Isle of Pines

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Material Information

Title:
Isle of Pines papers relating to the adjustment of title to the ownership of the Isle of Pines
Series Title:
Document / Senate ;
Portion of title:
Adjustment of title to the ownership of the Isle of Pines
Ownership of the Isle of Pines
Physical Description:
1 online resource (iii, 319 pages). : ;
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Foreign Relations

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
International relations   ( fast )
Isla de Pinos (Cuba)   ( lcsh )
Foreign relations -- United States -- Cuba   ( lcsh )
Foreign relations -- Cuba -- United States   ( lcsh )
Isla de Pinos (Cuba)   ( bidex )
Relaciones exteriores -- Estados Unidos -- Cuba   ( bidex )
Relaciones exteriores -- Cuba -- Estados Unidos   ( bidex )
Cuba   ( fast )
Cuba -- Isla de Pinos   ( fast )
United States   ( fast )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"Mr. Lodge, from the Committee on Foreign Relations." Page 1.

Record Information

Source Institution:
The New York City Bar Library
Holding Location:
Law Library Microform Consortium ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 834614841
ocn834614841
Classification:
System ID:
AA00021831:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Report by Mr. Lodge, Sixty-eighth Congress, first session
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Owners of land on Isle of Pines
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Report by Mr. Lodge, Sixty-seventh Congress, fourth session
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Protests against Isle of Pines treaty
        Page 17
        Page 18
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    Conditions in Isle of Pines
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Report by Mr. Foraker, Fifty-ninth Congress, first session
        Page 33
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    Agreement regarding coaling and naval stations
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    Lease of coaling or naval stations
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    Text of pending treaty--Executive J., Fifty-eighth Congress, second session
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Full Text


















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68TH CONGRESS SENATE DOCUMENT
2d Session } No. 166



JSLE OF PI



PAPERS RELATING TO TH
ADJUSTMENT OF TITLE TO THE
OWNERSHIP OF THE
ISLE OF PINES


















WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1924























SUBMITTED BY MR. MOSES
SENATE RESOLUTION 270
IN THE SENATE OF TlE UNITED STATES, December 3, 1924. Resolved, That certain papers relating to the adjustment of title to the ownership of the Isle of Pines be printed as a Senate dociument.
Attest:
GEORGE A. SANDERSON, Secretary.
II































CONTENTS.

'Page
Report by -Mr. Lodge, Sixty-eighth Congress, first session -----------------1
Owners of land on Isle of Pines-------------------------------------- 5
Report by Mr. Lodge, Sixty-seventh Congress, fourth session --------------13
Protests against Isle of Pines treaty---------------------------------- 17
Conditions in Isle of Pines ------------------------------------------- 27
Report by Mr. Foraker, Fifty-ninth Congress, first session ----------------33
Agreement regarding coaling and naval stations -----------------------305
Lease of coaling or naval stations ---------------------------------- 30
Text of pending treaty-Executive J., Fifty-eighth Congress, second
session ----------------------------------------------------------- 317












[In executive session, Senate of the United States.]
SENATE REPORT NO. 2, SIXTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION.




ADJUSTMENT OF TITLE TO ISLE OF PINES.


FEBRUARY 15. 1924.-Ordered to be printed and injunction of secrecy removed.


Mr. LoDGE, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, submitted the following

REPORT.
[To accompany Executive J, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session.]

The Committee on Foreign Relations, to whom was referred Executive J, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session, a treaty between; the United States and 'Cuba, signed on March 2, 1904, for the adjustment of title to the ownership of the Isle of Pines, having had the same under consideration, report it with the recommendation flat the Senate advise and consent to its ratification.
The ratification of the treaty was urged by President Harding in the last Congress in the following letter to the chairman:
THE VHMITE ltOUSE,
lVal.hingtoni, Norcaibcr 28, 1922.
Hon. HENRy (CABOT 1I':.
Uait(d Stot(, oZcie, Wesh ington, ). C.
AIY DE.z "EN'rO,' LODGE: I 1inl writing to call your attention to the treaty negotiated between- the Government of Cuba and that of the United States March 2, 1q04. which has not been ratified by the Senate. This treaty relates to the relinquishment of all claims of title to the Isle of Pines on the part of the United States, wh ch possible claim was suggested by the language of the treaty of peace with Spain.
I am incloeing to you herewith a review of the treaty status and our relationship to the Isle of Pines, as recited in a letter by the Secretary of State to Senator McCormick. It is manifest that th!s Government has no intention ever to make claim to any title to the Isle of Pines, and, as the Secretary says in the letter to which I have above referred, it seems altogether desirable that the ratification of the treaty be made and thereby remove any possible cause of friction between the two Governments, and put an end to any uncertainty in the minds of the inhabitants of the island concerning its relationship to the Government of Cuba.
Very truly yours, WARREN G. tARDING.
1




2 ADJUSTMENT OF TITLE TO ISLE OF PINES.

[Inclosure.]
OCTOBER 16, 1922.
MY DEAR SENATOR i[cCoNfuCi.: With further reference to your letter of July 28, addressed to the Assistant Secretary, in regard to the Isle of Pines, I beg to advise you as follows:
The Isle of Pines Is situated about 50 miles from the coast of Cuba, and, therefore, as was indicated by the Supreme Court of the United States in its opinion in the case of Pearcy v. Stranahan (205 IV. S. 257), under the principles of international law applicable to such coasts and shores as those of Florida. the Bahamas, and Cuba, it would ordinarily be regarded as an integral part of Cuba.
Prior to 1898 the Isle of Pines was a Spanish possession, apparently governed as a municipal district of the Province of Habana, Cuba.
With respect to Cuba, the joint resolution passed by the Congress of the United States April 20, 1898, provides (4) "That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or intention to exercise sovereign jurisdiction or control over said Island, except for the pacification thereof; and asserts the determination when that is accomplished to leave the government and control of the island to its people." (38 Stat. 378.)
The treaty of peace between the United States and Spain proclaimed April 11, 1899, makes no specific mention of the Isle of Pines, bnt by Article I of the treaty Spain relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba," and by Article II, Spain cedes to the United States the island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and to the island of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones."
During the military occupation of Cuba by the United States the Isle of Pines was apparently administered as a municipal district of the Province of Habana. (Report of Census of Cuba published by War Department in 1900.)
When the Government of Cuba was turned over to the Cubans May 20, 1902. there was an exchange of communications between the military governor and the President of Cuba to the effect that the Isle of Pines was to continue de facto under the jurisdiction of the Government of Cuba subject to treaty arrangements as to future disposition.
The Platt amendment (Article VI), and Article VI of the treaty with Cuba proclaimed July 2, 1904, provde that the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba. the title thereof being left to future adjustment by treaty." March 2, 1904. a treaty was signed by which the United States relinquished all claims of title to the Isle of Pines under the said treaty of peace with Spain. The Senate of the United States has never consented to the ratification of this treaty.
It therefore appears that the United States has never taken possession of the Isle of Pines as having been ceded by the treaty of peace with Spain. and that it has been uniformly governed by the Republic of Cuba since that Republic came into existence, the United States recognizing Cuba as rightfully exercising de facto sovereignty until otherwise provided for.
In the case of Pearcy v. Stranahan. before mentioned. the court considered that it was justified in assuming that the Isle of Pines was always treated by the representatives in Cuba of the President of the United States as an integral part of Cuba. The court added that this was "no doubt to be expected in view of the fact that it was such at the time of the execution of the treaty and its ratification, and that the treaty did not provide otherwise in terms, 'to say nothing of the general principles of international law before mentioned.'
The political department of the Government has apparently, as indicated by the treaty it concluded with Cuba March 2, 1904. and its other dealings with this subject above referred to, taken the ground that under the treaty of peace with Spain the Isle of Pines was not one of the other islands now under Spanisli sovereignty in the West Indies and ceded to tle United States by the treaty, but was an integral part of Cuba over which Spain relinqusied claim to sovereignty by the treaty.. In any event, tile United S tates has undoubtedly Indicated that it did not des re to assert any title to the island under the treaty of peace with Spain, but wished to quitclaim in favor of Cuba any shadow of title it might have under that treaty.
It can not be doubted that in adopting this attitude the Gover-ment of the United States was influenced by the proximity of the island to Cuba and the consequently applicable principles of international law. and by the fact that the Isle of Pines had uniformly been administered as an integral part of Cuba.




ADJUSTMENT OF TITLE TO ISLE OF PINES. 3

Referring to the suggestion on this point in the attached letter to Mr. Wall to Colonel Rosenfeld, It may be said that there was no private agreement or understanding between the department and the Government of Cuba relative to the "pigeonholing of the said treaty of March 2, 1904. I.mayv add that the department cons:ders it desirable in the interest of relations between the United States and Cuba that the treaty before the Senate should be approved. The ratification of the treaty would leave the situation with respect to Cuban exercise of authority over the island as it Is at the present time. Possible causes of friction between the two Governments would be obviated and the uncertainty in the minds of the Inhabitants of the island as to Its status would be removed.
In accordance with your request. I return the papers which accompanied your letter under acknowledgment.
Sincerely yours,
CHARLES E. HuGHEs.
The committee also prints as a part of its report the following correspondence from Hon. Elihu Root, then Secretary of State:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,.
W~ashington, January 8, 1906.
Hon. SHELBY M1. CULLOM,
Cha~irmnan. Committee oai Foreign, Relations, United States Senate.
DEAR. SENATOR: I send you a note of the passage in Hall's International Law, to which I referred in our conversation the other day, relating to the Isle of Pines. It is to be found on pages 124 and 125 of the fifth edition, 129 and 130 of the fourth edition, and for greater convenience I inclose a typewritten copy of the passage. You w.ll see that it contains ai very good description of the physical conditions, and that, as I mentioned to you, the undoubted appurtenance of the Archipielago de los Canarios, including- the Isle of Pines, to the country called Cuba, is used as an illustration of the general proposit on. .I dare say the same thing is to be found in other writers, but I have not examiaed: I merely happened to notice this. This passage was written while Cuba st~ll belonged to Spain, and undoubtedly would be acceptedI by international lawyers as correctly describing the status of the Isle of Pines at the time of the treaty of Paris.
Very sincerely yours,
Eui-iu ROOT.


Apart from questions connected with the extent of territorial waters, which will be dealt with later, certain physical peculiarities of coasts in various parts of the world, where land impinges on the sea in an unusual manner, require to be noticed as affecting the territorial boundary. Off the coast of Florida, among the Bahamas, along the shores of Cuba, and in the Pacific are to be found groups of numerous islands and islets rising out of vast banks, which are covered with very shoal water and either form a line more or less parallel with land or compose systems of their own, in both cases inclosing considerable sheets of water, which are sometimes also shoal and sometimes relatively deep. The entrance to these interior bays or lagoons may be wide in breadth of surface water, but it is narrow in navigable water. To take a specific case, on the South coast of Cuba the Archipelago de los Canarios stretches from 60 to 80 miles from the mainland to La Isla de Pinos. its length from the Jardine", Bank to Cape Frances is over a hundred miles. It is inclosed partly by some islands, mainly by banks, which are always awash, but upon which the tides are very slight. The depth of water is at no0 time sufficient to permit of navigation. Spaces along these banks many miles in length are unbroken by a s'iigle inlet. The water is uninterrupted, but access to the interior gulf or sea ist impossible. At the western end there is a strait 20 miles or so in width, hilt nlot more than 6 miles of channel intervene between two banks which rise to within 7 or 8 feet from the surface and which do not, consequently, admit of the passage of seagoing vessels. In cases of this sort the question whether the interior waters are or are not lakes inclosed within the territory must always depend upon the depth upon the banks and the width of the entrances. Each must be judged upon its own merits. But in the instance cited there can




4 ADJUSTMENT OF TITLE TO ISLE OF PINES.

be little doubt that the whole Archipelago de los Canarlos Is a mere salt-water lake and that the boundary of the land of Cuba runs along the exterior edge of the banks. (Pp. 124, 125, Hall on International Law, 5th ed.)
DEPARTMENT OF' STATEm,
'Washingt on, Novembe 97, 1905.
CHrARLES RAYNARD, Esq.,
President of Amnerican Club, Isle of Pines, West Indies.
DEAR Sia: I. have received your lettei of October 25, in which .you say, "Kindly advise me at your very earliest convenience the necessary procedure to establish a territorial form of government for the Isle of Pines, West Indies, United States of America."
It is no part of the duty of the Secretary of State to give advice upon such subjects. I think it proper, however, to answer your inquiry so far as it may be necessary to remove an error under which you appear to rest concerning the status of the Isle of Pines and your rights as residents of that island.
There is no procedure by whch you and your associates can lawfully establish a territorial government in that island. The 'island is lawfully subject to the control and government of the Republic of Cuba, and you and your associates are bound to render obedience to the laws of that country so long as you remain in tile island. If you fail in that obedience you will be justly liable to prosecution In the Cuban courts and to such punishment as may be provided by the laws of Cuba for such offenses as you commit. You are not likely to have any greater power in the future. The treaty now pending before the Senate, if approved by that body, will relinquish all claim of the United States to the Isle of Pines. In my judgment the United States has no substantial claim to the Isle of Pines. The treaty merely accords to Cuba what 4s hers in accordance with international law and justice.
At the time of the treaty of peace which ended the war between the United States and Spain the Isle of Pines was, and had been for several centuries, a part 9f Cuba. I have no doubt whatever that it continues to be a part of Cuba, and that it is not and never has been territory of the United States. This is the view with which President Roosevelt authorized the pending treaty, and Mr. Hay signed it, and I expect to urge its confirmation. Nor would the rejection of the pending treaty put an end to the control of Cuba over the island. A treaty directly contrary to the one now pending would be necessary to do that, and there is not the slightest prospect of such a treaty being made. You may be quite sure that Cuba will never consent to give up the Isle of Pines, and that the United States will never try to compel her to give it up against her will.
Very respectfully,
ELIHU ROOT.







CONFIDENTIAL. EXECUTIVE DOCUMENT NO. 1, FIFTY-NINTH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION.




OWNERS OF LAND ON THE ISLE OF PINES.


FEBRUARY 28; 1906.-Prisented by Mr. La Follette, and ordered to lie on the table and to be printed in confidence in connection with the Isle of Pines treaty (Ex. J, 58th, 2d.).
MIARCH 12, 1906.-Injunction of secrecy _noved.


OWNERS OF LAND ON TILE CA ANADA TRACT.
J. S. Symes, Menominee, Mich., two lots, town of Los Indios. Lives on island. Improved with house. Mrs. S. J. Shoemaker, t'vo lots, town of Los Indios. Lives on Isle of Pines.
J. A. Hansen, Marinette, Wis.. 80 acres; 10 acres improved; house built; orange grove and pineapple plantation started. Mr' Hansen and wife; son, wife, and child are now living on the island, having moved bag and baggage from Marinette. Ira N. Carley, Chicago, Ill., 144 acres; not improved. Louis Gunderson, Allen Johnson, T.. A. Lid, and E. Gunderson, 1021 acres. The two Gundersons are living on the island. House built; 30 acres planted in oranges; clearing and improving the balance as fast as possible.
S. F. Bagley, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres; house built; 10 acres improved.
J. E. Howe, Omaha, Nebr., 71 acres; no improvements. Leon Brown, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres, no improvements. H. T. Emerick, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; no improvements. J. F. Howe, De Ridder, Iowa, 40 acres; no. improvements. Mrs. Emma Norris, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres; 5 acres in vegetables. Ben Babineau, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres; 5 acres improved. W. J. Bagley, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres; house built; lives on island; 10 acres improved.
George A. McDonald, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres; lives on island; 10 acres improved.
S. M. Hoover, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres house built; lives on island; acres improved.
Edward Leflance, Duluth, 40 acres; house built; lives on
island; 10 acres cleared and 6 acres planted. A. G. Sturtz, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improved. T. C. Miller, Chicago Heights, Ill. 80 acres; 10 acres cleared, Plowed, fenced, planted in orange trees.
5




6 OWNERS OF LAND ON THE CAN ADA TRACT, ISLE OF PINES.

L. D. Martin, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improved. Jos. Vandernmelen, Dykesville, Wis., 40 acres; not improved. Win. F. Winther, Racine, Wis., 40 acres; not improved. C. L. Hanson, Menominee, Mich., 40 acres; not improved.
Hans R. Winther, Chicago, Ill., 40 acres; not improved. Contract have been let to J. A. Hansen, now on the island, to improve 10 ac each of the above forties.
Swanke & Stromer, Marinette, Wis., 80 acres; 6 acres improved planted in orange trees.
Aug. Klagstad, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; 10 acres improved planted in orange trees.
Edward Sheldrick, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.
John Scheldrick, Waterloo, Iowa, 40 acres; not improved.
Carl Klagstad, Laporte, Ind., 20 acres; 5 acres improved.
W. K. Moore, Marinette, Wisp, 20 acres; not improved.
Thomas Dickie, Marinette, W.is., 40 acres; house built; 10 acm improved; at present in this country; returns soon to the island.
T. R. Michaelis, Marinette, Wis., 120 acres; house built; man liv on the place; 20 acres improved; 10 acres in oranges.
J. H. Stibbe, Peshtigo, Wis., 80 acres; not improved.
D. J. McKay, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.
S. N. Harrison, Peshtigo, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.
William Holmes, Menominee, Mich., 80 acres; not improved.
Jno. Striffler, Marinette, Wis., 80 acres; not improved. .Louis Reno, Green Bay, Wis., 40 acres; 3 acres improved. R. M. Williams, Higginsville, Wis., 40 acres; partially improved do not know acreage.
Robt. Littlejohm, Menominee, Mich., 40 acres; partially improved
V. J. Baker, Menominee, Mich., 40 acres; partially improved.
Jules Depeaux, Green Bay, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.
H. F. Schroeder, Marinette, Wis., 160 acres; not improved.
Jno. D. McLeod, Milwaukee, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.
H. L. O'Neil, 40 acres; lives on island; are not advised as t amount of improvements.
Win. Hoegner, Miamisburg, Ohio, 40 acres; not improved.
George Porterfield, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; 8 acres improved planted in orange trees; lives on island.*
A. P. Scheldt, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; 8 acres improved; spend a portion of time on the island.
Frank A. Sillman, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.
E. C. Eastman, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.
Sherick, Berg & Staaten, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improvei Philip Erst, Niagara, Wis., 40 acres; not improved. Mr. Erst gc to the island this fall to live.
J. M. Vickers, Hibbing, Minn., 40 acres; lives on island; do E know amount of improvements.
C. A. Robinson, Niagara, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.
Mark Hagel, Kewanee, Ill., 80 acres; not improved.
Jno. Wickstromn, Norway, Mich., 40 acres; not improved.
Nels C. Soreneson, Menominee. Mich., 40 acres; not improved.
Geo. W. Townsend, Chicago Heights, Ill., 40 acres; not improved
R. D. Blackburn, Wausaukee, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.
Jno. J. Andrew, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.




owNEBS OF LAND ON THE CANADA TRACT, ISLE OF PINE. 7

Andrew Larson and Jno. Sunderberg, Daggett, Mich., 40 acres; Larson lives on the island.
A. T. Mason, Niagara, Wis., 40 acres; not improved. E. D. Galineau, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improved. Jno. Tifts, Crystal Falls, Mich., 40 acres; contract out for improving 10 acres.
Win. Lowe, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; not improved. H. F. Yeadicka, Menominee, Mich., 40 acres; not improved. Larson & Nolenberg, Crystal Falls, Mich., 40 acres; not improved. Robert A. McDonald, Marinette, Wis., 20 acres; not improved. Howard Citeelill, Marinette, Wis., 20 acres; not improved.
-I. Laihff, Marinette, Wis., 20 acres; not improved.. F. N. Brett, Green Bay, Wis., 40 acres; not improved. M\fathias Lee, Crystal Falls, Mich., 80 acres; lives on island; house built; improving his land.
Frank A. Johnson, Duluth,. Minn.. 40 acres; not advised as to amount of improvements; lives on island. Mrs. Ida E. Tibbals, Fargo, N. Dak., 40 acres; Mr. Tibbals now on island.
Hestor McNaughton, Duluth, 'Minn., 40 acres; not advised as to amount of improvements.
A. E. Sangster, Cheboygan, M\[ich., 80 acres; partially improved. Air. Sangster now on island.
Don C. McCowan, Allegan, Mich.. 40 acres; not improved. Fred S. Doud, Paw Paw, Mich., 40 acres; not improved. Walter J. WVestlin, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres. Fred Anderson, Superior, Wis., 40 acres. August Westlin, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres. August Carlson, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres. Understand these four ,men have all moved to the island, but are not advised at this writing as to the amount or nature of their improvements. 11. A. Kroupa. Pellston, Mich., 40 acres. A. R. Kellogg, Albion, Mich., 80 acres; not improved. J. W. Green Bay, Wis., 40 acres; not improved.'
Collett & Anderson. Duluth, Minn., 40 acres. J. B. Balder, Superior, Wis., 40 acres. Anthony Gleasonm, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres. These people live on the island; not advised as to amount of improvements. S. Bagley, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres; 6 or 8 acres in vegetables; house built; other improvements made; lives on island with family. A. W. Jacobs, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres; not advised as to improve,a1ents.
L. Dauplaise, Duluth, Minn., 40 acres; now on island; some improvements made; how extensive not informed. Jno. Matheison, Coleman, Wis., 40 acres. Geo. Yunker, Coleman, Wis., 40 acres. Win. Taylor, Coleman, Wis., 40 acres. These three men each have their families. Taylor has six children; all live on the island and have all made partial improvements. Jno. R. King, Belkelmen, Nebr., 40 acres; lives on island; partially improved. improved
Courteunay & White, Milwaukee, 108.64 acres; not




OWNERS OF LAND ON THE CAN-'ADA TRACT, ISLE OF PINES.

Mrs. Emma Garrison Smith, Milwaukee, Wis., 40 acres; ne improved.
Jas. H. Wright and W. A. Brown, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; he improved.
Ed. De Rock, Colemai, Wis., 40 acres; family of four children lives on island; place partially improved.
Fred. Benedict, Niles, Mich., 40 acres; now on island; maki. improvements.
Frank Armitage, Milwaukee, Wis., 58.46 acres; not advised as t improvements.
G. Fred. Colter, Marinette, Wis., 40 acres; all improved an planted with, orange trees.
OWNERS OF LAND ON SAN JUAN TRACT
Mrs. I. Wegemann, Lake Mills, *Wis., owns 80 acres; is on tl island.
Conrad. Engsberg, Lake Mills, Wis., owns 20 acres.
Chas. Saupe, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres.
F. B. Fargo, Lake Mills, Wis., owns 160 acres; intends to improve C. S. Gordinier, Waupaca, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends to in prove.
E. J. Fargo, Lake Mills, Wis., owns 80 acres; intends to improve
A. H. Wegemann, Watertown, Wis., has improved 25 acres.
W. C. Schultz, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, owns 100 acres; lives orisland.
E. W. Schultz, Watertown, Wis., owns 120 acres.
H. Uehling, Watertown, Wis., owns 80 acres.
F. 0. Uehling, Hanover, Wis., owns 20 acres.
Dr. D. S. Harvey, Chicago, Ill., owns 20, acres; has improved' acres.
Mrs. M. Clovis, Menasha, Wis., owns 40 acres.
Mrs. I. Grove, Menasha, Wis., owns 20 acres.
H. R. Swanke, Tigerton, Wis., owns 160 acres; intends to improve
H. Huebbe, Beloit, Wis., owns 20 acres.
H. S. Bixby, Shopiere, Wis., owns 20 acres.
Mrs. L. H. Leavens, Neenah, Wis., owns 20 acres.
F. A. Leavens, Neenah, Wis., owns 20 acres.
Geo. W. Upham, Marshfield, Wis., owns 20 acres.
A. Hornickle, Lake Mills, Wis., owns 40 acres.
R. I. Wall, Sante Fe, Isle of Pines, owns 160 acres; lives on island Ed. A. Uehling, esq., 135 Broadway, New York, owns 20 acres.
W. C. Schab, Baraboo, Wis., owns 20 acres.
I. B. Bradford, Augusta, Wis., owns 40 acres; has improved acres.
R. E. Thomas, Madison, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends to improve Ed. Hughson, Lake Mills, Wis., owns 40 acres. J. H. Springer, Knowlton, Wis., owns 40 acres. J. F. Schindler, Cleveland, Ohio, owns 20 acres. D. H. Howels, Isle of Pines, city of Santa Fe, owns 40 acres; live on island.
N. L. Morey, Stambaugh, Mich., owns 30 acres. Betha Bodien, Watertown, Wis., owns 40 acres.




OWNERS OF LAN-D ON THE CANADA TRACT, ISLE OF PINE. 9

H-. Bodien, Watertown, Wis., owns 40 acres. C. M. Johnston, Habana, Cuba. Stockholder. A. J. Whiting, Marion, Ohio. Stockholder. W. L. Steel, Chicago, Ill., owns 40 acres; intends to .improve. W. A. Yarham, iWaupun, Wis., 20 acres; intends to improve. E. L. Mills, Lake Mills, Wis., 20 acres; intends to improve. W. Everson, -Lake Mills, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improve. R. Bruhn, Edgerton, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends to improve. S. 0. Bondelid, Larimore, N. Dak., owns 40 acres. G. W. Huppert, Fort Atkinson, Wis., 20 acres. Ed. T. Wheelock, Milwaukee, Wis., owns 40 acres. P. G. Huppert, Petersburg, Va., owns 20 acres. S. J. Willard, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, owns 80 acres; lives on island.
OWNERS OF LAND ON -EL CAN-AL TRACT.
C. L. Hastings, Fond du Lac, Wis., cwns 200 acres; improved 15 acres.
S. E. Gavin, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 40 acres; improved 10 acres. T. E. Dockery, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 100 acres. H. E. Hoffman, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 50 acres. C. B. King, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 50 acres. M. B. Helmer, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 40 acres. W. T. Grace, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 40 acres. W. A. Becker, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 40 acres. C. E. Gavin, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 40 acres. Mlary Schmidt, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 40 acres. B. Stremel, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres. A. Snow, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 80 acres. E. E. Wilt, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 40 acres. T. F. Swan, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres. W. H. Seidel, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres.. C. Taylor, Fond dii Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres. G. W. Porter, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres. G. W. Cook, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 40 acres. R. M. Jacks, Fond dii Lao, Wis., owns 160 acres; improved 40 acres. L. Horn, Waukesha, Wis., owns 40 acres; improved 10 acres. C. Vroman. Waukesha, Wis., owns 80 acres. 211. E. Gibbs, Green Bav. Wis., owns 100 acres; improved 40 acres. G. S. Coon, Rhinelander Wis., owns 40 acres; improved 10 acres. F. Hart, Superior, Wis., owns 20 acres; improved 10 acres. C. A. Swanson, Superior, Wis., owns 20 acres. M. B. Johnson, Waupun, 'Vis., owns 20 acres. G. Hlaas, Milwaukee WVis., owns 20 acres; improved 10 acres. A. Litkie, Superior. Wis., owns 10 acres; improved 10 acres. T. Taylor. Akron, Ohio, owns 10 acres; improved 10 acres. W. G. Allen, Akron. Ohio, owns 100 acres; improved 10 acres. \[. A. Bean, Akron. Ohio, owns 10 acres; improved 10 acres. Eliza Atkins, Akron, Ohio, owns 10 acres; improved 10 acres. T. S. Bean, Akron. Ohio, owns 20 acres; improved 10 acres. C. Kierns, Duluth, Minn., owns 20 acres. J. A. Kirkwood, Duluth, Minn., owns 125 acres. M. Costello, Hibbing, Minn., owns 20 acres; improved 10 acres.




10 OWNERS OF LAND ON THE CANADA TRACT, ISLE OF PINES.

M. Pastorett, Hibbing, Minn., owns 20 acres; improved 10 acr J. J. Stuart, Hibbing, Minn., owns 125 acres. M. Huglis, HibbingMinn., owns 50 acres. F. Twitchel, Hibbing,,Minn., owns 50 acres. W. C. Barrett, Henning, Minn., owns 125 acres. D. M. Gunn, Grand Rapids, Minn., owns 100 acres. J. 0. Reilly, Grand Rapids, Minn., owns 50 acres. J. A. Costello, Grand Rapids, Minn., owns 50 acres. L. W. Robbinson, Kolze, Ill., owns 22 acres. E. E. Hohen, Kolze, Ill., owns 20 acres.
S. G. Hutchinson, Kolze, Ill., owns 20 acres. N. Anderson, Virginia, Minn., owns 250 acres. J. Stein, Virginia, Minn., owns 75 acres. E. J. 0. Rourk, Virginia, Minn., owns 75 acres. D. W. Elmquistt, Virginia, Minn., owns 400 acres. C. Greary, Ironwood, Mich., owns 125 acres. M. Greary, Ironwood, Mich., owns 40 acres. E. M. Irish, Akely, Minn., owns 80 acres. H. S. Bryan, Two Harbors, Minn., owns 100 acres. M. M. Hanna, Two Harbors, Minn., owns 10 acres.
0. Pearson, Duluth, Minn., owns 250 acres.
W. D. Campbell, Superior, Wis., owns 100 acres. J. Cardle, Duluth, Minn., owns 25 acres. G. Hibbard, Chicago, Ill., owns 200 acres.
0. F. Wissler, Minneapolis, Minn., owns 25 acres; improved acres.
J. H. Robey, Kolze, Ill., owns 10 acres.
E. V. Kiley, Kolze, Ill., owns 10 acres.
A. ElIquist, Milwaukee, Wis., owns 10 acres.
*W. H. Lamson, Duluth, Minn., owns 40 acres; improved 10 acre

OWNERS OF LAND ON EL iHOSPITAL TRACT.
A. R. Richter, Fond du Lac, Wis., stockholder.
F. C. Wood, Hancock, Wis., owns 80 acres. Is on the island.
Muenchow & Co., Mayville, Wis., owns 80 acres. Living on island.
H. J. Ferris, Oak Park, Ill., owns 40 acres.
E. H. Wiehsner, Wautoma, Wis., stockholder.
J. A. Bach, Milwaukee, Wis., stockholder.
E. J. Schmidt, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 80 acres.
E. L. George, Mashfield, Wis., owns 163 acres.
W. C. Schultz, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, owns 180 acres. Lives the island.
E. W. Schultz, Watertown, Wis., owns 160 acres.
H. M. Jounglove, Wautoma, Wis., stockholder.
C. M. Johnson, Habana, Cuba, stockholder.
R. I. Wall, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, stockholder.
John 0. Hess, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres.
Alfred Eisler, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 10 acres.
F. E. Gottsleben, Santa Fe, Isle of Pines, owns 40 acres. Lives island.
W. C. Wiley, Hancock, Wis., owns 10 acres.




OW NERS OF LAND ON THE CIANAnA TRACT, ISLE OF PINE. 11

A. H. Wegemann, Watertown, Wis., owns 160 acres. William Trachts, Watertown, Wis., owns 80 acres. J. Arvanete, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres. A. M. Wood, Hancock, Wis., owns 10 acres. Is on the island. R. L. Thompson, Hancock, Wis., owns 10 acres. W. F. George, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres. J. W. Troeh, Watertown, S. Dak., owns 10 acres. J. Witte, Watertown, Wis., owns 20 acres. G. S. Lovejoy, Watertown, S. Dak., owns 10 acres. J. A. Strauss & Co., Watertown, Wis., owns 20 acres. M. H. Gaebler, Watertown, Wis.. owns 10 acres.
OWNERS OF IAND ON CAAR&BAZA TRACT.
Mrs. E. Neville, Oshkosh. Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improve. F. Gamin. Watertown, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improve. H. S. Bixby, Shopiere, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improve. Ed Huebbe, Beloit, Wis., owns 40 acres; has improved. Alfred Huebbe, Watertown, Wis., owns 25 acres; intends to improve.
Dr. A. Gaebler, 1339 Fargield Boulv., Chicago, owns 40 acres; ,intends to improve.
Emma Roemer, Watertown, Wis., owns 20 acres. M. H. Gaebler, Watertown, Wis., owns 20 acres; has improved 5 acres.
F. 0. Uehling, Hanover, Wis.. owns 20 acres; intends to improve. Ed Uehling, 135 Broadway, New York, owns 40 acres; intends to improve.
Edgar L. Uehling, Shopiere, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends to Improve.
H. Uehling, Watertown, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improve. H. Donner, Watertown, owns 80 acres; intends to improve 20 acres. Charles Schiffler, Watertown, Wis., owns 40 acres; improved 20 acres.
E. W. Schultz, Watertown. Wis.. owns 40 acres; intends to improve. Dr. G. 1V. Dodge, Menasha, Wis., owns 80, acres, intends to prove.
Frank Grove, Menasha, Wis.. owns 20 acres, has improved.
Emma Bernhard, Watertown, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to Improve.
J. J. Tobin, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres.
G. Surprenand, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends to improve.
Fred Weasea, Fond du Lac. Wis., owns 20 acres.
W. F. Weimar, 2049 South'Eighth street, Tacoma, Wash., owns 40 acres; intends to improve.
Theodore Uehling, Hooper, Nebr., owns 40 acres; intends to improve.
E. Krueger W atertown, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends to improve.
1. B. Parker, Middleton. Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improve.
W. A. Flower, 30 Seventh street, New York, owns 20 acres; 'tends to improve.
F. M. Snavely, 99 Wisconsin street, Milwaukee, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends to improve.




12 OWNERS OF LAND ON THE CANADA TRACT, ISLE OF PINES.

W. J. Bowes, 97 Michigan street, Milwaukee, Wis., owns 20 acr H. H. Plummer, Menasha, Wis., owns 80 acres; intends to impro, Z. Plummer, Menasha, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improve, O. M. Plummer, Menasha, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to impro Mrs. W. E. Bauer, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends improve.
S. B. Caley, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres.
F. L. Kunkel, 3200 Fond du Lac avenue, Milwaukee, Wis., ov 20 acres.
G. WV. Geswindt, 157 Elm street, Utica, N. Y., owns 20 acres; b improved; lives there part of time.
B. H. Hayes, Hibbing, Minn., owns 20 acres.
A. Ambelang, Fond du Lac, Wis., owns 20 acres.
J. Thauer, Watertown, Wis., owns 20 acres.
Frank Petro, Watertown, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to imuprol and move there.
H. R. Swanke, Tigerton, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improi J. B. Mayer, Floodwood, Minn., owns 20 acres; intends to impro and go there, to live.
C. E. Uehling. Afton, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improve.
L. E. McGreal, 173 Third street, Milwaukee, Wis., owns 45 acre intends .to improve.
Mrs. E. Sauer, Juneau, WVis.. owns 20 acres; intends to improve acres.
Adam Fuchs, Jefferson. Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improy
*Wilber Raymond, Tacoma, Wash., owns 20 acres. Dr. D. F. Bothwell, Kingston, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends improve.
H. Huebbe, Beloit, Wis., owns 20 acres; intends to improve. Fred Rische, West Salem, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends to impro Frank Uehling, West Salem, Wis., owns 40 acres; intends i improve.
George Rische, Barre Mills, Wis., owns 20 acres. Owen F. Wissler, 2619 Elliot avenue, Minneapolis, Minn., owns4 acres.
Warren E. Hall, Denver, Colo., owns 40 acres; intends to improTv








Lin executive session, Senate of the United States.]

SENATE REPORT NO. 1, SIXTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS, FOURTH SESSION.




ADJUSTMENT OF TITLE TO ISLE OF PINES.



DECEMBER 11, 1922.-Ordered to be printed and injunction of secrecy removed.


Mr. LODGE, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, submitted the following

REPORT.

[To accompany Executive J, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session.]

The Committee on Foreign Relations, to whom was referred
Executive J, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session, a treaty between the United States and Cuba, signed on March 2, 1904, for the adjustment of title to the ownership of the Isle of Pines. having had the same under consideration, report. it with the recommendation that the Senate advise and consent to its ratification. The ratification of the treaty is urged by the President in the following letter to the chairman:
TiuE WHITE HOUSE,
1Washiagton, November 28, 1922.
HfIl.,HtENIIY CABOT LODGE,
United States Senate, Washington, D. C.
MY DEAR SENATOR LODGE: I am writing to call your attention to the treaty negotiated between the Government of Cuba and that of the United States March 2, 1904, which has not been ratified by the Senate. This treaty relates to the relinquishment of all claims of title to the Isle of Pines' on the part of the United States, which possible claim was suggested by the language of the treaty of peace with Spain.
I am inclosing to you herewith a review of the treaty status and our relationship to the Isle of Pines, as recited in a letter by the Secretary of State to Senator McCormick. It is manifest that this Government has no intention ever to make claim to any title to the Isle of Pines, and, as the Secretary says in the letter to which I have above referred, it seems altogether desirable that the ratification of the treaty be made and thereby remove any possible cause of friction between tile two Governments, and put an end to any uncertainty in the minds of the inhabitants of the island concerning its relationship to the Government of Cuba.
Very truly yours,
WARREN G. HARDNG
[Inclos I reIOCTOBER 16, 1922.
My DEAR SENATOR ICCORMICK : With further reference to your letter of July 28, addressed to tile Assistant Secretary, in regard to the Isle of Pines, I beg to advise you as follows:
21455-S. Doc. 166, 68-2 213




14 ADJUSTMENT OF TITLE TO ISLE OF PINES.

Tile Isle of Pines is situated about 50 miles from the coast of Cuba, anr therefore, as was indicated by tile Supreme Court of the United States in iP opinion in the case of Pearcy v. Stranahian (205 U. S. 257), under the pik ciples of international law applicable to such coasts and shores as those ,: Florida, tile Bahiamas, and Cuba, it would ordinarily be regarded as an Integra part of Cuba.
Prior to 1898 the Isle of Pines ~vas a Spanish possession, apparently got. erned as a municipal district of the Province of Habana, Cuba.
With respect to Cuba, the joint resolution passed by the Congress of ih United States April 20, 1898, provides (4) That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or intention to exercise sovereign jurisdiction or control over said island, except for the pacification thereof-, and asserts the determination when that Is accomplished to leave the government and control of the Island to its people."9 (38 Stat. 378.)
Tile treaty of pence between the United States and Spain proclaimed April 11, 1899, makes no specific mention of the Isle of Pines, but by Article I of the treaty Spain relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cub,' and by Article I1, Spain cedes to the United States the Island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and to the island of Guam In the Marianas or Ladrones."
During the military occupation of Cuba by the United States the Isle of Pines was apparently administered as a municipal district of the Province of Habaa, (Report of Census of Cuba published by War Department in 1900.)
When the Government of Cuba was turned over to the Cubans May 20, 9IN.. there was an exchange of communications between the military governor and the President of Cuba to the effect that the Isle of Pines was to continue de facto under the jurisdiction of the Government of Cuba subject to treay arrangements as to future disposition.
The Platt amendment (Article VI), and Article VI of the treaty with Cube proclaimed July 2, 1904, provide that the Isle of Pines shall be omitted front the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereof being left to future adjustment by treaty." March 2, 1904, a treaty was signed by whicl the United States relinquished all claims of title to the Isle of Pines under tire said treaty of peace with Spain. The Senate of the United States has never consented to the ratification of this treaty. It therefore appears that the United States has never taken possession of the Isle of Pines; as having been ceded by the treaty of peace with Spain. and that it has been uniformly governed by tre Republic of Cuba since that Republic came Into existence, the United States recognizing Cuba as rightfully exercising do facto sovereignty until otherwise provided for.
In the case of Pearcy v. Stranahan, before mentioned, the court considered tlaat it was justified in assuming that the Isle of Pines was always treated by the representatives in Cuba of tile President of tile United States as an integrl part of Cuba. Tile court added that this was no doubt to be expected in view of tile fact that It was suchl at tile time of the execution of the treaty and its ratification, and that tile treaty did not provide otherwise in terms, to sly nothing of tile general principles of Internationlal law before mentioned."
Tile political* department of the Government has apparently, as indicated by the treaty it concluded withI Cuba Marchl 2, 1904, and its other dealings witi] this subject above referred to, taken tile ground tilat under tile treaty of peace withl Spain tile Isle of Pines was not one of the "other islands now under Spanish sovereignty imo tile West Indies and ceded to tile United States by the treaty, but was an integral part of Cuba over which Spain relinquished ciairr to sovereignty by the treaty. In any event, the United States ilas undobtedly indicated that it did not desire to assert any title to the Island under tile treaty of peace with Spain, but wished to quitclaimm in favor of Cuba any shadow Of title it might have under that treaty.
I It call not be doubted that in adopting tis attitude the Government of Ith United States was influenced by tile p~roximnity of tine island to Cuba and tire consequently applicable principles of international law, and by the fact that the Isle of Pines had uniformly been administered as an integral part of Cuba. Referring to the suggestion on this point in the attached letter to Mr. Wall to Colonel Rosenfeld, It may be said that there was no private agreement Or understanding between the department and the Government of Cuba relative to th pigeonholing of tile said treaty of March 2, 1904.
I may add that tile department considers It desirable in the Interest of rel' tions between the United States and Cuba that the treaty before the Senate




ADJUSTMENT OF TITLE TO ISLE OF PINES. 15

should be approved. The ratification of the treaty would leave the situation with respect to Cuban exercise of authority over the island as it is at the present time. Possible causes of friction between the two Governments would be obviated and the uncertainty in the minds of the inhabitants of the island as to its status would be removed.
In accordance with your request, I return the papers which accompanied your letter under acknowledgment.
Sincerely yours,
CHARLES E. HuGHEs.
The committee also prints as a part of its report the following correspondence from-Hon. Elihu Root, then Secretary of State:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, January 8, 1906.
Hon. SHELBY 31. CULLOM,
Chairman Committee on Foreign Rclations, United State8 Senate.
DERm SENATOR: I send you a note of the passage in Hall's International Law, to which I referred in our conversation the other day, relating to the Isle of Pines. It is to be found on pages 124 and 125 of the fifth edition, 129 and 130 of the fourth edition, and for greater convenience I Inclose a typewritten copy of the passage. You will see that it contains a very good description of the physical conditions, and that, as I mentioned to you, the undoubted appurteaance of the Archipielago de los Canaries, including the Isle of. Pines, to the country called Cuba, is used as an ilustration of the general proposition. I dare say the same thing is to be found in other writers, but I have not examined; I merely happened to notice this. This passagewas written while Cuba still belonged to Spain, and undoubtedly would be accepted by international lawyers as correctly describing the status of the Isle of Pines at the time of the treaty of Paris.
Very sincerely yours,
ELIHU ROOT.,
[Inclosure.]

Apart from questions connected with the extent of territorial waters, which will be dealt with later, certain physical peculiarities of coasts in various parts of the world, where land impinges on the sea in aill unusual maimer, require to be noticed as affecting the territorial boundary. Off the coast of Florida, among the Bahamas, along the shores of Cuba, and in the Pacific are to be found groups of numerous islands and islets rising out of vast banks, which Ire covrd l with very shoal water and either form a line more or less parallel with land or compose systems of their own, in both cases inclosing considerable sheets of water, which are sometimes also shoal and sometimes relatively deep. The entrance to these interior abys or lagoons may be wide in breadth of surface water, but it is narrow in navigable water. To take a specific case, on the south coast of Cuba the Archipelago de los Canaries stretches from 60 to 80 miles from the mainland to La Isla de Pines. Its length from the Jardines Bank to Cape Frances is over a hundred miles. It is inclosed partly by some islands, mainly by banks, which are always awash, but upon which the tides are Very slight. The depth of water is at no time sufficient to permit of nvigation. Spaces along these banks many miles in length are unbroken by a Single inlet. Tite water is uninterrupted, but access to the interior gulf or sea i-s imPossible. At the western end there is a strait 20 miles or so in width, but not more than 6 miles of channel intervene between two banks which rise to within 7 or 8 feet from the surface and which do not, consequently, admit Of the passage of seagoing vessels. In cases of this sort the question whether tia interior waters are or are not lakes inclosed within the territory must alwassdepend upon the depth upon tile banks and the width of the entrances. lachmust be judged upon its own merits. But in the instance cited there can b)e little doubt that the whole Archipelago de los Canaries is a mere salt-water like and that the boundary of the land of Cuba runs along the exterior edge of the banks. (Pp. 124, 125, Hall on International Law, 5th d.)




16 ADJUSTMENT.OF TITLE TO ISLE OF PINES.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, "
Washington, Norcmber 27, 190.5.
CHARLES RAYNAIRD, Esq., "
1 President of American Club, Isle of Pines, West ladies.
DEAR SiR: I have received your letter of October 25, in. which you say "Kindly advise me at your very earliest convenience the necessary ,procedur, to establish a territorial form of government for the Isle of Pines, West lndies United States of America."
It is no part of the duty of tile Secretary of State to give advice upon suesubjects. I think it proper, however, to answer your inquiry so far as it ma be necessary to remove an error under which you appear to rest concernin the status of the Isle of Pines and your rights as residents of that island.
There is no procedure by which you and your associates can lawfully estab. lish a territorial government in that island. The island is lawfully subject ti; the control and'government of the Republic of Cuba, and you and your asse dates are bound to render obedience to.the laws of that country so long as yet remain in tie island. If you fail in that obedience you will be justly liable t prosecution in the CulAin courts and to such punishment as may Ise provided by the laws of Cuba for such offenses as you commit. You are not likely t, have any greater power in the, future. The treaty now pending before thi Senate, if approved by that body, will relinquish all claim of the United State| to the Isle of Pines. In my judgment the United States has no substantial claim to the Isle of Pines. The treaty merely accords to Cuba what is hers ijh accordance with international law and justice.
At the time of the treaty of peace which ended the war between the Unitd States and Spain the Isle of Pines was, and had been for several centuries. a part of Cuba. I have no doubt whatever that It continues to be a part of C0la and that it is not and never has been territory of the United States. This is th view with which President Roosevelt authorized the pending treaty, and Mr Hay signed it, and I expect to urge its confirmation. Nor would the rejectit of 'the pending treaty put an end to the control of Cuba over the island. A treaty directly contrary to the one now pending would be necessary to do that and there is not the slightest prospect of such a treaty being made. You may be quite sure that Cuba will never consent to give up the Isle of Pines, and that the United States will never try to compel her to give it up against her will.
Very respectfully,
ELUITu ROOT.








CONFIDENTIAL. EXECUTIVE DOCUMENT NO. 3, FIFTY-NINTH
CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION.





PROTESTS AGAINST ISLE OF PINES TREATY.



MARCH 12, 1906.-Presented by Mr. Penrose, and ordered to lie on the table and to be printed in confidence for the use of the Senate, in connection with the Isle of Pines treaty (Ex. J. 58th, 2d). M3AR c 12, 1906.-Injunction of secrecy removed.



AN AMERICAN PROTEST-CAPTAIN PEARCY GIVES HIS REASONS FOR ASKING
THAT THE ISLE OF PINES TREATY BE DEFEATED AT ONCE.

The letter published below will give some idea to American citizens, as well as to members of Congress, regarding the methods of interpretation and administration of the old Cuban-Spanish laws in the Isle of Pines, with respect to the American property owners there. Cuban laws seem especially designed for the encouragement and protection of the Cuban office-holding grafter, big and little. The letter was received here by Capt. J. L. Pearcy, of Washington, D. C., from his brother, Capt. S. H. Pearcy, an American property owner in the Isle of Pines and the proprietor of the Pearcy line of boats from Mobile to the Isle of Yines. The letter speaks for itself:
NUEVA GERONA, ISLE OF PINES,
February 21, 1906.
JOSEPH L; PEARCY, Iaijatigton, D. C.
DEAR JOE: I received your letter by last mail telling me about Senator Morgan's report and his interview with Minister Quesada. It gives us considerable encouragement. I also received the book of the official reports (majority anid minority) of the committee, which is being passed around and devoured by the people, but you donit know what a disappointment it is when "e see that our fate is liable to be delayed and run over to another session of Congress. It looked at first as though we were going to have a great many People come here this winter, but we get news front every quarter that they will not come till Congress acts, and if they continue to let the Cubans govern us much longer there will be a general stampede of settlers here trying to sell out at any price. The majority report recommending the ratification of the treaty.killed the sale of land, and for the first time since the Americans bought (land) in the island, started the price downward and made things dull. The People are down in the mouth and some who have been improving their little homes and were apparently as happy as they could be, having not a cent elsewhere, are anxious to sell for enough to get back to the States; and if tlley do ratify the treaty, it will break every small planter on the island. As for me, I could not continue to live here. I have been cautioned by two responsible parties (one is cashier of a Cuban bank and the other a Cuban merCihant) that my life was in imminent danger, but I have paid no attention to it, and every possible obstacle and disadvantage have been thrown in my way in running our boat from Mobile here; so much so that with the confiscations, damags, etc., I have lost several thousands of dollars in cash out of my own pocket 17





18 PROTESTSS AGAINST ISLE OF PINES TREATY.

since I began to run it. They are determined that we slall patronize Habana. I am now thinking seriously of closing out the business, and sacrificing every s* curity I can raise to pay off the losses, as it is impossible for me to hold out an1 longer. This has so humiliated and harassed me for the last three or four months that I lNave not been able to be of any assistance in our cause. In fact. it has so cramped me for funds that I have been utterly unable to pay my chil. dren's schooling expenses. Only for this boat business, I would have been able to carry all our necessary expenses and would gladly have done it rather than trust to the good nature of others. I regarded the boat from here to Mobile as one of the most important features in the development of the island and of great importance to Mobile, but I failed to get the support or assistance that I rea. sonably expected.
Joe, a Cuban government cali not govern the Isle of Pines long, if they get it, as the Anglo-Saxon race will not and can not submit to being treated as the Cuban officials treat them. No man's liberty is safe. Just think for a moment of the fact that, no matter how respectable or prominent you are, you are liable to arrest and incarceration at any moment on a charge preferred bj the lowest negro or designing white, and you are guilty unless you can prove yourself innocent. And they select and examine the witnesses, while you have no more show than a dog. Spanish law is so pliable that you can convict one man and clear another on the same charge and under the same law and evidence. Americans can not and will not stand it, and yet Cuba has no people nor financial interests here worth mentioning which would entitle it to the enforcement of its antiquated graft-encouraging laws.
Spain deeded this island to a Spaniard and one of his heirs deeded a stall lot of land here near Nueva Gerona to the Crown of Spain (not to Cuba). provided they would keep an army guard stationed here to help frighten awa the pirates and thus guard Cuba. The alcalde, or governor, here before the Spanish-American War, was an army officer and not a civilian, and the Crow of Spain kept it for political prisoners sent from either Cuba or Porto Rico, because it was too far to send them back to Spain. The land records were kept in a separate book from those at Bajucal, and were only kept there because there were only a few large tracts belonging to old Captain Daurties heirs and they never changed hands. Evidently they could not afford to pay a man to keep the records here. The same was true of the courts; if any of the dozeD or so owners-all of whom were rich Spaniards-should have any litigation, they were allowed to use the Bajucal courts, but the docket was kept separate It only gave those officers a little more graft, as they charged enormous fees so much that but little business was done in civil suits, while i criminal and military cases the proceedings were all here under the jurisdiction of thie military commander. Few that came before him ever survived to 'give ai a. count of the trial afterwards. Furthermore, I am told that no one was allowed to visit the island without a special permit from the captain-general of Cuba an1 these were closely watched all the time that they renmined. The coast line was closely guarded by revenue cutters to see that no one landed or embarked without permission. Every Cuban hal a holy horror of this island asa place of torture and death. And the prejudice against the old Spanish rdginle here still survives all over Cuba.
The Cuban Government permitted a wireless telegraph company to erect o station here and it has been ready for use for two months, but they 'ill only permit them to use it now for government purposes by governaicent officials and their favorites. They refuse to allow us to send any 0essge
An American merchant at Colombia has just been brought in an(il put in jail by five rural guards for refusing to pay the license fees of a shopkeeper, lie insisted that the island is American territory al that Cuba's constitatiut tsnereignty, and laws have no right to be recognized here. I have not the full )articulars yet, but I understand lie Is going to try to. make a test of it I can not see how lie can do it, as our Government gives us no recognition or protection whatever. Under orders of Secretary Root to the Cubans we are to be forced to do as they demand and no notice is taken of it by our I the Amercali) representatives in Cuba.
A common Jam'aica negro here is promptly protected by the Br'itish consii: but Americans are treated like clogs. The day will come wvhen the people Of tihe United States will remember timd resent this Isle of Pines sacrifice anlipersecution perpetrated on some of their most patriotic citizens simply bee:1-U4 of their love and reverence for their country. When they are called again to'





PROTESTS AGAINST ISLE OF PINES TREATY. 19

rally around Old Glory," to defend the Monroe Doctrine, they will say, "Remember not the Maine, but the Isle of Pines, patriots who were sold into bondage to protect Messrs. Root and Wood and the Cuban and American tobaccotrust graft." We have conclusive evidence that certain people high in official authority in the United States, who are in position to prevent the Isles of Pines being recognized as United States territory, are at present holders of interests in large tobacco plantations in Cuba, and we believe in addition to that that these same peol)le are largely interested in the tobacco trusts in a professional capacity. These officials will probably resist any plan: of extending justice to the Isle of Pines to the bitter end. It is this class of underhand land speculating United States officials who spread the reports in the United States that there are only some speculators interested in the Isle of Pines, but they will be given the lie by the ruined little farmers and their helpless little families begging their way back to their own country, which has been so vilely disgraced by such cattle as the prevaricator who said to the President that he had visited this island, and that it was not worth a tinker's dam, and that they could let Cuba have it and get something worth more for it. This man, you remember, having made such a statement when he visited Washington in November, 1902, It is safe to say that he would get a beautiful coat of tar and feathers if he ever visited this island again.
Joe, you know my treatment here has been very unjust, because I was most zealous in trying to open up -and introduce new methods of business and improvements, in which I have already spent thousands of dollars among the people. I have been actually beaten down, arrested, and fined here, over and over again. This has been done often, although I have never committed a single offense against any civilized law. One of the most serious offenses I ever committed was when a rural guard was dragging and pushing my little 15-year old boy down to prison for having refused to go out of a store when a negro ordered him out. At that time, I stepped out of my house and asked the aegro what the boy was arrested for. He refused to tell me, and I followed then to the prison to find out. I was then arrested, put under $25 bond, and next day had to pay $10 fine for myself, as well as $10 for the hoy. Similar cases have almost been of weekly occurrence for four years, and it has been said when one of my sons was locked up all night without any charge against him, that it was about time, as no Pearcy had been arrested for two weeks. This state of persecution was kept up on me and my family until a few months ago, when President Palma of Cuba called the alcalde to Habana and told lin he would have to let nie alone till the treaty was ratified, as his troubles With me had caused them to lose votes in the, United States Senate already. Since then he has ceased to persecute me by arrest, but they give me hell by restrictions and confiscations in the custom-house. They have stolen from use at least $500 worth of merchandise through clerical errors of such a simple nature that the confiscations were no less than highway robbery. To-day I am shut off frol lay business on or' land where I have 100 men cutting Poles and timber, because I can not get a Cuban licensed pilot to go out with Iay little business and pleasure launch. There are only five licensed Cuban citizens here, and they have not the slightest idea of running a steam launch. They only pilot, sponge, and fish with sailing vessels. We know every foot of water and all the keys around this island; in fact, my two sons are the best-informed sailors around here and can handle our boat to perfectio: They have to handle It when we get a Cuban, as he can not. Nevertheless we are compelled to have one of these beautiful ornaments aboard,or we can not even go to our work or out for pleasure, and you know there Is no other way to our land except by water. Our boat is our buggy, but to-day these five licensed Cubans have formed a collusion against going out on my boats, and I am tied up completely. I do not have any idea why, as I have always paid them well and treated them kindly. I am afraid they are ilfluenced by tie officials. Unless they cllnilge their notion, I will have to tie n1 mIy boat.s and 5slM)e.1 all business. The men make no excuse, except that they do lot want to work. I have not hall the slightest hard words or feelings with any of then. We are not allowed to move our little lanlch 10 feet, or take oil water or fuel Without getting out a batch of papers that would make a good-sized book. All this "mst be done oil primitive forms, aind we have to send to a certain C(ubam printing firm in Iabana and buy all these forms. Should we run out, we call not Ilse our boat until we get another suIply from Iabana, as they cain not he IbOught here. They cost from 5 to 10 cents each,' and it requires five Idif-





20 PROTESTS AGAINST ISLE OF PINES TREATY.

ferent kinds of these forms before we can move our little boat, after wasting an hour or-two to fill them out. In addition to all this, the blanks must filled out by a Cuban pilot. Our last man could not read or write, and insson Edward had to make out the papers for him. He was a half-breed negr, fisherman and quit his place lere because he got stuck up as master of a ship, and therefore declined to be ordered when and where it might be necessary for us to go. It seems to me that someone has been putting them up to taking advantage of our predicament. There will be a very long score to pay here some day, because there are men who will not stand what I and a few other, have been enduring, and they are beginning to feel the pressure on them as they gradually get into business here. I have made up my mind to rest on my oars until there is a change for the better or until I find that Cuban rule is inevitable. I will then be In a position to get out entirely or to continue my business should this island remain American territory. I have an old and strong Cuban friend in Habana, who belongs to the anti-Palma party, who called on me just after our stir up here and wanted to join issues wit us, and is now waiting, but I gave him no encouragement, as I have always had hopes that even Senators could not be so wicked and heartless as to sell us into slavery to the dogs and devildoms" of Cuban-Spanish laws. ani although I am discouraged and heartsick over the delay and apparent willingness of some of them to do it that I feel sometimes as if I could take ny! gun and march out and kill everything that stood between us and freedom, and that I could keep aging until I was shot down.
Just think! A lot of Americans sold Into slavery for what? Because of the love of what they thought to be the freest country in the world. If Senator Morgan saves us, the people will honor him here as we have always been taught to honor the great George Washington, whose birthday will be celebrated on a grand scale to-morrow, and who, if he could speak, would say shame on an administration that would dare to upholdsuch a dirty piece of graft as to refuse to investigate the wrongs of, and to protect even one American citizen. let alone hundreds of them with all their property. "
A friend has just come in to tell nine that Mr. Moerke, the Colunbia mercheir and postmaster I spoke of above, has just been convicted to serve fifty days io jail for refusing to pay license fees, and he will probably be sent to Cuba to serve his time out. This gentleman is one of those who took an active part in the territorial convention recently held, and was there elected a member of tie legislature. They are singling them all out as fast as possible and getting any hold they can upon them in order to disgrace them under the Cuban law and to run them out of the island if possible. "Every dog has his day."
Ther Is only one American on the island that takes sides against us, and thatis a Baptist preacher who, it is understood here, has a questionable record in tile States. He has been very unpopular, and therefore decided to run his churll so as to catch the Cubans in opposition to the Catholic Church. Thus. lie re" fused to open our meeting with prayer. but instead made a speech against W1and was hooted down. So, ever since, lie has been opposing us in working underhandedly against the interests of his American brethren. He went ot in front of the hotel here the other night where several gentlemen were grouiped together in conversation, among them being Mr. Steere, whom lie Insulted, anlo during their dispute lie said "that the recent convention was composed of a dirty, disreputable lot of traitors and scoundrels." At this I, who had not had a word to say in the argument, got up and hit him. My son Ed then jumped on him and beat him up good. Next (lay we paid $8 each, which we considered cheap enough. Not one soul will enter his church since lie took sides against us. and he is hooted as lie passes along the street. Mr. Steere had him arrested for raising a disturbance and insulting him, but lie Is playing sick and can 'otattend court. Mr. Steere was fined M for being Insulted, although he did 'ot offer any resistance. Edward and I were the only ones who resented it.
All Colombia has just come in to see A. W. Moerke in jail; lie will be fUr. nished board from the hotel by his friends: all the people say that they will go to jail before they will pay the Cuban Government any more money. Great excitement and interest is beginning to be taken in our prisoner, Mr. [oer.No The ladies are preparing to take up his supper and some good bedding. They remind me of the time when the boys were being brought in wounded or priS01 ers during the civil war. These women here are the bravest amd most loy Americans on the island, and if they could swoop down in a body on tlm Senate that dignified organization would not consider the Cunban or tobacco trust interests any longer, but would insist that the United States kept the island.





PROTESTS AGAINST ISLE OF PINES TREATY. 21

The idea of saying tile island belongs to the Cubans is so absurd on its face that Mr. Root should be ashamed to let it be known that he was so Indifferent or ignorant. Cuba did not belong to the Cubans until we gave it to them May 20, 1902. As you remember, Mr. Hay told us that, and further said that we were not legally bound to turn Cuba over to the Cubans as an Independent government, but were only morally bound to do so; and lie said that the Isle of Pines was kept out, and the adjustment mentioned in the Platt amendment was simply for the purpose of arbitration as to who would finally get it, which fact our Government and the world already knew. But lie also said that there were others (meaning Root) who thought they could trade to Cuba the island, not considering it worth anything. Mr. Hay then advised us to raise a howl and create public opinion so as to force proper consideration and investigation, or otherwise we would be practically ignored and sold out for a mess of pottage. You will remember that he dictated the petition written In his office, which was signed by us and sent to Congress. It is evident that Mr. Hay was In the same condition as to choice in the matter as was Mr. Squires, former American minister in Iabana. just before he resigned. Mr. Squires said to me, "Mr. Pearcy, you people on the island blame me for making that treaty, designed to turn the Isle of Pines over to Cuba in spite of your protest; but I assure you that I only did as I was commanded to do by my superiors." I replied, Mr. Squires, some of us believed that all the time."
Joe, look into this Moerke imprisonment ci se and advise us quickly whether he is not entitled to put in a bill for damages on the ground that Cuba has no legal status here whatever. and therefore the United States should be clearly held for damages for allowing the imprisonment of her citizens by foreign authority in United States territory. Try to get a bill introduced into Congress demanding that Cuba withdraw its de facto government from the Isle of Pines. Joe, I have sent you a number of letters which I am sure you have not received. I do not get half of mine that are sent to me, and those that I do get appear to have been opened in the Cuban nails. We will have to devise some means of getting our letters backward and forward to the United States without having them subjected to inspection anl probably opened by the Cuban authorities. The black cabinet for spying into the correspondence of private citizens and officials, which is so abhorred in European countries, seems to be worked in Cuba to the limit.
From your brother. S. H. PEARCY.


NO CUBAN RULE FOIl T'IIEM.-AMERICANS REFUSE TO SUBMIT TO ANY
KIND OF CUBAN RULE IN TERITORY BELONGING TO THLE UNITED
STATES.

The following letter, supplementary to others already published, shows the actual condition of public sentiment in the Isle of Pines against any kind of Cuban rule in territory ceded to the United States. American citizens ought to have some rights that even the 1ot r gine ought to respect.
This letter speaks for itself:
NUEVA, GERONA. Is1,E OF PINES, February 26, 1906. DEa BROTHER JOE (Capt. J. L. Pearcy) : I am s( busy I can write but a short note to-night, as it is now 11 o'clock and I have to send it by hand down to the boat.
We are to have a grand mass meeting here day after to-morrow to decide What we will do about the Moerke case (the postmaster jailed for nonpayment of license fees). He is still in jail. We may propose a truce with the alcalde until our case is settled by paying all money to be held subject to the determination of whom itbelongs to, provided they take their rural guards away and We guarantee to keep the peace until Congress decides our fate. If he refuses I do not know what the next move will be. but these people will send canvassers to the United States to secure help if something Is not done to release the strain. Senator Morgan's report has made them sure of what they always knew, that Cuba has no right here. They will never peaceably submit to Cuban rule, but they are going to move cautiously and be sure of their game





22 PROTESTS AGAINST ISLE OF PINES TREATY.

when they begin. S. H. Pearcy used to be the kicker, but I am now laid clear in the shade. Is there no way by which an act or resolution could be hurried through both Houses to get a military officer sent here to take charge until all is settled? Cuba can not have this island without a war, and it will not be this crowd alone who will be in line against the Cubans. Thousands of offers are coming in for help. One of the head leaders of the anti-Palma party in Cuba came to me and offered the support of their party whenever we wanted[ it. I told him we would not need it, as I was sure our own Government would be advised of the great fraud before it was too late. He said the Isle of Pines never did and should not belong to Cuba.
Get some Congressman to offer a bill to instruct the War Department to send an officer here at once to take charge, and all these guards can go home. The alcalde is now claiming that he is sole commander here by appointment of the United States Government, as their military representative. Think of a half. breed, ignorant man like him being selected to govern a lot of intelligent AngloSaxons andl collect taxes levied by the New Cuban Congress to pay the so-called Cuban soldiers and for the keeping of 30 or 40 of these beautiful negro thieves here to do it by force, and they going out every day, 5 to 10 at a tihle. to bring in respectable American gentlemen, and to take wagons and break into their houses and haul in the last stick of furniture. leaving tile wife and five little children without a home and peldless. This is the case of Mr. Moerke. above alluded to, because he would not pay $20 for three nmontis' privilege licellse to keep a little store when he only had about 20 or 30 customers and carried about $100 worth of stock, selling about $25 to $30 worth of goods per month. He kept the post-office because there was not a single native in Cuba living in that quarter of the Island. and they had promised to pay him $5 per month. Nevertheless, they had not paid him a cent in eight months.
Speaking about tile Cubans here, I notice all sorts of reports as to their number. I will give $50 each for every 1 over 1.000 Cubans in the island if they will give me $5 each for every 1 under 1.000 Cubans at present here. Americans and natives are nearly equal. but there are more American men than there are natives, /)ut more litive children, by a great deal, than Ameri. eanlms. Three hundred out of 330 Cubans. living on the land we bought. have moved to Cuba since we bought it four amid a half years ago, and 1S of those left are going to Cuba when their lease is out. August 1 next: they have already rented land there and shipped some of their stock etc. Half of the Spanish refugees who flocked here for protection during the blockade, remaill ing here when our Government took the ceslus. left in less than twelve months afterwards for their homes in Cuba. when they had gotten over their scare. Joe. I could write all night about the unjust representations made about this island and the injustice done to the pople here. but I will lave to close.
Your brother.
SAM.
(Capt. S. II. Pearcy.)


AGAIN ST TIE ISLI': 0OF IN Es TREATY AMIEN1MEN'I'S

To the honorable presiding officers and Members of the Senate and
House of Representatives of the UnitedStates:
GENTLEMEN: It has come to nay knowledge that representations are being made from Cuban sources to the effect that there is colWparatively a small number of American property owners on the Isle of Pines who have their titles to land recorded according to the old Spanish laws now invogue in that island under its present alleged de facto laws now in vogue in that island under its present alleged de facto Cuban Government. This allegation, even if it be true would be of comparatively little importance, because it in no wise indicates how many Americans have bona fide holdings of real estate in the island for which they paid their cash.
Few Americans are willing to pay exorbitant sums to have their land titles recorded under the old 'Spanish system. They believe,




PROTESTS AGAINST ISLE OF PINES TREATY. 23

under American law, that contracts for deeds, or other unrecorded instruments conveying title, would serve as ample security until such time as the prevailing laws under American authority could be brought to some degree of simplicity and the fees for recording titles could be reduced to figures somewhere near commensurate to the services rendered.
It costs the people of the Isle of Pines from $30 to $50 to record an ordinary real-estate title under the present laws in force. In the United States warranty deeds could be recorded for two or three dollars, conveying a guaranteed title. It costs hundreds of dollars to record some deeds under Cuban laws, and there are instances where in small holdings it would cost more to record the deed than to purchase the property.
We can produce the names of at least 2,000 American citizens who own property in the Isle of Pines.
We challenge anyone to produce the names of 100 actual Cuban citizens who now own property on the Isle of Pines, no matter what the Cuban official record of deeds may apparently show.
Proportionately nine-tenths of the real estate of the island i owned by American citizens.
This comparatively large purchase of property was due to the assurances of officials of the War Department that the Isle of Pines would be retained under American jurisdiction. These assurances were made often and to many people, who either had purchased or were intending to purchase real estate in the island. I would venture the assertion that without such assurance not a dozen of the Anericans now living there could have been induced to give up their homes in the States and go to the Isle of Pines, even as prospectors under salary, much less take the risk of investing in property which they knew' would be subject to Cuban jurisdiction.
It is quite generally understood now that argument is being, advanced to the effect that the Isle of Pines should be ceded to Cuba by the pending treaty so amended by provisions and safeguards that American interests would be protected on the island. I desire, as the chosen representative of the American citizens on the Isle of Pines, to enter my most earnest and emphatic protest against any such plan.
As I understand the scheme proposed by Cubans, it includes the administration of the island as a colony of Cuba after its cession to Cuba in the pending treaty, on the part of the United States. Such a plan would be an utter failure and would operate to "freeze out'" Pretty nearly all the American property holders on the island.
We could'not have anything to say whatever about our government. as a colony of Cuba or as a part of Cuba, unless we renounce Olr American citizenship, which very few, if any of us, would be willing to do. We could not vote without first swearing allegiance to Cua. We would then be subject entirely to the caprice of Cuban officials. ihte
iipite Our experiences during the past three years with temn,
nspite of the fact that they did not have any right under constitutional law to rule over us, haye been such as to prove to us. beyond eVen a reasonable doubt, that we would be subjected.to all sorts of device and schemes for the extortion.of money, some or all of which might never be remitted to either the insular or the Cuban treasury, an(l which certainly would, not be expended for the imI)rovement




24 PROTESTS AGAINST ISLE OF PINES TREATY.

or benefit of the island, should we pass irrevocably tinder Cuban rule. We believe that it would be a grafting government, pure anl siml)e, run to enrich a few Cuban officials, while we, as aliens, could neither vote nor hold office or trust, but would be easy plucking for those in authority over us.
Then under these conditions what avail would be our appeals to the United States for protection, under a treaty with its so-called "safeguards?" Probably nil. We would have no means to reach the ears of what might be perhaps a hostile American Executive and no official way of appealing to the American people or to Congress.
We would be tender lambs, indeed, abandoned to the mercies of the wolf.
We would be without friends and without even a country.
It is no small res)onsil)ility for the Senate of the United States to take such a stand, namely, to deprive the American citizenson the Isle of Pines of their birthrights of citizenship, their property, and their homes and force them to live as aliens under a foreign flag. We protest most vigorously against any such a procedure:
First. Because we had assurances from the War Department, from General Wood and his subordinates, from statements made by former Secretary Hay, from steps taken by the Interior Department to include the Isle of Pines in American territory by direction of President McKinley, and from the procedure of the Treasury in collecting. full customs on goods shipped from th'e Isle of Pines to the United States under the Dinglev law, whereas if we were regarded as a part of Cuba we would have the tariff reductions provided in the reciprocity treaty with Cuba.
Second. Because we believe that both Houses of Congress, as well as the citizens of the United States in this country and in the Isle of Pines, ought to pass upon such a momentous question as the cession of American territory to a foreign jurisdiction, even under the most stringent safeguards and regulations which a treaty could provide.
Third. Because we have plainly indicated that we do not believe the Cubans, under any form of treaty whatsoever, bound around with restrictions and reservations in whatever way the most skillful lawyers might devise, could be restricted and obliged to administer I government for the best interests of American citizens living in the Isle of Pines, or for the best interests of the Cuban Government itself.
Here is an instance with regard to the enforcement of certain Cuban laws. It is unlawful to allow cattle to run at large on the Isle of Pines. There was an American there who had his young orange trees destroyed by cattle breaking through his fence. le corralled the cattle and filed a claim for damages. The alcalde then appointed his private secretary and the owner of the cattle to appraise the damages. The following day the claimant was notified to appear and was told by the judge never to enter the court with a complaint of this kind again. The case was dismissed. I was an eyewitness to this affair, and I would not accept $100 and bear the damages inflicted on those orang-, trees.
This is one of hundreds of affair, of this kind.
The less said about Cuban courts the better.
At the present time there are more American property owners ifl the Isle of Pines than there are in Porto Rico.




PROTESTS AGAINST ISLE OF PINES TREATY. 25

Again, may we plead with the honorable members of the United States Senate not to ratify a' treaty depriving their fellow-citizens of that which righteously and honestly belongs to them. There are hundreds of American citizens who have invested their savings of the past fifteen or twenty years in their homes on the island, who, by the ratification of the pen(ling treaty, would virtually be stripped of all their earthly possessions, no matter what amending safeguards may be exacted by the Government of the United States.
We who have had abundant experience fear to trust ourselves to the authority of Spanish and Cuban laws, as they would be interpreted by the Cuban courts and administered by the Cuban executive officials stationed in the Isle of Pines should the pending treaty be ratified.
EDWARD P. RYAN,
Delegate front the Isle of PInes.









CONFIDENTIAL. EXECUTIVE DOCUMENT NO. 2, FIFTY-NINTH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION.




CONDITIONS IN ISLE OF PINES

MARCn 7, 1906.-Presented by Mr. Penrose for Mr. Morgan, and ordered to be
printed in confidence for the use of the Senate.
MARCH 12, 1906.--- Injunction of secrecy removed..


[To accompany Ex. J, 58th Cong., 2d sess.-Isle of Pines treaty.]
[Office of George E. Hibbard, 226 La Salle street, Chicago.]
MARCH 1, 1906.
Senator JOHN T. MORGAN.
DEAR SIR: Yours of the 23d received. I am sending you some maps of the Isle of Pines; also blueprint maps of our (El Canal) tract, showing how this tract was subdivided and sold.
I wish to state some facts in detail that have been overlooked heretofore, and if I stoop to call a leg a leg, etc., you will please excuse me.
I will give you a little account of how these tracts of land are handled. It will be understood that no man could go to the Isle of Pines and buy any fraction of these estates. We had to buy the entire estate or none at all, 'and this is the history of every one of these tracts that I know of.
This howl by some of the papers that the island was bought up and held by speculators is the worst kind of rot. There was no other way to buy the land but to organize capital sufficient to buy an entire tract and not one of the original owners lived in the island. It would have laid there another 400 years, if we had not bought it, in the same condition that Columbus left it. Now that we are making something of it, they (the Cubans) want it. I will tell you now, Mr. Morgan, if they ever do get it, it will be after they have walked Over several dead Americans.
We, the El Canal Company, bought our tract about two years ago, or took an option on it to see if we could handle it. Subscriptions came in very fast, so that the tract was bought, surveyed, and subdivided, and sold to the people whose names you see on the blueprint. It may be just a little interesting to know just how those allotments wee made so everyone woul get a share of the good, medium, and poor lands. To'do this we made up parcels, drawing them by lots equal to the number of purchasers in our company, putting 90 acres in each drawing. or as near 90 as possible. Three hundred acres were deemed to be bad land, and so no one should be liable to draw that it was not put into the drawings, but sold after 27




28 CONDITIONS IN ISLE OF PINES.

to the highest bidder. So this whole tract was divideci, sorted, andi allotted in two days without one single complaint, so you see wha American fair play can do when we all get together.
I will explain as near as I can how I-and I presume the great majority of the rest of the people who went there-came to go, and approximately what has been done in the way of improvement since it was first discovered by Americans between five and six year ago. Four times as much would have been done'if'this scheme to hand the island over to Cuba had not been hatched.
When the condition of our treaty with Spain that gave the Isle of Pines to the United States began to be studied into, the mel'cantil men began to go to Cuba looking for future business; reports cain" from the Isle of Pines about its wonderful climate, wonderful thermal springs that cure rheumatism and other blood diseases, and its wonderful soil, and consequent productiveness in citrus, fruits vegetables, and tobacco.
Inquiries began to be sent to the War Department and other De. partments asking as to the actual status of! the island., All answei, confirm our version of the treaty-that the other islands of the AVest Indies (article 2) meant Isle of Pines and other islands, some of which, a little east of the Isle of Pines, the American flag now float; over, I am told by one of the: owners.
Approximately five or six years ago, after it had been thoroughly understood that the Isle of Pines was American territory, Mr. C. .11 Johnson, a man from Fond du Lac, Wis., and a commercial man. went to the Isle, of Pines to look thesituation over and tried to buy a small tract of land. He found that it was impossible to buy an except by taking an entire holding. He met Mr. Robert I. "Wal another resident at that time of Fond du Lac. They together secured the Lamacigos tract. They soon sold that out and formed| company and bought the Santa Fe tract of 35,000 acres. I am ad, vised that all but 9,000 or 10,000 acres of that-has been sold to actual .and prospective settlers.
The moment the Cubans found that the Americans were likely to settle and improve the island they began to want it., Until that tiei thev considered it of no account, as they had ten times more land ib Cuba than they ever could make'use of; but here was an opportunity to get something for absolutely nothing, and an opportunity to cl lect taxes from us Americans. So, with the help of the tobacco trusts and some of our own officials, they succeeded in pulling tho wool over the eyes of President Roosevelt and got that treaty neg0 tiated. Of course it was a hard blow to us and all true Americans and the Senate sat down on it, but not hard enough to kill the cop, founded beast, and now it pops up again, but we still have faith i true American patriotism that it will not see our own flesh and blood trampled under foot, especially when we do not seek to take thlt which does not belong to us, or injure anyone else.
The moment the Americans got to the Isle of Pines in suflicier't numbers they immediately set to work to organize churches and schools. In the last two years four churches have been built-00' Baptist, at Nueva Gerona, one Episcopalian, at Columbia, 0 Methodist, at Santa Fe, one Episcopalian, at Santa Rosalia Heightsbut all these work tourether and exchange pu)h1its. The schools no' taught in these churches mostly-




CONDITIONS IN ISLE OF PINES. 29,

The Cuban officials attempt to prevent the education of American
-children by denying certificates to American teachers because they can not pass a Spanish examination. The Americans went ahead, opened their own schools, secured their own teachers, and told the Cubans do their -. This is the only way the schools can be kept open. The Spanish schools are run by guess and by any old way, when the teacher happens to think to get around.
Up to the time that these churches were built, the services wvere' held ii' these old Spanish hotels, built by the Spanish in the times of Spanish prosperity before the war for summer resorts, as the temperature is from 15 to 20 degrees lower than in H-abana on account of. its position away from Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. You Will see that six new town sites have been started and building is going forward as fast as the sawmills can cut out timber. There are now three permanent and three portable sawmills running.
Speaking of sawmills and lawv, let me relate a little circumstance to illustrate how law is administered in the island; Mr. Purdy, the owner of one of the portable sawmills, was passing along by one of these native's houses of thatched palm roof, a spark flew over to the shack and caught fire in the roof. The men ran over and put the fire out; a hole 5 or 6 feet square, approximately, had been burned. Mr. Purdy immediately settled with the owner at a stiff price, paid $25, and took a receipt in full for all damages.
Some few days after, one of those Cuban officials came along, told this native lie w~as a great fool, that he could make.Mr. Purdy put a new tile roof on his house and,. as the pole frame was not strong enough to support a tile roof, Mr. Purdy would have to build brick walls to support It; so the native was to get a new house at Mr. Purdy's expense after the whole matter had been settled and paid for at $25. *W1ell, Mr. Purdy wvas arrested, taken to Nueva Gerona, hauled up before the Cuban magistrate, put under bonds to appear every Monday at court until the matter was disposed of. I felt that the whole thing was so foreign to any- sense of justice that I offered to take the matter up to Mr. Squires in Habana; so Mr. Purdy gave me the details of the -whole matter. I called at the consulate, but did not get to see Mr. Squires. In a day or two I met Mr. Purdy in the streets of Habana. He had concluded to leave the island, and would nlot try to do any more sawmill work as long as Cuba pretended to
*admiinister law in the island.
,famngoes along the road there and his mule breaks through a bridge and breaks its leg the man is prosecuted and perhaps imprisoned for breaking-the bridge.
Speaking of bridges reminds me of an incident at Nueva Gerona last spring. During the American occupation the colsuida, or turnPike road, wvas built under the supervision of our army officers; the
*first bridge, from- Nueva Gerona is over the Casas River in the-edge of Itowus at the haofnvgtn. This is quite a long bridge, Perhaps ioo or 125 feet long, and built at the time of the building of the road. Te floor timbers became rotten and unsafe, and were condemned by the Cuban officials to all team travel. After this condemnation all freight had to be ferried across the river on a schooner, by hauling tleboat by ropes. The people of the island petitioned the alcalde to have the bridge repaired. He continually put them
-21455-S. Doe. 166, 68-2-3




30 CONDITIONS IN ISLE OF- PINES.

off, and not only would not repair the bridge, but would not give his permit to allow the Americans to repair it. ,
Well, American indignation began to arise, slowly at first but surely rising. After our paying-hundreds of thousands of dollars into the Cuban treasury we could not even get permission to repair that bridge, let alone their doing it for us. I doubt'now that there is a Cuban on that island that has mechanical ability to even repair a bridge. Well. the Ameiicans made up their minds that the bridge would be repaired. They made a survey of the materials needed, had the timbers sawed out, all loaded onto wagons, got into the ground bright and early one morning with 20 or 25 men with Yankee axes, saws, etc. Well, the alcalde came out with his greasers and attempted to stop the work but found that if he attempted to carry matters too far h would have trouble on his hands instanter. The American flag was flying over that bridge and over veterans of both sides of our little misunderstanding, and it never would have come down until that bridge was put in order.
Well, to avoid serious trouble the Americans allowed the alcalde to put ip the Cuban flag at the other end of the bridge, also allowed them to tear up a little of the rotten timber for appearance sake, to sav-e their face, as the French say, so I presume it will go down in Cuban history that they built that'bridge over the Casas River. The Americans finished the bridge in time to get over the river with their families to celebrate the Fourth of July under Old Glory in the town of 'Nueva Gerona in an old-fashioned way, greasers looking on and scowling. Since, these Cubans have absolutely refused to spend one cent of our money, paid them legally, on any improvements whatever. We have repaired the Government road and bridges so as to keep them in passable condition.
As to roads in general, the Calabaza people have built a highway nearly the whole length of the tract (4 miles). Caneada people have completed a great portion of the highway, including bridges and cl verts, from Santa Fe to the west coast of Signana Bay, 21 miles, to a town now building. We, the El Canal people, are now engaged in building a highway the whole length of our tract, including bridges and culverts. I understood that the McKinley people have built a good road to their town of McKinley, 8 miles west of Gerona, near the Managua orange grove, planted by runaway negroes that went there from Florida during our civil war. I state these facts so that you will not accuse these Cubans of having energy enough to get out an orange orchard; their energy is all exhausted in carrying machetes. There has been about 5,000 acres of soil turned over by the Americans in the last four years; nearly all has been set out with citron fruit-bearing trees. Some is used for tobacco raisin, some for vegetables and pineapples.
The inclosed letters from different people will give you a preth clear understanding of what other people are doing down there. Our tract (El Canal) was surveyed less than two years ago and subdivided fifteen months ao, when each man took possession of his own. Since then there has been approximately, 500 acres cleared and 5 new houses built. There were several native houses on the tract, all occupied by Spanish natives, who are as much opposed to Cuban control as we are, and should be considered. These natives, as a rule, work for the Americans, and get three times as much paY




CONDITIONS IN ISLE OF PINEs. 31,

for their work as they did before the Americans went there, and work every day if they wish to.
The Spanish Pinaro is a fairly good man and works very well with the Americans to direct his work. I have a Spanish native working for me by the year, who lives on my plantation. I am setting out 1,000 citron fruit trees this year.. I also have quite a large tobacco field. It was my intention to plant 5 acres this year, but the excessive rains washed out the propagating bed, so that my field is reduced to 10,000 plants. Mr. R. M. Jacks, of our plantation, turned over 40 acres last year and set out 1,750 trees and built a good six-room house. MIr. Gibbs cleared approximately the same last year and built a house. About twelve of our company started to make improvements last year, and twice as many will begin this year if -this horrible nightmare passes without leaving its fearful tracks and sickening results. While I was in the Island of Pines on my first trip I became interested in the extensive timber tract south of the cienaga (swamp), on account of the valuable hard woods (15 to 20 varieties), including mahogany, Spanish cedar, etc. I reported this matter to my associates on my return to Chicago. *We organized a small syndicate of a half dozen men to investigate the matter. It being purely an engineering proposition, I was selected to make a survey and report, on account of my experience of railroad construction in the Northwest. I went to the island for thispurpose a year ago last month. I made a reconnoissance survey of the northern portion for the best route to locate a. railroad for the construction of the planters' shipping facilities, terminals, etc. I then chartered a schooner and went around into the Sigawana Bay and up into the cienaga (swamp), for the purpose of finding the best location to build a railroad bridge to tap the timber and charcoal rocks, I may say, instead of land. There is a great variety of valuable woods, but very inaccessible except by tramways. The minute you would take cattle off the prepared roadway they would go down in the holes in the coral rocks and break their legs. The timber all grows up out of these holes, the roots of the trees resisting the rocks as they grow. This coral formation seems to have been built on the solid lime rock, then shoved up out of the sea. The highest point, I think, is about 50 feet above the sea. A ridge of lime rock crops up above or through the coral 4' or 5 miles inland from the Caribbean Sea. Sand has blown up out of the sea in spots along the south coast. Vegetable mold has mixed with this sand and formed a little soil along the coast, but of no account whatsoever for agricultural purposes. A few Cameen Bracken E'nglishmen are trying to eke out an existence there fishing turtles and trying to raise cocoanuts.
Our proposition, or rather in my report I recommended, that we build a pier at on near the Los Indias River. in Sagwana Bay, where there is a good depth of water, fairly protected by the keys outside, and good anchorage; that we build a sawmill, veneer mill, charcoal, and Wodd-alcohol plant there, and make that our port of entry and shipping.
*Irecommended that we build a narrow-gauge railroad from Nueva Gerona, sweeping around in horseshoe shape to Santa, Fe and Columbus to the west coast, for the accomodation of the island. I also recomiliended that we build hotels at the medicinal springs for summer and Winter resorts. When Mr. Root revived this treaty, and seemed





32 CONDITIONS IN ISLE OF PINES.

so bent on selling his countrymen into bondage, we concluded that ive had better -wait and see if the glamour of his great personality and intellect could daze the eyes and entrance the soul of all you Senato at once. Well, I think I know of a few war horses, and I have f aih that lots that I don't know will not allow themselves to be blinded by this great I amn." He's only a man after all, when you come to thinI about it. We think it was very fortunate for some of our officials in Habana that the tobacco graft microbe was very prevalent about that time; some few caught the long green variety before the streets and sewers of Habana were thoroughly disinfected.
About two years ago when we went to the island to see this El Cana] tract, there was one old lame Mississippi side-wheel boat running from lBalabana to the island. Now we have two steamers, one new, 14 knots an hour, and a line* of schooners running between Mobile, Ala., and the island, besides a naphtha launch. running between Los Indias River, on the west coast, around connecting with the boats at Nueva Gerona.
As to population, we know of no accurate census having been taken since Mr. McKinley ordered it taken when we owned the island. It is variously estimated by reliable judges to be 1,500 to 2,000 Annericans, perhaps as many good Spanish Pinaros (Amnerican-loving people), 100 or 150 Cuban American haters.
As to commerce, shipments from the island were small until last year, when pineapples, tomatoes, onions, eggplants, some grape fruit. some oranges. and approximately 1,000 bales of tobacco were shipped. This coming year a great many of the coming orange orchards and' grape fruit will come into bearing. Approxiately 10,000, crateE were shipped last year. This quantity will doubleon itself every year for five or six years on the same trees, and, with the new trees coi ing into bearing every year, you can see what a business this would develop into in a short time. Sea island cotton does remarkably well grows 5 and 6 feet high, with 100 bolls on the stalk of sufficient size to lap the stalk over. I am raising some this year for samples. I will send samples if the Senators question this statement. Rubber trees grow very rapidly, and very likely rubber (and seneca century pl~ant) for the very fine fiber taken from the leaf will be grown OP5 hat coral rock some day when the timber is taken off, or as f ast as it is taken off; at least that is all that it will be good for so far asI can see.
well, to sum the whole thing up in a nutshell, the Cubans are utterly incompetent to plan or execute anything, and they are -Q jealous of the superiority of American methods and push that they throw every obstacle in our way, thinking they will discourage 01'r people so they will leave the island -with all our improvements them, and that Leonard Wood had no more right to take the law 0 his own hands and alienate American territory' and American citizens than Benedict Arnold had to-try to do the same, whether he had secret instructions from the War Department to do so orno.I was a disgraceful, un-American, disloyal, unlawful act.
W hen an army officer can mae and unmake citizens and territory, of the United States it is time to call a halt.

Yours, very truly,
(Signed) GEORGE E. HBBAW.









SENATE DOCUMENT NO. 205, FIFTY-NINTH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION.




ADJUSTMENT OF TITLE TO ISLE OF PINES.


FEBRUARY 1, 1906.-Ordered 1o be printed in confidence for the use of the Senate,
together with the views of the minority (see page 189). FEBRUARY 12, 1906.-Injunction of secrecy removed.

Mr. FORAKER, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, submitted

the following

REPORT.

[To accompany Executive J, 58th Cong., 2d sess.]

The Committee on Foreign Relations, having had under consideration the treat between the United States and Cuba, signed March 2, 1904, for the adjustment of title to the ownership of the Isle of Pines, report the same favorably and recommend its ratification.
The treaty under consideration is as follows:
The United States of America and the Republic of Cuba, being desirous to give full effect to the sixth Article of the Provision in regard to the relations to exist between the United States and Cuba, contained in the Act of the Congress of the United States of America, approved March second, nineteen hundred and one, which sixth Article aforesaid is included in the Appendix to the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, promulgated on the 20th day of May, nineteen hundred and two and provides that The island of Pines shall be omitted from the boundaries of Cuba specified in the Constitution, the title of ownership thereof being left to future adjustment by treaty;" have for that purpose appointed as their Plenipotentiaries to conclude a treaty to that end: The President of the United States of America, John Hay, Secretary of State of the United States of America; and
The President of the Republic of Cuba, Gonzalo de Quesada, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Cuba to the United States of America; Who, after communicating to each other their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles:

ARTICLE I.
The United States of America relinquishes in favor of the Reublic of Cuba all claim of title to the Island of Pines situate in the Caribbean Sea near the southwestern part of the Island of Cuba, which has been or may be made in Virtue of Articles I and II of the Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain, signed at Paris on the tenth day of December eighteen hundred and ninety eight.
ARTICLE 11.
This relinquishment, oil tile part of the United States of America, of claim of title to the said Island of Pines, is in consideration of the grants of coaling and naval stations in the Island of Cuba heretofore made to the United States of America by the Republic of Cuba.

33





34 ISLE OF PINES.

ARTICLE III.

Citizens of the United States of America who; at the time of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, shall be residing or holding property in the Island of Pines shall suffer no diminutfon of the rights and privileges which they have acquired prior to the date of exchange of ratifications of this treaty; they may remain there or may remove therefrom, retaining in either event all their right, of property, including the right to sell or dispose of such property or of its pro ceeds; and they shall also have the right to carry on their. industry, commerl and professions being subject in respect thereof to such laws as are applicable to other foreigners.
ARTICLE IV.

The present treaty shall be ratified by each party in conformity with the respective Constitutions of the two countries, and the ratifications shall be ex. changed in the City of Washington as soon as possible.
In witness whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries. have signed this 'treaty and hereunto affixedour seals.
Done at Washington, in duplicate, in Englisli and Spanish this second day of March one thousand nine hundred and four.
[SEAL.] JoHx IIAY
[SEAL.] GONZALO DE QUESADA.
The ratification of the treaty is opposed by citizens of the United States who have acquired property and have located in the Isle of Pines with a view to establishing their residence there.
The. following petition indicates the grounds of their objections to ratification:
To'the President and Congress of the United States:
At a general mass meeting of the residents and property owners of the Isle of Pines, hurriedly called at the town of Nueva Gerona on this the 5th day of December. 1903, tie following preamble was unanimously adopted:
Whereas a treaty is now pending in the United States Congress where. it is proposed to give to the Cuban Government complete and absolute contr1 of the Isle of Pines; and
Whereas the residents and property owners of the Isle of Pines were induced to purchase homes and to bring their families and settle on this island under the assurances given them by the "treaty of Paris," "the Platt amendment to the army appropriation bill," by personal letters from President McKinley. Secretary of State Hay, Secretay of War Root, and finally by the "Isle of Pines treaty," wherein the two nations through their respective plenipotelltiaries acknowledged the Isle of Pines as United States territory; and
Whereas a ratification of said treaty will be of great and permanent injury to the interests of the Americans. who now own and control three-fourths of the landed interests in the Isle of Pines; and
Whereas Gen. Leonard Wood, military governor-general of Cuba and of tle Isle of Pines did, on the 17th day of April, 1902, declare to a representative committee of property owners of the Isle of Pines that according to the sixt clause of the Platt amendment to the army appropriation hill it would le absolutely necessary to continue the military government on the Isle of Pines until the status of that island was settled by treaty between the United States and Cuba :
That lie would personally see to It that the military government was put ih operation there and a governor appointed before he left Cuba:
That the records pertaining to the Isle of Pines should be removed at once from Cuba to the Isle of Pines, and that we need have no fears but that t1 personal and vested property interests would be fully protected and cared fer Yet none of these things have been done; and
Whereas gross, unjust, incorrect, and uncalled for statements have been made by our American minister to Cuba, Herbert G. Squiers, and the interests Of Americans have not been guarded or considered by him, who proltoses by sucb treaty to cede to the Republic of Cuba, for an undefinable consideration, al island of 1,200 square miles, with exceptional harbor and coaling station facili, ties within easy reach of both the Atlantic and Pacific seacoasts of the United




ISLE OF PINES. 35

States, and with resources both mineral and agricultural worth millions of dollars, and onl which a million more has been expended for improvements by citizens of thle United States.
Therefore we the residents and property owners on tile Isle of P1ines appeal to each member of the Senate of the United States to vote for the defeat of the treaty referred to, and to save us from the perfidy of our pretendedl friends. And your petitioners will ever pray.
Dated at Neuva Gerona, Isle of Pines, West Indies. December 5. 1903.
Louis C. GETNER,
Chairman.
CHARLES RAYNARD,
Secretary.
F. A. BARGER,
Assistant Secretary.
EDWARD P. RYAN,
(and 258 others.)
Numerous other petitions, letters, and communications have been submitted by these protestants of this same general character. Inasmnech as these additional petitions, letters, and other kinds of conmmunications do not set forth any new gronds in addition to those recited in the above petition, it is deemed unnecessary to embody them in this report, with the exception of the following, letter from Frank T'. Mason, dated New York, December 15, 1903, and addressed to Hon. Thomas C. Platt, United States Senate, and by him referred to the Committee onl Foreign Relations for consideration: NEW YORK, December 15, 1903.
lion. THoMVAS C. PLATT,
United States Senator, Washington, D. C.
My DE-r. SENATOR: As one of a number of your constituents having .interest,; in the Isle of Pines, I vigorously protest against the treaty now pending in the Senate, ceding the said Isle of Pines to Cuba..
My father, William Mason, my brother, Fred C. Mason, and myself have 1,800 acres on the island, and for the last year and a half have spent between $30,000 and $40,000 in improvements. In fact, my brother and myself have resided there superintending the work during this time, except for the last month.,
We contend that the Isle of P'ines is territory of the United States according to article 2 of the treaty of Paris, which reads as follows:
Spain cedes to the United States the island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and,the island of Guam, inl the Marianas or Ladrones."
We were further influenced in our investment in thle Isle of Pines by a letter written by Mr. George Bridges to the War Department on August 10,.- 1899, asking information respecting the Isle of Pines, as follows:
"'Does it come in as Porto Rico, or under same conditions as Cuba?. I expect to go there in November, and for this Information. I would thank you In advance" 1
To which the War Department replied on August 14, 1899, as follows:
"Referring to your communication of August 10, Instant, soliciting informnation respecting the Isle of Pines,- I am directed by the Assistant Secretary of War to advise you that this island wvas ceded by Spain to the United. States, anid is therefore a part of our territory, although it is attached at present to the division of Cuba for governmental purposes. A copy of the Isle of. Pines is iniclosedi for your information, and you are advised that tile (disposition of Public lands must await the action of Congress."
I earnestly solicit your assistance in defeating this treaty If possible, but if this is hopeless at least please use your Influence to secure an amendment embodying the following provisions:
The establishment of a stable form of insular government, with some form of judicial tribunal for the trial of ordinary cases.
The opening of a port of entry at the capital of the island.
The removal to Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, from Bejucal, Cuba, of the land records pertaining to the Isle of Pines.
The establishment of an American school at some point on the Isle of Pines.




36 ISLE OF PINES.

When the treaty was under negotiations at Habana, United States Minister Squiers guaranteed to a committee whichi waited upon him in behalf of the American Association of Residents and Investors on the Isle of Pines that the treaty would contain the above-mentioned provisions safeguarding Ameriean interests. Minister Squiers not only made these promises to the committee, but also to individual Americans, myself among others.
Not a single one of Minister Squiers's provisions have been mnade good in the treaty which has been submitted to the Senate for consideration. Not only American, but every other interest in the island is threatened with ruin if the promised reforms are not secured. Under the 'Spanish Government the island was purposely, cut off from all intercourse with the outside world, hut enjoyed a measure of prosperity through the maintenance of a military government with a large garrison of Spanish troops. Now that the island has been thrown on its own resources, all it asks, aside from the American flag, which it seem it is not to have, is a decent opportunity to take care of itself.
The Isle of Pines is at present absolutely w-ithmout any form of government The highest official in a territory almost as large as Rhode Island is the alcalde of a towns of 1,000 inhabitants, exercising an indefinite authority over the surrounding territory. There are no judicial tribunals. The children of American parents are absolutely, without educational opportunities, and a great portion of the time no schools are conducted in any language.
Owing to the absence of all records from the island, the cost of land transfer,. is prohibitive, except where valuable properties are involved. The absence of a port of entry prevents the development of the island's commercial possibilities. The duty on the imports and exports of the island is collected at ports on the island of Cuba and~goes into the Cuban treasury. Not one cent of it is expended for the benefit of the Isle of Pines. Improvements commenced during the American occupation have been left unfinished. Government bridges are falling down, and the island receives no more attention from the Cubana Government than if it was in the Arctic Ocean.
Minister Squiers is fully conversant with this deplorable condition of affairs, and has promised again* and again to have it remedied if a transfer of sovereignty was made. He has even gone further than this, and volunteered in case the island was surrendered to Cuba to see that every American who so desired should have the opportunity of disposing of his land at cost to the Cuban Gov ernment. Witnesses can he brought to substantiate all these assertions.
I have invested in the Isle of Pines with a view to permanent residence there, and if it impossible to retain the island under the American flag I e~iraestlY implore you to use every influence In your power to secure the desired amendments, so that those who Intend to permanently reside there may have their Interests definitely protected.
Trusting you will give this matter your careful attention, I am,
Yours, very truly,
FRAiNx T. M-%so,\.
It will be observed that Ithe chief ground of objection urged against tile treaty is that these protestants, were misled by the treaty of peace with Spain, by the Platt amendment, and by correspondence with the
*War Department and other officials of the Government into the belief that the title of the Isle of Pines passed to the United States by !he treaty of peace with Spain, antd that it would continue as a posseSsiOn of the United States and under its jurisdiction and government.
In December, 1903, it was claimed that there were of these, protesting American citizens residing in the Isle of Pines and interested s o-wners. of property there about 300 or 400 persons.,
It is claimed that there are now about 1,200 citizens of the United States who have gone to the Isle of Pines for the purpose of establishing permanent residence there, but a census of the island, taken by the Republic of Cuba during the year 1904, shows the number to be only 416.
In response to a resolution of the Senate adopted June 7,,1904, i11 correspondence and papers on file in the office of the Executive and the War* Department relating to the Isle of Pines were sent to the Senate and have been published as Executive D, Confidential, FiftY-




ISLE OF PINES. 37

eighth Congress, second session." This document is hereto attached and marked for identification Exhibit A." As giving further information on the general subject, attention is also called to No. 445, Legation of the United States of America, Habana, Cuba, March 18, 1903," which is made a part hereof as "Exhibit B."
In addition to the foregoing, attention is also called to Exhibit C hereof, the same having been prepared by the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations, and printed for the confidential use of members of the committee.
Attention is also called to Senate Document No. 201, Fifty-seventh Congress, second session, being a message from the President, dated February 28, 1903, as to the present status of the Isle of Pines, transmitting to the Senate a report on the subject made by the Secretary of War, dated February 27, 1903, attached hereto as "Exhibit'D."
From the record presented by these various exhibits it appears that the Isles of Pines has always belonged to the "geographical entity" called Cuba. It has also been so represented on the maps of Cuba. Historically and politically it was regarded as a part of Cuba for administrative purposes of government under the Spanish r6gime. It was attached as a separate municipality to the Province of Habana. and belonged to the judicial district of Bejucal. During the occupation of Cuba by the United States it continued to be regarded and governed as a municipality of the Province of Habana. It was particularlv and distinctively so regarded and treated by the United States when it took the census of Cuba under the order of President McKinley, dated August 17, 1899.
The census report of Gen. J. P. Sanger shows that the Isle of Pines was included in the Province of Habana, to which it had always theretofore been attached under the government of Cuba by Spain. In all the maps published by General Sanger the Isle of Pines is shown as belonging to Cuba.
The following quotations from General Sanger's report have an
Important bearing, on the question under consideration:
The Government of Cuba has jurisdiction not only over the island of that name, but also over the Isle of Pines, lying directly to the south of it, more than a thousand islets and reefs scattered along its northern and southern coasts.
The Isle of Pines, with an area of 840 square miles, is a municipal district of the Province of Habana. It is in effect two islands connected by a marsh, the northern being somewhat broken by hills, the southern low, flat, and sandy. The total population of Cuba, including the Isle of Pines and neighboring keys, was, on October 16, 1889, 1,572,797. [Under Habana Province, population given as 3.199.]
liabana Province.

Municipal districts. 187. 1899. Gain. Loss.
Aguacate 3, 3, 163 ------ 183
abana,---------------------------------------------"1 2,054,M-------- 5
.b ............................................. 200,44 242,055 41,07
Isla d i-os . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .... . . . . . .2,040 1 3,199 1,159 -----Population by wards and by citics.-Under Province of Habana: Isla de Pinos district 3 199. (Page 182.)
Rurai Population excluding cities of 8,000 inhlabitants or more, ivith area and aenit, by municipal districts.-Under Province of Habana: Isla do -Pinos,




38 ISLE OF PINES.

rural population, 3,199; area in square miles, 840; density per square mile, 3. (Page 192.)
Sex, general nativity, and color.-Under Province o.f Habana: Isla de Pinos. total, 3,199; male, 1,782; female, 1,417. Native white: Total, 2,480; malt 1,309; female, '1,171. Foreign white: Total, 198: male, 186; female, 13. (Pa1 194.)
Percentage of population by sex, general nativity, and color.-Under Provinie of Habana: Isla de Pinos, total population, 3,199; male, 55.7: female, 478 native white, 77.5; foreign, white, 22.4: colored. 28.6. (Page 200.)
Age and sex.-Under Province of Habana: Isla de Pinos. total populatioD 3,199; under 5 years, male 195, female 158; 5 to 17 years, male 547, female 528: 18 to 20 years, male 106, female 97: 21 to 44 years, male 671. female 473: f years and over, male 263, female 161. (Page 203.)
Birthplace.-Under Province of Habana: Isla de Pinos. total population 3,199; Cuba, 2,990; Spain, 195: other countries. 14. (Page 218.)
Birthplace, sex, and race.-Under Province of Habana : Isla de Pinos districtt total, 3,199; Cuban, 2.818: Spanish. 32: in suspense, 334: other citizenship. 15 (Page 225.)
Con jugal condition.-Under Province of Hahana: Isla de Pinos. total. 3,11: single, 2,184: married, 774; living together as husband and wife by ma1utu.1 consent, 56; widowed, 184; unknown. 1. (Page 299.)
School attendance, literary and superior edacation.-Under 'rovince of Habana: Isla de Pinos, total population, 3.199: attended school, 38; did a0st attend school, 784-under 10 years of age. Ten years of age and over: Attendd school, 37; can neither read nor write, 1,343; can read but can not write, 42: can read and write, 954; not stated, 1. Superior education: Yes, 22; no, 3,1-11 (Page 358.)
Foreign u'hitc, m ale and fiealc.-Under Province of Habana: Isla de Pimios total, 185; male-52 agriculture, fisheries, mining, 48 trade and transportation 19 manufactures and mechanical industries. 1 professional service. 6 withul gainful occupation ; 12 females-1 trade, 1 professional, 1 domestic and lIer sonal service. 10 without gainful occupation. (Page 410.)
Colored.-Total. 288 ; 96 agriculture, 13 trade, 15 manufacturing. 90 domaesti( and Iersonal. 74 without gainful occupation. (Page 412.)
Province of Habana, colored females.-Isla de Pinos, total, 233: Domestic and Personal service, 28; without gainful occupation, 205. (Page 413.)
Number and size of families.-Under Province of Habana: Isla de Pinos. total population, 3,199; total number of families, 572; average size, 5.6. (Page 507.)
Dwellings and fanilics.-Under Province of Habana : Isle de Pinos, un0C cupied buildings, 48; occupied dwellings, 546; number of families, 572; persols to a family. 5.6; persons to a dwelling, 5.9; families to a dwelling, 1. (P 4q 512.)
Attention is particularly called to the fact that this census, take subsequent to August. 1899, shows that at the time when it was taken there were in the Isle of Pines only 14 persons who were natives Of any other country than Cuba or Spain. Practically all of the protestants must, therefore, have gone to the Isle of Pines subsequet to the taking of that census, and .therefore with full knowledge that tlhe Isle of Pines was being regarded and treated, for governmental purposes, as belonging to Cuba and as a part thereof. If the 14 per, sons citizens of other countries than Spain and Cuba were citizen of the United States they should have taken notice of the fact that they were enumerated as foreigners, which of itself indicated that the Isle of Pines was not domestic territory of the United States.
Numerous orders were issued and repeatedly action was taken bS the military governor of Cuba during the American occupation that proceeded upon the theory that the Isle of Pines belonged to Cubt not only for the purpose of its government, but as an integral part Of Cuba.




ISLE OF PINES. 39

The following orders may be mentioned in this connection:
Order No. 45, January 27, 1900. Appointment under Province of Habana of first assistant mayor.
Order No. 201, May 18, 1900, providing that the ayuntainiento of Isla de pinos, Province of Habana, shall have eight councilmen.
Order No. 254, June 27, 1900, as to lieutenant mayors, Isla de Pinos, under Province of Habana.
Other orders of a similar character might be cited, but these are sufficient to show the general character of all of them.
Still more important is the fact that the inhabitants of the Isle of Pines participated in the elections held in Cuba during the American occupation, namely, the municipal elections of June 16, 1900, and those for the election of delegates to the constitutional ccuvention September 15, 1900.
In an order, No. 218, by General Wood. dated October 14, 1901, approved by the War Department and published by the Division of Insular Affairs in November, 1901, occurs the following under the head of "Electoral divisions, Province of Habana:"
Province of Haban
It is divided into four circuits. The third will be composed of the ayuntamientos of Guines, La Catalina, Madruga, Melena del Sur, Nueva Paz, San Nicolas, Guara, Bejucal, Batabano, Quivican, Isle de Pines, San Antonio de las Vegas, San Felipe, and La Salud.
March 2, 1901, the Platt amendment was adopted, the sixth article Of which reads as follows:
That the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty.
Subsequently, and in accordance with the requirements of that amendment, the Cuban constitutional convention adopted the Platt amendment as an appendix, reciting in that connection the sixth article as above given.
On the 20th day of May, 1902. by the instrument transferring the government of Cuba to the President and Congress elected by the people of the island of Cuba, the following declaration was made: It is understood by the United States that the present government of the Isle 'of Pines will continue as a de facto government pending the settlement of the title to the said island by treaty, pursuant to the Cuban constitution and the act of Congress of the United States approved March 2, 1902.
The status of the Isle of Pines under our occupation of Cuba and the nature of the de facto government, which was to continue pending the settlement of the title to the said island, etc., are shown by the following indorsement, made by Gen. Leonard Wood on the resolution adopted by the Senate February 16, 1903, namely:
F irst indorsein ent.1

OFFICE O LATE -MILITARY GOVERNMENT OF CUBA, 1Wa.shington, February 20, 1903.
Respectfully returned to the Bureau of Insular Affairs. At the date of transfer of the island of Cuba to its duly elected officials the Isle of Pines constituted a municipality included within the municipalities of the Province of Habana, and located in the judicial district of Bejucal. The government of the island Is vested in its municipal officers subject to the general control of the civil governor of the Province of Iabana, who is vested, under the constitution of Cuba, vith certain authority in the control of municipal affairs. Under the military




40 ISLE OF PINES.

government of Cuba the Isle of Pines was governed by municipal officials, sun ject to the general authority of the civil governor, who received his authnority from the governor-general. The Isle of Pines, as it had existed under the miitary government, was transferred as a de facto government to the Cuban Repub. ]ic, pending the final settlement of the status of the island -by treaty between the United States and Cuba. The~ action taken by the military government was in accordance with telegraphic orders from thne honorable the Secretary of War
Tihe government of the island to-day Is in tine hands of its municipal officers, dluty elected bp the people, under tine general control of tine civil governor of the Province of Habana -and the Republic of Cuba. As I understand it, the government of the Isle of Pines is vested in tine Republic of Cuba pending such final action as may be taken by tine United States and Cuba looking to the ultimate disposition of the island. No special action was taken to protect the Interests of the citizens of the United States wino have purchased propery and have settled in the Isle of Pines, for the reason that no such action was necessary* All Americans in the island are living unnder exactly the same conditions as other foreigners, and if they comply with tile laws in force It is Safe to say that they will not have any difficulty or need~ special protection. At tine time these people purchased property tiney understood distinctly that tine question of ownership of the Isle of Pines was one pending settlement, aind in locating there they took the risks incident to the situation.
In addition to the foregoing the Treaqiirv Departnment has' always ruled that goods dutiable under the tariff laws of the United States imported from the Isle of Pines into this country were subject to duty as imiportations from a foreign country within the meaning of the revenue laws.
In view of this record it appears that, notwithstanding the fact that there were some letters written by the Assistant Secretary Of War and other officials of the War Department announcing that the title to the Isle of Pines had been vested in the United States by the treaty of peace with Spain, there has never been a time since before the first of the protestants acquired property and located in the Isle of Pines when the title to the Isle of Pines inns not been at least a controverted question, and a question so openly controverted that all must have had knowledge of the fact that Cuba claimed title to the Isle of Pines, and the United States recognized that there was a debatable question -with respect thereto, which was from time to timfe postponed for future settlement and adjustment.
In the face of this record the protestants who have located in the Isle of Pines should be held to have (lone so with full notice of tne claims of Cuba with respect thereto, and of the admission of the United States that these claims when finally adjusted might be settled in favor of Cuba. No matter, therefore, how gratifying it might be to meet tbe wishes of these citizens of the U~nited States who have thus located in the Isle of Pines, there is no roundmd for them to claim that the Government of the United States has misled them to their prejudice, and all this aside from the fact that the Assistant Secretary of War and the other officials whno -wrote what are claimed to have been misleading letters, had manifestly no authority whatevr to bind the Government by such statements.
Reference to Exhibit B, No. 445, report of lion. HI. G. Squiers, Will disclose how these lprotestnnnts were misledl, if they have been misled at all, in the respect claimed. This report shows that there were then~ four incorporated companies engaged in the acquisition, exploitation, and sale of lands in the Isle of Pines. With respect to their general character he says:




ISLE OF PINES. 41

Somie of them are what might be called mutual, but generally there is a speculative element, which will receive the profits derived from the sale of surplus lands, while oneC company (the Isle of Pines Company) is entirely speculative.
He makes the following further statement descriptive, of these
-companies and what they had been doing: r Ilec of Pines Conipany.--J. A. Hill, of New York, president. General offices, 91-93 Fifth avenue, New York. Incorporated under the laws of the State of New Jersey. Company holds some 106,775 acres of land, for which it paid $174,000, and claims to have made improvements to the amount of $75,000. This company is purely speculative; has not sold any land, but is holding for higher prices.
The Isle of Pines Land and D~evelopment Company.-Ira A. Brown (Columbia, Isle of Pines), president. Incorporated under the laws of the State of Iowa. Capitalized at $20,000. Forty shares of the par value of $500 each. Company holds title to 22,218 acres of land (Santa Rosalie estate). Purchased August 4, 1901. One hundred acres and a lot in the town of Columbia have been allotted to each of the original 40 shareholders. The prospectus of this company, containing a pint of their lands, is inclosed, marked 2. A list of the stockholders and amount of land allotted to each is now being prepared by the secretary of the company and will be forwarded as soon as received. I The Santa Fe Land Conspany-Rohert 1. Wall, president. Incorporated under the laws of Iowa. Capital, $150,000. The amount of land purchased by this company is 27,437 acres, for which it paid $25,500. The purchase of this tract was made February 2, 1903. The land has not yet been allotted among the shareholders. I inclose a list showing the name and address of each shareholder of this company and the amount of stock subscribed for by each. I also inclose the printed prospectus of the company. The Almacigos Springs Land Cosnpany.-Capital stock, $70,000, divided into 140. shares of the par value of $500, each share representing 100 acres of land. The Almacigos tract was purchased September -9,1902, for $30,000. This company also holds the Calabaza tract, making in all some 14,000 acres. I inclose a list of the stockholders, with residence and amount subscribed for by each, and a draft or pint of the real estate held by the company.
Since this report wvas made by -Mr. Squiers other companies of a similar character and for similar purp~loses have been organized, among, them notably the Canada Land and Fruit Company, a corporation organized under the la-ws of Wisconsin.These Companies in their advertisements scattered throughout the United States have generally represented that the Isle of Pines was a possession of the United States and that citizens of the United States acquiring property and establishing residences there -would be under the protection, jurisdiction, and Government of the United States. In this way, rather than by any act of the Government or, any official having authority to bind the Government of the United States, people wh have gone to the IsleLof Pines have been misled, if they have been misled at all.
The Senate is under no obligation, therefore, to deal with this question differently from -what it otherwise would because citizens of the United States have seen fit to locate in the Isle of Pines, and the sole question to be determined with respect to the ratification of this treaty is whether or not, under all the facts and circumstances exhibited by the record cited, it is the duty of the United States to relinquisli title to the Isle of Pines in favor of Cuba as provided in this treaty.
If there were no other considerations than such as are presented by this record, it would seem that the title to the Isle of Pines did not Pass to the United States by the treaty of peace with Spain and that the true construction of article 2 of the treaty Of Paris should be




42 ISLE OF PINES.

that the cession "of the island of Porto Rico and other islands nov under Spanish sovereignty in the West Islands" had reference to the islands of Culebra and Vieques, east of Porto Rico. and the island of Mona to the west, and was not intended to convey the Isle of Pines or any other of the keys and islets near the coast of Cuba, which always theretofore had been and now are considered as an integral part of that island, both geographically and politically.
But there is another consideration of commanding importance in favor of the ratification of this treaty. It is recited in the second article of this treaty itself in the following language:
This relinquishment, on the part of the United States of America, of claim of title to the said Isle of Pines is in consideration of the grants of coaling and naval stations in the island of Cuba heretofore made to the United States of America by the Republic of Cuba.
This treaty was negotiated and sent to the Senate by the President of the United States. His assent to such a declaration, given in the light of a discharge of his official and constitutional duty, is and should be regarded as a conclusive admission against the United States as to the fact recited, namedly, that it was understood and agreed between the respective negotiating officials of Cuba and the United States that in consideration of the grants heretofore made by Cuba to the United States by the treaty with Cuba of February 23, 1903, for coaling and naval stations, the United States would on its part relinquish al title in favor of Cuba to the Isle of Pines.
While such an understanding or agreement is not legally binding on the United States without ratification by the Senate. vet it is morally binding, and equity and justice would seem to requiire that without respect to whether the United States has a good title to the Isle of Pines this treaty should be ratified. In view of this declaration it is unnecessary to cite, as might be done, facts, circumstances. and records to show that the Republic of Cuba gave us the naval and coaling stations provided for in the treaty of February 23, 1903. with the distinct understanding that she was not only giving us riiglts and privileges of the greatest value to us in partial discharge of her debt of gratitude to the United States for assisting her to acquire her independence of Spain, but also as a consideration for the relinquishment of the disputed title to the Isle of Pines, which she claimed as one of her possessions and greatly desired to retain.
A failure to ratify this treaty might well be claimed by Cuba to be, under all the circumstances, a sufficient justification to her to abrogate and annul, in so far as she may have power to do so, her treaty with the United States of February 23, 1903. under which we acquired the valuable naval and coaling stations as therein provided, for the construction and improvement of which we have been making such larg expenditures. Whether tlais would give us any serious trouble or rt is immaterial. It would be at least disagreeable and unfortunate, because it would put the United States in the attitude of having failed to perform its part of a moral obligation after value therefore had been fully received.
So far as the protestants residing in the Isle of Pines are con' cerned, they are fully protected under the terms of this treaty in all their rights and privileges with respect to the property which theY




ISLE OF PINES. 43

have acquired, the provision of Article III of the treaty being as follows:
Citizens of the United States of America who, at the time of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, shall be residing or holding property in thle island of Pines shall suffer no diminution of the rights and privileges which they have acquired prior to the date of exchange of ratifications of this treaty; they may rein there or may remove therefrom, retaining in either event all their rights of property, including the right to sell or dispose of such property or of its proceeds; and they shall also have the right to carry on their industry, commerce, and professions, being subject in respect thereof to such laws as are applicable to other foreigners.
Since this treaty Was negotiated and since objections to its ratification were filed by the protestants, the Cuban Republic has granted practically all that the protestants have asked for with respect to the improvement by the Republic of Cuba of its government of the Isle of Pines.
While naturally it will not be so satisfactory to these citizens of the United States to continue under the government of the Republic of Cuba as it would be to live under the jurisdiction and government of the United States, particularly in view of the fact that they will probably expect to find in the United States markets for their products, on which they will be required to pay tariff duties, in order to avail themselves of these markets, if they do not become domestic lerritor y of the United States, yet there is nothing in this fact that affords any justification for the United States to refuse to ratify this treaty, because it is necessary to the full discharge of our obligations in the premises.

Since the foregoing wvas prepared the. Secretary of State, Mr. Root, wrote a letter, under date of November 27, 1905, addressed to Mr. Charles Reynard, president of The American Club of the Isle of Pines, West Indies, of which the following is a copy: DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Wadsiliayton, Novemiber 27, 1905.
DEAR SIR: I have received your letter of October 25, in which you say Kindly advise me at your very earliest convenience the necessary procedure to estab1ish a territorial form of government for the Isle of Pines, west Indies, U. S. A." It is no part of the duty of the secretary of state to give advice upon sue), Subjcts I think it proper, however, to answer your inquiry so far as it may he nlecssarv to remove an error under which you appear to rest concerning the status of the Isle of Pines and your rights as. residents of that island. There is no procedure by which you and your associates can lawfully establi8h a territorial government in that island. The island is lawfully subject to the control and government of the Republic of Cuba, and you and your associates are bound to render obedience to the laws of that country so long as
YUremain on the island. if you fail in that obedience you will be justly lable to prosecution in the Cuban courts and to such punishment as may be Provided by the laws of Cuba for such offenses as You commit. You are not likely to have any greater power in the future. .The treaty now pending before the Senate if approved by that body, will relinquish all claim of the United States to the Isle of Pines. In may judgment the 'United States has no substanitial claim to the Isle of Pines. The treaty merely accords to Cub a what '5 hers in auccordanice with international law and justice. A t the time of th rayo ec hc ned the wvar between the United States and Spain the Isle of Pines was and had been for several centuries a Part of Cuba. I have no doubt whatever that it continues to be a Part of Cuba alld that tisntadnvrhsbeterritory of the United States. This is9 he view with which President Roosevelt authorized the pending treaty,' and Air' 11aY Signed It, and I expect to urge its confirmation., Nor would the rejec-





44 ISLE OF -P1NES.

tion of the pending treaty put an end to the control of Cuba over tine island, A treaty directly contrary to the one now pending would be necessary to do that, and there is not the slightly prospect of such a treaty being made. You may be quite sure that Cuba will never consent to give up the Isle of Pines and that the United States will never try to compel her to give it up against her will.
Very respectfully,
ELiHIJ ROOT.
CHARLES RAYNARD, Esq.,
President of American Club of thee Isle of Pines, West Indies.

To this letter from Mr. Root, M10r. Reynard madec the followingo~ answer, -which was published ill the issue of the Isle of Pies Appeal for iMonday, December 25, 1905, namely: SANTA ROSALIE HEIGHTS,
Isle of Pines, WV. L., Deember 14,, 1905.
SIR: On December 4 1 replied briefly by cable to the letter of November 21, with which you favored me in reply to mine of October 25. 1 have since then carefully considered your letter, together with the members of the American Club and others of our fellow-citizens interested, and in their heihaif, as weil
-is for myself, I respectfully invite your attention to the following statement:
You say in your letter, The Isle of Pines is lawfully subject to the control and government of the Republic of Cuba." This we emphatically deny. We regret that you dlid not see fit to give sorne reason for the bold and unsupported statement which you make. We beg to submit the following reasons in support of our denial of that statement:
The Republic of Cuba exists solely by virtue of the Cuban constitution. That constitution was adopted, ratified, promulgated, and put in force by the sole authority of the United States. Beyond the scope of that constitution the Cuban Republic has no powers whatever. By the terms of that constitution itself the Isle of Pines is expressly excluded from the constitutional boundaries of Cuba. Until that constitutional limitation is removed, and until, by somne of the known, recognized, and lawful methods by which a sovereign state may acquire an extension of its territory, the Isle of Pines becomes incorporated in the Republic of Cuba, the government of that Republic can no more exercise lawful control over It than over Key West or the peninsula of Florida Itself.
Further, by that section of the act of Congress approved March 2, 1001,,which is commonly called the Platt amendment, the Isle of Pines was expressly excluded from Cuban territory. That act of Congress is still in full force. Until its provisions respecting Cuba are repealed or modified by the Congress of tbe United States or in some other lawful way they have the force of law and the Government of the United States and every officer and department of that Government is bound by them, personal opinions of any government official-S however high in station, to the contrary notwithstanding.
We maintain, therefore, that In usurping and continuing to exercise anY measure of political control over the Isle of Pines up to this day the Cuban Government has acted unlawfully and In violation of the plain provisions of the Cuban constitution. And we maintain further that the Government of the United States and any officers of that Government who have knowingly cefr sented to or connived at such usurpation on the part of the Cuban Government have acted unlawfully and In violation of the plain provisions of the act Of Congress of the United States referred to.
In your letter of November 27 you state further: "You and your associates are bound to render obedience to the laws of that country (Cuba) so long9 as you remain In the island (Isle of Pines). If you fail in that obedience you will be justly liable to prosecution in the Cuban courts and to such punish, ment as may be provided by the laws of Cuba for such offenses as you con, mit." This, we submit, is only an erroneous conclusion on your part from the untenable statement previously quoted from your letter. We are unable to conceive how the laws of Cuba can be in force in a territory In which the constitution of Cuba, by its own terms, Is not in force, and to which Cuban authority has never been extended by conquest or treaty. We must decline tO acknowledge the duty of obedience to the laws of an alien country while we are within a territory from which such alien jurisdiction has been expressly el, eluded by the laws of our own country.






ISLE OF PINES. 45

Your letter states, also:
"In my judgment the United States has no substantial claim to the Isle of Pines * I have no doubt whatever that it continues to be a part of Cuba and that it is not and never has been territory of the United States." We regret sincerely that your opinion as to the validity of the American claim to the Isle of Pines should be so directly opposed, not only to our own, but to the opinions expressed on the same subject by the late President McKinley, by your distinguished predecessor in office, Secretary Hay, and by the late military governor of Cuba, Gen. Leonard Wood. That President McKinley did believe that the island was ceded by Spain to the United States is easily shown by his action in directing the dispatch of an official communication from the War Department, dated August 14, 1899, In which occur these words: "This island was ceded by Spain to the United States, and is, therefore, a part of our territory, although it is attached at present to the division of Cuba for governmental purposes * and * the disposition of public lands must
await the action of Congress." This very explicit statement was made more than six months after the treaty of Paris had been ratified by the Senate of the United States, and therefore after there had been ample time for reaching a sound conclusion as to the meaning and effect of the terms by which, in the treaty, the extent of the cession of territory made by Spain was to be distinguished from the relinquishment of sovereignty which applied solely to Cuba.
President McKinley, acting on the same conclusion, directed that the Isle of Pines be placed as American territory on the great maps issued by the Government of the United States which show all the territory belonging to the United States. This action was public notice to all the world that the United States Government not only had a substantial claim to the Isle of Pines, but that no doubt was entertained of the validity of that claim. Moreover, the late Secretary Hay clearly and openly expressed his opinion, based on the same consideration, doubtless, which had led President McKinley to form his conclusion, that the island was and should remain an American possession. And, finally. General Wood, only a few days before the termination of the American occupation of Cuba openly expressed the same opinion and gave emphatic assurances to some of the American citizens Interested that the American control of the island would be continued after the island of Cuba had been delivered to the Cuban Government. It will not surprise you, therefore, if we decline to accept your brief and unsupported conclusion, above quoted, but prior to adhere to the conclusions reached by President McKinley, Secretary I-ay, and General Wood, the reasons for which have repeatedly been published, making it unnecessary to repeat them here.
Further, we are informed and believe that you yourself, when Secretary of War. acting on the advice or recommendation of the legal adviser of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, directed the military governor of Cuba, on or about May 16, 1902, in view of the inauguration of the Cuban Government then about to occur, to take steps to continue the then existing government in the Isle of Pines as a de facto government, pending the settlement,, by treaty, of any question as to tie title to or jurisdiction over that island. Such a course indicated an intention to respect and comply with the provisions of the act of Congress of March 2, 1901. above referred to, and to provide for the continuation of the American control of the island until a final decision of any pending questions could lbe lawfully reached. In his address delivered to the President of the Cuban Republic on the occasion of the institution of the Cuban Government, on May 20, 1902, the military governor announced to the Cuban Government that the existing government in the Isle of Pines would be so continuedtlat is. that the American authority in the island would continue-pending the negotiation of a treaty covering the question in dispute, but he failed entirely to take any steps whatever to carry out the intention so announced. By this failure and neglect alone and for no other cause that can be Imagined, the Cuban Government inaugurated on that day, was permitted to assume control Over the Isle of Pines, in violation of the express terms of the constitution by Which it derived its right to exist and in total disregard of the act of Congress Which permitted it to come into existence. That control, so usurped, has continued to be exercised from that day to this, without our recognition of its Validity and in spite of our repeated protests against it. It is much to be regretted that in your letter to me or in any public utterance of yours you have not seen fit to explain to your fellow citizens what instructions were given
21455-S. Doc. 166, 68-2----4






46 ISLE OF PINES.

by you, as Secretary of War, on this point and why any instructions that may have been given, looking to the fulfillment of the provisions of the act of Congress, were permitted by you to be disregarded and why no steps were taken by you or your successor to correct the deplorable results of such at,parent neglect and disobedience oa the part of your subordinate.
It is further observed by us that it was not until'after this breach of duty and violation of law had resulted In the betrayal of our interests to aa alien government you, as Secretary of War, in opposition to the known land expressed wishes of Mr. John Hay, then Secretary of Stafe, insisted on the negotiation of the treaty, which has never been confirmed, by which the American claim to the Isle of Pines was sought to be abandoned in favor of the Cuban Republic, thus covering up and concealing by the sanction of law the illegal acts and omissions of the Department of the Government over which you presided at the time and for which you were responsible.
Your letter states further: "You may be quite sure that Cuba will never consent to give up the Isle of Pines, and that the United States will never try to compel her to give it up against her will."
With the first part of that statement. considered as a prediction, we are not concerned. We are prepared to maintain and are maintaining that Cuba is not lawfully or rightfully in possession of the island. We know that one Department, at least, of our Government at Washington has refused to recognize and has, in fact, distinctly repudiated the claim of Cuba to the island as a part of her territory. We are confident of our ability, if a hearing is granted to us, to demonstrate the absolute correctness of our position on this question, and we have enough confidence in the sense of justice and the law-abiding character of our fellowcitizens of the United States and of the greater part of our own Government to feel sure that, once that demonstration has been made, they will never consent to the deliberate abandonment of a part of the national territory and a number of their fellow-citizens to an alien power, and that means will easily be round by which the United States will resume the control of the island. unlawfully abandoned by you, with or without the consent of any foreign power whatever.
You also state that the rejection of the pending treaty would not put til end to the control of Cuba over the island. A treaty directly contrary to the one now pending would be necessary to do that." From such a statement we emphatically dissent. The pending treaty has for its motive and its purpose the consummation of a wrong which is at present incomplete. The rejecti: i of the treaty by the Senate of the United States or by the Congress of the United States would put an end to further attempts in that direction and would leave the status of the Isle of Pines exactly what it was before the attempt to betray us was conceived. That status would be determined by the law of the United States. to say nothing of the constitution of Cuba. It is the sworn duty of the President of the United States to enforce the law relating to the Isle of Pines as faithfully as he enforces the laws against any form of robbery. 'De accept your dictum on this point is to acknowledge that a treaty with a foreign power is required to undo a wrong attempted against American citizens hilt frustrated by them.
You lay stress on the statement that the Isle of Pines was and has Ibeell for several centuries a part of Cuba." Geographically the island is not a polrt of Cuba. Politically it was a part of the Spanish dominions, just as P140 Rico and the Philippines were. Administratively it has recently been a 1,lt of the Spanish government of Cuba. just as the districts of east and veSt Florida were long a part of the same district government. But, granting all that you mean by the statement last quoted, it doe not follow that the Isle of Pines was included in the territory over which Spain relinquished her sovevreignty by the treaty of Paris rather than in the territory which -was coded bY that treaty to the United States. The right of Spain to cede it was as good as her right to relinquish it, whether it was or was not a part of Cuba, politically, geographically, or administratively. The only question worth consider" ilg in this connection is whether Spain intended to and did cede the isll1 to the United States and whether the United States accepted the cession in it' favor or whether the island was included in the relinquishment made by Spai in favor of a Cuban state to be erected by the United States.
That the Spanish commissioners who assisted in the negotiation of the treaty and in the drawing of the instrument believed that they were consenting. O0 behalf of their country, to a cession of territory, which included the Isle of Pines, to the United States is apparent from the language employed by them i0





ISLE OF PINES. 47

an appendix to protocol No. 9, presented to the American Commissioners at the meeting held on October 21, 1898, which, as officially published by the United States, says that the United States "did claim sovereignty over * the islands surrounding Cuba which will render impossible the independence of tile latter, without the good will and gracious consent of the United States, which will always have it at their mercy, through their control over the islands which inclose it as a band of iron." The Isle of Pines nowhere ap1)roaches the Cuban coast within 50 miles. There can be no doubt that the Spanish commissioners at Paris intended and believed that they were ceding the island to the United States. The American Commissioners never expressed any dissent from the statement of the Spaniards on this point. Nor can there be any doubt that President McKinley, who dictated or approved every provision of the treaty, so understood and interpreted it. The official declaration of the War Department, of August 13, 1899, the action of the Interior I)epartmaent with respect to the official maps of the United States territories, above referred to, neither of which could have been possible without the order or approval of President McKinley, sustain the same view. The more recent action of the Treasury Department, in refusing to concede to the products of the Isle of Pines exported to the United States the reduclion of duties granted to Cuban products under the provisions of the reciprocity treaty with Cuba. was based expressly on the ground that by act of Congress the Isle of Pines was not Cuban territory and the Department must be governed by that act until it should be repealed or lawfully nullified. In fact, not a single Department of the Government of the United States has ever recognized the Cuban claim to the island except the Department of State. And it is a very striking fact that the State Deplrtnelt itself never expressed any doubt on the subject until after the island hald been allowed, by the neglect or disobedience of a military subordinate, to fall into Cuban hands, after which the Department was confronted by the alternative of acknowledging and correcting the wrong then committed or of (ondoning and concealing it by the negotiation of such a treaty as is now awaiting the action of the Senate.
We regret sincerely that in your letter of November 27 you saw fit to limit yourself to a bare statement of what you profess to consider as facts, certain conclusions which you profess to draw from such facts, and predictions as to what will or will not happen in the future. It may be that you do not consider it within the scope of your duty as Secretary of State to impart to your fellow-citizens the reasons for your conclusions any more than to give to your countrymen' the advice which I respectfully solicited from you in my former letter. In the total absence of any such reasons in support of your Position we prefer to stand by the conclusions reached by President McKinley, Secretary Hay, and Secretary Shaw, the reasons for which are stated above 0only in part, and which are diametrically opposite to yours. To resume, then, we maintain that the Isle of Pines is and has been, ever since the confirmation of the treaty of Paris, American territory; that the urbann Government has not and never has had any lawful right to exercise any control whatever in or over that territory; that such control as has been Usurped and exercised by that Government is based on a breach of duty by a subordinate American officer and is in violation of the law of the United States and the Cuban constitution itself; that we have not attempted and will not attempt. to deprive the Republic of Cuba of any of its lawful possessions by secession, insurrection, or revolution, and that we have no other end in view, tilan the defense of American territory and of our interests lawfully acquired i It. alid of our birthright as American citizens. In this effort we feel that W\e Should be entitled to receive your support in the discharge of your sworn dlty to our astonishment and deep regret we find you arrayed on time side of our (nemies. And even more deeply do we regret the appearance, for the firstt tile ill the history of our country, of American Secretary of State who iS not onlty willing but anxious to abandon a portion of American territory latd u li' e number of American citizens to an alien and lawless Government, for 11o consideration amid for motives which ie seems unwilling to disclose.
Very respectfully,
CHARLEs REYNARD,
1'rcsident American Club of t]he Isle of Pines, West Indies, U. S. A.
1Oin. LLIHU ROOT,
Seclectary of State, Washington, D. C.





48 ISLE OF PINES.
In this letter Mr. Reynard claims that Secretary Root differs in the view he expresses as to the status of the Isle of Pines from the view entertained on that subject by President McKinley, Secretary Hay, and General Wood.
A complete answer as to what is said as to each of these men is found in the report heretofore submitted.
The treaty itself answers for Mr. Hay.
The indorsement by General Wood under date, Washington. Febru-i ary 20, 1903, pages 7 and 8 of the report, makes conclusive answers as to General Wood. The recitation by General Wood in this order of the fact that "the action taken by the military government was ih accordance with telegraphic orders from the honorable the Secretary of War" is official and conclusive answer as to the attitude at that time of Mr. Root, then Secretary of War.
So far as President McKinley is concerned, the'statement of Mr. Reynard is" That President McKinley did believe that the island was ceded by Spain to the United States is easily shown by his action in directing the dispatch of an official communication from the War Department, dated August 14, 1899, in which occur these words: 'This island was ceded by Spain to the United Statesand is, therefore, a part of our territory, although it is attached at present to the division of Cuba for governmental purposes and *
the disposition of public lands must await the action of Congress.' This very explicit statement was made more than six months after the treaty of Paris had been ratified," etc.
At pages 29 and 30 of the report will be found two communica. tions from the War Department, under date of August 14, 1899, one addressed to Mr. John B. Aultman, St. Louis, Mo., and the other addressed to Mr. George Bridges, Carlisle, Pa., both signed John J. Pershing. assistant adjutant-general. The language quoted as used by direction of President McKinley will be found embraced in these two communications. But these communications, instead of having been directed by President McKinley, were both directed, as show by the communications themselves, by the Assistant Secretary of War, who at that time was Mr. G. D. Meiklejohn. Mr. Meiklejohl wrote other letters, as shown at pages 31 and 32 of the report, to the same effect; but, as stated in the report, Mr. Meiklejohn had no authority so to speak for the Government of the United States or to bind the Government of the United States by anything he saw fit to say on the subject.
As to the statement made by Mr. Reynard that President McKinley directed that the Isle of Pines be placed on maps of the United States, there is nothing of record to indicate such to be the fact The following letters from the Interior and War Departments con, tain all the information on that subject that it has been possible to gather:
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
Was1 ington, February 2, 1906.
Hon. 3. B. ForAKEr,
Chairman of Subcommittee on Committee oa Foreign Relations,
United State. Senate.
SiR: Your letter of the 24th ultimo has been received, requesting to be qd vised what the records of the Department show as to the correctness or inC(r





ISLE OF PINES. 49

rtvctiies of the following statement contained in a letter now In tue hands of your subcommlittee:
"President _McKinley **directed that the isle of Pnies be placed as American territory on the great maps issued by the United States, which show all the territory belonging to the United States." You also request to be advised as to any maps issued by the Department of the interior, showing tils island as belonging to the United States, mid tile particular edition upon which it appears.
In response thereto, I have the honor to transmit herewith for your information a copy of a letter from the Commissioner of the General Land Office, to whom tile matter was referred, llnd ill whlose office the maps of tile United States are prepared, submitting such information upon tile subject of your inquiry as it is practicable for him to supply.
It will be observed therefrom that no instructions or directions from President McKinley of the character indicated are found in ils office, and the records of the Department proper likewise fail to afford any information of the subject.
As a matter of information, It may be stated that at the time thle inset map of tile Isle of Pines, Cuba, was placed on the map of the United States the Hon. 11"Inger Hermann was Commissioner of the General Land Office, and as lie is now a member of tile House of Representatives hie may be able to supply definite information uponi the subject.
Very respectfully, E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secretary.

DEP ARTMENT oF THE INTERIOR,
GENERAL LAND OFFrICE,
Wasington, D. C., Janary 25, 1906.
Hon. SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.
SIR: Referring to brief initialed W. B. A.," upon back of letter of same date from H-on. J1. B. Foraker, United States Senate, asking immediate report upon a request of Senator Foraker for copies of instructions aiieged to be issued by President McNlKinley to this Department, relative to tile placing upon the United States, map of the inset map of the Isle of Pines, Cuba, I have the honor to rePort that no instructions or directions of tile character indicated are found in the records of tils office.
Relative to Senator Foraker's second inquiry as to the maps Issued by the Department, which show the Isle of Pines as an inset jmap, I have to state that the same appears first upon the United States map dated 1899, and second and last upon the map of 1902, no United States maps of dates 1900 anld 1901 having been issued. The map of the Isle of Pines was not published as an inset upon tile maps of 1903 and 1904.
1 am unable to state why this island was placed upon the map of 1899, but it is assumed that verbal instructions must have been given to the former chief of the drafting division, who had charge of the compilation of the United States map, it being hardly probable that he would assume the authority Of Placing such inset map upon the map of the United States without instructions of some kind. However, no such instructions, as noted above, are a matter of record.
The inset map of the Isle of Pines was omitted from the maps of the United States of 1903 and 1904 for the reason that the act approved March 2, 1901, stated: That the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty." In its place, upon the United States malt, and occupying a somewvhat larger area, was inserted the map of the Panama Canal and adjacent territory.
The treaty with Cuba, ratified by the President June 25, 1904, reiterates in Practically the same language the act of March 2, 1901, quoted above. Senator Foraker's letter returned herewith.
Very respectfully. W. A. RICHARDS, Commissioner.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
BUREAU OF INSULAn AFFAIRS,
Washington, January 26, 190.
SIR: I have the honor, by direction of the Secretary of War, to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 24th instant, asking as to the truth of the Statement before you that President INcKinley directed that the Isle of Pines





50 ISLE OF PINES.

be placed on thle United States as American territory, and if such maps were published by the Department of the Interior, the date of their issue.
In reply you are respectfully informed that no record can be found of any statement of the character abo.Fe indicated in the flies of this Bureau., I should state in tils connection that copies of all correspondence and papers on file in tilis Bureau relating to the Isle of Pines were transmitted to the President of the Senate pro tempore on January 11, 1904, in pursuance of a resolution of tile Senate of January 7, 1904.
I had the matter to which your letter refers brought to the attention of the Interior Department, and while tiley state that they have no record of any suchl order from President McKinley in the editions of 1899 and 1902, the Isle of Pines was shown in the same color as thle United States, thus indicating tilat it was United States territory. They also state that they are in receipt of a letter from you of the same purport, and I therefore presume that the matter will be explained to you in a coammunication from that Department.
Very respectfully, C. R. EDWARDoS,
Colonel, U. S. Army, Chief of Bureau.
Hon. J. B. FORAKELI,
United States Senate.
The following communication, sent to members of tne Committee on Foreign Relations January 24, 1906, is published herewith as a part of this report for the purpose of giving the Senate the benefit of the statements which it sets forth, attention 'being called particularly to the protest contained in this communication against any amendment of the treaty so as to further. safeguard the interests of Americans residing on the island:
T'o .tle heonor-able chairman and mem hers of the Committee on Foreign. Relations of the United States Senate.
GENTLEMEN: It has come to my knowledge that representationls are being nlade from Cuban sources to the effect that there is comparatively a small Dumber of American property owners on the Isle of Pines who have their titles to land recorded according to the old Spanish laws nowv in vogue in that island under its present alleged de facto Cuban government. Tis allegation, even if it be true, would be of comparatively little importance, because it in no wise indicates 110w many Americans have bonn fide holdings of rel estate in the island for which they paid their cash.
Few Americans care to pay exorbitant sumis to have their land titles recorded under the old Spanish system. They believe, under American law, that contracts for (leedsq, or other unrecorde-d instrumnits conveying title, would serve its ample security until such time as prevailing laws under Amlerican authority could lee brought to some degree, of simplicity and the fees for recording titles could be reduced to figures somewhat near commensurate to thle services rendered.
It costs the people of the Isle of Pines from $30 to $50 to record an ordinary real estate title under the present laws in force. In the United States the same deeds could be recorded for $2 or $3. It costs hundreds of dollars tO record some deeds under Cuban laws, and there are instances where in smll holdings it would cost more to record the deed than to purchase the property.
We can. produce the names of at, least 2,000 American citizens who own1 property in the Isle of Pines.
We challenge anyone to produce the names of 100 actual Cuban citizens who now own property on the Isle of Pines, no matter what the Cuban official record of deeds may apparently show.
Proportionately nine-tenthls of the real estate of the island Is owned by American citizens.
This comnparativ-ely large purchase of property was due to the assur-ances Of officials of the War Department that the Isle of Pines would be retained under American jurisdiction. These assurances were made often and td many people whlo either had purchased or were intending to purchase real estate on the Island. I would venture the assertion that without such assurances not a dozen of the Americans now living there could have been induced to give up their homes in the States and go to the Isle of Pines, even as pr~ospectbrs under salary, much less take the risk of investing I property which they knew would be subject to Cuban jurisdiction.




ISLE OF PINES. 51

It is quite generally understood flow that argument is being advanced to the effect that the Isle of Pines should be ceded to Cuba by the pending treaty so amended by provLsionis and] safeguards that American interests would be protected on the island. I desire, as the chosen representative of the American citizens on the Isle of Pines, to eater my most earnest and emphatic protest against any such plan.
As I understand the scheme proposed by Cubans, it included the administration of the island as a colony of Cuba after Its cession to Cuba, inl the pendidug treaty on the part of the United States. Such a plan would be an utter failure and would operate to "freeze out" pretty nearly all the American property holders on the island..
,We could not have anything to whatever about our government as a colony of Cuba or as a part of Cuba, unless we renounced our American citizenship, which very few, if any of us, would be willing to do. We could not vote without first swearing allegiance, to Cuba. We would then be subject entirely to the caprice of Cuban officials. Our experience during the past three years with 'them has been such as to prove to us, beyond even a reasonable doubt, that we would be subjected to all sorts of devices and schemes for the extortion of money, some or all of which might never be remitted to either the insular or the Cuban treasury, and] which certainly would not, be expended for the improvement or beiwfit of the island. W~e believe that it would Ie a grafting government, pure and simple, run to enrich a few Cuban officials, while we as aliens could neither vote nor hold office of trust, but would be easy plucking for those in authority over us.
Thea, under these conditions, what avail would be our appeals to the United States for protection under a treaty with its so-called "safeguards?" Probably nil. We would have no means to reach the ears of what might be perhaps a hostile American executive and no official way of appealing to the American people or to Congress.
We would be tender lambs indeed, abandoned to the mercies of the wolf.
We would be without friends and without even a country.
It is no small responsibility for the Senate of the United States to take such a stand, namely, to deprive the American citizens of the Isle of Pines of their birthright of citizenship, their property, and their homes, and force them to live as aliens under a foreign flag. We protest most vigorously against any such a procedure.
First. Because Ive had assurances from the War Department, from General Wood and his subordinates, from statements made by former Secretary Hay, from the actions of the Interior Department, including the Igslo of Pines in American territory by direction of President McKinley,l and from the procedure of the Treasury in collecting full customs on goods shipped from the Isle of Pines to the United States under the Dinigley law; whereas if we were regarded as a part 6f Cuba, we would have the reductions provided by the reciprocity treaty with Cuba.
Second. Because we believe that both Houses of Congress, as well as the Citizens of the United States in this country and in the Isle of Pines, ought to pass upon such a~ momentous question as cession of American territory to a foreign jurisdiction, even under the most stringent safeguards and regulations which a treaty could provide.
Third. Because we have plainly indicated that we do not believe the Cubans, under any form of treaty whatsoever, bound around with 'restrictions and reservations whatever way the most skillful lawyers could devise, could, be restricted and obliged to administer a government for the best interests Iof American. citizens living In the Isle of Pines.
Here is an instance with regard to the enforcement of certain*Cubani laws. It is unlawful to allow cattle to run at large on the Isle of Pines. 'There was an American who had his orange trees destroyed by cattle breaking thr-ough his fence. He corraled the cattle and filed a claim for damages. The alcalde then appointed his private secretary and the owner of the cattle to appraise the damages. The following day the claimant was notified to appear and was told by the judge never to enter the court with a complaint of this kind again: The case was dismissed. I was an eyewitness to this affair, and I would miot accept $100 and bear the damages inflicted on those orange trees.,
This is one of hundreds of affairs of this kind. The less said about Cuban courts the better. At the present, time there* are more American property owners In the Isle of Pines than there are In Porto Rico.




52 ISLE OF PINES.

Again, may we plead with the honorable members of the United States Senate not to ratify a treaty depriving their fellow-citizens of that, which righteously and honestly belongs to them. There are hundreds of American citizens who have invested their savings of the past fifteen or twenty years in their homes on the island, and by the ratification of the pending treaty they would virtually be stripped of all their earthly possessions, no matter what amending safeguards may he exacted by the Government of the United States.
We who have had abundant experience fear to trust ourselves to the administration of Spanish and Cuban laws, either by the courts or the executive officers, as they now exist In Cuba and the Isle of Pines.
ED. P. RYAN.

Onl the subject of the protection of the rights and interests of Americans residing iin Cuba, attention is called to the following provisions of the constitution of the Republic of Cuba as to property 'and personal rights whViceh inure alike to the benefit of all citizens of the United State who may reside there either temporarily or permanently:
co-NsTITUTIONAL GUARANTIES.

IA republican form of government is guaranteed, modeled after that of the United States:

TITLE I.--The nation, its form of govenoncnt, and its tcrritory.

ARTICLE 1. The people of Cuba are hereby constituted .a sovereign and independent State and adopt a republican form of government.
Ar.T. 2. The territory of the Republic is composed of the island of Cuba, as well as the adjacent islands and keys, which, together therewith, were under the sovereignty of Spain until the ratification of the treaty of Parts on Decemnher 10, 1898.
I-ART. 3. The territory of the Republic shall he divided into six provinces, as they exist at present, and with the same boundaries, the piovi1ncial council of each to determine their respective names.
The provinces may he incorporated with each other or divided into new provinces through actions that may be agreed upon by the respective provincial councils and approved by Congress.
Foreigners residing within the territory enjoy all the rights, privileges, and immunities of Cuban citizens excepting political rights.

TITLE III.-Foreigners.

ART. 20. Foreigners: residing within the territory of the Republic shall have the same rights and obligations as CubansFirst. As to protection of their persons and properties.
Second. As to the enjoyment of the rights guaranteed by Section I of thle following title, excepting those exclusively reserved to citizens. Third, As to the enjoyment of civil rights under the conditions and limitations prescribed In the law of aliens.
Fourth. As to the obligation of respecting and obeying the laws, decrees, regulations, and all other enactments that may be in force in the Republic., Fifth. As to submission, to the jurisdiction and decisions of the courts of justice and all other authorities of the Republic.
Sixth. As to the obligation of contributing to the public expenses of thle State, province, and municipality. -Life, liberty, and property are amply protected;, the enumeration of these rights as contained in the constitution compares favorably with those, of the most advanced governments; and the means for
-their enforcement and protection insure to all alike life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, the true ends. of government. These rights are:





ISLE OF PINES. 5a

TITLE IV.-Rights guaranteed by this comtitutiom

SECTION FIRST.-Ilidividual rights.

ART. 11. All Cubans have equal rights before the law. The Uepublic does not recognize any personal privileges or special rights. ART. 12. No law shall have any retroactive effect, other than penal ones favorable to convicted or indicted persons. ART. 13. Obligations of a civil nature arising from contracts or other acts or omissions shall not be annulled or altered by either the legislature or Executive power.
ART. 14. The penalty of deathshall In no case be imposed for crimes of a political nature, which shall be defined by law. ART. 15. No person shall be arrested except In such cases and in the manner prescribed by law.
ART. 16. Every person arrested shall be set at liberty or placed at the disposal of it competent judge or court within twenty-four hours immediately follow, ing the arrest.
ART. 17. All persons arrested shall be set at liberty or their imprisonment ordered within seventy-two hours after having been placed at the disposal of the competent judge or court. Within the same time notice shall be served upon the party interested of any action which may have been taken in the matter. I I
ART. 18. No person shall be arrested except by warrant of a competent judge or court. The order directing the serving of the warrant of arrest shall be affirmed or reversed, after the accused shall have been heard in his defense, within seventy-two hours next following his imprisonment. ART. 19. No person shall be indicted or sentenced except by competent judge or court, by virtue of laws in force prior to the commission of the crime, and in such manner as therein prescribed.
ART. 20. Any person arrested or imprisoned without legAl formalities, or not in accordance with the provisions of this constitution and the laws, shall be get at liberty at his own request or that of any citizen. The law will determine the InAompt action which shall be taken in the case. ART. 21. NO person whatsoever is bound to give evidence against himself, nor husband or wife against each other, nor relatives within the fourth degree of consanguinity or second of affinity.
ART. 22. All correspondence and other private documents are Inviolable. and neither shall be seized or examined except by order of a competent authority find with the formalities prescribed by the laws, and In all cases all points therein not relating to the matter under investigation shall be kept secret. ART. 23. No person's domicile shall be violated; and therefore no one shall enter that of another at night, except by permission of its occupant, unless it be for the purpose of giving aid and assistance to victims of crime or accident; Or in the daytime, except in such cases and manner as prescribed by law. ART. 24. No person shall be compelled to change his domicile or residence ex. cePt by virtue of an order issued by a competent authority and in the manner Prescribed by law.
ART. 25. Every person may freely, Nvithout censorship, express his thoughts either by word of mouth or in writing, through the press, or In any other manner whatsoever, subject to the responsibilities specified by law, whenever thereby attacks are made upon the lionor of individuals, upon social order, and upon public peace.
ART. 26. The profession of all religious beliefs as well as the practice of all forms of worship are free, without further restriction than that demanded b the respect for Christian morality and public order. The church shall be Separated from the state, which shall In no case subsidize any religion. ART. 27. All persons shall have the right to address petitions to the author!tle% to have them duly acted upon, and to be Informed of the action taken thereon.
. ART. 28. All inhabitants of the Republic have the right to assemble peacefully, unarmed, and to associate for all lawful pursuits of life. ART. 29. All persons shall have the right to enter into and depart from the territory of the Republic, to travel within its boundaries, and to change their residence without requiring any safeguard, passport, or any other similar reqnisite, except as may be required by the laws governing Immigration and by





54 ISLE OF PIKES.

the authorities, in cases of criminal responsibility, by virtue of the powers vested in them.
ART. 30. No Cuban shall be banished from the territory of the Republic or be prohibited from entering thereino.
ART. 31. Primary education is compulsory and shall be gratuitous, as also that of arts and trades. The expenses thereof shall be defrayed by the State during such time as the municipalities and provinces, respectively, may lack sufficient means therefor. Secondary and advanced education will be conltrolled by the State. However, all persons may, without restriction, study or teach any, science, art, or profession, and found and maintain establishments of education and instruction; but it pertains to the State to determine what professions shall require special titles, the conditions necessary for their practice, the necessary requirements to obtain the titles, and the issuing of the same as may be established by lawv.
ART. 32. No person shall be deprived of his property, except by competent authority for the justified reason of public benefit, and after being duly inden.nlfied for the same. Should the latter requirement not have been complied with, the judges and courts shall give due protection; and in such case they shall restore possession of the property to the person who may have been deprived thereof.
ART. 33. In no case shall the penalty of confiscation of property be imposed.
ART. 34. No person is obliged to pay any tax or impost not legally established and the collection whereof is not carried out in the manner prescribed by the laws.
ART. 35. Every author or inventor shall enjoy the exclusive ownership of his work or invention for the time and in the manner determined by law.
APT. 36. The enumeration of the rights expressly guaranteed by this constitution does not exclude others that many be based upon the principle of the sovereignty of the people and upon the -republican form of government.
ART. 37. The laws regulating the exercise of the rights which this constitution guarantees shall become hull and vi-od if they diminish, restrict, or change the said rights.

SEcTIoN Tmuo-Su~spcnsion of cost itutional giarsutccs.

ART. 40. The guarantees established in -articles 15, 16, 17, 19, 22, 23, 24, and 27 of the first section of this title shall not be suspended throughout the entire Republic, or in any part thereof, except temporarily, and when the safety of the State may require it, in cases of invasion of the territory or of serious disturbances that may threaten public peace.
ART. 41. The territory within which the guarantees determined in the preceding article may have been suspended shall be governed during the period of suspension by the law of public order, previously enacted, but neither in the said lawv, or in any other, shall the suspension be ordered of any other guarantees than those already mentioned. Nor shall there be made, during the period of. suspension, any declaration of newv crimes, nor shall there 1)0 imposed other penalties than those establishad by the law in force at the time 'the suspension was ordered.
The executive power is prohibited from banishing or exiling citizens to gretater distance than 120 kilometers from their domicile, and from holding" them under arrest for more than ten days without turning them over to the judicial authorities, and from rearresting them during the period of the sils pension of guarantees. Persons arrested shall not be detained except 111 special departments of public establishments used for the detention of persons5 Indicted for ordinary offenses.
ART. 42. The suspension of the guaranties specified In article 40 shall only he ordered by means of a law, or, when Congress is not in session, by a decree Of the President of thme Republic; but time latter shall not order the suspension more than once during the period comprised between two legishintures, nor Jet an indefinite period of time, nor for more than thirty days, without convening Congress In the same order of suspension. In every case the Presideut shall report to Congress for such action as Congress may deem proper












EXHIBITS.


EXHIBIT A.
[Confidential.-Executive D, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session.]

LETTER
FROM
THE SECRETARY OF WAR,


TRANSMITTING
THE CORRESPONDENCE ON FILE IN THE OFFICES OF THE EXECUTIVE AND THE WAR DEPARTMENT RELATING TO THE ISLE OF PINES, WEST INDIES, CALLED FOR BY THE RESOLUTION OF THE SENATE, IN EXECUTIVE SESSION, OF JANUARY 7. 1904.


JANUARY 14, 1904.-Ordered to lie on the table and to be printed in confidence for use of the Senate.


WAn DEPARTMENT,
Washington, January 11, 1904.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, in compliance with the following resolution of the Senate of the United States, dated January 7, 1904Resolved, That the President is requested, if in his opinion not incompatible With the public interest, to transmit to the Senate all correspondence or papers on file in the office of the Executive and the War Department relating to the Isle of Pines, West Indiescopies of all correspondence or papers on files of the War Department and the late military government of Cuba, relating to the Isle of Pines, West Indies.
Very respectfully, ...O
ELIUIr ROOT,
Secretary of War.

The PRESIDENT IRO TEMIPORE UNITED STATES SENATE.
55





56 ISLE OF PINES.

COPIES OF PAPERS FROM THE FILES OF THE BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS, WAR DEPARTMENT.
[Official copy respectfully submitted Secretary of War direct in compliance with Ijistructiou.I.

ISLE OF PIXEs, February j2. 1899. Lieut. Col. TASKER H. BLISS,
Chief of Custom s Service, Hiiabatna, Cuba.
Silt: In compliance with instructions contained in your letter of the Tith instant, I have the honor to render the following report upon the Isle of Pines:
This report is based upon some three weeks' experience in the island, as I had, prior to this visit spent about, one week here. I was unable to visit the southern part of the island, which is separated from the other by anl impassable swamp and is accessible only by sea. In this southern section is found all the mnahogany and other valuiable hardwood, but as my instructions did not contemplate the chartering of a vessel, I base my report in this particular upon conversations with reliable people.
The geography of the island is already shown -with sufficient accuracy and detail in the map issued by the War Department.
In general the surface is a plateau of an elevation of some fifty to a hundred feet above the sea, broken by ridges of hills or cliffs that project abruptly here and there above the generally level surface.
The soil is generally of a firm sand mixed with some clay and gravel, which makes good roads even in rainy weather, by merely cleaning awiay the brush.
IThe two mountain ridges at the northern end of the island have an elevation of some 1,500 feet, and are composed of lime, stone, and marble; the other ridges in the center of the island are much lower, less precipitous, and are found of gray sandstone and of red rock and gravel containing iron.
The southern part of the island is composed of what is locally known as Dogteeth coral-rock and the southern coast is rocky and dangerous, containing only one sm-allharbor-" Carapachiray." On the southwest is a capacious anchorage, the Ciguanea, and from this anchorage vessels drawing 20 feet can pass northward around the island as far as New Gerona, inside the keys that lie some 6 miles off the coast.
The whole island, with the exception of the rocky southern coast, is surrounded by mangrove swamps, with here and there a short stretch of sandy beach.
The only two landings, New Gerona (on the Rio Las Casas) and Jucaro (on the Rio Santa Fe), are accessible by vessels drawing 5 feet of water or less, the bars at the river mouths being very shallow.
The southern part of the island is covered with a dense growth of valuable hardwood.
The central part bears yellow pine, mostly too small for lumber, though there are considerable tracts of very fair saw logs. 'As you approach the western, northern, and eastern' coasts, the pine disappears and the country becomes -a savanna covered -with thin grass, and dotted with scrubby trees and palmetto; it much resembles the barren parts of Florida.





ISLE OF PINES. 57

FORMER TAXs ANi) i)UES.

After careful investigation, I find the only land belonging to the State is contained in some 63 lots, each of some 50 acres, scattered about within 3 miles of New Gerona. These lots seem to be those left after the land had been picked over, as they are generally in the worst locations and practically worthless, containing nothing but mangrove scrubs, dwarf palmettos, and thin pine grass.
A few of the lots are better and are in use as small farms, the residents paying, it is understood, a nominal rent to the hacienda at Habana (no records on this point in the island).
I can find no record of dues paid to the Crown for the privilege of exporting timber, but it is understood that contributions were arbitrarily levied from time to time by the military governor here.. These contributions" or" gratifications -were .paid to secure immunity from official obstructions in the going and coming of vessels from the inaccessible points at which the lumber was gathered.
It is presumable that a portion, at least, of those contributions was used for the benefit of the island, but no record appears to have been kept of the amount or disposition.
The governor of the island legally collected dues for the slaughtering of cattle and for the selling of the meat, and also dues from
-stores and shops of all kinds.
As a wood-chopper's camp would require beef-and would also probably maintain a store for the sale of provisions-it became liable to dues; which on account of its usually inaccessible location were difficult of collection.
To meet this difficulty, the governor devised a system of dues based upon the amounts of charcoal and cordwood exported, which dues were levied in lieu of those legally authorized. In accessible camps or "cuttings" the amount of export wis actually ascertained ;'in other cuttings," more inaccessible, a lump sum per month was exacted, based upon the number of men employed.
The quantity of mangrove and other scrubby wood available for 'charcoal and cord wood is practically unlimited, all the coast of the island and the keys to the north being covered with this growth, and the States does n(;t appear to have collected any dues for the privilege
-of cutting. The dues seemi to have been simply in the nature of town taxes, levied on wood-choppers' camps in order that they should not, by leaving the established towns, escape the burden of taxation.
It is believed that the impression that dues were paid to the State for the use of its timber lands in the Isle of Pines has arisen from an 'erroneous understanding of the system explained above.
Since the 1st of January the taxes just cited, like all others, have not been paid, the alcalde of the island, as well as the military governor (an officer of the Cuban army). either not feeling themselves s11fficiently secure to enforce payment or finding it to their material interest to allow things to run themselves.
As a consequence the bridges are in need of repair, the schools are closed, the clerks living from hand to mouth without any remunera-ion.





58 ISLE OF PINES.

The alcalde, himself a wealthy man, has not felt the inconvenience.. and as lie is said to be largely interested in woddcutting and charcoal trade, he is presumably satisfied to wait for orders from higher* authority.
PO'TLATION, ETC.

The island contains but two towns. New Gerona on the north coast, and Santa Fe in the center, the former numbering some 300 inhabitants and the latter 150. The population of the island can be set down at about 2,000.
New Gerona is the capital of the island, and, in fact, the only town, as Santa Fe, 15 miles distant, is officially a suburb. In this connection it would appear to be very much to the advantage of the towns (and the island) if they were officially independent. Santa Fe, with a port at Jucaro, only 7 miles away, would then become a rival of New Gerona, and both places would be stimulated to commercial and municipal competition.
New Gerona is advantageously situated on a picturesque plateau at the base of the Casas Mountains and some 30 feet above the level of the sea and of the swamps at the mouth of the river. The site is well drained, exposed to the constant breezes, and seems to promise reasonable freedom from the malarial influences. Its water comes from a' magnesian spring, said to be very beneficial in cases of stomach trouble, and baths have been built, into which water from the samespring is conducted.
Just outside of the town, on an open plateau, are the barracks, a large stone building with interior courts, capable of accommodating comfortably 200 American troops and of affording shelter if necessary to double that number.
There is a wharf at the town, at which the steamer Protector, from Batabano, lands once a week. The articles exported are charcoal.. tobacco poles, roofing poles, railway ties, and tobacco.
There is no hotel; invalids do not usually stop here, but go on at once to Santa Fe, in the center of the island, 15 miles over an excellent natural road.
Santa Fe. 150 inhabitants, 2 hotels (Caballos and Santa Fe), thernal baths of about blood temperature-medicinal springs, magnesium and iron. very favorably known by people of Habana, many of whom come here in summer. The Spanish Government had an official surgeon here, who collected a consultation fee of $3.75 in gold from each person who desired to take the baths, the patient afterwards paying 20 cents for each bath.
The imposition of forced medical consultation before taking a tepid bath should not continue.
The port of Santa Fe is Jucaro, on the Santa Fe River. 7 miles by good road. Steamer touches once a week. The only wheeled vehicles ire the ancient volante and the ox cart.
SCHOOLS.

None in operation now. Schoolmasters were ignorant and incompetent. Tie revenues having ceased, all government functions areat a standstill.





ISLE OF PINES. 59

The taxes formerly collected here by the Bank of Spain went to Habana, whence one-fourth was afterwvards remitted. The only dues collectible directly by the authorities in the island were the dlues for slaughtering cattle and selling beef. These would now be nil, as there are practically no cattle in the island. The civil expenses of the government formerly amounted to about $7,000 per annum, of which $4,000 came from the Bank of Spain and $3.000 were collected directly on beef, or indirectly, as explained before, by export dues of 1 / cents on each sack of charcoal, and 7 cents on each cord of wood.
MINERAL.

The only mineral product of importance is the marble, which is found in thie two mountains east and west of New Gerona, on the north coast. This marble was worked extensively some thirty years ago. The ruins of a steam plant for sawing and polishing the slabs show that much money was put into the enterprise. It is said that. for reasons of its own, the Government looked with disfavor on the
entrprseand todiscourage it levied a duty upon the sand used in sawing, which was hauled from the shore, a mile from the quarry. This imposition killed the enterprise. About twelve years ago a fe~w cargoes of marble blocks were gotten out and* shipped to Habana, to be sawed up and worked there. Since then nothing has been done.
The marble seems to be, of good quality, ranging from a good white statuary, through various shades of blue-veined stone, to marble of a dark gray; also specimens with pinkish coloring. There are in the island no'samples of very brilliant polish, but, judging from the crystallization of some of the blocks, good results should be obtainable with proper methods. Ir
The old working has done little but step the surface of a. cliff of weatherworn rock. The amount of material in sight is unlimited. The old works have a most advantageous location, where a, short haul over a good roadlJeads to an old pier.
A good quality of brick clay is found in the island, and at New Gerona are the ruins of an extensive brickyard, whence bricks, flooring tiles, and roofing tiles were formerly shipped to Habana.

I,17-11BEll.

There are at present two small steam sawmills in the island, one in actual running order. There is a large area of pine forests, but the logs large enough for sawing are found only in small stretches west of the center of the island. Trhe small pines, furnished for exportation railway ties, telegraph poles, poles for the roofs of native Cuban hutsI and for hanging tobacco during the curing process.
There are no statistics available from which the amount and the quality of the hard woods on the southern island can be estimated.
There appears to have been no very regular trade, and I believe that, while much fine wood will be found there, it will not be found of sufficient size and in sufficient quantity to warrant the expense of getting it to the water over the difficult rocky ground in which it grows. The most accessible localities have already been culled, and





60 ISLE OF PINES.

it is said that to take out the best timber portable railways will have to be used.
LIVE STOCK.

Horses.-The horses of the island are very small and poor, but are hardy and travel with a comfortable and rapid ambling gait. The pasturage is not such as to favor growth, and the stock brought here during the war is being rapidly exported to Cuba.
Cattle.-Have almost disappeared from the island. Beef is a luxury not usually obtainable, even in the towns of New Gerona and Santa Fe. A rumor that the Spanish Government was to seize all thcattle caused a hurried sale, and the purchasers immediately shipped the animals to Habana.
Pigs.-The island is a paradise for this animal, as the vast variety of wild fruits and seeds furnish him abundant food.
Parrots.-Are found in large numbers and are exported yearly.
Fish.-The shallow waters about the island abound in fish and lobsters of excellent quality.

AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES.
Of the land lying north of the cienaga, the swamp and low ground, covered with mangroves, is estimated at 25 per cent; the savannahs. covered with these mangroves and scrub palmetto, at 25 per cent; land of doubtful agricultural value, 10 per cent; rich land, 10 per cent; mountains and steep hills, 5 per cent; pine lands unsuitable for agriculture, 25 per cent.
Of the land denominated rich, a very small percentage is actually under cultivation, but the nature of the growth upon it shows the value of the soil. Of the entire surface of the island, but 1 per cent is now under cultivation.
As an example of the wonderful variety of product, a finca or farm of less thaii 33 acres actual cultivation produces coffee, sugar, chocolate (cocoa), cocoanuts, plantains, bananas, bofiatos (sweet potatoes), yucca (cassava-furnishing laundry starch), nmalansgoes (answering for potatoes), rice, beans, lettuce, tobacco, honey, fowls, pigs, and cattle.
The rich arable land of the island is not found in large tracts, but in scattered patches among the hills-suitable for tobacco patches rather than for sugar plantations.
The demand for consumption in the island is small, and the freight rates to the mainland high, hence the only agricultural product that finds a ready market and commands cash is tobacco.
Of this staple the island exported last year about 5,000 bales of 100 pounds each. The amount this year will fall to 2,000 bales or less for the reason that the workers who had come here from Vuelta Abajo to escape the war have now returned to their old homes, where the reputation of the leaf, if not its actual superiority, gives the laborer who cultivates on shares a larger return for his work. Tobacco from this island sells in Iabana at $40 per bale. A cigar factory in the island would insure the recognition of the product under its owl name, and, it is believed, would stimulate the growth of the staple to the benefit of the island. Tobacco growers assert that the only diffl-




ISLE OF PINES. 61

cult here arises from the newness of the soil; it has not been sufficiently worked and mixed to insure a uniform crop, some plants growing rank and others poorly.
Sugar.-The cane at present raised in the island is for home use
only. The juice is extracted by a crude wooden mill and boiled down in a large open kettle, making a dark, coarse sugar unfit for export. A sugar plantation here could not compete with those in the rich level lands of Habana Province, as the soil, except in small tracts, would be soon exhausted by the cane. Coffee.-Has so far been raised only experimentally, but the quality seems to be fair, and with cultivators who understand the work good results might be obtained.
Cacao (chocolate).-Raised only experimentally, but the fruit appears to be fine.
Rice.-Grown well without irrigation. Yueca (for starch).-Grows well without irrigation, and yields well.
,1laanga (answering as potato).-Grows well without irrigation and yields well; fine quality.
The bofiato, or sweet potato, has borne a particularly fine flavor, and, with reduced rates to Cuba, should become a marketable product.
Plantain.-Have a sweeter flavor than those of Cuba and produce abundantly. They are now shipped to Cuba in small quantities and should become an important article of export.
Oranges.-These have a reputation for sweetness, and the island seems particularly suited to their growth. No attention seems to have been paid to the kind of trees planted, and it is believed that there is an opening here for orange growers of experience who would plant the most approved varieties of stock
Gmiyava.-This fruit grows wild over a large part of the island and furnishes fruit for pigs. It might be utilized in the manufacture, of the guayava paste and jelly.
Cocoanuts.-Yield abundantly, though few trees have been planted. This could easily become an article of export.
To resume, the island is not adapted to cattle raising, except for home consumption.,
The amount of fine timber fit for the saw is not large.
The area of cane land is insignificant.
High freights and distance to market make garden produce valueless except for home consumption.
As far as it is possible to learn without visiting the south coast, the amount and quality of mahogany is not sufficient to attract buyers from more promising fields.
The tobacco culture is capable of great development.
The marble is well worth examination of men of experience and capital.
The exploitation of the island as a sanitary resort is, however, the enterprise which seems to promise the greatest returns to the capital-. ist as well as the greatest'benefit to the island itself.
The mineral springs, thermal baths, and healthy climate have already an established reputation.
21455-S. Doe. 166, 68-2-5





62 ISLE OF PINES.

With sufficient capital to establish a large hotel and run a swift steamer of light draft to Batabano, the island can be brought -within eight hours or less of Hlabana, and the traveler runs no risk of sea sickness in the shallow sea inclosed by quays.
A daily steamer service would make the place attractive to business men of H1abana and give a sale and outlet to many products not otherwise marketable.
Very respectfully, FE .FLZ

Captain, Second Cavalry, Collector of Customs, Batabano.

Statement given to the p-ress from the Bureau of Insular Affai7..

Assistant Secretary of War Mleiklejohn has made public a military recounoissance of the northern portion of the Isle of Pines. Vrery little has hitherto been published about this island. The southern portion of the island is only accessible by sea and will be visited later on by a representative of the War Department.
The report states, however, that the southern portion of the island contains considerable mahogany and other valuable hard wood. In regard to the topography of the section visited, it -was disclosed thiat the surface is a plateau, with an elevation of some 50 to 100 feet above the sea, broken by ridges of bills or cliffs that project abruptly here and there above the general level surface. The soil, generally speaking, is of firm sand mixed with some clay and gravel, all of which makes good roads, even in rainy weather, by merely cleaning away the brush.,.i
The two mountain ridges at the northern end of the island have an elevation of some fifteen hundred feet. These ridges are composed of limestone and marble. The other ridges, in the center of the island, are much lower, less precipitous, and are formed of gray sandstone and red rock and gravel containing iron. The southern part of the island is composed of what is locally known as dog-tooth coral rock.
The outerncoas isrocy and dangerous, containing only one small harbor-Carapachiray. On the southwest of the island is a, capacious anchorage, the Ciguanea, and from this anchorage vessels drawing 20 feet can pass northward around the island as far as New Gerona inside the keys that lie some 6 miles off the coast. The whole island, with the exception of the rocky southern coast, is surrounded by mangrove swamps, with here and there a short stretch of sandy beach. The only two landings on the island are New Gerona, on the Rio, Las Casas, and Jucaro, the latter on the Rio Santa Fe. These are accessible by vessels drawing 5 feet of water or less, the bars at the river mouths being very shallow.
The central part bears yellow pine, mostly too small for lumber, although there are considerable tracts of very fair saw logs. As you approach the western, northern, and eastern coasts the pine disappears and the country becomes a savanna covered with a thin 'grass and dotted with scrubby trees and palmetto. In general appearance this section resembles the bare parts of Florida.
A careful investigation discloses that the only land belonging to the state is contained in some 63 lots of about 50 acres each, and scattered about within 3 miles of New Gerona. These lots seem to bo





ISLE OF PINES. 63

those left after the land had been picked over. They are generally in the worst locations, practically worthless, and contain nothing but mangrove scrubs, dwarf palmettos, and thin pine grass. A few of the lots are better and are used as small farms, the resident paying, it is understood, a nominal rent to the hacienda at Habana. However, there are no records on this point in the island. The quantity of mangrove and other scrubby wood available for charcoal and soft wvood is practically unlimited. All the coast of the island and the keys to the north are covered with this growth of mangrove and other scrubby wood.
Since the 1st of January last taxes have not been paid. The alcalde of the island, as well as the former military governor, did not feel himself sufficiently secure to enforce payment, or found it to his material interest to allow things to run themselves. As a consequence the bridges are in need of repairs, the schools closed, and the clerk,% living from hand to mouth without any renmnerati~n. The island contains but two towns-New Gerona on the north coast and Santa Fe in the center. The former numbers some 300 inhabitants; the latter 150 persons. The entire population of the island is about 2,000. The capital of the island is New Gerona. In, fact it is the only town, and Santa Fe, 15 miles distant, is officially ~a suburb. The recommendation is made that the towns be made oicially separate of each other, as Santa Fe possesses a port at Jucaro, 7 miles distant. Such a course, it is believed, would stimulate the commercial and municipal activity of the towns.
New Gerona is described as advantageously situated on a picturesque plateau at the base of the Casas Mountains and is some 30 feet above the level of the sea as well as of the swamps at the mouth of the river. The site is well drained, exposed to constant breezes, and seems to promise reasonable freedom from malarial influences. The water of the town comes from a magnesium spring, said to be very beneficial in cases of stomach trouble. Baths have been built, into which water from the spring is conducted. Just, outside of the town limits on an open plateau are the barracks. They are a large stone building, with interior courts, capable of accommodating comfortably 200 American troops, and if necessary affordingr shelter to twice that many. New Gerona possesses also a wharf at which the steamer Protector from Batabano lands once a week. The articles exported are charcoal, tobacco poles, roofing poles, railway ties, and tobacco. New Gerona has no hotel. Invalids do not usually stop at this point, but proceed at once to Santa Fe, in the center of the island, 15 miles distant over an excellent natural road.
Santa' Fe has two hotels, the Gaballo, and Santa Fe. The town also contains thermal baths of about blood temperature. The medicinal Springs contain magnesium and iron, all of which, are -very favorably known to the people of Habana, many of whom visit them in summner. The Spanish Government'formerly had an official surgeon at this point, who, until recently, collected consultation fees of $3.75 in gold from each person who desired to take the baths, the patient subSequently paying 20 cents for each bath. Jucaro, the port of Santa
p is on the Santa Fe River. Steamers touch once a week. The Only wheel vehicles are the ancient volante and the ox cart. No schools were in operation when the island was visited. The revenues





64 ISLE OF PINES.

having ceased, all government functions at the date of the visit were at a standstill. The only dues collectible directly by the authorities in the island were the dues, for slaughtering cattle and selling beef. Even these taxes no longer exist, as there are practically no cattle in the island. The civil expenses of the government formerly amounted to only about $7,000 per annum, of which $4,000 came from the BIank of Spain and $3,000 were collected directly on beef, or, rather, indirectly by export dues of 1-1 cents on each sack of charcoal and 7 cents on a cord of wood.
The only mineral product of importance in the island is the marble. This marble is found in the mountains east and west of New Gerona on the north coast. Some fifty years ago these marble quarries were worked extensively, and there are many evidences that much money was put into the enterprise. For some reason or other it is said that the Spanish Government looked with disfavor upon the enterprise, and in order to discourage it levied a duty on the sand used in sawing, which was hauled from the shore a mile from the quarry. This tax killed the enterprise. About twelve years ago a few cargoes of marble blocks were gotten out and shipped to Habana to be sawed out and worked there. Since then this particular industry has been neglected. The marble appears to be of good quality, some of it being white statuary marble, while other specimens contain various shades of blue grained stone, as well as marble -of a dark-gray color. There are also specimens containing a pinkish coloring. N one of these samples are capable of a very brilliant polish. With modern methods good results might be obtained. The work already done in these quarries has only disturbed the outer surface of the rck. It is believed that better material than has already been disclosed may be found deeper in the mountain. The old works have a most advanltageous location, as the haul from the quarry to the old pier is over a good road. A good quality of brick clay is also. found in the island, and the ruins of an extensive brickyard, from which bricks and flooring and roofing tiles were formerly shipped to Habana, still exist at New Gerona.
The tobacco grown in this region sells at Habana at $40 per bale. It is believed that it passes later as Vuelta Abajo at a higher price. Were a cigar factory established in the island it is believed that it would insure the recognition of the product under its own name, and that this would stimulate the growth of the staple and bring a corresponding benefit to the island.
Tobacco growers are of the opinion that the only difficulty thus far presented in growing the weed arises from the newness of the, soil. The latter has not been sufficiently worked and mixed to insure a uniform crop.
The sugar cane at present raised in the island is for home use only. The juice is extracted by a crude wooden, mill and boiled down in large open kettle, making a dark, coarse sugar, unfit for export.A sugar plantation here would not probably be able to compete with those in the rich level lands of Habana Province, as the soil is not aS strong as it is in the region named. Coffee has only been raised in 0~ experimental sense. The quality seems to be fair, and it is thought that if cultivators, who understand the work, should commence opera, tions in an attempt to raise the berry, good results might be obtained.





ISLE OF PINES. 65

Cacao (chocolate) is also used and only experimentally grown, but the fruit appears to be fine. Rice grows well without irrigation. Yuca, which is commonly used for starch, also grows well without irrigation and usually yields well. Malango, which is a species of potato, grows well without irrigation, yields well and is of fine quality.
The sweet potato grown in the island possesses a particularly fine flavor, and with reduced rates to Cuba would become a marketable product.
The plantain has a sweeter flavor than that grown in Cuba and produces abundantly. It is shipped to Cuba in small quantities and in time will become an important article of export.
No attention seems to have been paid to the kind of trees planted and it is believed that there is an opening on the island for orange g, rowers of experience who would plant trees of the most approved varieties. Guava grows wild over a large part of the island and furnishes fruit for pigs. It could be utilized in the manufacture of guava paste and jelly. The cocoanut trees of the island yiled abun(lantly. Few trees have been planted, however. This fruit could also easily become an article of export.
It is thought that cattle raising could not be made a paying project except for home consumption.
There are at present two small sawmills in the island, but only one is now in actual running order. There is a large area of pine forest, but the logs large enough for sawing are found only in small stretches west of the center of the island. These small pines are principally exported to be used as railway ties, telegraph poles, poles for the roofs of native Cuban huts, and for hanging tobacco during its curing. There seems to be no available statistics from which the amount and quality of the hard w.'ood in the southern part of the island can be estimated.
It is the opinion of the military official who makes the report that, while much fine wood might be found in the southern portion of the island, it would not be found of sufficient size and in sufficient quantity to warrant the expense of getting it to the water over the difficult, rocky ground in which it grows. The most accessible localities have already been culled, and it is feared that to take out the best timber portable railways would have to be used.
The horses of the island are very small and generally very poor. They are hardy and travel with a comfortable and rapid ambling gait. The Pasturage is not such as to favor growth, and the stock brought to the island during the war is being rapidly exported to Cuba. Cattle have almost disappeared from the island. In a week's riding not a hundred head were seen. Beef is such a luxury that it is not usually obtainable even in the towns of New Gerona and Santa Fe. It being rumored that the Spanish Government was to seize all the cattle, the owners hurriedly sold them and the purchasers immediately shipped the animals to Habana. The island is a paradise for Pigs. The best variety of wild fruits and seeds furnish them abundant food. Parrots are found in large numbers and yearly exported. The shallow waters about the island abound in an excellent quality of fish and lobsters.
The agricultural resources of the island are as follows: Rich land, 10 per cent; land of doubtful agricultural value, 10 per cent; savan-





66 ISLE OF PINES.

nas, covered with mangroves and palmettoes, 25 per cent; swamp and low ground, covered with mangroves, 25 per cent; mountains and steep hills, 25 per cent. The land thus named lies north of the Cie. iiega. Of the land denominated rich, only a very small percentage is actually under cultivation, but the nature of its growth shows the value of the soil. Of the entire surface of the island but 1 per cent is now under cultivation. As an example of the wonderful variety of products of the island, it is mentioned in particular that one farm of less than thirty-three acres actually in cultivation produces coffee, sugar, chocolate, cocoa, cocoanuts, plantains, bananas, sweet potatoes, cassava (from which laundry starch may be made), malangoes which answer for potatoes, rice beans, lettuce, tobacco, honey, fowls, pigs, and cattle.
The rich, arable land of the island is not found in large tracts, but in scattered patches among the hills, which are suitable for tobacco patches rather than sugar plantations. The demand for consumption in the island is small and the freight rates to the mainland high. Hence the only agricultural product that commands a ready cash market is tobacco. Of this staple the island exported last year about 3,000 bales of 100 pounds each. This year the amount will fall to 2,000 bales or less, for the reason that the workers who had come to this island from Vuelta Abajo came to escape the war. They have now returned to their old homes, where the reputation on the leaf, if not its actual superiority, gives the laborer -who cultivates it a larger return for his work.
To suim up, in brief, the material resources of the island are as follows:
Fine timber for the saw is not large. The area of canle land is insig' nificant. High freights and distance to market make agricultural produce valueless except for home consumption. The amount and quality of mahogany is not sufficient to attract buyers from more promising fields. This, of course, appertains to the northern part of the island. Tobacco culture is capable of great development. Men of capital and experience will do well, the official states,1 to inspect the marble quarries. The greatest returns to thec capitalist, as well as the greatest benefit to the island itself at present, seem Ito lie in its future as a sanitary resort. The island can b brought within eight hours or less of Habana, and the traveler runs no risk of seasickness in the shallow sea inclosed by keys. A close connection can be made with Habana, provided sufficient, capital is invested, by establishing a swift steamer of light draft to Batabano.


AURORA, ILL., Februar y 24, 1899.
FRIEND) A. J. H.
DEAR SIR: I suppose you are very busy and perhaps too busy to think about or to get time to see about making for me a possible transfer to Pension Department at Washington, as we have formerly talked. Before you leave for Aurora it maybe _you can ascertain pos5 sibilities in this line or see a chance for something preferable for mne.
Any effort in my behalf will place me under increased obligation to you for past favors.
Very truly, yours, E. H. GALE.




ISLE OF PINES. 67

P. S.-Pension board here fails to get many examinations from Chicago.
My attention has been called to Isle of Pines, ceded to us by the Spanish treaty. Is there any literature obtainable descriptive of this inhabited island just south of Cuba? G.


DEPARTMENT OF STATE, W1ashington, March 3, 1899.
Hon. A. J. HoPKINS,
House of Representatives.
DEAR Sin: Your letter of the 27th ultimo inclosing one from Dr. E. H. Gale, of Aurora, Ill., requesting any information or publication this Department may have in regard to the Isle of Pines, has been received.
In reply I beg to say that this Department has no publications on the subject. I believe, however, that upon application at the War Departinent you may be able to find some publications of that Department referring to the Isle of Pines.
I am, very truly, yours, THos. W. CRIDLER.

COMMITTEE ON CENSUS, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
Washington, D. C., March 4, 1889.
Hon. R. A. ALGER,
Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.
DEAR SIR: The inclosed correspondence explains itself. If you can send Doctor Gale any information concerning the Isle of Pines, I shall be glad if you will do so.
Truly, yours, A. J. HOPKINS.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, Washington, D. C., March 9, 1899.
Sin: At the request of Hon. A. J. Hopkins, I have the honor to herewith transmit to you a copy of the report of Capt. Frank S. Foltz concerning the Isle of Pines.
Very respectfully, G. D. MEIKLEJOHN,
Assistant Secretary of War. Dr. E. H. GALE, Aurora Ill.

WAR DEPARTMENT T,
OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, Vashington, D. C., March 9, 1899.
SIR: In reply to .your favor of the 4th instant, requesting that information be furnished to Doctor Gale concerning the Isle of Pines, I have the honor to state that a copy of the report of Capt Frank S. Foltz has been this day mailed to him.
Very respectfully, G. D. MEIKLEJOHN,
Assistant Secretary of War. Hon. A. J. HoPrINs,
House of Represent atives.





68 ISLE OF PINES.

FORT RENO, OKLA., March 19, 1899. BUREAU OF TIE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, Washington, D. C. .sSIn: I would like a pamphlet, book, or descriptive article of the Isle of Pines, the new territory, recently acquired by the United States. Can you furnish me with literature of any kind describing that country?
Thanking you for a reply, I am,
Very respectfully, W3u. S1GIS3IUND, Jr.
Refer to Assistant Secretary of War 'and so inform writer.
BUR-EAU OF THE AMIlERICAN REPUBLICS,
INTERNATIONAL UNION OF A-MERICAN REPUBLICS,
Washington, U. S. A.
Respectfully referred to the Assistant Secretary of Var; the writer having been so informed.
WILLIAM C. Fox.

CHICAGO, ILL., March 23, 1899 DEAR SIR: I am seeking information on the Isle of Pines in view of going there.
Will you kindly furnish me whatever matter is in possession of our Government as to land and ownership, etc.?
Let me hear from you at your earliest convenience.
Most respectfully,
A. A. BURLEIGH,
2786 He mitage Avenue, Station X.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
lWashington, March 25, 1899.
SiR: In reply to your letter of the 23d instant, asking for information relative to the Isle of Pines, I have the honor to state that an extended description thereof was given to the press on the 15th instant.
Very respectfully,
G. D. MEIKLEJOHN, AAH EActing Sec.etary of War.
A. A. BvlLEIGIT Esq.,'
2786 Hermitage Avenue, Station X, Chicago, Ill.


WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, March 2 5, 1899.
SIR: In reply to your letter of the 19th instant, asking for information relative to the Isle of Pines, I have the honor to state that an extended description thereof was given to the press on the 15th instant.
Very respectfully, G. D. MEIKLEJOHN,
Acting Secretary of War.
Mrl'. WILLIAMN SIGIS3MUND, Jr.,
Fort Reno, Okla.,





ISLE OF PINES. 69

FITCHBURG, MASS., March 25, 1899. BUREAU OF SOUTH AMERICAN REPUBLICS: GENTLEMEN: I aml in want of information regarding a place called the Isle of Pines, off the coast of Cuba. What position does it now occupy in relation to our United States Government, and what position is it likely to assume? The information wanted is such as a person would have to have who was trying to start a colony: Number and character of the inhabitants, religion and politics, what a Yankee can do there to make a living, character of soil, water, rainfall, temper'ature, and such other information as you can give. If you can not furnish me with this, if possible tell me where it can be obtained.
Yours, truly,
W. W. NEWCO3MIB.
BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS, INTERNATIONAL UNION OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS,
Washington, U. S. A., March 27, 1899.
Respectfully referred to the chief clerk of the War Dep'artmnent for his information.
WILLIA31 C. FOX, Chief Clerk.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, March 29, 1899.
SIR: In reply to your letter of the 25th instant, relating to the Island of Pines, I have the h6nor to state that an extended description of same was given to the press on the 15th instant.
Very respectfully,
G. D. MEIKLEJOHIN,
Acting Secretary of War.
W. W. NEwcourn, Esq., 160 Main Street, Fitchbtburg, Mass.


YERKES OBSERVATORY, UNIVERSITY OF CIIlCAGO,
Williams Bay, Wis., March 27, 1899.
My DEAR SIR: Please let me have full instructions in regard to applying for public lands in the Isle of Pines, recently acquired from Spain.
Very truly, E. N. MYERS, TWilliams Bay, JVis.

DEPARTMENT OF TIHE INTERIOR, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY,
March 30, 1899.
Respectfully forwarded to the honorable Secretary of War, and the writer so advised.
Tios. RYAN, Acting Secretary.





70 ISLE OF PINES.

WAR DEPARTMENT, W1ashington, D. C., April 3, 1899.
Sin: In reply to your letter of the 27th ultimo, relative to government land in the Isle of Pines, I have the honor to state that no such land has as yet been opened to settlement.
Very respectfully,
G. D. MEfKLEJOHN, Acting Secretary of War. E. N. MYERS, Esq., Williams Bay, WVis.


FITZGERALD, GA., April 4, 1899. SECRETARY OF WAR,
Washington, D. C.
SIR: Have you any reports or public documents for distribution treating on the Isle of Pines?
If you have, I should be pleased to receive them.
I remain, very truly, yours,
D. E. PEIPER.

WAR DEPARTMENT, OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, Washington, D. C., April 10, 1899.
SIR: In reply to your letter of the 4th instant in which you request a copy of a report or some public documents giving information upon the Isle of Pines, I have the honor to inclose to you a copy of a report recently received by this Department.
Very respectfully,
G. D. MEIKLEJOHN, Acting Secretary of War. Mr. D. E. PEIPER, Fitzgerald, Ga.

EL RENO, OKLA., April 12, 1899. WA, DEPARTMENT, Washington:
I am desirous of obtaining information regarding Isle of Pines, and, as I understand, the War Department has issued a printed report on same, I ask that you please send me same, or advise me as to how to secure one. By so doing you will greatly oblige,
Yours, most respectfully,
P. W. ODOr, Box 079, El Reno, Okla.

VAR DEPARTMENT, OFFICE OF TIE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, Washington, D. C., April 17, 1899.
SIR: In reply to your letter of the 12th instant, requesting information in regard to the Isle of Pines, I am directed by the Assistant Secretary of War to herewith transmit to you a copy of the latest report thereon.
Very respectfully, JOHN C. SCOFIELD,
Chief Clerk.
P. W. ODO3I, Esq., El Reno, Okla.





ISLE OF PINES. 71

CRICAco COLONY, IST.E OF PINES, WEST INDIES,
Chicago, Ill., April 20, 1899.
Jp01hN C. SCOFIELD, Esq.,
Chief Clerc Var Depart men t, Washington, D. C.
DEAR Sinm: Your kind favor of March 17 received, with inclosurereport by Captain Foltz on the Isle of Pines to the War Department, of recent date. The report is of great value to us and was read with considerable interest, and a resolution of thanks was passed by the association to Hon. Assistant Secretary of War Meiklejohn for kindly furnishing us a copy of the report. Any official information in reference to the island you can give us will be highly appreciated. What interests us the most now is, Will the island belong to the United States, and does the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain so imply? We are going on the principle that it does.
I have the honor to be, yours, very truly,
G. W. REED, Vice-President.

P11LAI)ELrIA, ,June 16. 18,99.
11on. JOHN HAY,
Secretary of State, lVashington?, I). C.
DEAR Sin: I am desirous of obtaining information relative to the Isle of Pines, located south of the western end of Cuba, viz, as to its form of government, if it is owned by or subject to the control of the United States, its population, industries, and what investments or concessions there would probably be productive of the best financial results.
Very respectfully, WALTER S. CIIABERS.
Above letter forwarded to the Secretary of War.
Mailed copy of Isle of Pines report, June 20, 1899.
C.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
TWashington, August 8, 1899.
The SECR ETAR.Y OF WAn.
Sin: The Department is in receipt of a letter from John B. Altman. 4246 Shaw avenue, St. Louis, Mo., dated July 23, 1899, from which I extract the following:
I take the liberty to ask you under which office the Isle of Pine stands; I mean to whom I have to apply for land in there and how the land can be obtained. As we are in a party of ten families we want to settle in there on the mountainous part of the Isle des Pines, but we have not the ,informations what and how to do to get land there; this is the reason I come with this request and wish to have advice.
If we have to buy the land, then we want to know the legal way to do it; otherwise we may lease the land to settle in there.
Mr. Altman's letter contains other matters that relate to this Department, for which reason it can not be referred to you in original, but he has been told that this reference has been made to your Department and that he should correspond directly with you on that point.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
THos. W. CRimLER,
Thiid Assistant Secretary.





72 ISLE OF PINES.

SWAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, August 14, 1899.
SIR: I have the honor to.acknowledge the receipt of a letter from the Assistant Secretary of State, containing an extract from your letter addressed to him, requesting certain information concerning public land in the Isle of Pines.
In reply I am directed by the Assistant Secretary of War to advise you that the disposition of public lands in the islands must await the action of Congress, and to inclose for your information a copy of an official report received by this Department on the resources of the island.
Very respectfully, JoHN J. PERSHING,
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Mr. JOnN B. ALTMAN,
/42.G Shaw avenue, St. Louis, Mo.



CARLISLE, PA., Au st 10, 1899. WAR DEPARTMEINT, 11-as/ingtoR, 1. C.
GENTLEMEN: I am seeking information about the timber interests in the Isle of Pines and would be obliged for any information you may be able to give me, especially what will be the governmental status of the isle? Does it come in as Porto Rico, or under the same conditions as Cuba? And how can title be secured, etc.? I expect to go in November.
For which information I will say thanks in advance.
Yours,
GEO. BRID ES.
I expect to operate sawmnills. Am no land grabber.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
SVash inyqton, August 14, 1899.
Sin: Referring to your commnication of the 10th instant, soliciting information respecting the Isle of Pines, I am directed by the Assistant Secretary of War to advise you that this island was ceded by Spain to the United States and is therefore a part of our territory, although it is attached at present to the division of Cuba for governmental purposes.
A copy of an official report on the Isle of Pines is inclbsed for your information, and you are advised that the disposition of public lands must await the action of Congress.
Very respectfully,
JoIN J. PERSHING,
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Mr.' GEOCGE BRIDGES,
Carlisle, Pa.





ISLE OF PINES. 73

TUBBSVILLE, 01O, June 21, 1899. ('GENTLE IEN: Please send me a copy of the latest official report on the Isle of Pines by Colonel Hecker or Captain Folty, or any other officer, if the same is in print, and let me know where one can get a map of the island, and oblige,
Yours truly,
A. S. TUBBS.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Junme 26,, 1899.
Respectfully forwarded to the honorable Secretary of War, and writer so informed.
E. A. HITCHCOCK, Secretary.


DETROITI MICH., September 6, 1899. SECRETARY OF WAR, JWashington, D. C.
DEAR SIR: Have vou on file for public use any recently procured matter on the Isle if Pines, Cuba? We should particularly like to know what standing timber there is there, also the minerals to be found.
Any courtesies extended will be appreciated.
Very truly yours,
W ST & Co.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, September 9, 1899.
GENTLEMEN: In reply to your letter of the 6th instant, asking for information concerning the Isle of Pines, I am directed by the Secretary of War to inclose herewith copy of a report in regard to the same.
Very respectfully
A. N. THo~ipsox,
Acting Chief Clerk.
WEST & Co.,
Union Trust Building, Detroit, Mici.


Dealer in lumber and box material.
GALVESTON, TEX., December 20, 1899. The SECRETARY OF FoREIGN AFFAIRS, Washington.
SIR: Permit me to inquire if the islands south of Cuba, formerly belonging to Spain, do now belong to the United States or to Cuba; and if" so, have I a right to hunt along those islands in a small Anerican boat? Am contemplating to make a trip there and would like to know what I would have to do not to conflict with the law. Should want to carry probably 100 pounds of powder and shot and two or three arms with provisions for two months for two men.





74 ISLE OF PINES.

Would also thank you for the name and publisher of any publication describing those islands if such is to be had. Presume some are inhabited and others not?
Thanking you for the anfieipated favor, I beg to remain,
Very respectfully,
,L. C. LEiTII

Boat would be too small to enter at custom-house.
D'PARIT31ET OF STATE, December 28, 1899. Respectfully referred to the chief clerk War Department.
WM. H. MICHAEL, Chief Clerke.



WAR DEPARTMENT ,
OFFICE OF TIE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, Washhigton, D. C., January 13, 1900.
SI: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by reference from the honorable the Secretary of State, of your letter of the 20th ultimo asking if the islands south of Cuba, formerly belonging to Spain, now belong to the United States or to Cuba; whether you have a right to hunt along the coasts thereof in a boat too small to enter at the custom-house, carrying probably 100 pounds of ammunition, two or three guns, and two, months' provisions for two men, and requesting publications descriptive of said islands.
In reply, you are advised that the Isle of Pines was ceded by Spain to the United States, and therefore is a part of our territory, although it is attached at present to the division of Cuba for governmental purposes.
In reply to your inquiry relative to guns and ammunition, your attention is invited to the inclosed copy of an order of the military governor of Cuba, dated September 18, 1899, modifying the instructions dated April 27, 1899. You are further informed that the Department has no publications descriptive of these islands.
Very respectfully,
G. D. M[EIKLEJOIIN.
Assistant Secretary of 1Var.
Mr. L. C. LErITH,
NW. Corner Market and Eighteenth Streets, Galveston, Tex.


JANUARY 6, 1900.
Hon. Wmf. MCKINLEY,
1Vashington, D. C.
DEAR Sin: Does the Isle of Pines belong to the United States, or is it Cuban territory? Is it subject to homestead of American citizens?
An early reply will oblige
A. C. GOFF,
Bluff Springs, Eseambia County, Fla.




ISLE OF PINES. 75

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE O THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY.
Washington, D. C., January 15, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by reference from the President, of your letter of the 6th instant, asking if the Isle of Pines belongs to the United States and whether it is subject to the homestead laws of this country.
In reply I beg to advise you that the Isle of Pines was ceded to the United States by Spain, and is therefore a part of our territory, although it is at present attached to the division of Cuba for governmental purposes. The homestead laws of the United States have not as yet been applied thereto and this question must await Congressional action.
Very respectfully, G. D. MIEIKLEJOHIN,
Assistant Secretary of War. Mr. A. C. GoFF,
Bluff Springs, Escambia County, Fla.


VAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, Washington, D. C., April 28, 1900.
SIR: As numerous inquiries have been made to this Department regarding the present status of the Isle of Pines I have the honor to request an expression of your views upon the question of the present ownership thereof.
In connection therewith I beg to inclose a number of letters received from Mr. E. C. Harrington, together with copies of the replies thereto.
Very respectfully, G. D. MEIMLEJOIIN,
Assistant Secretary of JVar.
The ATTORNEY-GENER AL.


THE CUBAN AIERICAN LEAGUE, New York City, January 31, 1900.
H10n. ELIIIU ROOT,
Secretary of. War.
DEAR SIR: Is the Isle of Pines United States as Porto Rico is United States, or is it Cuba?
Cordially, yours, WILLIAM 0. McDOWELL.

[Memorandum.]
The Isle of Pines.
The records of the War Department contain the following matters with reference to the Isle of Pines: On April 28, 1900, Mr. E. C. Harrington, of Miami, Fla., addressed a letter to Col. Clarence R. Edwards, Chief of the Division of Customs and Insular Affairs of the War Department, in which he stated that he had taken possession of 160 acres of land in the Isle of Pines and was preparing to remove his family there, and that he wished to





76 ISLE OF POINTS.

know whether hie would be molested in the possession of his homestead, and whether hie would eventually be allowed to enter it. lie
-also stated that he had had correspondence with the President, the Land Office, and the Depa'rtinent of Statistics of the WVar Department.
Colonel Edwards replied to this letter on the 3d of May, saying that the matter had been referred to the Department of Justice, and that as soon as its opinion was received Mr. Harrington would be further advised.
On the 6th of May last Mr. Harrington acknowledged the receipt ,of Colonel Edward's letter and requested him to say whether, pending the decision of the Department of Justice, he would be molested in continuing his improvements on his homestead on the Isle of Pines.
It appears that the matter was submitted by private letter to the Attorney-General, and that it was afterwards verbally withdrawn because the matter was for diplomatic consideration rather than a question for the decision of his Department." This is the language of an unsigned memorandum with Mr. Harrington's letter of May 6.
On June 24 Mr. Hlarrington wrote again to Colonel Edwards and, referring to the fact that the letter had stated that the matter would be submitted to the Department of Justice, inquired as to its decision.
On the 27th of July Mr. Harrington wrote from Habana to Gen. Fitzhugh Lee asking him to say if the'Isle of Pines was United States territory and if the public domain, formerly Crown lands under Spanish rule, could now be located upon by the squatters until such time as Congress should legislate upon thie subject.
This letter was forwarded by General Lee on the 30th of July to the adjutant-general, Division of Cuba, for the consideration of the military governor, General Lee stating that hie did not know the present status of the Isle of Pines." The letter was then referred on the 2d of August, by direction of the military governor, to the secretary of state and government of Cuba, Diego Tamayo.
On August 10, 1900, Seflor Tamnayo returned the following report: 1. That the Isle of Pines is an integral part of the territory of the island of Cuba and constitutes a municipal termino under the jurisdiction of the civil governor of the province of Habana, of which it forms a part in conformity with the first annexed note of the royal decree of the 9th of June, 1878, and it pertains also to the judicial district of Bejucal Within the jurisdiction of the audiencia of Hlabana.
A part of the said information is contained on page 14 of tile census of the island of Cuba.
2. In so far as the rural guard is concerned the Department can report nothing, inasmuch as the organization is under tile direction of the heads of tile military departments.
The census of the island of Cuba, referred to by Sefior Tamayo, is the census taken by the United States under the direction of the War Department. At page 14, of Bulletin No. 1, of this census, appears "Isla de Pinos," and the population is given at 3,199.
It appears that Mr. Harrington was informed by Colonel Edwards, in a letter of July 3, 1899, that the question of the Isle of Pines was not to be decided by the War Department, and that the request for an opinion of the Attorney-General had been withdrawn.





ISLE OF PINES. 77

This was written in reply to Mr. Harrington's letter of the 21st of June.
His letter of the 27th of July does not appear as yet to have been answered.
Among the orders issued by our military commanders in Cuba is the following order. which relates directly to the Isle of Pines: No. 131.] t|AI)QUARTERS )VISION OF CUBA,
Habana, August 4, 1899.
The military governor of Cuba directs me to announce the following appointments:
To be mayor of the Isle of Pines, Juan Manuel Sanches. To be first assistant mayor of the Isle of Pines, Francisco Jesus Junco. [SEAL.] ADNA R. CIIAFFEE,.
Brigadier-General, Chief of Staff.
On August 10, 1900, Mr. Jos4 M. Tarafa, who signed himself as "Late colonel of the Cuban army," wrote to the Secretary of War saying that he "owned between 30,000 and 40,000 acres of land in the Isle of Pines, and that he had found to his surprise that the inhabitants of the island unanimously believed that they were directly under the sovereignty of the Uiiited States and not under a protectorate, as was the island of Cuba, and that the same opinion seemed to be rather general in Habana." As a large land owner in the Isle of Pines he desired to know under what flag the island was to remain. This letter was answered by Colonel Edwards, by direction of the Se'retarV of War, on the 17th of August. Colonel Edwards states "that the iWar Department at present considers the Isle of Pines subject to the jurisdiction of the military forces of the United States now in charge. of civil affairs in the island of Cuba," and that the question asked by MIr. Tarafa, "being a political question, it is not to be decided by this Department." In the order issued by General Chaffee, as military governor of Cuba. at Habana, April 18, 1900, in regard to the municipal elections of June last, the municipalities of the'island are not eniumerated; but, in view of the order previously issued, appointing officers for the municipality of the Isle of Pines, it is altogether probable that the municipality was included, and that it held an election under the order. ,
GRAND RAPIDS, Micii., February 5, 1900. The SECRETARY OF WAR,
Vashington, D. C.
DEAR SiR: I have been informed that the Isle of Pines, south of Cuba, is now the property of the United States. If this is a fact, I wish to know if I, as an American citizen, and others may be permIitted to acquire title to a portion of it and make our liomes there; and if so, how and when?
Please send me a copy of the custom-house rates between United States and Cuba.
Yours, very truly,
4g. P. SN6,I)EI.
21455-S. Doe. 166, 68-2----0





78 ISLE~ OF PINES.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, W~ashington, February 14, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 5th instant, asking if you, as an American citizen, and others may be permitted to acquire title to a portion of the Isle of Pines and make your homes there, and if so, how and when; also requesting a copy of the Customs Tariff for Cuba.
In reply I beg to inform you that transfers of private property in said island may be made under. the local laws and that the disposition of public land must await Congressional action. No copies of the Cuban tariff are at present available for distribution.
Very respectfully,
G. D. MEIKLEJOIIN.
Assistant Secretary of W~ar.
Dr. H. P. SNYDER,
54 Moniroe street, Grand R~apids, Mich.


CIENFUEGOS, February 7, 1900. The SECRETARY Or THE INTERIOR:
I notified you some four months ago that I had taken possession of 160 acres of land on the Isle of Pines. This land was known during Spanish rule as Crown lands, so I1 judged it was now United Stats land, as the published statement in Habana paper by Assistant Secretary of War Meiklejohn stated that the Isle of Pines was United States territory according to treaty of Paris. I am going back to Isle of Pines March 1 to stay for good. Please instruct me when to fle my entry and any other information required.
Respectfully, IE. C. HARRINGTON.
Referred -to Secretary of War by Secretary of Interior February 13, 1900.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, Washington, February 16, 1900.
Sin: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by reference from the honorable the Secretary of the Interior, of your letter of the 7th instant, stating that you had taken possession of 160 heres of land ii the Isle of Pines, and requesting instructions as to where you should file your entry, together -with any other information required.
In reply you are advised that the homestead and preemption laws Of the United States have not as yet been extended to the island ceded by Spain to this country, the subject being one that must await the action of Congress.
Very respectfully,
G. D. MEIKLEJOHN,
Assistant Sec~retary of War.
Mr. IE. C. HARRIINGTON,
Cienfuegos, Cuba





ISLE OF PINES. 79

Memorandumm] WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY,

Colonel EDWARDS:
I can not answer the interrogatory propounded in this letter. The political branches of this Government, to wit, the Congress and the Executive are to determine the territorial extent of the sovereignty and dominion of the United States and the particular territory over which such sovereignty and dominion shall be asserted. I suggest that no answer be attempted by this Department under the conditions at present existing. If an answer to this letter is imperative, I suggest that Mr. McDowell be informed that as at present advised this Department considers the Isle of Pines subject to the jurisdiction of the military forces of the United States now in charge of civil affairs in the island of Cuba, if such is the fact. Respectfully submitted.
CHASE. E. MAGOOx,
Law Offeer, etc.


CIENFUEGOS, February 27, 1900.
IVILLIAM3 MNCKINLEY,
President of the United States, Waskington, D. C.
DFnR Sir: Some time ago I saw a letter of Secretary of War published in a Habana paper, stating the Isle of Pines was United States territory according to treaty of Paris. It lies 65 miles due south of Cuba and contains 240 square miles of very fine country. I, on strength of this publication mentioned, and several others have located on 160 acres each of what was formerly Crown land under Spanish rule. Now, I wish to know, for myself and others, if the island is absolutely United States land and if we will eventually be allowed to homestead these tracts. We are all McKinley men, and hope some arrangements can be made so we can cast our votes for you next election.
Please answer at once and explicitly, and oblige, E. C. HARRINGTON,
Of Florida.
My goods and louehold effects go forward to the island at once. ily friends have already moved.


CIENFUEGOS, March 12, 1900.
The SECRETARY OF WAR .
DEAR Sir: Will you kindly reply definitely if Isle of Pines is inlited States territory or not, and if I will run any chance of losing 1Y placc on the former Crown land there. I can ill afford to lose What I have already spent, and I write to know positively before spending the balance of my money. Hoping to hear at once, I am,
Respectively, E. C. JARRINTON.





80 ISLE OF PINES.

WAR DEPART IEN\T,
DIVISION OF CUSTOSrS AND INSULAR AFFAIRS,
Va.s3ing~on, March 21, 1900.
Sin: By direction of the Assistant Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 12th instant asking for a definite statement as to whether the Isle of Pines is United States territory.
In reply, you are advised that the determination of the territorial limits of this country does not appertain to the Department, and that the Isle of Pines is subject to the jurisdiction of the military forces of the United States now in charge of. civil affairs in the island of Cuba.
Very respectfully,
eCLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Lieutevan t-Colonel Fort y-sevrenth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers.
Chief of Diviion.
Mr. E. C. HARRINGTON,
Cienfuegos, Cuba.

Memorandum.]
WAR DEPARTMENT,
DIvIsION OF CUSTOMS AND INSULAR AFFAIRS,

The memorandum given me in this case says: "Advise in accordance with Magoon's language in last paragraph." Before complying therewith I wish to invite attention to 377-10, showing action of the Attorney-General; 377--8, which was filed in this division without answer; 377-6, letter of the same party, received through the Secretary of the Interior, to which reply was made that the bonestead and preemption laws of the United States have not yet been extended to the islands ceded by Spain to this country, the subject being one that must await Congressional action.
It appears that there are certain environments of the Isle of Pines which complicate the question as to whether it is a part of Cuba or not. While there is a separation from the mainland by water nearly 30 miles in width, this water is so shallow that the use of the island as a penal colony had to be abandoned, because with certain conditions of wind and tide it was possible for the convicts to wad from the island to Cuba. Some of the most intelligent Cubans are represented by a recent newspaper article as holding that the Isle of Pines has always geographically been treated as a portion of Cuba, and that the military government of Cuba has uniformlY evaded a decision of the question.

CIENFUEGOS, CUBA, Febretary 14, 1900. The ATTORNEY-GENERAL OF TtHE UNITED STATES.
DEAR SIR: Some time ago a letter was published in the Haballa Herald over the signature of Secretary of War Meiklejohn stating that the Isle of Pines, just south of Cuba, was United States ter' ritory, according to the treaty of Paris.
On strength of same I have located on 160 acres of land on Isle Of Pines on land that was, during Spanish rule, known as Cron





ISLE OF PINES. 81

lands; hence, I judged, now was United States land. This is what I wish your opinion on. Is it United States territory in accordance with treaty of Paris; and, if so, will I be protected in locating on this unsurveyed land or not? I am putting all I have into a home there, and will thank you very much for a prompt answer.
Respectfully,
E. C. HARRINGTON.

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE,
Washington, D. C., February 20, 1900.
Sim: It is made by statute the duty of the Attorney-General to answer questions of law when submitted by the President or by the head of an Executive Department. The uniform practice of the Attorney-General from the formation of the Government has been to decline to answer such questions from other officers or persons. The reasons for this rule are obvious and strong. They admit of no exceptions. I am therefore compelled to return your note of 14th instant without further response.
Very respectfully, JoHN W. GIGGS,
Attorney-General.
E. C. HARRINGTON,
Cienfuegos, Cuba.

LEM:ON CITY, FLA., April 20, 1900. The SECRETARY OF WAR, Washington,: I have written you a number of letters when in Cuba about my having located 160 acres of land on Isle of Pines. I am now here for my family and to move household effects. I return to Cuba in two weeks or three. Will I be interfered with by the Cuban civil authorities at Habana in peaceable possession of my homestead on Isle of Pines? I see by New York Journal that question of Isle of Pines being United States territory was brought up before the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, and they decided (this is under date at Washington of April 7) that Isle of Pines was United States territory and would not be considered a part of the Cuban Republic at all. Please answer at once. Ten other families will go over in June.
Respectfully,
E. C. HAR RINCGTON.


WILLIAM -XIC1INLEY, LF-LoN CITY, FLA., April 20, 1900.
President United States.
DEAR Sin: I am unable to get definite answer from Secretary of War or land department as to whether the Isle of Pines is United States territory or not. I located on 160 acres of Crown land (under Spanish rule) -last June, and I am here now for my family and additional household effects. I see by New York Journal of April 7 that





82 ISLE OF PINES.

the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations had taken up the ques. tion as to whether the Isle of Pines was United States land under treaty of Paris, and that they had decided that it was United States ~territory and that it would not form a part of the Republic of Cuba, Will you kindly answer positively yes or no to this question. I expect to return in two or three weeks. I go on with my improvements if I will be unmolested in possession of my homestead. A number of other families are arranging to go over. We will be able to cast at least 50 votes for you if allowed to vote. Please answer at once so we can govern ourselves accordingly. This island is invaluable to the United States from a military strategic standpoint, and is the key to the Yucatan Channel. It has a, very fine, deep harbor.
Respectfully,
E. C. HARIRINGTON.

HOUSE oF REPRESENTATIVES,
W~ashington, D. C., April 28, 1900.
The SECRETARY OF WAR,
l1'ashington, D. C.
SiR: Will you kindly advise me whether the Isle of Pines, near the southern coast of Cuba, still remains under Cuban rule, or is it controlled by the United States? I should be glad to have this information at as early a date as possible if you will give it to me, as I have had letters and messages from a constituent of mine that is interested in a large tract of timber on this island.
Very respectfully, yours, R1. K. POLIK.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, May 2, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 28th ultimo, asking whether the Isle of Pines, near the southern coast of Cuba, still remains under Cuban rule or is under the control of the 'United States.
In reply I beg to inform you that this question was recently referred by this Department to the Department of Justice, and upoD receipt of its decision thereon you will be promptly advised.
Very respectfully,
G. D. MEIKLEJOHN,
Rion. R. K. POLx, Acting Secretary of Wa,
House of Representatives.


MIIAMA, FLA., April 28, 1900.
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS, U. S. Volunteers,
Chief of Division of Customs and Insular Affairs,
War Department, Washington.
DEAR SIR: Last August I took posession of 16 acres of land on Isle of Pines, and since have had correspondence with President, Land Department, Department of Statistics, and War Department. I ao





ISLE OF pINES. 83

preparing to move my family there. I would thank you very much if you can tell me positively if I will be molested in peaceable possessionl of my homestead or not, and if I will eventually be allowed to enter same. Please reply at once as I leave for Cuba very soon.
RespecfullyE. C. HIARRINGTON.

I was all last summer in employment of hospital department at Hlabana, and will be there this summer.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
DivisroN &iF CFsTo_3s AND INSULAR AFFAIRS,
Wdshington, D. C., May 3, 1900.
Siu: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 28th ultimo, asking information in relation to the Isle of Pines. In reply, I beg to inform you that the matter has been referred to the Department of Justice, and that so soon as its opinion is received you will be further advised.
Very respectfully, ~R DvRS

Lieutenant- Colonel, Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division.
Mr. E. C. HARRINGTON, Miami, Fla.


MIAMIl, FLA., May 6, 1900.
CLARENCE P. EDWARDS,
Lieutenant- Colonel, Forty-seventh Infantry,
U.,S. Volunteers, Chief of Division.
DEAR SIR: Your favor stating decision regarding 106e of Pines had been referred to Department of Justice -received. Will you kindly say by return mail if I will in meantime be molested or restrained from continuing my improvements on my homestead. on Isle of Pines, as I wish to get 10 acres in condition for tobacco. I. return to
Respectfully,E.CHARN oN


DEPARTMENT OF HABIANA,
OFFICE OF CHIEF ENGINEER,
Habana, June 24, 1900.
CLARENCE P. EDWvARDS,
Lieutenant- Colonel, Forty-seventh Infantry,
U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division.
DEAR SIR: On May 3 you wrote me at Miami, Fla., in answer to MY letter asking if I would be molested by the Cuban rural guard or authorities from going on with my improvements on my homestead 011 the Isle of Pines. Your answer stated that my 99letter had been referred to the Department of Justice and that "so soon as its Opinion is received I would be further advised." .Kindly let me hear What the decision is, as I am anxious to proceed with my place.
Respectful .ly, E. C. HARRINGTON.





84 ISLE OF PINES.

WAR DEPART ENT,
DIvisIoN OF CUSTOMS AND INSULAR AFFAIRS,
Washington, D. C., July 3, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 21st instant, referring to this division's letter of the 3d ultimo, and asking what the decision is in regard to the Isle of Pines.
In reply I beg to advise you that this is a question not to be decided by this Department, and therefore the request for an opinion of the honorable the Attorney-General was withdrawn.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Lieutenant-Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry,
U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division. Mr. E. C. HARRtiNTON, Habana, Cuba.


RocKrORT, IND., July 8, 1900. The INSULAR DIVISION OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT.
GENTLEMIEN: The Department of Agriculture refers me to your Department for information of the Isle of Pines as to healthfulness, climate, resources, and health resorts, etc.
If you can give me the necessary information as to any publication of .this kind upon the Isle of Pines, I shall be very thankful indeed.
Respectfully, yours,
WILL. PFEIFI..

WAR DEPARTMENT,
Washington, July 18, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication of the 8th instant, requesting information concerning the Isle of Pines, and that any publication respecting said island be sent you.
In reply I beg to inform you that there has been no publication issued by this Department concerning the island, but the inclosed typewritten copy of a report thereon may prove of some interest to you.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Lieutenant-Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. Mr. WILL. PFEIFER,
Rockport, Ind.

HARANA, CUBA, August 10, 1900. Hon. ELiiiU ROOT,
Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.
SIR: I have just returned from the Isle of Pines (Isla de Pinos), where I own between 30,000 and 40,000 acres of land.
To my surprise I found the inhabitants of the island unanimously under the belief that they were, directly under the sovereignty of the United States and not under a protectorate, as is the island of Cub& The same opinion seems to be rather general here in Habana.




ISLE OF PINES. 85

You will readily understand how important it is to me, as the largest landowner on the Isle of Pines, to know under what flag that island is going to remain. I hesitate before investing more capital in my estates on the Isle of Pines until I can know how this matter stands, and I shall be grateful to you for an early answer which will settle this question.
Thanking you in anticipation for your kind attention, I remain, dear sir,
Yours, respectfully, JosE M. TARAFA,
Late Colonel of the Cuban Army.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
Divisio-x OF CUSTOMS AND INSULAR AFFAIRS,
Washington, D. C., August 17, 1900.
Sin: By direction of the Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 10th instant, concerning the Isle of Pines.
In reply, I beg to inform you that the Department at present considers the Isle of Pines subject to the jurisdiction of the military forces of the United States now in charge of civil affairs in the island of Cuba; that this being a political question, it is not to be decided by this Department.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Lieitenant-Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.
Seflor Josi M. TARAFA,
Mereaderes No. 4, Habana, Cuba ....


MOUNT VERNON, MICHl, October 3, 1900. Secretary HAY, Washington, D. C.
DEAR SIR: Can you give me information as to resources of the Isle of Pines, with statement as to inhabitants, etc., as a few here would like to go there this winter, if favorable.
If this should not come from the Department addressed to please refer to the proper Department.
Very respectfully, yours, GEO. W. MANN,
Mount Vernon, Mich.
Referred to Secretary of War by Secretary of State, October 8, 1900.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
DIvISION OF CUSTOMS AND INSULAR AFFAIRS,
Washington, D. C., October 10, 1900.
Sc: Bw direction of the Acting Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by reference from the honorable the Secretary of State, of your letter of the 3d instant, requesting information concerning the resources of the Isle of Pines with a statement as to the inhabitants thereof.





86 ISLE OF PINES.

In reply I beg to inform you that there has been no publication issued by this Department descriptive of said island, but the inclosed typewritten copy of a report thereon may prove of interest to you. The population of the Isle of Pines, according to the Cuban census of 1899, is 3,199.
Very respectfully,
CLARIENCE R.'EDWARDS,
Lieutenant-Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry,
U. S. Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

Mr. GEORGE W. MANN,
Mount Vernon, Mich.



HABANA, CUBA, November 28, 1900. The SECRETARY OF WAR,
Washington, D. C.
Si: I attach newspaper clipping regarding Isle of Pines. I applied in August, 1899, for permission to locate on the public land on this island, and would like to know if the decision referred to in this notice is true, and if it is United States territory.
Respectfully, E. C. HARRINGTON.


ISLE OF PINES OWNERSIIIP-RUilOR IN NEW YORK SAYS THAT RECENT DECISIONS GIVES IT TO THE UNITED STATES
New York, November 27.-The New York Journal publishes a report to the effect that a decision has been reached by Secretary Hay and Secretary Root to the effect that the Isle of Pines is United States territory, according to the treaty of Paris, and that it will be held as such. The report adds that the United States will station troops there and that it will at once withdraw the island from the jurisdiction of the municipality of Bejucal.


ELSBERRY, Mo., December 10, 1900. The SECRETARY. OF THE INTERIOR,
Washington, D. C.
DEAR SIR: Please send me any information the Government may have giving description, products, and population of the island of Pines, which lies near Cuba. If your Department has no information, please send to proper place and oblige.
Very. respectfully,
B. W. CAMPBELL,
Elsberry, Mo.
Referred to Secretary of War by Secretary of Interior, December 15,1900.





ISLE OF PINES. 87

WAR DEPARTMENT,
DIVISION OF INSULAR AFFAIRS, Washington, D. C., December 21, 1900.
SIR: By direction of the Acting Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by reference of the honorable the Secretary of the Interior, of your postal of the 10th instant requesting information in regard to the Isle of Pines. In reply I beg to inform you that there has been no publication issued by this Department descriptive of said island, and to inclose herewith a typewritten copy of a report which may prove of interest to you. The population of the Isle of Pines, according the Cuban census of 1899, is 3,199.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE IR. EDWVARDS,
Lieutenant-Colonel Forty-8eventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, A acting Assistant Adjutant-General. MIr. B. W. CAMPBELL, EIsberry, Mo.

MyERS, FLA., December 12, 1900. The SECRETARY OF STATE,
vashington, D. C.:
Having read that it was the intention of the United States to retain the Isle of Pines while allowing Cuba to be independent, we write to you, hoping to learn the how of the matter soon. If it is true that the Government does hold it we much desire to secure a foothold there near some good harbor. Is such a plan feasible?'
Thanking you in advance for the courtesy in answering our inquiries we beg leave to subscribe ourselves,
Yours, very respectfully,
SEMNOLE C. CO.,
By M. M. GARDNER.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
DIVISION OF CUSTOMS AND INSULAI AFFAIRS,
W1ashington, D. C., December 22, 1900.
SIR: By direction of the Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge receipt, by reference from the honorable the Secretary of State, of your letter of the 12th instant, asking if it is the intention of the United States to retain the Isle of Pines while allowing Cuba to be independent, and whether it is feasible for you to secure a foothold near some good harbor in that isle.
In reply I beg to inform you that the Departmen t present considers the Isle of Pines subject to the jurisdiction of the military force of the United States now in charge of civil affairs in Cuba; that this being a political question it is not to be decided by this Department.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Lieutenant-Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry,
U. S. Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.
Mr. M. M. GARD NER,
Secretary Seminole Canning Company, Myers, Fla.





88 ISLE OF PINES.

FOSTORIA, IOWA, February 21, 1901. Mr. MCINLRY.
DEAR SIR: Myself with apart of others have just returned from the Island of Pines, where we have purchased a large tract of land with a view of starting a strictly American colony. The question now arises, Will the Island of Pines become American or Cuban property if the island of Cuba is or does not become annexed to the United States? I have not been able. to get any definite information as to this. There seems to be some dispute as to whether it will be Cuban or American property. Can you give me any light on the subject? If so, it, will be. very much appreciated by me, as I am financially interested. Anything you may write me about it will be kept strictly confidential if you so desire.'
Thanking you for any information you may give me,
I remain yours, very respectfully,
IRA A. BROWN.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
DivisIoN OF INSULAR AFFAIRS,
Washi'vgton, D. C., March 8, 1901.
SIR: By direction of the Secretary of War I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by reference from the President, of your letter of the 21st ultimo, stating that yourself and friends have purchased a tract of land in the, Isle of Pines, and asking whether that island will become American or Cuban property.
In reply, I beg to invite your attention to Paragraph VI, page 4, of the Army appropriation act approved March 2, 1901, which reads: That the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Forty-seventh Infantry,
U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division. Mr. IRA A. BROWN, Fostoria, Iowa.


NEW YORK, April 6,1901.
FREDERICK E3IORY, Esq.,
Chief of Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Vashington, D. C.
DEAR SIR: I will esteem it a special favor if you will have the kindness to inform me what Department in the Government I must addresss to obtain information regarding the Island of Pines, Cuba. We would like to know something regarding the lands there and their adaptability for sugar-cane culture, etc. We would like to have a comprehensive map of same and any general or detailed information that can be obtained, and shall be much obliged to you for any help you may be able to give us in this respect.
Thanking you beforehaand for the trouble, I am, dear sir,
Respectfully,
J. F. WIECIRT.





ISLE OF PINES. 89

WAR DEPARTMENT.
DivisioN OF INSULAR AFFAIRS, WTashington, D. C,, April 11, 1901.
SIR: By direction of the Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by reference from the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, State Department, of your letter of the 6th instant, requesting information relative to the Isle of Pines.
In reply I beg to advise you that the only data upon this subject in the possession of the Department, wJich is available for distribution, is the report of Captain Foltz, a copy of which is herewith inclosed.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS, Lieutenant-Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry,
U. S. Vohnteers, Chief of Dirision.
Mr. J. F. WIECITERT,
30 Broad street, New York, N. Y.


YANKTON, S. DAK., April 10, 1901. SnI: A constituent of mine has applied to me for information relative to the Isle of Pines, near Cuba, acquired from Spain by this Government. He is very desirous of knowing whether or not the lands on that island are open for settlement, and what opportunities, if any. and the necessary steps to be taken to procure concessions there. I understand the island and all privileges there are still under the jurisdiction of the War Department, and I would be under obligations if you would advise me fully in the lines above indicated.
Very respectfully,
ROBERT J. GAMBLE.
The SECRETARY OF WAR, Washington, D. C.


APRIL 16, 1901.
SiR: Regarding the present ownership of the Isle of Pines, I beg to inclose herewith a copy of forms of letters used in reply to inquiries concerning the same.
As a matter of possible interest to you, your attention is invited to the report of Captain Foltz, containing data regarding that island, which is the only information upon tbe" subject available for distributon by the Department.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS, Lieuten ant-Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry,
U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division.
Ion. J. S. SIER RALN,
House of Representatives.





90 ISLE OF PINES.

APRIL 16, 1901.
SIR: By direction of the Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 10th instant, requesting information relative to the Isle of Pines, particularly as to whether or not the lands on that island are open for settlement and as to the necessary steps to be taken to secure concessions there.
In reply I beg to invite your attention to the following provision of the army appropriation act, approved March 2, 1901, VI. That the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty. and to advise you that in accordance therewith the disposition of publie lands and the granting of concessions in said island will have to await such adjustment and action thereon by Congress.
The inclosed copy of the report of Captain Foltz contains the only data regarding that island available for distribution by the Department.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Lieutenant- Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry,
U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division. Hon. R. J. GAMBLE,
Yankton, S. Dak.


PINAR DEL Rio, CUBA,
April 21, 1901.
The SECRETARY OF WAR, Washington, D. C.
SIR: Seeing in the dispatches coming from Washington that the President is inclined to promise the committee from the Cuban constitutional convention his support in the question of the Isle of Pines to have this island given to Cuba, I very respectfuly call your attention to the fact that having first assured ourselves, according to the treaty of Paris, that the Isle of Pines was United States territory, and having had that assurance confirmed by the enactment of the now famous Platt amendment, that several other American citizens and myself have invested $25,000 in- lands for the cultivation of fruits, coffee, tobacco, cocoanuts, etc.. and have already commenced improvements on these lands which will amount to several hundred thousand dollars, and we earnestly pray that you lay the matter in its proper light before the honorable President and communicate to him our eml)hatic protest against such a course.
Besides my friends and myself there are a number of other American citizens who have also invested their capital in that island, believing there would be no question but that our beloved Stars and Stripes would ever float over this most healthful and beautiful little tropical island.
In conclusion, we earnestly solicit your kind sympathy and influence in our behalf, and hope that you will lend to us and our investment the protection we so earnestly ask.
Respectfully,
CIIARLEs RAYNARD.





ISLE OF PINES. 91

PINAR DEL RIO, April 05, 1901.
Hon. ELInu ROOT,
Secretary War, lVashington:
See letter April 21. Have indorsement 23 American citizens purchasers land in Isle of Pines, believing it United States territory, respectfully protesting against that island being promised to Cuban commissioners. Kindly take matter up with the honorable President in our behalf.
/ CHARLES RAYNARD, Chairman.

APRIL 27, 1901.
SIR: By direction of the Secretary of *War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 2 1st, and telegram of the 25th, instant, stating that you and other .American citizens* have made investments in the Isle of Pines in the belief that the said island is United States territory, that you understand from certain press dispatches that the President is inclined to promise the committee from the Cuban constitutional convention his support to have this island given to Cuba, and protesting against such promise being given.
In reply, I beg to advise you that the Department is not informed that the President intends making any promises to the Cuban committee, and to invite your attention to Paragraph VI, page 4, of the army appropriation act, approved March 2, 1901, which reads:That the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Lieutenant-Colonel Forty-seve'nth. Infantry,
U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division.
Mr. CHARLES RAYNARD,
Pinar del Rio, Cuba.


The SCRETRY OFWARMILFORD, IOWA, April 30, 1901..
JVashington, D. C7.
SIR: Seeing in the dispatches coining from Washington that the President is inclined to promise the committee from th'e Cuban conStitutional convention his support, I very respectfully call your attention to the fact that having first assured ourselves, according to the treaty of Paris, that the Isle of Pines was United States territory, and having had that assurance confirmed by the now% famous Platt amendment, that several American citizens and myself have Invested $25,000 in lands for the culture of fruits, coffee, tobacco, etc., and have already commenced improvements on these lands. And we earnestly pray that you lay the matter in its proper light before the honorable President and communicate to him our emphatic Protest against such a course.





92 ISLE OF PINES.

Besides myself and friends there are a good many other American citizens that have invested their capital in this island believing there could be no question b~ut that the Stars and Stripes would ever float over this most healthful and beautiful tropical island. In conclusion we earnestly solicit your kind sympathy and influence in our behalf and hope you will lend to us and our interests the protection we earnestly ask.
Respectfully,
H-. R. HENDERSON.
Milford, Dickinson County, Iowa.


MAY 7, 1901,
Sins: By direction of the Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st ultimo, stating that you, and other American citizens have made investments in th'e Isle of Pinesunder the belief that said island is United States territory that the President, you, learn from the newspapers, is inclined to promise the committee from the Cuban constitutional convention his support and protesting against such a course.
In reply, I beg to advise you that this Department is not informed that the President has made Any such promise to the Cuban committee, and with respect to the title of the Isle of Pines, Your attention. is invited -to paragraph 6, page 4, of the army appropriation act, approved March 2, 1901, -which reads: IThat the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE IR. EDWARDS,
Lieutenan t- Colonel Forty-sevrenth In fan try,
U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division.
Mr. HI. R. HENDERSON,
Milford, Dickinson County, Iowa.


The SECRETARY OF WAR, WKashington, D. C.
Sia: Seeing in the dispatches coming from Washington that the President is inclined to promise the committee from the Cuban constitutional convention his support in the question of the Isle of Pines to have this island given to Cuba, I very respectfully call your attention to the fact that having first assured ourselves,'according to the treaty of Paris, that the Isle of Pines was United States territory, and having had that assurance confirmed by the now famous Platt amendment, that several other Americans citizens and myself have invested $25,000 in lands for the cultivation of fruits, coffee, tobacco, cocoanuts, etc., and have already commenced improvements on these lands, which will amount to sever-al hnudred dollars, and we earnestly pray that you lay the matter in its proper light before the honorable President and communicate to him our emphatic protest against such a course.
Besides my friends and myself there are a number of other American citizens who have also invested their capital in that island, believing there would be no question but that our beloved Stars and Stripes





ISLE OF PINES. 93

would ever float over this most healthful and beautiful little tropical island.
In conclusion we earnestly solicit your kind sympathy and influence in our behalf, and hope that you will lend to us and our investment the protection we so earnestly ask.
Respectfully,
HOMES WISE,
Fostoria, Clay County, Iowa.

MAY 7, 1901.
SIR: By direction of the Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter without date, stating that you and other American citizens have made investments in the Isle of Pines in the belief that the said island is United States territory, that you understand from certain press dispatches that the President is inclined to promise the committee from the Cuban convention his support to have this island given to Cuba, and protesting against such a course.
In reply I beg to advise you that this Department is now informed that the President has not made any such promise to the Cuban committee, and to invite your attention to paragraph 6, page 4, of the army appropriation act approved March 2, 1901, -which reads:
That the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty.
Very respectfuly, CANER DAD,

Lieutenant- Colonel Forty-seventh Inf ant ry,
U. 8. Volunteers, Chief of Division.
Mr. H. WISE,
Fostoria, Clay County, Iowa.


CINCINNATI, OnlIO, May 6, 1901.
The SECRETARY OFr WAR, Washington, D. C.:
SIR: Having come to my notice dispatches from Washington that the President is inclined to promise the committee from the Cuban Constitutional Convention his support in the question 'of thle Isle of Pines, to have this island given to Cuba, I wish to respectfully call y our attention to the fact, that having first assured myself, according to the Treaty of Paris, that the Isle of Pines was U~nited States territory, and having had that assurance confirmed by the now -famous Platt Amendment, a number of American citizens and mnys61f have Invested $25,000 in lands for the cultivation-of fruits, etc., and have already commenced improvements, which will amount to hundreds of dollars. We earnestly pray that you lay the matter in its proper light before thle honorable President, and communicate to him our emphatic protest against such a course.
Besides my friends and myself, there are- A number of other Americanl citizens who have also invested their capital in that island, believing9 there would be no question but that our Stars and, Stripes -would ever float over this beautiful, healthful little garden spot of the world.
21455-S. Doc. 166, 68-2--7





94 ISLE OF PIN~ES.

In conclusion, we earnestly beg your kind sympathy and influence in our behalf and hope that you will give to us and our investment the protection we so earnestly ask.
Respectfully, F. S. ROTHENHOEIFER,
2916 W~est Sixth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio.

MAY 8, 1901.
SIR: By direction of the Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 6th instant, stating that you and other American citizens have made investments in the Isle of Pines in the belief that the said island is United States territory, and that you understand from certain press dispatches that the President is inclined to promise the committee from the Cuban constitutional convention his support to have this island given to Cuba, and protesting against such a course.
In reply, I beg to advise you that this Department is not informed that the President has made such a promise to this committee, and invite your attention to the Army appropriation act approved March 2, 1901, which reads:
That the Isle of Pines shall he omitted from the proposed constitutonal boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty.
Very respectfully,
C. R. EDWARDS,
Lieutenant- Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division.
Mr. F. S. lIoTHENnoEFrER,
'No. 016 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio.,


The ECRTARYOF ARMINNEAPOLIS, May 30, 1901.
W~ashington, D. C.
Sin: Seeing in the dispatches coming from Washington that the honorable President is inclined to promise to the committee from the Cuban constitutional convention his support in the question of the Isle of Pines, to have this island given to Cuba, I very respectfully call your attention to the fact that, having first assured ourselves, according to the treaty of Paris, that the Isle of Pines was United States territory, and having had that assurance confirmed by the now famous Platt amendment; that several other American citizens and my-self have invested $25,000 in lands for the cultivation of fruits, coffee, tobacco, cocoanuts, etc., and have already commenced improvements on these lands which will amount to several hundred thousand dollars, and we earnestly pray that you lay the matter in its proper light before the honorable President and communicate to him our great distress by, and emphatic protest against, such a course.
Besides my friends and myself there are a number of other American citizens who have also invested their capital in that island believing there would be no question but that our beloved Stars and Stripes would ever float over this most beautiful little tropical island..





ISLE OF PINES. 95

In conclusion, we earnestly solicit your kind sympathy and influence in our behalf, and implore you to give us and our investment the protection we so earnestly ask.
Respectfully, W. R. Y. MILLER.

JUNE 5. 1901.
SiR: By direction of the Secretary of War I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 30th ultimo, stating that you and other American citizens have made investments in the Isle of Pines in the belief that the said island is United States territory and that you understand from certain press dispatches that the President is inclined to promise the committee from the Cuban constitutional convention his support to have this island given to Cuba, and protesting against such a course.
In reply I beg to advise you that this Department is not informed that the President has made such a promise to this committee, and invite your attention to the army appropriation act, approved March 2,1901, which reads:
That the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE R. EDWAIRDS,
Lieutenant- Colonel Forty-seventh Infantry,
U. S. Volunteers, Chief of Division. By ALEx R. SPEEL, Chief Clerk.
Mr. W. R. Y. MILLER,
427-429 Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis, Minn.


308 WALNUT STREET,
Philadelphia, June 08, 1901.
Hon. Wr. McKINLEY,
Washington, D. C.
My DEAR SIR: As the Isle of Pines is now United States territory and too small for a separate government, would it not prove wise and expedient to attach it as a.county to Florida? In that way many vexed questions would be avoided and Florida as well as the country gain another winter resort in the Tropics. Such course would also influence the Cubans to favor annexation, to be on equally favorable terms.
Very respectfully, Louis S. Ao-NsoN.

JULY 20, 1901.
SIR: By direction of the Secretary of War I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt by reference from the President of your letter of recent date suggesting that many vexed questions would be avoided by attaching the Isle of Pines as a county to the State of Florida.





96 ISLE OF PINES.

In reply I beg to invite your attention to the following provision of the army appropriation act. approved March 2, 1901, which reads: That the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to future adjustment by treaty
VeryrespctfulyCLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Chief of Division.
Mr. Louis S. AaiuowsoN,
308 lValnut street, Phila~delphia, Pa.


ERUDIA, TEX., August 10, 1901. UNITED STATES WAR DEPARTMENT:
If you publish any information relative to the Isle of Pines and its advantages to settlers please send it to me. *What are the conditions of agriculture, and is there any Government land that can be taken up? Does the National Government encourage colonization by Americans?
Respectfully,
J. E. SHELTON.


AUGUS5T 14, 1901.
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 10th instant, asking for information relative to the Isle of Pines, its agricultural advantages, and if. there is Government land that can be entered.
In reply, I beg to advise you that the Department has not at the present time any information relative to said island available for distribution, but a letter addressed to the collector of customs, Bata. bano, Cuba, may sec'.1re, for you the information desired.
Very respectfully,
CLARENCE IR. EDwARDS,
Chief of Division.
J. G. HARBORD,
Assistant.
Mr. J. E. SHELTON,
Frudia, Collin County, Tex.,


ISLE OF PINES COMPANY, New York, N. Y'., November 8, 1901.
Hon. THEODORE ROOSEVELT,
President of the United States, Washington, J). C.
DEAR SIR: We take the liberty of addressing you, not only OP behalf of our company, but at the request of a number of other people who are investing', and have emigrated to the Isle of Pines in the belief that the island is ultimately to become a part of the United States.
The writer found by conversation with a large number of natives on the island that the'sentiment is almost a unit for annexation and