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[ARIOUS SUB JLCTIS
VnI1NCIPALLY DESIGNED FOP(YO0U NG L AD I ES.
13Y Miss H A N NAH MO ft-
A;for 11ou, Iflzall advife you in a few zjords; aspire on!y to tioft virtues that are pecukar to yetrcx f."I'70T pozr natural rnod~fly, and think it your greate.6i co-enmendation n;t to be tai,,ed of one way or the other.
Oration of Pericles to the Athenian Wornen.
PRINTED By DOVIL. & HARLPER,
FrOR MATHEW~ CAREY,
C 0 N*TL N T S.
Tho., .-Tts on Converfiaton" I f,
On Envy, 29,
The Danzcr c,' Sentimental or Roma-it iv Coireeliors, Q, On true amifalle ALeek-ofs, 4 i
Thoughts o7.,p' e culti-ation of th! Heapl a;--dTeniper
in the Education rf Daiglitenf,
Tke lin-portam-e oflZeligion to the fernate Ch'arall er, 6,3, 41ifcellareous Obr.lervations en Genius, Tay-ie, Gocd
I N T U0D UCT! ION.
IT is with the utmoft diffidence that the following pages are fubmitted to the infpecdtion of the public: vet, however the limited abilities of the author may have prevented her from fucceedina to her 'v ilh, in~ the execution of her prefent'attempt, ffe humbly trufts that the uprightnefs of her intention will procure it a candid and favourable reception. Thefe little elfa ys are chiefly- calculated for the youngerpait of her ow ni fex, w ho, fhe flatters herfeif, will not efteem them the lefs becasife they were written immediately for their fervie. She by no means pretends to have cornpofed a regular fyfli m of morals, or a finiffhed plan of conduct: T he has onR e~deavoured to make a few reuiarkson fuch circum-ftances as fee-med to her fiufeentibie of fome improvement, and on fueb flabje~ts as The imagined were particularly intereflinog to young ladies, on their firif introdudfion into the ,vorld. She hopes they will mot be offended, if The has cca~fionally pointed out certain qualities, and fugg-efled certain tempers and difpofitions, as pecznliryfitrn:ine andi hazarded Oflc obfi' nations, which na-, urally zro"bfe, fom the fish'3
IN TROD U CTION.
jeon the different characers which mark the fexes.
dAnd here agai fne takes tb-t liberty to repeat that tlief'ediffintltions cannot be too nicely maintained ; for bL ides thofe important qualities common to both, each
fxhas its relfpeCtive, appropriated qualiiications,
which -, ouid ceafe to be meritorious, the inflant they ceafed to he appropriated. Nature, propriety, and ctdtom have p*rribed curtain bounds to each; bounds which the prudecnt and the candid will never attempt to break down; gud indeed it- would be highly imp-oEic to anniilate diftineions from which each acquires excellence, and to attempt innovations by which both
-4 ould be infers.
Women, thcefrel*, never underfiand their own interefts fo little wen they afledlthofe qualities and jaccomplifiments, fro 'the want of which they derive
t heir higheft merit. "I The porcelain clay of human kind,"' lays an admired writer, freaking of the fex.
Greater dclicacy evidently implies greater fragility; axd this~ weaknefs, natural and moral, clearly points out tlw nreefity of a fuperior degre of caution)
renirrrmnnt and rc!rrve.
If the author may be Ailowed to kcep up the allufi.
-o ofn.he poet ju1fi quottfd, fike would atle, if we do not' Ptlt the finest vafes,. a-ad the coffileft images- in placesOf the greatefl fecurity, and mofl remote from any, probjability of accident. or deftruftion ? By being fo fitoiated,, they find their, prottaio intei aknefi, P~nil their-fafety in their delicacy. This. metaphor is
-far 1,frm being ufod wfith -a d-fign of placing younglietSit) a~ trivial, unimportant, light-; it is only introduced to infinuate,, that -wyhere there is- more beauty, ,and more weakneli, there fihould, be:.greater cireumfpeaion and fuperior prudence.
Alen, on the contrary, are formed for the more pubs
lic exhibitions eo- the great theatre, of human .life.
Like the flronger and more fubiantial wares, they dei rive no injury,1n lofe~ no polifh, by being ahways-expof Ied, and en"'gd in the conflant comma erce of the Nyorld. Iti theirproper clement, where they rcfpire
IN TROD LC T ION. 7
iheir natural air, and exert the,' r rolalcii powers, h.- 1tuations which call them into~ Eiion. They NACe n tended by Providence for the buftlg fccenes of ife.-to appear terrible in arms, uf~efu1 in commerce, fiiia. ing in counfels.
tPhe author fears it will be hazarding a very hold remark, in the opinion of nmany ladies, when flse ad~ that the female mind, in general, does twt appear capahie of attaining fo bigh a degree of pefecion ift fciepce, as the male. Yet Iffie hopes to If forgiven, ,when lhe obferves alfo, that as it does niot fe~ni .to derive the chief portion of its excellence from extraor. binary abilities of this kind, it is Do t all lefflened by the imputation of not poffefling them. It is rcadly alk wed, that the fex, have lively itai nations~ and thefb cxquifite perceptions of the becutif-ul and defe~~hve, which come under the denomination ofr tafte. But pretenfions to that flrengthof inrclle&, which is requilite to penetrate into the abflrufer walks of literature-, it is presumed they will readily reliniqulk. There are green paflures, and pleafant values, where they may
-wander with fafety to themsfeives, and delight to others. They may cultivate the rofes of imaginati on, 4nd the valuable fruits of morals and criticism : but ;Uie 11teeps of Parnaffus, few, comparatively, have attemnpted to feale with fuccefs. And w hen it is -confiilred, that many languages, and many felences, muft contribute to the perfec'tion of poetical compofition, it
-will appear lefs (Irange. The lqfty epic, thc, pointed, fatire, and the more daring and fuccef imffightgof the tragic Mwfe, fecem referved for the hold adventurers of .te other (ex.
Nor- does this aflertion, it is lpprehended, at all injVire thew intereft of the women ; they have other pretuiii on which to valoe tLhfelvfhk_, and other qualiti-es uiaueb. better calculatc-d to anfwafr th-eir partico.. lar purpofes. We are ofnoue the foft ftrains of
tile Sicilianzbnd the Mantuanluffe,'%il to the fwveet
a~sof the p afloral reed, they fing thle couvtio,*ns 4' tlv flhepherds, the bleiilings orflove, or thiinaocet dc-
I N T R 0 D U C T 1 0 N.
._,I, t, frii,al life. Ma., it ever been afcribed to them as a (1,frJ, that their ccloyucs do not treat of a6five fcehc,, of buf*y cities., a rdZiv%,aftinE -.,,ar ? Nlo: their finiplxi,v i. i their perfiyaiou; and rlicy are only blaul. C'! C7, the have too little of it.
On the Othcr'band, the lofty bards, *Nbo f1rung :heir bolder harps to hir her measures, and fingthe !Fravl cf PeIcis'j(n, aud JIan'.rfirj' d;f(bedience, have
never bc,:u cenfurcd for want of fwectne-:s and refineirent. The fi6,)I*mc, the nervous, and the inalculine, chara.cerile their oi -npoiltious as the beautiful, the foft, and the dlciicate,' mark tbofe olthe others. Grandcu dit r.'tv, ardforce, difliDguifli the oliefp cies ; cafe, f rlplilit- -, 2nd purity, tbe, other. Both fqine from their ];- t-vc. diffin6i, unborrov,,ed merit S,
rorn thofe aree forei -, and
-iot t' gr adventitious,
rinnatural. Yet thofe. excclIencies, which mAc up th,, efrential aad',conftituelit parts of octry' they have in com-non.
Woui ri have generally, quicker perceptions : mea haxe jiu'rer fCDtiMentS.-WoTffen confider how things rAay be pretrdly &id ; nlien -how they may be properly faid-In women, (young ones at Icaft) fTeal:iDff aC winpanies, fomettinies precedes reflec'HoD; in men refle6tion is the antecedent.-Women fpeik to Ihine or to please ; men to convince or confute. -Wonfen ad mire what is brilliant ; mc n what is folid. prefer an extemporaneous I'ally of wit, or a fparlliq i ,ffufion of f zcy, before the moft accurate reafoniD(V7 or the moft laborious iEvefligation of fa&s. In literary composition, w omen arc vleaf ed with point, turn., anti antitbefis ; menwith o1oferyation, and ajuft 016du,?uion of cEe'Is froiri tbe'r cau"es.-Wonien are fond efincident; men ofargument.-Wonien admire paffiorately ; men approve cautioulqF.-One fey. will tlimk it betrav a -,v i:-, of fccling to be moderate, in their aappla-af tin, oti.er will bi; al ofexpofin' a 'Wanvofjudg flent by lieiag in raptures with any thing. M.'en ref ufe to give way tc the crintions theyaaually
I N,-T-R O'D U C T t 0 M
beyond, what thq-occatioll will ilillify.
As a farther conArmatiot of-what hasbeen-a2vanced on tJi,_ different, bent of the underflanding in tl:(, fpug, it m4TI bq,- o5ferved, that- Nva, ha ve hoarl of' niapy ferp -it5, but- nev.0,of oijef4male-logici of many adw.nabjq writers-of raemoirs,, but -never, of one- chrquologer.-la the-boundlefs-'apdarial rewions, of ronianco,, apdjn thap falhiqf)ablq of compojdpAI!it,, and, whicli carries a nearerfition-whie -fApcet
4proxitpa, -t4.-m -soft woxjqp to p #n 1. jje 'xorld, tho
4, th4 0 have
mpalcanuopbp a wojjp imfooary i'il th
a- peciiijar Wenpf r culti lieTe'
Invention labours more, and judgment lefi;
Thamerip.of thj 10 -iting confitisin the qrw
ljfq,, as-to thc;events d1cl4elves,, withs
certain,elft Kq4ou, in the nairraLivt whicjj p4.wes theu if notabovpwba' isnaturQ1, yut a5ove Nybat, iscomm It'fal IW, coqra! in tile art of IntwettingI I PR _QL
thc. tender fec4ing%_ by, a, pauhctic rcpi-Cfentat-iqvi of thpfe migkjtc,- en& wjqg,, dquic.'111c qi i:uruftanccs, bg-foill, lia, timeto flijold
itself with the armour-of refie6tion.. Toqmu qpWjer,, than to inftrua, or to inflrua indire ilv by 1hort i jjferences, drawn froni a long concatenation of circumflances, is at once t he butinefs of thiqiort of coinpofition, and one of the chara6teriffics of fenfaI6 genius- '
In Ihort, it appears that the. mind in each fex has fome natural kind of bias, which conflitutesa- diftinc tion of character, an& that thel happiness of both depends, ina great measure, on -the- preservation ard'
"', The author does not ap,&eUnd'it' makes agahift her GENER AL pofilaim, that thisnation canb,)afl afem'ak critic, poet, hifloria-, ling-ifl, philafopher, wzdmorah, -, c-, f7altomofleftheotherfex. Tothefeparticittarinj7aic,-,r athers, m ght be adduced but it is Prefumed, that thty oillyfland as e: captions ti rqinfl the rule, Tvilioia -terdiing-ta iw4ufatethe rukitfiey'
observance of this diftinffionD. For where wovUd be, the fuperior pleafuire and fatisfaaion refuitimg frommixed converfation, if this difference were aboliffied 2'
Ifthe qualities of both were invariably and exadly'
the fame., no benefit or entertainment vwouid arifefrom the tedious and, inflpid' unifor mity of fuch an in-' tercourfe;- whereas confiderable advantages are reapc-d from a: felect forsietv of both fexes. The rough angles and afperities of male manners are imperceptibly' iiled, and gradually worn fmooth, by the polifliing off! female converfation, and the refining of feinale taf Ic
while the ideas of women acquire llrength and folidity, by their affociating wvith fanfible, lnteiligesit, and j*U-'
On the whole, (even if fame be the obje&t of purfuit) is it-not better to ficceed, as women, than to fail as men ? To ihine,, by walking honorably in the ioad which nature, cuflom, and education feemn to have marked out, rather than to counteradt them all,' 'by moving aukwardly in a, path diametrically gippo-lite ? -To be good original&, rather than bad imita-toms? In a word, to be excellent women, rathor thanL-Ldifferent inen !-
On DISS IP ATI-ON,
Dolgie certv, ailegrezw ilieerte !;--PTRaA RCRASan argument in: favotir Of modern manners, iV IV'. ';as been pleaded, that the fofter vices ofluixiry, and diflipatiofi, belong rather to. gentle and yielding. tempers, than to fioci as arc rugged and-ferocious: tihar they are vices which increafe ciVilization, and tend to promote refi~nent, and the~ cultivation of humanlity.
But this is an aflertion, the truth of- which the ex-' perience of all ages contradicts. Nero was not lefs; a tyrant for being a fiddler ; he -* who wiffhed th& whole Roman people had but One neck,, that he might dii patch them ata blow, was himifelt the moft debauch-ed man in Rome ; and Sydney and- RuflU were conidemned to bleed under the moft barbarous', though molt diflipated and voluptuous reign, that ever difgrjaced the annals of Britain.
The love o-f diffipation is, I believe, allowedl to b~e the reigning evil of the prefent- day. It is~a an which many con tent tbemfeives with regrtig without fee-kingr to redrefs. ,A difflipated life i cered ifr the very adc of diffipation; and prodigality of time i3 as gravely de claimed againfi at the card table, as in. the pulpit.
The lover of dancing cenfures the amufements of thia theatre for, their dulnefs, and the gametter blamesthemboth- for their levity. She, whofe whole foul isfwallowed up in" qbera extaci-s, is afloniffted, that her- acquaintance can fpend whole nights in preying,, like, harpies, on the fortunes of their fellowv creatures; while the grave, fober finner, who- palres her pale andanxious,. Vigils, in this fashionable* fort of pillagingi is ns Iefs furprifed how-the other can NNafte hecr precioustimen in hearing founds for which lie has no tafte, In a, language flie oes not unichrftanidt
-4 The enperor Ca~irgair;--
TZ D I,,S S.1 P A T I O-N.
,In 1hort, cycry one.leomt convinced, that the evil fo much complained of does really exift somewhere, though all are inwarcily perfugd6d, that it is not with theAfelves. All tlefin-e a I g en I cral reformation; but. few will lifte' to prwpofals. of par amendment; the boly YnWl b, ref fored, but each IiLn 4egs to re wai a a.; it is; aod accusations, will
4e likely to afrea They think th fin like matand 64,t what i's feattere
ter, is aivifible d among fe,
divijuah contribute fepa rarely to that evil w hich they inIfellora.1 lament.
he pr.pvailipgmau=rqpf an a tzdgRe id iporethaa we-ape a ware j or are wiflin'g to alfov, on tbc coInduft, of the women; thi is one of the-principal, bing" on, which the &cat- machine of human, society, ttams. Thafe, who allow thc influqnc which, f n. de gracc&. have, in coutributh illh the. ivarmersof incn,,
-would do well. w reutnmgreAtlan i.Aueiice female niorals ninft alfo liave on their c ondAA. ljow inuch, then ir it to be regretted that the lat1je5, 1honld ever fit down coptented to p*olifh when they are able to form-10 eLtertain,, Whcnt4gyinjg4t inftruq and to Ue a for- etei
da-z-zle.for aLl hGair, Wbeu they are calidid.. r Dity
tadu t1k dift enf46m' af Mahmxwx's 14w, indfjet:4, thefe mental excellencies cannot be e---pe&ed;. becatife.4 tha women are Ant out, from, all Gpportunitici of inf _ru(ltioaJand excluded frQrn the. endearing, pleafiWcs, of a delightful and equal:fociety;, an4 -charnji,,g yoct fings, are taught to belival, that Wortheir inferi* na;,urFs,g4t
Formd to delight, und.happy by t1elli
lqcav'n has reforv'd no, futupc paradise,
tut bids thvjyi rovc the p4th& ofhRfs, ftxtwp
Of total dcath, ago Caxclu,r. of
graces in i:ultivating only perfonat attratRions, anti in trymg to lighteuthc '440A of tiui by
the rnQft frivolous and vain amufements. They a& in confequence of their own I nd belief, and the tyranfly of their def-potic mafters; for they hav-e neither the freedom of a prefent choice, nor thle proffpe~ft of a future being.
But in this land of civil and religious liberty, -where there is as little defpotifm exercised over the minds, as over the perfonis of women, they have every liberty of choice, and every opportunity, of improvement: and how greatly does this increafe their obligation to be exemplary in their general condud attentive to the government-of theix families,. and inftrumental to the wod order of fociety ,,
wSohe whbo is at a lofs to find'amufements at hiome, can no'longer, apologize for her dillipation abroad, bij faying Ihe is deprived of the benefit and the plea furc 0C books; and +hc who regrets bei*)f eoomedto) a fiate ol dark and gloomy ignorance, by the injulice, or tyraniiny of the men, complains of an evil which does -aexj ft.
It is a queflion frequently in the mouths of illiterate and dilipated fcmales-"1 Whsat good is thcre in reading ?To w hat end does it conducci" It is, hoNwever, too obJvious to ne ed infiting on, that unlefs -perverted5 as the belt things may be. reading anfwers many excellent purpofes, befides the grecat leading one, and is perhaps the ikfe remedy for d i iipation. She who dledicates a, portion of her leilire to ufeful reading, fee ls her mindI in a, coinfant progreffive flate of imvr-iovet. menit, whvlile the mind of a diffipated woman is cor tinually, lfing grotud. An a~tive fpirit re* 'oituthi, lik-e the fun, to run his daily coorfe, whilel~c lne lik the dial of Ahaz, goes backwards. Theu ad(va'tages which the understanding receives from polite Iit( ratsire, it is not herejieceflary t o nmerate; its effeon0 the moral temper is the prefent o'jkeJ of croafideration. The remark. may per-hapslkbe thosigL'" tut frong, btit t beCjieve it ;s true, that nex t to religoioui inflnr-es, an haibit of uyisTe ofprbler1 rvatlve of -the virtue a' younsg perfoni. T hofe -1-
74 ON DISSIPATION
Cultivate letters have rar~l T togpfion for prarnifenous vifiting, or diflipated fociety: ftudy, therefore,, induces a relifhifor domefiz life, the moft defirajble temper in the world for women. Study, as it refenues the mind from an inordinate foncinefs for gamning, drefs, and public amufhinents, is an economical propenfity; for a lady may read at-much4 lefs expenf~e
thin fhe can play at cards; a.s it requires foieeic
tiioi, it gives the mind an habit of induilry ; as it is a Relief againift that mental difeafe, wTIch the frelich, tpnipliatjcally call ennui, it cannot fail of being beaefigiai to the temper and fpirits, I roo-an in the moderate
degree in which ladies are fnppofed to ule it; as an e
pimy to indolence, it becomes a focial virtue; as it dtemands the full exertion of our talents, it grows a ratisinal duty; and when directed to the knowledge of tte Suprcuie Being, and his laws, it rifes into an aa- of reThe rag'e for reformnation coinmonlyiv faNs itfelf in
a v-iolent zeal for fupprefing, what is wrong, rather than r, prudent attention toeltabliffh what is ritghn: but A. we Ihall never obtain a fair garden merely by rooting jup weeds; we nitalfo platflowers; for the natural
richilefs of tile foil we have been clearing will not fuiffer it to lie barren; but whether it fiail be vainly or beneficially proliflc, depends on the culture. Whalt
-the precfen ,t age has gainq4 on one fide, by a more ellLarg d and liberal way of thinking, feemn to be lo4 011 thie other, by ex;ceffive freedom and unbounded iiichulgence. Knowledge js Pot, as heretofore, confined to the doll cloyiler, or the gloomy college,' but dilremn ated. to a certain degree, among both fexes, and' 41luw11f1 all ranks. The only misfortutin is, that tlhefe opportulnities do not fQem to be fo wifely improved, or turned;o fo good an account as might be wilhed. Books of a pernicious, idle, zwd frivolous fort, are too much Ju-iplied, and it is fromttthe very redundancy of thet, that true ksto~vledge, is if src&, aind tuh abit of I
lipation fo much increaf'ed.
It %bea e cwrked,. that t11e prevailig clAu~c.,v
ION DISSITIATION. 1.4
4f the present age is not that of grofs immorality: tut if this is meam of thofe, in the higher xyalks of life, it is eafy to diieern, that tlic- re can bc hut I i--,Ic nivrit ilf aliflaining from crimes which there is but I'ttle t6yuptatdoll to Colnmit. It is, boN%,cN er, to be I'Larccl, that agTadual defcaionftorn piety Nvill in time draw aAcr it all the ba-& confequences of mo, e active- vice ; for w licther mounds and fences are suddenly' dcftroye&b3. a fiveeping torrent,- or worn aNvay through- gra&af neglc6t, the efect is equally dcltru tive. 4 As a rapi(f feveranda confiaminghe&care alike fatal toour natu ral health* 'foare flagrant irn'raoralky and torpid indo;Ience to our moral, well.being.
The philofophir-al dottrina of the 116,W recefflon, of, b(idies- from the fim., is a lively* infag,& of the reludtance with which we firft a6:f-ndou the lig1ht'of virtue. The beginning of folly,_ and' the firk entrance on a, diffiipatQ life, coff forne pangs to a. -.v ell difpol'cd heart ; but it is furprifing to fee how fboa flic progicfs cafes to be:impeded bLy refleffi6n,- or blackened bv reniorfe. For it i. W moral, as in naturaL things; the motion in mintis-as well as bodies is abcclerated by a nearer alP roach, to the centre towhkh- they are tending. if t werecede slowly at firft getting oijr, vc advance ram pidly in-our future, courfe- an& to have bcgun to be wrong is already to have made a great progref's.
k-onflant habit--of amusement relaxes the tone or the mind,, n&rondcm:it tcmAli incapable of application, fludy, or virtue. Diff1pation not only iiidifpoj'es its votaries to cv 6ry thing uftflil and e-,ccliviit, blit difqn ilifies them fortheenjoyment of pleat ure itself. It fosters, the foul fo muth; that the rooft l'uperficial' enapluyment becomes a labour, and the flighteft inconvenicticeanagony. TheluxuriousSybarite mufthave ItAWI fenf'c of' real enjoyment and all relief for tnic gr4tl&ation, beforehe complained that he cotild Lot llevpl, becaafe the- rofe -Ica ,cslay double mader him.
Luxury and dillipation., toft and"gentle as theirapproaches are, and silently as they throw thcir filkea
ciajos about thle heart, enflave it more than the mof!
--dive and turbulent vices. ,Thec mighitiefi conquerors have beven conquered by thoffe unaari-ed foes:-the floxxv-rv fetters are faftened before tnev arc felt. The
biad~lrnntsofCirce were mre ftaIrtthe marlncrs
of Ulxffe:, than the ffrength of Polypherue, or the brutality of the L-,vffri-,ons. Heelsa tcr 'lc had cleanfed the Axia-ean liable, and performed all thle
ther labouirs eziaoied him by Eunhuibn iii
a club and a lion's &-a 7a the enuife o vrtuc, co.-c
mnighty nations, was himkf iovetcomr by the love of
~~~~~~~~I aue;adhwhdeied cold, and want,an
daiger, and death on the Alps, was conquered and undo~ne by the dill'olute indulgences of Capua.
Before the hero of the snofi beautiful and virtuous
1:onaure that ever was.-written, 1 mean Telemachbus, l 'anded on the ifland of Cyprus, he unfortunately lol
-iI his prudent companion Mentor, in whomn wisdom is lb)
finely perfbuifie At firfi he beheld with horror the wanton and diffolute manners of the voluptuous inl,abitants: the ill effe~tsof their example were not immediate: he tlid nut fall into the corn iiflon of glaring enormfties; but hsis virtue Was liecretly and inmpcreeptilby under-mined; his hxe rt wxas foftened by their pernidlons fociety, and the neNe of ridfolution was flacken-' ed: he every day beheld with J!iminiffhed indignation the worship which was offered to Vents ; the diforders of luxury and prophancuef- he~camp- lefs and kcfs terrible, and the inifeftious air of the country enfeebled his courage, and relaxed hi~ principles. Inllhlort,,lie had ceafed to love virtue long before he thought of committing actual vice : and the duties of a manly Piety were burdenfosne to hi i, before he was ib dcbafedi as to offer perfumes, and burn incenf'e on thl, alcar of thze
SNthirg car, be move a dm!ira b,, thav t? e vyarrer -",
ON DISSIPATION. Ty
4 Let us crown ourfelves with roLe buds before they be withered, faid Solomon's libertine. Alas! he did not reflex, that they withered in the very gathering. The roles of pleafure feldom laft long enough to adorn the brow of him who plucks them; for they are the only roes which do not retain their [n eet nefs after they have loft their beauty.
The heathen poets often preifed on their readers the neceility of confidering the thortnefs of life, as art incentive to pleafure and voluptuoufnefs ; left the feafon for indulging in them fliould pals unimproved. The dark and uncertain notions, not to fay the abfolute difbelief, which they entertained of a future tflate, is the only apology than can be offei ed for this reafoning.But while we censure their tenets, let us not adopt their errors; errors which would be infinitely more inexcufeable in us, who, from the clearer views which revelation has given us, hall not have their ignorance or their doubts to plbad. It were well if we availed ourselves of that portion of their precept, which inculcates the improvement of every moment of our time, but not like them to dedicate the moments fo redeemed to the purfuit of fenfual and perishable jileafures, but to the fLecuring of thofe which are spiritual in their nature, and eternal in their duration.
If, indeed, like the miferable beings imagined by Swift, with a view to cure us of the irrational desire after immoderate length of days, we were condemned to a wretched earthly immortality, we should have an
which this allegory is condu'ed- ; and the whole work, not to mention its images, machinery, and other poeticalbeauites, is written in the very fnel firain of morality. In tis latter reJped, it is evidently fuperior to the works of te ancients, the moral of Awhich is frequently taintedby the grojfnefi of their mythology. Something of the purity of the Chriftian religion may be diJcovered even in Fenelon's heathens ; and they catch a tinure of piety in paying through the handsof that amiable prelate.
The Strduldburgs. See Voyage to Laputa.
8 On DISSIPATION.
excuse for fending fome portion of our time in diffipatiVn, as we might then pretend, with lome colour of reason, that xepropofed, ata diftant period, to enter on a better course ofation. Or if we never formed any fuch refolution, it would make no material difference to beings, whofe fate was already unaltercrably fixed. lut of the ftanty portion of days affigned to our lot, not one Ihould be loft in weak and irresolute procraftination.
Thofe who have not yet determined on the fide of
vanity, who, like Herculus, (before he knew the queen of Lydia, and had learned to fpin) have not rebfolved on their choice between vIRTUE andPLEAuREa, may refieA, that it is fill in their power to imi, tate that hero in his noble choice, and in his virtuous rejection. They may alfo refiedt with grateful tri11mph, that chriftianity furnilhies them with a better guide than the tutor ofAlcides, and witha furer light
than the dotrines of Pagan philofophy.
It is far from my defign feverely to condemn the innocentpleafires of life; I would only beg leave to ob.
Jerve, that thofe which are criminal should never be allowed; and that even the moflt innocent will, by
immoderate ufe, foon ceafe to be fo.
The women of this country were not fent into the A world to fiumn fociety, but to embellifh it; they were
not defined for wilds and folitudes, but for the amniable and endearing offices of focial life. They have ufeful tflations to fill, and important chara&ers to fuf.
rain. They are of a religion which does not impose penances, but enjoins duties; a religion ofperfe& purity, but of perfeabenevolence alfo; a religion which does not condemn its followers to indolent feclufion from the woild, but affigns them the more dangerous, though m6re honorable province; of living uncorrupted in it.
In fine, a religion, which does not dire& them to fly from the multitude, that they may do nothing, but which pofitively forbids thea to follow a multitude to
[ 19 ]
T has been advifed, and by very refpexald authorities too, that in conversation xrnen should carefully conceal any knowledge or learning they may happen to poffefs. I own, with fubmiffion, that I do not fee either the necrflity or propriety of this advice. For if a young lady has that discretion and modeftv, without which all knowledge is little North, fhe will never make an olentatious parade of it, becaufe fihe will rather be intent on acquiring more, than on difplaying what the has.
I am at a lofs to know why a young female is infruted to exhibit, in the moft advantageous point of view, her kill in mufic, her finging, dancing, tafe in drefs, and her acquaintance with the moft faflhionable games and amufements, while her piety is to be anxioufly concealed, and her knowledge affe&edly difavowed, left the former should draw on her the appellation of an enthuilft, or the latter that of a pedant.
In regard to knowledge, why Thould the forever affe& to be on her guard, left fhe tfhould be found guilty of afmall portion of it ? She need be the lefs folicitous about it, as it. feldom proves to be fo very confiderable as to excite allonifhment or admiration : for, after all the acquifitions which her talents anrid her fludies have enabled her to make, the will, generally fpeaking, be found to have lefs of what is called learning, than a common fchoolboy.
It would be to the laft degree prefuimptuous and abfurd, for a young woman to pretend to give the tone to the company-to interrupt the pleaf:re of others, and her own opportunity of improvement, by talking when fhe oug't to liften-or to introduce fulbje&ts out of the conommn road, in order to fhow her own wit, or toexpofe the want of it in others: but were the fex to be totally filent when any topic of literature happens to be difcuffed in their prefence, conyerfation would lofe much of its vivacity, and society
Vould be robbed of one of its moft intereffing charms,
How eafily and effed-ually may a well-bred woman promote the moalt useful and elegant conversation, almnoft without fpeak4ing a word! for the modes of speech are cfearcely more variable than the modes of silence. The filence of lifilefs ignorance, and the filence of fparkling intelligence, are perhaps as feparately marked, and as diftinaily expreffid, as the fame feelings could have been hy the moft unequivocal language. A woman,in a company where fhe has the lealft influence, may promote any fabje& by a profound and invariable attention, which ihows tat fhe is pleafed withit, and by an illuminated countenance, which proves the underftands it. This obliging attention it the moft flattering encouragement in the world to men of fenfe and letters, to continue any topic of infiru6tion or entertainment they happen to be engaged in: it owed its introduction perhaps to accident, thebeft introdudion in the world for a fubje& of ingenuity, which, though it could not have been formally propofed without pedantry, maybe continued with eafe and ,ood humour; but which will be frequently and effectually flopped by the liftleffnefs, inattention, or whifpering of0filly girls, whole weariness betrays their ignorance, and whole impatience exposes their illbreeding. A polite man, however deeply interested in the fubjet on which he isconvering, catches at the flighteft hint to have done : a look is a fufficient intimation, andifa pretty fimpleton, who fits near him, feems diflraite, he puts an end to his remarks to the great regret of the reafonable part of the company, whio perhaps might have gained more improvement by the continuance of fuach a converfation, than a week's reading would have vielded them; for it is fuch company as this, that give an edge to each others wit, as iron fharpeneth iron."
That filence is one of the great arts of converfatio, is allowed by Cicero himfeif, who fays, there is not only an art, bitt even an eloquence in it. And this opinion 4
ON CONVERSATION. 47
is confirmed by a great modern', in the following lit. tle anecdote from one of the ancients:
When many Grecian philofophers had a folemn meeting before the ambaffador of a foreign prince, each endeavoured to fhow his parts by the brilliancy of his converfation, that the ambaffador might have fomncthing torelate of the Grecian wifdom. One of them, offended, no doubt, at the loquacity of his companions, observed a profound filence ; when the am-* baffador turning to himr, aked, But what have you to fay, that I may report it ?" He made this laconic, but very pointed reply: Tell your king, that you have foundone among the Greeks who knew how to be silent."
. There is a quality infinitely more intoxicating to the female mind than knowledge ; this is wit, the nioft captivating, but te moft dreaded ofall talents : the moft dangerous to thole who have it, and the moff feared by thofe who have it not. Though it is against all the rules, yet I cannot find in my heart to abufe this charming quality. He who is grownrich without it, in fafe and fober dulnefs, Iuns t as a difeafe, and looks upon poverty as its invariable concomitant. The morality declaims against it, as the fource of irregularity; and the frugal citizen dreads it more than bankruptcy itfelf ; for he confiders it as the parent of extravagance and beggary. The cynic will afk, of what ufe it is? Of very little, perhaps: no more is a flower garden, and yet it is allowed as an object of innocent amulfement and delightful recreation. A woman Who poffeffes this quality, has received a moft dangerous prefent, perhaps not lefs fo than beauty itfelf: efpecially ifit be not fheathed in a temper peculiarl y ino cn've, chaired by a moft correct judgment, and reftrainf more prudence than falls to the common lot.
t alent is more likely to make a woman va n S noledge ; for as wit is the immediate prequ-Lor Bacon.,
S On CONVERSATION.
ty of its poflfeffor, and learning is only an acquaintance with the knowledge of other people, there is much more danger, that we should be vain of what is our
own, than of what we borrow.
But wit, like learning, is not near fo common a
thing as is imagined. Let not, therefore, a young lady be alarmed at the acutenefs of her own wit, any more than at the abundance of her own knowledge.
The great danger is, left tfhe flhould mistake pertnefs, flippancy, or imprudence, for this brilliant*quality, or imagine tihe is witty, only becaufe fhe is indifereet.
This is very frequently the cafe ; and this makes the aame of wit fo cheap, while its real exiftence is fo rare.
Left the flattery of her acquaintance, or an overweening opinion of her own qualifications, should lead tome vain and petulant girl into a falfe notion that- fihe has a great deal of wit, when fhe has only a redundancy of animal spirits, ihe may not find it ufelefs to attend to the ditinition of this quality, by one vho had as large a portion of it, as moft individuaW
could ever boaft:
'Tis not a tale, 'tis not a jeft,
Admir'd with laughter at a feaff,
Nor florid talk, which can that'title gain;
The proofs of wit forever muft remain.
Neither can that have any place, At which a virgin hides her face;
Snchdrofs the fire mult purge away; 'tis juff,
The author blufh there, where the reader muff.
But thofe who actually pofTes this rare talent, cannot be too abfitinent in the ufe of it. It often makes adm-irers, but it never makes friends; I mean, where it is the predominant feature: and the unprotected an I defencelefs late of womanhood, calls for friendfhip more than for admiration. Sli who does not defire friends~ has a fordid and hifcnfible foul; but fhie who
ON CONVERSATION. 23
is ambitious of making every man her admirer, has an invincible vanity, and cold heart.
But to dwell only on the fide of policy, a prudent woman who has eftablifhied the reputation of fome genius, will thfficiently maintain it, without keeping her faculties always on the firetch, to fay good things. Nay, if reputation alone be her objed, fhe will gain a more folid one by her forbearance; as the wifer part of her accquaintance will afcribe it to the right motive, which is, not that flhe has lefs wit, but that tie has more judgement.
The fatal fondnefs for indulging a fpirit of ridicule, and the injurious and irreparable confequences which sometimes attend the too prompt reply, can never be too ferioufly or too feverely condemned. Not to offend is the firft tfleptowards pleading. To give pain is as much an offence againfi humanity, as againfit good breeding; and furely it is as well to abfiain from an adion, becaufe it is finful, as becaufe it is unpolite. In compa.ny, young ladies would do well, before they tpeak, to refiec, if what they are going to fay may not diftrefs fome worthy perfons prefent, by wounding them in their persons, families, connections, or religious opinions. If they find it will touchthem in either ofthefe, I would advice them to futped, that what they are going to lay, is not foa very good a thing as they at firft imagined. Nay, if even it was one of thofe bright ideas, Y hich TVemts has imbued uith a fifth part of her neciar, fo much greater will be their merit in fupprefr. ing it, if there wasa probability it might offend. Indeed if they have the temper and prudence to make fulch a previousrefle&ion, they will be more richly rewarded by their own inward triumph at having fuppreifed a lively but severe remark, than they could have been with the diffembled applaufes of the whole company, who, with that complainant deceit which good breeding too much authlorifvs, affed openly to admire what they fecretly refolve never to forgive.
I ha, e always been delighted with the flory of the little girl's cloquance, in one of the children's tales,
2.4 ON CONVERSATION.
who received from a friendly fairy the gift, that at every word fle uttered, pinks, rofes, diamonds, and pearls, should drop from her mouth. The hidden moral appears to be this, that it v as the fweetnefs of her temper which produced this pretty fanciful effect ; for when her malicious fifter desired the fame gift from the good natnired tiny intelligence, the venom of her own heart converted it into poifonous and loathfome reptiles.
A man of fenfe and breeding will fometimes join in the laugh, which has been railed at his expenfe, by an ill-natured repartee: butif it was very cutting, and one of that flhocking fort of truths, which, as they can fearcely be pardoned even in private, eught never to be uttered in public, he does not laugh because lihe is pleafed, but became he wifhes to conceal how much he is hurt. As the farcafm was uttered by a lady, fo tar from feemning to refent it, he will be the firf} to commend it; but notwithftanding that, he will remember it as a trait of malice, when the v bole company hall have forgotten it as a firoke of wit. WVomen are fo far froni being privileged by their fex to lbay unhandbfome or cruel things, that this is the very circumftance wxihich renders them more intolerable. When the arrow is lodged in the heart, it is no relief to him w ho is wounded, to reflect, that the hand which fhot him was a fair one.
Many women, when they have a favourite point to gain, or an earneaf wih to bring any one over to their opinion, often ufea very difingenuons met'*_'d : they wiil ftate a cafe ambiguouflvy, and then avail theimfelves of it, in whatever manner hall beft answer their purpofe; leaving your mind in a fate of indecifion as to their real meaning, while they triumph in the perplexity they have given you, by the unfair conclulions they draw, from premises equivocallyv ated. They xill alfo frequently argue front exceptioninflead of rules, and are aftonifled when you are not willing to be contented with a prejudice, inflead of a realfon.
In a fenlible company of both fexes, where woacea
O CONVERSATION. 5
gre not retrained by any other referve than what their natural modeftv impofes-and wherethe intimacy of all parties authorifes the utmoff freedom of communication-fhould any one enquire what were the general sentiments on fame particular fubje&s, it will, I believe, commonly happen that the ladies, whole imaginations have kept pace with the narration, have anticipatedits end, and are ready to deliver their fentiments on it, as foon as it is finillid. While fome of the male hearers, whole minds were buried in fettling the propriety, comparing the circumfiances, and examining the coufiflencies of what was faid, are obliged to paufe and difcriminate, before they think of anfivering. Nothing is fo embarraffing as a variety of matter: and the converfation of women is often more perfpicuous, becaufeit is lefs labored.
A man of deep reflection, if he does not keep up at intimate commerce withthe world, will be fometimes fo entangled in the intricacies of intenfe thought, that lie will have the appearance of a confufed and perplexed expreflion; while a fprihtly woman will extricate herfelf with that lively and raih dexterity," which will almoft always plea!b though it is very far from being always right. It iseafier to confound than to convince an opponent; the former may be effe&ed by a turn that has more happiness than truth in it. Nlany an excellent reafoner, i ell fkiiled in the theory of the fchools, has felt himfelf difcomfited by a reply, which, though as wide of the mark, and as foreign to the queffion, as can be conceived, has difconcerted himn more than the moft ftartling proposition, or the moft accurate chain of reafoning could have done; and he has borne the laugh of his fair antagonifr, as well as of the whole company, though he could not but feel, that his own argument was attended with the filleft demonffration; fotrue it is, that it is not always neceffary to be right, in order to be applauded.
But let not a young lady's vanity be too much elated with this falfe applause, which is given, not to merit, but to her fax: Ihe has not, perhaps, gained a victory,
:z6 ON CONVERSATION.
though flie MaY be allowed a trilimph ; and it fliould
her to that the tribute is paid, not to
kcrilrength, but to her weakness. it is -,N orth while to dif'criminate between that applatife, N, dch is give, from the coniplaifance of others, and that which is paiJ to our own merit.
Where c reat f-ptightlinefs is the natural bent of the temper, g"rlsPiouldeideaveortohab;tu-,i,,eth--n4.,-lves to a custom of obi'erving, thinking, and reasoning. I 0 o not mean that they fbould devote them.fclves to ablfrufe fFeculation, or the fludy of logic b-it fne, %vho i s a c C'nltc, in c J t o '-i ve a ch le arran o-c m en t to h e r th o-o ght s, to roalb-i jUffly and pertinentlyor, common a-id judic; oufly to deduce efi t&s from th c; c aufc s, w ii'L be a better logician than fome of thofe' %-ho clairn the name, bc-au!'e thev have fludied -he art : tins is "learn-ed without the rules the beft definition, perhaps, of that f'ort of literature which is propereft for the fex. I'liat f] ccies of lmov,,ledge, whi-c'n aprea- S to be tht 0, IC C11CC,
refilt of reflection rather tKan eculiariv
v;ell on --, omen. It is not uncomnion -o find a la,'V, Nvho, though ilie does not kPow a rule of fynt-,,x, ca;-cely -ever violates one ; and -,, ho conftru&s everv 1'ei.ttnce
-ne iiLters, yAh inore propriety t', maj'V 4 ILar-Ded dunce, who has every rule of -Ari,:Lor-leby hcarz, and
-, ho can lace his own thread bare alfco-urfe Viith 1"'IC gol de n fhreds of C-Cero a,,d N7;rg l
It ha s been objecf ed, and I fear with feire reason, bat feniale conversation 'Is too frequently ti,,,aurcd
-with a cenforious fpiritj and that ladies ar alt to discover much terderrefs for the errors of a fahea fifter,
If it be lo. it is a grievous fault.
No argument can iiift'Sy, no p'cas (an cxtenuatc T cx lt over the o' an imha
PY creature, is Human : Dot to compahcnate t, em, is uncliriffian. The worth part ofthe f'cx alwaVs express theunflclyes bumanely on the failings of othei n proportion to their own nndeviating oodnefis.
And here I cannot help remarking, that young wo-
0-i CONVERSATION-. -7
men tlo not always carefully diffingi-lift, between run11iog into the error of detrakqion, and its opposite exThisproecedsfrom
the fa fe idea they enterta-M, that the elirea contrary to what is -,N rong, mutt be right. Tbus tlie drtzad of beina 01,1y 1Cdfne(?1ed ofone fault, -makes them aetualI, g1,11ty'of another. The 6efire of avoldino- the ijuT"-Watloll of envy, in-ptls them to be iifmcerc ; and to eliabl;'ffi a reputation for i Nvcetnefs of teraper and ge11crofity, they afffe& fbrn, ,-timeq to fbeak d very iAff, rent cliaraEters wl-h the moft extravagant aT-Pplaitfe. AN'ith fuch the hyperbole is a favourite -figure aDd C very degrrce of comparison, but the filperlative, is re: jLLLed, as cold and' exprelfive. But this habit of exageration gcoatly weakens their credit, and deftrovs
In e N c i 'neir oplnlon on other occal; us ; for
,ght of t, i -0
people very fooi- dffl over what degree of faith ig to be
both to their judrLment andverac 1tv. And thol-e of real m erit will no more be flattered 'by that approbation, which cannot diftinguiPh the value ofwhat it praises, than the celebrated painter muft have Lcen at the judginent pailedon his worksby anignorant fpectator, who, being a",-ed what he thought of fuch and fucli ve"w capital, but very different pieces, cried out in an alfe&ed rapture, 11 Allalike all alike 1"
It has been proposed to the youDg, as a ma-mim of fup,-eme to manage fo dexterourly in comerfation as toap.ear tobc well'. acquainted N,,:ith fulbic 'as, ,cf --Fh ch they are totally ignorant ; and this, by af17C I-alg filence i.n re;Sard to tbofe, on which they are hilown to exC._3ut why counfflcl this difin,- ,eyffloug
Why add, to the uu.barleis arts of deceit, tl--i,; PrPRice of deceivlUg, as it -verc, on a fettic-d principle? If to difavow the kno- Nrle, ,; they really lave, be a culpable afi&ation, then certainly to inf-imate an idea of their flkill where they are actually ignorant, is a nioft un-,,,orthv artifice.
But of all the o-jalifications for conversation, humilitv, if imt the rnoftbrilliant, is the flaf eft, the moff Amiabl_-, and thc Itioa fcinialne, aiEecl ation of
introducing fubjeCts, -%vith which others are Unacl quairlted, ard of difpItying talents Juperior to the
reft of the coil2pany, is as dangerous as it is foolifli.
Therc are mali who never can forgive another
p for bein(y more agreeable and raore accornpliffied than
therafelyt-3, and who can pardon any offence rather than an eclipfiog merit. Had the nightiDgale in the fable conquered h;s vanity, ard reiifted the temptation of showing a fine voice, he nnaht have escaped the talons of the hawk. The melodV of his finding %vas the cai-ife of his deftrueStion. ; his merit broimylit bim
intodanger, and his vanity coft him his life,
0 N E N V Y
Fnvv carne next-Envy with squinting eves,
SIck of a f1range difeal his neighbour's health
Beft then he lives, when any better dies,
Is ntver poor but in another N-,,ealtb
Cn belt men's harms and griefs he feeds his fill, Life his ow n maw cloth ci: t w ith spiteful w ill I'll mult the te-uper be, vvhere ciiet is fo ill.
FLETCHEil'S PURPLE ISLAND.
-NVY," favsLordBacon,44 has no boll Jays. "E-There cannot pe-Laps, be a more lively and tri una description. of the it -abttl Rate of mind
f 'k -i i fe,
thol'-_ endure \vho are torruen i:d w;tll this vice. Afp
rit o"cmu1a1_;on has beenfu!prol d to be tiie fourc,:lof the greatest improvements; nd thcre is Lo doubt but the vvaimnefl, rivalflip v illi produce the moft e..;-cellent cFe&s; biititlstobef, ,ared, flataperretualfitateof contest vJil insure the ternpcr fo ef; that the jjjr Ily be courterbala."ced bv any other advaataacm 'J'hei'e, wlaoi il progress is the i-noft rapiel, will 'be apt to def pife their ki's fuccellsful colipt7t-tors, -who, ni return, will fc-1 the bittereO re"Untm, C n t again" the'U ruore fortunate rivals. Among jertoasofrealcrocd:iefs thisjealoufy and co.-tc.npt
ON ENVY. 29
can never be equally felt: because every advancement in piety will be attended with a proportionable increafe of humility, which will lead them to contemplate their own improvements with modefly, and to view wvith charity the mifcarriages of others. WVhen an enviousman is melancholy,one may aflk him, in the words of Bion, what evil has befallen himfilf, or what good has happened to another? This laft is the fcale by which he principally meafures his felicity, and the very fmiles of his friends are Ib many dedutions from his own happinefs. The wants of others are the flandard by which he rates his own wealth; and he estimates his riches not fo much by his own poffeflions, as by the neceflities of his neighbours.
When the malevolent intend to firike a very deep and dangerous firoke of malice, they generally begi the moft remotely in the world, from the fubjet r.eareft their hearts. They fet out with commending the objea of their envy for fome trifling quality or advantage, which it is fearcely worth while to poffefs: they next proceed to make a general profeffion of their own good will and regard for him ; thug artfully removing any fufpicion of their defign, and clearing all obffrua'ions for the infidious itlab they are about to give: for who will fufpe& them of an intention to injure the object of their peculiar and profeffed efleem? the hearer's belief of the fa& grows in proportion to the feeming relu ance with which it is told, and to the conviction hle has, that the relater is not influenced by any private pique,.or perfonal refentment; but that the confcfE.on is extorted from him forely again his inclination, and purely on account of his zeal for truth.
Anger is lefs reafonabie and more fincere than envy.-Anger breaks out abruptly ; envy is a great prefacer : anger wifhes to be underfiood at once ; envy is fond of remote hints and ambiguities ; but, obfcure as its oracles are, it never ceafes to deliver them till they are perfecly comprehended; anger repeat
the fame circumrftances over again ; crv--: invents new onecs at every frc-fh recita'l; anger iJvcs a Lrolcr, vehement, and interrupted narratixtC ; enlvy tells a
more corfiftent and more proba 'J1 i-cohail
tale :anger Is exceflively invprduIr ;c for It is pat ie llt to0 dift Iofe e v er YtI'ng it k~. n e is 1 d 11erect ; for it has a Rreat deal to ssido .w never confalts times orC fcafo-, v alts !or Lb lucky 3 -, n! when tho wound it meditazc~ may be -nale "th 1 ndsf exquifitely painful, and thc, r~f 'i eti ably
fcp.anger u1ies more inv esve evy, d Oes n-ore
imh f fnple anger fons runs s out oflbreath,
adis exh;;fle2d at the e;I ol t but hist is for
that chaiha period tha t a ,x 'y has treallared up the in ofl barbed arrow in Its NNshale quiver anger puts aI m-an cut of hmf i; but the tri, malicious Zecrally praf-erve the appearance offelf-polflfion, or they
todnet fo cefetually injure.-The angry man fets
car-:; bydlroying his whole credit with y ou at once;
m-anl carefully f'upprei-ics all his own Phare in the affair.
-The angry man defeats the end of his refentMneat, 4i by eeping hi;;zfeIfcontinualir before your eyes, inflead
of his enemy ; whille the envious mnan artfully brings forward the aisjec-t of his malice, and keeps himfil~f o-,st of figlt.-T he angry man talks loudly of his own wvrongs ; the envious of his adveriairy's injuftice.A paionate perfon, if his refentments are not coi-plicated with malice, divides his time between finning and forrow ing ; and as the irafeible Pa' ons cannot coruflastly be at w-,ork, Isis heart may flnmetisnes get a haiiday.-Ailger is a vlolent a t, envy a eonfraiir habit --no one canl be always angry, hut. he ma~y he al-ways envious :-aa ang ry mass's ersmity (if he he ga.
nerous) will fubjfide when the olbjeft of his relem.tme nt
becomes unfortunate but th. eniu a m xrc
food for his malice out of ealamstv itf-eli, if hie f nds his adverfary hears it with dignity, or is piriasi or all-fled jasL. The. rage iDF the psiioaatel ntjan totally ex-
O ENVY. 31
tingulffed by the death of his enemy : but the hatred cf the malicious is not buried even in the grave of his rival: he will envy the good name he has left behind hin ; he will envy him the tears of his widow, the prof'perity of his children, the efteem of his friends, tihe praifes of his epitaph-nay, the very magnificence of his funeral.
The ear of jealoufy heareth all things," fayss the wife man) frequently I believe more than is uttered, which makes the company of persons infected with it ill more dangerous.
When you tell thofe of a malicious turn, any circumffance that has happened to another, though they perfefly know of whom yon are speaking, they ofltei af t to beat a lofs, to forget his name, or to mirfapprehend you in fome refpet or other; and this, merely to have an opportunity of flily gratifying their malice, by mentioning fome unhappy defe&f or perfonal infirmity he labours under; and not contented, to tack his every error to his name," they will, by way of farther explanation, have recour-e" to the fameits ofhis father, or the misfortunes of his family; and this, with all the fIeeming fimplicity and candour in the world, merely for the ake of preventing miftakes, and to clear up every doubt of his indetity.If you are Ipeaking of a lady, for inftance, they will perhaps embelifh their enquiries, by akingor, if you mean her, whoie great grandfather was a bankrupt, though The has the vanity to keen a chariot, while others who are much better born walk on foot; or they will afterwards recolle&, that you mray peilibly mean her coufin, of the fame name, whofe mother was fhfped ed of fuch or fuch an indifcretion, though the daughter had the luck to make her fortune by marryng, while her betters are overlooked.
To hint at afjndt, does inmore mirchief than fpeakingout ; for whatever is left for the imagination to finifhi, will not fail to be overdone : every hiatus will he more than filled up, and every paufe more than fipplied. There is lefi malice, and kcS mischief too,
In telling a man's name, than the initials of it; a& a w~orthier perfon may be involved in the moftdifgraceful fufpie ions by fuch a dangerous ambiguty.
It is not uncommon for the envious, after having attempted to deface the faireft character fo indufiriouliy, that they are afraid you will begin to dete~t their malice, to endeavour to remove your fufpicions effeanually, by aflisrirg you, that, "1 what they have juft related is only the popular opinion ; they therfelveg 41 can never bc~leve things are fo) bad as they -are faid "to be ; for their part, it is a rule wvith then always to hope the bef--. It is their way, never t believe or report ill of any ore. Thy vill, h)-wevcr, men"tinei the flinty in all Ceffipauxae, that they may do theirr friend the fervice of protcfiing;2 their dd-beiicf
'of it." orr arnsare thus hinted away by
faife friends, than are opea! y Ociftroved by public e nemies. An if;, or a be,.t, or a mortisied look, or a Iane-ui dc-ience, or an ambig,:uous 1ihale of the head, or a I-at Woed( ai'ietejiy recalled, wvill demohifh a character m-ore el;Trtual ;y than the wl-ole artillery of mnaLeie, When openly levcefled agaluft it.
It is not that envy never praillcs: No, that \\, ouldl be maing a public prcfe'Fon of itfeif, and advertifing its owa malignity ; wAhereas the greateft fuccef's of its cl-w-t3 dteends on the concealment of their end. W-hen envy intends to finite a firoke of Machia; efliaa policy, it fe metimes aff'e&s the language Of the moft
xagea ted applauke; though it general -aes care, that the fiibject of its panegyric fliall b iy a very indiffeyrent and common charater, fo that it is well awa-vi none of its praifes 'Nvill ffich.
It is the unhappy nature of envy not to be contented w~i~ pofitive mifery, but to be conti nuaily a,-gravat ing its own torments, I y cornparn them with the feliesties of others. The eyes of envy are yerpe-tual'y fixed on the objedt which difluthbs it, nor can it avert them from it, though to procure itfelf the relief of a rem porary forgetfuluels. Oz fcingr the innocence of thQ foii pair,
SENTIMENTAL CONNEXIONS 33
Af' Ie the Devil turned,
For envy, yet -witlijealous leer inalign,
Eved them a.kance.
A; this enormous fin chiefi, infligated the revolt, and brougLt on the ruin, of the angelic tpirits, fo it is not imorobable, that it will..bo a principal hiftrument of mil-cry in a future world, for the envious to compare their desperate condition with the happinef's of the clildrci of God, and to heighten their actual
-wretchedneis by reflecLing on what tllcv havoloft.
Perhaps envy, like lying and ingratitudc, is practifed with inore frcquencv7 because it is praClifed with ininunitv ; but there beingno human lawsagainft thefe cri nes, is fo far from an inducement to conim it them, that t'a-Is very confi creation -,-.rould be fulficient to deter thevi"fe and good, if all others wcre inefffeclual ; for of hovi heinous a nature mv.I't thofe flins be, which are iudp ed above the reach ofliuman -1.1n:11mmt, and are eft --rved forte final suffice of God hi-m!'elf
0;-, te Dongcr of Sentimental or Roinantic conneezions.
A TA ONG Ole many cvils wh' ch r. evail under the firn, the abufe of words is not the leall confidcrab!e. By the k fluelice of time, and the p' rverfion of faflion, the plz inclq and moft uncqui -ocal may be fo altered, as to have a meamr aligned them ahnoft diametrically cpp Aite to the'Ir ori(rinal fignificat:on.
present age r.?alr be termed, by way of diftin(aion, tI-.e aue o 'fcnt:rncit, a word, v, h cll, in the imP,-"cn:cr, it now bears, was un -Iaown to our plain anCeftors. Sentiments the varniffi. ofvjrtue, to coEceal the deformity of vice ; and it is not uncrmmon for the fiLme persons to make a ieff of reli, ion, to break through the 103oft fiilemn ties ard engagements, to prdlife everv art o lat mt fraud a.,d open fec11,61 ion., a-ad yet to va lue thcaifelves on speaking and writing
34 O SENTIMENTAL CONNEXIONS.
But this refinedjargon, which has infe&ed letters, and tainedmorals, ischiefly admired and adopted by young ladies of a cert rn, w horead fentimentalbooks, write fentimentallet4 Sand contra& jfintimentalfriendjhips.
Error is never likely t o fo muchmifchief, as when it difguifes its real tendey, andputson an engaging andattralive appearance. Many a young woman, v ho would be shocked at the imputation of an intrigue, is extrqrly flattered at the idea of a fentimental connetion, though perhaps with a dangerous and defigning man, who, by putting on this mat ofplaufibility andvirtue, difarms her of her prudence, lays her apprehenfions a fleep, andinvolves her in mifery-mi ery the more inevitable, becaufe unfufpected. For the
-whoapprehends no danger, wvillnot think it neceffary to be always upon her guard; but will rather invite than avoid the ruin, which comes under fo fpecious and to fair a form.
Such an engagement will be infinitely dearer to her vanity, than an avowed and authorifed attachment; for ona of thefe fentimental lovers will not fcruple very erioufly to affure a credulous girl, that her unparallled merit entitles her to the adoration of the whole world, and that the univerfal homage of mankind is nothing more than the unavoidable tribute extorted by her charms. No wonder then Ihe hould be foeafily prevailed on to believe, that an individual is cap. tivated by perfeAions which might enflave a million. But fhe should remember, that he, who endeavours to intoxicate her with adulation, intends one day moft efifeuaily to humble her. For an artful man has always a fecret design to pay himfelf in future for every prefent facrifice. And this prodigality of praife, which he now appears to lavish with fuch thoughtlefs profusion, is, in fat, a fum economically laid out to fupply his future necefflties: of this fum he keeps an exaa estimate, and at fome diflant day promifes himfelfthe moft exorbitant intereft fdr it. If he has 4d&efs and codudw. and the object ofhis purfuit much
vanity, and forne fenfibility, hie feidom fails of fuccefas; ,for fo powerful wvill be his andancv over her mind, that dIe wvill foon adopt hi Ons and opinions. Indeed it is more than proII! fhe po~lfl~d molt of them before, having gradually acquired them in her initiation into the fentimental character. To maintain that charad-er with dignity and propriety, it is necefflary lhe should entertain the moft elevated ideas of difprnportionate alliances, and difinterefled love;
-and- confider fortune, rank, and reputation, as mere chimerical diflintions, and vulgar prej udices.
The lover, deeply verfed in all the obliquities of fraud, and killed to wind himfelf into every avenue of the heart, which ind~eretion has left unguarded, foon difeovers on which fiee it is moft acc,-Jible. He avails bimfelf of this wcaknefs by adulrelng her in a language exaffly confonant to her own ia. Hie attacks-her with her own weapons, and oppofes rhapfody to fentiment. He profeifes fo fovereio a corteipt for the paltry 'concerns of mney, that The thinks it .her duty to reward him for'fo generous a renunciation. Every plea he artfully advances 'of his own unwortbi6 nefs, is confidered by her as a frelli dernand, wvhichi her gratitude muff anfker. And he makcs it apoint of honour to facrifice to him that fortune' which he it
-ton noble -to regard. Thefe pro'f-rflons of'huii-,i''ty are the common artifice of the vain; and thefie protef latn qns of generolity the refuge of the rapacious. And among its many fmooth mifchief, it is one of tli, luire and fuccefsful frauds of fentiment, to afi'ed tht moft frigid indifference to thofe external and pecuniaTy advantages, which it is its great and real objeq m obtain.
A fentimental girl very rarely entertains an'y doubt of her perfonal beauty ; for dIe has been daly accuftomed to contemplate it herfelf, and 'to hear of it fromothers. She will nott therefore be very felicitous for the conifirmation of a truth fo felf evidet'; hut The fufpe&s, that her prctenfions to underfianding are, mnore likely to 4 ei4~vted) and; for that rcu~dn) gree6.
36 ON SENTIMENTAL CONNEXIONS.
dily devours every compliment offered to thofe perfections, which are lefs o us and more refined. She is perfuaded that me only open their eves to decide on her beauty, w a it will be the moft convincing proof of the tafte, fenfe, and elegance of her admirer, that he can difcern and flatter thofe qualities in her. A man of the character here fiippofed, will ealily infinuate himfelf into her aile &ions, by means of this latent but leading foible, which may he called the guiding clue to a fentimental heart. He will affe& to overlook that beauty which attrads common eyes, and enfiarts common hearts, while he will befflow the molt delicate praifes on the beauties of her mind, and finish the climax of adulation, by hinting that hie is superior to it.
And when he tells her the hates flattery,
She fays the does, being then moft flatter'd.
But nothing, in general, can end lefs delightfully than there fublime attachments, even where no aft of fedu&ion are ever pra&ifed, but they are faulfered, like mere fbluinary connections, to terminate in the vulgarcataftrophe of marriage. That wealth, which lately feemed to be looked on with ineffable contempt by the lover, now appears to be the principal attraction in the eyes of the husband : and he, who but a few fhort weeks before, in a tranfport of fentimental generofity, wIhed her to have been a village maid, with no portion but her crook and her beauty, and that they might fpend their days in pastoral love and innocence, has now loft all relief for the Arcadian life, or any other life'in which tie mult be his companion.
On theother hand, the who was lately
Angel carl'd, anI angel-like ador'd,
is shocked tofind herfelf at once firipped of all her celeffilal attributes. This late divinity, who fearcely yielded to her fifters of the tky, now finds herfclf of
ON SENTIMENTAL CONNEXIONS. ~
lefs importance in th,, efteemf of tht man 1he has cho-, fen, than any otheriimere mortal wNoman. No longer is ihe gratified with the tear 4D'counterfeited pa~iion,. the figh of diffembled-rapture, rthe, language of pre.mneditated adoration. No longer is th~e altar of her vanity loaded With the oblati-on.s of fi-titious fondaefs, the incenfe of falfehood, or the facrifice of flattery.Her apotheofis is ended! She feels hierfeif degraded from the dignaities and privileges of a goddel's, to all the itperfeieus, v'aqities, anad wve Anciliesof a flightcd woman, and a neglifedd wife. Her faults, whichwere fo lately overlooked, or miflaken for virtues, are, now, as Callius fays, fet in a note-hook. The paflion,
-.vhich was vowed eternal, laffedonly a few fiort weeks; andthe indifference, -which was fo far from being included in the bargain, that it wvas not fo much as fute'led, fAoows then through the whole tirefome, journey of their infipid, vacant, joyicfs exiftence.
Thus much for the completion of the fentimental. hifforv. If wetraceit back roits ;be-ginnin, w,%e Oliall tand, 'that a damnfel of this eaft baid hier headoiginally turned by pernicious reading, and her intanutv conhifrmed byimprudent friendfhiips. She never fails to feled, a beloved confidante of her ow n turn and humour, though, if fhe can help it, not quite lb handfomne as hierfeif. A violent intimacy enijies, or, to fpcak the langwige offentiment, an intimate union of' fouls immediately takes place, 'which is wrought to the higheff pitch, by a fecret and voluminous cnYrreffpondence, though they live in the fame ifreet, or perhaps in the fame houfe. This is the fuel which principrally feeds a-.d fupplies the dangerous flame of fentimient. -In ths correlpondence the two friends encourage eaich other in the falfeft notions imaginable. "They reprefent romrantic love as the great important bufinefs of human life, and defcribe a.,l th et'ie conc-riis of it as too lowv and paltry to merit tr attention of fach elevat ed beings, and fit only to cnmploy the daughters o, the! plodding vulgar. In thefe letters, family afia irl arc m fepreft-ated, family f' crets divulge d, and fami.
38 ON SENTIMENTAL CONNEXIONS.
ly misfortunes aggravated. Tey are filled withvows of eternal amity, and protefltations of rever-ending love. Butin'erjeftiosand quotations are the prin cipal embellifhtments of hefe very fublime epiftles. Every panegyric contained in them is extravagant and hyperbolical, every cenfure exayrerated and exceffive. In a favourite, every frailty is heightened ;nto a perfe&ion, and in a foe, degraded into a crime. The dramatic peers, efpecallythe mofi tender and romantic, are quoted in almoft every line, and every Pompous or pathetic thought is forced to gi-,e up its natural and obvious meaning, and, with all the violence of mifapp!ication, is compelled tofuit fome circumffance of imaginary woe of the fair tranferiber. Alicia is not too mad for her heroics, nor Monimia too mild for her foft emotions,
Fathers haveflinty hearts, is an expreffion worth an empire, and is alwaysufed with peculiar emphafs and enthufiafm. For a favorite topic of there epifiles is the groveling spirit and fordid temper of the parents, who will be fure to find no quarters at the hands of their daughters, should they prefume to be fo unreafonable as to dire& their courfe of reading, interfere in their choice of friends, or interrupt their very important correfpondence. But as there young ladies are fertile in expedients, and as their genius is never more agreeably exercifed than in finding refources, they are not without their fecret exultation, in cafe either of the above interesting events fhould happen, as they carry with them a certain air of tyranny and perfecution which is very delightful. For a prohibited correfpondence is one of the great incidents of fentimental life-and a letter clandeftinely received, the supreme felicity of a fentimental lady.
Nothing can equal the aftonifhment of thefe fearing spirits, when their plain friends or prudent relations prefiame to remonftrate with them on any impropriety in their conduct. But if there worthy people happen to be fomewhat advanced in life, their contempt is then a little foftened by pity, at the reflection that
ON SENTIMENTAL CONNEXIONS. eg
fuch very antiquat poor creatures shouldd pretend to judge what is fit or unfit for ladies of their great refinement, icnei, and reading. They confid'r them as wretches utterly ignorant of the fublime p!eaihres of a delicate and exalted paffion; as tyrants whole authority is to be condemned, and as fpies wvhol vigilance is tobe eluded. The prudence of thefe worthy friends they term fulpicion, and their experience dotage. For they are perliaded, that the face of things has lb totally changed, flece their parents wx ere young, that though they might then judge tolerably for themfelves, yetthey are now (with all their advantage of knowledge and obfervation) by no means qualified to dired their more enlightened daughters ; who, if they have made a great rogrels in the Ientmentalx alk, N ill be no more hnfluencea by the advice of their mother, than they would go abroad in her laced pinnier, or her brocade fuit.
But young people never flhow their folly and ignorance more coulpicuoufly, than by this over confidence in their own judgment, and this haughty disdain of the opinion of thole ivho have known more days.Youth has a quicknefs of apprehenfion, which it is very apt to mittake for an accutencfs of penetration. But youth, like cunning, though very conceited, is very ihort-fighted, and never more fo than when it difregards the iniftrudiions of the wife, and the admonitions of the aged. The fame vices and follies influenced the human heart in their day, which influence it now%, and nearly in the fIame manner. One xwh well knewtheworldand itsvarious vanities, has laid, "The thg which hath been, it is that wh;ch thall be a ud that which is done, is that which hall be done; and there is no new thing under the lima."
It is alb a part of the fentimental character, to imagine that none but the young and the beautiful have any right to the pleafures of fociety, or even to the common benefits and bleflings of life. Ladies of tiis turn albfo affect the moil lofty dd&Iregard for ufeful qualities and domestic virtues; and this is a natural con
40 0O- SENTIM~ENTAL CONNEXIONS.
fequence; for as this fort of fd*,Ment is onlv a 'word for idlen~fs, fhe'wvhoiscofitantly an~d ifefuily employ-cd, has-n either leifure no; propenfity to cultivate it.
A fentimental lady principally values herfei on the enlargement of her notions, and tier liberal wvay of thinking. This fiipcrioritv of foul chiefly manifefis itfelf in the contempt of thefe minute delicacies and little decorums, which, trifling as they may be thought, tend ait once to dignify the chara~ter, and to rel rain the levity of the younger part of the fex.
Perhaps the error here complained of, originates in Iniftaki ngfintimnae and principles fel- Cach1 othle r. Now 1 conceive th-emtone e ttrcreiy di'ffeet. Seuninent is the virtue of ideas, and principle the vinutof a6Ve''in. Sentiment has its feat in the head, prii-ic in the heart. Sentiment fuggefts line harangues aud fubitile diflindtions ; principle conceives juit notions, and performs good actions in confequcnce of them. Sent;,nerit refines away the fimplicity of truth and the plainnefs of piety ; and, as a celebrated wit ,has remarked of his no lefs celebrated contemporary, gives ~s virtue in words and vice in deeds. Seutimcrt may be callcd the Athenian who knew what was right, and principle the Lacedemonian who praz fzfed it.
But thefre qualities will he better exemplified by an arentive confideration of two admirably drawn chiara'fers of Milton, which are beautifully, delicately, and diffilvl marked Thele, are Beial, who may not improperly be called the deman offtntimtrit, and Abdiel, who may be termed the angel of~rincipie.
Survey-tbe picture of Belial, drawnu by the fabnlimeft hanld that ever held the poetic pencil.
A firer peCrfon lof0 not heav'n he fecm' d
Y or di-;aity compof'd, and high exploit;
But all was faife and hollow -'houzgh his tongue Dropt m~anna, and could make the worfe appear
Thet better reafon, to perplex anclddafli
Vlatureft couiiels for Uis thoughts Atere l.0w;
~Set -Voltaire's Pnh c.' cncernin 11culieau.
ON SENTIMENTAL CONNEXIONS. 41
To vice irduftriou-;, but to nobler deeds
Tini'kous-and slothful; yet lie pl-af'ed the car.
Paradise Lqi, B. 11.
Here is a lively and exquisite rep-eftniation or art rubtilitv, wit, line. breciiiig, and poliflied manners on the whole, o"a very accornphi'lied and fcntinjental
Nw v tora to 'the artlefs, upright, and unfopliiffivated Abdiel.
FwtVul foundAmong the faithless, faithful onl y lieAmou innuuncrable fah unmoved,
Unfliakcii, wrifi3 luced, unterrified ; I
His loyalty he kent, his love, his 7cal.
',or P' I
umbtr, jio c-ample Nvith him wrought
To A erve frorn truth, or change his constant inind
Though finigle. I BooK V.
But it is not from thefe descriptions, juO and RrikIng as the ,, are, that their characters are fo perfeetiv known, as from an examinatioij of their conduA throwyli the reinuiodcr ole this divine work ; in wh7(:h it is -,icll worth %v hile to r, inark the confona--icv of their actions, -v lth what t4c ubove pi, _,urcs letir. to prozplfe. It wilf allo be ol) tiat the contra t
betwe"I thein is k, pt up througji )ut, wit, t'cxa-lnef of delineation, and the mofl L ;Iiuiated firenuth of colouring. On a rev;-_w -it Y. ill bc fonnd, that'Belial tak4d ah, land Abdicl dJ ail. The former,
11-17ith words flill clothed ia real'on"s guire, C,3-ani cll'd ignobl- cafe and p, acefdlloth'
In Abdiel we wW conflantly fi ;d tl.- eloquence of
42 0-,g SENTIMENTAL CONNI'XIONS.
aClion. W lien terapted by tlie rL',, Fous z P -Cls, with
-what retorted fc&rizj With what ho: eil -nd:g-atioll tic and retreats fi-om th-Clir contagious, focciety
A',Inic.httbedrcpclle-,'saiigcli rpiirf ,ed
Thrc Ig iheav'n's wide ctkamFign helcil, s N-,' aV.
-Ne werider he Nvas received with fuch acclamations of;oy by the celeftiall powers, -vhCD there,%,v as But Our,
'Yes, of f-o man-8, myriads fall'n, but one
lteturn'd -riot loil. IB I D.
And afterwards, in a clofe contest with the archfiend,
A nolble flec'ke be lifted bigh,
On the proud. creft of Satan.
IB I D.
What Nvas the effice'L the vigilant
of this courage of
wid aCtive feraph?
The relief thrones, bi it vi rater rage to fee
Thus foiIi'd their mi, hfiA.
Abdicl h2d the superiority of Belial as much in the
-.,v irlike combat, as in the peaceffil counsels.
Nor was it augbt butjuft,
That he, who in debate of truth bad wop, Should win in arms-in both disputes alike
But notwitI.-flanding I have spoken with forrL a*ferityagainftfentinictit, as opposed principle, yet iiin convinced that true genuine fratiment 'not the
ON SENTIMENTAL CONNEXIONS. 43
fort I have been deferibing) may be fo connected with principle, as to beffo\v on it its brightest luf!re, and its molt captivating graces. And eathufiafm is fo far from being difagreeable, that a portion of it is perhaps indifpenably neceffarv in an engaging woman. But it muff be the enthufiafm of the heart, not of the fenfes. It muff be the enthufiafm which grows up with a feeling mind, and is cherilhedby a virtuous education-not that which is compounded of irregular paffions, and artificially refined by books ofunnatural fiAlion and improbable adventure. I will even go fo far as to alert, that a young woman cannot have any real greatnefs of foul, or true elevation of principle, if fhe has not a tin"ture of what the vulgar would call romance, but which perfons of a certain way of thinking willdifcern toproceedfromthoiefine feelings, and that charming fenfibility, without which, though a woman may be worthy, yet fhe can never be amiable.
But this dangerous merit cannot be too rigidly watched, as it is very apt to lead thofe who poifefs it into inconveniencies from which lefs intereffing charaders are happily exempt. Young women of flrong fenfibility may be carried by the very amiablenefs of this temper, into the moft alarming extremes. Their taltesare pallions. They love and hate with all their hearts, and fearcely fufferthemfelves to feela reafonable preference before it irengthens intoa violentattachment.
When an innocent girl, of this open, truffing, tender heart, happens to meet with one of her own fex and age, whofe addrels and manners are engaging, fie is inflantly feized with an ardent desire to commence a friendship with her. She feels the moftlively impatience at the refitraints of company, and the decorums of ceremony. She longs to be alone with her, longs to alffure h er of the warmth of her tendernefs, and generoufly afcribes to the fair ranger all the good qualities fthie feels in her own heart, or rather all thofe which fIe has met with, in her- reading, difperfed in a variety of heroines. She is perfuaded, that
44 SENT117.111ENTAL CONNEXIONS.
her new friend unit I es I them all in berfi:lf, because fhe carries -nIter COUMCnance the promise of
thein all. H(- crutl and how censorious vould this
ine- C, A
perjcnce 7 girltliink her rnothe r was', NN Ito should
venture to hint, that the agreeable unkno-vn had defe&s in I-.r ictriper, or ty.ceptions in hcr character
She fliould tnifl _.Lc hintscf ditcretion for the infinuat:ons o au uncljarkable Mpofition. At firit the v.,oi_-ld perhaps "i'Len to thhern xvith a generous nipatience, and aftervyarcis with a cold an'A silent disdain, ShA; Would 6'IiI)- the -,!-I as the elfc& of FTeju-l ice, inifrp.nce.
ccri"U're, tile more vChemeni-ly we.-aIll t proteff ia fect-t tl-iat her friendfli,'T for this diear inJured creare (wl-o is raiicd n3uc hi-her in her eflee-r. by i ach Piall hiow no bounds, as file is affure' it can "-Eow no end.
Yet ,11: A confide-n-ce, tl is henefl indiscretion,
is, at tiI"s Ca"Y pt ricd of as arniablc as it is natural ; and. Y, ffl7 if -vii'cAv cultivated, produce, at its proper feaL..' 1--ni mure valuable than all
Ule guarec clrculw' pc-ction of prcm iturc, and thereTore Nlen, lbellcve, are felclom
Itruck N th thefe fudlen prepofft.11ions in favor of each onier. T."cly are riot IZ)unfufpe&hg, nor fi) eaIlly IC(I
a aV by the predonn'flance of falc'Z. They cn--age
more w arity, and pais thro,,gh the' I-everal flag of acquaintance, intimacy, and confi ience, by Plover gradations; --itwoiiienifthevar ,-fometimes6,-ceived in the choice of a friend, enjoy even then an higher degree of fatisfadion, than if they never trufled. For to be always-clad in the burOenfome ar-nour offufpicion, is more painful and inconvenient, tl pn to nin the
hazard of fulileriug novv and then a transient injury.
But the above observations only extend to the young
and the inexper:enced ; for I arn very certain, that women are capable of asfaithful and as durable friend$hip as any oftho othcr fex. 'Ph-q can enter not only into all the cnthuIafFc tcudernefs, but into all Cie folid fid, of attac! xycnt. And if we casino L oppt) e
Os TRUE AND FALSE MEEKNESS. 45
inflances of equal weight with thofe of Nyfus and Eurva!-s, Thiefr-us and Liilo Pylades andl Oreftes, let it be remormcered, that it is becaufe the recorders oF thot c' charadC"i s were men, and that the very exiffence of them is merely potical.
On True and FaUfr Meeknefs.
A LOW voice and foftaddrefs are the common indications of a well bred woman, and fhonid freem to be the natural effe(Sts of a meek and qui.-t fpirit: but they are only the outw ard and visible ligns of it for they are no more mceknefs itself, than a red coat is courage, or a black one devotion.
Yct nothing is more common than to miftake the fign for tile thing itfrlf; nor is an,; praftice more freque-t, than that of' endeavoarinog to acquire the exteer~or mark, without once thiiing to I iour after the interior race. Surely this islbco-inivg at the wrongend, like attacking the fymtptom, and negie~ting the difr-afe. To regulate the fP atnres, while the !ool is in t umults, or to command tie vonice, while the paffloi-s are without reftr-aint, 's as idle as thlrow-ing odours ipto a f is-eam whebn the fouree is pooted
Tiicfiztie;if king, Nwho knew better than any msas the natinre and power of beauty, has afib red us, that the temnPer of the ind has a firong influence upon thq fcatures7: 11 Wifdotn malktth the face to thine," faYS tha exquifite judge : and furely no part of xvifdom i& more likely to produce this amiable efet, than a plid enitv of ibud.
it will net he di'jikult to diffingisiff the true from the artificial meeknefs. The formclr is universal and habitual; the iatrer, local and temporary. Every t'ounng female may keep this rule by her, to enable her to, form- a jufi judgment of her owvn temper : if Phe is not as ,entie to her chnarmbermai, as he is to her vifiter, f4e may reft fatifiled, that the fpi it of gcntlenefa is nut in hr
46, Ox TRUCE AND FALSE MEEKNZSS.
Who would not be ffhocked and difappointed to behold the well-bred young lady, fobft and engaging as
-the doves of Venus, difplaying a thoisfand graces and a ttra~tions to win the hearts of a large comipany-and the inflant they are gone, to fee hier look mad as the Pythian maid, and all the frightened graces driven from hcr farious countenance, oiyl bccalui her gowna
-was brought home a quarter of an hour later tban 1he ex"pefte or- her riband fent half a 11ade lighter or darker than fie ordlerod?
All mcri's c'haradlirs are faid to proceedA from their fervants ; and this is more particularly true of ladlies: for as their fituation are more domellic, they lie more Open to thle inifpediion of their families, to whom the'real chara6er s are easily and pefd nw o
they feldom think it worth while to praliife any d'fguife before tliofe, -whof'e good opinion they do not Va,ue, and lhj are obliged to 11ulbmit to their moll: inI apporrable humours, becauife they are paid for it.
Among womnen of br ending, the exterior of gentkezesis fo uniformly alismed, and the whole manner is ib perfectly level and uni, that it is next to rrno able fecr a firanc-er to know any thing of their true : otions ay caverfi:-g with them : and even the vcry icatures are fo cexalilly regulated, that phy flogncmy, w hic hmay fe-ctimes be trufied among the vulgar, is, 'I th the polite, a mofi lyingifrience.
A, very terrnaegant w oman, if ie happens allfo to be a very artfilooe, will be confciousfhe hasfo moth to conceal, that the dread of betraying her real tcmper, wxill make her put on an over-acted loftnelfs, which, from its very e 'cefs, may be diflinguiflied from the ontuc-alby a penetrating eye. That gentic-es is ever i a bl e to he fufpFe41 ed for the con nt erfe ite N;hlcsli xe,.uve as to deprive people'of the proper ule of fnrech, and moon e, or which, as H-imkt fa iiiake;s thlem lifj- and amble, and nick-name God's cre atures.
The conritenanee an,! manners ul sire verve faQ'ecn31iie perfons may he compared to the infcriptim on their nionuluents, which fpeak nothing but gooUd of
ON TRUE AND FALSE MEEKNESS 47
what is within; but he who knows any thing of the world, or of the human heart, will no more trufi to the countenance than he wiil depend on the epitaph.
Among the various artifices of factitious meeknefs, one of the moft frequent and molt plaufible, is that of affecting to be always equally ,delighted with all perfons and all charalers. The fociety of thefe languid beings is without confidence ; their friendship without attachment; and their love without affefion, or even preference. This infipid mode of condut may be e but I cannot think it has either tafte, ftie, or principle in it.
Thefe uniformly finiling'and approving ladies, who have neither the noble courage to reprehend vice, nor the generous warmth to bear their honest tefKimony in the caufe of virtue, conclude every one to be iii-natured w ho has any penetration, and look upon a ditlinguifhingjudgment as want oftendernefs. But they Ibould learn, that this dikernment does not always proceed from an uncharikabole temper, but from that long experience and thorough knowledge of the world, which lead thoife who have it, to ferutinize into the conduct and difbofition of men, before they trufa entirely to thofe fair appearances which fo'emetimes veii the molt insidious purposes.
We are perpetually miftaking the qualities and difpofitions of our own hearts. We elevate our failings into virtues, and qualify our vices into veakneffLes: and hence arife fo many falfe judgments refpelting mneeknefs. Self-ignorance is at the root of all this mifchief. Many ladies complain, that, for their part, their fpirit is bfo meek that they can bear nothing ; whereas, if they fpoke truth, they would fay, their fpirit is fo high and unbroken, that they can bear nothing. Strange to plead their meeknefs as a reason why they cannot endure tobe crofied, and to produce their Unpatience of contradikfion, as a proofof their gentleneft.
Meeknefs, like moft other virtues, has certain Iimits, which it nofooner exceeds, than it becomescri-
48 Ox TRUE AND FALSE
mmal. Serv;litvoffpiritisnotnen-,Ienc rs, butweaknels; and if al o-,ved, upder the'fpeclo-av appearai-Ices it tometinies puts on, will lead to the ii-oft dange---ous 'ComFlia,.ices. Yie Nvlio li-ears innoceiice maligned NN without vindicating it, faflebood afrerted %vicliout contradiOif,g it, or rcl;gion prophaned without rel"CiminAg it, is not gentle, but v, icked.
To give up the catife of an innocent in-urea friend, if the popular cry happens to be agaii-& him, is the moll: dilgraceful. Nveak.,iefis. This vyas the cafe ofmaearne de Mainteron. she loved the cha raCcer aLd admired the tahmts of Racine ; ffie cay(flc i hmi -% hile lie had no enemies, bin: Nvanted the greatnefs of mind, R him aganift
o rather the conamon justice, to prZte, their refentmeni, -,Nhen he had ; and favourite %vas abandoned to the Iii1picious jcalo,,-X), of'the king, when a prudent rkmonlirance might have prc1 ei-vccl him. But her -anieriefs, if not &I671ute connivance, in the great mz;fficre oftlic proteftants, in NNhofe church fhe had been bred, is a far more guilty i Jltance of her -vtaknel's; an irilance ,,vbich, in fpite of all her devotional zeal and incomparal blc pi-udence, -.villeli qualityherfrom fliiningin the ann als of good -,voinen, howev er flie inay be entitled iofirure among the great and thefortunate.
daunted and pious countryman a nd co rite rn porarv, Bougi, who, --,'-cn Louis would have prevailed on hiiii to renounce his'reli rion for a con-miffion or a government, roblv replied, "If I could be persuaded to betray my God foi- a marshal's ftaff, I might betray my kirg fb a br-, f much lei's conieeineice.
Meeknefs is imperfect if it bt rot both a&ive and paifwc-i F it -,v ill not unable us to 1ub due our ow n ftfflons and refentments, as, well as qualify us to bear patiently the pailliciis and r.efentmei-,ts of others.
'Refore VV L'g'VC -.N'ay to any -violcnt ernotion of anger, it wonid, Ferhaps, be worth iv'me to corifider th,_ value of tlc ebJeCt which excites it, Lod to refle,11 for a moment, whether the thing Nve lo ardently desire, o r fo vehemently r6l-nt, be really cf ", mu :Ii i;rpor zncc
Ox TJLJE AN~D FALSE TMEEKINESS. 49
to US, _as that dc! ightiuI tranquillity (Tfioul, which we renuCe In puriuit of it. If, onl a fair calculation, 'we fi-id we are not Lkeiy to get as mnuchas %%e are fore to loe, theni putri all religious confidcrations out of the quef ion, common fenf'e and human policy will tell us, wxe have made a foolifhi and unprofitable exchange. mu ard quiet is a part of one's fielf; the objct ut our refentment mas' be only a matter of Opimooin; and certainly, what ma~kes a portion of our actual l'apninelfs oughlt to be ton dlear to us, to he facrificuj for a trfling, foreign, perhaps inmgiaary giqd.
*lhe moft pointed fatire I remember to have rcad, on a mind eifllaved !_ anger, is an olife-vation of Seneca's : 1 Alexander,"' faid lie, "1 had two friendor, "1 Clitus and Lyi'usiaclis; the one h.e, expofstd to a K16onl, toe other to hinifels': he v.ho wvas turned loofe 41 to the bcalR efcaped ; but Clitus ins urdered 11 for hie was tur-n.ed loofe to an angry mail."
A pafionate worrian's isepiiefs is never in her own keep ngx it is the fplors of accident, and the flave of CVAts. It is in the power, of her acquaintance, her ilervaujrs, but chiefly of her enemies ; and all her comforts ie at the mercy of others. So far from being wilFng to learn of binm who )yas meek and lowly, ilhe conoii(Lss meeknlefs as the want of a becoming fpirlt, and lossliitefs as a defPicable and vulgar mecannesAnd an imperious woman will f Wittle covet the or~amnent of a meek and quiet fpirit, tisat it is ah-nol the onlyornameot ihe will nlot be felicitous to wear. But refentinactnt is a very e:.ipenfive vice. Flow clearly lsas it cofi its votaries, even from the fin of Cain, the Firft offender in this kind 11 It is cheaper (flays a picus writer) to forgive, an d fas e the charges."
If it were only for mere human reafons, it would turn to a better account to be patient : ns't'ing defeats the malice of an enemy like a spirit of fG rbearancee: thei return o! rage for rage cannot be fo eflaiyproyokiog. True gentlenels, like an inmpeA.:netxle ar snour, repels the molt pointed flsafts of mai'ce': they cannot pierce through this invulnerable fhicld, but ci-
ro Ox TRUE AND FALSE MEU7fNES,1S.
tiier f all hnrtlefs to the ground, or return, tot-oui-d
the hand that lhiot them.
11 A mreek fvirit will not look out of' itfelf for happiniefs, because it finds a coriftanit banquet at home :yet, by a fort of divine ale hvmy, it wi'l convert all exterral events to its own profit, anti he a ble to deduce fbme good, even from the moit unprornffing; it will ex-.
tract comfort andi fatisfa~tion fr'omi the inofi barre-n circuniftai-ces :"1 It will fuck honey out of the rock,
"and oil out of the flint rock."
rot thel'upremne ex cellence of this complace-nt qilty is, that it naturally dspofes the mind where it refides, to thle pr, Cice of every other hti mal.
BMeok'rlfs may be called the pineer of all the other virtues, which levels every obifru-Ftion, and liinooths every difficuit-, that might impede their entrance, or'
retard their pr Iogrefi.
Thc- peculiar importance and value of this amiable
-virtue may be further feen in its permanency. Honors and dignities are tranfient-beauty and richs frail and fogacious, to aproverb. Wouldn't th-e anly xvife, therefore, wi.ls to have fume one poffellion, which they might call their oxvn in the feveredt exigencies ,Butz this wiflh-can only be accompliffied by acquiring and maintaining that calmn and abifoiute feifTffin, which, as the world had no hand in giving,
lbo it cannot, by thIP molk malicious exertion of its
power, take away.
Tiouights, on the cultivation of thie heart and temper in the education of daughters.
IHAVE not the foolifi prefumption to imagine,
that I can cffer any thing ne w o-n a jubjeid 'which
has been fo fitccefsfn 11v treated 1,3 maiy learned and ablew~riters. I ,vonid only, with a lpofible deference, beg leave to hazard a few fiort remarks on that part o f the~fubje61t of education, which I would call the edacation oftte heart. I am well aware, that this part a]16i has not been lefs ikilfilly and forcibly difcuflkd than
ON ED U C ATION..
the reft, though I cannot, at the fame time, help remarking, that it does not appear to have been foi much adopted into common practice.
It appears then, that notwithflanding the great and real improvements, which have been made in the affair of fecmaie education, and notwithlanding the more enlarged and generous views of it, which prevailin the prefent day, there is !ill a very material defeat, which itis not, in general, enough the object of attention to remove. This dcee~t fems to confift in this, that too little regard is paid to the dipolition of the mind ; that the indications of the to .per are not properly chcrifhed: nor the affe&ions of the heart fiificiently regulated.
In the firif education of girls, as far as the cioms, which fashion efitablifhes, are right, they should undoubtedly be followed. Let the exterior be made a confiderable object of attention; but let it not be the principal, let it not be the oily one. Let the graces be induitrionfly cultivated ; but let them not he culivated at the expenfe of the virtues.-Let the arms, the head, the whole perfon be carefully polifned; but let not the heart be the only portion of the human anatomy, which hall be totally overlooked.
The negled of this cultivation T*eems to proceed as much from a bad tafte, as from a falfe prihcipal. The generality of people form their judgment of education by flight and fudden appearances, which is certainly a wrong way of determining. Mufic, dancing, and languages, gratify thoie who teach them, by perceptible and almost immediate effeds; and when there happens to be no imbecility in the pupil, nor deficiencyin the mafter, every fliperficial observer can, in fome meafure, judge of the progrefs. The effects of tioft of thefe accomplishments addrefs themfelves to the fenfes: alad there are more who can fee and hear, than there are, who can judge and refie&.ct.
Perfonal perfection is not only more obvious, it is alfo more rapid : and even in very accompilhed characters, elegance ufually precedes principle.
0 N, E D U C A T 10 N.
Flit tla a-t' that natural feat of evil propenfitics, that troidollefomme empire of the pai.)ous, is led
to wL -Is i 'q;fit bK flow ino-ions-and kinrcrceptible deurces. it inuft be admonAhcd 11,y rcpr-C"". 2_ Id a!lurcT b-; Im lJvcl*,-it aflvauiccs a7,c- irequeatly impeded by the obffinacy 'XprJ:;dice, ai.dis bri yhteft Prom.ks o,'ten obicu-cd bv the temp,-.qs of PAOD. It is flow ii its acquisition of",xdl tue, ai, d relu, taat in its approaches to p ety.
Thene is a T rLa"on, which proovcs this mortal
C1.11tivation to more 'nipertant, wA as i-nore difficu t' than any O'ller Part of' education. In the uftial fa.hto.-m'- le accoi-ii p1 if.hlrie!u s, t, i. by; di! cls of acquirm.,t lit ,, i *,a I i.j o al N,,-ay -, gcLti ur 'for %N, ards, a nd, oi e di Elf cultY i's' coiiqucred, be."ore another is folierci to Pow itj'elf; for a prudent teacher vvill level the road his pupil is to pal's, a id finooth the inequaliti; s -NN hich in;c.ht retard her pro, ,,refs.
But in morals, (W ich should be the great object cenflantiv kept Jn -,' c-x) the talk is ',it morecTifficult. 'Eie unruly aiid virbiJtnt dclircs of the heart arcuot foobedicnt; onepaCionwiliflartup, bef'orea-,,otheris fupprefled. Tl.c iubduirg Eercules can ot cut ofl the I)ca&s fo often as i4e proli c Hydra can prcdilru thcm, nor feil the ffobborn AntwuS, io fai'l as he can i ccruit Ys ftrenoth, and rife in viociurous and repeated oppo-'
If all the accompliflimcints could be at the
pr;ce oca fIVI'le 161-Lue, ilie purchaf woid(i be intinitely dear And, howe,,er startling it may iband, I tbink it is, ,otwithftandiing, true, that the la bours of a good Rrid Nv.'fc other, w ho is anxious for lier daughter's niofl inivio-ant iLt ,refts, will feem to be at variazcq
-,vith C of her inflru6lors. She will, 0oubtlefi, re:grc s ; a any polite art but flie will relo!cc at m, lIi7cm I
and -etv form tile
foll!"I an'd Jur 'A_' 1'a"is' oil Nvhich 91C W1 flics toraile tue
CZ "c accomPH-n-its ; while the accf n .Lr'Am-nej s ihi-r, reeves are _requently of fuch an zmlicady nature, that if the foui.idation ii nu f clired,
o E D U C T 1 0
ovk::1,)adcd a i, 11-ffti ) 14V t ho; c % cr 03'ii a Ill OnIt
which were il tc-dc- to embehil whatthcv 1 a -e Co,1t r, cl t o 1'1 :
T h c in c, .- of n fi'O 1 q n? 1: ic a t 0 n s "10111 1-0 c al c l IV r,2 Tu a cd, or tiv v \ i'll be iil e"1wcc 0'1
--I of v, r ,,c.;,
-,io-, f a ',1y- fulbfiff beidre tbe boM o o",)-va-:: :I, cr lbear tILL bold -,r to .-ruc of -nt :A
flatturv. A teii-der C n-DGt but f t I
an tr:-'r, b in CC! I !-,-I t t- e C
cies in hcr i v wh." It i.-p-plaull-', 1al -) at t;,e van' i vvl, ct I titn
Thc lt is .11s Intercift, 2-nd p r' laps his dntv.) '.NillnaLu- iv tcacl ac0FIto fi- Ile" i-I In iho 177-4 -),n of
i3 th ,,
Von -e to
fl],-, ccrt'itll z i Ll 'a 1 1'c"I" yet a 2s v, T 1F
\v:,-C l ve vv Oul I 's u !,,c co-- ;but t:rv a ;:7ii C ircctv n i cc
S;lc'i a t 0 1 f i 71v-- tal---S c1f
k-!- ";Luzrc, C ., ,:t -han irnagin- !, b v cc.,,:n -1 1f 1; -L Co '-ccl cn c;-nc utl;W-S,
111,i be I to cxcxA 'm the fl orn an,!. cral-nes
Elat c, 1 oil t. Merely co illalncntaA
-s 'J' 1,ut -i lv qualliv a N oI-n-'11 to o' 1ZO, tlicag", i is
propc, me 1, :s t1wTn, or:7cr to furn 11 be
is it ri it to n -1
'L) -re z! e bt
ric of Hvln- Aladv nlay a -1- Fr ;lch and
54 0 EDUCATION.
Italian, repeat a few paffages in a theatrical tone,
own drawings, and her pero covered vv it her own
tamIbour work, and may, notwitliflianding, have betul very badly educated. Yet I am far from ai-tLmptlig to depreciate the value of thefe qualifications : thcy are iysoft of them not only highly beccming, hut often in1lifPenfiblv necefiry'; and avypolte educa- ion cannot be ptirfe~iied without them. But as the world f'eenis to be very we ll- apprlfzd of their importance, there is the iefs occafioa to infift ealheir utihity. Yet, though %Yc11,-bred oung women fihould learn to dance, fiiig, recite, and draw, the end of a aood education is not, that the may become dancers, fiingers, players, or painters ; its real oojcfl is, to makc them gool'daughters, good -%ivs good mittreffes --cod members of fiocietv, and goo car ifltiarns. The above quali nations, tlicrefore, r' i xreided to adIr:, their leifur-e, not to e,-rpL.v, their lives ; for an amlable and wife woman
willniw s ax umthig beter to value herlfeif on,
than thcfC avrt- 's ANx h~co, hae captivating, arc 11'1 but isubordiuate parts of a truly excellent charafft;.
But I am afraid parents themifeives fomnetimies contribute to th.e error of which I am comflain'nz. Do
they t en IUa higher v-alue on th-ofe acqiufitions which are calculated to attraA obiervation, and cdtili
thle ev-e of)4 the inallitude, than on thofe wlich ire %
luable, permiapent, and internal ? Are they not fomnetimes more iblicitous about the opinion of others, respe~ting their children, than about the real advanitage and happiness of the children the-nfelves ? To ;an injud~cious and fuperficial eve, the heft educated girl may make the leaf brilliant figure, as fie -,l1 probably have lei's flippancy in her mnanner, and 1dbs repartee in her expreflion ; and her acruremnelts, to borrow biliop Sprat's idea, -,%,Il he rather en,,cleled th an emboffed. But her merit w ll be known and ac1 now ledged by all who come near enough to difeern, und have tafle enough, to diffing~dfli. It will be n-
0 x E D V C A T 1 0 IN
derflood and adr rc by the man w1iofe bappmcfs file ison ,davto- -,N hofe farnilv file is to crovern, aqd
-,v hofe cliile rl- is to e(lucate. le V not f eek for ber in the s of diflipation e knov, s lie fli all
not find L(,- El,--e ; but he will Rek for her in the bc foin of inthe pra&ice of every dorleflic
virtue, ill tl,, es ercife of every ainiable accon-pliflinient, exerted ill fte 114de, to enliven retirtment, to heighten the endearnip- pleal'ures of focial ;ntercourfc, .d to embellifli the Da row c rclc oF fainilv To this amiable purpose, a truly good and N% ell Lclucat. ed young lady will dedicate the ; iore elegant accompliffinlents, inflead of' exhibitino- them to attra,'L adluiration, or depress inferiorttv.
Youog Eirls, who have raorc vivacity than uoder landing, will often make a fprWitly figure in convcrf'ation. But this aorecabie talent for entertaining others, is frequently da ngerous to thenifelveq, nor is it bv ariv i-neans to be defied or encouraged very earlf in life. 'This inn-naturity of wi is llelped on by fri volous reading, which will procliuce its efFe6t ill 1---cl, lei s time, than books of folid inftruttion: for the imagifla tion is touched sooner than Ole underilaildhig; and
ore more rapid as they are more -,rernjCjCU3. Convcr ation should be the refiult 8f cOucation, not th p;-ecu.-!4,r of it. It is a gol-&n fruit, N-;hen suffered to grow gradually on the tree of knowledge ; but if precipita-,-cd by forced and unnatural means, itwill in the end econie vapid, in proportion as it is artifice al.
The bcft ell'ecis of a ca-ofid and religic,,;s education are often -verv rel-note: thev are to be ciificovered in future 11ceries, and exlib ted in untried connexions. Every event of liffe, will be puttin97 the heart into 11-Al fituitions, and makirg de-i-nands I on its prudence. its firmness, its integrity, or its pietv. Thofe, i-, hofe litifiliefs it is to fo ln It, can foreffet! none of thefe fjtt:, nations : yet, as far as buman -NvifUorn will allow, tl-le7 malt enaAe it to provide f,r thein all, with an humble eependcrice on the fflvine afliffince. A well-d;f cip'hned, folder inuftlearn and practice all I is evoln.
56 0 ,r L D 10 C A T 1 0 TNT.
t o-s, he Jccc not knom on Yvhat fervicen;.; lea(1_'r may cc.-_i!naa rl by v, !- :t icce 1 e :!1a1T 1,C -It-,
ed, (,Fcombat th, e:-! -v
-cco-iic -Oo am-'!C uzin av
I-, t c .% a !; t u" C, x r n.
tll :, "(-rct, sif cah4nl""" -' i 1-! 3:.;
17-'e ten--C, vN 'kile -,,I 11_,,:rb1u-,it ard Ci.
and 4 o r
f ro, it'i.47i' 7cil i!l
C v r
i i' the f r'T of, I'n CI C:-, 10
-h 11 Om' in-7_ A0 C an ""C""
T-L_ 'rt, ,' a
!I v or.h t! i FC I
C'n Jc"i- ed 1-'w l
rer :L '4
u C v I
Of i:-! l-'-) I) C' 1"": 7- I Ij .1_:c. -a r
C'ducatic'l' I 0 1_*;"n't_' vThan zil thz 'r p2 1, nt c'cr V.
s t rti e 1: t v a v,- r a r u e LI u n 1,_- r o c? a i's, L 4t t'il' C "r
to a-. Uffe 01 M Of [C'_'M I
h, re !'
rnu C ; bru C 1 ot,
t'.C n-'ec ")f 0.e Y- 0-'
::?1I it 's III,C3!
u fi,.aj Ly. call z oi' f_;-_vrc 'I
EA I'37 i "'C"CrOl"S' O'C
in t! 1; v-c' y in).'! -C'.10 mlLIC,
as 'o thcv %I "I'l k;-.O\N, Cc, im V,;"-,!
a pp. c a r aii c c o 1 4 U b 1 11- n I i
0 x ED U CA TIO0N.
Na!,.re', if ce'?Jfience, will be dear to fenfible hearts; they NvilJ carefullyv clieriih every Iuch indication in a vounr, female :for they xiiperecive, that it is this
temer.w ~l~ ultvatdwhich will one day make her r]of the lovelincis of virtue, and the
L(au- o"hlinel's ;from which fihe Nviii acquire a
tail ',r -ie Io:Lrincs of religion,, and a fpirit to perfornt ,-.cd cs oi' it. A id thofec, NNho Nx Ph to make her aai of this charminag temper, and feel to d';uo -c s 'icy of' 1, ;711, it is to be feared, give her nothinh bttcr in cyxchange. But lv hozover rziie~ts at ail, wvill eaii dfeeIrn how judicioufly its rednundancieF. are to he loppa-d awvay.
Prudenice is not natural to children ; they can,'however, fulafltne art 4 1 its ~I'ead. But is it not ninlch better, that a gvirl fhould difeover the faults incident to her age, than conceal them under this dark and impenetrabie veil? I could almoff venture e to affert, that tisere is Ibmrethissg more becoming in the very errors of nature, where they are undifg~iifed, than in the aflctation of virtue iflelf, where the reality is wanting. And I air fo far fyrm brinci an admirer ofprodigies,that I am extremely apt to 1iifp~ct themn; and am atwavs ;infiniteiv better pleal'ed -%vithrnature, Pn her mnore com.'soa modes of operation. '11t: precife and premsa ture wfo, xhich forme o'rls hav cun t cnoou( i to a-luine, is of a mere danpyeto2s ten~dency than any of thir natural faihlngs cap. b ; as it ecC enlly covers thofe ferret had difpofit'ons, Nvhich~, ii tlhey dipved thieifeives, m:tYht be ret a fed. The r poccly of aifurnincr xirt ties, xv ich are not inhercnt in the heart, prevents the growth and diiclofure of thoo'e real ones,
-which it i4 the great end of education to cultsxvate.
But if the natural indications of the temper are to be flippreffed anid flfled, xxN here are the d.'agnoflics, by which the fate of she m'nd is to he known ? Tlhe wife author of all things, who did nothing in vain, dosuhtlefs intended thcmi as 1ymptoms, by which toa judge of the difcafes ef ti-e Letrt ;and it is irs-
53- 0 -, E D U C A T 1 0 N.
T O iAa d fca t-; bc cur.-I L-fore, they are
"'-ec ln 1-c !") Cut fili"! 2, tct171'11-;ent orl") 1-um as to J.wf'at ce tn cbov, eve., rua-1.
av- -I;_ %'e
Th: of all fll.:- dil-cr--nt 1-ons
g1rls to c drcaIecl, is increj!"d by
ilo-,iiiiq fo M"In :a., bv car. If rhol about thnic-Kpreik vio"'--nl an -r at every trivial
offencL. it v, i lwai-., p-mmo--c tl' s tcm and wil I
-vc,v C- create -it, whc "C a i;at" ral
tcid,-2cv t o fr a 1, tranf-orts oi,
ra(-e, wMch lnailv bl-tra ol, evc-v fi c lit occacon, alnd 'tlie F, tle- th--,v rnake botveen venial errors
d lt--d c,;, r, cs, u auul a y di f.,,ofe a c 11 to conceal, wl-'It ro 'O -'3 not 110v ovcr care to fa--prcis.
-e' nger :- c i v. ill' not Cdults o" z
Ca_1 a:, i;1fb7-W-,!C '111 I'm a "'A
i-i a C-ate oCpcrp 'tual ail,,' 11 i' terr x, -'-e v,-- have artillce noun to conceal th,-:,-,
wilichi'a,-, knows are .vro Llg, or thole act"Onj I,' I'le I!re j-n' tO
xi l i"'c- "'e o n-.duh'
t I), j'- n t 7 c-,l
an, t v.
d X", 0 7 t, 'b-ut a vel-f
17 V, y
t' C 1! 1 0 t a C --
r Cl" o
a o i ib v, r' early ill l-'e,
a ccrta n degi-cc ed 11,-- natural CaHL c"
Clhara lrl' zuid Cie ir('r l t!
f"'C lild not evc:'
11'a, bold, 11 C- 1pirit,
si "o Tn-L,,cl a0lmi -1 in b.-)- not' v peus to L 11o-;r o", b- 1,
1-ut fupprf; d. CrIs 10u'Ll be tpul(,-,. to ,,ive uptl I ::r cc,- I: a ns I --C I i ot per I v OQ ;I
CV, 0 la
the 1 "o hot wt .1, that "L", L,;,!
1!7-cvtv ol I) a,
tle 1 ut t .,lr
;,c-, t"le greatortii-nuort-C-- to tk t 1't thc" 1, -)u(
a and, a
for is a ,u 'A lU W ll 11, M
i ') _- fa -o ala thl2v Coffle
to I i :_i t t t I1 Nvoz fol havtr rAftra ats, ;I
-or:i b e,
nt, are I' fa r f Lj-e tLe ;ndt le
,:-e t1le morc
r, efi. 1;at all t!ic ,cneCarl expe,_ C fron1 t__:S V d" f( atl 'I, IF I! Pi '1 zi :id i -cr caprice,
0 C lacatc, ou llt tc 'oe %(:" Cd a hb,]"dr of vc. T re"nary taLllt arc.
iL;(,l 0, i(;Cl, rV;r to 0 7 1, d L cen thc
e vvollld ll )t
I 1 2 t,'- !! an AlC
av_- nl tllo e P,)"Vcis i cli v now as v. alaf
C'xCrIl oil of
of m IV INC-,vtv -,.s !, ,d 1 to t!Il
of ll, S V, i r ard vrac:Cus
Surely, thcre is t-,l-_n'C i"Ct71 as Y11,21! a, ;
wc)-e flme, ill ch leircll 1-vc, tinn h t! at
not rrfl-C, fu-c-, C ; J
'WIS,_ ur au
A i 1h)::J
60, ON EDUCATION'admirable inc:terrient for endeavour nv o cam, the amiable, aad chriffian ar char'tv o "is far: Iicff extent, ;;1ftCR1i an over-aax o,.is care 'Or
rDore brift.art but Let., i ir rtant aca J!"he
de, -re of po-,Y,- r in excess the to -Cull
the delirc cl kia,,,vied Te in c,.cef; cauj e lnia-l to fa!l; but in char'ltv ;s no e- cc s, neither can incri nor
anLcls come into danEe! b it."
A girl who has docAttv, will felJorn be fonrid to
*ant underflai-ding ei-ough for all fle purposes of a social, a happy, and an 114eful life. A i d 'wheri vi-c bchold the tender hope offon an,-I an-xious 1,)-ve, b"alted b difappolatine;!t, the dcfe"i will ci.O Tei-.ke difcoverea to proceed frorn the neglc --,l or t',-e error of cu:rVption, as from the natural ternper ; and thole w ho laitient the evil, will foilaet!mes be found to have occafloned it.
It is as ir judicious for parents to fet out wi-.b too, fa guirc a depencetice on the merit of tl-,cir childr I c ii, as it is for them to be di-,'--oura td at every repvil C. When their wiflies are 6c at--d h; s or that part'cucular inflance where thev liadtreafuri.,! up folne dar L ng expectation, this is f' far Ifioin beilig a i-cal' n for rela7 p ag their attend' -z4, tbat it ought to be an addit- onafmotivefor redo"Uhlingit. Th Cfe, -,Vl)o 11ope to do a great deal, mutt not expe.,A to 0(-- cvcrv if they know un'the blln&
neis Of F rejud; cc, or the corrupt oii ct the human hear,, the y -N ill a ho know, t1l at that heart -v 1I a' W Ei 11 S rejilain, after the verv bett poffible education, full of infirmitv and imperfe&iori. Exrraor :,Iarv allowances, therefore, mult be m -dc --.'or che weaknel's of nature in this its wcakeft flat,-. Ai tc r much -s done, much
ill remain to do, and inucc, very mucil, %N I it, be left undone. For this regulation o'- thc paf oils and 24t'e lions cannot be the work of education alone, without the concurrence ofdivine grace operating Go the heart. Why tl.cn should p'-Irents r, .pine, if tht- 'r efi-orts are not always crownel'-.vitb immediate Riccds ? They Piould coLfider, that they are not educat-
ing clhz rAs jjejj ,jjar',
tures, -wi-aatt! how ca, fn-,I] till
a, ave co o n r
c:A-ii,121 d oo' 0, i
Ji-edt al* 2 %, I-Ftiaii be if!-uIj
i JI iiicr clt'lat
a3 a Co" 'U'jjj--'aLe ;LC1 7C Cf hu-mall 4*1.
T.1hat not I is i-v jj -7
's trr-, tl-at t ,Cn rcarc,-!-, a
t' icl, mn b ,- timed -4, f-'-*I 111) 1
n and t,
or unna UrLIIV an
op A] v 11 1. 2, n t a con-clya"'Icji: "at
tu r!) u 1 e p Z- i s %v cl,
ma.j b, lit to rcc nnt i h,- -n
i a AL c Ii
c C, V,
our \v L;
bt difcardi d, rnav c its ilame, L ut jLs o ,:_ -i v, wl'.
V--"Lled, -or COMk:n"ed to fra. i itfs C 1- M- Mkjrp (Kis
and afrehions, which feparate in various currents from the foul, will, if direfIed into their proper channels, after having fertilifed wherever they have flowed, return again to fell and enriqi the parent fource.
That the very paffions which appear the i-oft uocotitroulable and unpromifing may be jitended, i n the great fcheme of Providence, to anfwver fo-ne imp;ortant purpofe, i-, remarkably evidenced in the chara~ler and hiftory oi'ffaint Paul. A remak oii this fiabjest byan ingenious old Spauifl writer, which I will here tacthe liberty to tranflate, will better illnft rate my
"To convert the bittereft enemy into tl* moff zea" bus advocate, is the w..ork of God for the infirufti"1on of man. Pluitarch hias obferved, that th-eimedical "1feience would be brought to the utmoft perfection, "t when poifon should be converted into phyfir. Thus, "in the mortal dileafe of judaftm and idolaktrv, our "blefed Lord convd~terl the adder's venomn of Saul the "perfecutor, into that cement -shbeh made Paul the "the ehof-en vedihil. That manic ti.Vity, that refllf "ardor, that burning zeal for the law of his fathers, "that ardent thirff for the blood of chrifians, did the"Som~oi God find neceflfary in the man who was one "dav to become the defender of his fuflering people ." To win the pafflona, therefore, over to the caufe of virtue, anfwvers a much nobler end than their ex tin ionr woul,1d poflibly do, even if that could be edi7c 'Ld. But it is the ir nature never to obferve a neutraLAtY they are either rebels or auxiliaries :and an eucnlvf fulxlued is an ally obtained. If I may be albowved t change the ailution fo foon, I would 14y, that the paflions alfo ref'emrbie fires, NN hich are friendly and bcneficial when unde r proper dire,, tion ; but if fuifered to blaze without restraint, they car~y devaflition along with then, and, if totally exting-u7.1d, leave tie benighted nainl in a !La-e of cold and corn.ortleis inanity.
But in fpeal g of the ufefulne1 of the palons,as
lb Obras de Queveda, vida de San Pablo Apeffol.
0 -41. R E G 1 0
instruments of jjirtuej enTy and be
excepted : the'.1c, I am"perfuadeLf, mail CitYT ,o on
ffiil proo-rLflive nin(hie'F', or elie be CUT--ed beJO-C any good cai be expe tcd fromtlx Ycart wj,,jcli has becn inie SLed -%,Otli tLem. For I never will' U, icve that envy, thou.ghpafifed through all the anoral ftr ,,ixrs, can be ntfihed into a virti ous emulation, or
pro-,cd into.an agreeable turn for innocent inV ,t.oii. Almoll a!I the other palrions may be rnade to take an amiable hue : but tltei two muit either be totally L ,,t-'Irpited, or be alwav contented to prefervc t-C r orig-mal deformity, aiid to wear their ii black. 10
on t x Iniportance of Religion to tAe Femxle Chara(lej-.
V A-IOUS are the reasons why the greater part of
mainkind cannot apply theuifelves to arts or let,(rs. Particular studies are orily A ,Iitcd to the calacilc 01 particular perbns. Some are ircapalole of apFlvilg to them froin the delicacy of their I x ; fOMC fi7j:n uie ui,,-Lz-ad.'nefs of youth; aTid others froin the in,5ecHitv of.- ,e. Many are pI-CClUu'ed by the narrO -fS clucation, and many by thefiri4incfs
of ,Ii, f i-,, u-c. Tite w;fidorD of God is NN oi;dcrfutly im _cflt '.' in thIs happi and vvell OFdLred divcHILVI iiii-he,,oversandpro, -.-, _-,ofhiscri2alures; 11jiceby
-e. age t to the atFlioii, th. hcme of livir. it rs is carr cd on xi tle 11-joll a-recllj ai)u Ci ,, _1;, Cec,1101TIV, a-d LO cka_ iu is-! 't ior lie vva-,- O anobje& tufiiLt, cy a :Ilyfiilted to its -ature.
But ;Li the great and universal concerns of i%-Ii .7 OP,
-both fems, and all vanks, are T! e ruiv cati-ol:c fr xit of Clr',,._ nitv atcom-iio-, cs itfcIf, -.vitb an uILOi,1411;i1Ir to TLC cx,culn*Z111ces oftne vvlioic huma. 9 Mine
CO )IaA*oLvit of tYe'r p-cui..:at,, o,'an--, wthe-ir pc7 oual
f Mes, or the',r T.o fitlir Vf parLs is the Icaft rccowarcDdadon, "r is
*ec! iwl. None
al- T')o i'; "'e cycoiiA 6,013) ?, i I urmm- the ("atics
ni, Ir2 ,Co pc-'r to Lc cxcW cd
i-c tPe v'iI*c'-4cf'Gc'I' in hav:rl funliflto n
wo ah"21 to cu-'I r bme to t"O
'c u Las
M-1 c GI 'lich jthag
b"'t N% en or Can 1"Jcr u, fi.D:n cnn'-"-c' C:, 9.
he nu: e s are coy, Fnd o and
Ivoil k "01-1c LI-011V i-Lvo -C(I 4kxs. fc ":nccq
Lre Icitv. -'N di 1 F ot f to tj: '-cucli ccap;,:;-Li.:F. Ent
tr in,-cinsuietv sa is eafi v c n
44 0 'tl'cm thatlove fucli z"
lil r." Navii 1'qe i, 4b zi-j
tl'at prci-cn-Let'i t' -,in thzlt del i7c hcr,
it r 1-1 i, i'U-ft !,T!O, -1 UlltC Vv'-" L;-c tOM AI-le laicc -v, r ter, t1hat
flhc 1,11ca"11 cl- of God." D- \v
ran( eur nd luljl*m tv, lstll' s tke cr'(7m ol Cle of c Ilea! 11'2 !'1;,
d b y t C r e,
as 6"d Oe
ft1 2 ns Of tht. 11c; -ev voctri: v rca that N' 'n ,, I'S
41 the ul ttc (7 1-11 r) ;r th ; p3 o G o 6 L n JI t i, c
o- 7 -ce j' le(I
iD N, '- 2 r V
1Z Z'S 111" in.M""
O. R GION z 65
ledge pufet up, but vrity edt Pc-hps, it is the vanity of human wifilom, unchalifed by this correding principle, w hich has made fo many infidels. It may proceed from the arrogance of a ifelf fuflcient pride, that bome ph loiopers diidain to ackoowled e their beliefin aBeing, who havejudgedproper tococeal from them the infinite wi-llom of his couinfel ; who (to borrow the lofty language of the man of Uz) refufed to confult them when he laid the foundations of the earth, when he thut up the fea with doors, and made the clouds the garment thereof.
A man muff be an infidel either from prides predice, or bad education : lie cannot be one unax.a or by furprife; for infidelity is not occafioned hyvfiddcn impulfe or violent temptation. He may be hurried by fome vehement defire into an immoral action, at which he will blulh in his cooler moments, and which lihe will lament, as the fad effe& of a fpirit unfubdued by religion: but infidelity is a cal, confiderate al, which cannot plead the weaknefs-of the hlcart, or the feduion of the feafes. Even good men frequently fail in their duty through the infirmities of nature and the allurements of the world ; but the infidel errs on a plan, on a fettled and deliberate principle.
But though the minds of men are fometimes fatally infe&led with this difeafe, either through unhappy prepolfiflon or fome of the other causes above mentioned: yet I am unwilling to believe, that there is in nature fo monftroufly incongruous a being, as a female inidel. The leaft refleftion on the temper, the character, and the education of women, makesthe mind revolt with horror from an idea fo improbable and fo unnatural. May I be allowed to obferve, that, in general, the minds of girls feemn more aptly prepared, in their early youth, for the reception of ferious impreffions, than thofe of the other fex, and that their lefs expoi fituations, in more advanced life, qualify them better for the prefervation of them? The daught4 of good parents I mean) are often more carefully infIructedin
66 O R E LM' I 0 N.
their religions duties than the fons, and thisfroi a variety of causes. Their are not fo foon feet from under the parental eve into the bullie of the w orld, or foearly exposed to the contagion of bad example: their hearts are naturally more flexible, foft., and liable to an kind of impreflion the forming hand may flamp on them; and lafilly, as they do not receive the fane clafflical education with boys, their feeble minds are not oblied at once to receive and separate the precepts of chriftianity and the documents of pagan philolfphy.The neucefiAtyv of doing this perhaps somewhat weakens the ferious iinMpreffins ofyoung men, at leaft till the undcrflanding is formed, and confufes their ideas of piety, by mixing them with fo much heterogeneous matter. They only cafually read, or hear read, the fcripturesof truth, while they are obliged to learn by heart, conirue, and repeat the poetical fables of the lefs than human gods of the ancients. And as the excellent author of The internal evidence ofthe chrikianreJgicn observes ~ "Nothing has fo much contributed to Scorrupt the true fpirit of the chriftian inflitution, as That partiality which we contra&, in our earliest Seducation, for the manners of pagan antiquity."
Girls, therefore, who do nct contract this early part ality, ought to have a clearer notion of their religi(ius duties they are not obliged, at an age whbn the judgment is fo weak, to dliinguifh between the doctrines ofZeno, of Epicurus, and of Chrift ; and to emharrafs their minds with the various morals which were taught in the pcrch, in the academy, and on the
It is presumed, that thefe remarks cannot coffibly be "o mifunderflood, as to be confirued into the leaft difrefpe to literature, or a want of the hig-heft reverence for a learned education, the bafts of all elegant w ledge : they are only intended, with all propde t reece, to point out to young women, that, however erior their advantages of acquiring a knowledge ofthe belles-lettres are to thofe of the othcrfex; yet it depends on themfelves not tobe fur-
ON RELIGION 67
paffed in this moft important of all ftudies, for which their abilities are equal, and their opportunities, perhaps, greater.
But the mere exemption from infidelity is fo finall a part of the religious character, that I hope no one will attempt to claim any merit from this negati e fort of goodnefs, or value herfelf merely for not be. ing the very worfc thing thepoffibly can be. Let no mistaken girl fancy i he gives a proof of her wit by her want of piety, or that a contempt of things ferious and facred will exalt her underfianding, er raife hercharadter, even in the opinion of the moft avowed male infidels. For one may venture to affirm, that with all their profligate ideas both of women and of religion, neither Bolingbroke, WVactou, Buckingham, nor even lord ChefiejfiId himfkJ would have esteemed a woman the more for her being irreligious.
With whatever ridicule a polite free-thinker may aFeq to treat religion himfelf, he ;will think it neceffarv his wife should entertain different notion's of it. Hie may pretend to defpife it as a matter of opinion depending on creeds and fyftems; but, if he is a man of fenfe, he will know the value of it, as a governing principle, which is to influence her condua and direal her actions. If he fees her unaffe&edly sincere in the pralice of her religious duties, it will be a fecret pledge to him, that fne will be equally exaLt in fulfilling the conjugal; for he can have no reafonable dependence on her attachment to him, if he has no opinion of her fidelity to GoD ; for fihe who saegleas firft duties, gives but an indifferent proof of ber difpofition to fill up inferior ones; and how can a man of any underflanding (whatever his own religious profeflfions may be) truft that woan, zh the care of his family, and the education of i,* ren, who wantsherfelf the beft incentive ts L the belief, that the is an accountable cr and refieion that the has an. immortal foul 1
62 ON rE LI G ION.
Cicero fpoke it as the higheft commendation of Cato'scharacter, that he embraced philsplivh, rot for the fake o- difttng like a ph1l. n~The.btofIlo like o,,e. The chief purpofe of chriffian knoowledge is to promote the great end of a chriflian life. Every rational woman Ifbould, no doubt, be able to give a reafon of the hope that is in her ; but this knowledge is hell acquired, and the duties coufeqoent on it bell performed, hy reading books of plain piety and pra (UtIa devotion, and nor by en-te ring into the endlcfs feuds, zndecngaging in thle unprofitable contentious, of Farval con troverfialifls. Nothin- Is irore ularmabie tanthe narrow 1ipirit o" party zeal, nor more dil~ufiin than to hear a woman deal ou- judgnicocs, and lelnonuice vqngyeanre aga: nll any one, NX ho happe's, to difl1er from her in fonie opinion, perhaps of no real importance, and which, it is probable, flie may be juft as wrong in njtc~ling, as the o':Jce" of h-er cln, re ;s in embracing. A furious an! ti me-ciful fcirmale bigot, wanders as far bevondl the I i-n t prelfc'ibed to her Ibx, as a Thalettris or a loan d "Arc. Violent debate has made as few converts as she lxx ord, and both t! cfe inftruments are particularly u.9becoming, when wi elded I )v a female band.
Btst though no one will be ft o-h~ened out of their oPinions, yet they may be perfliaded out of then; they may be touched by the e~b
0 -; -XF L I G I ON. e,
&Feats the effect of her remedy, byherun klilful minner o- a4arinifferiarrit. If, oil the other haul, flic 4?
aii" 'Astodc-end the infulted cauf'e of G3d, inafaint tone oC voice, and fludied ambiguity of phrase, or with an air of levity, and a certain expref-flon of picaffire inhereyes which proves flie isfecretly delighted wit4 what file pletendsto cenfure,,flie injures religion much more nan he did, who, pu'Dliclv profaned it ; for ffic plainly indicates, that flie either don not believe or does not rcfpe4, what flic prof ,,-Tes. Tfle'other a tacked.it Aan opLa foe : Aie betravs it as a falfc friend. N,:) we pays any r", arl to the opinion o? an avowo1 enemy b"11 the def rtion or trzachtry of a profeif; d friend, is ddxyerous indeed
It is a ftran'ic option, which prevails in the worli, that rehgiua anly belongs to the old antl the niclancholy, and that it is not worth while to pay the leaftattcn-lon to it, while we are cap3b!e of atte.11di-IfT 'to a.i., thim4elfe. Thev allow it to be proper enough for the clergy wbofi buCi ici s.it is, and for the arrcd,
i 'or any bulhiefi at all. 13Z
who liave jot P rits till
viev caaprove, thatnone cxccpt tne cleraw and a-r-d die, it indit be cotifeffied.thatthis is moll wretc-.cl reaIbining.
Gr --at il jury is donc to the intcreJ3 of reli-, ion, by
I I V I I
placing :t in- a. glooniy and uuia-;n able I, ht. It is f ) ino"Inc3 PAea of, as if.it would a _Lually make a handfoine woman u,-fl,,, or a yo-nn oqp -wrAilded. Bat can any Ciin b, d
ablur than to represent thelocaLitv
There arc few, perhaps, j'o entire' y p1miged ia bufillefs, or abforbed in as not to intend, at
forne future time, to fe- abo"!t a delicious life in -ood earneff. Pint then they confider it a3,a kind of d.rnidr prudent to d--Fer flOa7 to this &f'r i art, and thin]-, it I
grecable re uge, till they have no Iiih left for any thip elic. D,3 the-, forg, t, that to.-i--rFornith.,i _(,r itb-urm--f-, we II rcoii r 3 al! Cic 41;- oft It vo-1-11" a ", ZdLtfi c vlgouyoftlhciru,- iri C 'f(G Z
0 -N GEN IU S, &c.
confirm this afferfion, they may obferve how much the flightefi indilpolition, even in the moft alive feaion of life, diflbrders every faculty, and difo~ualifies them for attendinjZ to the mrolt ordinary affai s ; and then let them roeflL, ho-w little able they will be to traMfact the moff important of all buflnefs, in the moment 'of excruciating pain, or in the day of unliverfal debility.
When the fenfes are palled with exceffive gratification-when the eye is tired with Iceilg. and the ear
-with hearing-when the i-Pirits are to fnk, that the
apprehenfion be apableof underflan~nga nexvfeiene, oratslsworn-oubeche a be adletov lfhal te lauted
Toptoff religion till Nye have loft all tafte for amufrrnent-to refufe liflening to the Voice Of the charmerr" till our enfeebled organs can no longer liflen to the voice of "1 finging men and finging wo"Men,"-Znd not to devote our days to ieaven, till
-we have 11 no pleafure in them" ourfelves, is but an ungracious offering. And it is a wretched facrifiee to the God of heaven, to prefent him with the remnants 'of decayed apperitcs, and the leavings. ofi extinguifhcd uaffions,
.Mizifce!1anezss1 Cirvations on Genius, Tafte, good S 17e 4&C.
GN OOD fenji' is as different fromgnizs, as percepStion is from invention ; y et, though diflinci qualities, they frequently fibbfift together.. It is altogether oppouiite to wit, hut by no means inconfiflent wichSThie avither begs leave to offer ain apology fcr introduciisr this e" 'Thy, vwkich,jhe fears, may be thought fird n to Z,1rjnrcf Bust fi hapes that her earne! dtyii of' exciting a isifie fir literature in young ladies, (-which encourged 'ier to hazard the ft lin7g remark).Vill I-ot o i-~TUTher general deftgn) even if it does not acilaly
O0N GENIUS, &c., 7"1
it. It is -not fciencc for there is fuch a thiig as unlettered good fenIe ; yet, though it is neither w~it, learning, nor- genis, it is a fisbAitute for ach, NNhere they do not exift, and the -perfeeaion of all, where thcy do.
Good fenlfe is fo far from deferving the appellation of co.cine, by which it is frequently called, that it is perhaps one of the rarclt qualities of the human Mind. If, indeed. tilis name is genit in j7cf'CL to its peculiar ftsitablenefs to the rpols ofilommon life, there is great propriety in it. Good fenfre anFears to dfiet fromi talke in this, that tafc is an inflantageons decision of the mind, a fu den relifh of -sh at is beautiful, or dilgin at N-h at is defctive, in an ohJed, -,ithout waiting for the flower confirm-iation ofthe judteet. Good Ieni'e is perhaps, that confirm-ation, which eftabliffhes a fliddenly conceived idea, or feeling hr the po-s ers of comparing and refledling. Thlev diftlbr alfo in this, that tallk feenas to have a more immediate reference to arts, to -literature, and to alniceft every objei of thle fenfes ; swshileood fenfe riles to
morl ceceleae~.and exerts its- nfuence On 1hfe and manners. Tafte is fitted to the perception and enJo 'men, whatever is heautiful in art or nature: good, Icic, to the imnprovemient of the condua, aild the ra-, goiation of the heart.
Yet the term, good fenfe, i- ufed indi~crimninate!y to exprel's either a finillhed talkc fol- Iczter's, or an invariable pruidence in the affairs of lif4e. It is fometimies applied to the -noll moderate abilities, in which. cafe the expreflion is certainly too strong; and *at others to the moft Lfhining, NvwheW it is as much too. weak and inadequate. A feifible man is the ufnil, but appropri .:eQd praife, far every degree in, the fcahi of underfianding, from the fober mnortal,- who obtains it by his decent demreanor and folid doinefs, to him
-whofe talents qitlify him to rank, with a Bacon,.H-ari-is, or a Johnibn.
Genius is the power of invention and imnitationU~isaunincommtwjicable faculty: no art<)r Ikill ofti;e
7x 0ON GEN TU S, &c.,
po!f'efror can befovw the finallefl portion of it on andthe'r: no pairs or labour can reach the ilummit of perft&icn, w~Iere the feeds of it are wanting in the mund: yet it is capable of infinite itnrov ement where it actuallv exi fts, and is attended with the Itioheft capacity
Ofcommunicating- iniflrudion as well as deVght to others.
It is thle peculiar property of genius to firike out great or beautiful things : it h the felicity of good fenfe nt to do abfnrd ones. Genius break s out in fple.idid fentiments and elevated ideas :4 good feie confines its mo-,e circutn~eribed, but perhaps more ufeful walk, within the limits of prudence andpo prsety.
The poet's eve in a-fine frenzy rolling,
Doth glance froma heav'ni to earth, from earth to
And, as imagination bodies forth
The fo.rm3 of things unknown, the poet's pen.
Turns then hape, and gives to airj nothing
A local ltabrtston an.1 a name.
Th-1s is, perhaps, the fineff p-i11-rc of human genius that ever was drawn by a huma, ecl Itreos a lively image of a creative imagination, or a Power of inventin things which itave no a-lual exiftence.
With Iherli udges, who, it mufi be coti-,. ruake up the greater part of the mafs of mankind, taleats are only, liked or undoritlod-to a certain degree. Loifty ideas are above the reach of ordinary apurehenfions: the vulrar allow thofc. who poff temr to he in a fomewbat higher fflate o-f mind thann themnfclves ;.
-but of -.he Naft,.Yulph which feparates thcm they have not the leafi concept ion. They 7ack-nowledge a. fuferi-ority; but of its extent they neither knowv te value, nor can they-conreive t he reaLity. It is true, the mind,as well as the eve-, can talce in bir larger than itfelf; but this is only7 true of great ininds : for a man of law capacity, hocorfidcrs a confemiate ees
0 0 E N' I U S, C. 73
rcfern!Aeg one, v ho facing a column for the firft time, ana at too lyreLt a wllance to take '. the
I it, concludi s it to be flat ; or like one llol";Cquainted wth the firft Principles o" philosophy, NN-ho, I I
fiidin-Y tho I nflble horizon appear a plane surface, can form no idea of tile fP. erical form ofthe whole, wl,;Ci he d,-;es nor. fee, and laughs at the account of antipo-Irs, which he caimot comprehend.
Whatever is excellent is alfo rare; wh it is ufeFiil is more colpmon. How many thoufallds 'are born qualify ed for the course C111p, OVI 1,1011's of life, ior one
-,yho is capable of excelling in the ne arts; yct i0it olioIlt to be ; becau!" our natural %vants are morc nume&us, and more im; emanate, than the inlcll, ClnalNNTlicnevc-r it happ-ns that a mail of diftinjau'Jltfd talents has been drawn by miAalke, or pinecil3itated by paffiion, into all), daiigerous indiscretion ; it is common for thofe, whofe coldnefs of tel-n-ocr has flipplied tile place, and ufurped t1he name of prudence, to of their own fleadier virtue, and triumphing thtir -wn superior caution ; 'only becarife they'liave rjcver bz!en afl't dc i by a t em station ei% iigh to fu b C Ill. intocri-or. And -NNlth -,,O)at ,vifible aoproorf ,t:,) (;,i the ch:ira&er td themselves, do they co,Alaritly conclude, with a cordial compliment to"romm'71ftnte They point out the beauty and ufcfulnefs of this qualty fo forcibly and explicirly, -hat you cannot poffilly
-wv -%- it 1,
rniftake whofe piaurc I .1 arc drawiriv fo P at I tearing a pencil. The un arpy man, -, Tlefe coiduc has been fo feelinfly arna,(-nerl) -e,- acted from gqod, thougli mUlahen, niotives-alt leafli, from motives of wb;ch 1"is ceniurer has no-, capacity to 31--! C; but the event v, as Lmf _voraljle, nay the a& o-n in;c-ht be really wrong, and tbe val :ar malicioufly ta] e the opportunity of this single inellf zretion, to I Ift themIfelv,, nearer on a level with a chara ter, vylliih, ex_ i this inaancc, has alwa4,,s thrown thern at the ino. c if9raceful and mortifvim3 difla ace.
The elegant biographer of Collins, in his affe&ing 11
apology for that unfortunate genius, Femarks, that
74 ON GENIUS, &c.
Sthe gifts of imagination bring the heavieff talk on the vigilance of reafon ; and to bear thofe faculties with unerring re titude or invariable propriety, Requires a degree of firmnefs, and of cool attention, which does not always attend the higher gifts of the mind : vet difficult as nature hlerflffeems to have a rendered the taLk of regularity to genius, it is the fupreme conlfolation of dulnefs, and of folly, to pai; with Gothic triumph to thofe excef fes which are the overflowing of faculties they never en" joyed."
What the greater part of the world mean by common fenfe, will be generally found, on a ciofer enquiry, to be art, fraud, or felfifhnefs; that fort of fhving prudence which makes men extremely attentive to their own fafety, or proft-diligent in the perfuit of their own pleafures or interefts-and perfefly at their eafe as to what becomes of the reft of mankind. Furious, where their own property is concerned, phicfophers when nothing but the good of others is at flake, and pcrfeRtly refigned under all calamities but their own.
When we feefo many accomplifhed wits of the prefent age, as remarkable for the decorum of their lives, as for the brilliancy of their writings, we may believe, that next to principle, it is owing to their god fenfe, which regulates and chaftifes their imaginations. The vaft conceptions which enable a true genius to afcend the fablimeft heights, may be fo conne&ed with the ftronrer paflions, as to give it a natural tendency to fly offfrom the firaight line ofregularity; till good fenife, ading on the fancy, makes it gravitate powerfully towards that virtue whk h is its proper centre.
Add to this, when it is considered with what imperfedtion the divine wifdom has thought fit to fdamp every thing human, it will be found, that excellence and infirmity are lo infeparably wound up in each other, that a man derives the forenefs of temper, and irritability of nerve, which makes him uneafy to others, and unhappy in himfl, from thofe exquifite
O GENIUS, &c, 7S
feelings, and that elevated pitch ofthought, by which, as the apoflile exprefies it on a more ferious occaiion, he is, as it were, out of the body.
It is not afltonifning, therefore, when the ffirit is carried away by the magnificence of itsown ideas,
Not tovch'd, but rapt-not weaken'd, but infpir'd,
that the frail body, which is the natural viCtim of pain, difeafe, 2nd death, should not always be able to follow the mind in its afpiring flights, but should be as imperfedt as if it belonged only to an ordinary foul.
Besides, might not providence intend to humble human pride, by preventing to our eyes fo mortifying aview of the weaknefs and infirmity of even his belt work? Perhaps man, whoisalready but a little lower than the angles, might, like the,revolted fpirits, totally have shaken off obedience and fibmifion to his Creator, had not God wifely tempered human exeellence with a certain confcionhfefs of its own imperfedtion. But though this inevitable-alloy of weakniefs may frequently be found in the beft charaters, yet how can that be the force of triumph and exaltation to any, which, if properly weighed, mull: be the deepeft motive of humiliation to all! A good-natured man will be fo- far from rejoicing, that hie will be fecrefty troubled, whenever he reads that the greate4f Roman moralift was tained with avarice, and tha greatest 3ritifh philofopher with venality.
It is remarked by Pope, in his effaiy on criticifm, that,
Ten censure wrong, for one that writes amifs.
But I apprehend it does not therefore follow, that to judge is more difficult than to write. If this were the cafe, the critic would be fuperlor to the poet, whereas it ap-pears to be directly the contrary. ,1 The critics, S(fays the great champion of Shakefpeare) but fa-
i6 0N GENIUS, &r.
lions the, body of a work; the poet mull add the T ~ ~ X bil hic'1 .ie &orce and dirc-tion to its aclions
aud 'iciures." It ihould icen, that the, real'on
'~ nan min~ore .4ige txro rwn write ill, is beeau le thie nnnmb-r of rcaders is be-ond all proportion.
-t-a than the i-ornxhr of writers. Every man that
r 'is is, in foe mcalnre, a critic, and,wther
common abilities, may point out real faults and material errors in a very well xx ritten book : but it by no rnvans follows, that he isable to write any thing cornp~l able to the work wh ics h e is caalfconluring.
And violcl' the ona;bers of thofc wxho wx rite and of thole xx ho sedge xwere mnore equal, the calculation feems not
to be quite fair.
A capaci ty for relifhing works of genius is the indubitablc figo of a good taffe. But if a proper ditFpofition ani abillty to enjoy the ,oipftin of others, entitle a mian t o the claim of reputation, itis ffill a far inferior degree of merit to his who can invent and produto thoifecompoliticins, the bare dilbuifition of which
givcs the critic no final1 Ibare of fairDe.
The prefj dent of the rox, al academy, in his admirable difcourle on imsit'ation, has let the folly of depending on unaflifled genius, in the ek. redltr L1,t; and
1Khas qioxvn the neceflit y of addiL the knowlcdg, of others, to our own Dative powers, in his uifu;,l trailing and mnatd esly mariner. 11 The mind," lays he, 11a har"' ceo foil-is a foil fobon exhauiied, and will -.voduce 4" no crop, or C'nly one, unlels ii. be continnaiy fer"tilized, and enriched N-v ith foreign matter.".
Yet it has been oijc. ed, that fluy is a great enemy
to origi-ralitxr ; but cvC2aif this we re t-ne itwould 11; per-haps hr as well that author Viondf cive us the ideas
of flill Letter wti-ters, naiwed and affimilated wxithi the mna t cin in his own mi:. A, as thofe crude and uncligefted thoughts, wh lich lie vaiswis unler the notion that
0 thecy are original. The fweetefl honey neither taftes
of' t!h-e r'fe, the honev-fuckc, nor thecarnation; yet
i's coinpundec' of the very ciFence of thcens all.
O-N GENIUS, &r. 77
If, in rl'ec other fine arts, this accumulation of krowledge Is ncclfary, it is indifpenfably fo in pcrv. It is a '.atal railnei's for any one to ti-L1 too much to his ovwn flock of idcas, fie rauff invigrorate themi bv yL ereule, po i them by conversation, and incieai'e them'1 by eveCry fpec' s of elegant and virtuous ihno-w lic, and the inihd %vill niot fail to reproduce, %Nith inserel', tnhofc e s, which are I'owr in it bv fludy andi. obieio'ation. Above all, let every oic guard agailoff the dangerous opmnion, that he knows enough: an opinnioll that williweakcn the energy and reduc-e the powVers of the mind, w, hicls, though once perhaps vigorous3 and cf'ttiai, -willI be funk to a flate of literary imbccility, by cherifbing vai and prefumptuuss ideas ol his o wn independence.
For inftance, it mnay not be neceflry that a poet Should be deeply killed in the Linoean fyfvirm; but it mull be allowed, that a general acquaintance with plants and flowers wilifurnilb himi with a del'ghitful and profitable fpecies of infiruflion. He is ncot obliged totrae nature in all her nice and varied operations, with the minute accuracy of a Boyle, or the laborious iniveftigation of a Newton ; but his godfi'nft will point out-' to him, that no inconfiderabie portion of philofophical knowledge is requiffite to the completion of h,,s 1i.*terary character. Theicces are more independent, and require little oriho affliftance from the gra ces of oetry but poetry, if fie would charm and inftru~i, muft not he fo haughty ; fhe muft he contented to borrow of the ifcieccs, many of her choicef! ailurons, and many of her mrofft graceful embelliihments ; and does it not rnagafy the chara6fter oi tru:,e poefy, that flie includes within herfif all the feattered graces oc every feparate: art?
The rules of the great maflers in criticim may not be fo receliary to the forming a good tafie, as the examinati!on of thofe origin-al mines from whence, they drew their treafires of know ledge.
T'he three cclebrated effays on tile art of poetry do
; R ON, GENIUS, &f.
rot tczc,,fo rnuchby their I avrs as bv theirexatriples; the dead later of tiicir rules is lefs irilruclive than the fb:rit ofheir verfe. Yet ti c"C i ules are to
a vcur:, -.;cc.t -,N t the fludv of log -a itlins is to a tliey'eo mot ib much coutriLi-,tc to form. his jud,-iner t, as zi crd hiul the fatisfacJ! tion cfcoivi,;cir h:in that Leis riolit. Thcv do not
prccluele t be eHFUlt,,- of the opei-ation ; but at tl e conclnflo.iof it, furnifli Linn vvitill. a fuilcr demonfiration
that he s 1 rccc celcd oil F-i -cr 1, Hlcl
-op -r' '-les. -When lie ha s Nv C u, d d -h C m a"i C rs i 1i -w 1, o' "Chools the fifft
c-;t zs 1-u-ned th,,inf'clvcs- aud 'uc:cs lie I
I a I las 'U- UGht
a ftai-k ofmeir flart-ic, it mnav be a (-ocd l-nct;ifjd
to try hi- ; ctv,,n co,-Tofitioms by the te-q I the critic ruics, fo far, inrick I, as the niccliatlii'm ef poetry
gces. Ii tile be fair and cat-did, thistri
al, like the touch ofIthLriel's 1pear, M'M detect every latent error, and bring to light every favorite 'AGood tafte always fnits the mcz dirliraafurecifits
tion to the merit C"I tile -compditic.-P. it examines. It accommodates its Fraif s, or its cerifure, to the excel1clice ofa 'work, and appropriates it to tile nature or it. General applause, or indiftrim- rate abufe, is the f1f,,ii of a vulj ar undt-1-flanding. There are certain btemiffies -wh- ch t1he Judicious and good natured readcr will candidl), over' cok. Eut the f-; 'e fulilime, the turnour v. h,"ch is intcrided for grcatr.eis, the diflortcd figure, the plwrile conceit, aud the incon-ruous inetaphor, thefe are deietSis for will carccly any other Lind ofmcrit call a' on--. And Vet there may be more
Lone of a V-"r'ter 'C
fpccially if lie be a youug or.c) w ho is now arcl tbell VuJty of fonne of thete faults, than of oDe who a %-ei(ls them all, not through judcrment, but fc(bler ef-s, and who, inficad of d,;vjating into error, is collthluallv i'allina Phort of exccllcnc The mere alifelice oferror iniphes that moderate and inferior deV gree ofi-nerit, wiLli which a cold heart land a phlegix,atic tafte -will be better lhtisfied, than with the inagr;ific -,iit,;-re, 'alariesofexaltedfpirits. Itftretcheg
0ON GE-NIUS 79
fdt,na mnls to an uoneaPfr extenflan, to bo ohlIged to atteo-i tocom;0sonsio1 fuperlatvr eiy, e~elient ;an Il t contracts iiimral fouls to a paia~ul uarrowuefs to de-ftond to books of inferior merit. A work of capital V enius, to a man of an ordinary mind, is the bned of mrocroftes to one of a fiort flature ; tile mal is too littie0 to fill tsp the, fpace a-iigned to htim, and under(Onea the torture in attempting it: and a miod~ ate or low production, to a manl of bright talents, is theosnh ment inifik~ted by Mezeatius -the ivin )r fp'r't has too much animation to endure patiently t,) be in con-act with a dead bo dy.
Tafle feems to be a fentiment of the fty', ,sIe'h )tsves the bias to opinion ; for xe feet bhefo, e w'ie reflea,. Without this lesiment, adl knw-.7 Sm
ing, and opinion, would be cold, iniert niateriais
-%;hereas they become- adive p'oneples, when ffurred, kinodled, and inflamed by this am rating quality.
There is another tFeeling, which is --a!tted enhufliaifmi. The enthafiafrn oftifi~l ica*rts is fo fILrougo, that it not only yields to the imnpeioe with Whichs firksog- olbjezts aIR on it; hut Rich. hearts help on the ef-. fe~l by their owvn feufilbillty TT- a fiene where S'nakefpecare and Hodgkinio'si give~ ptrfieitL to each other, the feeling heart does noir merely: accede to the delirium they occafion: it does nore ; st is enamoured of ik ; it fitlicits3 the del-ufiolln it fiksa to be deeslyved, and grudgingly cherifhe s t'he facred treafure of its feelings. The poet and performer concur in carrying Us
Beyond this vifible diurnal fphere.
They bear uts aloft in their airy courfe, with unrcfifted rapidity, if they mieet riot with any obflru6ftion froum the coldnels of our own feelio~s. Perhaps only a fe-m fine fiolrits can enter into theidetail of their writing and aftin : but the multitude do not enjoy lefs acutely, hecaule they are not able ph.ilofopicallyV to analyfe tkie fources of their joy or forrow. If the others havoc
0 N GENIUS, 64,
at leaft the privilege of fccling- a-;Hl it is not from complahalice to a few leading judges, that they burfl into peals of laughter, o lnelt into delightful agony ; the:r hearts d'_
ide, and that is a decAtion from which there lies vo appe, It muq, however, be confined, that the Picer I'-parations of character, and the fighter and a!inoff imperceptPole fades w hicli folnetinies difhn;Tu:!il tnein, Y-.ill not he intimately reliffied, unlcft flicce be a conlonancv of tafte as well a-, feeling in the I'peilators ; though, --here the paflIWIS ai'e Principally Concernei]. th, pro"jnc vul,7ar colne in f"-.r a llarg r port;(,n ofAic universal delight, than critics and co-nmoiffer,-s a e willing to Jlow them.
Yet enthuhiini, thougin the naviral concomitant of gc n ;is, is no inaie ge-niiis iti"el -Iiai-i ciru lkennels is clicerfuh-efs: ant', thatenthullal'i-n,
',_Ifon occafllcins not to c. :cite it, is -'hc mazi-k
efa wretchecij- judgment ai:d a tai'c.
Nature produces inn-am---ra ,le cA1JcJ';: to ;m tatc in nis the province ofgcnius to dii-Jr tlioie Hnitations, s the property ot judL mLr- ; t3 Itci k on t 1! C' r eift'e S1 S I s rile '0114111e.-S Of Lafte. 0 lits aci I -_lpreme judge on the procluHions ufgcMus, is I, o- la- s!i d v.-Hen flic merely 1-i-i'a'es natitre ; lilt: nl'iff allib, f'ays at, iii2'enious Frcil( 1- ri cr, mnitate tec,!,-f !Z nanurc. It relm* res no lel" -cn to fl- u h
anto c lool --and geniusn-iti-, -I-11tat"
-Lin.-Jer pret-_'nce that it mas if ai1e did
F; 7, "N I -h are moft
ot careAffl-', Point out tbo",
Frop x for imitation. It alfio r :qP.-,'s a very nice d',;eerninent to dill im)-iiiii ic .' cmi truti
fo t'-rrc is a trut'i in taf c fill, it S CO 1' Liivc as de11191"tration in
Gcnlils, when in lull tv of ;tS C reel-, Oc
tcl touches wl t -e verv LriJ.- error aiitl is, T)crnever 1") ucar the vez- e o'
It i ii thot'e
w1hen indulging its filblirnc;i. VI:Olts. i
great, btit Glan-crous Tiln.11cn, s, that the cui al-, -Y -,,a f au Oa
Iant].Idg-lielit iruft N Itlag afe d f r
O,0N G EN I us, &
dulnefs obferves on tdiusan infiped round of ti reforne uniformity, adersequallyclear of eccentricity and o'beauty, Dulnefs_ has few redunder16es to retrcrnch, few lu-xurancies to prune, and few irregularities to smooth. Thefe, though errors, are the errors of genius, for there is rarely redundenecy without pltni tude, or irregularity without greatnefas. The cxceffes ofgEenins mnay eafily be retrenched ; but the de!Lciencies of dal refs can never be flipplied. SThol~e, w~ho copy from others, will do-nbtiefis be 1's excellent than thofe wxho copy from nature. To hsnurate imitators, is the way to depart too far from trio great original herileif. The later co,),, s of an eii5ravinog retain fainter and fainter traces oT the fWDJr5Ct, to which the earlier impreffions bore izb ftrozg, a rcfemnblance.
t1 "_-ems very extraordinary, that it- dxotud be the moft dddsflcult thing ini the werld to be Latural -, an--d that it flonld be harder to hit oil the mainntrs of :-,, a life, and to delineate fuch charaCtfers, as we convei, "e. wit-h every day, than to imaffne fc-he as do rot eaifi. But caricature is much eafier than au exa&c entlineand the colouring offanec, les cdli-11cal than that of truth.
People e do n or al1w ays k now wmha t t all -thLeyl have, till it is awakened by Iomic repning~ cbioctz; nay, genius itefsa fire, which, in mnanay mnns, wouid never blaze, if not k-.nd-lo&bv fbame exter-.,l caufe.
Nature, that qunnhect another, when 1he bellows, the powers of Judging, aeeo-mparies it xxdth the. capaci ty of enjoying. T he jndgsncot, xx iicis is clearfighted, points out fitch obi_-el-s as are calculated to irfspire love ; and the hea rt inlta ntaneoufly attaches Itfelf to
-whatfoiever is lovely.
In regard to literary reputation, a great deal depends on the late of learning in th particni age or nation, in which an author lie.In a dark ard iginorant period, moderate hunowledge~ will entitle its poffeifnr to a confiderable fhare of faim, whereas, to be
G r L 60
polite and lettered age, requires parts aiiid deep t audition. S,
V 1 "ns toe!
A, ItTl a nation ncrc e from a flateof
meital darki-cfs, and to f1rike cut the firif rudirnerts of improvem-_Ilt, it chalks out a few iqro-n-, but iDCOrre& Iketches, give-, the ru& midines or -ej cral art, a !leaves the fil'
"Id Iflg upto tle Itifure ofhapp er days,
t oi Tleir
era,,v;n- is a rud= Shozzo, and the";: poetrv wIld iminF rfefficti of tafte Is a point which a nation no Ioner reaches, than it overfl-oots ; ard ;r is more di'cujt to return to ;- -after havinu paitlL;d V rLian it Was to
When ev fell Prort oi, it. IVbcre tlie arts beg n to I a Egu ifh a i't c r In av; t, p: ;I, o u r i 4h e t 'Ji e v 1' 1 t, ora, I '_ 1 ar' a-; i i i : baizideed, L11 back to mcir CA'_-Illa D J, -.-.I certain fceL-I ucfs of excrticn t -es Dlace. a,- d it is more dii-acult to recover them t'roj-n --his eo- -.,ouor to O-er per firent-C, than it vi a 3 to pollil from the;- forincr rudlenefs ; for jr :s a lef's forni labl ng, to refine barbarity, than to llc p jecay : the firil- may be laboured 'flzi f Cgancc ; lbi t the latter -willi rarely be firengthe-ied m mt
Tafte exerts Itfelf P.-fe-11 -u-, -tbly and V 3t is repreli-ed and kept bach by a crorid ofil,,e (,ft Icfcouragin, Frejudices : lik an infant 1-ri-nce, xN hel t1houYb born to rci(yii, yet holu!,; an -"d'e cce-c--c, wh .ch he has not Fo-vcr to tu bm ;s obligrd to I ec m i'h tile eyes, and hea r throilgh tl.e cars c'ct!-. Cr men.
A writer of -orre6t tafic wifl hardl. evcr ,o m-t of his way, even in search ofembellifli-ment ; 11- W"I Iludy to a ztain t1he beft end by the moit natural m C ans for lie knows that what's not natural cannotLe I)Cauti. ful, and that iiothing, can be beawifid cut of its own Place : 1,(-,r an improper situation wiiI convert the moit jirJ6n(x beauty into a glaring When, by a
Ive I conilected chat a pidicious fuccell
of ieteas, or
fion of events, thereader is fiaatchcd to "Thebes or Athm'," what can Ic more ;nentthan for the
poetto obftru lt tht! operation of the pafliou lie has,
juft bee-i kindling, by, troducipg a conceit,
in which con.
traiias hIs purpolle, and interrupts lj Indccd, can:-,ot be tranfportcd cveij ip
places, if the poct does not riiania, (, j"O acirv-fly as not
to make usfc,Ifible of thejourn-f v n1whIjiant N"('
we are trave"I;ug, the writer's art falls, and the deErium is at an end.
i1rderpme, faysOvid, wculd havt. i)cejj restored
her mother Ceres, I'-adrOt Ai alaplju A,,,,n herilop, to golden -ppl--, -ohen the t-" iF hcr reftoration were, that Ihe 'ho-L--jd tafle noth ji r. A Q ory pre I 9nant -v th inftrua;on for livelly wr"" i I y n--the ina-n bud"moCs, P.-noA going cat of the way far falic Prratuqcatioiis, lofe fight oft! '
efid tllcv E iould
pr.Dcipaily keep m view. It was t i C
1- 11' talte that
introduced the numberless canoet,i, vviich
brifflizeft of the I poets and t' i is tj r
Nvl the reader only feels fliers aii-I Ifft--rul),,ed hatches of -deliaht in perufmg the brilliail t blit uileqaal co!npoflti I'is of Ariofto, ir Atcad of titat 1-101,1-oken, and undunh-uffied pleasure, -vvhich heco"I'Luitly receivesfroni Virgil, from Milton, a-d (Yentrally
"I ', from
Talro. The firit men' L'oned ltalian is tbc A tala ni a, who will interrupt the rnofL eager career, Lo P ck u?
'the glittering Inifc-hief ; while thc Maulua 0 111(1 t''ie Britiffif bard3" like Hil)Po-.-Be-nCS' Pret in 11je
ur' I unf duced b7 tertiptation.
p lilit, and
A writer of rtal tafte'xvill take great -pai is i n the
perfection of his ftyle, to make the reader I)-,;Iicve that he took none at all. The writing, which appear stobemoffea y, will be generally found to be leaf'L im.;table. The moP elegant verfles are the moft cai ly retained : they faften thernfel-I, es on the rhemor)T without its making any eli'ort to p-eferve them, a ud we are apt to hnagine, that what is remembered
vith cafe, -%-as written without diffic
10 COUCItide : genius is a rare and precious yem, of
which few know the %vorth ; it is fitter for- the cabinet of the connoififeur, than for the commerce of mank.i ,J.
Good fcp e is a bank-b;ll, coayenient for change, ue-0
E4 ON G r N I U 5,
I able at all tires, c '!a plice,7,
h n V t h c v a 1 L-I'd that
a- a--- -m ot lil. rll lr a.-C S C 0 17r r ,tc 11- 'l i S
a n to i; -fe -h A dc of
tv rc,;--Z;-t IF it wo!l 'Ma-- rcn:,f!RDCC
c-an '-, C
cl a, a
I-_ _M f's lnd
,vorldg, a -n-! to i'--e w at 'S I I I I
701, 10 IS t o 'mGiern, ot
-wharcailv is. 6cod lenle has ii ot C,4 -C: ,C7
.. L I ve
but j as as c1car a 111glit. it eloes -ot pe atc fo
de -olv, bu' as as it es ice, it di &ffin 'Iy
I "I i
Goc -ous ir
f d f cril s a jt -,Ac. n c1-1,1 produce
m ansbut,,,Cmus (Ifpcal rc ,_co ce o.' tllc diiflar.cc)
Lear3f,)7 -c remno-c ri fcmLlanc -o e divine
fpake, a,2d, N a s c e a ea' o fa i
le: it be) C;,d it KW.
r N 1 S.
O' N G E IN I U S, &c. 73
refe.tuhles one, who fecing a column for the firft timc, an(! ilandi i 7- at too lyre 't a (,:ILa.,cc to take Jr. the %vhoic of it, conclude, s it to be flat ; or like oze unacinted wth the firft pr nc;jplcs o,'T,,hijojoph -, who, 2U the fienfi horizon appept-'a plane surface,
can form no idea of t1w fl,'ierkal Form ofthe whole, whici-, he djes nol fcc, and Lufflis at the account of ant;po-lcs, wli ch he cannot co4rclacnd.
N17hatever is excelleLt is alfo rare ; wh it s ufeFul is inore common. How many tho'ufaBds are born
qualified for the course employ nei-ts of life, or (.--e m: ho is capable of excelling in the fine arts ; yct Io it ow--ht to be ; becaufo our natural Nvants are ri 3ore uume#bus, and inore itnprtunate, than the; n, ellctilual.
Wlicnever it happ ns that a man of diffiPgu'Acd talents has been drawn by miflake, or precil3 ;tatcd by paffiion, into any Oangcrous indi creation ; it is coMrnop for thofe, wbol'e coldne& of temper bas flipplied the place, and ufurpcd t! e narne of pruOence, too'-aft of their own Readier virtue, and tr"un-uphin the"r oNv a superior caution ; only becainfe they'have never bccn failed by a temptation Rrong Croli'Zil to fnr'r;f t3.cm into error. And vith what a vifiLlie Ppp.rcpr*7 .-;oa ;'f the character to* thernfcIves, do they conftarirl.y conclude, with a cordial compliment to commonft;^fe They point cut the beauty and ufefuhiels of this qualty f forcibly and, expliciilv, -hat you cannot pofflI.Ay
ift k wliof'e P16bure the-,, arc drawing N-6th f flatterincr a pencil. The ur apnv man, vvlhole condmd arral -ncd, perhaps atAed from a fo f- -in Iv '(
has bee _e' ng z
gqod, tho ugli m&ahcn, i-notives-alt leafli, Ironi motives of willch his ceniurer has not capacity to ndgc; but the event NN as unfavorable, nay the a&ion m;(-, ht be really wrong, and the vu!.-_ ar inalicioufly take ihe opportunity of this finTle ,nOlf retion, to lift theipfelves n carer on a level %v ith a cha rac ier, vv hi6h, except in th;s inflanco, has always thrown them at the n1oft disgraceful and mortifying distance.
The elegant biop rapher of Collins, in his aE"t: ng apology for that wafortunate genius, remarks, thu