~ler 6, 1976--Asian Wall Street Journal
s ett el ler 11, 1976-IP I)
S('I~leml)er 20, 197C6-PD
Se~t ember 19, 1976--PB


Source: U.S. Consulate General, Hong Kong.
(64)







AP PENI)IX (;


94th Congress }
Ist Session .


COMMITTEE PRINT


CHINA:


A QUARTER C-FNT'IIZ AFTRY


THE FOUNDING OF THE PEOPLES
REPUBLIC





A REPORT

BY

SENATOR MIKE M]-ANSFIELD
Majority Leader, United States Senate

SUB-MITTED TO THE


COM-AMITTEE ON


FOREIGN RELATIONS


SENAkT I


REJP() RT NUMBER TWO


JANUARY 111975



Printed for the iise ,of tte oimnitt(+ it IriKnI Itti


U.S. GOVERN'\IENT PRIN'I ING O'IC
VA ;IIIN(T()N : 17


((z)


UNITED STATES








6


c M ITv I. :I.'ON F( )uI"I(;.N I trIATII()N$
.1,11IN SPARKNMAN, AlV b6iia.i f'hirlnfl


MI~i' MAN\SFIFIh, M ana
IZ \.N K (Citll{(rI Idaho
ST I' \ !T SYMIN4 ;TON, Missouri
;Ii.AII (NL iI'EII, Rhode Island

(;}l,)I{flt Mi IVE:RN, South Dakota
Ill'l IAIIT II' MPttREY, Minnesota
IJ.K CelARK, Iowa
JUSEIt R. BIIl)EN, Ja., Delaware


CLIFFORD '. CASE, New Jersey
JACOB K. JAVITS, New York
h:UGhI SCOTT. Pennasylvainia
JAMS 1B. I I'E:ARS()N, Kansas
(IIARLES II. PERCY, liiunois
IOBERT P. (RIFFIN, Michigan
HOWARD IT. BAKER, Ja., Tennessee


PT M, 1. HOLT, Chief of StafT
AwriIt M. KUII, Chief Clerk


(II)









CONT1N TS



Letter of transmittal-----------------------------------------------
Text of report:
I. Is the system working.------------------------------------
Evidence of success-------------------------------
Medical care in China, 1974---------------------------
PoIiulation policy.----------------------------------------
Education.---------------------------------------
Agriculture.---------------------------------------
Preservation and conservation-------------------------------- 7#
Industrial development------------------------------------------. 17
China's minority problems-----------------------
Summary-----------------------------------------------
II. United States-China relations------------------------
The p)ath since Shanghai1-----------------------------------
Taiwan-------------------------------------------------21
Trade matters--------------------------------------------- 2
Exchanges--------------------------------------------------------
S lunntary.--------------------------------------- :
III. China's foreign policy-------------------------------------- .
IV. Concluding observations------------------------------------
Appendixes:
A. Itinerary of visit--------------------------------------...:7
B. Map depicting Senator Mansfield's several visits to (hi .
C. Text of the Shanghai communique-----------------------------
D. United States-China trade data-------------------------------- I
E. List of bilateral exchanges---------------------------------------.4Z
F. List of congressional delegations which have visited China from
197 2-74---------------------------------------------------
G. Text of a speech by Senator Mansfield at the University of Mon-
tana, March 28, 19684----------------------------------------
1-. Report by Mr. Francis R. Valeo, Secretary of the Senate. concern-
ing nations on the periphery of China--------------------------.
I. Text of reports to the Senate by Senator Mansfield and Senator
Scott following their 1972 visit to China---------------------- 9
( Il)






68


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


JANUARY 29, 1975.
lI(o..J! i NIN SP ii MAN,
;,,,-. (,Olitt a. Frign Relations, U.S. Seate, W1ashing-

1)1 -\I"s -Tu SA irA" Almost three years have elapsed since
S]ie viiit of tie joint Senate leadership to China in April-May 1972.
A 5(+w0,t visit just re(iit ly conIpleted has afforded me an opportunity
to) 11a' (uioie about the nation that is home to one-quarter of the
-o)!idtl i eople andh(1 las peviiitted III to explore further thle pri-)eCts
lot" the ex olviiia >iiio-I1.S. relationship.
1l i:{ seen tile old (1hina as a I.S. Marine in the early 1920. as a
s1)ecia 1 relreset{ltt i Vof President Roosevelt (luring World War II,
and. shortly after te ar, as a member of the House of Rewpresenta-
1Iie I tre{'aiii ieactiaiiited with China on an official joint Senate
L'adersi v'sit in 1972 and, together with the Seite Republican
LeadeOr (3M.. Sott) reported to the Senate on the initial and limited
,)t,{,rv ti{+ s NV i(.} 11 N ( po !ille t thl t t {.
Tliv .) tie courtesy of the People's Republic of China, I spent
tilie 9, ]i fimoi I)e(eniber 9. 1974, when I arrived in Shanghai. until
I),ceniber '0. 19 71. w] en I crossed the border into Hong Kong, in that
\ 8-A alid stilllile known and( understood nation. This second visit
t,) I !)e P oI )les + )ellic was made with the full concurrence and sup-
port of the lPresident and the Secretary of State as being in line with
t]he policy of normalization. It represented a continuation of the bi-
,' 11 i~a~ ll w I.I.i Wh froin the beginning, has characterized d tile
P8 a 'o, 1 r Fi]iei it withi Chlii-a.
Ili roi' j tle ex V0lelt cooperation and assistance of the staff of the
('2l~i eoplesls Intstitute of Foreign Affairs and officials in cities an(d
l Chin f, I talked with people in all walks of life. To study
ii i8V 1*I V a!hts s I 'tI (d Ifa( +ori oiies. (onIn)llies, homes, schools, historic sites, nIselis,
i, i'iui i( dl arian re.0la1ati projects and( hv(troelectric plants. While in
( i,. I tri veiled some 6.000 miles by plane, train and car. A detailed
ji ?),I1,[V Of1ill iewo ] iON('\ :tl11 irs iin tile al)l)ii(tiiX,
I )Iitf \iv lF in Pekli holding (liscuissio1s wNvith leading officials
of 1,11 -People'sR eullic. TIes convers'ations included one 11or with
1 ,iijij',I' ( hioutl i -oii five hours wit Ii \ii-reiiierl eig I Isiiao-ping,
and seven hours with Foreign Minister Ch'iao Kuan-hiua. Outside of
Peking, I met with local officials wherever I went. Briefinos were pro-
vi led% I)V w 1,.>. Ii Ofsf01 ()flice in Peking and.l in ttonoihiu, bv Am-
I as':/ador (]eoI2e Bush. Chief of the United States Liaison Office in
-)okin, as well as Admiral Noel Gayler, Commander-in-Chief of the
U.S. forces in the Pacific.
( i+ a i~Iql, diX T.
2 S appendix A.










From i V~i(ir:lTL jourievwi >iii ito -q1ail I JI' tvX- 1111- i 'l

heart of the Yellow River ,>iil. I HI!v Ii 1:1rl ,-). colf ,I-
,(atln ai nd lood ('oTtrol w\orlk-<. laind l r I, I:II a: 1: d 1iL A r, i. r
place'sof (o0lci"Ot~led UrtIiIv i ii ii), i arts11 ol 1VI W Il Cr
.r f e C[-. l
1 ILII Cteof ( 1n heip1oii. aVn1i-:nd iilLo- viI
Froi Iloiia. l rovince. I, I 1 N 1 to
Slaelisi 1P1\ville. w!"ch11i1 n1 9"7. va- the t'V1iii1- of Ii:Kb r11v

en- lirlne(1 d HOW :u-tHle wijle of te('im. ~x%1 uI~iin~ i
Sut h ,;to KlIie-hin *I) -ie A O] li W('n j-e ni 2 UJ
nijl ,,tea popnl.,at e( LV ;I ri v hItltY t O Il) 11nol'it i(. IF i iv -Cwll (4 t I I -
,,,elalt ..' nhave. Ie, I ( r e linz(,d Iv III( hi'ol_ VTt i


hr (, a In.
tioinillities. h I 'exeel~lnt opp0Vt1unitle iQ-to i iiu\ .liI '
are iandl(lli itIhe IYO}les RIpulici. ~' ~-
theto were ex!)lorX I 1 dIIdepth II tIle iti e of KiwIn m1, I N-
i11 f. ter leai'inr Y7:in- iini. I flew to oflu 1i", ii
YX!nan Irovince. a ke v area in Wori ,AV I I lnd ,, :v a ,i
industrial center in soil!thwe-< ('ti /. ]lie ITV '1, l.,: 1 (V
pllr.lued further in that fprovice wJiBI,, is lihh 1e h II,,,i' \ P
different minorities. Ti ial1, five' davs w ere r Iiwiit ;1 11 s-
ChllilanQ Aitononiotis 12'iriol thr 11 I ll in Nl l11t1 1> \ :(. 1.
stop was T\!IIt ]-eholl (CI(Iton), tile Ste of ClI In r t I r
tdir, aul the }hM O Of 2 t:, ioialPa-ft on'ai -1*,- ..It it. v- X ,
is f-nimiliar to a rowVnQ ni:uiile" of A\m eiLin li, :
11-11i einl China I l(a~ ma ui-vnv ferenive to 1 V I:. lilnella LoIn IiI Idez \faI,'eos. Tife of Br,2-:l," I c A,
of lwr va ~oof fli e, tPhlt :]t] p! ]::]! [ 1101 ,0 :1>t :],:::~',::,:
I) t I jy1 j )llh(IIf14 ,,f t-\, hj 1 PII I I. ll( I IemIeIit I I
a4,.',, o f t'le wxebiol ,le S;h, reve, i .
T thwn !.y it it adv i l to v'-; ana Tin. i: :x' f, ....

}){Ij'~eI oflii'Olf1- T1iv0lio 0111 vi V l I
jill ill co l IeT>- a XX P 1t i lteil ipp;))-:'' Illd x4h
.e}si r oi f 1 of 1 P(hm in, '1 O ,l lV l i ( : iv I v ,l l ,: 1:
T l llrn' f V. ) elii'' : I I'I -tvL1 t :5, t" I Iie i l 1,.,i I 1 1) -
i e pel i i ) l W o f eC IX V I i : t 1 ), ,,Wi ,M : I'Ji: ,1, "> ", 1 1


to i t 1 i 1 '1t:tT I f i t in '-:1 I il ''l (i.

t} r i ii(e :IiwllirliltV ai,l it h 111d i- :i,Ir 'i i, I f I :
t)o1 l)~ V 'ill o') I)I

In t Pw hiliPpill(' View. O, V. l0'11 ,
Pali wa an 1) 1 ,-oi i o ti11, pI nI T IaI it I:l I ,
ille lmt !Th-t Islad 1 _811( iS 1I),v( l v i sIlil:1EV t'ui',', I t'' i fl, .

ole r i iexnli l'8. '1011 Uliol ,ii \\I- e ti lil ul In lli hhi'-! :l t,., o',.l,. ,,, t,
h d ol SOC'I%~ tV
c'laiinl, 1)v Taiw(1l1. tlw e plh* %,!,"s !ewlitldW "(Ifl:l D,:Il\ ,,:::
::n ill(, Plililpipilw !P oti l 11v:i-z o l, er v(Tlv ro ,t ,: Iwc, ', r l',,, I,, t,-
le011") OV )l wl~tton :'kld ]1 it w .1-; n,l ]ii t l'.1t fll i .lor(,("Il], create
1111-e1*1t11tionl l t,'ultiles c ] .s sl :] c > 00li tleni to> re-Zo ] e l
que'stion of sovereignty".






70


VII

InImeuti I ly 'Iv )Iv return from China I submitted to the Presi-
,,t ) the i itelt St at es. in eonfid(enee. a rIeport ol my obServations
adP IphlilQ'11 t 111, witt ieeoiiiiiiendations regarding 1.S. policy.
Ille iIwt : aiso( i elll(le(I1 a o Int s of conversations with Prenilier (hou
1L!1-i. as i IIVice I v I Itr(Iiier e Isiao-piig, Foreign MiII-
(K l, 11) 11 j?-w iI aIiII \iee Foreign Miniser' Wang Ilai-jlng.
'1 ie rep1u(rt wl~inch tI<)lo()ws is an attemnl)t to put together in soe co-
Ier'Ixe crpl :eru a v-t 1!11111)e1 of il)m)pCssiols anid expeIiencs,1 ope-
fuli, t e at t wis wi -assist the Senate in grasping wlat in my judg-
S.ei Ilv } )l )Ve I () ]I.e t it l)rofoun( interl tiolual development of
II ie se.()I !wiI I of tIlIe 2 -0t'I ( entryr, the elIeren('e of a new and dy-
nanne nat iont on tle ( il"-ine mainland. tl)w that nation is meeting
tle ofceulS ul its peoples, an(l how it is relating to the 'nited States
atl oIlier flations are (lstions olf the greatest significance to prent
a li't r 7,(,:i) .W el v a r e t si- .... "'" opreen
a hit ire greneral i'"n,. We have an urgent re-j)onsibility to the peo-
I(e o4 111i nati ni toI trv t) n(lerstaind what is transpiring in China and
i,)w lest to relate our )oliies to that phenomenon so as to establish
virma rn, contacts of peace, friendshi) and equality between the peo-
ple of the !Hiteul St ates and a Chlnese )opulation which already num-
l "e r ")() juijlion people.
( )n this mission. 1 was accompanied by my wife, Maureen Mfansfield,
a1 te Il omiorable .lane Engelhard of the President's Commission to
t uvi O t r e Oranization of tlIe governmentt for the Conduct of Foreign
I oll'v. Support and assistance was provided to me from many
sores. In partic lar, I want to thank the Library of Congress, Con-
gressiouiI RIesear(,h Service. for excellent background studJies,; the De-
lartn, ,uift flel Air Force for assistance in transportation; the De-
pai4 ument of State for making available Ambassador I rancis J. Meloy,
AVsist ant Secretarv of State for Administration, John Thomas and
fi;-s I )ixie Grimes of Mr. Thomas' staff. I)r. Freeman IH. Cary, the
A! treemcingI thysjeian of the Capitol, also accompanied me, and pro-
"" -snat,OiS I IH s
viu Vle t )lii tis 1professioual assistance anld his o)ser on o Chinese
liea hlt care. Froin tIhe Seiite I had the assistance of Mr. Norvill Jones
of The ( Immttee ()n Foreign Relations, Mrs. Salpee Sahagian, Ad-
lilistrat ive A-sistant to the Majority Leadter, and the Secretary of
tli tente. Mr. i rank Valoo, who, as a former Consultant to the
Seitte Foreign relations Committee, had accompanied me on my
Pre ions visit to China as well as on many other Presidential and
Senate missions to Asia and elsewhere abroad in the past.
Sincerelv yours,
MIKE MANSFIELD.







I I P,:AN'\II I'rl:I I (1 I I".

Hon. MiKE MAN SFIELA).
U.S. ASehat(<,
a(m,4S/;nljtofl, ILC.
Iim'k I't Ii i.' ( )li of tie kev ee ( e tslt 1s i1 1 011(1 111,I" vl l t( 1 iA' I\
is the effort 170 If totulrtheI IIoIl( ZeelatIons wIt II I lie 1)l1 Npr)A)n
of (h1,. IIIteli f (leVelolI:olfel tt tll within orj eoi Ivv r,1
iII the wo 1-](, it seeIIis to IIe that it. woIld be IoSt II 11(11)11 t 1) 411 t(II I I I
of that policy if .von ('ou1(t 1i)(1eta 'ke a visitto('lii(aiI iil lie ic hom.(,.
As Senate Majority Lead er a a as aI)Doe rat,. om reIiM
China would unde ore f ie 1)iIpartisall hial rof ()t li~l o fl ic, ,v(41orriall-
zation and eml)asize its cont.iviitv. Moreover. iI view o f* Y011 11x-
tensiv e eXlPerileI(e with1 the affairs (f thie Wes (,ert lPa lci, ic.,t\ol1(1 he)
helpful to mie to have your assessinent of tle ciireit tatius ()f the
Sino-I.S. rapprochement and the relationslii of lor'ilalizal oil t()the
general situation in the Far East.
It, seems to me, too, that further fanilia rizatio on (M.vonI' 1 part, Aii
the situation in China would be of great, value ill the Oilsi(lei'a, iol
of any future (Iestions regarding Sino- U.S. relations which nay (coie
before the Senate.
In the event you undertake this visit, the executive. Branch will be
glad to assist you in any way possible.
With warmest, personal regards,
Sincerely,
JERRy Fori).


(viii)






072


(INA: A QUARTER CENTURY AFTER THE FOUNDING
OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC


I. Is the System Working?
(Iii~ is j)O1 itiW8 system is no longer an experiment. It is here to
:a, It i iire than a political system. It is a way of life for China's
m1i, -11people. ( hinese society vtodav, is based on the communist
ii t Tes of (,IairIa Mao Tse-turg which, to the Western ear, can
onil 1h)4 o(iiv like Marxism but also (Ommon sense and a mixture of
Rl1P+lcista1il 11d ami severity in confronting the frailties of human

e constant spec-lation over what will happen in China after
( 'hai ni'an Mao Tse-tung retires from the scene, in my opinion, is
Me i irlevance. It ignores the depth and the reality
of t(e revolutionary changes which lave taken place in China during
tile last quarterv 'ent((rv. M[ao is esteemed almost to the point of rever-
d,'e 1)ecause he has pointed the way and his leadership has restored
uat s se, t-eo~~l+temick. Mpaos I)recepts can be expected to guide China's
( imi 1 )r a o1, t i ie o o() lou1. "Serve thep people" and "self-reliance"
Sre thhn sloas, yare the guideposts of Chinese society for
SI(I tcI "t id fiit re.
Im" uii Sliania i to Si:n, from 1ekincr to Kun-minin, the evidence
Of l 1 s .e1s (durabilitv is ox erwhelmic. Politics permeates China's
It:tilv 1 l1fe.fromth ,Ile i, 1 government officials in Peking to peasants in
tI1 vi ie 1)te coll miiies. The traditional Chinese concepts of family
b ;aIt a II o'IroI1> activ itv hatve been extelid to mke the Chlinese
1)}, e iul a pV ram I of "familes." At the apex is the leadership of
:i ii ,t (1ra1I ('Ii~e1, nat ion. ri( I in common aeoni ishment an-
fa it It i a co momn future are evident everywhere. (,hiina todlay is more
uI 1q 1Wh v I its history.
TI' i- is i to av th(fat theve will not be political turmoil. Indeed,
p)roi e )()litical stake-li are all e.ential feature of Mao's thesis.
l(v. 'I' t rleaIed as a neessitv in1 order to cleanse t! e system of ever
re. u rn "'clit Vt' i emlencies, That was t le si 1ihfiaie of thle ( lltu ual
I{ '1 i 4. It i p l}1i cil)ai factor in tile ( rr-e-it 1ovenient to "criti-
i iii P)iao and CJonfius." The prospect of stru,1es,.,. for personal
Jul itical })O I I' is 8150 inherent in any 1)(yolitical system. In ( lina how-
e Il.i i e l Iil 1 Iis that even these wstruIles vill take place within
thf( t':I ework of \IVaoisin.
TIm'po), ted illto th e (iiiiFese econoIn iC system is a substantial in-
su hatin froiit ie storms whif-} take place in t1e internation1leCOn-
0111 Tlhe curreiit i)1rmOes of inflation and(1the se(ter of a worldwide
lei)re'ssio, for exam lple, leave (i a relat ively nt ouciel. Mao s em-
)liasi ott -elf-rlice, local initiative, and national self-sufficieney
(1)






73


ha~s cseI'xed as8a5 1 (lloni. 11) H ie ( ~1: 1 1 vs III i" I I
ilarchI, \Mao's for es spuiii iiivi i' ovv1I lii (Iv,]( r~d Ii, 'V

provedI tself anew()il 8a)10okle' rille. WY'ii I 114' >ovi I II
(ivew its I}ll)0'il;-sIztance iIII lie I~~e 111ife-. IOlie tjvi(d,4
rian1111Ce SPurr-led t lie ("l1iiiese to 1101110VeOn() tl ( ] ( I*O 1. !( 1 II
sel-sufhient I, food. fbeur. most bas' I lW H~t I IIIn1lv\
only cait ( iii'1 m exist wil}iIioil the olt s le w, l, i I'j \ ,I I-
nibm ic and tech til oi~aI a ,i dvai ice a] 'lvv l rv V I' j
wit external 1111)1ts+.
Tliere is a certain sense of ironic ral itllet+ to ,hot I I L u Iit,, Vi i i :
ali1 the Soviet I 1io1 for forcinj- (rhia to look to it o v 1 i
resources for ee Chinese say. did China a favor }v (,ltitlg wY' retrial anl ,ot lwI It.
As a consequence, Chinas sports are rest reainea, s 1111i 1-1 I.
as by neCessity, andl exports are kept rToii llv ( at tle lev, I' I
pay for imports. The practical results of tlil e lehu 1! 1
world economy were explained by Vice P Ieiier T(,iii Iv I ... I
the products we b y become too ex!I)sive eWe will stol)f I )lV 11. A If
the prices We receive for our exl>>)rts are too 1 ow, weilxe xvoi 11 t .
Clilina s system is 0alitarian, in wll icIlp. Ill iei ionlis
Tile government 1ureauc rat or factory mata,r Crdes 'a riie'sle I1
from work alongside clerks and7 worker- and time leaderr 1 a e 4111 1,'
production team works in the fields like every Nem else. T1 r, e >i a ,
privileret classes. However. as aspt>},ti('ate+It,,ireaticta the svstm does not mean th"at 'Ill( eIt frml) s) ItWe T81I;e )> 4. ''1' .
he said, "is a fantastic idea which io-no>e iz dfl,,S l1 III Tle. il (f
whom have individlual likes. explained, is that afer tile I asic needs of tlie, people fir, I
adequate food. elothinc, and welter, (i t ti',feiis 1ll *11 8 V 814 -+ ,
preferences come into play with productiono( distriLiited :w'co)l:: I : To
how much the worker offers to society."

EVIIEN(CE OF >U('CIFS5
Tl lasic 1i( (lsv of the ("inese people for food, 4'lottiil. 11 < P r
are }emii' met. Foo( anld ,"I". '1' e,
people a)l!)ear 71ealtli and xxell fed. 1Joustsii, varis f'c1)1t 10 +1V
and from villa<.xe to villa,. L(t-t liust dxvellisws 11'e erxV 8 +11t\,q1 1ik
Conlli)rison with the old ( iia. Evervwlere, new lioui-nj i- iil+lcr
const ri Iness and order.
Tllere is 110) tiieilijloynment or inflation.O )liv'ial repo+>rt that Ohr(, :ve
flo S0'1al pI)roI)lenis of di'ug- addiction. I al'ooioll.-i;i. pror( 1 it i11. 0or" ilO-
nile delin lliic'O". TIie streets afi' e l 1:tv 81(] i1146,1t. lio l>Ian .
tie scafrit v iif vible tiiied scourlVI } ei'>+itiie l \ Lex rv- ie a! ti'k-j! t,)
be busV at productivee alpurpwOe fill work. \ouinl eliov I'1l: '1 I2l., s
and th e I>erneetage (f skilled women voirkeni li thu theaut,i 1 ,'v
incr. Woen voi'k al()tside ii en o ilthe fai is a'111 ait d ii tl in
factories, drain n eq(tal paiy for eqi a I x vorkl<.In s )t1 ifa 'eli S XV lflu
continue to do, as thev have Imistorii'allv. iiU'Ii of tlie mavt v Iiatial
labor, such as road relpair work. Tieire is massz llinlrerllpolvliiei Lv





74


3

o0iII (" 11icl it51z lt tliere is sZWIii wxork f)fr ecvry able bodie(l ait and
W1z1:*1. i Y ', is 110 uIllt !1)lovilnwlt aiu leiIece, the collcept of unem-
1V .1 t., 111) I Vl VtiM\I V o\ c rs, except for tIIse owned by
Ii Ih iv I IaIu( I re cIIII*II vl t'--cas 'III, Q-. .A vel.Iry Ii I i cd nIIII II c -o)f
lm--eI1gr velrxiles is :vai lalle tI(r otlicial l)1rloSeS in each loch alit. So
Ia e1 a ls1sger ht ( )Iil(s t hat t l(ey itre still objects of great cni-
u sit v lt 1Ile tlit'a Ior cities. As ( liii 11's afluen(e grows, a real test of
tlhc >\ sleli will be N letlerh !)rivately ovlied autoilloiles will be per-
lilittedil al(l. if so. illner wliit circ'umstances. One Chinese official in
Sl :n, l ai Itl it this way: ( ir eiemlhasis is on public transport. If
-Oi aI vte too IaI1IV ci'rs, it becolnes a catastrophe.'
'Ilie. Stlr('n d I-Oid ids Oi which I tra velled throughout the country
weTre weli niaitziined anl usually lined b trees often in deptl. Buses
were roWde(ld and special eli)hasis is being put on iniproving this type
of tratiis!ortatiohi. ( a inis passenger, trains, which I rode on three occa-
sion.s are excellent. 1he rolling stock and most of the engines are made
it) (Iina. ihe trains are clean and comfortable and ride on roadbeds
tliat are snlooth and well maintained. A round trip with sleeper from
lckigz to Kuancg-chou, a total of nearly 3,000 miles, costs about

Thte livelihood of the people seems to be improved from what it was
at tli(, time of my first visit to the People's Republic almost three years
ago. In Peking, for example, a great deal of new housing was evi-
dlent. The tpeop)le appeared to be better clothed. More trucks and other
(coiniercial'vehicles and more sophisticated bicycles were on the streets..
Sliop offered a greater variety of consumer goods.
Wages for city workers seemed somewhat higher than in 19'2, now
averagilg about $25-30 per month. Rent plus utilities remain at
abolit $4 for the average city family. Medical care for city dwellers
'oit inues to be free and on the communes costs only a mominal
41111"111t. Day care facilities are available and all education is free,
There are no income taxes ; a worker's pay is net pay.
(irain, cotton cloth, and cooking oil are rationed but the allotments
are ample. Prices of basic commodities remain reasonable and fixed.
Rice sells for about 7 cents per pound (the same as 20 years aco),
pork and beef for 40 cents per pound, chicken for 34 cents per pound,
sjIiar for 35 cents per pound. cotton cloth for 40 cents per square yard,
a( )evcle for ,;75 (motorbikes have also begun to be sold in Shanghai
for about $200), and a Chinese watch for $50. Movies cost 10-15 cents.
Cigarettes average about 30 cents a pack. City bus fare is 3-8 cents.
Clotiling. and shoes are very reason bly priced, a wari cotton-pa(Ided
winter cot. selling for about g9 and padded shoes for less than g3. In
most families. both husband and wife work; therefore, the combined
ne -mes usually permit some savings as well as occasional indulgences.
There is .i disernible community spirit from one end of China to
the other. This spirit is perhaps a kev to China',s effective management
oof'VyOf tie sOeial! PYoldlen wl160) confoMnd the Western World.
It is the 'ptitl e-is of "do. eat dor. ."The handlincr of criminal offenses
is illiustrative. Policemen on the streets (1o not we,r guns. and armed
I t rrit Nevertheless, some residents in Pekingr do
lock their doors at night. In criminal cases serious enough to come be-








4

fore an d e hit,:e w e o- i- ( P o It l )I'eii l,1ii1:K f 8 1 ,

law In in lzi. It is wiiliii ,I loclil()rollpIi li Ialr-t 4 1eV i t
aH(id i(ost (offend~ersiS r Ie Te f foi I t1 7 IiiIl"IPII-T
st l I t I n I t I o l i i I I I- t i freeu(Iu .
is aljiil el. se i -i1ld(ie to 'e t II l o r t hI- W -\ '~ ,v 1 1-
that i- an ellI to tl:e Iinatter. If te i It,ol i I1 ,ih i: 1 11 L I
1a4* li tieft" appears he lo le- li, will (' i p w l, : '1 1 ,1
Flwere is 'till 1jca ital M iSIIIWIII m ('hiora fu i,> u ()I. 'i :
prate. })relmeiatteJ it ile:dr arid litt] iilVU}
Ei'Xcept for theile mot -'e'~~(i)iV' i(ltI )~)~1i u J
priinaiilv tlrou12h eu nl-''siul ail I vl'.,lv iI:i1Lr Ii'ieri t}l N '1 ,''
friends, eilthbor-s. ind co-Vorke-: ,Tiradit mi (i'tii,-'n i I
a(Yel cntilUeS to prev :il. ( )]d ,'j1lkue at(, 1' 1 1 V ,
Othll'I'S in the lc-rolip. whel w e Ififriefl" fkfor f r w .
of faniily and local lle' )onsilii. is -41 v a I i> (
(Charity to one another is ite,r Ual part of C.' 'leN ( v n a.

ID:IIAL ( AIE- IN (H NA. It'7-1
Aft1ter' tilt? e-tabliStilr:velt of OlePeotpl*es t ', i i ul ( Vi:-a ii. 1. I'.
the lt(r\V er lil- silent \N s lue"l V Il1 UI; I II_
ril I ()I I, com m nical ", 11(1 par ,, \ v U -
facilities andp en'-oiil., l'vem vwicie v, e.

gar>. Al open prosrIhtit li p tl eiT 01 I I A
dis(ea-ILse ( idi t ,I [eD P ,>i- .
A. (o ,)iiilla tioll of dir tit ix, e ii ( 1 i1; I ( )l 8 11 I
ad1o)ted at a National I Ialtli (li 2 'C-'s ill 1,1ii 1 ii thea j .
resul le( i It 11of wli', )I- whicl to tii liIII( ,l i IIe \ a a V ,
ideolo-,ical lUil o fr th IIt, dv eopiiI l it jl. 'v '. : *o'-' q :
I Ia It e- I I t I ", (_d as f ,llo)1 -'"


N ON I' cli1%t




x I(I 11, 1: 11
i l e tnielltW,) r tW-u Pl t e1 e ital- u, a I a H I

the tL'elilI~li I ot I'll il-K 1 '-: "~i ha '~ P V :

Sig ign ,a It), L l'Ut, Iii : !:aP ( } t,:es l ., 1 I'} : L -, tuI

A fter 1 lib r ll ll ).ql111"(411at (" t e t
a1t IiIl\Il !tI r iiNNFe.


b 'scm o Yor u 1al wIl LIeJ)Opp i La l ;wiliiwl. 1 i,I lci.to i i U' lt NNl,', I:,i
of I i.;, ) dt : l1w ], f ]u lvi',:t- al i po I> Jdo zo:, I t.) ;c : :,,-:V l l I
,il al !-owtcft] )I ill Ics:- t ina: {l :; v ea ..To :, t t' < i m :: ::: ,'






70


IN d V Ie Itlite c*ept of l e "hiefoIt do tor" aiid othlr para-
iiitaliual jl'cisoIt.1.
iJ1) i"t ( /I M X lO IN-to "eve tl I q)ie o( v r a niilli1 bare-
l l I TII't I II) tI I I Ia atlI i 'elakI tIa e Ie I I t raiiIIt IT iI connotation
h'!are foot" Iin rel v ideili ies tlieii within tie wor'ker's and peasants, with
win liin it liir work'is ci iielly coiicerii~d.
tasica I iv, ti11ie barefoot doctor is a middle school (junior or senior
v igha n'1itit) w(ant who IIaI Ieent selected by coi)ni IIty leaders and
lwzers ash,('iI i tT led tl lliv a I d ieologjially lit for training. Usually
8 lni Ii> arc il-' Slit iii a1 district ho t;.'al e l1r41i Il'dV i iiri y lical (-are, i st-aid, sanitation hlalth
edu'at on i I /a I(z)I I S a,.11)111t I 1i1*t0e aind traditional medicine.
lv subject in vi i hi stiit'ittrs are trailed are. iil the United States,
t'O1ItItereId tlie lona IIi Of tle physician, i.e.. suturing wounds, using
ait I I I I I nd oilir t r. Flrainii1 continues iioi'e or ies OnI a
r'egiilar hasis with ri'frsi ier ". 'e at the tenter liear-est the place
(f asi111et. L)g periods of t-i'alil"ng are provided for advanced
stid ic> a.t a I'egiolia1 (,en.rl'. In tinue a barefoot decor can become
a> -weI I ii ,ed a a ,, ied I ,'d c l 1aii'aduate.
A\ va-ix I IL Huliiiei of 'a~ii lies or' woIke's is sered b1 tle barefoot
doctor i lt thte 1,it. p it l,(ld ai)l)etrel ot to)e o)veilv ldildensofle. Ile
1' sl, is ex~e'te(1 to h-ave itjimate knowledge of the clironically ill
'eqlilig regular l tl. e ck-ips. medications, f.rtlier evaluation or re-
ferral" to I t ,o ite 1ri,,1v care for acute illnesses and accidents: to
keep ilniuiizati11s up t date : to give lirth control iounsellng: and
to ox eee sa ni at io pi'obleis (i.e.. vater sterilization and night soil
1') rat ion '1le tmrefoot doctor also perforuis a regular work task
ill attidT 11 to 111 1 medical d(ities.
Tlwre are still other categories of worker-doctors and( health work-
ers. Although their place in the health care system is important. the
scoJpe of it1lwir" trai -ini and du1ties apparently is less d(e7aidill than
111 1} (idcs of lite barefoot do('tJor. Thei r ;ssignIents seem to involve
si nalie r ig l 1(S of 1)ati(ets. whether at work or anon"' families.
) l[bJ;c,'u JDoC~to,'.-Tlie training of physicians ceased in the
Peot )!e's Repllllic from 195 to 1970. After that time. the period o'f
t fai inifl wavs I'd ice( It years and the cur'iculum sh slt-'e( d from 30
01'r,( o Course to 15-17 encompassing along" with modern techniques
bothl tradit1ona II! nwd!i ie and( ac-upuncture. Stud '1ts for this training
a 1e S;!e('ted in a "uer sinliiIar to that used- for 14refoot (Iotorl'1 and
isual Iy :tve !ld sev',ra1l years of xvorker eXlerie0ce a ft e' ra11:ttion
iri i t de S''iool A I ief i!tlnhi s>ixe ygautsOf lniedi-
cal sliooi before thiey are sent to serve in a setting of need. After
con(011 J)0 a eriod o coinnity Ver1vice., tliey av1 be coiidered for
specially tr'amiingi.
,, I'lr Il e training eriod appears to de al o t 18 months.
Io i [0 foi's :e seltte(l f s401 oli01ng as physician s which requires
aIot Ier yearI'. Ii tiir u'esl 'ihi itn's are (closely related to hospital vork.
(A-i /;,'r.;-,-s- Much of thte maternity work is done by midwives
whose ti'aillu i u 11- months. I during that period they over much of
the Lrroun1d th:at is contained in the barefoot doctor's training, with
special eniplasis on obstetrics.






77

6

C 0['ItNICABLE, INFEC'1IOUS ANI) 1' \1 AXITIa 1)1 i \ IR
_eitileri0 1)1ost itlitoui 10r veldem l 'li>'t(l 'i is 8 all .is ( I i a la,,
the Peoples RIt)ulblic. Bot were nleitltili{el in it~.j]t)]i Kednla it( ii
allip1aigns as legacies of the old society v 1114Ow le i,,)e!l alu1,l I
peoIle resulted ill tleir11141 i11d:it,10 I lit iii lt ]ho- -P 01f r a' ii
tilr<)il Httit lie co tryilt i'\Av ere closed.IT lIi I 11e, v I. i -
i ated( an idassigned .co.s. "trt \,e A
Venlereal disease ase indin g tiroughout huie O ilitt'V xV( i 1)-
plislie'l l)v (uIlestiroll es nVi'taotal iorit
Cet'lvd. (,It izeils. it was 101111(1d1tat iii-k IloeaI 1ndai
week's train -ere (), w,
silul[lelo 1 ete s e li'e ls,,L'. Ii'r'a Inelit ,W ii teivi i i t j' p \
A -c. Flulfillilill, of ie(, iolowillo, ':11ia(1 Ids o vri 8i
w*:is (C011si J re as iadicat lo"
1. "Al cases in tie. COlmlnUll Ver1 v we re 11(t1 dad I r:tl ed.
o lew cases.
8. No signs of clinically attire syIliiis prI ,ent.
4. All lew)orn cli lrIn free from m o'IlI
I'revious treated sy)iliti( j Itnotiher s Iudx it(, j\,T]{,a JU 'I iWV
outcome in sub1sequ~ent pre+_,nani(',s as u: ifectea Illt],)I' .
1111o'1'li tile !leall v.,tii',( {ielixv(,r" sYsteln tl, follow\ ,:U- ill ,lill V
tiolls : e ri en
(against tul)erculosis)--ilitial 8a v:( i ::1a) i hLr aI
within days of birth. Ttuberruilin testin is I alra e \ ,i'7 :; v{ f r
and a booster BCG is (iven if tul)erc, uIin test is I:{,at v(++
2. Pol iomyelitis-Oral (live. att(eniated ) \ ace is :rl \el :
months ill 3 (lOSeS at mont Yintervals: 8 (loss are peteal 81 ar +e
year and amain at aces 5-7.
3. Triple Vacciation ( diflt]eri8. pelrt l si-; ,I:la teld :1 1l1 1
initial three doses are rivel tit 8 to G 11o1it0s ,(d ,,e dooo e' ,
given at ares and 6.
4. Measles-Initial iiniiizatioit is Lv: iat 6; to 11
dren wit]l no Iiistorv of mea sies: boosters 1v ,i 2 v\e I1toA)- ;ItI"-:
"). Small Pox--Tinitial vaccination is (rivel lt i; 118)11 6 \\
vaccination at ae (.
6. ,JIaluuie-e 1 Kin Et~c l aliti>-ltI n 'III :li+ll ':' ,,-,,+, a 8 ? ,,
Octoele or Noel )eri incerfa'in provi ]'e- ( )( vt 1 rr1i :dr l l
7. V ennni ococal i1enin itis (( r-l--- -- 1 .. trw i
gix-Pll antally itl October an findNoveiiini t
dro el uiler aife 14.
Triberculosis hais l)eef l l1'oi{.]t l1(l'1" a'ointl l ro11 "lli-a
anl early treatment., rIlls aclievenlielit s tile Iloaro, talc ,a
siderinf the (croWded livin cojiditiions :tt :'v !iv} 121' +i 1 a
percent. for example. at Peking Iuiiversitv) } re', 1tC1Ii ciaaI I '
measures. In bringing it about. mass educat ion pP!Tr<;uaf \ ,,, a ,, V
employed. with enplhasis on txe a:tt Iar)(w! ,f e i i+ I lea Iit. il I ,
able x-ra units. includi n field ouit-ofdoors j !>w'Iratle i ta, ,l,
were also used to help with case finaliiig>s.
8c, itosomia a parasitic disease, itil ItoS to> b)e :I rnm aol I ai1lt
problem. Nevertheless. effective efforts have 1Teen made to colntr(o :Illd
reduce its incidence. Mass education through lectures, fillm., posters
and radio have been used to control the snails, the intermediary host.










I C4 II Pit,1 i hat l)V i1:iiiii1- ifc;cI lio~itlS. treatiIig and1(1 deeply
I It lF l j| V i l 1.II t eI\'k lI. clli1 ( ) lj I l Ila- l 11 V i t I ,eradlcate(t,
ft~ t~:,ttl~V, ~l iw1( ar >l(' il:lur Allt,)ill)l I h Lt I01n alld )roughrjt
liiitlf1 C. )i 110 111 "kiiitai lI'r)Vilicc. EaIrly tr(,attimiet atid surgery oil
ii1 Vo ~' 'C~ I ~eaI M) IAr) vc(l Ciit t ire.
/A 4/K .1 +c. a h I, lIt i Ir Y, 0 f .e,'tii uasial areas, has been
Ch, 1 tIII,1i C I'\I ('();ItFiol ol (4 eht, ra ls-iIni g a11_r It( saiIlxON.
I tIII'tIt I I ll(eI I I rer t )Its 1 te so tIhern-
iI U)St IWW PI AV Ile. ,ve clitive iiieasmiIes and lose(iItO colltrol are in
.lIt[ \( lit
(t I I IISI fe d ,'i,,kiI,, Ywater p r() u is p uroe I personal .giene,
t,81itiit olf +ii ,,l a N,,et! +)cft)I* its use 1s levti lizer allnd control of
)2 I,.IN-c also cut iwi l olO twIidetnc eof lpa as1il ,tand infectiols
(| i se a-t s.
T1\I)VPIi)N AlI+ )ICINE AN) AlJ VT N( 1 I+LT
t "l iihtimaI ,l ('Mi, LSO n ,,c, t N(),is by li t h 1 t isa ,ims are available in
I I 'lkI- Iliuli, aIi( m(e are being d(isc)vee( all the time by
c (ii V -.'Clw: I 11111 1td a by i by ()C(et Ie(l ,tcitizei. lee )ak, herbs,
fti, gi. Cvrkai.i a 111lal skiIe5 lileCt5. etc. re iII wid!e rse. Good results
tI.++ axbt'e e1iiiiid lft' tlise i iedli(,atwi nIk' i1i i. lonperte, sioti. heart attacks, angitia, appeiwli'itis and many
01 .cr rd({ ii i()n. Si,,re ,iiau ,iv eflI1 I)lIa(ettlli -(rl agents anc known
(,(t)I (', fron natural s,|rees, (i.e., digitalis. el)11iei,-iie, reserpine,
(lii111 ile. ailt -caW(er a etst ets), it is not ,ilreasolable to assume
t1 1 1 tII111 i I ()rI Iv ()f Iew eI ect iyc I- tr litis I ii t i )e ([eveleloped
o ii iea~l ijollmedicines. Certainly, every effort should be ex-
e11 10{ I carry out approprlate colt tolled research andl h apparently,
1i wiat t 0V (iiiee are doing at this tije.
Aclij)I l1ct,,re at, estlesia has captivated tlie attention of tie West
sinrc+e 19172. Many colhl)etent western physicians ha\e ob:scrved acu-
lt,' e' ast hesi' at work in (hia for a nyr'idad of opeiatlve
('o1i ht ijols-b-ra iit. thyVo i(L, oi)eii-lheart, lunr stoniaoih octliopedic
sur(erv to n1:1 a 1 1o. Its pr'op)onetts (C alpoint to its safety, sinli-
pli( ity. ilexpelsix-ehiess, lack of si(e an( after efect s and raid patient
IrO++VI,+VV. Il te i~tta nis-T1 of action anld the ttniversality of its usage
rel t i i to be work ( oit by research and a(l(litionlal experience. Pow-
evel'. it is urrent Iv wNi telv usedt as an amstletic in ('hina.
A(,llI)ulelture as a treatment has beeit practiced for over 2,000 years
in (t'hiiia. It is applied for almost every condition, with many visitors
haViii g oh+erx'ed its ,istN. \v ittI l-)(t ( I!oo(.l results, for stomach ulcers,
h prtei nson, paralysis due to multiple causes, as well as for painful
co(iditi1-i such as headache, back pain, arthritis, and bursitis. Devel-
opIiielit of acuill)Ucture points oh the scalp and ear, electrical
stiiiimlattion of the needles and injection of traditional medicine at
acul)IIIture points are iew aniplifications of the treatment. Thorough
ea IIi1 eded ('011Cc 11kg its iIIC(-lmanislnof action and the uni-
verW a litv of its applicabilit .
MEDICAL FACILITIES
It is said that every county in China now has a hospital. Many of
thle u1iuties have siliall hospitals. Most of the brigades have
a Cooperative i tiedical center. Most of the production teams have clinics.










Those IiosIlitals anl other facil 'ileS are ot T1 Vo(Ier i 0oIr1I0-e11
l)X L.. standards but t le qI alitv of r'are arn1 individual a! t I
seem to make 1l1) for these shortcmui i iis. ThI aboratbfori. r'ai ,'-\
and radlio-isotope (lel artIleits\vh li(c' I were SrrI w I ll-u ,ii
Cleanliness of tlie floors. p e ad reei )I) ;t v' *
remarkable.
M MEDICAL C(S' TS
For a small registration fee (equivaleitt to 2-5 ent a fa, I Or\
worker receives free medical care. If hospitalizedt 1e P.ys a I
additional fee for medication. If disal)led or sick.1we rec(1eives fu ll ,)v
up to six months. If permanently disabled, coip!)esati(u is at liitt 1 1)1
or 70 percent, depending" on l vetlerh le as worked 15 Vear 1ii
dependents pay one-half of their medical costs.
A farm worker pays about twenty-five cents per year for r-oop'r it
medical care. Disability benefits in the rural areas are jot k1mowri.

CANCER
Prior to 1949. cancer ranked tenth as a leading caMse of ,lesA A
result of drastic reductions in mortality fronli other caJise( l,v e Ir<
control of infectious and parasitic diseases, ilIP1)ro\!ed nut'I!ion aiW 1 i
universal health care, cancer now ranks number one. ( aurer of
esophagus is the most prevalent type aid the leadi i cause e h :
some areas. Its etiology has been linked with cheiiiiral water
tanminants and rertaii Itingus rowI-us oii ;0 preserved 1* ((a) i ri.
the uterine cervi" is romtHiely screened for ill all II
every two years. Breast cancer is not comiiunion but is clierked fyf >1
times of routine examination.
Although there are relatively few notor veliirle, t re is v1,
use of soft coal in industry and for heating. Air p,;oIltii> io r,; .
source was l iscernliblv heavy in trk-ing. Sis u
Kun11-mi11n Ch riarette smiok ilr i*s ye rvpr ,vat ut ai-,ouIlr( rn> u
but is rare amoni females. ( nCer ol tII liiunz is o i}11 liv ,
no official stand has vet I)een taken regarding th(e l az vl I o, i. l
smoking.

Mental illnesses appI reiItly have not become a mi ljor Ie-111} 17,!,
lem. alt hougli irfor-11at l iso ]ot I he iiiled o(,l a v'!l11nr iI 1)k .
The coheIiIInessI of the I> cetv i H sniall groups. and tlie I ie v
malleability an(l I)erlertabilltv of m have led develop) i,.x t .
niques of treatment ti rou h collertiye lt, seIf-reli ire. '}ira-i-
heart" talks. product iye labor ard "revol ii a r o ~ invi
style (mug thierapy v and acu'p1IIncre ar ued n u1lui1rriu, v l71
propriate. The reported "cure" and >Iijuli ill i)I'OV ate i ai I 2
ingly high.
MITSCELLA'-\ F S
te-iml}plantation surcgrerv for cred in (ers and ex\t iti
been highly successful. Meti,'ulos nuirr-1eciiiHe5 fuE ]OiliIH 1111
nute veins and arteries anl thle yev lra I system oI, has lizis at tran
the attention of tle entire medial world.










Nexw leliue a 1ea' I t) hve len devclole(i to allow survival of
!ur' IC~iIlts X\ ittIi ;g )Oalv burii. I11st extraordinary achievement.
B~y nimely and l rie Wthild'eplacW11Iit during thei 1 arly shock stage,
f VO~l'g>ls iias heIi allowed to t he period of infection which has
S)t d iAit tv isolatI( of the patint. s l)ortive therapy, rational
iiMe M) al i -ii:t a11d l)l()Iw' niana(elt of l)ufl wounds, The re-
1 '4 t I s 1:-illd Tit a e(f the iit liuisiasi ol Atie4rican medical oh-
servers trn~lv .sugg-sts- the need for further investigation for I)s.,i-
<0e i ve1l adoption.

Nc itiiMr ad'liIIis i 1r' iI are considere(l to be probIleIs in the
I'1p1e s l-/l)dTic. The I )lies e lepuli' las lerstIade t'he national
Ilil1,nit i1(. i-i the outhwest wi were tim principal growers of poppies
t4 siiIift tu ot ii< roslS alt loug li s pl1m.uctioi of opiu1m for medi-
"ial IIsIs )it lii o I tie uount rv I under strIctly (ontrolled condit ioIis, iS
iVc'rliitl I. 'ri t il to to t 1111( allegations have appeared in the press
I it aiainlad (Ihina is tile source of large IluaItities of narcotics
'1it cr1iij tile illicit ilit 4'latijonal (Iiiig trade. I '.S. 1I)r'ig En forceiiint
Adin inistrat ion oficials il IlIong Kong, stated to mne that there is no
evidenCe that (C[hina is a source of illegal narcotics. This assurance con-
ljii NItl what had been told to lite earlier by Chinese, officials.
1'IyTert ellsion seemsN extremely common, especially in Peking and
the discover of its cause may shed light on this problem for the rest
of the world.
Previously, the life expectancy at bilth in the People's Republic of
( i,1a ha(1 1 ee rcfipoted to 1,e w: years. Victor 'V, and Ruth Sidel in
t ii i new tbook. Ow;ri'e ..,e Teole. state that life expectanc'- at birth in
S iaitai 72 .8 year's) is greater than that in the U nited States (70.4).
ID)r. Ma Ilai-teli ((eore Ilatem)* an American born doctor who is a
147ir ti ie re"iMhit of ( 'hina, also stated that life expectancy in (hina
is now sliitIlv mre than 7U years. Whatever the accurate figure. it is
evidlnt tIat tlie (hinese Ia:e made remarkable accomplishments in
lca lt ic (are del ivery, disease prevent iol and disease control (uring the
P-1at -5vears. IThev are usinr contwemporarywestern medical concepts
toelie, within new technique in traditional ( inese medicine. The
ioiilinatioi in prodluc'ing promising results, which could be of benefit
to d l e it r e wo rld.
POPULATION POLICY
( 'iina' s chief delegate to te 1.N. 'World Population Conference
last A~guist an nounced that the country's population was "almost 800
11ill eI.T Tee is considerable uncertainty about Chint's rate of in-
cread, witI most 17.S. experts julding it to be at somewhat less than
Iwo Jer() e t. ol' about fourteen million a year. It is said that the goal
Ii t, i'e~+,+ t rate, to oiie J i'celit by 1980. All external estimates
,ldould e takeii with a grain of salt.
('liina s population pi cy involves a selective apprIoach. For exam-
1)1le, lato a 'ri aTe n t)irtt c1trol are encouraed in areas where
Iiplilation 1 densi v is h igh. On the other iand, ]o()lation growth is
hot d'i ,r, iaed in sparsely poplated reions where many of China's
li~iio'it ies live. T me annual population (rowth rate is .48 percent in
S!nahai and .97 peent' in Pekincr. In Inner Mongolia, however, the
-row'thIi rate is 2.1 percentt and in the Sinkiang UTighur Autonomous








10
1egi (l it reaches 3.0 perceInt. TiI (,led i i gl it 4) glI1 i t <1 ii ,-' ,i ,
Ihas shown Ip markedly ill tie nuiiber of cliI I(Ire (I enIrolIIli i l- i tip K 1
sceols, as las ben the ease in the U nited Sfat es.
ChIIIPese voting 1ple re, nwnv Imep1e taii Ile"II111
planning. lost of the population in thie rep wfiir,,ti :tdes lii- i
least five years of education and is basically literate. Moreover, the
1-1 Ol( f WoPICIeI, l hlt 1OT une 10i' I'll)a I JO ~ :
educated, active in the labor force, and intimately involved in the so-
cial and political orgf',ti)i o lm
lw ,Lrol iuuiwrv In II mall .I:Ise- oi f l POX tiI ~iitii lwM4
1eadilv availal)le ]health (ilhj. infail 1 I l(1ich ililfIt l it III' (,t},,i {
1,0 a le\'elw ',I where paI1lt.. 110 oucielr feel (ontlj)!lied to ha xe/I i I f i.
security ini old age las ceased to (l (pI t{ o illiioleVo u ijidi vi]
Present eonollicd o 1 cial1 di(li 1, elte1w
essa ry foundation for a intensive af(l s1 (oesr11 :1 p- I l i, ';
Vol n.,V i eoIple to pt)one0l marriage and, when ma rried, to 1 in ,i lacei-
lies. This !)rogran. when coup)led with th e cost-free 8 VU'i'4 li < I
conti'aIceptiye devices, sterilization and abortion, 1,lPreseItas a L major
effort to restrain over-all population numbers.

11 11n)ITw \ TI 0 N
l Ie l 1e)l e'.; Re I !)]I I ac s rIaet st 'e s 011 So 1) i, )': OH. ili 8ic
le.-der4 are well aware that literacy, is eeC t i111 1)0th to iwA lHea it V
cal t'omninication and to econolmic' ro0 i tl. M I-ta it l 1 'it auid i,
}lid.lsorv for" se en to lille. vear's, 1Pl ivll 1 l L v ,t I,, .
S('evet vet'is, for extfnl)le. was tIl Iiiill ii tl'e I 'nillh Brioiai ( X -
nl.ie In rI ,1-al KwIlitsi ( Cmair. Xoilwi! peop)1e ol 'io 1 0
Se en working in facto]'ies ISIt are freI(jen tlv ose Fve ,I :-d Vo'l8 i ,8 1
a reas. All levels of educaition1 are st%;l i whi at wats t :
', exlwrlinenltal anld tniiiisitioliail' sta re fol lowinqY teilt rillo ,ll
tion. Tle usual school sys(tein today conlsists of foti t ) live Ie t o, 111 'I-
in-in'v --lol and il)to five(,VeImII's Il indidle schol-). 1)ohefkit] N iW o
andi senior levels. For some. there follow techniral s*,i,. ,v a' ,1 eire
Iliial, HIT)II 11 1ni : i'iote areain slit lw' (iia aleJvtl1
me that "of all piiiary school
were e irolle'l in tool. Wt hen askel il l the [( ,,: ll i; 1.;c. lie Fe

not seii'l ttieir child len to School nutil hev" are eiglht.
Educationi in (tli-la is directed to practical NOT 10: ] <
Iearnlln2 for the skeof lea, i y~' oiing d hildl'Ii an, dI1111
id write adl(l aregI ie -,+,Irk-yprep1In' P(lr f Pliited Seii d '1a I 1 I I I
WXXork and other lic 'ii tliu-~esalso d:()iist flied Illi hien a
with Maoist concepts. At the sec()idNrv, level, edthiial iou ill I ,
combined with pricticail exj)e riei ee he ve i to t 11 wit r)11 j f
capable of going directly to jol) I in t Ihe cotmmiiiIe an a, I ,e1. A I-
tional on-the-job train takOs place later. TlioWe I e I t 1w
skilled teehnlicians. for instance., ro t bi roh : an ai rtit je-'! PT
several years.
By all accounts. higher edl national dioJnel){ts ae sti, tttV. I
visiied Peking University wi;lch before helt ( ,ui wiuI 1{+v,,1,,it1I had
an enrollment of 1 0.to 1 with live to IX\e:l r PC 1 I r(Ilo I, Ie rt):
course of study. It now hasi8) 811 eioii,,w ()f rlt of ,, .) :Ili tile V! c( ,, H








11

k -r-rTk lx T lree lars. (tertiicates rat hIr Ita d,(eIrees are rifve loi
01t)i11Il i, i of studies. tlldt'll" ex pensesh> are ia i ile state, includ-
tg. if :1cessarv, a subsidy for pocket money. St.IdelltS are selected
frui)i 1 lk, COuntIISI factories and t Ie a rie(I fon'es. [t was st ressed
:i11t 't ,i!eudlat1ions by fellow workers or o~i1"Irs are the most im-
Iot IIIIt a tori]I tIhe' ", lDl d ssrIce s. Mo-s o)f tise Wl(vbeing ad-
c IIitt 'cI INaye I1e o frt hmer tha1: tot ] ioI n Iid lI schtIlol level (seven
vai 1d tVhen spent sc\+ er l year il i' : a I4I)eI oI I 01 in the
ar~v.Adiiission qluota> are 2T7 ro'alphie areas aiid| applicants atre
I OtIT,, 1 )tl I l(o:al cI1 1 t -ilLIte s as part It a nlalt id)l\V11 le selecti'ol lproC ss.
\\ IcII t,1i1ake t) one-t third of tel etn[ll iiit andi tie tereItage is
,iI1n i I'I\ase1f L1 deIsign. 1here were four >trhets from the United
(,t I v (r, It l l rolled at 1 eking I niversitV.
All 1I deh dbate over t lie edi catioial system con'itinu(es, en1l)halsis
e icat1iet, people 1 piav ai lireconst 1u0 ie role in society is
)I Iikel to Tlia ie. The i'eatest cotllroversy concerns hIle question of
I 0-,, to, ;tIIIo\it,,date and make naxinnmn use of hi(hlr gifted students
'llid I I a Ii1ers without aain creating a tblin crust of intellectual elitism.
It I Tii 'us to be seen how tlat problem will be managed. As of now,
it cmj I t said that there is a widespread system of free education
x'x Ii ,h Ii rea, into i hit he isilt remote areas of the country. The system
IS ,lr-i,,d to instill it the volin a strong desire to serve the people
ahI! it ptiovides them with the l)asic skills for doini so.

AGRICULTURE
t is in agriculture that the most startling advances have been made
in tlie Potles Republic. Eighty percent of China's population is on
i Ie Ia 1. (nly 11 )ercelt of the total land area is used for agriculture,
x et ena+1i2i food is produced for 800)million people. China b>oth exports
and imports graIin. Statistics are lackintz, so it is impossible to reaeh
cIM*+'., c+lhsions on China's food production. Nevertheless the Chi-
++,,o aIliotkrities have amiomiced and outside observers agree that
('1i-a Iris solved the food problem. In all sections of the country,
i'a ill 'es,:rves are being built up.
,coraling to Chinese sources, 19713 rain production was more than
11> m 1iilli tons, twice that of 1049. Despite a severe drought, record
I ircak 11~2 ,'IOl)s were reported for 1,u,1. The degree of emphasis placed
o+l fal i)roaluet i 'n is expressed in a poem by Chang Chi-min
We slliIi not tolerate a sinszle inch of unused land
N or a single 1)1aee harassed by disaster.
lake wet rice, wheat, and yellow corn trow on top of the
m oiiit a1in,
Alld beans, peanuts, and red kaoliang rise on sheer rocks...
E1e v. ihere. the re Is evidence that this poetic concept is tle guiding
111 I' Id,,of China's agriculture. Self'su1iency and local initiative
Ire t (le key ingredients. All persons who work in agriculture live in
+ ,i+liliiihs which vary in size. To the extent possible each Commune
is a scl f,ontained unit, producing its tools, fertilizer, and, sometimes
suall t ractors, other fal implements and various consumer dura-
Srio i'*PrsoJnaities in the Commune."









12

l s. 'It i- ~ n(z t ten i l, I J~ "t-")'t ( I 1o tl( ,-1 (r 11 1f J V

I .V I Iiiti ;-I fro l fI C O lf,)


ivevr UaI wo t t l teF a' ~lJ'1 ( n
-I11o.iiveled (I I n(lu II,,( ew i t I p.I f~
\!jliciIh ue (I Ie e (eV I (I oit Ii'
litUrients. "po- 1 n lfrt. i i' a!.l I, t Wi ; f.
cyc I Ig t(IWI I je s ol i 1fire V ~I i K "
wo rld.
IRe(:ently a rroup J) o -S. UIt ~i II r i Ii ifI r11
the (.11 e11,i, lfevif liz(r uot'II >it (.10, O'ii hrji ,,

(iJ(11i(8 11 1W '''Il v iI -j a fl.Iil I417K I( IaIhP
teecinri(Jue tatco"IdIId ~'I v 8ld j t, I i,0 1p(0(~ ~
Thi ti'( 1litiore lert I xE j III NU Il
int() prodII(,tion i 1 )?7 1 a .a, I)77.


prod 11 JI "-(e I'A th oil(d]i*T aI iItM

Nvider iu a eof idI jZ'!t io,)I I o .~t(I I' l v
1w d *1 fli, I i rJpVTH "I] "I It In
I (t 10 o1)(, fit Io Coi]. T '" ?t 10!! J ( iiI ,
'hinerv and power. (n > '
1.arm ii iii ('i in Ii -xe aLi~ ~ -



ioJ 'der t1 'Iit ls -i r -TI II ,HI tI( .. I


0f 1 .rn S I I v" <""r!!


})Or e. th tllioi s aus I t }a,14K1'- .N '}~1iiZUI( l' t- tL -;I t1_ (.
onrt(.If oilr o e I I f,1 JL t I > Lilt in fl'( a C A I -.



Mc)rgt inIdfNvOTi-)o t "I) '





rl( elf n -. A nl toX 'I, t Kflir, H' LiI I1 f 'U(, :< } I ,
passed~' on if f a1' i i v ~1 It I, a fl M.n( I, =of }r it < 0, ,
othe-r mI()l




to! t d S.1k% v Y i't I' I I p o







if the owner lea ;, t}he area. It'(ar Lo(t< [, It'I tr.l 10j r V, It}, }
owner.










I'AlrIL c(nmiuim e is assine(I an annual state l)i()1luctioi quota, fixed
f(,r a p1erio(d of five years. There is also a small tax on farm production.
(;i rain. cotton,( or w)htever the pro(luct, is sold to the state each year
at a ii xt pri;e for the assigned quota. Any production above the an-
11,1: i"It a can either be sold to the state at a preiun price or retained
I v IHie nni i to ti1)111 li) -eserves or to explandl grain allotments to
ilel11ers. In I Isin-I1siang district of lonan Province, which I in-
stected extensivelv the 1974 state quota for the communes within the
,ist:rit was 2 million pounds of grain. But total Iroduction was 4.4:
lil1i, 1(0, is. Of tile productioll aIove the quota, ti e commune mem-
I ic rs a I(ee ) It seil :')1 &nIillion pouiiL- to the state and kept the rest for
0 heir \X 1 u 1 ( "111d1 (l, v' e s.
Iw _ia i111 s )lIm above the quota. the communes receive a bonus price
froi t ie state willch can be up to one l(nd a haif times the regular
quota price. If the state furnished chemical fertilize'r to the commun
diiri)L 1 tte growing seasoI. tle 1)1on1s price would be only 30 percent
altloV, the regular quota price. In addition to encouraging increased
I'(r) lltio oIi eMxisting land the system stimulates the creation of
*dtlit Io al Iandl)v ,()t -s1gou,,,gj, quoti o iwix- land for a number of
y eai rs a ft it is !iroU'iit into production.
Vlxu tils systeni has meant to the man in the commune is indicated
I) v wi1m1t ha:,s ocU 'ild in t!l ('hi Li Yeng Commune in Honan Prov-
ilce. (ill Li Yeng was (ilna's first commune ad it was from here
I t t 11 he c01111111.11,iioveeiit began il 19,). Muc.l of the commune
Is l( W8 ed in whlat used to be, an old course of the Yellow River. It is
dl 2iv~t wliich in the 1 :st was often aflleted by floods, droughts, and
i si,,t llagues. Th~e coii eiv ecoitains 1.5.50() acres of land and a
,,of o. r.anize(1into 38 brigaides and 298 production
i eas. Its prim ry I)ro(ducts are grains and cotton.
TLk (l()lI1,el Ias diug320 ('ahals to draw irrigation water from the
Yellow -iver a'il operates 540 n.acinii)pun Iped wells to supplement
tie river water. It owns 60 tractors and 90 percent of the land is
Ii c:iehitiIe )lowed. ( ranu I)roduction a verages .2006 0)ounds per acre,
d li-f ,b ii it(,ase sil ice the establishment of the coimmine. There is a
1'olled ti ve 7rain r(1 tfe 1 person i addition to the
LI'sVaS Ofh iiid i vidiiil lioi.sehlolds. rp} commune has a diversified
(eCtIb()IIV it ()Iplrates a phiosp hate IactorV, aisles a aliety of aniimals,
A:1(l uarris (i t ofrestrv work.
Tlhere re primtarv schools, middle schools and an agricultural
s,()(!. I t Ire is also a liosIital and a c( )l rative medical care system
1tor ,a(, 11l1rigta(tI. Seventy percent of the ieiibers live in lbrick houses.
All I)uiseliolts ovn a sewing achine and at least one bicycle. All
lbrigades haove elect rir'ity.
II otiseliold Is(trca)iei 0thlie basis of skills, output anl attitude, on
lie pirin~ciple of "f roin each according to his ability, to each according
to his;or hose who are no loerble to work are cared for
)y faiiuilv or, if tl ere is no famiily, through the comnmune's general
welfare fund. There is no retirement system in the communes as there
is i'I factories, but all Her people are provided for, either by their
fanijies or the local unit. The cooperative health system costs approxi-
mnately 25 cents a year per person. Average annual income for a family










of four in the Cli Li Yeng Communle conm to '. ,. inolt "I1
giain allocation. Each fainily has a plot for growing veget'I f, Iti'.
for efficiency, is also farmed collective
T visited one household in the Chi Lill brigade. Th e,,e"(I (ft
household was a native of the area, who during. tie Japa11ut ,l;
forced to leave because of the poverty. ie ehd up Uto. ii a
coolie for the Japanese in the Northeat, finally ret uriiiiig 1i,:it, .i.
conditions in that region became unbearable. I now li, s xiitI Iai
wife. two working sons and a daughter- in throe anstere ii :i, I e
rectangular brick buildings with concrete floors. con.ta 11] 1: I. I Ii
Chinese equivalent of nine rooms. Among the fan nys posx
were two bicycles, a sewing machi-ne, a coal-firedi coo(i,,i ,txw. .1
table. several chairs. and two wide beds. Lithographs 1 ( 7aiI 1I!I
Mao and scenes from a Chinese revolutionary opera \ere oi] alI
of their living room along with a battery operated ik,' T>> faiiiil\
had a total inconie of about $450 last year plus grain, enoug i],(-
vide a comfortable living by Chinese standards. Members >pT- witI
pride of their own and China's accomplishments.
In Kwangsi Chua ( Autonomous Region ;n Sctli',e Ch ,''i. t ie.
same story of substantial progress Ic evident. I listed ti I)( 1}Kl;
3ridge Commune in Wu-mina County. a county inhabited by ple
of the Chuang nationality. There were 53.400 persons livina ij e
commune.
Double Bridge is largely self-(o, ained. 1)rodlcin- rice. uitIV
fruits, bananas, tobacco, timber, phosphate and other prod T T. It }
its own machine s nop. repair facilities, small sawnill, brick iiii atl
other units for self -su)ort. All households in 14; of the M7 <'omo
mune villages are eleCtrified. The commune is investing its nJ1 e Ii,
mechanization, with $1.6 million having been spent in the last few
years on new tractors and machinery.
There was a bumper harvest of 71.5 million pounds of lran s t
year, five and one-half times the 1949 total on the saT land. ( )f that.
25 million pounds were sold to the state ; million pond :1,; t la
regular quota and lt. million pounds at a bonus price1)1, i,- n,. at
fertilizer.
In 1973 an average income for a househiol(t of five a1 1bot
including riain. Tl1e typial family had five ot' six rooms in a wuul-
yar'd ari'ane ut \ wit l a pri vate plot for ,growiCg veret ubIe a i a
small Dir sty. Most ho)1eIiolds are,, said to have one v in ti ic wiie
bank The averwi e I i a -t,) aIta grain p )rod Ic t in 11 1 v ri
was 1,320 pounds and of that GGO 1)osIsdP : pr ersoI wre I' ( ,1 i
to the members, far more then is needed fol annual eonH-flj ion. \V1tAT
was not used went into individual f'imilv reserves or. if tose ';1 ii ie
too large. was fed to privately owned iars TI1 i
so poor before 1949 that "a sparrow would not stop." Now t}lie I.vic
standard was desri(ld b a commune leader as 'like a sesame t+ooi.
wlich opens step by step. higher and hialier."
The families visited were ItI hl5 oriented poitically. In tlaer xiew.
life was rood ,and gettincr better. Tim system was working for heel.
With, tils intense feel inc permeat nr China's rural popa;latiinI, : it
iDrobalblv does. Ma\.o's 1)mecepts wotld appear to be solidly cviente(t
into the nation's tlhinkillIL.








15

I iasi I~rIo\TIN AND (oN SEIHVITIotN
icr \ VVisit,t I t I er,, \ iicr itlIjir si VC Cxafll es of tie renewal
t' (~ i 1)1 ridei in1 i1' lst al its faitli in ile future. The People's
II ,l~ i It c.d ii i a ti restoril! relic- ald arti facts of thnna s' s rich
.. a sal sa l~ilvol, x)f 1icli is I)i\W on exliitioi in the Uited(
> ::t es. I arlj P1,I)\Jvilo I visited had a )roviiial nuseun\, with ,.ollc-
t B )I ,i,,lstII I-i 1arpii iiiiIv 1of iteclii found or excavated since tie in-
ccpt i tift lict-I&I k Ie1)lillic. dIe displays are often politically
'cia~t Ct rIxt Its t !Ic cxi oitaI ion of the peasants in old China.
1V; x cux xx I VIC. historic t treasure such as ttIe Vig Tonibs, the Lung-
lilt i ,avts in Lo-yang and sections of tl G(reat Wall lave been re-
d-t iaut| ii c1tiorat ed for piC USe. T!nis emphasis on traditional cul-
Sra 1 excclf)lene clcT1iments the national theme of self-reliance
lO(IIW t,, t~le strel'CItZv, resilience, and inIzenuity of the Chinese people
1tw. tiC \eiCewit 11aI to develop the new China.
A for the flit ure. twere is obviously not vet a great deal being done
'Wo M1 rI, a i p, dli ut ion. I'ctories tlrouhout Chlima belch much black
]t a n it] | IrIV S ca ,'V an in a ,i burden of industrial efluents.
( ) i t be lw tk thbe aI)seuce of automioIile t transportation in China
-i-e.: t!e prol 'leuu of air poll tion less pressing. Everyvwhere there are
,TO)iIect- to iftrser' CCiuina's natural resources. 'Mass plantings of trees,
for example, hlave been carried out in cities and the countryside to the
exteut, it is said. that tlie climate has been change(l for the better in
A-,l111 Jreas. Every place I visited had conservation projects which
locll ,fhials pointed to with pride. In the Kwangsi Chuang Autono-
inuv EeR-ion. for exanii}le. where the beautiful scenery and pure air
:uuil water of the environs of the city of Kuei-lin have been held in
1i-,11 (1_11(10111 forcentuies-by thChinese. there is an awareness of the
need tore these assets. However, the area now contains 260
:111d'ies mi efforts are just beginning to be made to curb the adverse
cfct of the-Re new additions to the landscape. A paper-making plant.
for exa)he. which once di char5,ed caustic soda is initintin, a process
to 'ecliilfl the0 sodA_. coal-fired thermal nower plant which discharged
,treS,) into the Li River now makes bricks out of this refuse.
The imprint of the new China on nature is perhaps best seen in
tIonan province which lies in the basin of the Yellow River. the
crale Of Chinese civilization. What has been done in harnessing
th e Yel low River epitomizes China's emphasis on conserving resources
and nrmlking the Iest wit of its natural assets. The Yellow River is
critical to China's well-being, but it is fickle, having changed its
course 24 ties in recorded history, always with devastating con-
sequences. In past decades and eenturies, the river was better known
as China's sorrow. It was said that before the beginning of the
massive control l)rojects there were droughts in the upper river pla-
teaiu area nine out of every ten years, while in the lower reaches there
wCere recurent floods.
The river is named Yellow because of the vast amounts of silt it
carries from the uplands, 81.4 pounds of silt per cuhic meter of water
compared with the 2.O pounds per meter carried by the Nile. For many
centuries there have been protective dikes alonz the lower reaches of
the river. But the constant siltation and diking has resulted in build-
in the bed of the river from 9 to 21 feet higher than the adjacent


bb








16

land. Some areas farther removed are as Iuch (; fet l, w 1
river bed. Silence, the Yellow is sometimes called '"du e'I I, ii' i ,I
air."
Before 1949, there were, on the average, tx1o floods every :-Lr
years due to breaks in the likes, bringing niliserv aJ'1 at Ii t il/1,1,11
There have been no breaks in the (likes s (-(l ini 1
remember with special bitterness that in 1 "le k w (
ately breached on orders of a Nationalist (AItinese n ilitaI Io It, )1,r
to halt the advancinor Japanese Army. It is said that tOle re'-utiia'
flood killed 890.000 Chinese.
MIassive control work has been carried out over tie last -! v i. T4 ,i
major (ainprojects have been built on the Y(Tellow iver and 7:- oe
on tIibutaries. Some 140 diversion projects lwav eenoIIt in
the lower reaches. Extensive projects to prevent soil et' ,e li
completed or are underway up)streamn, and vast ii1w)a1 'Aull wrks l ht\
been constructed downstream. Ten million peoJ)le in Ionan 1'rovi m e
alone are engaged in water conservation work. rThI flo,_ retilou
work has been so sucessful that one comnune lea( ,r to)td Ie, l '()iu
fear is no longer of the river flooding, but of not having eg
for irrigation.
Since 1949, 1 was told, average grain production as itien t ,.d ar)-
proximately tenfold in this area. Much new la t ha'; I een I ,.nrljat ilito
cultivation by building up the level of the land IIolorot o (lV i I)x., a alit
controlled flooding and siltation. The proc ss wlh tivc-"tI
the land near est tie levees is at the highest flodie
Another impressive example of rural diveloIiieii \Vats Vt i i
Iluihsien county in Honan 1'rovince where thousands weIi( at work
creating n-w land out of se(minlgl inpossilble terrain l8tI1 H11111
massive iru'igation works. I was told hat there ,v! 11 ( i ii 'V l i-
allount of new farm land crratIed in this way 1)111 it ',s o,, iou-i -
Tle new lalnd, terraced b v hed-cut rock walL. a1eJi v -e o I
t he hiillsiles, emll i ig only V lNere tiwre is solid, ,:l' ''It
irojeItsa ii t aerri td.ar- ui ted(aried o~ll I)", i ,
whs ",embers receive the piuiarv 1)eeits t hueeroi,. "ii ,n -'.,eroiloi
as well as patriotic irce iti ys are provx i(.tL
Hullisien oti- d i
11d ind creating prodlictive an(( oft of h, ll-l)Itihh lye m-. li I hi.
district ill \vhi(11 the county is sit late(1 Ollv .J)I) 8c'e-,,f li a I'
irrigated k or e 119. Now."ta
pla!i S to ir~liga te .( 1pore. Witer e Ii on a x'a I I \ ) -i.
to supplement an irae!attuate Ja iA fallt Vi Iatarits 0f i. ,
the Ingenious ta}plngof unld(er-'roiuid Arynis, AIi al ~ i~
xells. 1974. Iotwitli>tal(Jii a bad (1rotio-lit. it va > a ifl It P ,t
tion was still above last year's.
I i flsIete(1 alli IrIII-4at 1011 Vfejii which Xal~>WieIv '11)UIi U L
ground canal which is covered overs( tha ratin 1 11 t bepl8 O da1
The water is carried througli a series of live pouipi)11i- 1t.1 .i : x' a1 t
stone and concrete a(queducts which lift 11fti xxater a 1 81 'f tal )f -,, ni,
It is then dispersed through 32 (Iiile of smallerl (,0al> tO ifrig:t.
acres of land. The project w as paid for anl m oustru,.ie I l iu cc,, .aVS
by fourteen brialVs front to Wo (oII1n11s. r(ii i a l
creased from about 530 JoutA1d per acre to 6,U00-7.,t0 pouids I acre.








17


t.n t1 lure dis rirt another system pump basin waters into a hilltop
sorzige rVu>V! oir. S ii au"other local i)rojectn carrs water oito the next
ft I, I iI a s.ricI 1f tun1Z'ls carved throuI soid rock, with the canal
<'(ve,): ed rolwabN. I I]I.'pcted the 800 yard long Yu
K(ung. ot "'IV)olistY ') Man Tunnel." It is named after a well-known
Chinese Lable of how a seeiiigly impossible task was accomplished
tkhrougi- IhImad work aii i ereiye avnreme from generation to generation.
Thw s ,tti1ig for the fabtle was the Ilsin-hsiang area and the peol)le
tbtre carry on tim trilmitiml iI their daily lives.
Sel f-re1iance ap! is also tio ) 1ower 01duction. In Kwangtung Prov-
i1'(e iin Southl (I'ii-a. I visited a small hydroelectric plant containing
(Chinese made tui ines, whichll utilizes water carried by tunnel from
a JlltiJurpose reservoir. The reservoir is used not only to generate
power for agriculture and industry, but also for flood control, as a
source of irrigation iwaler for 75,000 acres, and for raising fish. The
l)\ plant's olit t into a provilce-wide grid even though most
of te rural areas in th grid lpioduce at least part of their power-needs
I Irot igh sn 1l hydroeleetricplants operated by communes, brigades,
ald ililiViuual productioi teams. Excess power is sold to the state
w tici feeds it into ti e provincial system.
When oie sees suchl Imssive fman made works as those being created
tlii'ou.ghout China. the Western concept of gross national product as
a ofse0l5Ure economic progreSS andl well-beinal)pears to have little
relevacM. MIany of the services which enter into the Western GNP,
suc!i as the (ost of garbage alnd sewage disposal, antipollution works,
'In([ aloholio and drug" treatment centers, not to speak of advertising
lId the faiic (akaging of goods. are irrelevant in the Chinese sys-
tem. Mucli of Chinas needs, which in the Western world would re-
1ll ire large C'al)ital iiqmlts. are being met by recycling and reuse nnd
iiieiiinse l11q)uts of labor. It is a frugal and self-sufficient society fully
at work.
INDUSTRIAL DiLviu -I,),PMENT
Planned development, decentralization, and self-reliance were all
exeIpilified in Ilonan Province. Not only is the province highly pro-
duct ive iIn agric iltiire, it is also a growing imiidustrial center. Cheng-
cllill. "ie l)mIVihi I c.ap)ita!, as growi i ill)olulation to 1.100.000 from
150.()() in 1)1). It is e.Xl)ecte1d that the cit Vspo)l)ulat ion will be stabi-
lizel alld fitrthier growth ill tlhe area will be (disperse1 in new Villlaes
ill ti e rlural areas. TImie p i)latiol of otler niajor cit ieslike Slanghali,
i1 also li kel)t ill )Oilids l)v sen(ling Vou(li workers to less-crowded
celiters 'I as wvell as by t )1)1l'ation control measures.
F1 rom (-'ghit smialliiactorles, (iengconiOus ii(lllstirial base h-bas in-
(rii-(ed to U), Sollie of whielic Int)loy thousands of workers. I visited a
fa 'orv wiu i ma kes nuwhiner fo r the llialnI textile I)lants inl tle area
and tlimI nati IsWell as for exl)ort. TIere were 5,000 workers in the
p~lanit, comnplared witl 300 in 1949. 1 was told that 45 percent of the 2,000
I!lachiiile tools se ill the plant ,'were desig-ned and inrle tliere. The
f:1ct Y]i Z hIaa lospita a, diili hglialls, a mmsellerv. kindergarten, a niiddle
>,hiool :I STa 11e t iie lli fer e(luaienat oi facility and recreational
faci lit ies.
Apprenticeship for technical workers in the form of on-the-job train-
ilig lasts ip lto three year-s with pay of about $13) a month during the








18

training period. Average wages within the plant were alolt a
iionth. Thirty percent f t .e.tecii a lo'e ,,Was Q( )( Se-,
an(d th epercemitage is on the rise. Retire miit is at IS-It I I'f ,Xfor\, aii
1 v f}r iie, with a pension of api)oxInately')7oper)ent ) I l he last
Pay received.
A traetor factory visited in Lo-yang. also in Io Iian I'rovjtnWe. l.*-
duced 24,30 tr-actors and bulldozers i -1973.Det roit Woidltpi'uha1;i 4
regard tle assemb) lines s iiant iuate(1 lt, relat i ve to wilat i-lI iiI
old China. ti e factory W.as a techie ical marvel. It hadI beei c,'. t I.
moreover, largely by the Chinese thoimse lves.
()ne of its main pro.,lcts is a 40 horsepower wi holed .racli f -,wi ii,
was designed and tooled by the factory workers. Ninety pere ,f iole
machine tools in use in the plant were Cliinese-iiide. incltidg I.weu iV
percent fabricated in the tractor factory itself. ()1Y teni perc('! ,,(lat-
1iW from the period of Sino-Soviet cooperation, had been ii11l)orte.
The average ware '27 a month. Workers also have free me(,ical
care, hOuSin(r at about l p)el Ionth, free educational atld rec eal ouja I
facilities, and sik pay anid retirement benefits.
In Yunnan Province I visited the Number 2 Kim-nii ug Maclii e
Tool Plant which makes precision, high-speed machine i tools for a va-
riety of appliances. Before 1949 the factory work foree o f 40 turnelI
out only settles and small lathes. With a current work force of 4.(,)(})(, thie
plant manufactures more than 100 types of heavy iac'lnie 1t I l
recent years the workers have designed and prod1ued tlirteen new
machines, some of which have been exhibited at the K1,ang-rlioi
(Canton) Trade Fair and are being sold Tor export. Ma a w,'ilnen
work on the prodiation lines. A concert over de]e hze was evidlett }ere
in the building of underground workslhops behind tlie l att -ire.
In all factories, as well as on the streets. imany posters were to be
seen relatil icrto production goals. ald the Canlu)gl0n to ,,rit i,'ize (,,ot'-
cius and Lin Piao. ( seasonall (riticisI) of lie fartorv ia ii, 2e, Ri1
other leadership was also expressed in this fashion. ()ne uffir jal de-
scribed it as "-proletarian delnocracy"' at work.
In every plant I visited. I wa struck bv the vounr are of IlIe
workers, inost of whom a liare( to be in tlhir ea I l v t wentelt. ('i11'
industry wats started })ractically from sion has been in recent years. It is not511 )'I is'iii tj lie I,,'e. ,t :: iiI(e
young would runt the machines of the new and gruwi~ r iii*s


Strictly speaking. no Chinese race exi4s as sleb: l1e ( "1'"'0 1-:i -
ple are made up of manv racial elements. Bute hwe efle traced e :1 Iv
known in the 1est as "C]hi e'e are 1!1ass ie,4 i ( ili a :i I 4l,. a
name derived from the dxnasty that ruled from th e i2 (H t Irv i'.(
to the 2nd Century A.D. Throughout the OeaRs tile !aJi 1 I }:i \ r
constitute(] the central IlOmo(reiouj or, t lie expaii I' all :I 1i 1ilit(-
in.- core of Chinese civilization. In former tines, ti(t 11!',e8i~lI the
Htan populated areas were looked upj:on as t rha'ria-4s.
ITans comprise nearly 957C of C]ina's p1resnt l ,,a flatioln. T'e re-
mainder consists off 54 groups of peoples. tot allinr -10 ) nil! ylle w! ar
referred to as "national minorities. Ihis 7" rof the pul,T ion i
spread through 60% of China s land area. N n-Itan les live In


1 )-76 7






t9 M


19

1* 1i nu!berS in wIat have beeII desigIiated as five "autonomous"
r 1,ns. They are Inner Mo-golia, Ningsia Ilui, Sinkiang Uighur,
T ar) n i K wva n s i (? h uang.
mid
ue IK'vaL~gi (huaI Autonlmmmus Region, the area that generated
i w i~, i~ US: aIing Rebellion in ti\ l\,:,; i ent urv was formed in 1958
I 1:1'1)0 0a1t forI'1v h,1ad been lK allgsi 1()\ in.e. Twelve differentt na-
t Ilal iini it im s live iII the re i)n Ihe laheAt of vli t is the Chuan
1'l i i lii! v. 'llie e t' 1' ii i l,a i,l that ( Iillese policy is designed~
I I i ( ( li I (lIua II (Ir ()( IIer (*isti ict I IturIt s, ()II tie contI-ary, a (oI-
i w 1-I efort is Il)arvntly .e[i l i alde to preserve the language and
)1i1< litions of thle iiin()rit ies in tlIs regl'ion.
I I1 cia01 alt 1 iiion is ''ivei to edIucatio ()I ofthe minorities. Enroll-
ii) v, 11 in Hiinarx sch~()1s of s dentts fromnli Mi mrities is fifteen times
t hatof 1!1. A1-h,,u1li text book are in I ,aIl (i'inese ali1A reading is
I I I t in IaI there are also lectures in Chuang. Iilinrualism,
'11(an and Chinese, is commo. In oiler areas, minority languages
Ale t o l ued. lIl 0he lIwau1si (1huang RIegion there are four teacher
I :niii i ,) l iee for JiloritV St il(i ts.
El,l coinity has it own thwat rI(al group which performs in the
b( al l language,. lle are special radio broadcasts in the Chuang
1 -aii.:ii ;. Iillority areas fi-nt are ciihler shown with dubbing or
t ii t it K('s whvtich use the local ],an giae.
l',lnllation ((itrol is it I'ioted in the niore s'asel populated
nW ui)na lit v areas. The ,rowth rate for the1 (huiang and Ilaii popula-
S0 ti- i k tI region, I was told, are alpproxinlately the same, 2% an-
m llItv. Ihlw(,ver. in the 1)outle Bridge Connuine, a Chuang com-
tiii!: V, tie growth rat e was onlyv 1..-)i pe, year.
TL iatioiIATl nhlnlOIrities areriv)pesente(d1 thei(rovernmeit of the
(I.hi 1n. Te is no (lis(!rlimnnation against them
;i 'i1(.l ( ie~i(ii)esiiI) ill the ( 'i ,,i e (7() i iiiinist Party. Ailoll the
LIi ig part Iileiil)is for t he (list i( s. caUt iS alld (oninl es, 40%
:1 I' iiT() boet fi'on1 flati()iam iiidi l(ItiCs Iii i he Ie)oul)lo Bri(lge (()Im-
<",I'ote n lii s cmmunie leaders are Ctuang inchud-
lI'I liaii1iinal. At ilie .lIoceal le li, tile i (ii,,eiiois idiom, not Chinese,
is te I hoken langiiage. Records are k1pt in Chiinese, generally a neces-
sit X >ine liViaiv inovi1 Nlanguages l'ack written formn.
IiOll~liiOllO/S regionS have liore at onomiIll itiiaiice than reg,,-
111:1 r lx iviles with olle l)lid(et sulbsidizatiol by Pekilg. n the
r(i()l level, a special fund has been set l) to help solve special local
jjInii,)rtv J)roblems, if an area's ii(onie is 1i1nusital1ly low, it receives
s1i iI~ lies f()r health, education, e(,ononiie developIIenlt I)rojeets and
so 11 Ii. "there 1.-s also a poAlicy which insures that prices of basic corn-
modit ies in the most remote areas are the same as those charged in the
Y1l n I Ks.
Yi an Provincewhich Ivisited next after Kwins.Ti C ano, is
the O)Ie of twenty-four different naional minorities. These peoples
compr ise one-iiit of Yunnan'sd 23,000,000 population. There are
ei(iia spil(lities.ThS, Or cho and fifteen counties controlled by ni-a-
t jna 1inlirities. These areas are lantononis in many respects. Poli-
'i's of oppressionl a (1disrimination have been abolished and serious
efforts are being made to improve living conditions, health, education,
and eiera1 welfare of the minorities. As in Kwangsi Chuang the mi-
liorities have the right to use their inl(igenous languages and their own







20

written scripts if they exist, run their own schools with tlieir oxi l
teachers and maintain their own local security forces. Again. ttley have
more flexibility in -lihe use of local funds.
The national minorities choose their own representatives in all lart
of the system, from the provincial government to t he production tea ill.
The local party cadre are members of the local nationalitY.
I visited the Institute for N atioal Mlinorities in iii-n i r. whieh,
since its, establishment in 1951 has trained more tlian 10.0()( ca(lre
from the twenty-four nat ionalities. A fter (two or tllre(, yea v -r4 If t rail-
ilig. these young people return to their local ar', toW()ok in 1)arty
leadership in factories, cofmlnlles, or oflier rovermi enta ]I its. Som e
remain to work ill 2oVerlment at the l)rovilicial level.
Small factories to make chemical fertilizer. insecticides. farm ma-
chinerv, textiles, tractors, and other products have been (stalish ed f I
in minor ity areas. The rate of progress varies from area to area.
depending'on location, the initial level of a(lvanceMn(nt of the niil -lty
group, andl the size of the local industrial base. Ilowever, front alI
indications, the minorities are much I betterr off today ttan 1they were
25 years ago. In the past some minorities were in danger of becoilijn
extinct but the present availability of improved medical care has
resulted ini an expanding population. The minorities in Yunnan Pro-
vince were described as lhaving increased from 3 million it 1 to
8 million.
I cannot comment on the handling of minority pro)lemns tlhrouitout
China. In Kwancsi Chilang, Kwanogtun(r, ard Yunnan, however.
the People's Rtepiiblic appears to be makiii( a (leterinted effort to
advance the interests and welfare of the national minorities and to
preserve their cultures. The system now in effect should enable these
groups to retain the best of the past and still tak, 1 in p f tile ) rles
of the present. One Chuan,'.lea(,'e il rural area sa id toie Si!! i,1)1-v
"Chairman Mao is the savior of the (hitan nationaitv. ('inna s
approach to her minorities is not an all" 1 a of tlenelti po
theory, but one which deliberately, with state eiicoiirageielit 'i (t
suy)port, attempts to avoid homogenization of cultures.
Representatives of the miinoritv nationalities with Iit NN\ I nm 11.llke(,
seemne(d to think they had the best of both woV()lTls-rtaing l (hir ()ld
traditions while sha ring in the econoimnie a(Ivanitiares of i1 ('1ii jse
People's Republic. As the leader" of tHe I)ai nationalist v lut it" '-> -in
liberation, some of the )roI lems tlt rcimnai(l nns ol vd fo rcent tileS
have now been solved. rwentv-five years is not verv lol f i lte"I e of
human history and we have onlly justhe(rin to(lnve'm). () r !
is not great compared with the state of ihe IIan. W"e e1 h e a 1(t f
catchin l up to do. Our desire is to grow and (,evhlp)1 witii OUr
nationalities and to help create a st tr o ei .[othHhr1al1.'


The misery of the old China, wh, ere famines a1 net i le,,e .,'ere
common and millims waiulerel aniilesl v. is "01,0. S,). t oo,:r tc.11[k,
political systems which nuf tired it. In nv .ie; t. tlitcv' wiii Ihe1) c
turning" back the clock to the past. JI(liM,I"y 1,valW)eair'l: 1 l1e f, ii-
lies in the communes and the workers in thelfactories ale willing Par-
t icipants in the social revolution in China.





92


Tue immense energy and talents of the Chinese people are harnessed
iM p1roduetive work China is still a poor country by Western standards.
Its riI'lus lie in a talented people, a rich culture, an(I abundant natural
1'sMIrves which have been Ieshed under a political system that is
delivering the essentials of an adequate life and some of its amenities
to a quart e r of mankind.

II. United States-China Relations
TilE PATH SINCE ShIANGIAI
it is i nossilfle to understand current U.S. relations with China
S 1itl1 soiI awIareness of our China policy since World 'War IL
A fter tie niilitarv clash with th e Chinese in Korea the United States
s.igit to (IlarantiMe tei new People's Republic of China. This policy
continued f(r two decades, long after its relevance to Korea had dis-
appeared. Its continuance was related to our support of the Republic
(f (f li't .which found a haven on the island of Taiwan. The implicit
Nut Ilrealistic expectations was that that government would one day
1et1h to te Mainland.
While this policy originally saw the People's Republic as a reckless
'111d Iower-fill belligerent, man1 pulated by the Soviet Union, Peking
:a it-elf as a strtiggl ing urevolut ionary government trying to build on
the rubble of civil war a political and economic order better able to
serve the needs of the C1inese people. U.S. efforts at containment were
regarded as an extension of the Western world's efforts to dominate
and exploit China as bad been the case for the previous century and a
half.
The costs of this outdated policy, founded on a distortion of reality
:ndl deep internal political fears, are immeasurable. Its assumptions
and miscalculations were a factor in bringing about the confron-
tation with China in Korea. It was an element in leading more than
two and a half million Americans into the political quicksands of
Southeast Asia. Thirty-three thousand Americans lost their lives in
the hills and valleys of Korea, and 55,000 gave their lives in the paddies
and jungles of Indochina. The dollar cost of the Vietnamese war pales
in comparison to the tragedy which that conflict inflicted on our na-
tional unity, faith in our political institutions, and our economic
system.
President Ni.onts journey to Peking in 1972 was a major step on the
path back to reality in dealing with China. This Nixon initiative is
still applauded as a courageous and constructive act by Chinese leaders.
The Nixon-Chou Shanghai Communique provided a blueprint for the
esumed relationship. In the nearly three years since the document was
m~is t ional. and scientific excmnges with China. AWhIere does rapproche-
ment stand today .? As one Chinese official put it 'Generally speaking,
our relationship is good and is moving ahead. But are we satisfied?
I cannot say so."
TAIWAN
The basic reason for this mixed evaluation is the problem of Taiwan
wlichl has renmained at a stalemate. Prior to the Nixon visit our China