Cory, J. Jr. Letters to Hon. Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the U.S. Congress. Jacksonville, Fla. December 25, 1867 and ...


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Cory, J. Jr. Letters to Hon. Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the U.S. Congress. Jacksonville, Fla. December 25, 1867 and undated.
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Cory, J. , Jr.
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Subjects / Keywords:
Reconstruction -- Slavery
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States -- Florida

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e;so-e"d. ; e's.,Thattihe policy ir rs the( loyromet of .b^y resting this. i@aeriti.aton- .apon a groupnc inj-a-
:e * ess in.strenpharita po!^laJ do ei nohs to the mor al i;rdfe- ind .i. ntmy of the- Soulith
rej ,.- Jatious uon,.this oitionueit bynth a exi. bf suo ofsch Ct i-,. --s.rik a- ..t th eou.-,ty of : r.r,- it.....r
".n-. ':,g.iou. territory'as riay cujidte to jiat. end, -end tan ,be [1-81^6e th secufit/.o p ry in Ite-so.tbem
justl6obtainedandthatdneitheri t a onb States, by ainrarrng otriiln'them with a coyden
I he t.rrt'al .ogiriiaig ition thereof a ba any, condition b.e of Sta'tes"thavinantagoilistjnsttutons; -ad-threat-
".co natituttot'iafly' fripd.ed or ie tiiisb eddfr; or en Stthe speurtyn f bi, rihtmd tb
.for af soeremoStaterwith h oea d'pn esR t1 eq iur the t sections-

o fnttithi o Co'.get, .aito mdntlerf-;"a"Con.ed..ra y.t"e o .i t-s a the W-ika't" Pe-,
%Jerticory-heion'ngz tg b iht hiited'aea1tn tons$e^of pol onJ~ f'h TraUiioneas n-oiou aStt-it t Tr ts-
.s '4 v. .-inn..en pon 1v .- hrch u owfederseuvaa^ aei re-tw o Las .a -etr. v st d u
. .e!stashtpromotedn set.i thtrhue spirit andceaningoftlhe.h '..- .o-, "i et .i. jre them-,, I t is fea-i. l su

^tiitnron~e ered, od t.he Coifedetacystren ena y apon th1 i roses of h o t
9ea teavir.o at q mesaioiesf .onc sn tile d(o the rpe thereof of the U.tns I t tt nd et a8 pliairi,

Mr YUo LE&, .ote' of'aotaaa..y0 sbmittedrand oi all its'aspecis-itis d distasteful otio.lf who,
"" as a s..,bs"tntefo these res"rluaenia sCthhe fllow vi-,wig t as d v -everencete Uni-o r: respect .

z.." S-:; ."-...,, ; .t-g "t..e .e'.r.y, as ..u &.. ..:- -an Ot e nI '. o o t

Un. ,trona t-dmsotereieosty tte e -t .esamn'vas" t."n the peopleozBe atf"^
.h .. ".svaral Stts odmprflilt she U r lebd n. f aid ,'nal6 directlyh or indirectly, to si' '
.e so d att, a t ..fejFe q atm has ei s . .a ,, s a. r. heo' the n W

4liegated a.. tt.rityfnor/thet.e.retJTlee..i n y,. any iiiwo. ',c i t s r ido.' al' effort. t s fe- h -stro na
-epttight to exerctise'aoetiyerslsent ire pow^e r iti ris e said cor corI-iAt in
te ns, winht ir eq ltait rl ti tho c fitansof th Sha- A vi, .i' t et d;e,,. sufifers;,.-s lati8%-n o' t
tp1... at.s. t acquire an d am)4,liy ptriof the .. comm .on st t }, ,tu Oi i w.. !f~/ .'. *i; -.' '
par n ,ty'mioaiybe i ;.f." .r. d ,n i t.s .tb-n l eas t ze .ssio o Cong.ress, seveotlpsaopo

My --l-gli h^.^ 1EdreAA^ b Seat -expljaoa -gb/ ^ foi itleinkit hhe'quhseaMiaw been
\1jg? an.^ ~ d supoirt o'hsfresolseinQns a fitiea^tmei I^o^ othn d~tfiisgufsd qtfhrtexfl FEior b&le,
It ha seemt.a^ s red itno-m p Atedi to allo thae ainterests- in- h .ha'n."i th-.l&-' .irs. -all. .for thet_- aahble sp .it.ff
ij . olY:ed" I that the'e. at cear ftoin.tndiieand Wstce-. whi-ch.thM.' batezs ifnh
-si-;".i. o.i ien ,of s partiesirn ltlhis.' cottry uponfl ie sfed a'idispositiOs to .prac'tet -.Bui. ppp --
.i qu ,,esti'on to w htelitkese r~ssruti.ons; relate. Sp far iltiops se-m to ,irMve &in the c4i. str Vplai.,e .ntf

4 sh, .. e Soiarator inm tre. York,'aod .tbosewhd. :al-pcal of ,tbheir.opitidns,.r.tJh4.prace ll a ,
S agree with him- dres ign to repudiate ,th.prii1iples ;samr stos; he l wPr iso. 'Itbe s

' *of theW'.,lWmot'.P.rovisoanid b.hae a:"i.e4 ,5 -sup- --im--portaf, -thiefre,_ to explore stillfpt-' h:
t16.-, .Cotmetr y... 't .6. .11"16;i nr ,'. -:!" : W-"41ini** t,- V

n g -- aign the. spirit -with which they have- so ught The two leading propose ni to y .ila t W "
S.. .. to adv ance to wards a satisfactory adjuistnientc 6of refebecause they seai to d .s-Unpi. o ,

&ffi,,'e-- ,-.fJernts- -ilis impossibleie forbie to dose -sd setall tfie restr, are- e-. *4 ..v' -
my-:.:- f .ney-.a-,t.the-' fac-hat althoughv variouss tp- First" The Missouri coe-prto^in tueasith-en -c
:+ ." .'...- ,' abli '.hatete n .-m'ade-, since ttes|ast..session., . .....t."w".e...,".a. "

--:"*, j ^ ^ B ^ ^ 1 ;.- i ; l. ..,o,.
V- h dV.e detio o o iti toe t ese 'c, --.i A Atar4 f i q
e.&potoihv -ejdtrat 4n~eniatedoyt tl t&g &t~r~
wetyt on whtattawks"dthe&C'a iredJnijeeseuif~g~n4 injsth -o sd s-oft

-Wh .T . ., g tie. sir 4o r . ... 'undig, an F-* 7 .- d .* ei Of M- 40
4s.~~~~~ ~ a -.s~u~e S2-n.tef
,,, : .. ....-hes r, -.:- . o q,. a . .. -.. 746., ,: ,eve: Ai -., '. U ,, ,... ,; :

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; this vmy Missouricompromise The Cqnistttuton pupo6e toIaintihemselves 'upo whatever ground
ffinishes' the only eerindot! ti and g 'steady i baisi oPs atie construi obn ofr thd.c A.bution mi re-
right, and the legislation ofv Congress is "ncoje quriri, ay, hya orolIscusion,. at an
Stenit to ;.mdify, or ..mpnmis te tereso his di C i ste .ine .tiuth and
fundameacom.. at;,, o teithecratre jer.-i. t;s:nen
imay cori'trol the cireti t he.. . .... .Th t. Senator.' Vr i,,New. SD .dw"s"
Nor pisthepiop..ed transfer dbj&A.cii. orb die as .."yet, the o loxpifr ,..4.^ig. flpoi
t. h ,. ^'e 4pnhabitants of the. territo ry qtetio t .ei.doctrine of0 aigti tnhShtapts o o
nor onlyi cltith Thedti a ten i oies to coetrolp l question t yI w
'.y'gf i. Co-,glrestit n ow halj. proceed t^'.p1 ,o an. of: tti nctples .
eiaswhochance totheupo.acqLt.e. territory 'h daoce g...'.
th~e' whole di ositsti.n dt ofourdtern A.5iuderstand the Senator1 he holds, that the
......... ... %...,j~e -t1e

tot riqI possesstonAsQt.r people inh.elntu& a Tei'.i.rytiC, the..Un.ed' States ; .
The tnhufin lciapcy'ofeither Cteek o aya e the fi, tij.if self t-g6overfmift n"all .h at. cn
Sthe.eyil effectsoftheWiotpr.ese o h e'rns thl.ei...daee"stic or in.teinal.. ffaiis as a
onuceded .by tl~heei spcivespec iiadvoga w h inhei'ent rightof'.sovereignty1;"" lit'C1nie.s (to
',, bl- 01o '1

they patriotically denounce theagitetton of the Ause octrins own ) et onil yb
,Wil-it tProvisn, adopt, doubtless fio honest0con, cftita as is npeessai t .protivc 6t rnteiest. 0 of ,
vietion, grounds- which ey. a olede t ',he, ,iedStates;ad-tltthe, i, latio or" t
reduce the sam" "-practicl results hy l, 'pe 'hq u'd '.be-ex
tha :because the tlaw'so;fMwto', slvryv the'Cousttifton,".... .., R a
it. could never exist inte+,.tol acquiiredfionr"hei, So'fai^ as thelo..gic. of my iei is concerned
,usles.s expiesslyestished thoiidby Co e eardmijsionof his whole tropesitionwuldnot
grzss; .nd one brpnchofiemW sn t t.heinhab 'fptdcue' the conie ision'i.hed'ei a s pr i- "
itants of the territory oajns'Iio ughtofleaislation ti6n containstwo -tedmwoIsid.siwhi. -
t~~~ar :el t.:f 4 "i .... ..... 1-i .o

in reapectoto theit[i.t rinclu:din the 'fabric-of ,iis tgua( i.tohe, gtrcnud.,He admits;
p oubjsect ofslaverythus fl I. Cores .tethem to be id reiioris,'th.e uNiTESTATE'S, a;'a
ower, tobieisla~eihi th^ protectionof while transfebrino'g.hepwer f'f legislation"front 4
"in .the teritoriesofthe Unt e 'Congres .to the /persriso" nsihabitingthen-;i, a.,dmt
Of, course if" te "epeal of -rte',restjction. de- they mu...t legislate 'ddrerth Coiitub at .
f,.8ended upoh. ,oiwress, it would -be' in; the- p.we -of 1Ppw, ip"a_.a'mt iin"g' thp tei"itory':ibe ."territory .
the"North oroitoe;qiitiob as they.havea baft.he Uniite dii-ates' 6' that is to say, 'belnging to
t .e.maorit ,o Represe.ntatie thse petble of theiStates whichcompo he nion
iinjtfthe questions itnhabitants t- the furthe- admission is.nvoh.erlof a-rihrigthe
terfittory, t.hose"thbo W:ere trjsnsfeiredwith it wou'l pe6p?-e ofth.e several Unit..edtaesto. enjoy it esuse
.it dtiy .asa slaveho .lding ter .ritor' .y n'd in, adAiitingd' tbat the people o thtrit i-n
'rltinn, h ie.restrietrotianftclud sedtl, must legisatl-u nsi the Constitutionrh plac-Jes
.m.ntof. slavehol. s t ,. ,their authorityn-uden the a.mei~mrtatin that wo'u.l'd
,*r.,' c ei'the r tr o sundry.qvidonces,to restrain Concresfrom legisl.aion e'ncinot'o-tQx-
sh.w t svph fwerethe.views and acknowledg6d clud'e th.e citizefi of any $ :atefrom an equal. ad
ittintcipttionsientertaioneA uponrthesube, byny just participatioriithe co ion pro perty : ..
.wh.lo:w ere ,resi,s:inhg"the agitation-of the 'Witm'pt. .Surely, if the people of the United States own-'the
; Pos iVnS t ihe't o.tint-rh nStates,]..;, '. ", i] :;!: territory ,they.teyea .iht. o ,enjoy their pro"er-ty
Mr. Y. ;proceSee.d. Thvs.i't; .itwill 'bes-een 'thiat wi'Iio'uit hinderahcoand ,if the Constitution:. co.ecls
kotih these promost-onsi res~t4 lpn grounds whic. the territory, th-local, le.gilation, must be, ast.iect
uecr. rneiiabl q the satie;pra crehi r-esult aste to val j ltan
..Wi-It .Prdviso,^ -th riwirflement of':th. te So that, itfter,,a14 the. qi.iestion raised h;.. ,he
'fimuth by a belt of.'non-sli-vehdtling ^.States,' wiTh Wdmoti'roviso world return with the Came foite
,aSlti ftali con.equeta .W u~ outoropeyrindaseve isthe'ete e a we of loe'islationh unde.r-Sio
e "i stedone& -. Co':' ":.,:'^: C.nstitu'ic^ioprn :snri 'j.wht-hpinCongte or.,
te p d'reid 4an see,-,-n the elsewhere -by whiblth eietien of:any State ce {
-..frh. tiichdir-, 4iited. W.?ie lhd Wadv:cates. of Wil- behoexluded-fromn par.tieipalifrg equ'allty, 'wih ail' like .-
: hhi tisrpm [+.hboldl, upJ, wt~h h'ostile ~spjirit1 oth'e .redst, in t~he cotrimo~n pritbph~y of.-tir~e Un-in ?- '-i
4io.tnkimmAlindf o.the States of the. Sofiu 't~h'e B:ut I presume the Ai.gunent .of, my friend ,con- ,
-a 4*^s of .th.other propositions, acting,'aa I ,teomplated a powerr-irj the peoplesnhabiirnga-Tei-ri-
tie t^nderriri etron~ooso.conception of' the Co n- toiry to legislate: upon -the, subject of slavery1, and
s-niufonf vtnne-to ait;-i ; our own immolation,; upon all othorsubjects tiot reirlyng toetrhe disposal .*
,,--Uis, on L the .exev.tio. into afede i .t or-se. h sil
hary esmatt, 1 tkle'issue.with him here, arid utterly deny to,
it, i& iebfould be the same, aci-therofro the inhabitants of nrritory.of the U..itedStates -
-;~-dt ddisft to be repelled0 ^ any ot igmnfil power of' legislation orgovernment
': win,. i r"gth t h-.of a..e.izon,,of rte whateverr, withi4heterritoryexcept as.a -result of -
SeStn teupo, any territoryaoe n revolution .. ..
." r .- which isop.ened to"occupatin, In the .first place, the Senator's, position iso.p- o -p
-',ad torsie tn it securely, w'tdi, his slaves a. i pose4 tn the whole. course;of, legislative pracrtet
ther propertyunerthgarupo ro subject, F o t on of 1
of -h reratt egslaie, L2n! fin' al P

i eg urer that ngres is -respecting ihe territory of heined States noth
o u neoer imthe siel itse o i thetOhio., down t .thllJrl i to bit
Jf^^ Ne^ 8 f.14rhe t rreo

&ii T e~tj~b( dus- r~gh~t;, ag~ohsr; fIrs- Orego n; Tetritoi. "yeporte d a few ayday ssn ce, Cinn
0; fro ^any l trtl deeh9 -it, da& to thi& grdess h44-aw~ay~s .execisell sait clu sive control
ept t ito dibute1We opinions 'w'lite wr .thid;. irrtorieoa. .a; rigniai- sgi sh. the
""!rb $ r---'llrtea -.tth d iihahiti4-feto .grie.n -thernsl7*, 'if soy degree ,
4,- a. -Pq TE)P...... ," h

d"' ongi1- .-'i .A
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~ ~ ~ ~ e -.. ., . : . -. sc ec, s ..(, ., a_ 9 6. .. : o, . 4n u
!n tte next ice, his position; is opposed tb tescieneOrwsta
'ihcle cunri-ie.nfdinfrit i judicial decisionand'to the legi slative righ"tin ift;hias aTerritry?
"; opinions fl e mo(t e minfrit ve r'pon If they 'possess. iitLtmXcfre-e b tca'usi they N4spsi
N. iii.-'. V" a'- e ,. -\, ,; :.z ,' '. -' .~ -f 'h :,' -I .i;' e./ ., , ; ,.,s.,.s,.., ,. m,1 ..q
;1.. Arn1eut&'h political iaw in ^.**/''^'-'. .' J sordvegree severe :' J o ss a
'All dmit the constituionalityora riprl Govern-.- sovereignty5 they possess' itrin its dnirety' '
.. .'eint ',?lfcio/ihvLgtio Myt 7 `, 4 c.2 theyv -possesitir its' enirety .they e'ifndeped.
Chie- -Cii~f Justice Ma al6.a ys s' tingof the entpolii ,Sttead a .of or s.e6. iep e ,t
C ij .ustie .o.tof.l. Cn is og "" vi a Teiri. of the United States Ias of aHeh Wo.rd'," and,., the .
toty belongingto h:' U.nitedStates. ount'ycoereed by"theirrju.sdutcitoeant tie tar-
'"Whichever yin'o{be li~e: sxurce 'ence ibe power; is ri'ttry of the XY~ited atds ;foreivedig-aty ci
derivedie possessinorisuiquetioied" Peters' pytse ,an ultimate doniion over alt'thefh iin'ds
e, 543. :. ':. . '. witin the bouni res9fl sotiey ",
'R" Hules iatc3", 'regn1atioh's.resffeerih'r therrmtorntivoff the .. This cone-ltiion cannot,<'e:avo'idled, if ..tho .
ton,' T-ee"Oh^ree 4ltsoss s te'of 5 Peters' i heSnoirspr i b d
y" power" onv-" p g ..... C o leg.s lat. .r'a VS

' ''powb^^^f avsfi nd of li sitng o Te'rri'- rentrg t. of' so(v^^lgty%-, or. 6f> 'slf- oern'-
tory is the,.nevitable consequence of. the i~ght, to acpuite ment' w ha-tever' T.he,.plssesstnp of iucha right,.
Sand to hold territory; Moreover,'sction [aft. 4,t,. iat. rg'cme, preludes y the existence ofany"supe
se h' ,on ress ps,sessed and execisedihe.abou. and r ior" soyeim authtoeity external of the comIto.-
utid~i ureod, pwr# pf. goverwii `.and. ,'gslating ofor te aTar- as
ritoseCscrecte.i'r Louisiaii after its p)ci hase." Sergeat's ity. ., ... ' .i
5 43 J.. ,,0,.. ., .:- 13. . ..' :

'iObsititsitanal Law,:389 .... ...... : 1 will tead a passage from the Senator s remarks,'
"As .the Genera. Governmnt possess the rig"bt to ad- which' appears ,to tpipehend his entire view ag .
uireterioryeiter byreatyorc uestitw d sem t he rightsof't atants of. a Terrtory of
Sto folow, as an eitabe cnsequenethea t possess the the Uted Sta : t '
powtte Ugover.whTteitt bs socqoie., d'.T ii'iei io: s ..
pot, wiieni so acquired, become entitled ho seliverurtient,1 "' It is not denied that if the peopisof the:Terntoryacqui4
and ist'is-'not subject 'totleu-dfldtinonfa'nyState. It mste esce in'or adoptthe fosin of donisocgiveinient proposed
consequently be uder-he dominion and juridicti'oh of the thein y Ciire.s it becomes their on avjn ill, the
Union, -r it.would 'be.without any goveriinent at 'all."- force-of law until they .'alter o-,S abo-li-h it. But this gives
SStory's Oomm.i 193 194 f ,, to -Congress .oot--iutional:right to en'force.i.s legislation
S" ,.the same effect,, wilte found. R '.n f' upon Vie bpl ofr e t c Terutorie.s against their will, and
To the same effect will be found Rawla qn the inh 'u Tes does il'-pro'hihbi'tthe'peopie of6 the State in eneibgyo0-.
Constitun ion, 237,; 1 Kent"s Commentaries,. 383, from exercising theirdlit idiiereac/tt of of'ereeqntyiin:tbher
86;,3 S torysCGommentaries onthe.Constitution, domestiucaffairs,..Q : "
"' ,O 4,, .... . , ; -

S.98. :;.'- "", '. ".The republican theory teaches thatsovereignty. iesides
:-.1 wiHla(ld *an. atvthoylty; from Louisiana, which with the people of a State', and iiot iftib itsplolitleel organii
is the rtore degseiving.-6'f :attention, fromnt he cir- zatiori ;.and the Declaration oP independence reco,gniies the.
nmstanca fthat itis to tbe p're-sumedyoi e bar 'and righ of the peoplet to-alter or abolish and s rp cbnhiruct theii
tih site m 4 iotd governmentt. If spgvereigty resides with the people and not
court were faunly. cpnvesant .'ih .-ldhe-motd with tlie-organization,.it rests as-well.ihthe eleof
questions ofterrttorialxrighlt.' ,The.oof-nsel -in the Tnerritory, in all thapt'concereis their internal cond tion, as
'case contested ."ithe' povWerof-Condraes to govern with thie people of ai oiganiedState., And it it.itherigJt
-iho eTe ritbrie.s and tned tatad tig, othe people,,uirtue o theiriisnnate &J.9eiy, "tal.ter
or alti;"uis' '3andir'eennstt-u t..ea e ira Government: n iSt is r'th
itey possess., theycaonot delegate it'o ,:The court rightcofathae .hinlaiirhits.....t M 'itYer.isb ,vird...efthe;.nae
h .'etarks-up6nthi *asetasofoons:. d' ',f ibornattrbuteall th. t s:their.d6esicri
: doubt e 'etertdined, it wonlceainfy a'^TTerri
.......trtr-` t "Il see t.... "e r.... cerns, t 42uill .o athiru0idit 5..- AOryd, ti

vani sh eaof thin t afprin lientis proppseto, th6Lenby
p w," g. oy" ri w." 'ji-p ... ... ire;' r ". t:' ito "d""

tiit oithe Feral: -overinm ian adopted o'r aciui esred'iio bye
United $ti'es t ov icttheQu.el fpr the Sate.hs rawn- them, they may na'soar dgats alter or abolishjt:at ploasure"-
ur~atte~tiie hi" Cgsatdpe oand lthou gh the go.egint'of aTerrjtQry has not thl ai'ie
ianie 5InneedSfalo u ..'"and reueatono" .'ith'reard: to, l' Sovereign poweras..les gvg.rnment ofa statetatepliit
-tbrrttory: 0r other prOpiTity Of tltetjn~t' Satutes;- N'OW, f relatings the peoipe o-fa Terortor havo, in all titat afpri
.vr..y nreedfui'regala~tuon:w~ith.regatrd .te. theland of the tint7 tans ,to 'their internal diton; thef samre .soif~tltgn nohip
nted .ta-te.s, hthe subject of' property, i po lo-. theai; people of a Ste. 'Wile Congress i sy ea ereise.
vide or itssettleniet. The .individuals hi are to settle legislation over lerriat'6ryf.o far ' pr t
iPitmust he designated, and when ihere, maukhaye some ghe interests of the United tati s, the legislation.lrl.bpthepo
kihd ofgovernment given taem.. .Otherwhte,_ifanjindi.vid- pie should be exerceisedby iem under the Consttsii'"t .
Sinlihave a remove thither, and those thus'assrmbled .. .. -
can establish a government of their pwn, independent of,., 3iNOW, it is eylde, ,thatlhe Senator claims"for the
ad uneontrolled by, the authority of 'thi.United States, inhabitants of a Territory of these' Urn StatesA s
would not the acquiescence of the latter he-a' implied ie-< a di;tiact ipflitial society a deg tee of inhef'pt .
linquishmentofttmeir title' Wotid nota State thus reactedd bgh sat e sf-ornmeit" andbeeola on e vch ei yo .
beat liberty tp decline .eilginecorporated.-intoq the Union,?," fho'r t aexere gS.]t "a r t.g .niaU "
.But3let us-tryo hispr0postron byge.-. nersil'ri.naithorixtby ntod Staecctsn or reject.Q-yk .
scithed m by taUteod Sa ts and ine i-rtda eqLt iba
; les. - "^
Let me remind.thte 'Seonator of mn or .twoe wit- they .. m tar ab:ls a ths.ot-J.'.&...,
governmentnt enacted .for them by ongnes 459e'- ..
- mental- principles, 'too well established to require' n press. e". the Se" nto .. a "h ..i. rifl' t .-'f
demonstrate, ion-as, ,, : .'..",. revoluhfii;e arid- h 'therefornmifdereiesuotuses-that
Fi. rst..ThatThekida'tive powr oi an vttnbiate sucb-rights can eiit in thedriabitnAnt6 'ir' r
u.iovregotyace 'hatti l-.' '"e -" i.. . i.ts ielat. t h .. ;' '
ueIcon ede -t e sndvlrtal Wait thtes r6 vuTtinstor tcnoegatethio .s r-ther .'tawil aet]a e9nle dn.

,!";ote rnwdise m 6 eig-h t y-fn sh'fda i T iSt't ,la :, ; . . .. .. .. .. .... .;'^i.^... .. .... .
wsa t a* Tr ;rit o lh.ina llta. t-.Mome'rns a r. ,...' th at -rh m... @f;o n A4
ofasoverejgnty rey- hae ere.d 'thoughd.ivers ti fro ..- t w- r o.. wnnhfe.. c
agencies bat sove'reih4;" or- thepextluaivea as za.....i,--,he Se.. '.t ... or: -.- ,
.preme funtate.authoiy-in gSte, !fromwhih-Oi-al -.;of oe, 'pate can pr0jrly.b. considlered o at 0e ,"
\s oltttcal" action fft ce~ds, miis 'from-its- vhy on- Ir~eijsi: eid-.ibjeet, soino S.iser ea6hn sa'ith stristbtnpretv .....
tIre .he co .pl ,- ard'ir'apabeOef.: diision-fdr, ", .''o..i talCrhatif supir .m, $I iq ., .'e's:i"
otherwiselthere m~igfhu-ben tio fsais, ..andaet' Iat fliff Lain, d.@ 7...- .. '-
tie same time, two, s 'iema .powarsi'"which'is an .- SO;nohingaiq 4mere. cear than -yhat.o thei te'- ."
abisurdity" .'. "n bitynt'of- tj Ajtry must be n .get* rt, stib b '.
onh, then,h tried. obtrtlese 'a.iams itn politida .Ito"olieal"tFeoAiol bya 'iupeitr :authOtlitr.O .a IT

"s. ,nii r "**' 6r .*' ''', td,: '.i ""i- ... .. '81t
I .: '. iaisate ra oi

.^^ ,; .^" -, :
:,' .... :'. .... .. : .. '- .: .. .. '*: "***

t.hs,-., t. .6 W.f iq c..n Ma .
. -, . . . .. .!s** : *' * . ., .. ? + . .

a^togttbrtsdependenteandsvereigninh sbv. Fot this last alternative the not cost- withotit.ahy. other. restiatot than rest .fi. m ther .
tend ind' ith first is tfher ff6re-;ubdeniable' -'. federative .ctrecte and-th te rmsofi r uAnion. n
SSome~hi~ogofwhat sedinto thcnfston o nirespett other natiofi tthey snala the a
thoe Senatot's theory0grows,.as I appieM- nd4 out cfiiive ownersharid soerein ofheteir
S'of-a misippieher-son of terms ' pea-ksof the [respect -to each:. otueir,' the siand wqvuair',a:s
inhabitantss of-"tetoryof thi6UnttedS t "6 a. common ownes and soVere-gns, confedrated in, a
people. ,Tihey. a're not a peple, irin a political .united ^overnmgntL : .,, ." yi ...._
sense; they compose no civil-ociety. They are It is timaterialfrom what sourcewe derve .h.e
itp-y.iiambitan-fteit f thnited State1 power of Congress to act .asv the odmmor agfient -
Their fa ondition in. this reard ,is very' weall de- in ttie goyionmenlt:f.'tThterritory, oftheUitd
seribed in a passae which. fTwillread: S t : ' states;-- Whether this power be attributed: to ex.-
,.,t o',-.. men.;. -ihsve ties' an for whatev.ere pess. ent> undertheclauseo -f.the. fou rth article
pi es.. . the."y r rb..""+'iut o on er, isno oen w hc :-em o w .ers- C r;g e5 to m a e pl{ needful
itself, Wiftti has n.0 wtin itself an indepeWdeut poverof rules avnd regulations ,respecting thed territory.anta,
governnient bhut is either in its- legi native, orirts exeeun other propeay b"e"ongin.toihe United, *State,"ot
tie" subjiec+t+b" t +ob ,,cntrlted .by a~ny ptoverrro h-m.w.ithioit to. , an auhoit impi.,.. ,,g,'ed ,:,- from ther ..wht-:. to 'aqur
SackeI a idoisry, therefore, .th~ough-formed for~c .ni Rur.poses, ..-.. ,.,..;. .. .. ..-'.,. : :+"
is no civil society it ca., be. only a parto.fsame terrtodry by.treaty or conquest thea ogieat lain .
Other state and is usually called a province to lsatstate in fact stl reamt the territory belodng'to6, the. dre
particularr rom which it receives its laws', or by wlhihf i, people, of the Unt".ited: States isntheiri"ftderawve,-char-. "
p.ublicforce is putim motion and made to act.-Rut/erferth',, .ter, and that Coogress acts, inthe ,,',ntnistrat,, n.
Ss,. 6 f"i..t. .', . ; .r'- O ItS use:,as, the gentbf the whole., i; "'ri" .
.Another miSdapplcauibn .t s think As" owner. th. peopleof.theseva Stes h
s 1-rnea 1014c[~~wor+ I.m fW,,:.t 0emr 'ye t er.. : .

.in the use of.die.word teit ;as escri-tive i tiequal ropoitionaldegreewitequal rights tott
of a political organization :Tee 1i :,iin thctno conW-tola'- its us e itsCi-.segjm mto -"ir rv fie-e
such ol .tical. orcii tPgl r za'tion .he term s t it profits ut its bea- inpsue aheir reIspeCsi.
onypedtale h landscoved by the jur s r.:l ll
4dictiot of a Slate ornIatiOn. Teirrtopy 1is not used d AS aeelopmen ttsecnurtyand gen policy
'xin thei Cdistitu'tion ni aeny other-sensenor has the he- Sagent'-the Jn.e S tates-Govear
,....,-... ... ... . ther: e..-g., erear ded as a tresiteerepresentng and exercising'
egi_,aition of Convress eer employed rt.any.other.- te autubrity of the whole of o:ne, notS more inor
wise than as descriptive of-pubic domain fs -than another a id h ro i the-adinitratione
i-f the persons inhabiting territory composed'- of i tr us- property' -toapply" it"t he ..juat end
~~ ~ ~~ a prvic t.d.. ..ila- ste in thea.ue'r.vpo~e~ ,: ~ p~ .;t.; .m an

civil socety or state- if they were paramount lords .cia b without discrimination or. uy
of the soil which :tey, occupied-ifthey ier&-inde- t tiya. ,id .;with a coostenit the equality .
pendent of the. control of .any other a.u:thb.ority-- 6.fthpa.ties i.nterested ... .
they would then possess the eight- of self+govemrn- W th the.. u'poses, and ivder these id imy -
mrent an'dof legsislattion because they' w IOuld be ttons Coniess may govern he teli tIrote, and
S.lvereign, But:. falling ijn all; these e essential .ele- may-employ such sahoadmate-officers 'orsagencae.
rents of sovereignty, they fadi altogether of any -t administermi man.da.te's"as. y seem to it best. '
right of le -isslai-on .-.- .' maywest the whole. functi of gve tnert
SI concide that the"ibas .. nts" of.ateerityof withn.te teioresin one s .an-orsveral; in'a
the United. States-ve, rsotgnl ir inherent o.
fe nitedtasig governor,'r a gurrsi? aride:es P"a -gtr,
rights of gor^nhmenrt or egisattios .j .d ejud's5a dlegislauiiemassemrblry" It.moaz establish-
,_ come ni.owto tequest"ion.Wh'ere, is the right A nSiaty rile, or may adopt s-ao. gen cy m led
qeve'tenme.t"-nt i ":-_-." n- ,. "irrto the fashion"of a civil.goveirnmeft. Bst w-h'at+v
;h .i o.

Wh ose is the -tertory The answer to this rm these ci o subordinate
in- qq..,fftmi,++ dh iih toi.

wl dermiris the omnt The Constit.tion de" governrEmets, i.youehoose. ^.a-I-imeitam, s-cana
oefi. ih.f0ito belonging to It United, exercise an funedtion tat- not r-permtdt'r ;tl
.-.. at is t say., te ory/ b..el.ongingt, o the Gongress--that 'created it, ad imn.tustdits'author-
vpte i, York .Virgms ,-sGeorgia,..y in sburdibpiatior to.the rights of t0he people bf.
-- "I .. '1 . ... ..i t o ... "r 'i s ; .t t -b t h ek o i p; =p r i

Pa, aBnia4the other Statesunted r under. C the ont toies belong.
stitti: the government of.the United Sate, ,. e tisthatiallthe.actsprescriinrles f
thcen, possesses the -right of govrmnent aS the the goren met ato terrioriesr.tlite agenrts.are spe-
et onagent0theeole... ofhented ,ciaaly limitedto pow ers. Iao inconsistent with
n-r.hom inheres the sovereignty ove -and the he Constcsiontn anid laws-of the United States." n
ete andd exciuiivejtrisdctinwic ths "Proce ose rhe nature of Staes, and. ecometi.
gp y-.. .he l .ws.and usages of civili society, appendages of other Seites,. igv .sie ktied aof sovereigui ass-
,a ....l~ io of.m y" d;t .a.y "q~ .r b e .. .1,.

.onl -s .- .. .- a rt o y irn tseraselveas. W whether, therforeosuclia-provine,. -
ls.a ...m .. the so-vereigntty -e .- is anyerned bya ftresidei.t or b-a, A1 iyrisan i-rift:
$ Ige f the conitoray b bi jj.gati- et
P p signdty gi~ves ferint posnt w h dotli nol+'.in"tle~l th proper'" .'; ter
pi-igNl, ^^^^?^ societynfy ormicl mae;i thtey hweare pahey.- lerort rdfv ;- *-
: ima,+ th" ffa~ii y :6f' ed-e-!rif the+.4aere-,in, e7. .

':'sdo.maiSn of, ieast.. .te~n. .to eveiryt h.pos.-og s.u.ropW..Nwthen,'let me ask, b- whateauthorityupon.
.e a just rtife it comnprehe.nds her srintaaidu just what- p.tetepees of' right or ju-stice -hcan G ngrequ .t
tetssoa4-and atl her leqnsrtifns ineehrMeans-wliich either d..ectl,pr hb permission to its sitoirdinte-.
, thems6 ,tvor ad isittet-as pnatnong nations- t t .e .
sanspsrs~msenugetsmsse.ia-t~ps yar, .+tli..t~mOiris umi'n.deP .ak~e to, pxcthde froe"
4rEA.Q:ibSher: ppsaedssensawe oninder partoipioa RupB': equal te rts. with all the *restwthe
e tmuidterenrntoeebust he-rights s elioF.?'-atet- -peopeaof any pspiri of thea -ited1 Stabesa? not -
",' .-- .... '.- the ten'itory:the omnmon: pop.r-.ty- f ^^ie.pepleof tli4 fUnitea 'States,. ;iep,. ii. ftbefr not Uiez>-onlgress-thbe cpmsuao agenin~H?; 41P Is rhet -
uI ."relatii .... w.rser? ;the te.ntrsgjb~id territory not- .ad rjae.hthei'p-operry nf"the-pdopl o
theamrere ignty-.and witrlhit -t.e jnsdfr44a u Geovgss- of) NDassa' nhusets, anr-id th Cong, ess
h.ere-ight. of lqgislaitun jiter the arjuii% etr- is, So i Vu0 agent of Vitir ia-assof New Yaok : ,
6.Meeq"s,'srsir' 4k-Vrt ;eaa- Why, ,,_ ',n, shioudd-it advs tages e pifriiillytd
smg or4adla -8 tibe4? 4Steap is baekieua by tetaritortil pa. ta
;' h. t. o r 1-6 o "6 ,-,- -. , ...- .
. m ae, -.,

.s' ',.,i'. , s e. e' zen, i th 'r . f l, o ,a o e .h p f Ae"''
. *^ . > ., ; , y -. , : : .. i J" .

y f dr,,speadof hei populaUon_. ttiv teiritr properly .slaves ip. a lga. teir .
sfr igh ad eipnty te otiue ohresi I thefl Unied States nnno^ nghetfulty asd'
tuiqnsandthdig;4nitytey criminal as toe exclude a citizen .of
: e etbytheexclusion oftheit sof States with Ins slave.from tertorypf the,.te
e s t e .Soit' all thes benefitss e States, nor destroy nt disturbbhis nhl rope.-

i.ieden, Nay,, more, their security i, actua: y ty to, can it erecty. do. S, either ,.V
ei'idanoeied by the -cfdrdiveesiabiliahnet in ad1&. by delgaug su'ch authority toQ an. agenj for tho-
centteio'y, of omr.unities havigistituos actof the agnt iS thatoofthe pni r' by

of a hostile andamntaro'nist tendiiy,^ anahi dg cquieescea n ta usurped:14;^ authority over thestirb-
iity is 'iraroipledrpon by bidist nination wtich ject b~y its aaeot; for ;acquiaescenece., when, there is
d .q rades. .. ... 4ie.m po- ert p rent, s adop o But, the.c

^&-will be:obsepved, thatILu speakof tAeprohiN trary, the United States Goveknment is hyounid, by'
teon ofslaveryinte terrtories asan excusion of -s-o active e.e.tion Qf .its auhority, ,pt .nd .
the Ciizens ofth'sl veh ldin States. irt.,nees mainathe ghts fall citizens le y
no argument to, tal if the ecupatiyon of the .tin a teiiry d .rt s the exersi o.fjegtdici.n ti.v'
teri toiyn taderto mdepeode pon aor'tito, w i b j t-.he,- General o- en, nmrtt, n

.._ 4nyovcs a total change in the habiin ard capitAl o.; their powerdcan inte-aere for the prT.pose.. Ther.
Citizen, and a ruptin inthefoimo h.d- is nolegitimae thority itn the imits f the
enestic ing, red by the exclusion is, io n'.all i bnents terrorydexceptl aaglt'ried frpio thbe Uani. a ed Staes;
"completeii'ty, j fah much so ,as/if the e citizens-of a. Congres, is, the trustee inipQrb
a part of the' Stateas were forbidtenbeh'o, to ncadry their.' acqessicen,.i :t t stti ntth 6ii o"t thsptn

n' ywikes "ther hpl'd -en, 'd lh.'mdiginuatiron-,w.ytheu ; e retts-a 4 ot'an rli-hQhig
w rdYg*ben t~dhsag tio e of -q4.

..IfConresse in. ts" d-r",. n, opqnsterritory to a ^b an acur.ts sefsseaion ofu, atfhjer":may
setlementitisnUtne:essrily- ad no. io-hi op winu o. i ihs,,h If pen a
Sequalde citizens oth.iiiesp.df t vStates of aSate-has a reah lnto ospe.' o theiterl ith,

If tle citizen of one-State y go up~oni't and'en- hisslaveth~efUnkited States is bound f to guaranty
,joy its's nuioayrgtfuly.te citzeu o eveiy to. him .the seurtty o s. V ohis. propet- again.a. P.
another State Qof theUeniron s.:forotherwis.etph ter all mterrience whil,. o the D limts of. the, ter
ofhe Scitizes would bae uieal The ightgo itory and to poiRy bt-by m eands a e4
upoint the tea toiy involves dieiight to cariayfain veq.tby the public 'force, any such inteiererice
iiyoand peperty,~fors these Im ui A*hte ut"eit h.
actofeeuty wans poli o il entityi, If But aside ofall other .argumhets, the general

his going upon; theatesrWiorybis legal. he .does .r^oy t principles of right are sufficientpto .t, resi6htso.ofutono
i, lose s a tile to be-wpta td i hitse nt a ri, g the questii i .i i. ion h...

of personal security, li-bertyr ndop, an The -aest are rited a equl, and the imtmzens
insuh es.a ast.he.efee .'l Gov.enmethasecpme Iof thea ited States.are asso,.ated iaseual rit.,
St.he agent or trste.e..o the:, people, of. h.. State' en this itafolhws, a statess iond as citizens,

j the csovernoent of ..theteritoryit, is bound .to af', equal ty in-the ad'evaiitcay sls will as burdens of
fod hiro t.heneedf.ul protection. Ther rcible.h'e re common p eopirty' to r he I ,t .
m-nu- m"Siton.-a ohUis sae wool. be. vTolationt, o o al civil s,a a.pcL ( p se the w.rdq
S' "his igh~tofprpy, c eiotay h of Puff"Q-rff pl$ 'h. sc-2)is either
duty of: Ct.oongiesa, not he legally' expressly, or a leIi tcgiy. edory% between f the

4.being coitraryto the right of the Citizen, s.xuld society ancd iee membersbydwhieh ip society
beactivelypreveteda 'egai, .m s .ke th to girte him..a just and. p.op,:ti.

Il~will -be^H;..w noaie o el e htwa sofihiegpantis which it ejoypsga8.:aeqmon bnodg^
property in one'^spt.aor con omun:ty is. not; i "ieces an4 the .e.lber ptot'miseth that etwill. bear tai*
10saril y so.n anptles.".pThatecontninhes. take pript'proper rd esqio l part of those, b ,ueap ....r.., -
ty,.in territory o.Cthe'Uoited States, wric.hiyrac;g- conduchiohe,.re.rnEervseationo.of t40 tqe- t, i .
ni nzed as prprty i the State;. ofthe Unioe frorh 'sidered as saeba" e d

,wnch t rigitoizans'brings it. The tioste,..oft.he, Yattel, .(/p. .10,) spqajing of rinmon psei.tmer,; "
Statesiseasniuchthe.agentpoeSeastaoth describes iti tho as' beingt" all the 'cutlens ,
and is bound t. severance antis regard the instui- 'who take advantageiof it, each accoring to hi ,
tinns i.of r eachP. The tenur by. t which popety necessitiesnsom according to the, ww, ilt.)icregii

slaves is held must: be ireat thenFederal Gov, late their orse" And, after btststwg that t]he
Sbernient as",a rigobiful tenure; and. b e p.olected, as same rules aikd good as to. coqrr.rathe prp.oerty
property, so long as it is permitted by a State of wh respect ie.tot. e niemberC ,of the .ciorpo.atb
saril tnin ahis' isot 'thenGvcrriment' o-the and tpo public a property wtth respect to the 44 .,'

people of NetYolk' any more than the people' of nation, says, (p 114,).'all.the. 314b .rs o...coi.
V^.^^ 'irgi~nia. It is upon dhims principle that- th'e Conit,'' proration hapean equal tighftn.the d~efi4W4;fr
S.atit,.itin auterihoizes the recapture offugitives, and -mon propeoy, respect themaen5^ of

ihst 'tthe Federal Governpmerit has .always clammed' joyingg. it, the body eL^ the eojor^aQTini na'sy niak&
sp-jemtitiity fop^ tnjudesdpne, by~foneigp, uationms, to 'such regulatinons .as: they ,think proper~ptoy~sled
tleBslave property ofithiezeSnsof the United States. 'thai hosereg. l"uoat be pp .ttincoms.tei'it-with thgt
W4e'Federal., agerncy'was :created! as, nitdchy fythe EQUAiYSY which -ought Zn be preserved in a epes
perpe of htheso'herin States, f or rthe protection '.munioo of property. T.hs, a eps; o'tn y J.

s~id benefiof j~themselyaesjand- thgir^ prPrt *asideter-mne theuse of a'copamgofoet rpti^i
t 'aesi :byth people of the northern States. ja th.e deirqt allow ng it to'althe nm iihers .ac.rh^g to
aovisnmen tof.thewoleebecauseis t Q,- 'their wats,. or to each arn eqush)igt are, Of
eament of eaah.of tbe-Staes. td.. hG.op te hut teye hae not- t-, a igh Rt aLi he re of
msetof each, because it is the o6er-ment of. the ', or t.AiE ater dsiitiost 't-'o i #

: U whole. ach adopted it by rihelf ,and .for, eits-lfa 's vaflrgeo 'lay asigeilag him a les&^ shareth-a tb$' v'
penu.tein their f.derative character slvery;a Sta. a of three ohers. h. 'y', .. t... '
l-ea jUtiz-ipn. of tii.,"Mpi-( .the promed $at N'-,6n-h is and ti heUnsitore d. ypi'xs sis. 09,9-At sia.tqpty 1
.pleofglkn tlae..epi of natoion, e.s ayq fo b(p 1 4,) i "alyt. mexbErs og ". -
'I C" . r .. .. ..n a .. o. :f t ....
t : '. by r, e"".", .b l t, s. 1' -,
of ...e. Sth. e ,.wu4 be~a anvern~aen Tha e a].rs.h.elaime ri tor.inyi; -~"e~ -t tiboit'.byl-sthemo "r,:0an mty,.'an pb .
u oi- CIA teri-ty co go.,-,rir, .t "such- veq'by, "lthe-iirhf ie ..t -yiukpR0. ntr,_ ro eme '

dopje. o p' the suth n't. rdl-.t1.. (or ,A1'ehe. otti.o ,~ If utnaio d..or otbyins. hua 4ro'athie 0..:?,m..geae .
90!99 ipmo ., ,-hn .wg. e qegue i i.t~ ." t o pr- hir ci ates, .0 ao otin to.acigh!u '.sir..
... s. titl to. ento prt.. otth e esi es, d.n 1 ri Go rn' s.' t.t h h'u a ve ota ol)oe.., .o :
md -,"f ~ala, eaue ~ti tQe.,Gov zerOment, Of, thepe -o t[ .'er St tea.-Ar a,.diQ at.0 F..; ro.
W.:ha ;~ ~ ~~~ Eaha~~e-ib 'p-et,adforA h /', ave'i -this,'h, bssG~t10.,Sng himI ales sha i;.thar:$$z.'
.... a g n" ti o r. t w .. o .. . . . ,- .. ..P . . "- .- . .. . ,- c -- r ,- e nq.. ,,:" -
rd Kil k .'rl prlet (3. n. The.',, -acbolVe o ...... .,to" be. 0
his-, ...,-Or -0 ~,b ia fP ff n2 ,is. ..t .,,

ri- .6fi ep n 'Y pa
-, ::.y.' .;^ "^ .' .. . -. .. '" ^ *''l'. .. .. .. . . *:' .. '" '.'t ,:*

; ' .... : ., ^ .,* : :i6 .. ,
-- ; ,- , '. ,,,,. '/ ^-' ' '...
rights of the people of theUoited -States in respect legislative body"wotid hate hayvalthrtyto pass 19 '
totheb com'amon .prdper-tyvin' territories. It wAsasa a' Ilaw %v-by .which the property aciizen,,.g, pi ,ng
equals that the States confederaited, and ujiici .re- rightfully upon,,suclh terrtoiry ,col.U:be ivesed .:
qu'ires that tlieir equality .'bu-Td be regarded in"the no matter wheth er such, property consisted. in,, .
whole almimistraidnor'(of the federal authority. If slaves or anything else. ,But Conerie'sswouldb, ; ."'
the State are to -e .regardbed as .equals, then what bound,. by isS duty as the common ageWtf a th-..!,:
the same author (Vattel, p..49)' says with respect people other Stdtes hfthe Un.onto ll. a:
to indep-edent&,States, wella.ppies, to -their, rela- -necessarytoproiftect hlim in the undisturbed."nis i
tiols:." None can naturally layclaim.-to any supe- of .such his property' ""
inor prerogative, for whatever priyileces any one I propose now to consider-whe'her'th..hrerum_
of "the'id.erives from freedom and sovereignty, st iice that-there are' iihabitantsli'vingOpon.tecrt" :'-
'the others equally deri.- the same from the,,same tory at the date of its acquisition,, ca tt, Ier ala 'he
'-Source. results of my pr'cedihg airmsnt. as to tie rtl s
SIf'we may brrow an illustration from the ordi- of th'e people of(the Usiited States;'with respect to
nary carse of joint :o"common property amoho- in- its enjoymeahti,: " ' .,'
individuals, it',*ill be adrriitted by all that while all I s the territory acquire'dby conquest' .or pu- ,.
thie joint,ownersi are bound to equalcoritribution3 chase any the le's a common property of the U- ,.- :
Wb all-are alike entitled-to equal advantages in its tei] State's, because there are inhabitants of .ai fo' : ;
.use.- ,, "th .. .- 'eign *origin upon' i? Certainly I Jot, s'all, -ut-' ..'
I .need not enlargeupon the importance of justice' concede. ThT-.e4is lyt musbeibj.ct&r ato.'i th 'e
in t-h;e conduct o0f governments. It is the: basis of Pules whichh .aply to 'a common.: ert' .,as be
so eiety ad odei,- and all the'other tweenthe owneis. -' .' '":,! ..,
-,uetues of soci'.al polt e woul soon Do -the n.ha'bitants offoreign orit upon ;
piar' Itsto'bvance is mog~mportant eveg6ith such U territory possessqiheierentlyan a rro-hts
nations th.n rdividu,,a. i ao 1.,all; hou ib tVhYn. the..feoe.ihzens of"-d S e ,htho go
a nattari.butfassgiatehodconfedera r nationss, u pn it. he answri s oo tieright ,
,or.: uite4 St1hes. No- voluntary astpsociation can oftl)e-s1overeign to overn nis-te;rrtoys, '.';
Slong endure which: is-not ruled by justice, lute, itS.isasolu teasresi!peets;alerpsons A,,hlv
V.. :' Beforet proceedn g.to0another point in the argu- upon .iit,,:whput regard tOorigin', .b ... Z,.
ment,[ wiR- notice.,m passing, an'at nop power'orjursditon tin heterrtor o na'o .
may be hastily mad'-~bysome, to the abso1ute'dW indepenIderit 6f'its soveignty. "'"'' ,
pendance I have shown to exist on the part of the! Bat'tet'us .cons'tdef ths e "subject first, wrth, refer- ' .....
inhabitants of a territoryy towards its sovereign.. ence to the ja ws and'chstom of nationsandnext
ItmAy:be .supposed that I regard inhabitants of'our With reference to the. Constitutior of the"Untted ...
Territories to be merely vassals or subjects. ,By 'Staes Government. .. .
no means. Consider that' theld4tittzen o'f,:-Statc of 1. Uponthe conquest opurpih:ase of teiritoy, .'I..
the inibn who- goes utipon territory belongin, to the-sovereinty and'ju isdictio o -ftjlnation l.sig .
the United, States, goes there ash. citizen of the the 'ti.tory ceases, and that ofthte-qlurinPower ,,
State of whch' he is a member, atd does not lose simtltaneously-suceeds- Civil 'la ws; d iules f6or i
that relation to his State while resident in the ter-a the ,government oir-coiduct of"6ivi' sdcieties, have '
ritory, nor until he becohes g member of a new for'e, as I tvs, only becsause-thhv express tli sov y ...
State, by thie organizatino"f the inhabitants of the ereign and supreme will of, th State. When the ,
territory into a sovereign o6mmtuun.ity, under the sove'rbigity ceases4 its .iill being- noo longer u- ."
sanction of the :United States. It is-in that char- .pr-eme, the laws which:. emanatfedi' from it necessa- :
ac.t.e that hie continues to be entitled to the guar- .'ily cease of their' force. U pon ,'the witl)di'wal,
S"dianship State, and te, protection of the- therefore, o fthe authorito'thyop isoveren,
Ui. tied States, in all his just rights, including those the, preexisstln institutionsa rii nws ita.ntly ''
:t. ,property. As regatuds inhabitaits'th.ose alle- pirt., for.the fonut tin which n h gave them ,igor 'and ' acquired with the territory,'it mtay.rbe vita'lty i '-cut off ,, .
0i. tn.ore difficult to .define their precise relation. Let To ,render the proposition more'pla in I Will
S*it'suffice thbt I, for one, amaversetO any acqui-. present it in annthertform. The]tws of a nation
tions which ringng with then ahy.large body of i- are:confined. t6o.te limits of its territorial-juriadic
habitants not prepared for early. organization into ,ti6o. When'it parts With the juisdiction of an .
Sovereign communities. portion of its domainj, the whole- bodyof. i ts laws
-Mr.Dio-irw-so. If the Seniator.-pase, i desire necessarilyretie to the limits '6of- theteiritory to -. j
to ascertain his views more fully, b 'piropoun.ding which' its jurisdiction becomies- contractedd byth' t
..One or'two questions .. ': ; .: "- cessioh. : -., .. '" .. ; '
]I .Y,'LsE. -Certainly. ,. By the-politicallaw.ofati ans, reh would
:.,,.....~- ,i. Shppdse Gan.. da should- We .o law,.re, ainig. .iii f e-'-a e. "erri, t ory :th"a
-. edt th.eh6 Any change issevered, and it would' remain without gonver i .
'i er:la*s: .WoBd thirtito.'a of slavery ment until a code was e-nactd .by the new sorer; -i-
exist there winhoulegislatiLO "'n - eign. -To suppose otherwise, would be to supp.e.. V .-
S MrT. YuLi. f Iuana-daWa s actaq-fedoas terri- that a n.iain -ould'exiend its laws' hey onnd : '-
tory, any citizen bof-t Stkte of this- Unroa couldgo limits.oeit-oWn jurisdiction and into-she'jurisj'i '
Upon-it with his .fanily-.and- property,..slaves as tdon- f another-nation; witch wotlhd be- an,
wela hand wuldbentidto eid there surdity inzerms as in principle T '.
.,. ecrly. tndertbi&guranf-iees of-the-Constitution, But inasmuch as a period'might .iniervene her.^ ,
, ." eontiueid to" be a part of 'the teri'toiry teen the withdrawal of one code of laws end fie -
', belonging .t4 the Utiited Stares. prescription "of another-by the'new sovereign t -re '
-i l^npic^nwsoer One further question.,, C an custom has grown up among nations 'from .f-re
.... Coes or any other legislative bodyv,^aa ie gard 'for-tdie interests of hnmanity, and' to pxeveflt
... kta-ttthoritti-or ctol over the suiibjectsolong a total dissolution of social order of leaving ini
flt- tgrnirory annexed remains a Ter-yi,' force, in such cases, those-necessary regulatiott
;;7, .-. '-, Yvts. -Neitlipr OC .grets 'no.r any other -which protect.the natural rights of the in hbitants?,
- * .. ; _. .* .. '

S~ "' '!'K ''* : *' ""'-* '*"* "w . : "'< B. '?
P ^ : .' .. % 'r 1. .. . .: . i. '" .; ,.: -. '-. .. : ..' -/ < :..'",,

it,.": andpresev.e order inthei' -social'rel.tions. :-Bft Texas .,Couild "anyaw remain ii force h' the "
th. ,,.r eu t'e"e'&ulations .rest. fot theiriforce not upon the new tiei r-oy,, after it was covered, by the jur.isdie-
'x:' '" o l k .. ,' ...: "' : ..
.. enactment of the former, sovereign but upon the tion pf.'Te-xas, which; was con tray to her estab.
... ".asscettw'ch cto-,.6:m. priesureof' tb, the newfov hilished. las of .property C~.?':.uGduldY "the Texan ,omrn.
S ereign. Themuicipalreulatios thu's llowed.munity;",te6vw'eiasthey uld efh ter- '
o' pvil` te p9rpiarilarein' the ve rynai itor bxude fm its.s''by virtue of'any
"', "";the caiasom;, ltii.ted to the precisi-necessitie-of the' pi-eVious ordmianceof its anei'ent sberei n abolish
: c :;'" ase .ahd operate only togo'ern the relatirrs"' .ing slavery?, Every one will respond 'to thjs, as.-

*"," : ,'., the personsthps'-tansferred, between eachltbther, ".suredly nota Now add to the people of Texas "
F ,: untilanew code isprovi'ded.. They cannot pre- those of the other fourteen slavehokling Statesas

a i p. a v ,alw of govern ent foi the territory thus united' purchasers-with he;:."would not the tesut
t e. ac-'pednor am any muniipal regulations re- be the same..Add then, te people of the fifteen
': maifn:force which areinconsistentwith the pre- .norther- t States.: would their accssio n as joint'

on ,' a.i.flveiand rights of the new sovereign,'or which ownerss aler the just rights ofthe others? If so,
b. '.. -sdge''or embarrass his title to th0.use of-his n.ew. .the Government of the United States may be con-
. t acquisition Of this nat'e would-be any regula-s.dered as a Governapent of and for thNe.o.Nerth, and
'". ".' on which confiscated' or extiuishTiedy the. prop- hot of aid for the whole people of the Un'ion.
a. -ertyofa citizen, of the new sovereignty whocame Again : The Gatholic religion is, established in
gui-. np'on the territory to enjoy, of right, its use, he Mkxico, andProtestantism is .excluded by'law:
F>;, rightsof property of the-inhabitants remain sacred; would tlat law or re-gulation remain in forcein

t. .b'uno,:iaw oftheold government can iightfully teri-itory wemnay at any time acquire from Mex-"

:' .remain'.,rin force which disturbss the tenurte.of'prop- ico?. Cerrtainirly nSte ; for Congress being restaiined ..
,. erty"in a member,,of t1ih^e.n^ewso 'ereignty'; fortthis by thef' Constitution from making any ineo6n.
p ; ttid. dbe i6agns-risteiti'with'the sovereign r-ight of sistent with he flee exerciset:' of r.eigion asI -
ii-""s "us : h "..' s t:16: t,'i .- :. . -' soon'asjuiisdiction of the United Stat attached, "."

*. ,. "- ',l"fjir'.w- theseihmttatto a we ate's oreceivethe a sla iws creating discrimination^ between citizen
dorinthat.o,.theof aced teir.. "" ul- s enteltagions ;ul4 at o.-ncd ip t. Why..
tiyseta- t n.. Oin Fm.-c n otb eoe sr- B n eAV.r td a funda

'.R' ).: itjec.wutI.a h, a pp.htrehlend, b e .at warw with the Imental principle of the federative compact. And

;.' whlel"eory' 0s'eteigntvy. angdjurisdi'c.tiwn. clearly, for the same reason, all laws' which would.
.""' '2i-$.I unii .der.andI by a.uthority, of-the,.Constttu- create inequality or "discrimination .between {he '
t'" io ha neholdshe jui tion and ex- citizens of the United 'Statses; iany .other respect,
-^ 'j1. ercisesefth overnment of territories belonging to. would expire; for equality of rigi a'ithe citizens
S theUfii- Sta.:e T jursdtnand authority ofh Union is, in like manner, S'Tudamerntal

".' -are.,--hece'satl.,e'tclusive? as I.have heretofore pr-inciple of t.he fede'ative compact;.. BWit if the
sh o '. 'doctrine that all municipal laws remained in- frce
oii h :' ten, the ancient laws, municipal or other, until repealed was correct, then th'ie Mexican re-
s -roemainin force, ininewlymacquine n- striation upon the -frdom of religion Would eon-
b.virteof expressed or oestmed assent tg-ue permanently -i" force, for Conress could not

S ogress; b.ut. n'o.such asset can be presa.ed repeal it, -ting prohibit by heConstitution fr.orft ,
S in.rea;rd t which ,are incompatible wfi.r-h '" making. imny law respecting an establishment of
S rightss -of 0the people of thWi States of -the Uoion religion." : And on the supposition that the Sena-
' under-th&',Conlstitution; for .Congress is the cra- .to; Was correct inf his opinion, that the inhabitants
t ure: eopl of the evera"l plates, and:the. pf the territory possessed the right of legslatibn, it
on ution- is the rle of action they have pre- would e o continued in force so long as the populd-

,,,sciibefdto it. :' -. ", tion acquired with the territory miiaintained the as- .
-" W"" 'e enow, prepared for the moredistnct in- tendency. Nay, the rest iction iiight be conti- "
d., -d d' ..... -q..... .-.. .... .. .,Y ... ...~ g . ....

!. .qgiry whether, because slavery ,was0&bolished by ed even after tih'e establishment of a, State-Goveti-,
'hnic'ent .edict:amofngthe-i.nhabitants of territory ment; for the: State wouldthave-the rightt0 c-e a
n -ewly acquired-7y the Unied States, that edict 'a r9iigious establishment: ahd, in the eveht o"f'"ia -
vas. ~ ~ ~ a e't aVffec the m6 taprnjpe a'e f ii

tel:":i .e.. eo.fthue- pt e operate so as to affect the-Uni t inrporatmig aey densely-po'piilated.pai" of Met..-.., :
d. of oneof thepeopl'of the o United States ico,-smch would assuredly be the consequence.
c arrying.his slave Upon' it., .- IIt wi- :be observed that I have treated lawks'
:I\. "' readily conce0de,-that alt-hough by the change recognizing or abolishing property in saves was

o:iuuisdiction the' force-of the ancient-edict would muhicipal,'simply. It may well be doubted vle-
ce. aseslaves -once emanbipated by its operation their, under any ystm.'of Governme.nt, laws, of
7v1 wo-jd ot be, remitted to. slavery:' for this woltd this description, from tieir deep bea-ing upon the
S ,ba..nt.extiniguishing one law of theapsed soy- social and civil relations,'are. not entitled to bere-
.,-f^ ,.-, ereigat to'ilevi.e an older one, which had receg-' garded as fa'ndamental- in their nature, and appro-
I.'. &, slaie as-property. The inhabitants, priate.tPert. .g. U to the class- of politicaljes.:"
eht -.' .h bl e-r.nm fhite rri eemren s'peons., to.d..- Bdt, .ki;for ien o"u:iAr system-of Gotert '-

a- p., reservt-uei rSeictuve rel^atinand socil coxf. .ryment, if-I anm.-ldtan'itle ^ re an6^n -..
-*i -di tionh, as "existing at the moimet of transfer, s6' Ihave endeonred to so i i e n pecedtngp

f^/'^, '^ar as miah't- bte compatible with the general funda- my arguhient, that thaetevritorbfaietJnited Slaics
m' :.',inl po-icyvand laws of the United S tes. being -federati- property, muast 'be held in sub-

:..,O ^ n .lte other hand, it muastbe conceded by every servjibncy to thfe equal political niiht cofall.the parts
Sone-, that no munHcipatawY uld, remain in force of the Union ti.'benefit from it; hndtthat property
w.'-hic'h.would diminish he sbvereignwauthority, or in slaves, being recognized jn a large portion-f -
".jbarrass tihe use of the territory to its new owner. the Union, is therefore to be regarded a-partbfot:he
.i. hi .s is too clear to, ad-mit of denial. political system of the.-United States-in their fedfe-"
w "..- let us suppose, first, that the States of this rative.-tlatioi. If I am correct in this, the 6qual

Um.. d'were all separate, and that Texas, as an right to the use of emitory, ard the right to hould
m dy .i tlejtt community, acquired the territory:: of sl avetproperty in fIderative territory, are p '
S ,cotrsea*ould become -a part of the. domain of rights under the federative compact, and ares j .'

-- "" ' ,
.6Mo-grss 'bu-. o~uc asjet *~ be prsiae retlt'Migrhbte - -. iutionfr

n,.etido1a WsWay-a ep

., -. r.poapryiie. systems orqraenew. sovereign; otr, it';s,
4 ,'s^eyesaly.'adtte,d ,.i i t lws ofe.',.olitic&l^
^ -^eam'g, orah'ey^ a~~de n r irirated., p61iticl1a ^,
"vot C b ibei &upofiw .hahnge of sore?
e i ,ei oty nonress coutd p.ass' law which co
fliqtd with. t'he" polio ticaj s'system : Qfthe Iln"nion:-rtti a'en trans'mitnho'lawj.s Sfor our terr-i-1'
"torie. Whies h are of that nature., ':..'- ., g '-,
. ".The"briclu.sionTItreach seems to me sustained.
b.y.suficient-reasosas." lQ'Taw yr
'rema.inin forceore obe enacted' in nany teiritorybe-
"longing to the Ufited Staties which i'ipncon'patrhle
*. with the rights^tthepeopeo t'he UitddSt^ates
tind. l']der, the Constittitidei, :no mater:.K l er.such
terri t rory he acquired with'or without.tnhbifants.
T'..-:. he S~nator took occasion yesreiQay to gall my
a "-.tteniion to the A'soltio0ns ..a Democratit"Co
*A ..*,tenition of..e-8g^^a. and-to the'opinhlns of.dis- a
"tingui4d member of t at"er H ftpm VT'

tM."'- e ,i^;talibi'ttn.8s erthir 'i hie lts(
c.o. "on.A.'dctfd w igne in'
!f"4 ""*':th "S~t^?^. '"" 'e.-''' ".... "' "*^ '
TheiGeogie r(l i.i to which he referred,'
,'will o!ft.'sdijji4h& o :e t with^ Ilaichi he-refegd
k fo~tefdW0& thauithe expse~ssby'declare^^C
,m'-. .i 4dc.v ikinviadri-h:ofegvery citizen rto^re-;
:..a:;S w ltllphi ,s spoperd in any'0 o'fthe
...... ... ..'o ,es 't'i s m '"thebst d'-

'''"* i^ ^ S^.nt~yrec~ffz^^i~ifdii~an1 lna nit nousl^t
wotee. ,- '- "

Y:r'sh1'e pufi rpos,'h.I w.ili read ones "or jthe reshfhi-
it&ie'.o$the :Vir.. .ginia' Legislatar'e, Whiich" is ini fthW.
'Y2jeste e ia1.$5st Th. at,. under no eircuinstaoces
WU114body reeoijlizti xed !ita '.any .enectjnela..t ."yh
ittderel; Cdverh'lxaeqt wvi :ikltiasjb fr its. abiecF ..prbhihi-.
,,,qp9o.slayery in; be:.acqmred iaitr.'.byaon-
;ieor treaty; hoid'rnw blip be ttite~ituralisnd-i4 ^i~e
... 'I"t of eachr and dieyer citizen of very: State df ti oh-
q ,.a.,cytittesid{itrhtli lyl property, ofw etiate~er'ltf ii~ .
'^ (' At 'nay. territory yvitkf' *may1 e acquiired' &riv arf^it
x t jFwtedratt^pr6 i4 by'lieay Wlarathsytoreigai pbwterAV5
reso. o. gis'..ur.... ,

t.f^rrico^, Acquiredo.r to b acquired" by tihe arms .? tae'
UTi.igd Stat't, or by treaty wdta a foreign -Power, hbecjares
"lhe'.hrtoon property of h. se.ersf States."66inposihg- 1,h
Wanri^iya4! and wvhii't 'ii soknntnmates, isthte' fihe~'tt hip
q. b,,..1k,^e,.iach aqdd,,eV'i Stattto reje wtii. liis prqp:
tt( t ,, takle^t~descrwtioi ithin sut R^t,.i'
*^4L *;,M~. ^ 4'jiatt^iiAt^e

'~?LkIj~iSASIARiS~~P.. .. t

zday, h~eqgnize a nagteJeat f dra.It
' *aieaty, holMttigjt tle the ustuvJatl4 nwtefeastble"- of. [ a
-ai.fa e otiz ieraitt ,yry State the ..o.nredecy to E
.,..-; "" .: ,-. ? I i *...-*.2 .
-,- ,"; . : 4 o". ^ i ". 7 ,i.-,> ,' ;" .' : ': -: "

5? . :t- .,. : /' : .-... ., '' "^ ' " ... "^ *" "

^* ,.: ..,.. "7" ,'^ .**" :.'. :;.J'-. *v.. 4 '*^ .-. '- c. " :

-. .. ":^^. ;'.. 1 -.\ ^ ^ .t '. *. '-' y ; **a -
.- .. ,.. ., ,

aia'n. afmeno-me nt wyn itr ne.raeeq, it,. vwas.ute ^^
, Mjtp .: ose'4.MtDtc.K.oa. to,, accep~tas .n.,a'tio t
o otseco d.d resolutipn.arion a lntiw h'he statedwa
,preparedand agreed LOu.po5 soe. itietune'sin.e Tla^
desti~ne4 amgndrtpeht wyas in tke'follow-inav^ wqjds ^^
I~n.:ordinaon to; th.e .Pederal Cong.ti'titon,
-and. ieserv~edrigh-ts of thie:States and pieopit, ^" >(?1 ^
M.r.YULE nproceet ed t a eem.., blweto e
.aeator.'for te.irnformatioo. ..He was so goo. as'
i;,.e ane'nm.entqi.esterda.y .-But,:wh.le ,:
I recognize in it a.good spirit,.and. aispoiionito-
mak ethb Consti'tpooi. the- iule 'to "whiuh they will '.GS
coorm,vI -.n.'t.frankly say, it, 'does not .meet, the .
jissue.. Tlihe effect of: the *amendment would b
.-only to declare t th'tte local legis,lature mit L legis
late.undei the Canstuo ing, l wholly yady
teimied themate" eial poin iwtia i the.rialssf
.thje peoplee of tile utie theSsla
siltukidainih pect toQaa us o\hete^tir*

atorft ri NewfY-rk,r.i Dics s ,j' n
tbeen bec u~seof6ns e
.views of whmh e sddi t s en~nq
up)on floorPIlfelt itmydtttyt.p Lcoon-
.teliresolutions ;t6 tho.e he had pr^as ,7and., in '
siupportina ,*n,y position, I have beehn:d^rle-
.view his doctrainnawith such .trictneaoF tiy
.as the occasorin .seemed .to. me'. ta izeoj' e .t
s u r e "th a in th e c u i s e o f n" m y r.. a"" 1 a d
igled to say, no,thidgijicons.stentjS.^ } h
fCe'egs I take pleasuetpc..ultivatinjvad
nojwith thethanks I ) e hint ancdnaf~ieaids1 for
{tfrowjng the weight or their greatifiee i~~a gai:^,n~st '
#l7,tf miichiev .. spirit .of A oiitni 'nW
Sir, it h'as seeded to me a dutyo.pqtnotm
,tO offer ,.myhvmble views, unimpolrtanr'4'& ;bey
say b.e, .to.e'.consiideretibn of the, Sena t The
'cjuetion h.s sdpmed. to"'me vital to ..the^
strikes at the.#et i .oqf the St.ffs dw sttbAverted,.those who aie',.tlyp suyco 1
the,.egciadation, and y.tabide in" the Ui:oa. iwst
bebcontent to abide in itas:serf. not e e rpe
An eminent politicPI'plPitpjih9 whoss .... pg
Shave ,before hlid ocgcas:"o o ,ote .in the...&e ..-..
of argument,.sAtys ti'.Iytha't the wearr. e e
toa Confederacy are. redulced .-to' the con d.4( ef C
depehndent provinces, Whenever j y
'lasting PREE.RENCE -OF._PRpPGfjpE- 7 os ;v;
'that are sirotger, eog
......s: i & C KL s >-a.i...*. *t4..':2&f" S;; ."

ir yeeao,4e tih i' drilyrsozfd'";, -.,
,-when I deslarq -fat.a.t ho; Americ ] tate, whrciA'.?.'^
dIds i. .p.opey. e .eem. her birthrlght of Li-hjt.y,;' ^ "
n eidh&,art.yT^4a wInfch.,^e not a ijoazrtiit'
tAC ., OF ilc 9fUAI.S ,? ,' .. #',-. .' ) -:, ... . .
*. "' ./i " ' "-^" *^ ; _^ "- "' ^ : ":' '- "": f ^ "' ', '*;
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