A new population of Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) in the Valdivian Coastal Range

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A new population of Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) in the Valdivian Coastal Range
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English
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Farias, Ariel A.
Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A.
Silva-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.
Eguren, Antonieta
Gonzalez, Danilo
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Springer (Revists Chilena de Historia Natural, a Springer Open Journal)
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Farias et al. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 2014, 1:3 http://www.revchilhistnat.com/content/1/1/3
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doi:10.1186/0717-6317-1-3 Cite this article as: Farias et al.: A new population of Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) in the Valdivian Coastal Range. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 2014 1:3.

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University of Florida
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SHORTREPORTOpenAccessAnewpopulationofDarwin'sfox( Lycalopex fulvipes )intheValdivianCoastalRangeArielAFarias1,2* †,MaximilianoASeplveda1,3 †,EduardoASilva-Rodrguez4 †,AntonietaEguren5,6,DaniloGonzlez8, NataliaIJordn1,ErwinOvando8,PaulinaStowhas7andGabriellaLSvensson1FindingsDarwin'sfox( Lycalopexfulvipes Martin,1837)isanendemicofthetemperateforestsoftheCoastalRange ofsouthernChile,thatwasreportedbyCharlesDarwin in1834insouthernChiloIsland(42S,74W;Martin 1837).Initiallyknownexclusivelyfromthatisland,it wasconsideredbothaninsularsubspeciesofthechilla fox( Lycalopexgriseus Gray,1837)(Housse1953;CluttonBrocketal.1976)andavalidspecies(Martin1837;Gay 1947;Osgood1943).In1990,amainlandpopulationwas reportedatNahuelbutaNationalPark(ca.450kmnorth ofChiloIsland,3747 S,7259 W;Figure1a)insympatrywiththechillaandculpeofoxes( Lycalopexculpaeus Molina,1782)(Jaksicetal.1990;Medeletal.1990;Jimnez etal.1991).Thissupporteditsstatusasavalidspecies,laterconfirmedthroughgeneticstudies(Yahnke etal.1996).Thoughthiscanidusesdiversehabitattypes, itishighlyassociatedwithnativeforest(Medeletal.1990; Jimnezetal.1991;Jimnez2007).Thecurrentpopulationsizeisnotpreciselyknown,butithasbeenestimated tobefewerthan600individuals,90%ofthemonChilo Island(JimnezandMcMahon2004;Jimnezetal.2008). Inlightofitssmallpopulationsizeandthevulnerability ofremainingpopulations,Darwin'sfoxwasclassified asCriticallyEndangered(CR:C2a(ii);cf.IUCN2012). ThediscontinuousdistributionofDarwin'sfox,however, raisedquestionsregardingtheexistenceofotherpopulationsinunder-exploredintermediateareas(e.g.,Viletal. 2004;Jimnezetal.2008).Recently,Viletal.(2004) geneticallyidentifiedaDarwin'sfoxskinfromPunta Chanchn(3921 S,7314 W)andreportedpossible sightingsbylocalpeoplethereandatFundoChaihun (4001 S,7325 W),butfailedtofindevidenceofliving individuals.Anadditionaldeadindividualwasreported fromthenearbylocalityofLastarria(Gorbeadistrict, 3911 S,726 W;D'Elaetal.2013).Theselocalities arehalfwaybetweenthepreviouslyknownpopulations (Figure1a),suggestingthatindeedtherangeislessdiscontinuousthanwaspreviouslysuspected. Herewereportcamera-trap(BushnellTrophyCam, BushnellCorporation,OverlandPark,KS,USA)records ofDarwin'sfoxesinthreedifferentprotectedareasin LosRosregion,whichindeedconfirmtheexistence ofanintermediatepopulation(Figure1b,c).Theserecordswereobtainedaspartoftwoindependentstudies andamonitoringprogram.Oneofthestudiesandthe monitoringprogramwereconductedintheValdivian CoastalReserve(VCR;4002 S,7335 W;50,250ha; Figure1b)duringFebruarytoMay2012andthroughout 2012,respectively.Thethirdstudysurveyedtwoprotectedareas(Figure1b):OncolPark(ONC;3942 S, 7318 W;753ha;MarchtoMay2012)andAlerce CosteroNationalPark(ACP;3959 S,7328 W; 24,694ha;December2012toMarch2013). WerecordedDarwin'sfoxinninedifferentcamera traps(i.e.,oneormorephotospercameratrap),threein eachprotectedarea(Figure1c,d,e).RecordsfromONC camefromtransectswithintheparkorclosetoits border,whereasrecordsfromACPcamefromthehighestelevationwithinthepark.Inallthesecases,photos wereobtainedinareasofeitherold-growthforestor denseunderstory,withcamerasthatwerebaitedwith rawchickenandcommerciallures(MinnesotaBrand BobcatUrine,Caven'sViolator-7andTerminatorlures; MinnesotaTraplineProductsInc.,Pennock,MN,USA). AllrecordsfromtheVCRcamefromcamerassetinan arealocatedclosetoACP,includingnativeforestsand eucalyptusplantationswithdenseunderstory(Figure1b). WedidnotuseluresintheVCR. OurrecordsaddtotheskinreportedfromPunta Chanchn(Viletal.2004)andtheparallelreportofa deadindividualatthenearbylocalityofLastarria(D'Ela *Correspondence: afarias@bio.puc.cl†Equalcontributors1DepartamentodeEcologa,FacultaddeCienciasBiolgicas,Pontificia UniversidadCatlicadeChile,P.O.Box114-D,Santiago6513677,Chile2CentrodeInvestigacineInnovacinparaelCambioClimtico(CIICC), UniversidadSantoToms,Santiago8370003,Chile Fulllistofauthorinformationisavailableattheendofthearticle 2014Fariasetal.;licenseeSpringer.ThisisanOpenAccessarticledistributedunderthetermsoftheCreativeCommons AttributionLicense(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0),whichpermitsunrestricteduse,distribution,andreproduction inanymedium,providedtheoriginalworkisproperlycredited.Farias etal.RevistaChilenadeHistoriaNatural 2014, 1 :3 http://www.revchilhistnat.com/content/1/1/3

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etal.2013),confirmingthecurrentpresenceofDarwin's foxintheareaandsuggestingawidedistributionof Darwin'sfoxthroughouttheCoastalRange(Yahnke etal.1996;Viletal.2004).Furthermore,therecords fromAlerceCosteroNationalParkandValdivian CoastalReserveareinthenorthernextremeofaforested corridorthatextendssouthwardsalmostcontinuouslyfor ca.150km,coveringanareaslightlysmallerthanthatoccupiedbysimilarforestsinChiloIsland(Figure1a) wherethemainpopulationislocated.Thisopensthepossibilitythatthedistributionandpopulationsizeofthis canidcouldbesignificantlylargerthanpreviouslyestimated.Confirmationofawidespreaddistributionand populationlargerthanthepreviousestimateofca.600 Figure1 LandscapecontextoftheknowndistributionofDarwin'sfox( Lycalopexfulvipes ),highlightingthenewrecords(stars). Shaded areasrepresentthecurrentdistributionofnativetemperateforests. (a) Majorlocalitiescitedinthetext. (b) Detailofthenewlocalities:ONC, OncolPark;ACP,AlerceCosteroNationalPark;VCR,ValdivianCoastalReserve;segmentedlines,limitsoftheprotectedareas. (c,d,e) Photographs obtainedfromeachprotectedarea. Farias etal.RevistaChilenadeHistoriaNatural 2014, 1 :3 Page2of3 http://www.revchilhistnat.com/content/1/1/3

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individualsforDarwin'sfoxcouldrequireareassessment oftheconservationstatus(JimnezandMcMahon2004; IUCN2012).Further,thecurrentpresenceofDarwin's foxintheValdivianCoastalRange,andatthelocalityof Lastarria(D'Elaetal.2013),iscrucialgiventhatasignificantpartofthisareaiscurrentlyunderprotectionbythe ValdivianCoastalReserve,theAlerceCosteroNational Park,OncolParkandothersmallerprivateinitiatives. Nevertheless,theareaisnotfreeofanthropogenicthreats, suchastheprojectedextensionofthecoastalhighway (Wilsonetal.2005),conflictsbetweenwildcarnivoresand localcommunities(Stowhas2012),free-rangingdogs ( Canisfamiliaris Linnaeus,1758)(Silva-Rodrguezand Sieving2012;Seplvedaetal.(2014a)),andtheriskofcaninedistempervirus(Seplvedaetal.(2014b)).Inconsequence,itisnecessarytoconductfurtherstudiestoclarify theactualconservationstatusofthenewlydiscovered populationofDarwin'sfox.Competinginterest Theauthorsdeclaredthattheyhavenocompetinginterest. Authors ’ contribution AAFconceivedthestudyatONCandACP,andparticipatedinfieldwork; AAFandGLScoordinatedsurveysatONCandACP.MASandEASconceived thestudiesatVCR;DG,EO,AEandPSsetandoperatedthecamerasatVCR; MAS,EAS,DG,EO,AEandPSidentifiedtherecords.NIJandGLSsetand operatedthecamerasandidentifiedtherecordsatONCandCAP.AAF,MAS andEASwrotethemanuscript.Allauthorsreadandapprovedthefinal manuscript. Acknowledgements GrantFONDECYT-11110027toAAFfundedtheresearchatPONCandPNAC, andtheWildlifeWithoutBordersProgram(U.S.Fish&WildlifeService)and PantheraFoundationfundedtheworkatVCR.CONAFandForestalValdivia providedlogisticsupportandaccesspermits.TheNatureConservancy (L.Pezoa,A.Almonacid)providedlogisticsupportatRCV.ParkrangersO.Ponce andG.Ponce(VCR)andR.Crdenas(ACP),alongwithS.Castillo,N.Glade,G. Carrasco,T.Saratscheff,F.Fuentes,P.Zucolillo,M.Duclos,F.Alfaro,A.Seplveda, andA.Silva,assistedinthefieldwork.J.Jimnez,A.Iriarte,andD.Moreirakindly agreedtopeer-reviewourpictures.WethankM.Soto-Gamboawhoprovided valuablesupporttoourwork.WethankthecommentsbyP.FeinsingerandA. Sigersonthathelpedimprovethemanuscript. Authordetails1DepartamentodeEcologa,FacultaddeCienciasBiolgicas,Pontificia UniversidadCatlicadeChile,P.O.Box114-D,Santiago6513677,Chile.2CentrodeInvestigacineInnovacinparaelCambioClimtico(CIICC), UniversidadSantoToms,Santiago8370003,Chile.3CollegeofVeterinary Medicine,UniversityofMinnesota,St.Paul,MN55108,USA.4Departamento deEcologayBiodiversidad,FacultaddeEcologayRecursosNaturales, UniversidadAndrsBello,Santiago8370251,Chile.5CenterforAfrican Studies,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,FL32611,USA.6CenterforLatin AmericanStudies,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,FL32611,USA.7Parcela 50,Quitacalzn,Valdivia5090000,Chile.8ReservaCosteraValdiviana,The NatureConservancy,Valdivia5110489,Chile. 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RevistaChilenade HistoriaNatural 2014 1 :3. Submit your manuscript to a journal and bene“ t from:7 Convenient online submission 7 Rigorous peer review 7 Immediate publication on acceptance 7 Open access: articles freely available online 7 High visibility within the “ eld 7 Retaining the copyright to your article Submit your next manuscript at 7 springeropen.com Farias etal.RevistaChilenadeHistoriaNatural 2014, 1 :3 Page3of3 http://www.revchilhistnat.com/content/1/1/3