Translation of the Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico

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Material Information

Title:
Translation of the Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico (with Spanish text), with annotations, explanatory notes, and amendments made since the American occupation
Uniform Title:
Ley de enjuiciamiento criminal
Portion of title:
Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico
Physical Description:
1 online resource (iii, iv-vii, iv-vii, 358, 358, 359-393 pages) : ;
Language:
English
Spanish
Creator:
Cuba
Joannini, Frank L
Spain
United States -- Division of Insular Affairs
Spain -- Tribunal Supremo
Cuba -- Military Governor
Puerto Rico
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Criminal procedure -- Cuba   ( lcsh )
Criminal procedure -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
Procedimiento penal -- Cuba   ( bidex )
Procedimiento penal -- Puerto Rico   ( bidex )
Criminal procedure   ( fast )
Cuba   ( fast )
Puerto Rico   ( fast )
Genre:
legislation   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

System Details:
Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002.
Language:
Paged in duplicate; English and Spanish on opposite pages.
General Note:
"A large number of decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as footnotes."--Translator's note, signed: Frank L. Joannini.
Statement of Responsibility:
War Department, Division of Insular Affairs, October, 1901.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Fordham and New York Law Institute
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 602392861
ocn602392861
Classification:
lcc - KGN5814.31888 .A52 1901
ddc - 343.7291
System ID:
AA00021557:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
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        Page v
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Exposicion que precede al real decreto de 14 de septiembre de 1882, por el que se aprobo el proyecto de codigo de enjuiciamiento criminal (Address preceding the royal decree of September 14, 1882, approving the proposed code of cirminal procedure)
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    Ley de enjuiciamiento criminal (Law of criminal procedure)
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Full Text


















This volume was donated to LLMC
to enrich its on-line offerings and
for purposes of long-term preservation by

Fordham and New York Law Institute






TRANSLATION




OF THE





LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE



FOR




CUBA AND PORTO RICO

( WITH SPANISH TEXT),



WITH



ANNOTATIONS, EXPLANATORY NOTES, AND AMENDMENTS LL MADE SINCE THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION.






WAR DEPARTMENT,
IDIVISIONr OF INSULA.R A -IS,
October, 1901.






WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1901.














INTRODUCTORY NOTE.


The translator of the Code of Criminal Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico begs to call attention to the fact that a large number of decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as footnotes, which serve to elucidate the language of the text. These decisions are authoritative interpretations and in the Spanish courts have practically the force of law.
The references, also inserted as footnotes, calling attention to other laws in force, to royal decrees and military orders which modify the procedure prescribed by the code, it is thought will also aid in making the work of practical use, both for those who desire to inform themselves as to the methods of Spanish procedure and those called upon to practice before the courts in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico.
At the suggestion of a number of at tourneys, the Spanish text, taken from official editions of the law, has also been inserted for purposes of convenience.
The Cuban civil orders contained in the first appendix have been inserted as published by the respective authorities, and in many cases the English equivalents of the Spanish terms will be found to differ from those used by the translator in the text of the law.
An effort has been made to secure as correct a translation as possible, and in some cases the translator may be accused of sacrificing what may be called good English for fidelity to the original text. He has been constantly on his guard against making an interpretation of law instead of a translation.
FRANK L. JOANNINI.
I certify that the following is a copy of the translation of the Law of Criminal Procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico on file in the Insular Division of the War Department, made under its direction, CLARENCE It. Ei)WARDS,
011'ief of J)iV;-S;0n.


















INDICE GENERAL.



LEY DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL.
PAgina.
Exposici6n ...............................................------------------------------------------------------------ 1
Real Decreto----------------------------------------------------------............................................................. 15

LIBRO PRIMERO.

D1)isposiciones generales.
TiTULO I.-Preliminares................................................------------------------------------------------ 17
Capitulo I. Reglas generales ............................... 17
II. Cuestiones prejudiciales ........................ 18
II.-De la competencia de los jueces y tribunales en lo criminal-------....... 19
Capitulo I. De las reglas por donde se determina la competencia ....................................... 19
II. De las cuestiones de competencia entre los jueces y Tribunales ordinarios....................... -----------------------22
III. De las competencias negativas y de las que se promueven con jueces 6 tribunales especiales, y de los recursos de queja contra las autoridades administrativas---------------------------------................................. 28
III.-De las recusaciones y excusas de los magistrados, jueces, asesores y
auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales, y de la abstenci6n del
ministerio fiscal ..........................................-------------------------------------------- 30
Capftulo I. Disposiciones generales ......................... 30
II. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces de instrucci6n y de los magistrados ------------ 31
III. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces municipales ...............--------------.................. -------------33
IV. De la recusaci6n de los auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales ................................... 35
V. De las excusas y recusaciones de los asesores...... ------ 36
VI. De la abstenci6n del ministerio fiscal-------------............. 36
IV.-De las personas A quienes corresponde el ejercicio de las acciones
que nacen de los delitos y faltas .------------------------------............................ 38
V.-Del derecho de defensa y del beneficio de pobreza en los juicios
criminales .................................................. ------------------------------------------------43
VI.-De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias, y del modo
de dirimir las discordias------------------------------------..................................... 49
Capitulo I. De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias ...................................... 49
II. Del modo de dirimir las discordias .............. 54
VII.-De las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos ............... 55
VIII.-De los suplicatorios, exhortos y mandamientos .................. 58
IV


















CONTENTS.



LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.
Pag-e.
Address-----------------------------------------------------------....... 1
Royal decree -------------------------------------------------------------- --5

BooK FIRST.

General provisions.
TITLE I.-Preliminaries -------------------------------------------------- 17
Chapter I. General rules ----------------------------------- 17
II. Preliminary questions -------------------------- 18
I.-Jurisdiction of judges and courts in criminal matters .---------... 19
Chapter I. Rules for determining jurisdiction--- ------------- 19

II. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary judges and courts ------------------------------------ 22
III. Questions of negative jurisdiction and those raised by special judges or courts and complaints against administrative authorities --------------------- 28

III.-Challenges and excuses of justices, judges, assessors, and assistants
of superior and inferior courts and the abstention of the prose
cuting officials ----------------------------------------------- 30
Chapter I. General provisions .---.------------------------- 30
II. Hearing and decision of challenges of judges of exanimation and justices ------------------------- 31
III. Hearing and decision of challenges of municipal judges --.--------------------------- ------ 33
I V. Challenges of assistants of inferior and superior courts --------------------------------------- 35
V. Exctses and challenges of assessors --------------- 36
VI. Abstention of prosecuting officials ---------------- 36
IV.-Persons who may exercise rights of action arising from crimes and
misdemeanors----------------------------------------------- 38
V.-The right of defense and the benefit of poverty in criminal causes 43

VI.-Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall be made, and
manner of adjusting disagreements ---------------------------- 49
Chapter I. Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall
be made ------------------------------------- 49
II. Manner of adjusting disagreements --------------- 54
VII. -Notifications, citations, and summonses ------------------------.... 55
VIII.--Letters requisitorial, mandates, and letters rugatory --------------- 58
IV







V

P~gina.
TfTcLo IX-De los t~rminos judiciales ------------------------------------ 61
X.-De los recursos contra ]as resoluciones de los tribunales; y jueces
de instrucciun -------------------------------------------- 64
XI.-De las costas procesales -------------------------------------- 67
XII.-De las obligaciones de lo.s jueces y tribunales, relativas A Ia estadfstica judicial-------------------------------------------- 69
XIII.-De las correcciones disciphunarias------------------------------ 71

LiBRO SEGU'NDO.
D~el sanroe.
TfTTLO I.-Dc la denuncia --------------------------------------------- 72
II.-De la querella---------------------------------------------- 74
III.-De la policia judicial ---------------------------------------- 77
IV.-De la, instrucci6n-------------------------------------------- 81
Capftulo I. Del sumario y de las autoridades competentes;
para instruirlo-------- --------------------- 81
II. De la formaci6n del sumario------------------- 83
V.-De la comprobaci6n del delito y averiguaci6n del (lelincuente .. 88
Capftulo 1. De la inspecci6n ocular.-.-----------------------88
11. Del cuerpo del delito ------------------------- 89
111. De la identidad del delincuente y de sus circunstancias lpersonales----------------------- 96
IV. De las declaraciones de los procesados -----------99
V. De las declaraciones de los testigos -------------102
VI. Del careo de los testigos. y procesados -----------110

VII. Del informe pericial --------------- 1l
VI.-De la citaci6n, de la detenci6n y de la priqi6n provisional ---------116
Capftulo I. De la citaci6n --------- ---------------------116
11. De la detenci6n------------------------------ 116
111. De la prisi6n provisional ----------------------119
IV. Del tratarniento de los detenidos 6 presos --------122 VIL-De la libertad provisional (de proccsadlo-----------------------.124
VII-De la entrada y registro en lugar cerrado, del de libros y papeles
y de ]a deten 'ci6n y apertura de la correspondencia escrita y
telegrdifica ----------------------------------------------- 127
IX.-De la flanza y embargos ------------------------------------- 134
X.-De la responsabilidad civil de terceras personas -----------------139
XL.-De la conclusi6n del sumario y del sobreseimiento --------------141
Capitulo 1. De la conclusi6n del sumario------------------.141
IL. Del sobreseimiento --------------------------- 149
XIL.-Disposiciones generales referentes d los anteriores tftulos---------155

LIBRo TERCERO.

Del juicio oral.

TiTuLO L-De la calificaci6n del delito----------------------------------- 157
IL.-De los articulos de previo pronunciamiento -------------------- 165
111.-De ]a celebraci6n del juicio oral----------------------------- 168
Capftulo I. De la publicidad de los debates ----------------168
11. De las facultades del presidente del tribunal ....- 168







V

Page,
TITLE IX.-Judicial periods --------------------------------------------- 61
X. -Remedies against decisions of courts and judges of examination -- 64

XI.-Costs in actions ---------------------------------------------- 67
XII. -Obligations of judges and courts with regard to judicial statistics 69

X11.-Disciplinary corrections --------------------------------------- 71

BOOK SECOND.

The suotanio.
TITLE 1.-The denunciation--------------------------------------------- 72
1.-The complaint or information---------------------------------- 74
11.-The judicial police -------------------------------------------- 77
IV.-The investigation--------------------------------------------- 81
Chapter 1. The sumario and the authorities to take cognizance thereof ------------------------------- 81
11. Formation of the sumario -----------------------83
V.-Proof of the crime and verification of the delinquent --------------88
Chapter I. The ocular inspection ---------------------------88
11. The corpus deliciti------------------------------ 89
111. The identity of 'the delinquent and his personal circumstances-------------------------------- 99
IV. Declaration of the accused -----------------------99
V. Depositions of witnesses ------------------------102
VI. Confrontation between the witnesses and the accused ------------------------------------- 110
VII. Expert evidence -------------------------------11ll
VI.-The citation, the detention, and the provisional imprisonment -- 116
Chapter 1. The citation----------------------------------- 116
II. The detention--------------------------------- 116
Ill. Provisional imprisonment----------------------- 119
IV. Treatment of persons detained or imprisoned --- 122 VII. -Provisional liberty of the accused ------------------------------ 124
VIII.-Entry and search of closed places, of books and papers, and the detention. and opening of written and telegraphic correspondence 127

IX.-Bonds and attachments --------------------------------------- 184
X.-Civil liability of third persons --------------------------------- 139
XI.-Conclusion of the sumario and (dismissal of proceedings ------ 141
Chapter I. Conclusion of the sumario -----------------------141
1I. Dismissal of the proceedings --------------------149
XII.-General provisions relating to the foregoing titles -----------------155

BOOK THIRD.

The oral trial.

TITLE I. -Classification of the crime------------------------------------- 157
1.-Preliminary exceptions-------------------------------------- 165
III.-Holding of the oral trial-------------------------------------- 168
Chapter I. Publicity of the arguments--------------------- 168
II. Powers of the presiding judge of the court ---------168






v-i

TfTULO III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral-Continda. P~gina.
Capftulo III. Del modo de practicar las pruebas durante el juicio
oral--..------------------------------------- 169
Secci611 LI De la confesi6n (de los lprocesados y p~ersoiias civilmento responsables. 169 2.1 De-l examen de los testigos --------172 3.1 Del informe lpericial -------------- 177
4.1 De la prueba documental y de la inspecci6n ocular ---------------178
5.1 Disposiciones comunes A. las cuatro secciones anteriores ------------- 178
IV. De la acusaci6n, de la defensa y de la sentencia.-- 180 V. De la suspensi6n del juicio oral ------------------ 183

LIRnO CUARTO.
De los procedinientos especiales.
TiTULO I.-Del modo de proceder cuando fuere procesado un Senador 6
Diputado 6. Cortes ------------------------------------------- 187
I.-Del antejuicio necesarlo para exigir la responsabilidad criminal 6
los jueces y magistrados ------------------------------------- 189
III.-Del procedimiento en los casos de flagrante delito -----------------193
Capitulo I. Casos en'que tiene lugar este lprocedilniento. --- 193 II. Reglas 6.que debe ajustarse este procedimiento -- 195 IV.-Del procedimiento por delitos de injuria v caltumnia contra particulares-------------------------------------------------- 199
Y.-DeI procedimiento por delitos cometidos l)ormedlo de la imprenta,
el grabado ti otro inedio mec6.nico de publicaci6n ---------------201
VI.-Del procedimiento para la extradici6n -------_-------------------203
VII -Del procedimiento contra reos ausentes-------------------------- 205

LIBRO QUINTO.
De los 'recursos (de casoci6n y de revisioo.

TfTULO I.-De los recursos de casacion------------------------- ----------- 207
Capitulo I. I)e los recursos de casaci('n plor infracci6n do 1ev 207

Seccion L, D~e la procedencia del recurso --------207 2.1 lDe la preparacion del recurso --------213
3.1 D~el recurso de (lueja por denegaci6n del testimonjo pedido lpara interponer el de casaci6n -------------215

4.1 De la interposici6n1 del recurso-..217 5.1 IDe la sustanciaci6n del recurso--220 6.1 De la decisi6n del recurso -----------223
IL. De los recursos de casaci6n por quebrantamiento de forma --------------------------------- 225
Secci6n 1., De la lprocedencia dTel recurso --------225 2.11 De la interposici611 del rocurso--231
3.1 Del recuirso do queja por denegaci6n (1e admisi6n del do jasaci6n por quebrantamniento de forma --------232 4.1 De la sustanciaci6n del recurso--233 5.1 De la decision del recurso ----------234






VI

TITLE 11.-Holding of the oral trial-Continued. Page.
Chapter III. Manner of taking evidence at the oral trial ----------169

Section 1. Confession of the persons accused and persons civilly liable ----------169 2. Examination of witnesses.-----------172
3. Expert examinations ---------------177
4. Documentary evidence and ocular inspection -----------------------178
5. Provisions common to the four preceding sections -------------------178
IV. The accusation, the defense, and the sentence -------180 V. Suspension of the oral trial -----------------------183

BOOK FOURTHi.
,Special proceedings.
TITLE I.-Manner of proceeding in the trial of a senator or deputy to the
Cortes----------------------------------------------------- 187
1.-Preliminary action necessary for the purpose of enforcing the criminal liability of judges and justices ----------------------------- 189
11. -Proceedings in cases of flagrant crimes ----------------------------193
Chapter 1. Cases where these proceedings lie ------------------193
HI. Rules to which these proceedings must conform..- 195 IV.-Proceedings upon crimes of contumely and calumny against private
individuals ------------------------------------------------- 199
V.-Proceedings on crimes committed through the press, engravings, or
other mechanical means of publication -------------------------201
VI.-Proceedings for extradition-------------------------------------- 203
VI.-Proceedings against absent criminals ----------------------------- 205

BOOK FIFTH.
Appeals for annulment of judgment and for review.
TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment ------------------------------ 207
Chapter 1. Appeals for annulmefit of judgment for violation
of law-------------------------------------- 207
Section 1. When the appeal lies -------------------207
2. Preparation of the appeal ---------------213
3. Remedy of complaint on account of a refusal of a transcript requested for the interposition of an appeal for annulment of judgment -------------------215
4. Interposition of the appeal --------------217
5. Hearing of the appeal ------------------220
6. Decision of the appeal ------------------223
1I. Appeals for annulment of judgment for breach of form --------------------------------------- 225
Section 1. When the appeal lies -------------------225
2. Interpositon of the appeal ---------------231
3. Remedy of compllaint on account of the denial of an appeal for annulment of judgment for breach of form ----------232 4. Hearing of the appeal -------------------233
5. Decision of the appeal -------- :----------234






VII

TiTUrLO I.-De los recursos de casaci6n-Continua. PAgina.
Capftulo III. De la interposici6n, sustanciaci6n y resolucibn del recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley y por quebrantamiento de forma.----------........ 234
IV. Del recurso de casaci6n en las causas de muerte..- 236

II.-Del recurso de revision ................................-------------------------------------- 238

LIBRO SEXTO.
Del procedimiento para el juicio sobre faltas.
TiTULO I.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en primera instancia ...................------------------ 240
II.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en segunda instancia..................... ---------------------243

LIsBRO StPTIMO.
De la ejecuci6n de las sentencias ----------.......................................... -----245
Disposici6n final..................................................... ------------------------------------------------------248

APENDICE I.

Decretos del Gobierno Militar de Cuba.
No. 41.-14 de Abril de 1899.............. ...........------------------------------------------- 249
No. 63-25 de Mayo de 1899.............................. ------------------------------------------259
No. 92-26 de Junio de 1899................. ...........------------------------------------------ 259
No. 109.-13 de Julio de 1899...................... ...........------------------------------------------- 281
No. 135.-11 de Agosto de 1899................... ................----------------------------------------- 287
No. 157.-5 de Septiembre de 1899......................... ...........---------------------------------------.. 288
No. 176.-21 de Septiemnibre de 1899............... ................-------------------------------------- 288
No. 58.-9 de Febrero de 1900................. ...........----------------------------------------- 289
No. 152.-10 de Abril de 1900 ....................................------------------------------------------- 289
No. 166.-23 de Abril tde 1900 .........................------------------------------------------- 290
No. 181.-30 de Abril de 1900................ ..............------------------------------------------- 293
No. 192.-9 de Mayo de 1900............. .....................-------------------------------------------.... 296
No. 213.-25 de Mayo de 1900------------------..............--..-....-----------........ 298
No. 228.-3 de Junio de 1900 .........................................------------------------------------------- 312
No. 269.-3 de Julio de 1900 ...........................-------------------------------------------- 312
No. 311.-8 de Agosto de 1900................. ...............------------------------------------------ 313
No. 362-17 de Septiembre de 1900......................................-------------------------------------- 317
No. 427.-15 de Octubre de 1900 ...................................-----------------------------------........ 322
No. 465.-14 de Noviembre de 1900........................................ --------------------------------------331
No. 468.-15 de Noviembre de 1900................ .........-------------------------------..... -------332
No. 500.-10 de Diciembre de 1900 ...................................-------------------------------------- 332
No. 513.-19 de Diciembre de 1900 ......................................-------------------------------------- 334
No. 3.-1. de Enero de 1901................ -----------------------------------.............. ----334
No. 45-4 de Febrero de 1901.........................................----------------------------------------- 335
No. 84.-25 de Marzo de 1901 ................................-----------------------------------......... -------337
No. 95.-10 de Abril de 1901--------......... --------------------------............................-....... 338
No. 520.-21 de Diciembre de 1900 .............................-------------------------------------- 342

APiNDICE II.
Articulos del C6digo Penal i que hace referencia la Ley de Enjuiciamiento
Criminal-----------------------------------------------------............................................................... -----344

APNDICE 111.
Articulos de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil 4 que hace referencia la de Enjuiciamiento Criminai ------------..............--.----------- ..............-------------------- 348






VII

TITLE 1.-Appeals for annulment of judgment-Continued. Page.
Chapter III. Interposition,. hearing, and decision of an appeal for annulment of judgment for violation of law and for breach of form ----------------------- 234
IV. Appeals for annulment of judgment in causes involving the death penalty -------------------- 236
I.-The appeal for review ------------------------------------------ 238

BOOK SIXTH.
Proceedings in actions upon misdemeanors.
TITLE 1.-Actions upon misdemeanors at first instance ---------------------- 240
II.-Actions upon misdemeanors at second instance ------------------- 243

BOOK SEVENTH.
Execution of sentences ------.-------------------------------------------- 245
Final provision ........................................................... 248

APPENDIX I.
Orders of the Cuban Military Government.
No. 41.-April 14, 1899 --------------------.---------------------------- 249
No. 63.-May 25, 1899 ------------------------------------------------- 259
No. 92.- June 26, 1899 ................................................... 259
No. 109.-July 13, 1899 ------.-------------------------------------------- 281
No. 135.-August 11, 1899. ---------------------------------------------- 287
No. 157.-September 5, 1899 --------------------------------------------- 288
No. 176.-September 21, 1899 -.-------------------------.------------------ 288
No. 58.-February 9, 1900 ----------------------------------------------- 289
No. 152.-April 10, 1900 .....-------------------------------------------- 289
No. 166.-April 23, 1900 ------------------------------------------------- 290
No. 181.-April 30, 1900 ------------------------------------------------ 293
No. 192.-May 9, 1900 --------------------------------------------------- 296
No. 213.-May 25, 1900 -------------------------------------------------- 298
No. 228.-June 3, 1900 --------------------------------------------------- 312
No. 269.-July 3, 1900 -------------------------------------------------- 312
No. 311.-August 8, 1900 ----.-------------------------------------------- 313
No. 362.-Septemlber 17, 1900 -------------------------------------------- 317
No. 427.-October 15, 1900 ----------------------------------------------- 322
No. 465.-November 14, 1900 --------------------------------------------- 331
No. 468.-November 15, 1900 -------------------------------.-------------- 332
No. 500.-December 10, 1900- ..........---------------------------------- 332
No. 513.-December 19, 1900 -------------------------------------------- 334
No. 3.-January 1, 1901---- ...... -------------------------------------- 334
No. 45.-February 4, 1901 ...------------------------------------------- 335
No. 84.-iarch 25, 1901 ....-------------------------------------------- 337
No. 95.-April 10, 1901 ------------------------------------------------- 338
No. 520.-December 21, 1900 .............................................. 342

APPENDIX II.
Articles of the Penal Code referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure ----- 344


APPENDIX III.
Articles of the Law of Civil Procedure referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure ---------------------------------------------------------------- 348

















LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE












EXPOSIC16N

QUE PRECEDE AL REAL DECRETO DE 14 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1882.
1 1
POR EL QUE SE APROBO FL PROYECTO DE CODIGO DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL.


SEROR:-La ejecuci'n de las dos leye8 promulgadas en virtue de Reales decretos de 22 de Junio de este aflo presupone un nuevo C6digo de Enjuiciainiento penal, una niodificacio'n profunda en I a ley orgdnica del Poder judicial do 15 de Septiembre de 1870, la determinaci6n del n6niero y residence de los Tribunales colefriados que ban de concern en uniea instancia y on juicio oral y pu'blico de los delitos que se cometan dentro do su respective territorio, y, por filtitno, la forniacio'n do los cuadros de personal do esos inismos Tribunales cuyos presidents deben estar adornados do conditions especiales de capacidad para la direcei6n y resunien do los debates.
Basta la inera enumeraci6n de estos trabajos preparations para coinpronder que, ni por su indole v naturaleza, ni por su extension y exceptional iniportancia, podian terrainarse en breve plazo. Cable, sin embargo, al infraserito la satisfacci'n de anunciar boy 6 V. M. que todos ellos puedon darse por ultimados, gracias al patrio'tico concurso que ban prestado al Gobierno hornbres eminentes no so'lo en ]a ciencia del Derecho, sino tamble'n en el conocimiento especial de la topografia, censo do poblaci6n, veas do comunicaci6n y estadistica criminal del territorio de la Peninsula C' islas adyacentes.

El Gobierno de V. M. no propane publicar todos estos trabajos la vez; antes al contrario, cree convenience anticipar la proniulgaei' del C6digo de Enjuiciamiento para que, mientras se instalan las Audiencias do lo criminal, puedan estudiarle y conocerle los magistrados, juices, fiscales, letrados y deinds personas que por modo mis 6 menos director y eficaz ban do coneurrir 6 su planteamiento y aplicacion.

No serd su e,-'-udio muy dificil ni prolijo, torque al cabo el proyeeto que ol Ministro que suseribe sornete boy 'a la aprobaci6n de V. M. estd basado en la Compilacio'n general de 16 de Octubre de 1879, de conformidad con lo preceptuado en la autorizaci6n votada por las Cortes; pero, asi y todo, son tan radicals las reforms en (,I introducidas, que bien podia pasar por un C6digo completamente nuevo y de













AI)DRESS

PRIECEDING THE ROYAL DECREE OF SEPTEMBER 14, 1882, APPROVING
THE PROPOSED CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.



SIRE: The execution of the two laws promulgated Iby virtue of roval decrees of Junie 22 of this year presupposes a new code of penal procedure, a radical change in the organic law of the judicial power of September 1.5, 1870, the determination of the number and seats of the collegiate tribunals which are to take cognizance in first and last instance, and in oral and public trials of the crimes which may be committed within their respective territories, and, finally, the selection of the personnel of the said tribunals, the presiding judges of which must possess special qualifications for the direction and sunmming up of the cases.
A mere statement of these preparatory works is sufficient to show that neither by their character or nature, nor by their extent and exceptional importance, could they he concluded in a short time. The undersigned, nevertheless, has the pleasure of to-day informing Your Majesty that all of them can be considered as concluded, thanks to the patriotic assistance furnished to the Government by men eminent in the science of law and perfectly conversant with the topography of the country, census of the population, means of com-munication ,and the criminal statistics of the territory of time Peninsula and adjacent islands.
The Government of Your Majesty does not propose to p)ublishm all these works at the same time, but, on the contrary, it dTeems it advisable first to promulgate the Code of Procedure in order that, until the criminal audiencias are established, it may be studied and known by the justices, judges,.flsccdes, attorneys, and other persons who are to contribute in a more or less direct and efficient manner to its establishment and application.
Its study will not be very difficult or require a long time, because, after all, the draft which the undersigned Minister herewith submits for the approval of Your Majesty is based upon the general compilation of October 16, 1879, in pursuance with the authority vested in the Government by the Cortes; but, nevertheless, the amendments introduced therein are so radical that it mnighmt be said with reason





2

carActer tan liberal y progressive conio el mks adelantado do los C6digos de procedimiento criminal del continent ouropeo.
Entre esas reforms son sin duda las menos importance aquellas que, sugeridas por la experience, tienen por objeto, ya aclarar various precepts mks 6 inenos oscuros y dudosos de la Compilaci6n vigente, ya uniformar la jurisprudence, o' ya, en fin, facilitar la sustanciaci6n de a1gunos recursos y muy especialmente el de casaci6n, acerea del cual ha hecho observations muy oportunas y discretas el Tribunal Supremo, que naturalmente han sido acogidas con el respect quo merece una Corporacio'n que est6 a la cabeza de la Magistratura espafiola, y que es por la ley int4rprete y guardian de la doctrine juridica.

Las de verdadera importance y transeendencia son aquellas otras que se encaininan 6 suplir, como on las questions prejudiciales, aIgu'n vacio sustancial por donde era frecuente el arbitrio un tanto desinedido, y mAs que desmedido contradictory, de la jurisprudence, 6 corregir los vicious cro'nicos de nuestro sistema de enjuiciar traditional y 6 rodear al ciudadano de las garantias necesarias para que enDing6n caso scan sacrificados los derechos individuals al inter's mal entendido del Estado.
Sin desconocer que la Constituci'n de 1812, el reglamento provisional para la administration do justicia do 1835 y otras disposiciones posteriores mejoraron considerableniente el procedimiento criminal, seria temerario negar que aun bajo la legislacii5n vigente no es raro que un suniario dure ocho 6 mks aflos, y es frecuente que no dure linens de dos, prolong6ndose en occasions por todo este tempo la prison preventiva de los acusados, y aun podria afiadirse, para completer el cuadro, que tan escandalosos process solian no hd inucho terminal por una absoluei4n de la instaneia, sin queDadic indemnizara en este caso A los procesados do las vejaciones sufridas en tan dilatado period, y lo que es mks, dej6ndoles por todo el resto de su vida en situaci6n inc'moda y deshonrosa, bajo la amenaza perenne do abrir de nuevo el procedimiento el dia quo por inalquerencia se prestaba 6 declarar contra ellos cualquier vecino rencoroso y vengativo. Esta prdetica abusive y atentoria 6 los derecbos del individuo pugna todavia por mantenerse con este 6 el otro disf raz en nuestras costuinbres judiciales; y es menester que cese para siempre, torque el ciudadano do un pueblo libre no debe expiar faltas quo no son suyas, ni ser victinia de la impotencia 6 del egoismo del Estado.


Con ser estos dos vicious tan capitals, no son, sin embargo, los Anicos ni,teasolosma'sgrandesdenuestroprocedimiento. Lopeordetodoes quo on 61 no se da interveDei6n a1guna al inculpado en el suinario; que





2

that it is an entirely new one as liberal and progressive as the most advanced code of criminal procedure on the European Continent.
Among these changes the less important are no doubt those suggested by experience, whose object is either to explain various more or less obscure and doubtful precepts of the compilation in force, to make the jurisprudence uniform, or, finally, to facilitate the use of some remedies and most especially the appeal for annulment of judgment, upon which the Supreme Court has made some very opportune and well-chosen remarks, which have, natu rally been received with the respect which that body deserves which is at the head of the Spanish judiciary, and whicl is by law the interpreter and guardian of the juridical doctrine.
The amendments of real and transcendent importance are those whose purpose it is to supply, as in preliminary questions, some substantial lack owing to which it has f frequently occurred that the discretionary powers granted were so great, and more than that, even contradictory to jurisprudence; to correct the chronic vices of our traditional system of procedure, and to surround the citizen with the necessary guaranties, in order that in no case should individual rights be sacrificed to the poorly understood interests of the State.
Without ignoring the fact that the Constitution of 1812, the provisional regulations for the administration of justice of 1835, and other subsequent provisions greatly improved the criminal procedure, it would be unreasonable to denv that even under the legislation in force it is not unusual that the preliminary proceedings last eight or more years, and it frequently happens that they do not last less than two, the temporary imprisonment of the accused continuing in some e ases this entire period; and it may further be added, in order to complete the picture, that these scandalous processes not so very long ago would sometimes be closed on account of lack of evidence, without anyone, in such case, indemnifying the accused persons for the inconveniences suffered for so long a period, and, what is more, the imprisonment would leave them for the rest of their life in an unpleasant and disgraceful condition, under the permanent menace of the proceedings being reopened any day that, through malice, any rancorous or vengeful neighbor should inform against them. This evil practice, which attacks the rights of individuals, is still kept under some disguise or other in our judicial customs; and it is necessary that it should be abolished forever, because a citizen of a free nation must not expiate faults of which he is not guilty, nor be the victim. of the impotence or of the egoism of the State.
Although these are two capital vices, they are not, however, the only ones, nor even the most serious faults in our procedure. The worst of all is that the accused is not allowed to take part in the







el juez que instruye 'ste, es el mismo que pronuncia la sentencia con todas las preocupaciones y prejuicios que ha hecho nacer en su dnimo la instrucci6n; quo confundido lo civil con lo criminal y abrumados los juices de priinera instancia por el cihmulo de sus m6itiples y variadas atenciones, delegan frecuentemente la. pr6etica de muchas diligenc4s; en el eseribano, quien, it solas con el proeesado y los testigos, no siempro intorpreta bien el pensamiento, ni retreat con perfecta fidelidad las inipresiones do cada, uno, por grande quo sea su celo y recta su voluntad; quo por la naturaloza misma do las cosas y la logica del sistema, nuestros jueces i, magistrados han adquirido el b6bito de dar escasa importance 6 las pruebas del plenario, formando, su juicio por el resultado do las diligencias sumariales, y no parando minutes on la ratificaci6n do los testigos, convertida en vana formalidad; que on ausencia del inculpado y su defensor, los funeionarios que intervienen on la instrucci(In del sumario, animados de un espiritu receloso y hostile que se eng-endra en su mismo patri6tico celo por ht causa de la sociedad que represents, recogen con preference los datos adversos al proeesado, descuidando .1 las veces consigner los que pueden favorecerle; y quo, en fin, do esto coDjunto de errors anejos 6 nuestro sistema do enjuiciar, y no imputable, por tanto, t los funcionarios del orden judicial y fiscal, resultant dos cosas 6 cual mas funestas al ciudadano: una, queal compass quo adol-anta el sumario se va fabricando inadverticlamento una verdad de artificio, quo m6s tarde se convierto en verdad legal, pero quo es contrarian it la realidad de los liechos y subleva la coneiencia del procesado; y otra, que cuando 4ste, flegado el plenario, quiere defenders, no bace m6s quo forcejear in6tilmente torque entra on el palenque ya vencido, 6 por lo inenos desarmado. Hay, pues, que restablecer la irualclad do conditions on esta contienda Juridica hasta donde lo consientan los fines esenciales de la sociedad. humana.



Quizds so taehe de exagerada 4 injusta esta critical de ]a organization de nuestra justicia criminal. 10jaht quo lo fuera! Pero el Ministro quo subscribe no manda en su razo'n, y estilt obligado it decir A V. M. la verdad tal como la senate; quo las Ila(ras socials no so curan ocultdndolas, sino al rev4s, midiendo su extension v profundidad, v estudiando su origin y naturaleza para aplicar el oportuno reniedio. En senior del quo suseribe, s6lo por la costumbre se puede expliear que el pueblo espaffol, tan civilizado y eulto y quo tantos progress ha becho en lo quo va de siglo en la ciencia, on el arte, en la industrial y en su educaci6n political, se resigned 6 un sistema semejante, niostr6ndose indifferent desconociendo sus vicious y peligros, como no los aprecia ni mide, el que habituado it respirar en atm6sfera mal sana, Ilega hasta ]a asfixia sin sentirla. El extranjero que estudia la organic.





3

preliminary proceedings; that the judge who sits thereon is the same as the one who pronounces the sentence, with all the ideas and prejudices to which the investigation has given rise; that, civil and criminal matters being confounded, and the judges of first instance being overwhelmed by the accumulation of their multiple and various duties, frequently delegate the performance of many steps to the court clerk, who, alone with the accused and the witnesses, does not always correctly interpret the thought nor does he portray with perfect fidelity the testimony of each. no matter how zealous or how good may be his will; that, by the character itself of the things and the logic of the system, our judges and justices have acquired the habit of attributing little importance to the evidence introduced at the trial, forming their judgment upon the result of the preliminary proceedings, and do not pay particular attention to the ratification of the witnesses, which has become a mere formality; that in the absence of the accused and his counsel, the officials taking part in the preliminary proceedings, animated with a suspicious and hostile spirit, which is engendered by their patriotic zeal in the interests of the society they represent, give preference to the data against the accused, forgetting at the same time to record those which might favor him; and that, finally, from -this number of errors in our system of procedure, and which can not be imputed, therefore, to the officials of the judiciary or to the public prosecutors, there result two things very unfavorable to the citizen: One, that in proportion as the preliminary proceedings advance, a network is being inadvertently woven which is later converted into a leoal truth, but which is contrary to the factA, and causes the conscience of the accused to rebel, and the other, that when the latter wishes to defend himself at the trial he does nothing but uselessly contradict, because he enters the arena already defeated, or at least disarmed. It is necessary, therefore, to establish an equality of conditions in this juridical contest in so far as the essential ends of human society will permit.
Perhaps this criticism of the organization of our criminal justice may be considered exaggerated and unjust. Would that it were so. But the undersigned Minister is not master of his judgment, and is obliged to tell Your Majesty the truth as he feels it. Social evils are not cured by concealing them, but, on the contrary, by measuring their extent and depth and by studying their origin and nature, in order that the proper remedy may be applied. In the opinion of the undersigned, custom only can explain how the Spanish people, so civilized and cultured, and which has made such progress during the present century in the sciences, arts, and industries, and in political education, should resign itself to such a system, showing indifference or ignoring its vices and dangers, like those who breathe an unhealthy atmosphere and reach a point of asphyxiation without knowing it. A foreigner





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zacio'n de nuestra j usticia criminal al vernos apegados 'a un sistema yq caduco, y desacred'Itado, en Europa y en Am4rica, tiene por necesidad que former una idea injusta, v falsa de la eivilizaci6n y culture espafiolas.
Lo que hay-que examiner, por tanto, es si el adjunto proyeeto de C6digo remedial, si no todos, al inenos los m6s capitals defects de que adolece la vigente organization de la justicia criminal. Es precise en primer t4rmino sustituir la march perezosa y lenta del actual procedimiento poi un sistema que, dando amplitude 6 ]a defense y garantias de acierto al fallo, asegure, sin embargo, la celeridad del jui(,Iio para la realizaci'n de dos fines a' cual inis importance: uno, que ]a suerte del ciudadano no este' indefinidamente en lo incierto ni se le caused m6s vejaciones que las absolutamente indispensable para la averiguaci6n del delito v el descubrimiento del verdadero delincuente; y otro, que la pena siga de cerea a' la culpa para su debida eficacia y ejemplaridad.


Pues bien, Seflor; he aqui el conjunto de medics que el nuevo sistema ofrece para el logro de resultado tan transcendental: la sustituci6n de los dos grades de jurisdicci6n por la instancia Anica, la oralidad del juicio, la separaci6n de lo civil y lo criminal en cuanto al Tribunal sentenciador, igual separaci6n en cuanto, 11 los jueces instructors en ciertas ciudades populosas en donde hay inis de un juez de primer instancia y es mucha la criminalidad, un alivio considerable de trabajo en cuanto 'a los dem6s jueces, 'a quienes se descarga del plenario y del pronuncianhento, y motivaci6n de la sentencia, ya que razones indeclinables de economic no permiten extender 6 ellos dicha separaci6n, multitud de reglas de detalle esparcidas aqui y alla' en el adjunto Co'digo, y singularmente en sus dos primers libros, para que los jueces instructores en el examen de los testigos y en la prActica de los dein6s medics de investigation se cifian 6 solo lo que sea 'til y pertinent y, por u 'Itimo, la intervenci6n del procesado en todas las diligeneias del sumario tan pronto eomo el juez estime que la publicidad de las actuaciones no compromete, la causa p6blica ni estorba el descubrimiento de la verdad. Por regla general nadie tiene mAs interns que el procesado en activar el procedimiento y si alguna vez su proposition fuera prolongarlo, se lo impediria el juez, y sobre todo el fiscal, 6 quien se da el derecho de pedir ]a terminaci6n del suinario y la aperture del juicio oral ante el Tribunal colegiado. Concurrir6 tambi4n al propio fin ]a inspecci6n continua y sistenniticaniente organized en la ley, de la Audiencia de lo criminal y del Ministerio p6blico sobre la march de los process en el period de la instrucci6n y la conduct. de los jueces instructors. No es, finalmente, para echado en olvido, cuando de la brevedad del juicio se trata, el libro 40, donde se establecen pro-





4

studying the organization of our criminal justice, in seeing us attached to a system out of date and which is discredited in Europe and in America, must necessarily form an unjust and false idea of Spanish civilization and culture.
What is to be examined, therefore, is whether the attached project for a code remedies, if not all, at least the most notable defects contained in the organization of criminal justice at present in force. It is necessary, in the first place, to substitute for the slowand lazy progress of the present procedure a system which, in giving full scope to the defense, and guarantees of certainty to the judgment, sball nevertheless assure a speedy trial, for the consummation of two ends of the greatest importance: One, that the fate of the citizen be not indetinitely held in suspense, and that not more inconveniences be caused him than are absolutely necessary for the investigation of the crime and the discovery of the guilty party, and the other that the punishment follow soon after the fault, for the purpose of its proper efficacy and example.
Consequently, Sir, I state herewith the measures which the new system affords for the attainment of such important results: The substitution for the two degrees of jurisdiction by the only i instance, the oral character of the trial, separation of civil and criminal matters with regard to the sentencing tribunal; a similar separation with regard to the examining judges in certain largely populated towns where there is more than one judge of first instance and much crime; a considerable reduction in work with regard to the other judges, who are not required to take part in the trial, nor to pronounce sentence and give the reasons therefor, as unsurmountable reasons of economy do not permit the extension to them of said separation; a large number of rules of detail scattered here and there in the attached code, and especially in the first two books, in order that the examining judges in the examination of the witnesses and in the execution of the other steps in the investigation confine themselves exclusively to what may be usef ul and pertinent; and, finally, the intervention of the accused in all the steps of the preliminary proceedings as soon as the judge considers that the publicity of the proceedings will not compromise the public cause nor binder the discovery of the truth. As a general rule no one has more interest than the accused in hastening the proceedings; and if his purpose were at any time to prolong the same the judge will prevent it, and especially theXwal, to whom the right is given to demand the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings and the beginning of the oral trial before the collegiate tribunal. The continuous and systematic inspection provided for by this law, of the criminal audiencia and of the public department, as to the progress of the proceedings during the period of the investigation and of the conduct of the -examining judges will





5

cedimientos especiales y sumarios para los delitos i7 froganti, para los de injuria y calumnia y para lo8 cometidos por medio de la imprenta.



Podr6 ser que ni la Comisio'n de Codigos ni el Gobierno hayan acertado en la elecei6n de los medics en este punto tan interested de la ciencia procesal; pero la verdad es que no h4n encontrado otros, ni so los ha sugerido el examen do los C'digos moderns atentamente estudiados con tal fin.
La ley de 11 Febrero, en ]a base reference At la prisio'n preventive, permit, por la flexibilidad do sus t4rminos, mejorar considerablemente esta r.arte de nuestra legislaci6n sin necesidad de pedir su reform 6 las Cortes. El texto legal bien analizado result tan elAstico, que lo misino se presta al desenvolvimiento do la base en un sentido tirante y restrictive, que en otro mAs amplio, expansive y liberal.
Ocioso parece afiadir que el Gobierno de V. M. se ha decidido por lo 61timo, toda vez que podia hacerlo sin compete una transg),resi6n do la ley; como en la material de flanzas, tan intimamente ligada con todo lo reference a la. prisi6n preventive, ba procurado armonizar los fines de la justicia con los derechos del procesado, ponieDdo coto 6 la possible arbitrariedad judicial y estableciendo reglas equitativas- y prudentes quo permitan mayor amplitude que hasta ahora, asf on los medics y forms de las fianzas como en la entidad do ellas.

Es ignalmente inutil decir que la absolucio'n do ]a instancia, esta corruptela que baefa del ciudadano A quien el Estado no babia podido convener de culpable, una species do liberty de por vida, verdadero siervo de la curia marcado con el stigma del dishonor, estil proscrita y expresamente probibida por el nuevo C6digo, como habia sido antes condenada por la ciencia, por la ley do 1872 y por la Compilaci'n vigente. De esperar es que las disposiciones de ]a nueva ley sean bastante eficaces para impedir quo semejante practical vuelva do nuevo t! ingerirse en forma mas 6 menos disimulada en nuestras costumbres judiciales.
Los demds vieios del Enjuiciamiento vigente quedarAn sin duda corregidos con el planteamiento del juicio oral y pfiblico y la introduecio'n del sistema acusatorio en la ley procesal.
El reglamento provisional de 26 de Septiembre de 1835 y ]as disposiciones posteriors publicadas durante el reinado de lit augusta madre de V. M., introdujeron, como ya se ha dicho, evidentes mejoras on ol procedimiento criminal; pero no alteraron su indole esencialmente hi.quisitiva. Las leyes do 15 de Septiembre de 1870 y 22 de Diciembre de 1872, inspiraindose en las ideas de libertad proelamadas por la revolucii'm de 1868, realizaron una reform radical en nuestro sistema de enjuiciar, con el establecimiento del juicio oral y pfiblico; pero







also contribute to the same end. Finally, Book IV must not be forgotten in treating of the brevity of the proceedings, which establishes special and summary proceedings for flagrant crimes as well as for the crime of outrage and calumny and for those committed through the press.
It may be that neither the commission on codes nor the Government, in their selection of means, have covered so interesting a point in the science of procedure; but the truth is that it has not been possible to find any other measures nor have any been suggested from an examination of modern codes carefully studied for this purpose.
The law of Februaryll, in the basis relating to provisional imprisonment, permits, by the flexibility of its terms, a considerable improvement in this part of our legislation without requiring the Cortes Lo amend the same. The legal text if well analyzed appears so elastic that it serves for the development of the basis in a strict and restrictive sense, as well as in one more ample, expansive, and liberal.
It appears unnecessary to add that the Government of Your Majesty has decided finally whenever it could do so without committing a transgression of law; as in the matter of bail, so intimately connected with all that relates to provisional imprisonment, it has attempted to harmonize the ends of justice with the rights of the accused, putting an end to the possible judicial arbitrariness and establishing equitable and prudent rules which permit a greater scope than allowed heretofore in the character and form of bonds as well as their amount.
It is likewise useless to state that a dismissal of the case for lack of evidence, this abuse which made of the citizen whom the State could not convict a kind of paroled prisoner for the rest of his life, a true serf of the parish marked with the stigina of dishonor, is proscribed and expressly prohibited by the new code, as it had previously been condemned by science, by the law of 1872, and by the compilation in force. It is to be hoped that the provisions of the new law will be sufficiently efficacious to prevent a similar practice from again being grafted in a more or less disguised form into our judicial customs.
The other vices contained in the procedure in force will no doubt be corrected by the establishment of oral and public trials and the introduction of the accusatory system in the law of procedure.
The provisional regulations of September 26, 1835, and the SUDSequent provisions published during the reign of Your Majesty's August Mother, introduced, as has been said, evident improvements in the criminal procedure, but they did not alter its essentially inquisitive character. The laws of September 15, 1870, and December 22, 1872, inspired by the ideas of liberty proclaimed by the revolution of 1868, established a radical reform in our system of procedure by the establishment of oral and public trials, but they continued the inquisitive







mantuvieron el principio imju;sitivo y el carActer ecreto del procedimiento en el period de instruccio'n, siguiendo el ejemplo de Francia, B41gica y otras naciones del continent europeo.
El Ministry quo suscribe, de acuerdo con sus colegas, no ha vacilado en aconsejar 6 V. M. que d6 un paso mAs en el camino del progress, llevando en cierta media el sistema acusatorio al sumario mismo, que es, despu6s de todo, la piedra angular del juicio y la sentencia. En adelante el juez instructor por su propia iniciativa y de oficio podrA, o mejor dicho, debera acordar quo se communique los autos al procesado desde el moment on que la publicidad. y la contradieci6n no scan un peligro para lit sociedad interesada en el descubrimiento de los delitos y en el castigo de los culpable. Si no se hace espont6neamente en el plazo de dos ineses, contados desde que se inco6 la causa, la ley da, al acusado el derecho do solicitarlo, ya para preparer los elements de su defense, ya tambien para impedir con su vigilante intervenci'n y el. empleo de los recursos legales la prolongaci6n indefinida del sumario. En todo caso, antes y despu's de los dos ineses, el que tenga la inmensa de8gracia de verse sometido 'a un procedimiento criminal, gozar6 en absolute do dos derechos preciosos, que no pueden nienos de ser grandemente estimados donde quiera quo se rinda culto t ]a personalidad humana: uno, el de nombrar defensor quo le asista con sits consejos y su intelligent direcci6n desde el instance en quo so dicte el. auto de procesamiento; y otro el de concurrir por sit o' debidamente represented At todo reconocimiento judicial, a toda inspecci6n ocular, a las autopsies, A los andlisis quitnicos, y en suma, a la priletica de todas las diligencias periciales que se decreten y puedan influir asi sobre ]a determinaci6n de la indole v gravedad del delito, conio Sobre los indicios de sit presunta culpabilidad.
Subsisted, pues, el secret del suniario; pero solo en ctianto es necesario para impedir que desaparezean las huellas del delito, para recoger 4 inventariar los dato8 que fasten 6 comprobar su existence y reunir los elements que m6s tarde han do utilizarse y depurarse en el crisol de la contradicei6n, durante los solemnes debates del juicio oral y p6blico. Y A tal punto Ileva la nueva ley sit espiritu favorable 6 los f ueros sagrados do la defense, que proscribe y condena una preocupaci6n hasta ahora inuy extendida, que si pudo ser excusable cuando el procedintiento inquisitive estaba en sit auge, implicaria hoy el desconocimiento de la indole y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio, con el cual es incompatible. Alude el infrascrito 6 la costumbre, tari arraigada en nuestros jueces y Tribunales, de dar escaso ning6n valor 'a las pruebas del plenario, buseando principal 6 casi exclusivaniente la verdad on las diligencias sumariales practicadas 'a espaldas del acusado. No: de hoy m6s las investigations del juez instructor no sera'n sino una simple preparation del juicio. El juicio verdadero, no comienza sino (,on la calificacio'n provisional y la aperture do los debates delante





6

principle and the secret character of the procedure during the examining stage, following the example of France, Belgium, and other nations of the European Continent.
The undersigned Minister, in concurrence with his colleagues, has not hesitated to advise Your Majesty to take one more step upon the road of progress by extending, to a certain degree, the system of accusation to the preliminary proceedings themselves, which are, after all, the corner stone of the trial and sentence. Hereafter the investigating judge, on his own initiative and motion, may, or rather must, order that the record be made known to the accused from the moment when publicity and contradiction are not a danger to society, which is interested in the discovery of the crimes and in the punishment of the guilty parties. Should this not be done voluntarily within the period of two months from the date of the institution of the cause, the law gives the accused the right to request it, either to prepare his defense or to prevent by his vigilant intervention and the employment of legal remedies the indefinite extension of the preliminary proceedings. 1n any case, before and after the two months, he who is so unfortunate as to be subjected to a criminal proceeding will fully enjoy two precious rights, which can not but be greatly appreciated wherever personal rights are honored and revered: the first, the right to designate counsel to assist him with his advice and intelligent direction from the moment the indictment is found; and the second, the right to be present in person or through a representative at any judicial investigation, ocular inspection, autopsy, or chemical analysis-in fact, to be present at any expert measures which may be ordered, and which may affect the determination of the character and gravity of the crime or the clues of his presumed guilt.
The secret character of the preliminary proceedings, however, still continues; but only in so far as is necessary to prevent the disappearance of the traces of the crime,, to collect and inventory the data which may be sufficieDt to prove its commission, and gather the elements which are later to he utilized and their truth ascertained in the crucible of contradiction during the formal arguments at the oral and public trial. And to such a point does the new law carry a spirit favorable to the sacred privileges of the defense, that it proscribes and condemns a preoccupation which, until the present time, has been verv extensive, and which, although it might have been pardonable when the inquisitive procedure was at its height, would at the present time imply an ignorance of the character and nature of the system of accusation with which it is incompatible. The undersigned _refers to that custom, so deeply rooted in our judges and courts, of giving little or no value to the evidence introduced during the trial, seeking the truth principally or almost exclusively in the most summary proceedings had behind the back of the accused. No; hereafter the investigations of the





7

del Tribunal que, extrafio 6 la instrucci6n, va 6 juzgar imparcialmente y A dar el triunfo 6 aquel de los conteDdientes que tenga la razo'n y la justicia de su parte. La calificaci'n juridica provisional del hecho, justiciable y de la persona del delincuente, hecha por el acusador y el acusado una vez concluso el sumario, es en el procedimiento criminal lo que en el civil la demand y su contestacio'n, la accion y sus excepciones. Al formularlas empieza realmente la contienda juridica, y ya entonces serl'a indisculpable que la ley Do estableciera la perf ecta igualdad de conditions entre el acusador y el acusado. Estdn enfrente uno de otro, el ciudadano y el Estado. Sagrada es sin duda la causa de la sociedad pero no lo son menos los derechos individuals. En los pueblos verdaderamente libres, el ciudadano debe tener en su mano medics eficaces de defender y conservar su vida, su libertad, su fortune, su dignidad, 8u honor; y si el inter's de los babitantes del territorio es ayudar al Estado para que ejerza lib6rrimamente una de sus funciones mds esenciales, cual es la de castigar ]a infracei6n de la ley penal para restablecer, alli donde se turbe, ]a arnionia del derecho, no por esto deben sacrificarse jails los fueros de la inocencia, torque, al cabo, el orden social Men entendido no es mds que el manteniiniento de la libertad de todos y el respect reciproco de los derechos individuales.



Mirando las cosas por esta, prima y aceptada, la idea fundamental de que en el juicio oral y p1hblico es donde ba de desarrollarse con aniplitud la prueba, donde las parties deben bacer valer en igualdad de condiciones los elements de cargo y descargo, y donde los magistrados han de former su convicei6n para pronunciar su veredicto con abstraccion de la parte del sumario susceptible de ser reproducida en el juicio, surgia natural y 16gicamente una cuestio'n por todo extreme grave y delicada; es 6, saber: la de si la contradicei6n de un testing entre su declaraci6n en el juicio oral y las dadas ante el juez instructor en el sumario, seria por si sola fundamento sufi.ciente para someterle 6 un procedimiento criminal por el delito de falsotestimonio. ElGobierno, despu4s de madura deliberaci6n, ha optado por la negative. Al adopter esta soluci6n ha cedido en primer t6rmino 'a las exigencies de la 16gica, que no permit atribuir 6 los datos recogidos en el suniario para la preparaci6n del juicio una validez y eficacia incompatibles con la indole y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio. No es esto eiertamente autorizar, ni menos santificar el engafio y la mentira en el period de la instruecio'n; esa misma contradiction en las declaraciones testificales podr6 ser libremente apreciada por los juices y penetrar on el santuario de su conciencia como un element de conviccio'n, si Ilega el caso de juzgar el perjurio del testing; lo que finicamente quiere la ley es que e'ste





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examining judge shall be nothing but a simple preparation for the trial. The true trial does not commence until the provisional classification and the beginning of the arguments before the tribunal which, apart from the examination, is going to judge impartially and decide in favor of the party having right and justice o n his side. The provisional juridical classification of the fact to be judged and of the person of the delinquent, made by the accuser and by the accused upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, is in criminal procedure what the complaint and answer, the action and the exceptions, are in the civil procedure. The juridical contention really begins at the time of their formulation, and it would be unpardonable if the law did not then establish a perfect equality of conditions between the accuser and the accused. The citizen and the State confront each other. The cause of society is sacred, no doubt, but individual rights are no less so. Among a truly f ree people a citizen must have in his band efficient means to defend and preserve his life, his liberty, his fortune, his dignity, his honor; and, if it be to the interest of the inhabitants of a territory to assist the State in unrestrictedly exercising one of its most essential functions, which is that of punishing the violation of a penal law for the purpose of reestablishing the harmony of the law where it has been disturbed, the privileges of the innocent should never thereby be sacrificed, because, on the whole, social order, strictly speaking, is nothing more than the maintenance of the liberty of all and a reciprocal respect of individual rights.
Looking at things from this point of view, and accepting the fundamental idea that it is in the oral and public trial where the evidence is to be thoroughly sifted, where the parties must under an equality of conditions, state their charges and denials and where the justices are to form their convictions in order to pronounce their verdict, abstracting that part of the preliminary proceedings which can be reproduced in the trial, naturally and logically a question arose which is extremely serious and delicate; the question is, Whether the contradiction of a witness between his testimony given in the oral trial and that before the examining judge in the preliminary proceedings would in itself be a sufficient reason fo subject him to a criminal action for the crime of giving false testimony? The Government, after mature deliberation, has decided in the negative. In adopting this solution it has, in the first place, given way to the requirements of logic, which does not permit that there be attributed to the data collected in the preliminary proceedings for the preparation of the trial a validity and efficiency incompatible with the character and nature of the accusatory system. This is by no means an authorization, and still less a sanction, of fraud and falsehood during the preliminary stage; such contradiction in the testimony of witnesses may be freely weighed by the judges and penetrate in the sanctuary of their conscience, in case it should become





8

no sea procesado como autor de falso testimony por la sola raz6n de aparecer en contradiction con sus declaraciones sumariales, debiendo serlo no mis cuando haya motives para presumir que falt6 6 la verdad en el acto del juicio; torque siendo 4ste el arsenal donde el acusador y el acusado deben tomar sus armas de combat y de defense y el Tribunal los fundamentos de su veredicto, claro es que en definitive s6lo en este traimite puede el testing favorecer 6 perjudicar injustamente al procesado y ser leal traitor A la sociedad y 6 sus deberes de ciudadano. A esta raz6n, puramente lo'gica, agregase otra de mayor transcendencia, cual es la de facilitar la investigaci6n de la verdad y asegurar el acierto de los falls.

Inu'til scria render culto 6 los progress de la ciencia rompiendo con el procedimiento escrito, inquisitive y secret, para sustituirle con los principios tutelares & la libertad, contradicei6n, igualdad de condiciones entre las pai:f-V, contendientes, publicidad v oralidad, si el testing, cuyas primt- -impresiones ha recogido caftadamente el juez instructor traslawindolas 6 los autos con m6s o' menos fidelidad, se presentara, en el acto del juicio delante del Tribunal sentenciador y del pdblico que asiste 6 los debates, cohibido y maniatado por el recuerdo 6 la lecture de sus declaraciones sumariales. Medroso de la responsabilidad criminal que podria exigirsele 'a la menor contradiction, en vez de contester con soltura y perfecta tranquilidad 6 las preguntas del president, del Ministerio public y de los defensores, limitariase 6 ratificar pura y implemented sus declaraciones, convirti4ndose entonces su examen en el acto solemne del juicio en vana formalidad. Si no han faltado escritores distinguidos y jurisconsultos eminentes que al analizar las conditions del procedimiento inquisitive han censurado acerbamente que se obligara A los testigos del sumario 6 ratificarse en el plenario, con la seguridad de ser castigados coino perjures en caso de apartarse en la diligen6ia de ratificaci6n de lo que antes habian declarado; si esta fundadisima critical iba dirigida 6 un sistema en el que el sumario era el alma de todo el organism procesal, por no decir el process enter, trat6ndose en la hora presented de un in4todo de enjuiciar en el cual el sumario es una mera preparaci6n del juicio, siendo en 4ste donde deben eselarecerse todos los hechos y discutirse todas las questions que jueguen en la causa, no es possible softener aquella antigua legislaci'n tan inflexible v rigorous que, sobre angular la libertad y espontaneidad de los testigos, expuestos 6 una persecuci6n originada en una traduccio'n infield de su pensamiento, pugnaria hoy abiertamente con la indole del sistema acusatorio y con la esencia y los altos fines del juicio p6blico y oral.





8

necessary to pass upon the perjury of the witness; the only thing which the law desires is that the latter be not tried as guilty of false testimony only because he appears to contradict his statements at the preliMiDary proceedings, and only so tried when there are reasons to presume that he did not tell the truth at the trial; because as the latter is the arsenal where the accuser and the accused must receive their arms for the attack and the defense, and the tribunal the bases for its verdict, it is evident that definitely only in this stage can the witness favor or unjustly prejudice the accused and be loyal or a traitor to society and to his duties as a citizen. To this purely logical reason is added one of greater importance, which is that of facilitating the investigation of the truth and insuring the correctness of the decisions.
It would be useless to attempt to further the progress of science by abolishing the written, inquisitive, and secret procedure in order to substitute therefor the protective principles of liberty, contradiction, equality of conditions between the contending, T)arties, publicity, and oral trials, if the witness, whose first impresse- -- the judge has heard in silence, transferring them to the record with m6 e or less fidelity, should appear at the trial before the sentencing tribunal and the' public present at the discussions restrained and with tied hands by the recollection or the reading of his depositions in the preliminary proceedings. Fearing the criminal liability which he might incur upon the slightest contradiction, instead of answering offhand and with perfect case the questions of the presiding judge, the representative of the department of public prosecution, and of the counsel, he would confine himself purely and simply to ratifying his statements, his examination in this formal act of the trial being converted into a mere formality. There has been a large number of distinguished writers and eminent jurists who in analyzing the conditions of the inquisitive procedure have strongly criticised the system of forcing the witnesses at the preliminary proceedings to ratify their depositions at the trial, with the assurance of being punished as perjurers if during the ratification they should waver from their previous statements. If this wellfounded criticism were directed against a system in which the preliminary proceedings were the soul of the entire organism of the procedure, not to say the entire process, as the method in question at the present time is one of procedure in which the preliminary proceedings are a mere preparation for the trial, it being in the latter where the facts are to be arrived at and where all the questions involved in the cause are to be discussed, it is not possible to continue the former laws so inflexible and strict that, in curtailing the liberty and spontaneity of the witnesses, exposed to a prosecution originating in an unfaithful translation of their thought, they would at the present time openly conflict with the character of the accusatory system and with the essence and high ends of public and oral trials.
18473-01-2





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Todas estas concessions al principio de libertad quo 'a una parte do nuestros juices y magistrados parecerain sin duda exorbitantes, no contentaran afin probablemente 'a ciertas escuelas radicals que intentan extender al sumario, desde el moment mismo on que se inicia, las reglas de publicidad, contradiction igualdad que el proyeeto de C6digo establece desde que se abre el juicio hasta que so dicta la sentencia firme. No niega el infrascrito que insignes eseritores mantienen esta tesis con ardor y con fe; pero hasta ahora no puede considerarsela mas que como un ideal de la ciencia, al cual tiende 6 aeerearse progresivamente la legislaci6n positive do los pueblos moderns. ? Se realizar6 algfin dia por complete? El Ministro quo suscribe lo duda inucho. Es dificil establecer la igualdad absolute de conditions juridicas entre el individuo y el Estado en el comienzo mismo del procedimiento, por la dosigualdad real que on moment tan critic existed entre uno y otro: desigualdad calculadamente introduced por el criminal y do que 4ste s6lo es responsible. Desde que surge en su mente la idea del delito, o por lo inenos desde que pervertida su conciencia, forma el prop6sito deliberado de cometerle, estudia cauteloso un conjunto de precauciones para sustraerse 6 la action de la justicia, y coloca al Poder pdblico en una posici6n an6loga 'a la de la victim, la cual sufre el golpe por sorpresa, indefensa y desprevenida. Para restablecer, pues, la igualdad en las conditions de la lueba, ya que se pretend por los alUdidos escritores quo el procedimiento criminal no debe ser in6s que ull duclo noblemente sostenido por anibos contendientes, menester es quo el Estado tenga alguna ventaja en los primers moments, siquiera para recover los vestigios del crime y los indicios de la culpabilidad de su autor. Pero sea de esto lo que quiera, la verdad es que solo el porvenir puede resolver el problema de si llegar6 6 no 6 realizarse aquel ideal. Entre tanto los que tienen la honra de dirigir los destines de un pueblo estAn obligados 6 ser prudentes y 6 no dar carta de naturaleza on los C'digos 6 ideas que est6n todavia en el period do propaganda, que no ban madurado en la opinion ni menos encarnado en las costumbres, ni se ban probado en la piedra de toque de la experience.

El Gobierno de V. M. cree ser consecuente con ol espiritu liberal que informal su political, introduciendo dentro do ciertos Hinites racionales el sistema acusatorio en el sumario, lo cual constitute un gran progress sobre la ley de 22 do Diciembre do 1872. No hay tampoco una sola naci'n on el continent europeo quo vaya en esto m6s alld que el. adjunto proyeeto de C6digo, ni siquiera la Alemania, en cuyas leyes procesales qued6 impress como en roca de granite el sello caracteristico del individualisnio germ6nico, sin que bavan alcanzado borrarle ni la autoridad prepotente de sus Monar
cas, ni sus grandes glories inilitares, ni su reciente y portentous engrandecimiento territorial.





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All these concessions to the principles of liberty, which to some of our judges and justices will appear no doubt exorbitant, will probably not satisfy certain radical schools which desire to extend to the preliminary proceedings from the instant they are instituted the rules of publicity, contradiction, and equality which the proposed code establisbes from the time the trial is opened until the final sentence is pronounced. The undersigned does not deny that well-known writers support this opinion with ardor and with faith, but it can not be considered at present as more than an ideal of science which the positive legislation of modern countries is progressively approaching. Will it some day be fully realized? The undersigned Minister doubts it very much. It is difficult to establish an absolute equality of j uridical conditions between an individual and theState at the very beginning of the proceedings, on account of the real inequality which at so critical a moment exists between one and the other-an ineqtiality purposely introduced by the criminal and for which he only is responsible. From the moment that the idea of the crime is born in his mind, or tit least from the moment that his conscience is perverted and he forms the deliberate intention of committing it, he carefully studies a number of precautions to escape the action of justice, and he places the public power in a position similar to that of the victim who receives the blow by surprise-defenceless and unprepared. Thus, in order to reestablish an equality of conditions for the contest, as it is claimed by the aforeluentioned writers that the criminal procedure must not be more than a duel nobly maintained by both combatants, it is necessary that the State have some advantages during the first moments, if it be only for the purpose of collecting the traces of the crime and clues to the guilt of its author. But, be this as it may, the truth is that the future only can decide whether this ideal w ill or will Dot be realized. In the meantime, those who have the honor of directing the destinies of a people are obliged to be prudent and not countenance in the codes ideas which are still speculative, which have not matured, in public opinion, and, still less, have not rooted themselves in the customs of the people, and have not stood the test of experience.
The Government of Your Majesty believes it to be in accordance with the liberal spirit of its policy to introduce, within certain reasonable limits, the accusatory system in the preliminary proceedings, which constitutes a great advance over the law of December 22, 1872. There is not a singleDation upon the European continent which, on this point, goes further than the attached proposed code, not even Germany, on whose laws of procedure is stamped, as on tables of granite, the characteristic seal of Germanic individualism, without being wiped out either by the powerful authority of their monarchs, her glorious military victories, or her recent and portentous territorial aggrandizement.





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Con Wntion criteria resuelve el nuevo C'digo las dema's questions fundamentals del Enjuiciamiento. En material. penal hay siempre dos interests rivals y contrapuestos: el de la so'ciedad, que tiene el derecho de castigar, y el del acusado, que tiene el derecho de defenders. El character individualist, del derecho, se ostenta en el sistema acusatorio, en el cual se encarna el respect, A la personalidad del hombre y 6 la libertad de la conciencia, mientras que el procedimiento de oficio e' inquisitive represented principio, social y se encamina preferentemente a la restauracio'n del orden juridico perturbado por el delito, apaciguando at propio tempo la alarm popular. Por to tanto, el problema de la organization de la justicia criminal no se resuelve bien sino definiendo claramente los derechos de *la aeusaci6n y de la defense, sin sacrificar ninguno de los dos ni su ordinary el uno at otro, antes bien, armoniz6ndolos en una sintesis superior.
Formado de oficio 0' 6 instancia de parte el sumario por un funcionario independent del Tribunal que ba de 8entenciar; obligado por la lev este instructor it recover, asi los datos adversos corno los favorable af procesado, bajo la inspeccio'n inmediata del fiscal, del acusador particular, y, hasta donde es possible, del acusado 6 su letrado defensor; otorgada una accio'n pu'blica y popular para acusar, en vez de limitarla at ofendido y sus herederos; reconocida y sancionada la existence del Ministerio fiscal, A quien se encomienda la misi6n de promoter la averiguacio'n de los delitos v el castigo de los culpables, sin dejar por esto de defender i la vez at invulpado innocent, result que puede, sin peligro de los interests pu'blieos y particulars, cefiirse el Tribunal at ejereicio de una sola atribucio'n: la de fallar como juez impartial del cainpo sin sujetarse 'a una prueba tasada de antemano por la ley; antes bien, siguiendo libremente las inspiraciones de su conciencia, exento de las passions que enciende sienipre la lucba en el Animo de los contendientes y sin el aguijon del amor propio excitado en el juez instructor por las estratagemas que en occasions emplean el aeusado v el acusador privado para burglar sus investigaciones, y aun sin esto, por las misinas dificultades inherentes de ordinario 6 la instrucci6n.




Para mantener at Tribunal en esta'serena y elevada esfera, y no desvirtuar el principio acusatorio que informal el nuevo c6digo, ha credo el que suseribe que finieamente at Ministerio fiscal 6 at acusador particular, si le hubiere, corresponded formula el acta de acusaci6n comprensiva de los punts sobre que en adelante deben girar los debates, siguiendo en esto at C6digo de instrucci'n criminal austriaco, que es acaso, de los actualmente vigentes en la Europa continental, el que ha desarrollado con ma's 10'gica y extension el sistema acusatorio,





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The new code decides the other fundamental questions of the procedure upon the same basis. In penal matters there are always two rival and opposed interests; those of society, which has the right to punish, and those of the accused, who has the right to defend himself. The individualistic character of law is evident in the accusatory system, which includes both respect for the personality of man and liberty of conscience, while the ex q cio and inquisitive proceeding represents the social principle, whose special object is the restoration of the judicial order which has been disturbed by the crime, quieting at the same time the popular alarm. Therefore, the problem of the organization of criminal justice is not correctly solved except by clearly defining the rights of the accusation and of the defense, without sacrificing either of the two or subordinating one to the other, but, on the contrary, by harmonizing them in one superior combination.
The preliminary proceedings being instituted ex officio or at the instance of a party by an official independent of the tribunal which is to pronounce the sentence; the examining judge being required by law to collect all information, favorable as well as unfavorable, to the accused, under the immediate supervision of the flscal, of the private accuser, and, in so far as possible, of the accused or his counsel; a popular and public trial of the accusation being provided for, instead of confining it to the injured persons and his heirs; the existence of the department of public prosecution being recognized and sanetioned and to which is entrusted the mission of taking the steps for the ascertainment of the crimes and the punishment of those guilty thereof; without, however, at the same time ignoring the defense of an innocent accused person, the result is that without danger to public or private interests, the duties of the tribunal may be restricted to the exercise of one attribute only-that of deciding as an impartial judge of the matter without being subject to evidence previously regulated by law; in fact, unrestrictedly following the dictates of his conscience exempt from the passions which are always raised by the struggle in the minds of the contestants and without the wounding of the aynour pro,pre which is engendered in the examining judge by the stratagems which the accused and the private accuser employ to frustrate his investigations, or even without this, by the ordinary difficulties which attend the investigation.
In order to sustain the tribunal in this serene and elevated sphere and not defeat the object of the accusatory principle which the new code provides, the undersigned is of the opinion that only the representative of the department of public prosecution or the private ccuser, if there be any, should prepare the information, including therein the points which are to be argued thereafter, following herein the Austrian code of criminal procedure, which is perhaps of those actually in force in Continental Europe the one which has developed the accusatory







Asi es como se logra quo la cuesti'n criminal que on el process so agita dispute vaya intact al Tribunal 'a quien corresponded decidirla; asi es eorno las parties pueden preparer con perfecto conocimiento de causa los respectivos elements de cargo y descargo y bacer sus acusaciones 6 defenses con fe y libertad complete, sin la coaccio'n, siquiera sea moral, que Do puede menos do existir cuando el que ha do fallar prejuzga en cierto modo el fallo formulando de oficio el acta de acusacio'n, lo cual Ileva naturalmente, el desaliento al 6nimo de aquel de los contendientes A, quien perjudica la calificacio'n juridica, hecha prem tournament, aunque con carActer provisorio por el Tribunal. Ni son estos los Anicos inconvenientes que acarrea la admission del acta do acusacio'n de oficio, pues una vez formulada 4sta, se oblige al Millisterio fiscal 1 sostenerla contra sus convieciones poniendo en torture su conciencia, 6 so le deja en libertad para combatirl a, en euyo caso ya no son las parties quienes contienden entre A sino que so dispute i6nicamente el pensamiento, la opinion, el juicio formulado por el Tribunal, quo de este modo descended 6 la arena del combat para convertirse on acusador, con el riesgo inminente de que la excitaci6n del a-or propio de los jueces of usque perturbed su intelligence. No los magistrados deben permanence durante ]a discussion pasivos, retraidos, neutrals, a semejanza do los juices de los antiguos torneos, limit6ndose 6 dirigir con Anirno serene los debates. Por esto, entre ]as obligaciones impuestas al Ministerio fiscal on Francia y Alemania do formula un aeta de acusaci6n cuando asi lo ba acordado el respective Tribunal, y la libertad que a dicho Ministerio otorga la ley austriaca, ha optado (A que subscribe por la Altinia solucio'n que respect m6s los fueros de la conciencia, los derechos individuals, y estilt m6s en consonancia con el principio fundamental on que descansa el sistema acusatorio.

Este principio, aplicado en absolute, adolece, sin embargo, de un vicio, que han pesto en relieve insignes magistrados. encanecidos on la Administration de justicia. Proscrita para siempre la absolucio'n de la instancia, y rigiendo sin excepei611 la maxima non bi8in idem, evidence es quo el error del fiscal en la calificaci6n juridica del becho justiciable produce la inipunidad del delineuente. Esta' bien quo en los process civiles el Tribunal tenga la obligaci6n de absolver o' coDdenar, asi como tambien la do ajustar estrictamente su fallo 6 los t4rmiDos en que las parties hayan planteado el problema litigioso, sea 'a la acci6n ejercita(la por el demandante y 6 las excepciones formuladas por el demandado, torque las questions quo en esos process so ventilan son de mero inter's privado, y torque ademds no es raro que pueda subsanarse total o parcialmente en un nuevo process el error padecido al entablar la accio'n, para lo cual sullen hacerse reserves de derecho en la sentencia en favor del condenado; pero en los process criminals, que pueden incoarse de oficio, stain siempre on litigio el interns social 3, la paz





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system most extensively and logically. Thus it becomes possible to secure that the criminal question raised or argued in the proceedings shall go intact to the court which is to decide it. Thus the parties can prepare with a perfect knowledge of cause the respective elements of accusation arid denials and make their accusation or defense with confidence arid complete liberty, without the coercion, even though moral, which can not but exist when the person who is to pass judgment, to a certain extent prejudges the matter by himself drawing tip the indictnient, which naturally discourages the contestant who is prejudiced bya juridical classification which has been made preniaturelyalthough only temporarily, by the tribunal. Nor are these the only objections to & admission of the indictment prepared ex officio, because after its preparation the public prosecutor is obliged to defend it against his convictions torturing his conscience, or he is left at liberty to combat it, in which case it does not become a contest between the parties, but only a discussion of the thought, the opinion, and the judgment of the tribunal, which, in this manner, enters the arena and becomes converted into an accuser at the imminent risk of the amour _1vopre of the judges, confusing or disturbing their intellectual faculties. No; the judges must remain during the arguments passive, silent, and neutral, as did the judges of the ancient tournaments, confining themselves to the direction of the arguments with a serene deportment. Therefore, between the obligations imposed upon the public prosecutors in France and Germany, to draw up an indictment when this has been ordered by the respective tribunal, and the liberty which is granted said prosecutors I)v the Austrian law, the undersigned has selected the latter solution ,is the one offering the greater respect to the dictates of conscience, individual rights, and as being more, in consonance with the fundamental principle upon which the accusatory system is based.
This principle, applied in full, nevertheless still contains one defect to which various judges who have grown gray in the administration of justice have called attention. The dismissal of the proceedings for lack of evidence being proscribed forever and the maxim no)t bis in ,;den ruling without exception, it is evident that an error committed by the prosecutor in the juridical classification of the punishable act secures the immunity of the delinquent. It is advisable that in civil proceedings the tribunal shall have the obligation to acquit or condemn as well as to strictly adjust its decision to the terms in which the parties may have submitted the question in litigation; that is to '9ay, to the complaint of the plaintiff and the exceptions pleaded by the defendant, because the questions which arise in these proceedings are of mere private interest, and because, furthermore, it frequently occurs that the error committed upon the institution of the action can be corrected totally or partially in a new proceeding, for which 4ason it is customary to make reservations of rights in the decision in favor of





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pfiblica, y teniendo el Tribunal la obligacio'n do condenar o' absolver libremente sin reserve alguna y sin que le sea licito abrir un nuevo, procedimiento sobre el mismo hecho ya juzgado, es violent torturer la conciencia de los magistrados que le forman hasta el punto de colocarles en la dura alternative de condenar al acusado 6 sabiendas de que faltan 6 la I-ey compete una nulidad, absolverle con la convicei6n de que es criminal, dejando que insulate con su presencia y aire do triunfo a la victim y su familiar, tan solo torque el Ministerio, pfiblico no ba sabido 6 no ha querido calificar el delito con arreglo 6 su naturaleza y 6 las prescripciones del CO'digo penal. De todas suertes es innegable que Ilevados 'a tal exageraci6n el sistema acusatorio y la pasividad de los Tribunals, e'stos abdican en el fiscal, en cuyas manos queda toda enter la justicia. De su buena rnala fe, quo no s6lo de su pericia, dependeria exclusivamente en lo future la suerte de los acusados.




Y suponiendo que algfin dia el legislator, echindose en brazos de la I' ica Ilegase hasta este U'ltimo limited del sistema acusatorio, el Gobierno do V. M. ha credo que la traDsicio'n era demasiado brusea para este pais en que los jueces ban sido hasta ahora omnipotentes, persiguiendo los delitos por su propia y espontdnea iniciativa, instruyendo, las causes los mismos que babian de fallarlas, ejerciendo la facultad omnimoda de separarse de los dict6menes fiscales, asi durante la sustanciaci6n como en la sentencia definitive, calificando segun su propio, juicio el delito y designando la pena sin consideraci6n 'a las conclusions de la acusaci6n y la defense, y empleando por 61timo la formula de la absolucio'n de la instancia, lo que es lo mismo, dejando indefinidamento abierto el procedimiento cuando, altos de pruebas para condenar, infundian en su mente, las diligencias sumariales livianas sospechas contra el acusado. La sociedad debe marcher como la naturaleza, gradualmente y no 6 salts: los progress juridicos deben irse eslabonando, si ban de encarnar en las costumbres del pais. Por esto, el Gobierno propane 6 V. M. la soluci6n contenida en el articulo 733 que no alter en rigor la virtualidad del principio acusatorio. Segfin la structural de la adjunta ley, concluso el sumario, las parties hacen la calificaci6n provisional del hecho justiciable. Sobro sus conclusions versan las pruebas que se practical durante todo el juicio, y al t4rmino de 4ste, cuando ya no faltan mis que los informed del fiscal y del defensor del acusado, autorizase 6 uno y otro para confirmer, rectificar 6 variar, en vista de las pruebas, qu primer calificaci'n. Al Ilegar 'a este tr6mite todo en rigor est6 acabado: los juices ban oido al reo y los tesiigos; ban examinado las demis pizzas de convicei6n y esta'n en conditions do apreciar con amplitude y acierto la naturaleza del hecho





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the condemned; but in criminal actions which may be instituted at the instance of the Government, social interests and public peace are always in litigation, and as the tribunal has the obligation to convict or acquit freely without any reservation whatsoever, and without it being legal to institute a new proceeding upon the same question, it is unnatural to torture the conscience of the justices composing the tribunal to the point of placing them in the hard alternative of condenining the accused with the knowledge that they do not comply with the law, destroy its force, or acquit him with the conviction that he is a criminal, leaving him to insult with his presence and air of triumph the victim and his family, only because the public prosecutor did not know how or did not wish to qualify the crime in accordance with its character and the provisions of the Penal Code. At any rate it can not be denied that if the accusatory system and the passiveness of the tribunals goes to such an exaggerated extent, the latter abdicate in favor of the prosecutor, in whose hands justice remains intact. The fate of the accused depends not only on his skill, but also on his good or bad faith.
And supposing that some day the legislator, appealing to logic, should arrive to this furthermost limit of the accusatory system, the Government of Your Majesty has believed that the transition would be too sudden for this country in which the judges have been all powerful, prosecuting crimes on their own and voluntary initiative, investigating as well as passing upon the cases, exercising the power to ignore the reports of the prosecutors during the hearing as well as in the final sentence, classifying the crime according to their own judgment, and fixing the punishment without considering the conclusions of the accusation and defense, and finally dismissing the proceedings for lack of evidence, or, what is the same thing, leaving the proceedings indefinitely open when there being insufficient evidence to convict, the preliminary proceedings raised slight suspicions in their mind against the accused. Society must progress like nature-gradually, and not by leaps; juridical progress must develop step by step if it is to become grafted in the customs of the country. Therefore the Government recommends to Your Majesty the solution contained in article 733, which does not materially alter the potential character of the accusatory principle. According to the structure of the annexed law, upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, the parties make a provisional classification of the questions which are the subject-matter of the action. The, evidence taken during.the entire action rests upon their conclusions, and upon the termination thereof, when nothing is left but the final arguments of the prosecutor and the counsel of the accused, they are both authorized to confirm, correct, or vary their first classification in view of the evidence. Upon reaching this stage everything is strictly terminated; the judges have heard the criminal and the witnesses; they





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que es material del juicio. Si en tal moment les asalta una duda grave sobre su verdadera, calificaci'n juridica, qu6 difficult puede haber en que hipotelticaniente, sin prejuzgar el fallo definitive y solo por via do ilustraci6n, invite el president del Tribunal al Ministerio u'blico y defensor del procesado para que en sus informes discutan una tesis m6s? El principio acusatorio quedaria quebrantado si 4sta no hubiera de discutirse y resolverse con arreglo 6 las pruebas ya practicadas, dando lugar A que se abriese de nuevo o' se prorrogase el juicio; pero como 'ste estil ya terininado y no es permitido volver sobre 41, todo lo que puede suceder es quo el fiscal 6 el letrado necesiten veinticuatro horas para razonar sobre la hip6tesis del Tribunal con la convenience preparacioD.
Con ser tail modest y estar tan cefdda esta facultad, declare sin embargo la ley que no so extended 6 los delitos privados (1 que S61o pueden perseguirso a instancia do parte, ni 6 la calificaci611 do las eircuinstancias atenuantes 6 agravintes, ni A la de la participation respective do los procesados oil la ejecueio'n del crinien, quedando reducida It la satisfacci6n do una necesidad apremiante originada ell un inter(.s pf'iblico y de orden social. Ann encerrada ell tan estreellos 1111lites, ('I Milli8tro que suseribe hubiera renunciado fit ella, y inantenidose on el rigorisnio del principio acusatorio, si los C()(ligos mas progresivos y liberals de la Europa continental le. hubieran alentado con sit ejemplo; poro no hay ning-uno que no do' mayor amplitude la intervenci'n del Tribunal enel juicio. EnFranciayAleiiianiayasehaN-isto quo el Ministerio fiscal tiene la obligacio'n de formula el acta de acusaci6n cuando asi lo acuerda el Tribunal respective, y adeinas la misma ley alemana v la austriaca dejan i 6ste ell libertad de apreciar el hecho justiciable sin sujetarse 6 Ia calificacio'n que de A hubieren hecho las parties, y sin tomar la precauei6n do someter 6 4stas la nueva faz de la cuesti6n, a fin do que la diseutan ampliamente antes de que recaiga el veredicto. Precediendo este solenine debate, no amplidndoso ni reforniAndose oil ning'ii ca8o his pizzas do convice16n, no puede ell rigor acusarso de incongruencia al fallo, pesto que la ley ell Suniase Iiinita 6 establecer un inedio de suplir la ornision del fiscal, cuyo deber es hacerse cargo de todas las calificaciones probables quo autorice la pruelm practicadft y quo pueda aceptar ol Tribunal, redactando al effect cuando fuere necesario la proteiisi6n alternative do que habla el art. 732. El Tribunal propane, bipoteticamente y sobre la base do urm prueba inalterable, un tenia de discussion inomentos antes de pronunciar sn veredicto, cuando cada jna ,,Jstrado tiene ya forinado su jui(!iodefiziitivosol)reelvotoqiie,,evaadai-. Mejoresportantoque le cm ita despue's de un debate (I tie puede iluniinar su iiiente -3, rectificar su juicio, quo no autorizarle para quo oil el fallo so spare de las condiciones debatidas por las parties y siga sus propias inspiraciones no contra8tadas en el crisol de la contradicei611 como le autorizan los







have examined the other evidence, and are in a condition to weigh the character of the act which is the subject-matter of the trial fully and with a correct understanding. If at this moment they should entertain some serious doubt as to its true juridical classification, why should not the presiding judge of the court, hypothetically and only by way of illustration, invite the public prosecutor and the attorney for the accused, without prejudging the definite decision, to discuss an additional thesis in their briefs? The accusatory principle would be violated if this additional thesis were not argued and decided in accordance with the evidence already taken, causing a postponement or reopening of the trial. But as the trial is already closed and it is not possible to review it, all that can take place is that the public prosecutor or the attorney be granted twenty-f our hoursfor the purpose of arguing upon the hypothesis of the tribunal with sufficient preparation.
Although this power is so modest and restricted, the law nevertheless declares that it does not extend to private crimes or to those crimes which can be prosecuted only at the instance of a party, or to the classification of extenuating or aggravating circumstances, or to that of the respective participation of the persons accused in the commission of the crime, being thus reduced to meeting an urgent necessity originating in a public and social interest. Although confined to so narrow limits, the undersigned Minister would have renounced it and remained within the excessively severe accusatory principle if the most progressive and liberal codes of continental Europe had eneouraged him with their example; but there is none which gives greater poNNer to the intervention of the court in the trial. It has already been seen that in France and Germany the public prosecutor is obliged to prepare the indictment when ordered to do so by the proper court, and, furthermore, thesaid German law, as well as the Austrian law, leave him at liberty to weigh the act without subjecting himself to the classification thereof made by the parties, and without taking the precaution of submitting to said parties the new phase of the question in order that they may discuss it fully before the verdict is rendered. Before this formal argument, without the evidence in any case being amended or extended, the sentence could not be said properly to be i neongruent, because the law in substance confines itself to establishing a means to supply the omission of the public prosecutor, whose duty it is to take charge of all the probable classifications which the evidence taken may authorize and which the tribunal may accept, preparing for this purpose the alternative claitu referred to in article 732, whenever necessary. The tribunal proposes, hypothetically and upon the basis of an unalterable proof, a theme for discussion a few moments before pronouncing its verdict, when each justice has already formed his definite opinion upon the Vote which is to be cast. It is better, therefore, that he should cast his vote after an argument which may enlighten





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Codigos austriaco y alemAn, A pesar de ser los mAs adelantados de la Europa continental.



Tales son, Seflor, prescindiendo do otras muchas reforms do menor importancia, aunque sustanciales, y de evidentes mejoras de detalle en el m4todo y la redacci'n, las novedades de m6s bulto que el proyeeto adjunto introduce en nuestro procedimiento criminal.
No desconoce el Ministro que subscribe que la aplicaci6n y cumpliiniento de la nueva ley, singularmente en los pritneros aflos, tropezarii con graves dificultades, siendo la mayor de todas ellas la falta de costumbres adecuadas al sistema acusatorio y a] juicio oral y p6blico. Educados los espai-ioles durante silos en el procediniiento eserito, secret 4 inquisitorial, lejos de haber adquirido confianza (,it lit Justicia y de coadyuvar activamente, 6 su recta administration, hacienda, como el ciudadano singles, in6til la institticio'n del Ministerio pAblico para el descubrimiento y castigo do los delitos, han formado ideas falsas sobre la policia judicial y se han desviado eada vez m6s de los Tribunales mirando con lamentable recolo A magistrados, jueces, escribanos y a1guaciles, y reptignando figurar como testigos on los process. Pero este mal seril mayor cuanto, mas tempo paso; y conio lo actual no puede seguir si it desdoro de la Naci'n y de los poderes que la gobiernan, lo mejor es decidirse, quealguna vez se ha de eitipezar, si la Espafia no ha de ser una excepei6n entre los pueblos cults do Europa y Am4rica.


El Gobierno de V. M. tiene tal confianza en ]a aptitude especial y las conditions privilegiadas de nuestra raza, que espera seri breve -el apredizaje, no tan s6lo en la aplicaci'n de esta ley, sino en la obra aun m6s delicada de compartir con los jucces ]a misi6nati-tista de administrar justicia como Jurado; y que inuy pronto el ciudadano espafiol demostrar6 quo es digno de gozar de las inisinas ventajas que poseen los extranjeros.
Al logro de fin tan important y transcendental coadyuvaran, sin duda, el celo 4 il ustraci6n de la Magistratura y del Ministerio p Ablico; que no es possible, Seflor, mortar una milquina delicada y hacerla funcionar con 4xito, sino contando con el asent;-niento, el entusiasino, la fe y el patriotism de los que han de manejarla.

En vista de las razones expuestas, el Ministro que suscribe tiene la honra de someter 6 la aprobacio'n de V. M. el adjunto proyeeto de decreto.
Snn Ildefonso, 14 de Septiembre de 1882.
Seflor, A L. R. P. de V. M.,
MANUEL ALONSO MARTINEZ.





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his mind and correct his judgment than not to authorize him to depart rrom the conditions argued by the parties and follow his own inspirations, which have not been brought together in the crucible of contradiction as authorized by the Austrian and German codes, notwithstanding the fact that they are the most advanced on the European Continent.
Such are, Sir, without speaking of many other amendments of lesser importance, althouo h substantial and evidently improvements in the method and preparation, the most weighty innovations introduced by the attached bill in our criminal procedure.
The undersigned Minister is not unaware of the fact that in the application and fulfillment of the new law, especially during the first years, serious difficulties will be encountered, the greatest of all being the absence of customs applicable to the accusatory system and to an oral and public trial. Spaniards having been educated for centuries in the written, secret, and inquisitive procedure, far f rom having gained confidence in justice and actively assisting in a proper administration thereof, and, as the British citizen, rendering useless the institution of the department of public prosecution for the discovery and punishinent of crimes, have formed erroneous ideas as to the judicial policy, and have every day drifted further from the tribunals, looking upon the justices, judges, court clerks, and bailiffs with lamentable distrust, and disliking to appear in the proceedings as witnesses. But this evil will increase as time passes. And as the present state of affairs can not continue without discredit to the nation and the powers which govern it, the best thing to do is to decide, as it must be begun some time, whether Spain is to be an exception among the cultured peoples of Europe and America.
The Government of Your Majesty has such confidence in the special aptitude and the privileged conditions of our race that it believes that the apprenticeship will be short, not only in the application of this law, but even in the more delicate task of sharing with the judges the auOust mission of administering justice as a jury, and that very soon the Spanish subject will demonstrate that he is worthy of enjoying the same advantages as those enjoyed by foreigners.
In the attainment of so important and transcendental an end, the zeal and high character of our judiciary and of the department of public prosecution will no doubt contribute. It is not possible, Sir, to mount a delicate machine and success ully operate it unless the assent, the enthusiasm, the confidence, and & patriotism of those who are to manage it are to be trusted.
In view of the aforestated reasons, the undersigned Minister has the honor to submit for the approval of Your Majesty the attached bill.

San Ildefonso, September 14, 1882.
Sire, at tho Royal Feet of Your Majesty,
MANUEL ALONSO MARTINEZ.














MINISTER DE ULTRAMAR.

REAL DECRETO.

Llevadas A cabo por la Comisi'n de CO'digos del Ministerio de, Ultramar las niodificaciones necesarias para que pueda aplicarse en Cuba y Puerto Rico la ley vigente en la Peninsula sobre procedimiento criminal de acuerdo con aquella Corporaci6n, 6 propuesta del Ministro do Ultramar, y on virtue de la autorizacio'n que concede ini Gobierno el art. 89 do la Constituci'n de la Monarquia, en nombre de ini Augusto Hijo el Rev D. Alfonso XIll, y como Reina Regente del Reino,

Vengo on decretar lo siguiente:
ARTfCULO Io. Se aprueba para la isla do Cuba y Puerto Rivo la ley de Enjuiciamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, on virtue del Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882, con las inodificaciones propuestas por la Comisi6n de C6digos do Ultramar.
ART. 2. La nueva ley coiiienzar6 6 regir on Cuba y Puerto Rico el dia 10 de Enero de 1889, en que empezardn 6 f uncionar las Audiencias de lo criminal.
ART. 30. Las causes por delitos cometidos con anterioridad al P' de Enero pr6xiino, continuarAn sustanciAndose con arreglo a ]as disposiciones del procedimiento vigente en la actualidad.'
Si las causes 6 que se refiere el p6rrafo anterior no hubieren Ilegado al period de clasificaci6n, podr6n sustanciarse con arreglo a las dispoLa jurisprudence del Tribunal Supremo, sobre lo preceptuado en el mismo artfculo del Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882 aprobando ]a ley de Enjuieiamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, que en nada difiere de ]a disposici6n que anotamos, es contradictory, pues mientras en sentences de 3 de Septiembre, 24 de Octubre de 1884 y 26 de Diciembre de 1885, declare qne los Tribunales existences antes de constituirse las nuevas Audiencias de lo criminal, son los competentes para concern de los delitos cometidos hasta el 15 de Octubre de 1882, aunque haya comenzado A procederse por sn comisi6n con posterioridad i esa fecha, siempre que los procesados Do se havan acogido al nuevo procedimiento, en otra sentencia de 4 de Agosto de 1887, consign: Que es precepts claro y terminate, consignado en la regla que anotamos, qne las causes por delitos cometidos con posterioridad al 15 de Octubre del aflo citado, debfan continual sustancidndose con arreglo d ]as disposiciones del procedimiento vigente entonces, apareciendo, por tanto, indiseutible, que se refiere d las causes incoadas antes de la indicada fecha, y de ningiin modo A las posteriors, por nids que la cowisi6n de W8 delitos fuera anterior, 15














COLONEL DEPARTMENT.

ROYAL DECREE.

The Codification Commission of the Colonial Department having completed the modifications necessary in order that it may be possible to apply in Cuba and Porto Rico the law in force in the Peninsula on criminal procedure, in concurrence with said corporation, upon the recommendation of the Colonial Minister, and in pursuance of the authority vested in my Government by article 89 of the Constitution of the Monarchy, in the name of my August Son the King-, Don Alfonso XIII, and as Queen Regent of the Kingdom,
I hereby decree the following:
ARTICLE. 1. The Law of Criminal Procedure in force in the Peninsula, by virtue of a Royal Decreee of September 14, 1882, is approved for the Islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, with the modifications recommended by the Codification Commission for the Colonies.
ART. 2. The new law shall go into effect in Cuba and Porto Rico on the first day of January, 1889, when the Criminal Audiencias will begin to act.
ART. 3. The causes for crimes committed prior to January first next, shall continue to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in force at the present time.'
If the causes referred to in the foregoing article should not have reached the classification stage, they may be heard and determined in

I The Jurisprudence of the Supreme Court with regard to the provisions of the same article of the Royal Decree of September 14, 1882, approving the law of criminal procedure in force in the Peninsula, which does not differ in any manner from the provision annotated, is contradictory, because while in decisions of September 3, October 24, 1884, and December 26, 1885, it declared that the courts existing before the organization of the new criminal audiencias are of competent j jurisdiction in crimes committed up to October 15, 1882, even though the action should have been instituted ,subsequently to said date, provided that the accused should not have selected the new procedure; in another decision of August 4, 1887, it declared: "That it is a clear and final precept, contained in the rule which we annotate, that the causes for crimes committed subsequently to the 15th of October of the year mentioned must continue to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in force at that time; and it appears, therefore, undisputable that it relates to the causes instituted before the said date, and in no nianner to subsequent causes, even though the crimes should have been committed prior thereto."
15







siciones do la nueva ley, si todos los procesados en cada una de ellas optan por el nuevo procedimiento.'
Para ello, el Juez que estuviere conociendo del sumario en I' de Enero pr'Xinio harA comparecer a su presencia 6 todos los procesados, acompafiados de sus defensores.
Si aun no los tuvieran, se les nombrar6 do oficio para la comparecencia.
Esta so barA co-star en la causa por medio de acta.
ART. 40. Los Jueces de primer instancia se considerardn desde luego conio Jueces instructors en ]as causes que so ajusten al nuevo procedimiento.
ART. 5". Desde que cesen en sus cargos los actuales Prornotores, desempefiar6n las funciones del Ministerio pAblico durante la primer instancia en las causes que se sigan sustanciando, con arreglo al procedhifiento vigente en ]a actualidad, los Fiscales municipals que sean Letrados, y 6 falta de 'stos, los que designed los Fiscales de las respectivas Audiencias.
ART. 6'. Las Salas do Gobierno de las Audieneias -N, los nuvos rribunales consultant directaniente con el Ministerio e Ultrainar para su resolution las dudas quo puedan originarse on la aplicacio'n do este Real decreto.
Dado on Palacic, A 19 de Octubre de 1888.
MARL CRISTINA.
El Ministry de Ultraniar,
TRiNITARIO RUIZ CAPDEP6N.

Es bastante que todos los procesados presents opten por el nuevo procedimiento paraque6stesesigaconformeilareglaqueanotamos. Asflodeclar6laFiscaliadel Tribunal Supremo en la instrucei6n mim. 3 de las que acompananA la Menioria, de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, resolviendo una consult hecha A la inisnia sobre aplicaci6n de un precepts anA-logo del Real decreto aprobando la ley de ]a Penfnsula, y lo confirm el mismo Tribunal en sus sentences, entre otras varies, de 30 de Junio de 1883 y 23 de Diciembre del mismo aflo, segfin las cuales tinicamente A los procesados presents en el juicio puede afectar la fornia del procedimiento y cl fallo que lo termite; y, por tanto, la ausencia y rebeldfa de otros respect de los cuales se mantiene en suspense, no puede redundar en perjuicio de los que, sumisos y obedientes d la ley, se ven en la apremiante necesidad de defenders, y si 6stos optan por el nuevo procediiniento, compete concern de la causa d la Audiencia de lo criminal respective y no i la territorial. En otra de 12 de Agogto de 1884, se consign que, seguida una causa con arreglo al proeedimiento antiguo, dietada sentencia en primer instancia, consultada con la superioridad y repuestas las actuaciones al estado de sumario por disposici6n de la inisnia, si los procesados optan por el nuevo procedimiento, es competence la Audiencia de lo criminal A quien corresponda, y no los Tribunales antetiores ii la creaci6n de dichas Audiencias.






accordance with the provisions of the new law, if every one of the accused in each cause should choose the new procedure.'
For this purpose the judge who may be taking cognizance of the preliminary proceedings on the first day of January next shall order all the accused to appear before him, together with their counsel.
Should they not have counsel as yet, they shall be assigned to them at the motion of the court for the appearance.
This appearance shall be duly entered upon the record of the cause.
ART. 4. Judges of First Instance shall at once be considered as examining judges in the causes which are prosecuted in accordance with the new procedure.
ART. 5. As soon as the actual _prornotores cease in the discharge of their duties, the functions of the Department of public prosecution in causes which are being heard in accordance with the procedure in f orce at the present time shall be discharged by the municipal ,ftseales who may be attorneys, and, in their absence, by those whom the scales of the respective audiencias may designate.
ART. 6. The Administration Chambers of the Audiencias and the new Tribunals shall submit directly to the Colonial Department for its decision any doubts which may arise in the application of this Royal Decree.
Given in the Palace on October 19), 1888.
MARIA CRISTINA.
TRrNITARIO RUIZ CAPDEP6N,
Coloi'cd ifinister.

It is sufficient that all the accused present select the new procedure for it to be adopted in accordance with the rule we annotate. This was declared by the office of the Fiscal of the Supreme Court in instruction number 3, of those attached to the Memorial of September 15, 1883, deciding a question submitted to the same as to the application of a similar precept of the Royal Decree approving the law of the Peninsula, and the said Court confirmed it in its decisions, among which may be mentioned those of June 30 and December 23, 1883, according to which only the accused present at the trial can be affected by the form of the procedure and the sentence closing it; and, therefore, the absence and default of the others with regard to whom it is suspended can not redound to the prejudice of those who, submissive and obedient to the law, find themselves in urgent necessity of defending themselves, and if the latter choose the new procedure the proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not the territorial audiencia." In another decision, of August 12, 1884, it was stated that a cause having been prosecuted in accordance with the former procedure, a sentence rendered in first instance, a consultation being had with the higher court and the proceedings having been returned to the court of primary jurisdiction by order of the same, if the accused then choose the niew procedure, the proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not time Tribunals which existed prior to the creation of said audiencias.
18473-01-3















LEY DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL.




LIBRO PRIMERO.

DISPOSICIONES GENERALS.

Tf'rULO PRIMERO.

IFRELIMINARES.

GAPiTULO PRIMEAZO.

REGLAS GENERALS.

ARTfCVLO 10, No se impondr6 pena algima por consecuencia de actos punibles cuya reprensio'n incumba a la jurisdicci6n ordinaria, sino de conf ormidad con las disposiciones do la presented ley de otras especiales, y on virtue de sentencia dictada por juez competence.'

ART. 20. Todas las aiitoridades y funcionarios que intervengan. en el procedimiento penal cuidaran, dentro de los limits desm respective competencia, do consigner y apreciar las circunstancias asi adversas como favorable al presunto roo, v estar6n obligados,,t falta de disposici6n express, a instruir A 4ste de sus derechos y de los recursos que, pueda ejercitar mientras no se hallare asistido de defensor.

I Extrafdo de Portugal el espahol Joaquin Cupido y condenadod la pena de muerte, interpuso recurso de cagaci6n.por suponer infringido el art. V del convention de extradici6n celebrado entre Espafia y Portugal en 6 de Diciembre de 1875, segAn el cual los criminals A quienes eorresponda la pena de muerte, s6lo sertin entrega(los:1 condici6n de que se les commute dicbo castigo, El T. S. declare no haber lugar al recurso:
Considerando que A los Tribunales no corresponded conalutar ]as penas, torque ]a conmutaci6n supone la imposici6ii previa de aquella que se ba de connintar, v ]a facultad de elegir libremente la que se ha de imponer en cambio, propia y exclusive de la prerrogativa regia, siendo por tanto s6lo competencia de la administraciOll de justicia aplicar la ley penal, sin que infrinja, aplicandola a reos extraf(los de Portugal por delito A que shale el C6digo la pena de muerte, el art. Io del tratado de extradici6n vigente con el Gobierno portugu6s, precepts cuya observancia procederd, conform al pacto international, despu6s de impuesta, en fallo definitive la referida pena."-Sala 2a., Sent. 15 A14Q) 1884. Ga4c. 28 Septiembre, p. 158.
17















LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE



1300K FIRST.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

TITLE FIRST.

PRELIMINARIES.

CHAPTER FIRST.

GENERAL RULES.

ARTICLE 1. No penalty whatsoever shall be inflicted as a consequence of punishable acts the punishment of which pertains to the ordinary jurisdiction, except in accordance with the provisions of this and other special laws, and by virtue of a sentence pronounced by a judge of competent jurisdiction.'
ART. 2. All authorities and officials taking part in a criminal proceeding shall seek, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions, to record and consider all circumstances for and against the presumed criminal, and shall be obliged, in the absence of an express provision, to inform the latter of his rights and of the remedies he may employ, while without the services of counsel.

I A Spaniard by the name of Joaquin Cupido having been extradited from Portugal and sentenced to death, interposed an appeal for annulment of judgment on the ground of the violation of article I of the extradition convention celebrated between Spain and Portugal on December 6, 1875, according to which criminals subject to the penalty of death shall be turned over only on condition that said punishment be commuted. The supreme court declares that the appeal does not lie:
Considering that it does not lie within the power of courts to commute sentences, because a commutation supposes the previous imposition of the sentence to be commuted, and the power to freely select that which is to be imposed in lieu thereof, which is properly and exclusively a royal prerogative, it being within the jurisdiction of the administration of justice only to apply the penal law, without violating, in applying the same to criminals extradited from Portugal for a crime to which the code affixes the penalty of death, article I of the extradition treaty in force with the Portuguese Government, a precept, the observance of which will be proper, in accordance with the international agreement, after the said punishment has been imposed by a definite sentence. "-Second Chamber. Decision ofApri115,1884. Gaceta of September 28, page 158.
17





18

CAPiTTJLO 11.
QUESTIONS PREJUDICIALES.
ART. 30. Por regla general, la competencia de los Tribunales encargados de la justicia penal so extended 6 resolver, para s6lo el effect de la represi6n, ]as questions civiles y administrative prejudiciales propuestas con motive do los bechos perseguidos, cuando tales questions. aparezean tan intiniamente ligadas al becho punible que sea racionalmente impossible su separaci6n.
ART. 40. Sin embargo, si la cuestio'n prejudicial fuese determinate de la culpabilidad de la inocencia, el Tribunal de lo criminal suspendera el procedimiento hasta la resoluci'n de aque'lla por quien coresponda; pero puede, fijar un plazo, que no exceda do dos meses, para que las parties aeudan al juez 6 Tribunal civil contencioso-administrativo competence.'
Pasado el plazo sin quo el interesado credited baberlo utilizado, el Tribunal do lo criminal alzar6 la suspension y continuar6 el procedimiento.
En estos juicios ser6 parte el Ministerio fiscal.
ART. 50. No obstante lo dispuesto en los dos articulos anteriores, las questions civiles prejudiciales references a la validez de un matri.monio 6 'a la supresion de estado civil, so deferiran siempre al juez Tribunal que deba engender de las inismas, y su decision servir6 de base 6 la del Tribunal do lo criminal.

ART. 60. Si la cuesti'n civil prejudicial se refiere al derecho do propiedad sobre un inm-, ieble 6 otro derecho real, el Tribunal de lo criminal podr6 resolver acerea de ella cuando tales derechos aparezean fundados en un titulo authentic o' en actos indubitados do posesi6n.'
AUT. 7. El Tribunal do lo criminal se atemperar6 respectivamento a las re(das del Dereebo civil 6 administrative en las questions prejudiciales que, con arreglo 6 los articulos anteriores, deba resolver.


No gon suseeptibles de recurso de casaci6n:
(a) El auto que suspended temporalmente el procedimiento contra un acusado (4 Dicienibre, 1879).
(b) Los autos sobre procedencia de las questions prejudiciales i que se refiere el art. 4o de la ley, por no estar coinprendidos en el 850 (16 Abril y 5 Junio, 1888).

(c) El auto de sobreseimiento provisional (9 Abril de 1887).
1 Los arts. 4o, 51, y 6o, son excepci6n de los III y 114, que por regla general probiben el ejercicio aislado de toda acci6n civil, derivado del delito, mientras no se resuelva la penal A que el liecho reputado punible baya dado origin.








CHAPTER 11.
PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS.
ART. 3. As a general rule, the jurisdiction of courts charged with penal justice extends to the decision, for the purposes of reprehension only, of the preliminary civil and administrative questions arising in connection with the acts prosecuted, when such questions appear to be so intimately connected with the punishable act that their separation is practically impossible.
ART. 4. Nevertheless, if the preliminary question be one involving a determination of guilt or innocence, the criminal court shall suspend the proceedings until the decision thereof by the proper person; but it may fix a period not to exceed two months, within which the parties may apply to the civil or administrative judge or court of competent jurisdiction.'
If said period shall expire without the person interested proving that he has availed himself thereof, the criminal court shall raise the suspension and continue the proceedings.
The prosecuting official shall be a party to these proceedings.
ART. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the two preceding articles, civil preliminary questions relating to the validity of a marriage or to the suppression of the civil status shall always be transmitted to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the same, and his decision shall serve as a basis for that of the criminal court.
ART. 6. If the civil preliminary question shall relate to the right of ownership of real property or of another property right, the criminal court may decide thereon when such rights appear to be based on an authentic title or indubitable acts of possession.'
ART. T. The criminal court shall conform to the rules of civil or administrative law, respectively, in the preliminary questions which it may be required to decide, in accordance with the preceding articles.
IThe following can not be appealed from for annulmentof judgment:
(a) The decree temporarily suspending the proceedings against an accused person. (December 4, 1879.)
(b) Rulings as to the legality of the preliminary questions referred to in article 4 of the law, on account of not being included in article 850. (April 16 and June 5, 1888.)
(c) A decree temporarily suspending the proceedings. (April 9, 1887.)
'Articles 4, 5, and 6 are exceptions to articles 111 and 114, which, as a general rule, prohibit the separate institution of any civil action derived from the crime until the penal action has been decided which arose from the alleged punishable act.

















TfTULO 11.

DE LA COMPETENCIA DE LOS JUICES Y TRIBUNALES EN LO CRIMINAL.

CAPiTULO PRIMER.

DE LAS REGLAS POR DONDE SE DETERMINE LA COMPETENCIA.

ART. 8. La jurisdiccio'n criminal es siempre improrrogable.'
ART. 9. Los jueces y tribunals que tengan competencia para conocer do una causa determined, la tendrdn tambien para todas sus incidencias, para, Ilevar 6 effect las providencias de tramitacio'n y para la ejecuci6n de las sentencess'
ART. 10. Correspondera 'a la jurisdiction ordinaria el conocimiento de las causes y juicios criminals, con excepci6n de los casos reservados por las leyes al Senado, 6 los Tribunales de Guerra y Marina y 'a las autoridades administrative 6 de policia.'
ART. 11. El conocimiento do las causes por delitos en que aparezcan i la, vez culpable personas sujetas 'a la jurisdicei6n ordinaria y otras aforadas corresponder6 6 la ordinaria, salvo las excepciones consignadas expresamente en las leyes respect 'a la competencia de otra jurisdicei6n.'
AUT. 12. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, la jurisdiction ordinaria ser6 siempre competent para prevenir las causes por delitos que cometan los aforados.

I Lldmase prorrogada la jurisdicei6n que siendo incompetence se hace competence por voluntad de los litigants, segdn la ley 32, tit. 21., Partida 31., y la 71., tit. 29, libro 11 de la Novisima Recopilaci6n.
En lo criminal estd prohibida la prorrogaci6n de la jurisdieci6n, de donde result que s6lo el juez competence con arreglo 6 las prescripciones de esta ley puede entender en la persecuci6n de los delitos y faltas que se coinetan.
2 Seg m declar6 el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 24 de noviembre de 1863, en la ejecuci6n de sentences se comprende la exacci6n de costas inipuestas en la causa, que son mia pena accesoria de la principal.
3 Correspond al Senado hacer efectiva la responsabilidad de los Ministros, los cuales serdn acusados por el Congre8o, segthi dispose el art. 45 de la Constituci6n Vigente.
Sobre competencia de la jurisdicei6n de guerra, v6anse los artfeulos 10 6 17 de la, ley de Enjuiciamiento military de 29 de septiembre de 18S6. Los arts. 21 y 22 de la misma, ley enumeran los casos en que los militaries quedan sujetos A la jurisdieci6n ordinaria.
4 V6anSe los arts. 15 y 16 de la, citada, ley de Enjuiciamiento military.
19
















TITLE 11.

JURISDICTION OF JUDGES AND COURTS IN CRIMINAL MATTERS.

CHAPTER FIRST.

RULES FOR DETERMINING JURISDICTION.

ART. 8. Criminal jurisdiction is never susceptible of prorogation.' AiRT. 9. Judges and courts having jurisdiction of a specific cause shall also have jurisdiction of all its issues, to carry out decrees and enforce the execution of sentences.2
ART. 10. The cognizance of criminal trials and actions pertains to the ordinary jurisdiction, excepting such cases as are reserved by law to the Senate, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities.'
ART. 11. The ordinary jurisdiction shall take cognizance .of crimiinal causes in which persons subject to the ordinary as well as to other special jurisdictions appear guilty, with the exceptions expressly mentioned in the laws with regard to the competency of another jurisdiction.'
ART. 12. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the ordinary jurisdiction shall always be competent to take the prelimiinary steps in causes involving crimes committed by persons subject to special laws.

'Prorogation of jurisdiction is that jurisdiction which is by the consent of the parties conferred on a judge otherwise incompetent, according to law 32, title 2, partida 3, and law 7, title 29, book 11 of the Novisima Recopilaci6n. (Bell's Dic., 7th ed., p. 868.)
Prorogation of jurisdiction is prohibited in criminal matters, so that only the judge competent in accordance with the provisions of this law may take cognizance of crimes and misdemeanors which may 1)0 committed.
2 As the supreme court declared in a (decision of November 24, 1863, the execution of a sentence includes the exaction of the costs taxed in a cause, which are a penalty accessory to the principal one.
3The Senate has jurisdiction to enforce the liability of members of the cabinet who shall be accused by the Congress, in pursuance of the provisions of article 45 of the Constitution in force.
With regard to the competency of the army jurisdiction, see articles 10 to 17 of the law of military procedure of September 29, 1886. Articles 21 and 22 of the said law mention the cases in which soldiers are subject to the ordinary jurisdiction.
See articles 15 and 16 of the aforementioned law of military procedure.
19





20

Esta competencia se limitar6 a instruir las primers diligencias, concluidas las cuales, la jurisdiceei6n ordinaria remitirA las actuaciones al juez 0' tribunal quo deba eonocer de la causa con arreglo A las leyes, y pondr6 'a su disposition 'a los detenidos y los effects ocupados.

La jurisdicei6n ordinaria cesara en las primers diligencias tan luego como conste que la especial competence instruye causa sobre el inismo delito.
Los autos do inhibici6n de esta clase que pronuncien los jueces instructors do la jurisdicei611 ordinaria son apelables auto la respective audiencia.
Entre tanto que so substance y decide el recurso de apelacio'n, se cumplira lo dispuesto on el art. 22, p6rrafo segundo, it cuyo effect y para la sustanciaci6n del recurso so remitird el correSPODdiente testimonyo'

ART. 13. Conside'ranse como primers diligencias: las de dar protecci6n i los perjudicados, consigner las pruebas del delito quo puedan desaparecer, recover y poner en custodial cuanto conduzea 'a su comprobacio'n y 6 la identificaci'n del delineuente, y detener on su caso los reos presuntos.
ART. 14. Fucra de los casos reservados al Senado, y de aquellos que express y limitativamente atribuye la ley al Tribunal Supremo, A las audiences territories, 'a las jurisdieciones de Guerra y MariDa y 6 las atitoridades administrative 6 do policia, serdn competentes por reght gCDeral:
10. Para los juicios de faltas, los jueces municipals del t6rmino en que se hayan cometido.
2'. Para la instrucci6n de las causes, los jueces instructors del partido on que el delito so baya cometido.
3'. Para concern do la causa y del juicio respective, la audiencia de lo criminal de la eircunscripei6n en donde el delito se haya cometido.'
Sobre apelaci6n por el fiscal de los autos de inhibiei6n, v6ase la nota, al art. 25.
El Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado, en sentencia de 11 de febrero de 1880, que el heclio de haber comenzado un Juez zi, concern do una causa y reclamado su jurisdieci6n, no es bastante para atribuir competencia; y en otra, de 5 de agosto de 1886, que la jurisdicci6n ordinaria es competence para in8truir diligencias sobre suicidio de de un soldado.
'De las causes contra inches municipals y jueces de instrucci6n 6 de primer instancia y de las promovidas contra consejales de ayuntandento y autoridades administrative de poblaciones donde no bubiera audiencia 6 no sean capitals de provincia, 4d6berdn concern las audiences de lo criminal 6 las salas respectivas de las territories?
La fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo resuelve la duda en favor de, las audiences de lo criminal de la eircunscripci6n en que se haya coinetido el delito, primer en la 69 de las instructions que aeompafiaron d la Memoria de 15 deseptiembredel883, y despu6s en la circular de 18 de Agosto de 1884.
Do conformidad con la opinion de la fiscalfa, el Tribunal Supremo ba establecido





20

This jurisdiction shall be confined to the first steps, upon the conclusion of which the ordinary jurisdiction shall transmit the proceedings to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the cause in accordance to law, and shall place the persons detained and the effects seized at the disposal of the same.
The ordinary jurisdiction shall discontinue the first steps as soon as it becomes evident that the proper special jurisdiction has instituted proceedings on the same crime.
Decrees of inhibition of this character issuing from examining judges of the ordinary jurisdiction may be appealed from to the proper audiencia.
Until the appeal is heard and decided the provisions of the second paragraph of article 22 shall apply, for which purpose, as well as for the hearing and determination of the appeal, the proper transcript shall be forwarded.'
ART. 13. The following are considered first steps: Those taken to protect the injured parties, record the evidence of the crime which may disappear, collect and place under custody all that may conduce to the proof thereof and to the identification of the delinquent, and, in a proper case, arrest the presumed criminals.
ART. 14. With the exception of the cases reserved to the Senate, and of those which are expressly and specially assigned by law to the supreme court, to the territorial audiencias, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities, the following shall have jurisdiction as a general rule:
1. Of actions for misdemeanors, the municipal judges of the district in which committed.
2. To investigate the causes, the examining judges of the judicial district in which the crime was committed.
3. To take cognizance of the cause and the respective trial, the criminal audiencia of the circuit where the crime was committed.'
'With regard to appeals by the prosecuting official from decrees of inhibition, see note to article 25.
The supreme court declared in a decision of February 11, 1880, that the fact of a judge having begun to act in a cause and claimed jurisdiction thereof is not sufficient to grant jurisdiction; and in another, of August 5, 1886, that the ordinary jurisdiction is competent to institute proceedings relating to the suicide of a soldier.
2 D criminal audiencias or the respective chambers of the territorial andiencias have jurisdiction of causes instituted against municipal, examining, or judges of first instance, as well as against members of Ayuntamientos and administrative authorities of towns where there is no audiencia, or which are not the capital of a province?
The Fisecalia of the supreme court decides the doubt in favor of the criminal andiencias of the circuit where the crime was committed, first in the 69th instruction which accompanies the memorial of September 15, 1883, and subsequently in the circular of August 18, 1884.
In accordance with the opinion of the fiiscalia, the supreme court ruled in its





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ART. 15. Cuando no conste el lugar en que so haya cometido una falta delito, serAn juices y tribunale8 competentes on sit caso para concern de la causa 6 juicio:
10. El del t4rmino municipal, partido circuriscripcion en que se hayan descubierto pruebas materials del delito.
20. El del t4rmino municipal, partido 6 circunscripei6n en que el presunto reo haya sido aprehendido.
30. El de la residence del reo presunto.
40. Cualquiera que hubiese tenido noticia del delito.
Si so suscitase competencia entre estos jucces o' tribunals, se decidira dando la preferencia por el orden con que est6n expresados en los numerous que precedent.
Tan luego como conste el lugar on que se hubiese cometido el del
se remitirAn las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal A cuya demareaci6n correspond, poniendo 6 su disposici'n 6 los detenidos y effects ocupados.
ART. 16. La jurisdicci'n ordinaria sera' la competence para juzgar 6 los reos de delitos conexos, siernpre que aIguno est6 stijeto a efla, aun cuando los dem6s scan aforados.
Lo dispuesto en el p6rrafo anterior se entiende sin perjuicio de las excepciones expresamente consignadas en este C'digo o' en leves especiales, y singularmente en las leyes ponales do Guerra y Marina respect a' determinados delitos.
ART. 17. Conside'ranse delitos conexos:
10. Los cometidos simult6neamente por dos mds personas reu nidas, siempre que 4stas vengan sujetas 6 diversos juices tribunals ordinarios 6 especiales, 6 que puedan estarlo por la indole del delito.
20. Los cometidos por dos 6 m6s personas en distintos lugares 6 tempos si hubiese precedido concerto, para ello.
30. Los cometidos como medio para perpetrar otros, 6 facilitar su ejecuci'n.
40. Los cometidos para procurer la impunidad de otros delitos.
5'. Los diversos delitos que se imputen 6 un procesado al incoarse contra el mismo causa por cualquiera de ellos, si tuviereD analogifa 6 en sentencia del 10 de marzo de 1885, que ]a salas de ]as audiences territories, en cuanto 6 log delitos de los jueces de instrucci611-se refiere, s6lo son colupetentes para concern de los cometidos dentro del territorio 6 demarcaci6n que les est6 asignado, Hi6ndole exclusivamente las nuevas audiences para perseguir y castigar los que I iayan tenido lugar dentro de las stiyas respectivas (sentencia de 23 de febrero de 1885), y que seg(in el Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado en reiteradas decisiorms, de una mantra explicit y terminate, es de la exclusive competencia de las audiences de lo criminal el conocimento de los delitos cometidos Por los jueces de instrueci6n de su eircunscripci6n respective.
Los inismos tribunals son los competentes para concern de las causes contra jueces y fiscales municipale8.






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ART. 15. When the place where a misdemeanor or crime has been committed is not known, the following judges and courts shall have jurisdiction, in a proper case, of the cause or trial:
1. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit where material proofs of the crime have been found.
2. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit in which the presumed criminal may have been apprehended.
3. That of the place of residence of the presumed criminal.
4. Any judge or court receiving notice of the crime.
If a question of jurisdiction shall arise between these judges or courts the decision rendered shall give the preference in the order mentioned in the preceding numbers.
As soon as the place where the crime was committed is known, the proceedings shall be forwarded to the judge or court within whose district such place is situated, the persons arrested as well as the effects seized being held subject to orders of the same.
ART. 16. The ordinary jurisdiction shall be competent to judge persons guilty of connected crimes, provided that one of them is subject thereto, even if the others should be subject to special jurisdictions.
The provisions contained in the foregoing paragraph shall be understood without prejudice to the exceptions expressly mentioned in this code or in special laws, and particularly in the war and navy criminal laws with regard to specific crimes.
AiiT. 17. The following are considered connected crimes:
1. Those committed simultaneously by two or more persons together, provided that they are subject to the jurisdiction of different ordinary or special judges or courts, or who might be so on account of the nature of the crime.
2. Those committed by two or more persons at different places or times, if there shall have been a previous agreement between them.
3. Those committed as a means to perpetrate others or to facilitate their execution.
4. Those committed to secure im unity from other crimes.
5. The different crimes charged against an accused person upon the, institution against him of an action for any of them, should there be

decision of March 19, 1885, that the chambers of the territorial audiences, in so far as crimes committed by examining judges are concerned, have jurisdiction only of those committed within the district assigned them, and that the new audiences are exclusively competent to prosecute arid punish those which may have taken place within their respective district (decision of February 23, 1885), and that, as the supreme court has repeatedly declared in an explicit arid final manner, the jurisdiction of crimes committed by examining judges of their respective circuits pertains to criminal audiences exclusively.

The said courts have jurisdiction of causes against municipal judges and prosecuting officials.





22

relaci'n entre si 'a juicio del tribunal y no hubiesen sido, hasta entonces objeto de procedimiento.
ART. 18. Son jueces y tribunals competentes, por su orden, para conocer de las causes por delitos conexos:
10. El del territorio en que se haya cometido el delito 6 que est6 sefialada pena mayor.
20. El que primer comenzare la causa en el caso de que 6 los delitos est4 sefialada igual pena.
30. El que la audiencia de lo criminal el Tribunal Supremo en sus respectivos casos designed, cuando las causes hubieren empezado al misnio tempo, 6 no conste cu6l comenzo primer.

CAPiTULO II.
DE LAS QUESTIONS DE COMPETENCIA ENTRE LOS JUECES Y TRIBUNALS ORIDINARIOS. I
ART. 19. Podrdn promoter y softener competencia:
1'. Los jueces municipals en cualquier estado del juicio, y las parties desde la citacio'n hasta el acto de la comparecencia.
20. Los jueces de instrucci'n durante el sumario.
30. Las audiences de lo criminal durante la sustanciacio'n del juicio.
40. El minister fiscal en cualquier estado de ]a causa.'
50. El acusador particular antes de formula su primer petici6n despu4s de personado en la causa.
60. El procesado y la parte civil, ya figure como actor, y aparezea como responsible, dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que se les communique la causa para calificaci6n.
ART. 20. Son superiors jerdrquicos para resolver sobre las cuestiones de competencia, en la forma que determinardn los articulos siguientes:
10. De los juices municipals del mismo partido, el de instruction.
20. De los jueces de instrucci6n de una misma circunscripci'n, la audiencia de lo criminal.
30. De las audiences de lo criminal del mismo territorio, la audiencia territorial en pleno.
40. De las audiences territories, o' cuando la competencia sea entre una audiencia, de lo criminal y la sala de lo criminal de una territorial, el Tribunal Supremo.
1 Las reglas que se fijan en este capftulo para sustanciar competencias, no se aplican cuando los conflicts se suscitan en causes seguidas contra reos de flagrant delito; en esos casos se abrevia la contienda tramitdndose y decidi6ndose por el procedimiento especial del art. 782.
I Derecho del minister fiscal para promoter la competencia en cualquier estado de la causa. Este derecho entraha la facultad de ejercitar la inhibitoria 6 la declinatoria sin limitaci6n a1guna; y si entabla la primer despu6s de terminado el sumario y de abierto el juicio oral, no puede tener aplicaci6n el procedimiento marcado en el art. 23 (26 de diciembre de 1885. Gac. de 9 deutayo 1886).





22

analogy or relation between them, in the judgment of the court, and should they not have been the subject of proceedings to that time.
ART. 18. The following, in their order, are judges and courts which have jurisdiction of causes involving connected crimes:
1. That of the territory where the crime was committed to which a higher penalty is affixed.
2. The one first beginning proceedings, if equal penalties are affixed to the crime.
3. The one designated by the criminal audiencia or by the supreme court in their respective cases, when the causes were begun at the same time, or when it does not appear which was begun first.

CHAPTER HI.
QUESTIONS OF JURISDICTION BETWEEN ORDINARY JUDGES AND COURTS.1

ART. 19. Questions of jurisdiction may be raised and sustained by1. Municipal judges at any stage of the action, and by the parties between the citation and the hearing.
2. Judges of examination, daring the sumario.
3. Criminal audiencias during the hearing of the trial.
4. The public prosecutor at any stage of the cause .2
5. The private accuser, before filing his first plea, after having entered an appearance in the cause.
6. The accused and the civil party, whether appearing as plaintiff or defendant, within three days after the cause has been transmitted to them for classification.
ART. 20. The following are hierarchical superiors for the decision of questions of jurisdiction, in the manner prescribed by the following articles:
1. Of municipal judges of the same judicial district, the judge of examination.
2. Of judges of examination of the same circuit, the criminal audiencia.
3. Of criminal audiencias of the same territory, the territorial audiencia in bane.
4. Of territorial audiencias, or when the question of jurisdiction is between a criminal audiencia and the criminal chamber of a territorial audiencia, the supreme court.
The rules prescribed in this chapter for the hearing and determination of questions of jurisdiction, are not applicable when raised in causes against those guilty of flagrant crimes; in such cases the contest is curtailed, being heard and determined in accordance with the special procedure of article 782.
2 Right of the public prosecutor to raise a question of jurisdiction at any stage of the
cause.-This right includes the power to interpose an inhibitory or declinatory plea without any limitation whatsoever; and if he interposes the former plea between the conclusion of the sumario and the beginning of the oral trial, the procedure mentioned in article 23 can not apply. December 26, 1885. (Goceta of May 9, 1886.)




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Cifando cualquiera de los jueces tribunals mencionados en los numerous 1', 2' y 3', no tengan superior inmediato coffin, decidir6 la competencia el que lo sea en el orden jer6rquico, y 'a falta de 'ste el Tribunal Supremo.'
ART. 21. El Tribunal Supremo no podra former ni promoter competencias y ningu'n juez, tribunal 6 parte podrii promoverlas contra 41.

Cuando algu'n juez' o' tribunal viniere entendiendo en asunto cuyo conocimiento estuviere reservado al Tribunal Supremo, ordenar 4ste 6 aque'l de oficio, 'a excitaci6n del minister fiscal 6 A solicited de parte, quo so abstenga, do todo procedimiento y remita los antecedents, en el t'rmino de segundo dia, para on su vista resolver.
El Tribunal Supremo podrA sin embargo autorizar, on la misma orden y entre tanto que resuelve la conipetencia, la continuaci6n de aquellas diligencias cuya urgencia 6 necesidad fueren manifiestas.
Contra la decision del Tribunal Supremo no so da recurso alguno.
ART. 22. Cuando dos o' ma's jueces de instrucei6n se reputed competentes para actual en un asunto, si A la primer comunicaeio'n no se pusieren do acuerdo sobre la competencia, drain cuenta con remisi6n de testimony al superior competence,' y e'ste en su vista decidiril de plano y sin ulterior recurso cu6l de los jueces instructors debe actual.

Mientras no recaiga decision, eada uno de los jueces instructors seguird practicando las diligencias neeesarias para comprobar el delito, y aquellas otras que considered de reconocida urgencia.'
Dirimido el conflict por el superior 6 quien compete, el juez de instruccl'n que deje de actual remitir6 las diligencias practieadas y los objets recogidos al declarado competence dentro de segundo dia, d contar desde el en que reciba ]a orden superior para que deje de concern.
I Correspond al Tribunal Suprerno la decision de la competencia suseitada entre dos juzgados enclavados en district de la inisma audiencia territorial, Pero perteneciente uno de ellos a circunscripei6n de audiencia de lo criminal. FlIndase esta doetrina en que formando parte del pleno de la audiencia territorial la Sala de lo criminal, vendrfa d ser j uez y parte si dielia audiencia territorial decidiese el conflict. (Sala 3, sent. de junio 28 de 1888. Gae. 30 id.)
2 Este precepts, aplicable d ]as competencias negatives por virtue del Art. 46, no permit que se reinitan al superior las diligencias originals, pues entonces no pueden seguir practic6ndose las neeesarias para coinprobar el delito y sus eircunstalicias. (Sentencia de septiembre 20 de 1886.) Pero si, esto no obstante, renliten las actuaciones originals, tal irregularidad no debe producer la declaraci6n de estar inal forinada la competencia. (Julid 17 de 1884).

1 Desde que un juzgado tiene conocimiento de que otro ba prevenido causa sobre el mismo hecho de que aqu6l conoce, debe abstenerse de dietary resoluci6n definitive antes de proinover ]a inhibitoria, y de no hacerlo asf la que recaiga no puede ser obstdculo para decidir la competencia. (Sala 3, 8entencia de 29 de Abril de 1878.)




23

When any of the judges or courts mentioned in numbers 1, 2, and 3 shall have no immediate common superior, the question of jurisdiction shall be decided by the hierarchical superior, and in the absence of the latter, by the supreme court.'
ART. 21. The supreme court can not institute or raise a question of jurisdiction, nor can any judge, court, or party question its jurisdiction.
If any judge or court shall take cognizance of a question, jurisdiction of which is reserved to the supreme court, the latter shall order the former, ex offleio, on motion of the public prosecutor or of a party, that it discontinue further proceedings and forward the same, on or before the second day, for the proper decision.
The supreme court may nevertheless authorize in the same order, until the question of jurisdiction is settled, the continuation of such proceedings the urgency or necessity of which is apparent.
There shall be no remedy against the decision of the supreme court.
ART. 22. When two or more examining judges consider themselves as having jurisdiction of a matter, if upon the first communication they should not agree as to the jurisdiction, they shall make a report to the proper superior, forwarding a transcript,' and the latter shall decide eo in8tanti, in view thereof and without further remedy, which of the examining judges shall have jurisdiction.
Until a decision is rendered, each of the examining judges shall continue the proceedings necessary to prove the crime and any other proceedings which he may consider of recognized urgency.'
After the conflict has been decided by the proper superior, the judge of examination who discontinued proceedings shall forward the proceedings had, and the objects gathered, to the judge declared competent, within two days after receiving the superior order to cease taking cognizance thereof.
I The decision of a question of jurisdiction between two courts situated within the district of the same territorial aadiencia, but one of them belonging to the circuit of a criminal audieneia, pertains to the supreme court. The basis for this doctrine is that "as the criminal chamber of a territorial andiencia forms part of the audiencia in banc, it would become a judge and party if said territorial audiencia should decide the conflict. (Third Chamber, decision of June 28, 1888. Gaceta of the 30th.)
I This precept, applicable to negative questions of jurisdiction by virtue of article 46, does not permit the transmission to the superior of the original proceedings, because in such case it would be impossible to continue the necessary proceedings to prove the crime and its circumstances. (Decision of September20, 1886.) Butifnotwithstanding this, they forward the original proceedings, such irregularity does not permit of a declaration that the question of jurisdiction is not well taken. (July 17, 1884.)
1 From the moment that a court has knowledge that another court has begun a cause involving the same matter of which it is taking cognizance, it must not render a definite decision before requesting an inhibition; otherwise the decision rendered will not be an obstacle to the decision of the question of jurisdiction. (Third chamber, decision of April 29, 1878.)




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Art. 23. Si durante el sumario el minister, fiscal 5 el acusador particular entendiesen que el juez instructor no tiene competencia para actual en la causa, podr6n reclainar ante el tribunal superior 6 quien correspond, el cual, previous los inforines quo estime necesarios, resolver6 do plano y sin ulterior recurso.'
En todo caso so cumplira lo dispuesto en el p:irrafo segundo del articulo anterior.
ART. 24. Terininado ol sumario, toda. cuestio'n de competencia que so proinueva suspenders los procedintientos hasta la decision de ella.'
ART. 25. El juez 6 tribunal que se considered competence deberd promoter la competencia.
Tanibi4n acordar6 la inhibici'n 6 favor del juez 6 tribunal conipetente cuando considered que el conocimiento de la causa no le corresponded, aunque sobre ello no haya procedido reclamaci6n de los interesados ni del minister fiscal.
Los autos que los j ueces inunicipales 0' de instrucci'n dicten, inhibicndose 6 favor de otro juez 6 jurisdicei6n, ser6n apelables ubserNandose en este caso lo dispuesto en el 'ltimo parrafo del art. 12. Contra los de las audiences podr6 interp6nerse el recurso do casaci6n.'

'No es admissible, por to tanto, el de casaci6n. Sentowias de junio 27 y 3 ?/ 81 de diciembre, 1884.
1 No es procedente suscitar competencia sobre conocimiento de una causa fallada ya definitivamente. (Sentenciadejulio8deI878.)
3 ZCuando deberd apelar el minister fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n A que se refiere este artfeulo y el 12?
"Si el minister fiscal ha sido ofdo antes de dictarse los indicados autos, y su opinion se hubiere aceptado por el juez 6 audiencia respective, no debe interponerse recurso alguno.
"Si el minister fiscal no ha tenido intervenci6n, 6 hubiera opinado en Contra de la procedencia de dicho auto, entonees debe apelar del misino, si ha sido dictado por un juez municipal 6 de instrucci6n.
Respect A los falls dictados por el Tribunal colegiado, deberL interponerse el recurso de casaci6n, si hubiere inotivo legal para ello." (X(owro 51 de la Menwria de la fiscalia del Tribunal Supren-to de 15 de septiembre de 1883, y 10 de la de 15 de septiembre 1886.)
En sentencia de 14 de noviembre de 1883 declar6 el Tribunal Supremo que Contra el auto de un juez inhibi6ndose del conocimiento de una causa en favor de la jurisdicci6n de guerra, no es admissible el recurso de casaci6n, pues contra tat provefdo precede el recurso ordinario de apelaci6n, segdn el art. 25 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, 6 to cual no obsta la disposici()n del articulo 50, torque esta disposici6n se refiere at caso de que exist 6 amenaze trabarse una verdadera cuesti6ii de conipetencia, y no cuando un juez (to instrucei6n espontdneaniente 6 at primer requerimiento 6 petici6n que se le dirige se juzga incompetence y acuerda inhibirse, sill que por to tanto medic todavfa semejante cuesti6n ni haya que tramitarla, A no ser que, acogi6ndose los interesados at recurso que la ley en su citado art. 32 les facility, aeuden en apelaci6n at superior ininediato, y Me determine que sostenga Hu jurisdieci6n y se substance y resuelva el asunto de la mantra y por quien en el expresado titulo estA prescrito.






24

ART. 23. If during the sumario the public prosecutor or the private accuser shall consider that the examining judge has no jurisdiction to proceed in the cause, they may object before the proper superior court, which, after the investigation it considers necessary, shall decide eo instant without further remedy.'
In any case the provisions of the second paragraph of the foregoing article shall be complied with.
ART. 24. Upon the conclusion of the sumario, any question of jurisdiction raised shall stay the proceedings until it is decided.'
ART. 25. The judge or court considering itself competent must raise the question.
It shall also grant the inhibition in favor of the competent judge or court when it considers that it has not jurisdiction of the cause even though the persons interested or the public prosecutor have not previously pleaded thereto.
The decrees of municipal or examining judges inhibiting themselves in favor of another judge or jurisdiction may be appealed from, in which case the provisions of the last paragraph of article 12 shall be observed. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from decrees of audiencess'

I An appeal for annulment of judgment is therefore inadmissible. (Decisions of June 27 and December.3 and 31, 1881f.)
I A question of jurisdiction can not be raised as to the cognizance of a cause which has already been definitely decided. (Decision of July 8, 1878.)
3 When must the public prosecutor appeal from the decrees of inhibition referred to in this article and in article 12?
"If the public prosecutor has been heard before the issue of said decrees, and his opinion should have been accepted by the respective judge or audiencia, no appeal can be taken.
If the public prosecutor should not have had any intervention, or should have opposed the issue of said decree, he must then appeal therefrom, if it issued from a municipal or examining judge.
"With regard to the decisions of a collegiate tribunal, an appeal for annulment of judgment must betaken if there is a legal cause therefor." (No.5ofthememorialof the staff qf the public prosecutor of the supreme court of September 15, 1883, and 10 of that ofSeptember 15, 1886.)
In a decision of November 14, 1883, the supreme court declared that an appeal for annulment of judgment does not lie from a decree of a judge declining the jurisdiction of a cause in favor of the war jurisdiction, because an ordinary appeal lies therefrom according to article 25 of the law of criminal procedure, which is not affected by article 50, because the latter provision relates to a case where a true question of jurisdiction exists or is liable to arise, and not when a judge voluntarily or upon the first demand or request addressed to him deems himself incompetent and consents to his inhibition, without such a question arising and having to be decided, unless the persons interested seek the remedy of law granted them by the said article 32 and appeal to the immediate superior, and the latter determines that lie shall sustain his jurisdiction, and that the matter be heard and determined in the mariner and by the persons prescribed in the said title.
18473-01-4





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ART. 26. El minister fiscal y las parties promoverAn ]as competencias por inhibitoria 6 por deelinatoria.
El uso do uno de estos niedios exclude absolumente el del otro, asi durante la sustanciaci6ii de la competencia, como una vez que 5sta se balle terminada.
La inhibitoria so propondr6 ante el juez 6 tribunal que se renute competence.


ART. 27. El jtiez municipal ante qUien se proponga la inhibitoria, oyendo at fiscal citando 4ste no ]a Imbiere propuesto, rosolver6 on t4rmino do segundo dia si procede 6 no el requerhuiento do inhibition.

El auto denegatorio do re(Ineritniento es apolable on ainbos efeetos para ante el juez do instrueci6n respective.'
ART. 28. Si cl juez municipal estimate quo precede el requeriniiento do inbibici6n, to mandar6 practiear por medio do oficio, on el cijal consignar6 los fundamentos de sit auto.
El oficio se remitir dentro (To veinticuatro tioras precisamente.
ART. 29. El juez municipal reqnerido do inhibici6n, oyendoal fiscal, resolvera en te'rmino do segiindo dia si desist de concern 6 mantiene su competencia.

En el primer caso reinitir6 dontro do ]as veintictiatro horas siguientes las diligoncias practieadas at juez requirente.
Si mantiene su competencia se to eonwnicar6 dentro del inismo plazo, exponiendo los fundamentos de sit resoluci6n.
ART. 30. Recibidos los autos por el juez requirente, dectarart! sin mas trdmites y dentro de veinticuatro horas, s4 insist(,, on la competencia 6 se apart do olla.
En el primer caso to partieipara on et mi-sino plazo al ju(,,z requorido para quo remita las diligencias ,it jnez 6 tribunal (lite deba resolver la competencia, 6 tenor de to dispnesto on el artienlo 20, baciendo 61 la remisi6n do las suyas dentro do. las vointictiatro horas siguientes.


En et sogtmdo caso, to participar.1 en el inisnio dia at juez reqnevido para quo osto ptieda continual conociendo.
jEs necesaria la firing de letrado en el escrito proponiendo la inhibitoriaante los juzgados inunicipales? Los arts. 27 6 32 que so octipan (le las cuestiolws de competencia entre tales juzgados, no exigen ese requisite, que on canibio impose conio necesario el art. 33 para proponer ]a inhibici6n ante los tribunctles de to criloinal, en cuya frase no sabenios stestardii comprendidos, para el. caso, los jnzgados iininicipales. Coil arreglo d la legislaci6n anterior, (,I Tribunal Snpren-lo tenfa restielta la du(la en el sentido de que era indispensable ]a firma (le letrado en el escrito fle hihibitoria, por exigirlo, sin distiiici6n de casos, el art. 365 de la ley orgAnica judicial. (Sentencias de septie'rnbre P, y mor--o 5 de 1877.





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ART. 26. The public prosecutor and the parties shall raise the question of jurisdiction by an inhibitory or declinatory plea.
The employment of one of these remedies absolutely excludes the employment of the other, both during the bearing of the question as well as after its decision.
The inhibitory plea shall be interposed before the judge or court considered competent.
The declinatory plea before the judge or court which considers itself as not having jurisdiction.
ART. 27. The municipal judge before whom the inhibitory plea is interposed, after hearing the public prosecutor, if interposed by another party, shall decide before the second day whether the writ of inhibition shall issue.
A decision overruling the plea may be appealed from for review and for a stay of proceedings to the proper examining judge.'
ART. 28. If the municipal judge should be of opinion that the inhibition is well taken, he shall issue a writ in which he shall state the reasons for his decree.
The writ must be transmitted within twenty-four hours.
ART. 29. The municipal judge sought to be inhibited, after receiving the opinion of the public prosecutor, shall decide before the second day whether lie abstains from proceeding in the cause or whether he defends his competency.
lit the former case he shall forward the proceedings had to the inhibiting judge within the next twenty-four hours.
.If he maintains his jurisdiction, he shall communicate it to him within the same period, stating the reasons for his decision.
Awt'. 30. After the record has been received by the inhibiting judge he shall declare without further proceeding and within twenty-four hours whether he insists upon his jurisdiction or abandons it.
lit the former case he shall so cominunicate within a similar period to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may forward the proceedings to the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction, in accordance with the provisions of article 20, and the judge requesting the inhibition shall forward his within the following twenty-four hours.
lit the latter case be shalt communicate it the same day to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may continue the proceedings.
19 the signature of an attorney necessary to the inhibitory plea presented to municipal courts? Arts. 27 to 32, which relate to questions of Jurisdiction between said courts, do not demand this requisite, which, oil the other hand, is imposed as necessary by article 33 to interpose an inhibition before criminal courts, in which sentence we do not know whether municipal courts should be included. With regard to the prior laws the supreme court has decided the doubt to the effect that the signature of ail attorney was indispensable to the inhibitory plea as it is required, without any distinction of cases, by art. 365 of the judicial organic law. (Demsions of Septem I)er 24 and March 5, 1,s 7. )





26

Los autos que los jueces requeridos dieten, accediendo a' la inhibici6n, seran apelables para ante el respective juez de instruction. Tambien lo serdn los que dicten los requirements desistiendo de la inhibition.

ART. 31. Recibidas las diligencias on el juzoado 6 tribunal Ilamado i resolver la competencia y oido el fiscal por el t6rmino de segundo dia, la decidir6 dentro de los tres siguientes al en que el minister fiscal evacue el traslado.

Contra lo resuelto por el juzgado 6 audiencia proceder6 el recurso de easacio'n.
Contra la resolution del Supremo no se da recurso alguno.

ART. 32. Cuando se proponga declinatoria ante un juez municipal, resolveri 'ste en t'rinino de segundo dia, oyendo previamente al fiscal, sobre si precede no acordar la inhibicio'n.

El auto en que se deniegue la inhibici6n es apelable on ambos effects para ante el juzgado A quien correspond resolver la competencia, el cual sustanciar6 el recurso en la forma provenida en el parrafo primer, del articulo anterior.

Contra la resoluci'n del j uzgado procederi el recurso de casacion.

ART. 33. La inhibicio'n ante los tribunals de lo criminal se propondr6 en escrito con firma de letrado.
En el escrito expresar6 el que la propouga que no ha empleado la deelinatoria. Si results lo contrario, ser6 condenado en costas aunque se decide en su favor la competencia, aunque la abandoned en lo sucesivo.
ART. 34. El tribunal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria oirA por t4rmino de uno 6 dos dias, seg6n el volume de la causa, a] minister fiscal, cuando e'ste no la baya propuesto, asi como a las dcmAs parties quo figure en la causa de que pudiera 6 la vez estar conociendo eltribunal -6 quien se haya instead para que haga el requerimiento, y en su vista, matidart! dentro de los dos dias siguientes library oficio inhibitorio, declarara' no haber lugar 'a ello.
ART. 35. Contra el auto en que se deniegue el requerimiento de inhibici6n so'lo habrd lugar al recurso de casaci6n.'
ART. 36. Con el oficio de inhibici6n se acon)paiiara testimony: del escrito en quo se haya pedido, de lo expuesto por el minister fiscal

'Este artfeulo se refiere A los autos en que se deniegue el requerimiento de inbibici6n por los tribunals de lo criminal y no 6 los que los jueces de primer instancia pueden dictar en asuntos de su competencia. (Sentencia de Abril 28 de 1883.) Contra la sentencia deiiegatoria (lel recurso de casaci6n no cabe ningdn otro. (Sentencia deftbrero 10, 1880, 8aia 3,1.)





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The decisions of the judges sought to be inhibited consenting to the inhibition may be appealed from to the respective examining judge. Those of the judges requesting the inhibition desisting therefrom may also be appealed from in the same manner.
ART. 31. After the proceedings have been received by the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction and after the opinion of the public prosecutor has been received within the two days following, a decision shall be rendered within three days after the prosecuting officials submit their report.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the court or audiencia.
There is no remedy whatever against the decision of the Supreme Court.
ART. 32. When a declinatory plea is interposed before a municipal judge he shall render a decision thereon before the expiration of two days, after hearing the public prosecutor as to whether the plea is or is not well taken.
A decree overruling the inhibition may be appealed from for review and for a stay of proceedings to the judge to whom the decision of the jurisdiction pertains, who shall hear and determine the appeal in the manner prescribed in the first paragraph of the foregoing article.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the court.
ART. 313. Tnhibitory pleas before criminal courts shall be in writing and signed by an attorney.
The person interposing said plea shall state that he has not interposed a declinatory plea. Should the contrary appear the costs shall be taxed against him, even though the question of jurisdiction be decided in his favor or be should subsequently abandon it.
ART. 34 The court before which the inhibitory plea is interposed shall hear for a period of one to two days, according to the volume of the cause, the prosecuting officials, if the latter should not have interposed it, as well as the other parties appearing in the cause which the court is hearing before which the plea for inhibition has been interposed and in view thereof, it shall issue, within the next two days, a writ of inhibition, or shall overrule the plea.
ART. 35. An appeal for annulment of judgment only lies against a decree denying a writ of inhibition.'
AnT. 36. Attested copies shall be attached to the writ of inhibition, of the petition requesting it, of the statements of the prosecuting officials, and of the parties, in a proper case; of the decision rendered,
'This article refers to decrees denying a writ of inhibition by criminal courts and not to those issued by judges of first instance in matters of their jurisdiction. (Decision of April 28, 1883.) No appeal lies from the decision which denies an appeal. (Decision of February 10, 1880, Third Chamber.)





27

y por las parties on su caso, del auto que se haya dictado y do lo dema's que el tribunal estime conducente para fundar su competencia.
El testimony se extender' y remitird en el plazo improrrogable do uno a tres dias, segfin el volume de la causa.

ART. 37. El tribunal requerido acusari inmediatamente recibo, y oyendo al minister fiscal, al acusador particular, si le hubiere, al procesado 6 procesados y 'a los que figure como parte civil, por un plazo que no podra exceder de veinticuatr'o horas 6 cada uno, dictard auto inhibieDdose 6 declarando que no ha lugar i liacerlo.

Contra el auto ell que el tribunal se inhibiere no so dard otro recurso que el de casaci6n.
ART. 38. Consentida 6 ejecutoriada la sentencia en que el tribunal se hubiese inhibido, so remitir6 la causa, dentro del plazo do tres dias, al tribunal que hubiera propuesto la inhibitoria, con emplazamiento de las parties y poniendo 6 disposicio'n de aqu4l los procesados, las pruebas materials del delito y los bienes embargados.

ART. 39. Si se denegare la inhibici'n, se coinunicaril, el auto al tribunal requirente, con testimony de lo expuesto por el minister fiscal y por las parties y de todo lo deinds que se crea conducente.

El testimony se expedirA y remitira dentro de tres dias.
En el oficio de remission so exigirii que el tribunal requisite conteste inmediatamente para continual actuando si no insisted ell la inhibici'n, 6 que en otro caso remita la causa a' quien correspond para que decide la competencia.

ART. 40. Recibido el oficio que express el articulo anterior, el tribunal que hubiere propuesto la inhibitoria dictara, sin inds tr6mites, auto en te'rmino de segundo dia.

Contra el auto desistiendo de la inhibici'n s6lo proeedera cl recurso de easaci6n.
ART. 41. Consentido 6 ejecutoriado el auto en que el tribunal desist de la inhibitoria, lo comunicara en el te'rmino de veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibici6n, remitie'ndole al propio tempo todo lo actuado para su uni6n A la causa.

ART. 42. Si el tribunal requirente mantiene su competencia, lo comunicard en el te'rmino de veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibition para, que remita la causa al tribunal 6 quien correspond la resoluci6n, haciendolo 41 de lo actuado ante el mismo.





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and of anything else which the court may consider proper upon which to base its jurisdiction.
Thc attested copy shall be prepared and forwarded with-i n the unextendible period of one to three days, according to the volume of tile cause.
ART. 37. The court sought to be inhibited shall at once acknowledge receipt, and after hearing thc prosecuting officials, the private accuser, should there be any, the person or persons undergoing trial, and those who appear as civil parties, for a period which shall not exceed twentyfour hours for each one, shall issue a decree inhibiting himself or declaring that there is no reason for so doing.
There shall be no remedy but an appeal for annulment of judgment from decrees of a court inhibiting itself.
ART. 38. After the decision by which a court has inhibited itself has been consented to or executed, the cause shall be forwarded, within a period of three days, to the court which proposed the inhibition, with a summons of the parties and holding the accused at the disposal of the former as well as the material evidences of the crime and the goods seized.
ART. 39. If the inhibition should be refused, the decree shall be communicated to the court demanding tihe inhibition, with transcript of the statements of the prosecuting officials and of the parties, and of an ything else which may be deemed proper.
The transcript shall be issued and transmitted within three days.
In the communication of transmittal it shalt lbe required that the court demanding the inhibition answer immediately, in order to continue the proceedings if the inhibition be not insisted upon, or that otherwise the cause lbe transmitted to the proper person for a decision as to the jurisdiction.
ART. 40. After the communication mentioned in the foregoing article has been received, the court that proposed the inhibition shall render a decision before the expiration of two days, without further proceedings.
From a decree abandoning an inhibition an appeal for annulment of judgment only lies.
ART. 41. After the ruling by which the court desists from the inhibition has been consented to or executed, it shall be communicated within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhibited, transmitting at the same time all proceedings had for attachment to the cause.
ART. '42. If the court demanding the inhibition defends its competenmey, it shall communicate the same within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhibited, in order that it may transmit the record to the court which is to decide the question; and it shall do the same with its own record.




28

ART. 43. Las competencias se decidirdn por el tribunal dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que el minister fiscal hubiese emitido dictamen, que evacuar6 en el te'rinino de segundo dia.

Contra estos autos, cuando procedan de las audiences territories, habr6 lugar al recurso de casaci6n.
Contra los pronunciados por el Tribunal Supremo no So da recurso alguno.
ART. 44. El tribunal que resuelva la competencia podr6 condenar al pago de las costas causadas en la inbibitoria a las parties que la hubieren sostenido 6 impugnado con notoria temeridad, determinando en su caso la proporcio'n en que deban pagarlas.
Cuando no biciere especial condenaci'n de costas, se entenderAn de oficio las causadas en la competencia.
En el caso de que un tribunal sin causa legitima debidamente justificada, se hubiese extralimitado en los t4rminos establecidos on el presente titulo para la sustanciacio'n y decision de las competencias, serii corregido prudential y disciplinariamente, seg6n la gravedad del caso.
ART. 45. Las declinatorias so sustanciarAn como articulos de previo, pronunciamiento.'

CAPITULO 111.
DE LAS COMPETENCIAS NEGATIVES Y DE LAS QUE SE PROMUEVEN CON
JUECEs 6 TRIBUNALS ESPECIALFS, Y DE LOS RECURSOS DE QUEJA
CONTRA LAS AUTORIDADES ADMINISTRATIVE.
ART. 46. Cuando la cuesti6n do competencia empeflada entre dos o' mAs jueces 6 tribunals fuere negative por rehusar todos engender en ]a causa, la decidirA el juez tribunal superior y en su caso el Supremo, siguiendo, para ello los mismos trdmites prescritos para las demAs competencias.
ART. 47. En el caso de competencia negative entre la jurisdiccion ordinaria y otra privilegiada, la ordinaria empezar6 continuara la causa.
ART. 48. Las questions do jurisdicei6n promovidas por tribunals seculares contra jueces tribunals eclesi6sticos so sustanciarAn y decidirdn por los tr6mites y de la mantra quo so establece en el titulo III del libro I de ]a ley do enjuiciamento civil.'
ART. 49. Cuando los jucces 5 tribunals eclesidsticos estimaren que les corresponded el conocimiento de una causa on que entienda un juez 6 tribunal secular, podr6n requerii-le de inhibici6n; y si no accediese

Fijan el procedimiento para la sustanciaci6n y decision de los artfeulos de previo pronunciamento, los artfeulos 666 6 679.
1 Trata de los recursos de fuerza en concern. (Arts. 125 d 152 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil vigente en las Islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico.)




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ART. 43. Questions of jurisdiction shall be decided by the court within the three days following that on which the public prosecutor may have given his opinion, which he shall do within a period of two days.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from these decrees when issuing from territorial audiences.
Against those of the supreme court there is no remedy whatsoever.

ART. 44. The court ( deciding the question of jurisdiction may tax the payment of the costs occasioned by the plea of inhibition against the parties who have defended or opposed the same with marked persistence, deciding, in a proper case, the proportion each shall pay.
If there be no special condemnation of costs made, those occasioned in deciding question s of jurisdiction shall be understood to be ex oftcio.
If a court without legal cause properly proved, shall go beyond the limits prescribed in this title for the hearing and determination of questions of jurisdiction, it shall be corrected and disciplined according to the gravity of the case.
ART. 45. Declinatory pleas shall be heard and determined in the same manner as interlocutory issues. I

CHAPTER Ill.
QUESTIONS OF NEGATIVE JURISDICTION AND THOSE RAISED BY SPECIAL JUDGES OR COURTS AND COMPLAINTS AGAINST ADMINISTRATIVE
AUTHORITIES.

ART. 46. If the question of jurisdiction raised between two or more judges or courts be negative by all refusing to take cognizance of the cause, the superior judge or court, or, in a proper case, the supreme court shall decide it, observing therein the procedure prescribed for other questions of jurisdiction.
ART. 47. In case of negative jurisdiction between the ordinary and a special jurisdiction, the ordinary jurisdiction shall begin or continue the cause.
ART. 48. Questions of jurisdiction raised by secular courts against ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall be heard and decided according to the, procedure and in the manner established in Title Ill of Book I of the Law of Civil Procedure.'
ART. 49. When ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall consider that they have jurisdiction of a cause of which a secular judge or courts taking cognizance, they may interpose an inhibitory plea, and if it should be overruled they may complain to the proper court, which,
I The procedure for the hearing and determination of interlocutory issues is fixed by articles 666 to 679.
1 This title treaty of civil remedies against actions of ecclesiastical courts (Arts. 125 to 152 of the Law of Civil Proce(bire in force in Cuba and Porto Rico).




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a ella, recurrir6n en queja al superior respective, que, oycDdo al fiscal, resolverA, sin ulterior recurso, lo que crea procedente.
ART. 50. Las cuestioifes de competencia que se promuevan entre tribunals ordinaries y otros cualesquiera especiales, que no scan eclesi6sticos, se sustanciar6n y decidirdn con arreglo At lo dispuesto en el presented titulo, correspondiendo en todo caso su resoluci6n al Tribunal Supremo deJusticia.
A.T. 51. Respect de las competencias que la administration suscite contra los jueces 6 tribunals de la jurisdicei6n ordinaria, y de los recursos de queja que e'stos pueden promoter contra las autoridades y administrative, se estar6 6 lo que dispose la secci6n 4', titulo 11, libro I de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.'
Articulos 116 A 124 de la ley que se cita.





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after hearing the public prosecutor, shall decide without f further remedy what it may decin proper.
ART. 50. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary and any special courts, not ecclesiastical, shall be heard and determined according to the provisions of this title in all cases by the supreme court.


ART. 51. Questions of jurisdiction raised by the administration against judges or courts of the ordinary jurisdiction, and the complaints which the latter may make against the administrative authorities, shall conform to the provisions of section 4, Title 11, Book T, of the Law of Civil Procedure.'
Articles 116 to 124 of the law cited.










TfTULO 111.
DE LAS RECUSACIONES Y EXCUSES DE LOS MAGISTRADOS, MECES, ASESORES Y AUXILIARIES DE LOS JUZGADOS Y TRIBUNALS, Y DE LA ABSTENCON DEL MINISTERIO FISCAL.
CAPiTULO I.

DISPOSICIONES GENERALS.
ART. 52. Los magistrados, juices y asesores, cualesquiera que sean su grado 6 jeraquia, s6lo podrin ser recusados por causa legitinia.
ART. 53. Podran finicamente recusar en los negocios criminals:

El representative del minister fiscal.
El acusador particular o' los que legalmente represented sus acciones y derechos.
Los procesados.
Los responsible civilmente por delito o' falta.
ART. 54. Son causes legitimas de recusaci6n:
10. El parentesco de consanguinidad 6 afinidad dentro del cuarto grado civil con cualquiera de los expresados eD el articulo anterior.
20. El mismo parentesco dentro del segundo grado con el letrado de alguna de las parties que intervengan en la causa.
30. Estar 6 haber sido denunciado acusado por alguna de e'stas conio autor, c6mplice 6 encubridor de un delito, 5 como autor de una falta.'
4'. Haber sido defensor de alguna de ]as parties, emitido dictamen sobre el process 5 alguna de sus incidencias como letrado, 6 intervenido en aqtf6l 5 en 4stas como fiscal, period 6 testing.
50. Ser 6 haber sido denunciador 6 acusador privado del que recuse.

60. Ser haber sido tutor 6 curador de alguno que sea parte en la causa.
70. Haber estado en tutela 5 guardadurla de alguno de los expresados en el nu'mero anterior.
8'. Tener pleito pendiente con el recusante.
90. Tener inter's director 0' indirect en la causa.'
'Para que exist el motive de recusaci6n de este nulmero, es precise que ]a denuncia reuna los requisites y surta los effects necesarios para proceder, en su virtue, d la averiguaci6n de los hechos que comprende, seg6n declare el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886.
2 Para poder ser estimada la causa de recusaci6n comprendida en este n6mero, eq. necesario que el juez tenga interCH personal y director en la cau8a de que este ineidente proceed. (&Tdeneia de 12 de abril de 1886.)
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TITLE 111.

CHALLENGES AND EXCUSES OF JUSTICES, JUDGES, ASSESSORS, AND ASSISTANTS OF SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR COURTS, AND THE ABSTENTION OF THE PROSECUTING OFFICIALS.
CHAPTER 1.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

ART. 52. Justices, judges, and assessors, whatever be their grade or rank, may be challenged only for a legitimate cause.
ART. 53. In criminal matters only the following persons are permitted to challenge:
The prosecuting officials.
The private accuser or his legal representatives.

The accused.
Those civilly liable for a crime or misdemeanor.
ART. 54. Legitimate causes of challenge are:
1. Relationship by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree to any of the persons mentioned in the foregoing article.
2. The same relationship within the second degree to the attorney of any of the parties to the cause.
3. To be or have been denounced or accused by any of said parties as the principal, accomplice, or accessory to a crime or as a principal in a misdemeanor.'
4. Having been counsel for any of the parties, given a professional opinion on the case or any of its incidental issues, or having appeared in either as prosecutor, expert, or witness.
5. To be or have been the private denouncer or accuser of the challenging party.
6. To be or have been the tutor or curator of any of the parties to the cause.
7. To have been under the tutorship or guardianship of the parties mentioned in the foregoing number.
8. To have an action pending against the challenging party.
9. To have a direct or indirect interest in the cause.'
In order that there may exist a motive for the challenge in this case, it is necessary that the denunciation shall have all the requisites and produce all the effects necessary to proceed, by virtue thereof, with the proof of the acts included therein, according to a decision of the Supreme Court of April 12, 1886.
1 In order that the cause for challenge under this number rnay be considered, it is necessary that the judge have a personal and direct interest in the cause from which this incident arises. (Decision of April 12, 1886.)
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10. La amistad Intima.
11. La enemistad manifiesta.
12. Haber sido instructor de la causa.
ART. 5.5. Los magistrados y jueces comprendidos en cualquiera de los casos que express el articulo anterior, so inbibir6n del eonocimiento del asunto sin esperar 6 que se les recuse. Contra esta inbibicio'n no babrii recurso alguno.
De igual mantra se inbibirin, sin recurso alguno, cuando al ser recusados en cualquier forma estiniasen procedente la. causa alegada En uno y otro caso mandarin pasar la8 diligencias a quien deba reemplazarles.
ART. 56. La recusacion podra proponerse on cualquier estado de la causa, pero nunca despu4s; de conienzado el juicio oral, 6 no ser quo el niotivo do la recusaci6n sobreviniere con postorioridad.

CAPiTULO H.

DE LASUSTANCIAci6s DE LAS RECUSACIO-NES DE LOSJUECES I)E INSTRUCc16s Y DE LOS MAGISTRADOS.

ART. 57. La recusacion se harii on escrito firmado por letrado, por procurador y por el recusante si supiere firmer y estuviere on el lugar de la causa. El filtinio deber:i ratificarse ante el juez 6 tribunal.

Guando el recusanto no estuviese presented, firmarain s6lo cl letrado y el produrador. En todo caso so expresai-6 en el escrito concrete v claramente la causa de la recusaei6n.
ART. 58. No obstante lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, podnt el procesado, s! estuvicre on inconuinieaci6n, proponer verbalmente ]a recusaci6n on el acto de recibirsele doclaracdon, (1 podr6 Ilamar al juez por condneto del alcalde do la ciircel para roeusarle.
En este caso deberii el juez do instrucci6n presentarse acompafiado del secrotario, que hara co-star por dili,(),,encia la potici6n do recusaci6n y ]a causa on que. se funde.
Cuando fuese denegada la recusaci6n, se le advertira que podril reproducirla una vez alzada la invomunicaci6n.
ART. 59. El auto admitieDdo 6 dene ,,-ando la recusaci6n serial fundado y bastari notificarlo al procurador del recusante, aunque 4ste so halle on el pueblo on que se siga la causa y haya firmado el escrito de recusaci6n.

ART. 60. Cuando el recusado no se inibiere por no considerarse comprendido on la causa alegada para la recusaci6n, se mandard former pieza separada.
Esta contender el escrito original de recusaci(In N- cl auto denega-





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10. Intimate friendship.
11. Manifest enmity.
12. Having conducted the preliminary investigation.
ART. 55. The justices and judges included in any of the eases mentioned in the foregoing article shall abstain from taking cognizance of the cause without waiting to be challenged. No remedy lies against this resolution.
In like manner they shall decline jurisdiction without remedy whatsoever when, on being challenged in any manner, they shall consider the alleged cause to be well founded. In either case they shall order the record to be transmitted to whosoever should substitute them.
ART. 56. The challenge may be interposed at any stage of the proceedings, but not after the oral trial has commenced, unless the cause of challenge shall have arisen thereafter.

CH1APTFER 11.

REARING AND 1)ECISION OF CHRALLENGES OF4 JUDGES OF EXAMINATION AN) iJUsTICES.

ART. 57. The challenge shall be in writing and signed by an attorney, by a solicitor, and by the challenging party, if he knows how to sign, and should be at the place where the cause is pending. The petition must lie ratified by the latter before the judge or court.
If the challenging party be not present, only the attorney and solicitor shall sign. In every case the cause of challenge shall he stated clearly and explicitly.
ART. .58. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the accused may, should he be bccomun.icado, interpose the challenge orally when his declaration is received, or he may call the judge through the warden of the prison in order to challenge himl.
in such case the judge of examination inust present himself, accompanied by the secretary, who shall make a record of the written challneand the cause therefor.
If the challenge be overruled, lie shall be advised that hie can renew the same when the thcomv;iicacw(n is raised.
ART. 59). A decree sustaining or overruling a challenge shall state the reasons therefor, and it shall be su~fficienlt to notify the solicitor of the challenging party thereof, even though the latter be in the town in which the cause is being prosecuted and had signed the written challenge.
ART. 60. If the person challenged does not inhibit himself, not considering that he is included in the causes alleged for the challenge, he shall order a separate record to be prepared.
Said record shall contain the original written challenge and the ruling





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torio de la inhibioi6n, quedando nota expresiva de uno v otro en el process.
ART. 61. Durante la sustanciacio'n de la pieza separada no podr' intervenor cl reausado en la cau,,:a ni en el incident de recusaci6n, y ser6 sustituido por aquel "t quien correspond con arreglo d la ley.

Si el recusado f uese un juez de instrucci6n, deberii este, no obstante, bajo su responsabilidad, practical aquellas diligencias urgentes qtic no puedan dilatarse mientras su sucesor se encargue do continual ]a instruction.
ART. 62. La recusacio'n no detendr-6 (,I curso de la causa. ExceptAase ol caso en que el incident de recusaei6ji no se Imbiese decidido cuando scan citadas las parties para la vista do a1guna cuesti6n ineidente 6 para la celebration del juicio oral.
ART. 63. Instruirain la pieza separada de recusacion:
Cuando el recusado sea el president 6 un president do sala de audiencia territorial del Tribunal Supremo, el president de sala mAs antiguo; y si el recusado, f uere el inds antiguo, el que le siga en antigfiedad.
Cuando el recusado fuere el president de una audiencia de lo, criminal, el magistrado, m6s antiguo de la sala de lo criminal do la audiencia territorial.
Cuando el recusado sea un magistrado do la audieDeia de lo criminal 6 territorial del Tribunal Supremo, el magistrado mAs antiguo de la respective sala 6 tribunal; y si aqu4I f uere el m6s antiguo, el que le siga en antigiledad.
Si por consecuencia de la recusaci6n de algano 6 algunos niagistrados de audiences de lo criminal no quedase en estos tribunals nimicro sufficient para former tribunal, corresponder6 la instruction de la pieza separada de recusacio'n al magistrado ma's modern do la sala de lo criminal de la audiencia territorial respective.
Cuando fuese juez de instrucei6n el recusado, instruira la pieza do recusaci'n el magistrado m6s modern de la respective audiencia.
ART. 64. Formada la pieza separada, se oird a' la otra otras parties que hubiese en la eausa, por t4rmino de tres dias 'a eada una, que solo podrA prorrogarse por otros dos cuando A juicio del tribunal hubiese justa causa para ello.
ART. 65. Transcurrido el t4rmino sefialado on el articulo anterior, con la pro'rroga en su caso, y recogida la causa sin necesidad do peticio'n por parto del recusante, se recibird a' prueba el incident de recusacio'n, cuando ]a cuesti6n fuese de hecho, por ocho dias, durante los cuales so practicara la que hubiere sido solicitada por las parties y admitida como pertinent.
ART. 66. Contra el auto en que las audiences el Tribunal Supromo admitieren 6 denegaren la prueba, no se dard ulterior recurso,





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denying the inhibition, an entry being made of all this in the original record.
ART. 61. While the separate record is being heard and determined the person challenged can not act in the cause nor in the issue of the challenge, and shall be substituted by the proper person in accordance to law.
If the person challenged be a judge of examination, he must, nevertheless, under his own liability, take such urgent measures as can not be delayed until his successor takes charge of continuing the examination.
ART. 62. The challenge shall not delay the course of the cause unless the issue of the challenge shall not have becn decided when the parties are cited for the hearing of some question or interlocutory issue or for the oral trial.
ART. 63. The separate record of challenge shall be p~reparedBy the senior presiding justice of chanmbcr if the person challenged be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if the judge challenged be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority.
By the senior justice of the criminal chamber of the territorial audiencia if the person challenged be the presiding judge of a criminal audiencia.
By the senior justice of the respective chamber or court if the person challenged be a justice of a criminal or territorial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if he be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority.
If, as a result of the challenge of one or more justices of the criminal audiencias. these courts should not have members sufficient to forni a quorum, the preparation of the separate record shall pertain to the junior justice of the criminal chamber of the respective territorial audiencia.
The junior justice of the respective audiencia shall prepare the record of challenge when the judge of examination is challenged.
ART. 64. After the separate record has been prepared, the other party or parties to the cause shall be heard for a period of three days for each one, which period can only be extended for two days more when in the opinion of the court there be just cause therefor.
ART. 65. When the period fixed in the f oregoinig article has elapsed, as well as the extension in a proper case, and the cause is taken up again without the necessity of a petition by the challenging party, evidence on the issue of the challenge shall be admitted for eight days if the question be a question of fact, during which time the evidence submitted by the parties and admitted as pertinent shaji be received.
ART. 66. There shall be no remedy against rulings of audiencias or of the supreme court admitting or rejecting evidence.
18473-01-5





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ART. 67. Cuando por ser la cuestio'n de derecho, no So hubiere recibido 6 prueba el incident do recusacio'n, hubiese transcurrido el te'rmino concedido en ol art. 65, se mandar6 eitar 6 las parties, sefialando dia para la vista.
ART. 68. Decidirkn los incidents de recusaci6n:
Cuando el recusado fuese el president un president de sala de audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el tribunal en pleno. De igual mantra so proceder6 cuando los recusados'fueren dos m6s magistrados de una misma sala 6 socci6n de estos tribunals.

En los demas casos decidirin estos incidents los tribunals 6 salas a que pertenezean los magistrados instructors de las pizzas separadas.
ART. 69. Los autos en que so declare haber no lugar .1 la recusaci6n, sor6n siempre fundados.
Contra el auto que dictaren las audiences s6lo proceder6 els recurso de casacion.
Contra el que dictate el Tribunal Supremo, no habr6 recurso aiguno.

ART. 70. En los autos en que se deniegue la recusaci6n, se condenar6 en las costas al que la hubiere promovido.
Ademds se impondr6 al recusante una multa do 125 A 250 pesetas cuando el recusado fuese juez de instrucci6n, y de 250 6 500 cuando f nose magistrado, de audiencia.

Se exceptu'a de la imposici6n do las costas y la multa a] njinisterio fiscal.
ART. 71. Cuando no so hicieren efeetivas las multas respectivamente sefialadas en el articulo anterior, el multado quedarii sujeto i la responsabilidad personal subsidiary correspondent, por via de sustituci6n y apremio, en los te'rminos quo para las causes por delitos establece el c6digo penal.
CAPiTULO III.
DE LA 8U8TANC1Ac16N DE LAS RECUSACIONES DE LOS JUICES MUNICIPALS.
ART. 72. En los juicios de faltas se propondril la rccusaci6n en el mismo acto de la comparecencia.
ART. 73. En vista de la recusaci'n, si la causa alegada fuese de las expresadas en el articulo 54 y cierta, el juez municipal so darA por recusado, pasando el conocimiento de la falta 6 su suplente.

ART. 74. Cuando el recusado no considerate legitima la recusacion, pasar6 el conocimiento del incident 6 su suplente, haci4ndole co-star en el acta.





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ART. 67. If, on account of the question being one of law, evidence on the challenge is overruling, or when the period granted in article 65 has elapsed, the parties shall be cited, a day being fixed for the argument.
ART. 68. The challenge shall be decidedBy the court in bane, if the person challenged be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the supreme court. Like procedure shall be observed if the persons challenged be two or more justices of the same chamber or section of said courts.
In other cases these issues shall be decided by the courts or chambers to which the examining justices of the separate record belong.
ART. 69. The decision sustaining or overruling the challenge shall always state the reasons therefor.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from a decision rendered by an audiencia.
There shall be no remedy whatsoever against a decision rendered by the supreme court.
ART. 70. Decisions overruling a challenge shall contain the taxation of the costs of the same against the person interposing it.
There shall also be imposed on the challen ing party a fine of not less than 125 pesetas nor more than 250 pesetas if the authority challenged be a judge of examination, and not less than 250 nor more than 500 pesetas if a justice of the audiencia.
The prosecuting officials shall be exempt from the payment of costs or the fine.
ART. 71. If the fines respectively mentioned in the foregoing article are not paid, the party fined shall be subject to such proper compulsion in substitution thereof as provided for crimes in the penal code.


CHAPTER 111.
HEARING AND DECISION OF CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL JUDGES.


ART. 72. In trials for misdemeanors the challenge shall be interposed at the time of the appearance.
ART. 73. In view of the challenge, should the cause alleged be of those mentioned in article 54, and be true, the municipal judge shall consider himself challenged, transferring the cognizance of the misdemeanor to his substitute.
ART. 74. If the challenged party should not consider the challenge to be legitimate, he shall transfer the cognizance of the issue to his substitute, making note thereof in the record.





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Ni en este caso ni en el del articulo anterior se da recurso alguno contra lo resuelto por el juez municipal.
ART. 75. El juez municipal recusado no podrd intervenor on la sustanciaci'n de la pieza de recusacion, y so suspenderA ]a celebration del juicio do faltas hasta quo aqu4lla se decide.

ART. 76. El juez suplente eneargado de la sustanciaci'n be la pieza de recusaci6n har6 comparecer 6 las parties a' su prosencia, y en ei mismo acto recibiril las pruebas que ofrezean y conceptfie pertinentes cuando la cuestio'n verse sobre algu'n hecho.
Contra el auto denegatorio do la prueba podrA pedirso reposici6n en el acto de bacerse saber 'a las parties.
ART. 77. Recibida la prueba., (1 cuando por tratarse de cuestio'n de derecho no fuera necesaria, el juez municipal suplente resolverA si ha 6 no lugar a' la recusaci6n en auto fundado, y on el mismo acto si es possible. En ningfin caso dejar6 de bacerlo dentro do segundo dia. De lo actuado y del auto se harA inenci'n on el acta que se extienda.


ART. 78. Contra el auto del juez suplente declarando baber lugar 'a la recusaci'n, no se dard recurso alguno.
Contra el -,into en que la denegare, habrA apelaci6n para ante el juez de instruccio'n.
ART. 79. La apelaci6n so interpondrA verbalmente en el acto -de la comparecencia ante el mismo juez municipal suplente, si 4ste resolviese en el moment.
Si para resolver utilizare el te'rmino de segundo dia, se interpondrd la apelaci6n on el acto mismo do la notification siempre quo sea personal, y si no dentro do las veinticuatro horas siguientes A ella. La apelaci6n en este caso so interpondrA tambie'n verbalmente ante el secretario del juzgado y se hari co-star por diligencia.
ART. 80. Cuando no se apelase dentro de los te'rminos sefialados en el articulo anterior, el auto del juez suplente serd firme.

Interpuesta apelacio'n on tiompo, se remitir6n los antecedents al juez de instruccio'n respective con citacio'n de las parties y 'a expeDsas del apelante.
ART. 81. En el juzgado do instrucci6n so dai-6 cuenta inmediatamente por el secretary, sin admitir escritos, y se citard 6 las parties 6 una comparecencia dentro del te'rmino do segundo dia.
Los interesados sus apoderados podrAn hacer en ella verbalmente las observations quo estimen, previa la venia del juez de instruction.

Este prontinciarit auto en el mismo dia on el siguiente, y contra lo que decide no habr6 ulterior recurso.





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Neither in this case nor in that of the foregoing article shall there be any remedy against the decision of the municipal judge.
ART. 75. The municipal judge eballenged cannot take part in the hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge, and shall suspend the trial for the misdemeanors until the question of the challenge is decided.
ART. 76. The substitute judge charged with the hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge shall order the parties to appear before him, and shall at once hear the evidence they may offer and which he may consider pertinent, if the question be one of fact.
If a decision ruling out the evidence is made, a rehearing may be requested as soon as the parties are notified thereof.
ART. 77. The evidence having been taken, or when a question of law being involved it is not necessary, the substitute municipal judge shall decide at once, if possible, whether the challenge is or is not well taken in a ruling stating the reasons for his decision. In no case shall he fail to render a decision within two days.
The proceedings had and the ruling shall be entered upon the record made.
ART. 78. There shall be no remedy against i ruling of a substitute judge sustaining a challenge.
From a decree overruling a challenge an appeal lies to the judge of examination.
ART. 79. The appeal shall be interposed orally at the appearance for decision before the substitute judge, should he render a decision at once.
If, in order to render a decision, he should take the period of two days, the appeal ,,,,hall be filed at the time of the notification, provided it be personal; otherwise within the twenty-four hours following the notification. The appeal in such case shall also be interposed orally before the clerk of the court, and it shall be made a matter of record.
ART. 80. If an appeal be not taken within the periods prescribed in the foregoing article, the ruling of the substitute judge shall become final.
If the appeal be taken in due time, the proceedings -,,hall be forwarded to the proper judge of examination, with a citation of the parties, at the expense of the appellant.
ART. 81. In the court of examination the clerk shall immediately make a report without admitting any documentary evidence, and the parties shall be cited to appear within a period of two days.
With the permission of the judge of examination the parties in interest or their attorneys may make orally at that time whatever remarks they may consider proper.
The judge of examination shall render his decision the same day or the day following, and against his decision there shall be no further remedy.




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Si el jues instructor entendiese quo el municipal suplente debio' reponor el auto denegatorio de la prueba 6 que se refiere el pa'rrafo segundo del art. 76, lo declarara asf, absteni4ndose de pronunciar sobre el f ondo, y mandara revolver las diligencias al juzgado municipal do que procedan, para que so practique la prueba propuesta y so dicte nuevo auto.

Ser6n applicable 'a e'ste las disposiciones de los arts. 78 al 81.
ART. 82. Cuando cl auto sea confirmation, se condenar6 en costas al apelante.
ART. 83. Declarada procedento la recusaci'n por auto firme, entendera el suplente en el juicio.
Declarado improcedente, el juez recusado volver6 i engender en el conocimiento de la falta.
CAPiTULO IV.
DE LA RECUSAc16N DE LOS AUXILIARIES DE LOS JUZGADOS Y TRIBUNALES.
ART. 84. Los secretaries de los juzgados municipals, de los de instrucci'n, de las audiences y del Tribunal Supremo, serAn recusables.
Lo ser6n tambi4n los officials de sala.
ART. 85. Son applicable 6 los secretaries y officials de sala las prescripciones de este titulo, con las modificaciones quo establecen los articulos siguientes.
ART. 86. Cuando los recusados fueren auxiliaries do los juzgados de instruccio'n, de las audiences 6 del Tribunal Supremo, la pieza de recusacio'n se instruird por el juez instructor respective 6 magistrado mAs modern, y se fallar6 por el mismo juez por el tribunal correspond diente.
El juez 6 magistrado instructor podrd delegar la pr6ctica do las diligencias que no pudiere ejecutar por si mismo on el juez municipal o en uno de los jueces de instruccio'n de la respective circunscripcion.

ART. 87. Los auxiliaries recusados no podran actual en la causa en quo lo fueren ni en ]a pieza de recusaci'n, reemplazindoles aquellos A quienes corresponderfa si ]a recusaci'n fuese admitida.
ART. 88. En las recusaciones de secretaries de juzgados municipals instruird y fallara la pieza do recusacio'n el juez municipal. donde S61o bubiere uno.
Si bubiere dos, el del juzgado 6 que no T)ertenezea el recusado; y si tres m6s, el de mayor edad.
ART. 89. Cuando se desestimare la recusaci6n, se condenard en costas al recusante.




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If the judge of examination should hold that the substitute municipal judge should reverse his ruling denying the admission of evidence, referred to in the second paragraph of article 76, he shall so declare, refraining from deciding the main question, and order the proceedings to be returned to the municipal court from which they were forwarded, in order that the evidence offered be taken and a new ruling made.
The provisions of articles 78 to 81 shall apply to this ruling.
ART. 82. If the ruling be affirmative, the appellant shall be taxed the costs thereof.
ART. 83. If the challenge be sustained by a final ruling, the substitute judge shall take cognizance of the ease.
If overruled, the challenged judge shall again take cognizance of the offence.
CHAPTER IV.
CHALLENGES OF ASSISTANTS OF INFERIOR AND SUPERIOR COURTS.


ART. S4. The clerks of municipal courts, courts of examination, of audiences, and those of the supreme court may be challenged.

The officers of chambers may also be challenged.
ART. 85. The provisions of this title are applicable to the clerks and officers of chambers with the modifications prescribed in the following articles.
ART. 86. If the challenged parties be the assistants of courts of examination, of audiences or of the supreme court, the issue of the challenge shall be prepared by the proper judge of examination or the junior associate justice, and shall be decided by the same judge or by by the corresponding court.
The judge or associate justice of examination may delegate the performance of the proceedings which he cannot personally conduct to the municipal judge, or to one of the judges of examination of the respective circuit.
ART. 87. The assistants challenged cannot take part in the cause nor in the issue of the challenge, being substituted by the proper persons if the challenge be sustained.
ART. 88. In challenges of clerks of municipal courts the municipal judge shall prepare and determine the issue of the challenge where there is but one judge.
Should there be two, the judge of the court to which the challenged party does not belong; and if there be three or more, by the eldest.
ART. 89. If the challenge be overruled, the challenging party shall be taxed the costs.




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ART. 90. Cuando sea firme el auto en que se admit ]a recusacion, quedara' ol recusadoseparadodetoda intervenei6n en lacausa, continuando on su reemplazo el que le haya sustituido duranto la sustanciacion del incident; y si f uere secretary do.juzgado municipal o' do instrucei6n, no percibir6 derechos de ninguna clase desdo quo se hubiese solicitado la recusaci6n, 6 desde que, siendole conocido el motive alegado, no se separo' del conocimiento del asunto.

ART. 91. Cuando se desestimase la recusaci6n por auto firme, volver6 el auxiliary recusado 6 ejercer 6us functions; y si fuese &te secretario de juzgado municipal 6 de instrucci6n, le abonart el recusante los derechos correspondents 6 ]as actuaciones practicadas en la causa, hacienda igual abono al quo haya sustituiAo al recusado.
ART. 92. No podran los auxiliaries ser recusados despu4s de citadas las parties para sentencia, ni durante, la prdctica de alguna diligencia de que estuvieren encargados, ni despu6s de comenzada la celebraci6n del juicio oral.
ART. 93. Es applicable A los actuales relatores y escribanos de ca'mara: primer, lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores respect A las recusaciones do los secretaries de sala; y Segundo, lo prevenido on los arts. 90 y 91 reference al abono de derechos.
CAPiTULO V.
DE LAS EXCUSES Y RECUSACIONES DE LOS ASESORES.
ART. 94. Los asesores de los jueces municipals, cuando 4stos desempefien accidentalmente functions de juices do instruccio'n, se excusardn si concurrieren on ellos algunas do las causes enumeradas en el articulo 54 de esta ley.
El inismo juez municipal apreciara' la excuse para admitifla 6 desestimarla. Siladesestiiiiasepodi-,,telasesorrecurrirenquej,t,tla respective audiencia, y c'sta, pidiendo informed y antecedents, resolverA de plano sin ulterior recurso lo que crea procedente.

ART. 95. Los que scan parte en una causa podrAn recusar al asesor por cualquiera de los motives seflalados on el art. 54.
La recusaci'n se haril por modio de escrito, dirigidoal juez municipal.
Contra las decisions del juzgado municipal desestiniando la recusasion, procederi igualmente, el rccurSo de queja ante la audiencia respective.
CAPITULO V1.
DE LA ABSTENc16N DEL MINISTER FISCAL.
ART. 96. Los representatives del minister fiscal no podran ser recusados; pero se abstendrdn de intervenor en los actos judiciales cuando concurra on ellos alguna de las causes sefialadas en el art. 54 de esta ley.





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ART. 90. When a ruling sustaining a challenge becomes final, the party challenged can take no part in the cause whatever, the person who was substituted for him during the hearing and determination of the issue continuing to take his place; and if he be the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination he shall receive no fees of any kind from the time that the challenge was interposed, or when the alleged cause being known to him he did not abstain from taking cognizance of the subject.
ART. 91. If the challenge be overruled by a final decision the assistant challenged shall again perform his duties; and should he be the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination the challenging party shall pay to him the fees corresponding to the proceedings had in the cause, and a similar payment shall be made to his substitute.
ART. 92. The assistants can not be challenged after the parties have been cited to appear for judgment, nor while engaged in some proceeding intrusted to them, nor after the oral trial has begun.

ART. 93. To relators and copyists of chambers are applicable: First, the provisions of the foregoing articles with regard to challenges of clerks in chambers; and, second, the provisions of articles 90 and 91 with reference to the payment of fees.
CHAPTER V.
EXCUSES AND CHALLENGES OF ASSESSORS.
ART. 94m. The assessors to municipal judges, when the latter accidentally discharge the duties of judges of examination, shall excuse themselves if they be embraced in any of the causes mentioned in article 54, of this law.
The municipal judge himself shall weigh the excuse in order to admit or reject it. Should he reject it, the assessor may appeal in complaint to the proper audiencia, and the latter, after calling for reports and data, shall decide eo imtanti without further remedy, what it may deem proper.
ART. 95. The parties to a cause may challenge the assessor for any of the causes mentioned in article 54.
The challenge shall be ir writing, addressed to the municipal judge.
From the decision of the municipal court overruling a challenge, an appeal in complaint lies also to the proper audiencia.

CHAPTER V1.
ABSTENTION OF PROSECUTING OFFICIALS.
ART. 96. Prosecuting officials can not be challenged; but they shall abstain from intervening in judicial acts when they are included in any of the causes mentioned in article 54 of this law.




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ART. 97. Si coneurriere en el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo o' en los fiscales de ]as audioncias alguna de las causes por razon de las cuales deban abstenerse, de conformidad con lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, designardn para que los reeniplacen al teniente fiscal, y en su defect, a los abogados fiscales, por el orden de categoria y antigiAedad.

Lo dispuesto en el p6rrafo anterior es applicable a' los tenientes 6 abogados fiscales cuando ejerzan ]as f unciones de su jefe respective.

ART. 98. Los tenientes y abogados fiscales del Tribunal Supremo y de las audiences hardn presented su excuse al superior respective, quien les relevara de intervenor en los actos judiciales, y elegii-6 para sustituirles al quo tenga por convenience entre sus subordinados.

ART. 99. Cuando los representatives del minister fiscal no so excusaren, a pesar de comprenderles alguna de las causes expresadas en el articulo 54, podran los que se considered agraviados acudir en queja al superior inmediato.
Este oira al subordinado que hubiese sido objeto do la queja, y encontrandola fundada, decidir6 su sustitucio'n. Si no la encontrare fundada, podra acordar que intervenga en el process. Contra esta determination no se da recurso alguno.
Los fiscales de las audiences territories decidirin las quejas que se les dirijan contra los fiscales de las audiences de lo criminal.

Si fuere el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo el que diera motive 'a la queja, deberd 4sta dirigirse al Ministro de Gracia y Justicia por conducto del president del mismo tribunal. El Ministro de Gracia, y Justicia, oida la sala de gobierno del Tribunal Supremo, si lo consider oportuno, resolverA lo quo estime procedente.





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ART. 97..Tf the public prosecutor of the supreme court or the public prosecutors of audiences be included in any of the causes by reason of which they should abstain, according to the provisions of the foregoing article, they shall appoint as their substitutes the deputy pnblic prosecutor, and in his absence the assistant deputy public prosecutors, in the order of their rank and term of service.
The provisions of the foregoing paragraph are applicable to the deputy or assistant deputy public prosecutors when they discharge the duties of their respective chief.
ART. 98. The deputy and assistant deputy public prosecutors of the supreme court and of the audiences shall submit their excuses to the proper superior, who shall relieve them from taking part in the judicial proceedings, and shall select as a substitute the person be may deem proper from among their subordinates.
ART. 99. When the prosecuting officials do not excuse themselves, notwithstanding their being included in any of the causes mentioned in article 54, those who consider themselves injured may appeal in complaint to the immediate superior.
The latter shall hear the subordinate who may have been the object of the complaint, and if he shall find it proper shall order his substitution. If he shall not find it proper he may order him to appear in the case. There shall be no remedy against this decision.
The public prosecutors of the territorial audiences shall decide the complaints addressed to them against the public prosecutors of the criminal audiences.
If the public prosecutor of the supreme court be the subject of the complaint, it must be addressed to the Minister of Grace and Justice through the chief justice of the said court. The Minister of Grace and Justice after hearing the chamber of administration of the supreme court, should he consider it necessary, shall decide what he may deem proper.
















TITULO TV.

DE LAS PERSONAS A QUIENES CORRESPONDE EL EJERCICIO DE LAS ACCIONES QUE NACEN DE LOS DELITOS Y FALTAS.

ART. 100. De todo delito falta nace accio'n penal para el castigo del culpable, y puede nacer tambi6n acci6n civil para la restituci'n de la cosa, la reparacio'n del dafilo y la indeninizaci6n de perjuicios causados por el becho punible.'
ART. 101. La acci'n penal es p blica.
Todos los ciudadanos espafioles podrAn ejercitarla con arreglo 6 las prescripciones de la ley.
ART. 102. Sin embargo de To dispuesto en el articulo anterior, no podrAn ejercitar la accio'n penal10. El que no goce de la plenitude de los derechos eiviles.'

Las acciones penales, por su naturaleza, y con arreglo i los principios del derecho, nunca deben ampliarse, sino por el contrario, entenderse y aplicarse siernpre de un modo restrictive." (Sentencia de Junio 3, 1874.)
2Sin la pretension de conseguir una enumeraci6n eompleta, las personas que no pueden comparecer en juicio ni, por consiguiente, dar poder i otro para que comparezcan en su nombre, A no ser con la intervenei6ri de sus representatives legitimos, son las siguientes:
Los hu&fanos menores.-Su representaci6ri legal corresponded al tutor (c6digo civil, articulo 262), el cual en ciertos casos necesita el eonsentinliento del consejo de familiar (id., 269, nAmeros 12 y 13). Si los interests del tutor son opuestos A los del hu6rfano, por ejemplo, en el supuesto del ndmero 90, artfculo 237, ]a representaci6n en juicio corresponded al protutor (236, apartado 20).
Los hijos no emancipados, por los que comparecen sus padres (c6digo civil, articulo 155), y cuando 6stos tengan interns incompatible con el de los bijos, el defensor 6 que alude el articulo 165, que equivale al antiguo curator para pleitos, de que liablan los articulos 1852 A 1860 de la ley de enjuieianiiento civil. Si los padres estan privados de la patria potestad, 6 tienen suspended su ejercicio (c6digo civil, articulos 70, p6rrafo 31, 73, p(Irrofo 0 del m .mero 21, y 168 6 171), represented A los bijos el tutor nornbrado.
Los menores de cdad eniancipados por concesi6n del padre 6 de la Madre, son representados en juicio por sus padres, y en su defecto por un tutor. (Articulos 314, n4mero 30, y 317 del c6digo civil.)
Los menores que obtienen el beneficio de la mayor edad por concesi6n del consejo de familiar, son representados por un tutor. (C6digo civil, articulos 322 4 324 y 317 A que se refiere el Iltimo.)
Los casados qnayores de 18 affos, pueden comparecer por si en juicio en hombre propio y en el de su iniijer, segAn los artfeulos 59 y 315 del c6digo civil, que deben asf entenderse, pues la emancipaci6n de que habla el articulo 317 se refiere a' la del ndmero 31 del 314.
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TITLE IV.

PERSONS WHO MAY EXERCISE RIGHTS OF ACTION ARISING OUT OF CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS.

ART. 100. A criminal action arises from every crime or misdemeanor for the punishment of the culprit, and a civil action may also arise for the restitution of the thing, the repair of the damage, and the indemnity of the losses caused by the punishable act.'
ART. 101. A criminal action is public.
All Spanish citizens may bring a criminal action according to the provisions of law.
ART. 102. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article a criminal action can not be brought by:
1. A person not in the full enjoyment of civil rights.'

Criminal actions, by reason of their character and in accordance with the prineiI les of law, can never be extended, but, on the contrary, must be understood and applied always in a restricted manner. (Supreme Court. decision of June 3, 1894.)
2 Without attempting a full enumeration, the persons who can not appear in an ,,ction, and consequently who can not grant powers of attorney to other to appear in their behalf, unless it be with the intervention of their legal representatives, are the following:
Minors who are orphans are legally represented by their guardians .(Civil Code, art. V62), who in certain cases require the consent of the family council. (Ibid., 269, Nos. 12 and 13.) If the interests of the tutor are opposed to those of the orphan, as, for example, in the ease of number 9 of article 237 of the Civil Code, the representation of th e minor in court pertains to the protutor. (,Tbid., 236, second par.)
Children not emancipated are represented by their parents (Civil Code, art. 155i and when said parents have an interest which is incompatible with that of their children the latter shall be represented by the next friend referred to in article 165, which is equivalent to the former curator ad litem referred to in articles 1852 to 1860 of the Law of Civil Procedure. If the parents are deprived of the parental authority, or if it be suspended (Civil Code, articles 70, paragraph 3; 73, par. 2 of number 2, and 168 to 171), the tutor appointed shall represent the children.
Minors emancipated by the concession of thefatlier or mother are represented in court by their parents, or, in their absence, by one tutor. (Articles 314, number 3, and 317 of the Civil Code.)
Minors who obtain the benefit of majority by concession o f the.family council are repreAsented by one tutor. (Civil Code, articles 322 to 324 and 317, referred to.)

Married persons over 18 years of age may appear in person in court in their own name and in that of their wives, according to articles 59 and 315 of the Civil Code, which must be understood in this manner, because the emancipation referred to in article 317 relates to that of number 3 of article 314.
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39

20. El que hubiera sido condenado, dos veces por sentencia firme como reo del delito do denuncia querella calumniosas.
30. El juez magistrado.
Los comprendidos en los nfimeros anteriores podr6n, sin embargo, ejercitar la acci6n penal por delito 6 falta cometidos contra sus perso' bienes, 6 contra las personas I bienes de sus conyuges,
nas 0 0 ascendientes, descendientes, hermanos consanguineous 6 uterinos y fines.

Los comprendidos en los nu'meros 2 y 3 podrAn ejercitar tambie'n la acci6n penal por el delito o' falta cometidos contra las personas o' bienes de los que estuviesen bajo su guard legal.
Art. 103. Tampoco podr6n ejercitar acciones penales entre siI

10. Los c'nyuges, 6 no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por el uno contra ]a persona del otro la de sus hijos' y por los delitos do adulterio, amancebamiento y bigamia.

Los condenados 6 interdictos. (Wanse los artfeulos 228, 229, 262, 269, rulmeros; 12 y 13, y 274 del c6digo civil, y los 26, 43, 54 y 57 del penal.)
Los locos, demented y sordomudos.-Su representaci6n legal corresponded al tutor 6 en su caso al defensor que nombren los tribunals 6 al minister pAblico. (Odigo civil, articulos 215, apartado, 31, 26&, 269, mbneros 12 y 13, y 274. )
En los pleitos sobre prodigalidad, cuando el demandado no comparezea, tundra su. representaci6n el fiscal 6 en su caso el defensor nombrado per el juez. (C6digo civil, articulo 223.
La majer casada.-Los cases en que necesita licencia de su marido para comparecer per si en juicio y los en que no necesita, se determinant en los artfeulos 60 y 1387 del c6digo civil.
Consursados.-Una vez heclia la declaraci6n de concurs, quedan incapacitados para la administration de sus bienes todos (1161 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil y 1914 del c6digo civil), y consiguientemente privados del pleno ejercicio de sus derechos civiles. La representaci6n legal del concurs corresponded al depositario administrador (ley, artfeulo 1181) hasta el nombramiento de sfndicos. Verificado 6ste, los sindicos represents al concurs en juicio defendiendo sus derechos y ejercitando las acciones y excepciones que le competan. (-Td, articulo 1181, regla 11.)
Personas juridicas corporationse, sociedades y demds entidades juridicas).-Los
pueblos y ayuntamientos son representados en juicio por los procuradores sfndicos y en los pueblos agregados A otros para former ayuntamiento, los presidents do sus juntas administrative represents tambi6n A sus respectivos pueblos, cuando se trate de acciones 6 derechos que correspondent exclusivamento d sus inismos pueblos. (Articulos 56 y 90 4 96 de la ley de 1877, y R. 0. 30 Enero -1875.)
Las provincial eran representadas per el diputado provincial nombrado al effect con arreglo al artfeulo 37 de la ley de 25 de Septienibre de 1863; luego lo fueron por el goberDador, conform A los artfeulos 9o y 70 de ]a ley de 2 de Octubre de 1877, y boy lo son por el vice president de la comisi6n provincial, conforine al artfeulo 98, ndmero 61 de la ley de 29 de Agosto de 1882.
La hacienda pAblica ha venido siendo represented per el ininisterio fiscal en la forma prescrita por el decreto de 9 de Jnlio de 1869 y per la orden de la misma, fecha; pore, desde el decreto de 16 Marzo 1886 corresponded su representaci61i d los abogados del estado.
I Las palabras de este artfeulo no significant que el delito objeto de la querella haya de ser precisamente de los que el c6digo penal denomina contra las personas en el





39

2. A person who has been twice condemned by a final sentence as guilty of the crime of calumnious denunciations or complaints.
3. The judge or justice.
Those included in the foregoing numbers may, however, bring a criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor committed against their persons or property, or against the persons or property of their spouses, ascendants, descendants, uterine brothers or sisters, or relatives by consanguinity or affinity.
The persons included in numbers 2 and 3 may also bring a criminal action for a misdemeanor or crime committed against the persons or property of those who may be under their legal care.
Art. 103. Nor can the following persons bring criminal actions against each other:
1. Spouses, except for a crime or misdemeanor committed by one against the person of the other or that of his or her children,' and for the crimes of adultery, concubinage, and bigamy.

Persons suffering interdiction or undergoing a sentence. (See articles 228, 229, 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274 of the Civil Code, and the proper articles of the Penal Code.)
The deu and dumb and the insane are legally represented by their guardian or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court or by the public prosecutor. ((Sril Code, articles 215, paragraph 3; 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274.) In actions relating to prodigals, when the defendant does not appear, he shall be represented by the public prosecutor or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court. (Civil Code, article 223.)
Married woman.-The cases in which she does and does not require the permission of her husband to appear in an action are mentioned in articles 60 and 1387 of the Civil Code.
Bankrupts. -After a declaration in bankruptcy the bankrupts are disqualified from administering any of their property (1161 of the law of Civil Procedure and 1914 of the Civil Code), and consequently are deprived of the full exercise of their civil rights. The depositary-adininistrator is the legal representative of the estate of the bankrupt (law, art. 1181) until trustees are appointed. After this has been done the trustees represent the bankrupt in court, defending his rights and taking the actions and exceptions incumbent upon them. (Ibid., article 1181, rule 1.)
Judicial persons (corporations, associations, and other judicial entities). -Towns and municipalities are represented by the procuradoressindicos, and in towns annexed to others in order to constitute a municipality, the presidents of their administrative boards also represent the respective towns, when actions or rights are involved which pertain exclusively to the said towns. (Articles 56 and 90 of the law of 1877, and Royal order of .1outtary 30, 1875.)
Provinces were represented by the provincial deputy, appointed for the purpose in accordance with article 37 of the law of September 25, 1863; afterwards they were represented by the governor, in accordance with articles 9 and 70 of the law of October 2, 1877, and now they are represented by the vice-president of the provincial commission, in accordance with article 98, number 6, of the law of August 29, 1882.
The public treasury has been represented by the department of public prosecution in the manner prescribed by the decree of July 9, 1869, and by the order of the same date; but since the decree of March 16, 1886, it is represented by the state attorneys. 1 The words of this article do not signify that the crime which is the subject of the complaint must be of those which the Penal Code denominates crimes against the





40

20. Los ascendientes, descendientes y hermanos consanguineous 6 uterinos y fines, 'a no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por los unos contra las personas de los otros.
ART. 104. Las acciones penales que nacen de los delitos de estupro, calumnia injuria tampoco podr6n ser ejercitadas por otras personas ni en inancra distinct qne las prescritas en los respectivos articulos del od igo penal.
Las faltas consistentes on el nuncio por medio de la imprenta de hechos falsos 6 relatives 6 la vida privada con el que se perjudique 6 ofenda a' particulars, on malos tratamientos inferidos por los maridos a sus mujeres, on desobediencia 6 inalos tratos do 'stas para con aqu4llos, en faltas de respect y sumisi6n de los hijos respect do sus padres, 0' do los pupils respect do sus tutors, y en injuries loves, solo podran ser perseguidas por los ofendidos por sus legitimos representatives.
ART. 105. Los funcionarios del minister fiscal tendr6n la obligacio'n do ejercitar, con arreglo 6 las disposiciones do la ley, todas las acciones penales quo considered procedentes, haya o' no acusador particular en las causes, menos aque'llas que el c'digo penal reserve exclusivamente 'a la querella privada. Tanibie'n deberim ejercitarlas en las causes por los delitos contra la honestidad, que con arreglo 6 las prescripciones del c6digo penal deben denunciarso previamente por los interesados, 0' cuando el minister fiscal deba 6 su vez denunciarlos por recaer dichos dolitos sobre personas desvalidas faltas de personalidad.'
ART. 106. La acci6n penal por delito falta quo de lugar al procedimiento de oficio no se extingue por la renuncia de la persona ofendida.
Pero se extinguen por esta causa las que nacen del delito 6 falta que no puedan ser perseguidos sino 6 instancia do parte, y las civiles, cualesquiera quesea el delito falta de que procedan.
ART. 107. La renuncia de la acci6n civil de la penal renunciable no perjudicara m6s que al renunciante; pudiendo continual el ejereicio de la penal on el estado en que se halle la causa, ejercitarla nuevamente los dem6s A quienes tambi4n correspondiere.

tftulo viii, libro ii (parricidio, asesinato, homicidio, infanticidio, aborto, lesions y duelo), sino que la ley alude ii la condici6n de que el liecho ofenda (I persona emparentada con el culpable, que puede ser perseguido A instancia de la agraviada, aunque el delito sea de injuria. (Marzo 2 de i88,5.-Gaceta, Octubre 4.)
1 En cumplimiento del articulo 467 del c6digo penal vigente en las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico, el minister fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de ejercitar la acci6n penal en los delitos de rapto y adulterio d que el inismo se refiere,





40

2. The ascendants, descendants, the uterine brothers or sisters, or relatives those by consanguinity or affinity, unless for a crime or misdemeanor by either against the persons of the others.
ART. 104. Nor can penal actions which arise from the crimes of seduction, calumny, and contumely be instituted by other persons or in a different manner than those prescribed in the respective articles of the Penal Code.
Misdemeanors consisting in a notice in the press of false facts or which relate to the private life, by which individuals are prejudiced or offended, in the ill treatment of wives by their husbands, the disobedience of or the ill treatment by wives of their husbands, lack of respect and submission of children to their parents, or of pupils to their tutors, and in slight acts of contumely, can only be prosecuted by the persons offended or by their legitimate representatives.

ART. 105. The public prosecutors are obliged to institute, according to the provisions of law, all criminal actions which they may consider proper, whether there be a private accuser or not in the causes, except in those which the Penal Code reserves exclusively to private complaints. They shall also institute them in causes for crimes against chastity, which, according to the provisions of the Penal Code, must first be denounced by the persons interested, or when the public prosecutor should himself denounce them, because said crimes are committed against helpless persons or those lacking personality.'

ART. 106. A criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor which gives rise to proceedings ex officio is not extinguished by the withdrawal of the complaint b the person offended.
Actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor which can only be prosecuted at the instance of a party, and civil actions, whatever be the crime or misdemeanor involved, are extinguished for this cause.
ART. 107. The abandonment of the civil action or of a criminal action which can be abandoned shall only prejudice the person who abandons it; the other persons interested in the cause being permitted to continue the criminal action in the state it was, or institute a new one.
person in Title V111, Book 11 (parricide, assassination, homicide, infanticide, abortion, injuries inflicted with violence, and dueling), but the law refers to a state when the act offends a person related to the guilty person, which may be prosecuted at the instance of the person injured, even though the crime be ail outrage. (March 2, 1885-Gama of October 4.)
I In compliance with the provisions of article 467 of the Penal Code in force in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, the prosecuting officials are obliged to bring a criminal action in the crimes of abduction and adultery referred to therein.
18473-01-6





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ART. 108. La acci6n civil ha de entablarse juntamente con ]a penal por el minister fiscal, haya no on el process acusador particular; pero si el ofendido renunciare expresamente su derecho do restituci'n, reparacio'n 6 indemnizaci'n, el minister fiscal so limitara' 'a pedir el castigo de los culpable.
ART. 109. En el acto de recibirse declaraci6n al ofendido que tuviese ]a capacidad legal necesaria, se le instruirA del derecho quo le asiste para mostrarse parte en el process y renunciar 6 no 6 la restitucio'n de la cosa, reparaci6n del dafio e' indemnizacio'n del perjuicio, causado por el heebo punible.'
Si no tuviese capacidad legal, so practicar6 igual diligencia con su representative.
Fuera do los casos previstos en los dos pdrrafos anteriores, no so harA 6 los interesados en las acciones civiles ponales notificaci6n alguna que prologue 6 detenga el curso do la causa, lo cual no obsta para. que el juez procure instruir de aquel derecho al ofendido, ausente.
ART. 1-10. Los perjudicados por un delito 6 falta que no hubieren renunciado su derecho podran mostrarse parte en ]a causa, si lo hicieren antes del tr6mite do calificaci6n del delito, y ejercitar las acciones civiles y penales que procedan, 6 solamento unas 6 otras, segU'n les conviniere, sin que por ollo se retroceda en el curso do las actuaciones.

Ann cuando los perjudicados no se muestren parte on la causa, no por esto so entiende quo renuncian al derecho de restitucio'n, reparacio'n indemnizaci'n que i su. favor pueda acordarse on sentencia firme; siendo menester que la renuncia do este derecho so haga en su caso de una mantra express y terminate.
ART. 111. Las acciones quo nacen do un delito 6 falta podr6n ejercitarse junta 6 separadamente; pero mientras estuviese pendiente la acci'n penal, no se ejercitar6 la civil con separaci6n hasta que aque'lla haya sido resuelta en sentencia firme, salvo siempre lo dispuesto en los articulos 40, 50 y 60 de este c6digo.
ART. 112. Ejercitada solo ]a accio'n penal, so entenderA utilizada tambie'n ]a civil, 'a Do ser quo dafiado 6 perjudicado la renunciase la reservase expresamente para ejercitarla despue's de terminado el juicio criminal si 'a ello hubiere lugar.
Si se ejercitase so'lo la civil que nace de tin delito de los que no pueden perseguirse sino en virtue do querella particular, so considerar6 extinguida desde luego la acci6n penal.
ART. 113. Podrdn ejercitarse expresamente las dos acciones por una misma persona por varies; pero siempro quo scan dos 6 nias las
I La obligaei6n de instruir de su derecho A los interesados en la causa, 11o'461o Se establece 6 favor de los perjudicados por el delito, sino en beneficio de los presuntos culpable, conforine al articulo 21.





41

ART. 108. The civil action must be brought jointly with the criminal action by the prosecuting official, whether there be a private accuser or not in the cause; but if the person offended shall expressly renounce his right to restitution, repair, or indemnity, the prosecuting official shall confine himself to requesting the punishment of the guilty parties.
ART. 109. As soon as the declaration of an offended party having the necessary legal capacity has been received, he shall be informed of his rights to become a party to the action and to renounce or not the restitution of the thing, repair of the damage, and indemnity for the loss caused by the punishable act.'
Should he not have the legal capacity, the same information shall be communicated to his representative.
Aside from the cases provided for in the two foregoing paragraphs, no notice shall be served upon the parties interested in civil or criminal actions which shall prolong or delay the course of the cause, which, however, is not an obstacle to the judge informing the absent person offended of his rights.
ART. 110. Those prejudiced by a crime or misdemeanor who shall not have renounced their rights may enter an appearance inthe cause, should they do so before the classification of the crime, and exercise the proper civil and criminal actions, or either, as they may desire, without, however, causing any retrogression in the course of the proceedings.
Even if the persons prejudiced do not enter an appearance in the cause it shall not be understood that they thereby renounce the right to restitution, repair, or indemnity which may be granted them by final sentence, it being necessary that the renunciation of this right be made in a proper case in an express and positive manner.
ART. 111. The actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor may be instituted jointly or separately; but during the pendency of the criminal action the civil action can not be brought separately until the former has been decided by a final sentence, excepting always the provisions of articles 4, 5, and 6 of this code.
ART. 112. If the criminal action only is instituted, it shall be understood that a civil action may also be brought, unless the person injured or prejudiced renounces the same or expressly reserves the right to institute it after the conclusion of the criminal action, if necessary.
If only the civil action arising from a crime which can be prosecuted only on a private complaint is instituted, the criminal action shall thereby be considered as extinguished.
ART. 113. The two actions may be expressly instituted by the same or by different persons; but should theactions derived from a crime or
The obligation of informing the parties to a cause of their right is established not only with regard to those injured by the crime but also in favor of the presumed criminals, according to article 2.





42

personas por quienes se utilicen las acciones derivadas de un delito 6 falta, lo verificarAn en un solo process,, y si fuere possible bajo una misma direcci'n y reprosentaci'n 'a juicio del tribunal.
ART. 114. Promovido, juicio criminal en averiguacio'n de tin delito 5 falta, no podrA seguirse pleito sobre, el mismo hecho; su.spendi4ndole, si le bubiese, on cl. estado en que se hallare, hasta que recaiga sentencia firme en la causa criminal.
No sera necesario para el ejercicio de la acci6n penal que haya precedido el de ]a civil originada del mismo delito o' falta.

Lo dispuesto en este articulo so entiende sin perjuicio do lo establecido en el capitulo IT, titulo I do este libro respect 6 las questions prejudiciales.
ART. 115. La accio'n penal so extingue por la muerte del culpable; pero en este caso subsisted la civil contra sus herederos y causahabientes,
'lo podr' ejercitarse ante la jurisdicei'n y por la via de lo civil.'

ART. 116. La extinci'n de la, acci'n penal no Ileva consigo lit de la civil, A no ser que la extinci6n precede de haberse declarado por sentencia firme que no existi6 el hecho de quo la civil hubiese podido i2acer.
En los demds casos, la persona A quien correspond la acci6ti civil podra ejercitarla ante la jurisdiccio'n y por la via do lo civil quo procoda contra quien estuviere obligado 'a la restitucio'n do la cosa, reparacio'n del dafio indemnizaci6n del perjuicio sufrido.
ART. 117. La extinci'n de la acci6n civil tampoco lleva consigo ]a de la penal que nazea del mismo delito 6 falta.
La sentencia firmeabsolutoria dictada en el pleito promovido por el ejoreicio de la acei6n civil no serA obstAculo para el ejercicio do ]a acci6n penal correspondentt.
Lo dispuesto en este articulo so entiende sin perjuicio de lo que establece, el capitulo 11 del titulo I do este libro, y los articulos 106, 107, 110 y p6rrafo segundo del 112.
1 Este articulo es sustancial repetici6n de los 125 y 132, n hn. lo del c6digo penal.





42

misdemeanor be instituted by two or more persons, they shall do so in one proceeding, and if possible with the same counsel, in the discretion of the court.
ART. 114. If a criminal action is brought to investigate a crime or misdemeanor suit can not be prosecuted in the same; the proceeding being suspended, should any be pending, in the state in which it may be, until final sentence has been pronounced in the criminal cause.
It shall not be necessary for the institution of the criminal action that it shall have been preceded by the civil action arising from the same crime or misdemeanor.
The provisions of this article shall be understood without prejudice to those of Chapter H, Title I, of this book, with reference to preliminary questions.
ART. 115. A criminal action is extinguished by the death of the culprit; but in such case a civil action still lies against his heirs and successors in right, which can only be brought in a civil court and through civil channels.'
ART. 116. The extinction of the criminal action does not carry with it the extinction of the civil action, unless the extinction be caused by a final sentence declaring that the act on which a civil action might be based did not exist.
In other cases the person having a right of civil action may institute bef ore the civil jurisdiction, and through the proper civil channels, an action against the person who may be obliged to restore the thing, to repair the damage, or indemnify the losses stiffered.
ART. 117. Nor does the extinction of the civil action extinguish the criminal action resulting from the same crime or misdemeanor.
A final judgment absolving from liability rendered in the suit brought by the exercise of the right of civil action, shall not bar the exercise of the proper right of criminal action.
The provisions of this article are to be understood without prejudice to the provisions of Chapter 11, Title 1, of this book, and of articles 106, 107, 110, and the second paragraph of article 112.

1 This article is substantially a repetition of articles 125 and 132, subd. 1, of the Penal Code.












,rfrUL0 V.
BEL DERECHO DE DEFENSE Y DEL BENEFICIO DE FOBREZA EN LOS JUICIOS CRIMINALS.
ART. 118. Los procesados deberdn ser representados por procurador y defendidos por letrado, que pueden nombrar desde que so les notifique el auto de procesainiento. Si no los nombraren por si mismos 6 no tuvieren aptitude legal para verificarlo, se les designar6 de oficio cuando lo solicitaren. Si el procesado no hubiese designado procurador letrado, se le requerirA para que lo verifique, o' se le nombrarA de oficio, si requerido no los nombrase, cuando la causa Ilegue ft estado en que necesite el consejo de aqu4llos 6 haya do intentar algun recurso que hiciere indispensable su interventionn'
ART. 119. Los perjudicados por el hecho punible 6 sus herederos que f ueren parte en el juicio, si estuviesen habilitados para defenders como pores, tendr6n tambie'n derecho A que so les nombre de oficio procurador y abogado, para su representaci6n Y defense.

ART. 120. Los abogados a quienes correspond la defense de pores no podran excusarse de ella sin un motive personal y justo, que calificar6n segihn su prudent arbitrio los decanos de los colegios donde los hubiese, y on su defecto el juez 6 tribunal en que hubieren de hacerse las defenses.
ART. 121. Todos los que scan parte on una causa, si no estuviesen declarados pores, tendrdn obligaci6n de satisfacer los derechos.de los procuradores que les represented, los honorarios de los abogados que les defendant, los de los periods quo informed 'a su instancia y las indemnizaciones do los testigos que presentaren, cuando los periods y testigos al declarar hubiesen formulado su reclamacio'n y el juez o' tribunal la estimaren.
Ni durante la causa ni despu4s de terminada tendrain obligaci6n de satisfacer las demas costas procesales, 6 no ser que 'a ello fueren condenados.

Los abogados estAn obligados A defender A los pores. Impuesta 4 un abogado la correcci6n disciplinarian para que estdn autorizados los juzgados y triblinales, resisti6ndose todavia aqu6I 6 aceptar la defense que por turno le correspondi6 de Un litigate pobre, W procesado y penado como reo de desobediencia grave, con arreglo al art. 265 del c6digo penal, y habiendo interpuesto recurso de casaci6n, se declare no haber lugar d 61 por no haberse infringido dicho articulo. (Senteiteia de Marzo 7 A 1877.)
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TITLE V.
THE RIGHT OF DEFENSE AND THE BENEFIT OF POVERTY IN CRIMINAL CAUSES.
ART. 118. The persons accused must be represented by a solicitor and defended by an attorney, whom they may appoint as soon as they are notified of the indictment. If they do not designate them themselves or should they not have the legal power to do so they shall be appointed ex offieio, upon their request. If the accused should not have designated a solicitor or attorney, he shal I be required to do so or they shal I be appointed ex officio, if they should not have been appointed by him when the cause reaches a stage where he needs their counsel or some step should be taken wherein their intervention is necessary.'
ART. 119. The persons injured by the punishable act, or their heirs, who may be parties to the action, if they have been declared as entitled to defense in foi mapauperis, shall also have the right to have a solicitor and attorney appointed ex officio to represent and defend them.
ART. 120. The attorneys whose duty it is to defend the poor can not excuse themselves therefrom, except for a personal and just cause, which shall be passed upon according to the prudent judgment by the deans of the college, where there is such, and in their absence by the judge or court before which the defense is to be made.
ART. 121. All parties to a cause, if not declared poor persons, shall be obliged to pay the fees of the solicitors who represent them, of the attorneys who defend them, of the experts testifying in their behalf, and of the witnesses which they present, if the experts and witnesses at the time of testifying shall have filed their claim and the judge or court shall have allowed it.

Neither during the cause nor after its termination shall they be obliged to pay the other costs of the proceedings, unless adjudged to pay them.
'Attorneys are obliged to defend poor persons. A disciplinary penalty having been imposed upon an attorney, for which superior and inferior courts have authority, as lie still refused to accept the defense of a poor person when it was his turn to do so, lie was tried and convicted as guilty of grave disobedience, in accordance with the provisions of article 265 of the Penal Code, and upon taking an appeal for annulmerit of judgment it was disallowed, it being held that said article had not been violated. (Decision of March 7, 1887.)
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44

El procurador que nombrado por los que fueren parte en una causa, haya aceptado su representaci'n, tendr6 obligaci'n de pagar los honorarios a' los letrados do que se valiesen los clients para su defense.
Los que bubiesen sido declarados pores podi-6n valerse de abogado de su eleccio'n; pero on este caso estar6n obligados ,t abonarles sus honorarios, como se dispose respect de los quo no est6n declarados pores.
ART. 122. Se usarA papel de oficio en los judicious sobre faltas 3, en las causes criminals, sin perjuicio del correspondent reintegro si hubiere condenaci6n de costas.
ART. 123. SO'lo podribi ser habilitados conto pores:

10. Los que vivan de un journal 6 salario eventual.
20. Los que vivan s6lo de un salario perinanente, de un sueldo, cualquiera que sea su procedencia, quo no exceda del doble journal de un bracero en la localidad donde tengan su residential habitual.
30. Los quo vivan s6lo de rentals, cultivo de tierras cria de ganados, cuyos products est4n graduados en unasuma que no exceda de !a equivalent al journal de dos braceros en el lugar do su residential habitual.
40. Los quo vivan solo del ejercicio de una industrial de los productos de cualquier comercio por los cuales paguen de contribuci6n una sunia inferior a la fijada on la sigruiente eseala:
En la ciudad de la Habana, 150 pesetas.
En las capitals de las otras provincial de la isla de Cuba, 100 pesetas.
En la capital de la isla de Puerto Rico, 100 pesetas.
En las capitals de los partidos judiciales de las islas do Cuba y Puerto Rico, 50 pesetas.
En las dernas poblaciones de ambas islas, 25 pesetas.
50. Los que tengan ernbargados todos sus bienes, 6 los hayan cedido judicialmente i sus acreedores, y no ejerzan industrial, oficio profession.

En estos casos, s! quedasen bienes despu's do pagara los acreedoreg, se aplicar6ii a] pago do las costas que deba satisfacer el defendido como pobre.'
I Este artfeulo debe entenderse subordinado al 125, y, por lo tanto, precede denegar el beneficio si ]a sala deduce de los signs visible de riqueza que el que le pretend tiene inedios superiors al doble journal de un bracero.-Sentencias del Tribunal Supremo 18 Febrero 1870; 31 Diciembre 1877; 22 Septiembre, 18 y 21 Noviembre 1879; 10 Enero, 29 Alamo y 24 Junio 1880; 11 Febrera 1881; 15 Riciembre 1883 y otras.

(b) Contra la --entencia que concede 6 un litigate el beneficio de pobreza no procede el recurso de casaci6n.-Sentencia de 10 Mayo 1881.
(c) Tanibi6n debe declararse pobre d la persona que vive exclusivainente con una





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A solicitor who, being appointed by those who are parties to a cause, agrees to represent them, shall be obliged to pay the fees of the attorneys of whose services their clients avail themselves for their defense.
Those who have been declared poor persons may select their own attorney, but in such case they shall be obliged to pay his fees, as i's provided with regard to those who are not declared poor persons.

ART. 122. Official stamped paper shall be employed in trials for misdemeanors and in criminal causes, without prejudice to the proper payment therefor, should there be an adjudgment upon costs.
ART. 123. Only the following), can be permitted to prosecute and defend as poor persons:
1. Those who depend for a living upon an uncertain wage or salary.
2. Those who depend for a living upon a permanent salary or wage, from whatsoever source derived, which does not exceed double that received by a laborer in the locality of his habitual residence.
3. Those who depend for a living solely upon rents, farming, or stock raising, the proceeds of which do not exceed the wages of two laborers in the place of their habitual residence.

4. Those who gain their livelihood solely through the exercise of an industry or from the product of any commerce on which they pay a tax lower than that fixed in the following scale:
In the city of Havana, 150 pesetas.
In the capitals of the other provinces of the island of Cuba, 100 pesetas.
In the capital of the island of Porto Rico, 100 pesetas.
In the seats of the judicial districts of the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, 50 pesetas.
In the other towns of both islands, 25 pesetas.
5. Such persons wbose entire property has been attached, or who have made a judicial assignment thereof to their creditors, and who are Dot engaged in any industry, trade, or profession.
In such cases, if any property shall remain after the creditors have been paid, it shall be applied to the payment of the costs incurred at the instance of the debtor defended as a poor person.'
I (a) This article must be understood as subordinated to article 125, and therefore it is proper to refuse the benefit if the court shall deduce from visible signs of wealth that the applicant has means which exceed double the wages of a laborer. --Decisions of the Supreme Court of February 18, 1870; September 22, November 18 and 21, 1879; January 10, March 29, and Tune 24, 1880; February 11, 1881; December 15, 1883, and others.
(b) An appeal for annulment of judgment does not lie from a decision granting permission to prosecute or defend as a poor person. -Decision of May 10, 1881.
(c) A person who lives solely on a pension of 20 resales per day, left him by will