An introduction to botany

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Material Information

Title:
An introduction to botany in a series of familiar letters, with illustrative engravings
Physical Description:
200 p., 12 leaves of plates (some fold.) : ill. (engravings) ; 19 cm. (12⁰)
Language:
English
Creator:
Wakefield, Priscilla, 1751-1832
Newbery, E ( Elizabeth ), 1746-1821
Darton & Harvey (London England)
Vernor and Hood
Publisher:
Printed for E. Newbery ... Darton and Harvey ... and Vernor and Hood ...
Place of Publication:
London
Publication Date:
Edition:
The 2nd ed.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1798
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Priscilla Wakefield.
General Note:
Signatures: A-H¹²I⁴.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 027242803
oclc - 12793409
System ID:
AA00021483:00001


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A 'IT

INTRODUCTION

T 0

0 T A N Y,











AN


INTRODUCTION


TO



BO0T ANY,9

I N

A SERIES OF


FAMI1LIAR LETTERS,

WITH ILLUSTRATIVE ENGRAVJ\NGS.




BIY PRISCILLA 'WAKEFIELD,

AUTHOR OF MENTAL IMPROVEMENT, LEISURE HOURS, JUVENILE ANECDOTES, &C.










LO0N DO0N:

PRiNTED FOP E. NEWBERY, ST. PAUL'S CIT-7p'T; YARD; DARTON AND HARVEY, GRA'CECHVRCH.
STREETj AND VERNOR AND HOOD,
POULTRY.

1798-













PREFACE.



TIHE defign of the following Introduction to Botany, is to cultivate a tafte in young perfons for the fludy of nature, which is the moft familiar means of introducing fuitable ideas of the attributes of the Divine Being, by exemplifying them in the order and harmony of the vifible creation. Children are endowed with curiofity and activity, for the purpofe of acquiring knowledge. Let us avail ourfelves of thefe natural propenfities, and dired them to the purfuit of the mnofit judicious objeas: none can be better adapted to inflrua, and at the fame time amufe, than the beauties of nature, by which they are continually furrounded. The ftruaure of a feather or a flower is more likely to imprefs their minds with a juft notion of Infinite Power and Wifdom, than the moft profound difcourfes on fuch ablraEt fubjets, as are beyond
A 3 the






Vi PRE ACE.
the limits of their capacity to comprehend. In the important bufinefs of forming the human mind, the inclination and pleafure of the pupil should be confulted; in order to render leflbns effe ual, they fhould pleafe, and be fought rather as indulgencies, than avoided as laborious toils. Botany is a branch of Natural Hiftory that poffeffes many advantages; it contributes to health of body and cheerfulnefs of difpofition, by prefenting an inducement to take air and exercife; it is adapted to the fimpleft capacity, and the objees of its investigation offer themfelves without expence or difficulty, which renders them attainable to every rank in life; but with all thefe allurements, till of late years, it has been confined to the circle of the learned, which may be attributed to thofe books that treated of it, being principally written in Latin ; a difficulty that deterred many, particularly the female fex, from attempting to obtain the knowledge of a fcience, thus defended, as it were, from their approach. Much is due to thofe of our own countrymen, who firft introduc- ed






PREFACE. Vii
ed this delightful volume of nature to popular notice, by prefenting it in our native language; their labours have been a means of rendering it very generally Sfludied, and it is now confidered as a neceffary addition to an accomplifhed education. May it become a fubfltitute for
t fome of the trifling, not to fay pernicious,
objeEts, that too frequently,occupy the leifure of young ladies of fafhionable manners, and, by employing their facule ties rationally, ad as an antidote to levity
s and idlenefs. As there are many admir- able Englifh books now extant upon the
fubje&, it may require fome apology for 1 obtruding the prefent work upon the pubIs lic. It appeared that every thing hitherto
Ii publifhed, was too expenfive, as well as too
diffufe and fcientific, for the purpofe of teaching the elementary parts to children or young perfons; it was therefore thought, m that a book of a moderate price, and dia vefled as much as poflible of technical
terms, introduced in an eafy familiar of form, might be acceptable.
c
ed A 4 TABLE

















TABLE OF CONTENTS.



LETTER I.


INTRODUCTION to the fubjea. Felicia purpofes to ftudy Botany, and to communicate the refult of her Lelfons to her Siter. Page x7.

LETTER II.

The parts that compose a Plant enumerated. Defcription of the Root and its ufes. Winter Bods. The Trunk. The Leaves. The Perfpiration of the Sun-flower. Props, ufes. Peculiar defences of. fome Plants. 9

LETTER III.

Fruaification. Dfcription of its feveral Parts. Nectary. Its ufes. 6

LETTER IV;

Remarks upon the wifdom fhown in the fuitable formation of the, different parts of plants to their refpeaivce purposes. Defcription of a Crown Imperial. Willow Wren. The parts of a Stock Gilliflower dfcribed. Double Flowers are monsters 3 3 A5







I CONTENTS.


LETTER V.

Iniftruments neceary for the Diffifion. of fmall Flowers.
Curious account of the Pea-flower. Leguminous Plan's gener-ally fuitable for food. Claffification
nectfrary. Linnxiis. Page 39


LETTER VI.

A fyftem mufl: be learned. 'Claffes. Orders. Gene.
ra. Species and Varieties.


I LETTER VII.

4IThe Clafles according to Linnzus. 53


LETTER VIII.

Plants to be observed in different flages of thei? maturity. Suhdivifions of the Orders.-Clafs irf, Monandria. Mareftail.-Clafs fecond, Diandria. Privet. Speedwell. 59


LETTER IX.

Clafs third, Triandria. Gralfes. General remarks.
Prefervation. Ufes. Divisions. Vrnal Grafs.
Panice Grafs. Hair Grafs. Rope Grafa. Graffes of the third divifion. Oats. Reeds. Sugar.
Bamboo. Various kinds of Corn. 63


LETTER








CONTENTS. X1,


LETTER X.

Flags. Crocus. Clafs fourth, Tetrandria. Dtfinition. Divifions of the frlf Order. Aggregate Flowers. Teafei. Sca.bious. Plantain. Starry Fiants. Mv~adder. Gooftgrafs. Woodroof. Reedwert. D.,dde.. 70LETTER XI.

Cisfas~fth, PIntandria. Natural Orders. Afperifolix.
Lungwcrt. Borrage. Scorpion Grafs. B uglofs.
PreciT. Primr-ofe. Oxlip. Cowflip. Luridx.
Thonapple.~ Ilnbane. Nightfliade. Dwale. 7S

LETTER XII.

Campanaceoe. Convolvolus. Bindweed, Great and
Small. Bell Flowers. Giant Throatwort. Honeyfuckle. Buckthorn. Currant. Periwinkle. Contort&. Second Order. Qooftfoots. Gentians.
C~nflant parts to be taken. Elm. SoLETTER XIII.

Umbellate Tribe. Parsley, Faife and True. Chervil,
W ld and Cultivated. Water-Parfneps. WaterCrefs. Meal Tree. Guelder Rofe. Elder. Parnafius. Thrift, and Flax. 8 6

LETTER XIV.

Clafs fixth, Hlexandria. Lily Tribe. Tulip. Hyacinth. Amaryllis. Aloe. Snowdrop. Crocus.
Mcaduw Saffron. Daffodil. Narciffus. Waytbell.
A 6 Lily







xii CONTENTS.

Lily of the Valley. Sdomon's Sea]. Barberry.
Rice. Docks. Water"Plantains.-Clafs fevtnth, H-1ptandria. Winter Gieen.-Clafs eighth, O_,andria. Willowherbs. Whortle. H-eaths. Crofsleaved Heath. Mezereon. Spurge Laurel. Snakeweeds. Greater Biftort. Knot-Grafs. Page 93

LETTER XV.

Clafi; ninth, Enneandria. Flowering Roth. Bay.
Cinnamon. C iffia. Camnphor. Saffafras. Rhubarb.Clafs tenth, Dcecandria. D"vifions of the firil Order.
Birdfndl. Principal and Lateral Flowers. Straw_berry Tree. Sixafrage. White Saxafrage. Dianthus. Sweat William. S~ndworts. Stitchwvorts. Campion. Catchfly. Stonecrops. Sedum Acre. Cuckow-fiower. Woodforrel. 103zo

LETTER XVI.

clars eleventhi, Dodecandria. Definition. Loofefirife.
Agrimony. Yellow-weed. Spurge. Dyers Weed.
Small Garden, Spurge. Sun Spurge. Houfeleek. lop

LETTER XVII.

Clars twelfth, Tcoahndria. Definition. Apple. P~ear.
Cherry. Plum. Birds-cherry. Bullace. Hawthorn. Whitebeam. Wild Service Tree. IMedlan.
Rofe. Strawberry. lit

LETTER XVIII

Clafs thirteenth, Polyandria. Definition. Poppy.
-Wattr Lily. Ciftus. Lime, Larkfpur. Colum-







CONTENT&i Xii!

bine. Hc1lebom Anemone. Ranunculus. Butter-cups. Page 117

LETTER XIX.

Clars fourteenth, Didynarnia. Definition. Orders.
Q ,alities. Mutherwort. Ground Ivy. Mint. Germander. Bugle. Betony. Dead Nettle. Catmint.
Heribit. Horehound. Thyme. &-lf-heal. Marjoram. Bafii. Balm Leaf. Calamint. Hooded Willowberb. Broomrape. Toothwort. Paintedcup.
Eyebright. Ratle. Cowwheat. Fjgwort. Ycllow Toadflax. Purple Foxglove.

LETTER XX.

Fifteentb Clafs, Titradynamia. Definition. Orders.
Sobdivifions. WhitlowgraCs. Aw1wort. Camline.
Creffe-. Shepherd's Purfe. WormfeW. Turkey.
pod. Wallflower. Cabbage. Turnip. Sea Cole.
wort. Woad. Mullard. Water-Crefs. 222!

LETTER.XXI.

CIA sixteenth, Monadelphia. Definition. Natural
Chara&er. Orders. CranAill. Geranium. Lavatera. Mallow. Marfh Mallow. Daft of the Amthem
Good Microfcopic objeffi. Reficalons.

LETTER XXII.

Clals seventeenth, Diadelphia. Definition. Orders.
Fumitory. Milkwort. Broom. 6enifta. Furze.
Reftharpow. Wood Pea. Vetchling. Roughcodded Chickling. Tare. Trcfoil, Saintfcrin,
Horfilboe.







Xiv CONTENTS.

Horfelhoe. Suail ffiel.-Clafs eighteenthi,Polya delphia. Tutfon. Park-leaves. CommonSt. John's Wort. Trailing St. John's Wort. Hairy St.
John's Wort. Page 139

LETTER XXIII.

Clafs nineteenth, Syngenefia. De~finitions. Orders.
Obfervations. Endive. Goatfbeard. Oxtongue.
Dandelion. Thiflle. Milk Thiffle. Liverhemp.
Southernwoodl. Wormwood. Mugwort. Tanfey.
Daify. Chamomile. Yarrow. Knapweed. Bluebottle. Horfe-knops. Star-thiftle. St. Barnaby's Thifle. Cudweed. Violet. Sweet Violet. Dog
Violet. Hearts Eafe. Balfam. Touch Me Not. 146

LETTER XXIV.

Ciafs twentieth, Gynandria. Definition. Order. Diandria. Diftin~lion of the Orders. General Chiaraaers. Orchis. Butterfly Orchis. Late-flowering Purple Orchis. Male and Female Orchis. Broadleaved Orchis. Spotted Orchis. Satyrion. Lizardflower. Twaybades. Common Twaybiade. Triple Lady's Traces. Fly and Bee Orchis. Lady's Slipper. Cuckowpint. 3 ~ 57

LETTER XXV.

CIAs twenty-firft, Monoecia. Definition. orders.
Stoneworts. Sedges. Burreed. Reedmace. Nettle.
Box. Birch. Alder. Oak. Beech. Chefout.
Hazel. Horubeams. Fir. Refleffiosns. -1i6Z



LETTER







CONTENTS. xv


LETtPER XXVI.

Clafs twenty-fecond, Dioecia. Definition. Willow.
Round-leaved Willow. Mifletoe. White Mifletoe. H1op. Poplar. Great White Poplar. Trembling Poplar. Frogbit. juniper. Yew. Pettigree.
Butcher's BIroom. Page x69

LETTER XXVII.

Clafs twenty-third, Polygamia. Definition. Soft
Grafs. Hard Grafs. Maple. Pellitory of the
Wall. Afh. 1 75

LETTER XXVIII.

Ciafs twenty-fourth, Cryptogamia. Ferns. Horfetail. Adderftongue. Moonwort. Ofmund Royale.
Polypody. Male Fern~. Spleenwort. Hartflongue.
Maidenhair. Moffes. Definition. Wfes. Clubmofs. B]l)gmofs. Earthmofa. Hairmofs. Great Golden Maidenhair. Maribmofa. Threadmofs.
Feathermofs. Fern Feathermofs. Sea-weeds and Liverworts. Definition. Ufea. Subdivifions. Rein Deer Mofs. Laver. Oar-weed. River-weed. Mulhrooms. Eatable kind. Spunk. Morell, Truffle.
Manner of finding them. Conclusion. 79









AN




















































14









AN

INTRODUCTION

TO

B O TA N Y.



LETTER I.

FELICIA TO CONSTANCE.

DEAR ~SITERp Shrubbey, Ferutay i.

AS it is an unufual thing for us to be feparated, I do not doubt, but we equally feel the pain of being at a diflance from each other; when I confider, that you are really gone to pals the whole fummer with my aunt, and that I have parted with the beloved companion of my walks and amufements, I think 1 hall but half enjoy either, during the fine feafon that is approaching. With you, indeed, the cafe will be rather different; new fcenes will prefent themnfelves, which will entertain by their novelty and variety, and the kind attentions of my aunt and cousins will compenfate in degree for the abfence






is INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

fence of thofe friends you have left at home. Every place here looks folitary, efpecially our own apartment, and our favourite haunts in the garden. Even the approach of fpring, which is marked by the appearance of fnow drops and crocuffes, affords me but little pleafure; my kind mother, ever attentive to my happinefs, concurs with my governefs in checking this depreffllion of fpirits, and infiis upon my having recourfe to fome interefting employment that hall amufe me, and pafs away the time while you are abfent; my fondnefs for flowers has induced my mother to propofe Botany, as the thinks it will be beneficial to my health, as well as agreeable, by exciting me to ufe more air and exercife than I flould do, without fuch a motive; becaufe books alone should not be depended upon, recourfe muff be had to the natural fpecirnens growing in fields and gardens; how fhould I enjoy this purfuit in your company, my dear fiRfer! but as that is impoffible at prefent, I will adopt the neareft fubfilitute I can obtain, by communicating to you the refult of every le!fon. You may compare my defcriptions with .the flowers themfelves, and, by thus mutually purfuing the fame obje61, we may reciprocally improve each other. I am impatient to make a beginning, but am full of apprehenfion of the number of hard words at the entrance. However,






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 9

ever, I am refolved not to be deterred by this difficulty; perfeverance and patience will over. come it; and as I know the eafy method of inftruaion adopted by my dear governefs in other fciences, I confide in her kill to render this eafy and pleafant. Farewell.

FELICIA.







LETTER II.

Shrubbery, Februaty xo.
THE morning being fine tempted us abroad. Botany fupplied us with fubjeas for converfation. Mrs. Snelgrove took the opportunity of remarking, that a perfe& plant confiffs of the root, the trunk or flem, the leaves, the fupports, flower and fruit; (for botanically fpeaking) by fruit in herbs, as well as in trees, is underiltood the whole formation of the feed: and as each part needs a particular explanation to a novice, fhe began her leaure by pointing out the ufes of the root. The firfil, and moft obvious, is that of enabling the plant to fland firmly in the ground.






20 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

ground, by ferving as a balance to the head. By what means could the enormous oaks in the park be kept upright and fixed, but by their extenfive, turgid roots: they ferve as a counterpoife against the weight of the trunk and branches. The chief nourifhment of the plant is received by the radicle, or fibrous part of the roots, that, like fo many), mouths, abforb the nutricious juices from the eaith. The root alfo performs the part of a parent, by preferring the embryo plants in its bofom, during the feverity of winter, in form of bulbs or buds: bulbs are properly but large buds, eyes, or gems, includ. ing the future plants. Nature is an ceconomifl, and is fparing of this curious provision, againift the cold, where it is unneceffary. In warm countries, few plants are furnished with winter buds. Roots are diflinguifhed by different names, according to their forms; as fibrous, bulbous, and tuberous, with many other leffer diftinations, expreffive of their manner of growth.
The next part of a plant, that claims our notice, is the trunk or flem, which rifes out of the root, and fuppoits the flower, leaves, &c. The. trunk of trees and hbrubs, (and it is fuppofed, that the Rfem of the more diminutive kinds of plants, in the fame manner) confifis of feveral diftina parts; as the bark, the wood, the fap.veffels, correfponding to the blood-veffels in animals; the pith,






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 21

d. pith, the trachea or air veficles, and the web or
tiffue; each of there parts has its peculiar ufe, and its confiruaion is admirably adapted to its -purpofe. The bark of plants feems to perform
d the fame offices to them, that the fkin does to
at animals; it clothes and defends them from inju ry, inhales the moisture of the air, and extraals, U- or conveys from the plant the fuperfluity of
10 moiRl particles. The caufe of evergreens retainle ing their foliage during the winter, is fuppofed ty to arife from an abundant quantity of oil in
re their barks, which preferves them from the efd. feas of cold. The bark (as well as the wood)
fit, is fupplied with innumerable veffels, which conit vey the fluids to and from every part of the
an plant; the wood alfo is furnished with others,
r which contain air, and is diflributed throughout at its fubilance. The flability of trees and fhrubs
s, confifis in the wood, which correfponds with the f. bones of animals. The feat of life feems to reLide in the pith or medullary fubifance, which is a fine tiffue of veffels originating in the centre.
The fluids of plants are the fap, analogous to te, the blood of animals; and the proper juice,
t which is of various colours and confidence in s, different individuals; as white or milky in the
dandelion, refinous in the fir, and producing gum in cherry or plum trees, &c. Hoping that I e have given you fuch a clear description of the
I root






22 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

root and flem, as will enable you to form a general idea of their parts and ufes, I fall proceed to leaves, which contribute, at the fame time, to the benefit and ornament of the plant. I need not tell you, that the variety of their forms and manner of growth is great; your own obfervation has long fince informed you of this particular, and prepared you to underfland the terms by which botaniftis arrange them, according to their forms and shapes; as fimple, compound, rough, finooth, round, oval, heart shaped, &c. there minutiae muft be learned by referring to plates. Leaves are fuppofed to anfwer the purpofe of lungs, and, by their inclination to be moved by the wind, in fome degree, feive alfo thofe of mufcles and mufcular motions. They are very porous on both their furfaces, and inhale and exhale freely. The annual fun-flower is an extraordi. nary inflance of this fa&; it is faid to perfpire nineteen times as much as a man, in twenty-four hours. Fine weather encourages the perfpiration of vegetables; but in heavy, moiff, and wet weather, the inhalation exceeds. The effluvia of plants is thought unwholefome to perfons of delicate conflitutions, but particularly fo at night and in a dull flate of the atmofphere; but it is; worth obferving, that the air emitted from the leaves is never prejudicial; that which is noxious proceeds from the corollas only.
Thb






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 23

The next parts to be confidered, are the fup. to ports or props; by there are meant certain exhe ternal parts of plants, which are ufeful to fup.ell port and defend them from enemies and injuries,
of or for the fecretion of fome fluid, that is baneful
ng or difagreeable to thofe infeas that would otherre- wife hurt them. They are divided into feven
kinds: Ift, Tendrils; fmall fpiral firings, by ms which fome plants, that are not firong enough
th, to land alone, fuflain themfelves by embracing
trees, thirubs, or other fupports; the honeyfuckle ves and birdweed afford examples of this. 2dly,
gs, Floral leaves; are fmall leaves placed near the the flower, fmaller, and mofily of a different form
:es from thofe of the plant. 3dly, Scales; fmall
os leafy appendages, fituated on either fide, or a
iale little below the leaf, to protea it, when firfi
-di. emerging from the bud. 4thly, Foot tflalks;
,ire there fupport the leaf, and defend and convey
our noiurifhment to the infant bud. 6thly, Flower
ira- flalks, or foot flalks, to the flower and fruit.
wet 6thly, Arms; a general term for the offenfive
.via parts of plants, fuch as thorns, prickles, flings,
of &c. 7thly, Pubes; a name applied to the deght fenfive parts of plants, fuch as hairs, vool, a
t certain hoary whitenefs, hooks, brifiles, glands, tie clamminefs, and vifcidity. In order to enliven
xi a dry detail of names, and a mere defcription of
parts, Mrs. Snelgrove favoured me with an acrhe count






t4 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.
count of fome curious contrivances of nature, obferved in fome particular plants, for their defence againfl infefs, or larger animals, that would, without this precaution, greatly annoy them; and as I know the pleafure you take in fuch recitals, I fall repeat them to you, before I clofe this long letter. The vifcous matter; which furrounds the flalks, under the flowers of the catchfly, prevents various infeEts from plun. dering the honey, or devouring the pollen, which fertilizes the feed. In the dionzea mufcipula, or Venus's fly-trap, there is a fill more wonderful means of preventing the depredations of infe&s. The leaves are armed with long teeth, like the antenna of infeds, and lie fpread upon the ground round the flem; they are fo irritable, that when an infect creeps upon them, they fold up, and crufh or pierce it to death. The flower of the arum muflcivorum has the fmnell of carrion, which invites the flies to lay their eggs in the chamber of the flower; but the worms, which are hatched from there eggs, are unable to make their efcape from their prifon, being prevented by the hairs pointing inwards, which has given the name of flyeater to this flower. The fame purpofe is effeted in the dypfacus, vulgarly called teazel, by a bafon or receptacle of water, placed round each joint of the flem.
1The






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 2
.re, The naufeous and pungent juices of fome vede
at getables, and the fragrance of others, are beh flowed upon them in common with thorns and S prickles for their defence againfl the depredao tions of animals. Many trees and shrubs fupply ore grateful food to a variety of creatures, and would ter, be quickly devoured, were they not armed with
of thorns and flings, which prote& them not only un- againftl fomne kinds of infeats, but alfo againfit the en, naked mouths of quadrupeds. It is worth rei marking, as a farther analogy between plants and ore animals, that the former frequently lofe their
ons thorns, &c. by cultivation, as wild animals are
ng deprived of their ferocity, by living in a domefead tic flate, under the government and proteacion
ir of man. My letter is already fpun out to a te2m, dious length, I muff, therefore, referve the deith. fcription of the fruflification till a future opporthe tunity.-Adieu: your
lay
but FELICIA.




s,
teir
mnt
fly
ef
by
intL
LETTER






a2 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.


LETTER III.

Shrubbery, February S.
THE approbation you exprefs, my dear Conflance, of my endeavours to amufe you with an account of my botanical lectures, encourages me to proceed, though with great diffidence, as I find the fubjed becomes more intricate as I advance. The fruElification includes the flower and fruit, and contains the whole procefs of per. feEting the feeds. It confifts of feven parts; and, to illufirate them, I have sketched fome par ticulars from the lily, &c.

i. The (calyx) cup, or empalement, a.
2. The (corolla) bloffom, petals, or flower
leaves, b.
3. The (Stamina) threads or chives, c.
4. The (piftillum) flyle or pointal, d.
5. The (pericarpium) feed veffel, e.
6. The feed or fruit,f.
7. The (receptaculum) receptacle, or bafe, g

Some flowers poffefs all thefe parts, others ar deficient in fome of them; but the chives or th pointals, or both, are effential, and to be fou in all, either in flowers on the fame plant, or i differe









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INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 27

different individual flowers of the fame fpecies, on feparate plants. I hall give you as clear a defcription of thefe feveral parts as I poffibly can, to enable you to diflinguiflh them at firft fight. The cup, empalement, or calyx (a), is that outer part of the flower, formed of one or more green, or yellowish green leaves, fuflaining the corolla at the bottom, and inclofing it entirely, before it expands, as you may remark in the Role and Geranium, the latter of which I have sketched for an illustration. The empalement is either

A cup, as in the polyanthus,
A fence, as in the hemlock or carrot,
A catkin, as in the willow or hazle,
A heath, as in the narciffus,
A hufk, as in oats, wheat, or graffes,
A veil, as in moffes,
A cap, as in mushrooms.

The bloffom, petals, or corolla (b), is that beautiful coloured part of a flower, which firft draws the attention, and is regarded by common eyes as the flower itfelf; but botanifts, more firia in their definitions, appropriate that term to the compofition of the whole of the frutification, of which the corolla is only a part.
The threads, or chives, are compofed of two parts; one long and thin, by which they are B 2 faftened






8 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

faftened to the bottom of the corolla, called the filament; the other thicker, placed at the top of the filament, called anthera, or anther. Each anther is a kind of box, which opens when it is ripe, and throws out a yellow dufll, that has a firong fmell; this is termed pollen or farina, and is the fubftance of which bees are fuppofed to make their wax. The progrefs of the feed to maturity is deferving the moft curious attention. Firf, the calyx opens, then the corolla expands and discovers the flamens, which generally form a circle within the petals, furrounding the point. al. The pollen or duff, which burfts from the anthers, is abforbed by the pointal, and paffing through the flyle, reaches the germ, and vivifies the feed, which, without this procefs, would be imperfe61 and barren. The flamens, pointal, and corolla, having performed their refpedtive offices, decline and wither, making room for the feed-bud, which daily increafes, till it attain its perfe6 flate. Many curious experiments have been made by attentive naturalills, that prove the neceffity of this communication between the fiamens and pointals of the fame flower, in order to render its feeds produElive. The flamens and p ntal being fometimes difpofed on different pl!a, the trial may be made by shutting up a pot of thofe which have pointals only, in fome place where they cannot be reached by the pollen






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 29
the pollen of the flamens of other individual plants,
of and experiment has conflantly fhown, that no
ich feed is produced in this fituation; but how hall
t is we account for the conveyance of the pollen
s a from one plant to another, growing at a diflance
md from it? They are both fixed, and cannot apto proach each-other; yet nature, ever abounding
to in refources, has provided fufficient means for
on. the purpose. It is probable that there is an at.
ads tra6ion between them, which we may imagine,
I'n but cannot perceive; this attra&ive quality may
,nt- draw the pollen, floating about in the air, as it
the is wafted by the winds, to the pointals of its
ing own fpecies; or, in many cafes, the numerous
fics tribes of minute winged infeEts, which we obbe ferve fo bufily employed in a warm day, bafking
tal, and hovering upon the flowers, may foon convey
we this fertilizing duft from one to another, and,
the whilfi they are feafting upon the delicious honey
its afforded by thefe flowers, return the.favour, by
Ive rendering them an effential fervice.
We The flyle, pointal, or piftil, is compofed of
the three parts (Plate I.): the germen, the flyle, and
der the fligma. The germen varies, as to its form,
mnd in different plants, but is always placed below
Mnt the ftyle; its office is to contain the embryo a feeds. The flyle is placed on the germen,,,and
me is of a variety of figures and lengths, and fomethe times feems wholly wanting. The fligma alfo
lenB 3 appears






30 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

appears of different forms, but always retains the fame fituation, being invariably placed at the top of the flyle; or, if that be wanting, it is fixed on the gerrnen.
The feed veffel, or pericarpium, is the germen of the piftil enlarged, as the feeds increafe in fize, and approach nearer perfection. (Plate I.) The feed veffel is divided into feven kinds:

Capfule, as in poppy and convolvulus,
Pod, as in wallflower and honefly,
Shell, as in pea and broom,
Berry, as in elder and goofeberry,
Flei y, as in apple and pear,
Pulpy, as in cherry and peach,
Cone, as in fir and pine.

The feeds, or fruit, refemble the eggs of animals, and are the effence of the fruit, containing the rudiments of a new vegetable. The formation of the feed is varioufly adapted to its purpofe, and is compofed of feveral parts : ift, The heart; this is the principle of life in the future plant, contained within the lobes; it confifts of two parts, the plume, which afcends, and forms the future flem; and the beak which defcends and becomes the root. 2dly, The fide lobes ; thefe fupply the heart of the feed with nourifhment, till it is capable of extra&ing fupport from the
tui






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 3f
h the earth. In moft plants the lobes afcend in top the form of leaves, and are called feed or radied cle leaves; but, in fome, they perilh beneath the furface, without appearing above ground. ten
3dly, The Scar; is an external mark, where
Sthe feed was faftened within the feed veffel. L) 4thly, The feed-coat is a proper cover to fame
feeds. It is of various texture and confiftence in different individuals. Sometimes the feed is crowned with the cup of the flower, and fometimes itis winged with a feather, or with a thin expanded membrane, which affifis the wind to waft or difperfe it to a diflance. The feed contains the perfeE plant in embryo, though, in moft infiances, too minute to be difcerned by our organs of fight; but if the feed of a bean or an acorn be fufficiently foaked in warm water, ni- the form of the future plant may be plainly pering ceived.
a- The bafe, or receptacle (g), is that part by ur- which-the whole frufification is fupported; in
'he many flowers it is not very firiking, but in others
ire it is large and remarkable, as in the cotton thifof tIe (h). The artichoke will alfo furnifh us with
ms an example: take away the empalement, blofids foms, and briftly fubitances, and the part remainsing is the receptacle, which we eat, and call the fh- bottom.
mB4 It
he B 4 It







$2 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.
It remains for me to defcribe the nedtariurr, neftary, or honey cup, an appendage with which fome flowers are furnifed, containing a faina: quantity of fweet honey-like juice, from which the bees colle& their rich treafures. It is very confpicuous in fome flowers, as the naflurtium, crown imperial, columbine, and larkfpur; but lefs vifible in others, and in fome, appears to be entirely wanting. In the dove-footed cranesbill, there are five yellowiflh glands (i), which ferve as a nefary. The ufe is fuppofed to be that of a refervoir, for the nourifhment of the tender feed bud.
I am fearful, my dear fifler, that you are fatigued with there tedious definitions and defcriptions of parts; to me they have been rendered more agreeable, as I have become acquainted wit them from vifible objets. I hope to participate this pleafure with you in degree, by exemplifying them in fome individual flowers, which you may examine by yourfelf; but I hall defer this till my next letter, and conclude affectionately yours
FELICIA.





LETTER






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 33

ure,
IC i'I

:nall LETTER IV.
bich
er Shrubbery, Febiary 24.
uim,
but THE further I advance in my new fludy, the
be more pleafure I take in it, and should value it as
aes- an important addition to the number of my inlich nocent enjoyments, if partaken with you, my
Sbe beloved Conflance. Though far feparated from
the each other, I am flill defirous of affociating with
you, as much as the mode of communication will fa- permit, in the delight I feel in examining pointrip- als and flamens. My morning and evening
red rambles are devoted to this purfuit, nor will vith Mrs. Sneigrove permit me to pafs thefe hours in
)ate mere amusement, but leads me by her amiable
ify- reflections, to confider there pleafing objeas not
ou only in a botanical view, but by pointing out this the peculiar ufes of the different parts of their
ely firuElure, to perceive and admire the proofs of
Divine WVifdom exhibited in every leaf, and in every flower; common beholders fee there things conflantly without obferving them; how happy amn I to have an infiruarefs and guide, who teaches me to ufe my eyes, and exert thofe faculties which nature has beflowed upon me.
The flowers which I have feleted as examples, R B5 for






34 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

for your examination, to render you perfeE Iniflrefs of the parts, are the Crown Imperial, the Stock Gilliflower, and the Pea; the laft, is chofen on account of the wonderful means ufed in its conflruaion, for the prefervation of thofe parts, neceffary to perfea the fruit or feed. They are not yet in feafon. The firft will foon appear, but you mufl wait patiently for the others, till the time of their blooming arrives, which will afford you the advantage of watching their progrefs from the firft appearance of the bud, to the perfeaing the feeds; nor can you judge accurately of feveral of the parts, but by this daily examination, as they change their form and ap. pearance in different flages of the maturity of the flower. Gather a crown imperial as foon as you perceive one blown; if you obferve it clofely, you will find that it has no cup or empalement; pull off the beautifully coloured fcarlet, or fometimes yellow, petals, which form the corolla, one by one, and you will find that there are fix of them. The corollas of many flowers are formed of one petal, as the Canterbury Bell, and are, on that account, called Monopetalous. But thofe that have more petals than one in their corollas, are termed Polypetalous. Ob. ferve a fort of little column, rifing exa8ly in. the middle of the corolla, and pointing upwards. This taken in its whole, is the pointal; but by a nice






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 35
nice infpeElion, you will find it divided into
e three parts: The oblong, three cornered, fwol.
n len bafe, which is the germ or ovary, the fvyle ts or thread placed upon this, crowned by the ftigrna with three notches. Between the pointal
e and the corolla, fix other bodies will claim your r, notice, which you will readily guefs are the 11 flamens, compofed of filaments and anthers. 11 Continue your vifits to fome other individual
flower of the fame kind, till the petals wither and
e fail off, and you will perceive that the germ increafes, and becomes an oblong triangular capy fule, within which are flat feeds in three fhells.
Behold the pericarp under the form of this capfule. I had like to have forgotten to mention the honey-cup, which may be found at the botit tom of the petals, in the form of a little hole.
The willow wren creeps up the flems of this
r- plant, and fips the drops of honey as they hang
from the petals. After having carried you re through the various parts of a Crown Imperial,
rs I will introduce a Stock Gilliflower to your ac, quaintance, which, I hope, will afford you as much entertainment as the flower already exn amined. It is necefFary that I should remark,
that our flock muff be a fingle one. Thofe fihe
purple double flocks that we prized fo highly s. laft fummer, would have been totally difregarda ed by a botanical fludent, who confiders all
SB 6 double






36 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

double flowers, either as the fport of nature, or the effeEl of art, and confequently improper for his investigation. In the examination of this flower, the firfl thing that you will fee is the calyx, an exterior part, which was wanting in the Crown Imperial. In the flock, it confills of four pieces, which wq muffll call leaves, leaflets, or folioles, having no proper name to exprefs them by, as we have of petals, for the pieces that compofe the corolla. There leaflets are commonly unequal by pairs. That is, there are two oppofite and equal, of a fmaller fize, and two others alfo oppofite and equal, but larger. This calyx contains a corolla, compofed of four petals. I fay nothing of their colour, becaufe that makes no permanent part of their character. Each of thefe petals is faftened to the receptacle, or bot. tom of the calyx, by a narrow pale part, called the claw of the petal, and this fpreads out over the top of the calyx, into a large, flat, coloured piece, diflinguifhed by the name of lamina, or the border. Admire the regularity of the corolla of the flowers of this tribe. The petals grow generally wide of each other, and exactly oppofite to one another, forming a figure refembling that of a crofs, which has given them the name of cruciform, or crofs-fhaped. The petals of the corolla, and the leaflets of the calyx are fituated alternately; and this pofition prevails in all flowers,






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 37

or flowers, in which is a correfpondent number of
for petals and leaflets. In the centre of the corolla
his is one piftil or pointal, long and cylindric,
ca- chiefly compofed of a germ, ending in a very
Aie thort flyle, and that terminated by an oblong
)ur fligma, which is bifed, or divided into two parts,
or that are bent back on each fide. It remains now
ni to fpeak of the flamens; there are fix of them,
rn- two, shorter than the other four, oppofite to
Ily each other, thefe are feparated by the reft, as are
0- alfo the others in pairs. When the corolla
:rs withers, the germ grows confiderably in length,
yx and thickens a little as the fruit ripens; when it
I is ripe, it becomes a kind of flat pod, called fi.
es lique. This filique is compolfed of two valves,
of each covering a fmall cell, and there cells are
tt. divided by a thin partition. When the feeds
are ripe, the valves open from the bottom up.
r wards, to give them paffage, and remain faft to
d the fligma at top. Then you may difcover the
flat round feeds ranged along each fide of the la partition, and you will find that they are faftened
w ahlternately, to right and left, by a fort pedicle,
or footfialk, to the futures or edges of the parg tition. The great number of fpecies in this
e clafs, has determined botanifts to divide it into
f two feCtions, in which the flowers are perfe6ly
alike; but there is a material difference in the
I fruits, pericarps, or feed veffels. The defcription
of






38 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.
of the Pea, will enlarge my letter to an unreafonable length, and as I am tired, and fuppofe that you muff be fo likewife, I will defer it to my next. -Adieu, dear fifter; fay every thing for me, to my aunt and coufins, that is kind and affefionate, and believe me ever your

FELICIA.







LETTER V.

Shrubbery, March i.

IT is with renewed pleafure I devote the prefent half hour to your fervice, fince you affure me, that my letters contribute to your amufement, and that you purfue the fame objeE, that occupies me daily, from the hints I have given you. I wifh you had a better guide, that could fatisfy your enquiries, and animate your induftry by fuperior Ikill; affe&ion and a defire to pleafe, will simulate me to repeat Mrs. Snelgrove's leaures accurately: may I be able to give you a clear idea of what I defcribe; but I find it difficult to exprefs forms and shapes by writing.






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY, 39

writing. I believe I fhall be obliged to have fret quent recourfe to my pencil, which will reprefent, y in a more lively manner, the pleafing objeas of r our prefent refearches. In order to aflift you
in the examination of the minute parts of fmall flowers, it will be neceffary to provide a magnifying glafs, a needle, lancet, and a pair of fmnall fcifiars, to render the differing them eafier; for many of their parts are too delicate to be handled, for which reafon a pair of fmall nippers will be an ufeful addition to the infiruments that I have already named. Although I have wanderei far from the fubjea, I have not forgotten my promrnife of defcribing the curious mechanifm
employed in the firuiture of the pea flower.
On examining this elegant and wonderful
bloffomn, you will obferve that the calyx is of one piece, divided at the edge into five fegments, or difltin points, two of which are wider than the other three, and are fituated oft the upper fide of the calyx, whilif the three narrower ones occupy the lower part. The corolla is compofed of four petals, the firflt is broad and large, covering the others, and flanding, as it were, on the upper part of the corolla, to defend and flielter it from the injuries of the weather in the manner of a field; by way of pre-eminence, it is called the Standard, or Banner. In taking off the flandard, remark how deeply it is inferted on each






40 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

each fide, that it may not eafily be driven out of its place by the wind. The fide petals, diflin.guifhed by the name of wings, are expofed to view by taking off the banner. They are as ufeful in proteding the fides of the flower, as the banner is in covering the whole. Take off the wings, and you will perceive the keel, called fo on account of its fancied refemblance to the fhape of the bottom of a boat; this inclofes and preferves the centre of the flower from harm, which its delicate texture might receive from air and water. If you are curious to examine the contents of this little cafket, flio the keel gently down, and you will difcover a membrane, terminated by ten diflin& threads, which furround the germ, or embryo of the legume or pod. Each of there threads or filaments is tipped with a yellow anther, the farina of which covers the fligma, which terminates the flyle, or grows along the fide of it. The filaments form an additional defence to the germ, from external injuries. As the other parts decay and fal off the germ gradually becomes a legume or pod. This legume is diftinguifhed from the filique of the cruciform tribe, by the feeds being faftened to one fide only of the cafe or fell, though alternately to each valve of it. Compare the pod of a pea and a flock together, and you will immediately perceive the difference. The footfialk which






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 41

of which fupports this flower is flender, and eafily
mn- moved by the wind. In wet and flormy weato ther, the pea turns its back to the form, whilfl
as the banner enfolds the wings, by clofing about
as them, and partly covers them; they perform the
fif fame office to the keel, containing the effential
ed parts of the fruaification. Thus is this flower
he curioufly sheltered and defended from its natu.
ad ral enemies, rain and wind; and, when the
n, florm is over, and fair weather returns, the
m flower changes its pofition, as if fenfible of the
alteration, expands its wings, and ereas its fland. c ard as before. Wonderful are the means of
e, prefervation ufed by the all-wife Creator to der fend the tender and important parts of the fruc tification of plants from injury; but he feems to is have provided, in an efpecial manner, for the fecurity of thole, which ferve as nourishment to men
r and animals, as does the greater part of the leguminous or pulfe kind. I imagine, by this time, that you are pretty well acquainted with the feve, ral parts that compofe a flower, and would recog.
nife them, though in an individual that was an utter firanger to you. Confirm your knowledge d by praEfice, and do not fuffer a day to pafs with.
out amufing yourfelf in differing fome flower
d or other. When you are perfealy acquainted
with this entrance of the fcience, Mrs. Snelgrove fays, that I may proceed to give you a sketch






42 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

Iketch of the arrangement and clarification of plants, for it is by method only, that it is poffible to obtain a knowledge of fo many particulars. Botany would be indeed a moft fatiguing and almoft unattainable fcience, were we obliged to learn the peculiarities of every plant, one by one; but the difficulty ceafes, or at leaft, is greatly diminifhed, by claffing thofe together in which there is a fimilarity in fome one point. Eminent naturalifts have at different times exerted their talents to perform this tafk. Tournefort is a name that was highly diftinguiffied on this lift, before the time of Linnaus, whole fuperior genius has raifed him above all his predeceffors: his fyflem is now univerfally adopted. As it will furnifh matter for feveral letters, I fall not enlarge upon it at this time, but proceed to relate fome anecdotes concerning this great man, that I think likely to afford you entertainment. Charles Linnaeus was a native of Sweden, and the fon of an obfcure clergyman in that country: his father was a great admirer of the vegetable produ&ions of nature, and adorned the environs of his rural manfion with the natural produce of the neighbouring fields. Young Linnaeus caught the enthufiafm, and early imbibed the fame tafte, with fuch warmth, that he was never able to bend his mind to any other purfuit. His father intended to bring him up to the church, but he chewed fuch






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 43

of fuch a diflike to theological fludies, to which
II- his nature was averfe, that his relations, angry
u and difappointed at his want of application, by g way of punifihment, purpofed to bind him appreng tice to a fhoe-maker; but an over-ruling Provire dence defined him to fill a more noble and diflinif, guifhed walk in life. A phyfician, named Rother man, obferving him to be a lad of genius, comit. paffionated his fituation, and relieved him from
t it, by taking him into his own family, and inrt fruEting him in the fcience of medicine. By
is accident he lent him Tournefort's Elements of
or Botany to read, which renewed his former tafte,
s: for the produEtions of Flora, and decided the
it call of his future charaeLer. From that time he
devoted all his leifure to his favourite fludy, and
e by the luftre of his abilities, drew the attention I of fome of the molt learned men in Europe,
who encouraged and patronifed him in the proS fecution of that amiable and interefting purfuit,
r to which he had devoted himfelf. Botany was
s in an imperfeat fate, when he undertook to
1 form a new fyftem, which he effeaed fo excelS lently, that it has immortalized his name, and S although it may probably receive improvement
from fome future naturalift, it is never likely to s be fuperfeded. The fludies of Linnaus were
S not wholly confined to botany. He formed the I prefent claffification of moft other branches of
natural






44 INTRODUCTION TO EOTANY.

natural hiflory, and, by his judicious arrange ments, has rendered the acquifition of the knowledge of nature eafier to the fludent, than it ws before his fyflem was invented. It is late, and I am obliged to lay afide my pen-Farewell.

FyELICIA.







LETTER VI.

DEAR SISTER, Shrubbey, March 6.

AM fearful, left by this time, you are wearied with the minute defcriptions of the feparate parts of flowers and plants, and that you begin to wifh for fomething more amufing. Botany, like- all other fciences, has its elements, which muff be patiently learned by the pupil, before fufficient knowledge can be attained, to enjoy the moft pleading parts of it. I have already hinted the neceflity of forming fome fyftern, that may reduce the innumerable individuals of the vegetable kingdom, to the compafs of human memory and comprehenfion. All the
known vegetable productions, upon the furface 0f






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 45
ge of the globe, have been reduced by naturalifis to
Claffes, Orders, Genera, Species, and Varieties.
The Claffes are compofed of Orders; the Orn ders are compofed of Genera; the Genera of
Species; and the Species of Varieties. Let us endeavour to attain a clearer idea of Claffes, Orders, &c. by comparing them with the general
divisions of the inhabitants of the earth.

Vegetables refemble Man,
Claffes, Nations of Men,
Orders, Tribes, or Divifions of Nations,
Genera, the Families that compofe the Tribes, Species, Individuals of which Families confiff, Varieties, Individuals under different appearances.
ied
ae Do not think, dear fifler, that I am capable of
methodifing fo accurately, without the kind affifiance of one, who fuperintends my letters, c and points out what I fhould write; it is not
,re
r neceffary to fay, that Mrs. Sneigrove is that attentive affectionate friend, who will not allow dy me to do any thing without fomne degree of reS gularity. Many great men, as I told you in my S laft, have formed fyfiems after different plans.
S Thole of Tournefort and Linnaus are moft efth teemed; both are ingenious: but as that of Lin.
ce neus has fuperfeded all others, it will not be
o neceffary







46 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.
neceffary to confound your memory with any other, his being the one univerfally adopted; it is that in which it is proper to be completely inIlruaed.
Linnaus, diffatisfied with every fyflem invented before his time, undertook to form a new one, upon a plan approaching nearer to perfection, and depending on parts lefs liable to variation. The flamens and pointals are the bafis of his claffification. He has divided all vegetables into twenty-four claffes. There claffeslare fubdivided into nearly one hundred orders; there orders include about two thoufand families or ge nera; and thefe families about twenty thoufand fpecies, besides the innumerable varieties produced by the accidental changes of cultivation, foil, and climate. As you have acquired accurate no tions of flamens and piflils, you will find but lit tle difficulty in making yourfelf mifftrefs of the claffes and orders; the former depending princi. pally upon the number, the length, the connection, or the situation of the flamens; the latte are diflinguil hed by the number, or other circumfitances of the pointals. The charaCters of the genera are marked from fome particulars i the flower, unnoticed in the definitions of th
-claffes or orders. The generic defcription in cludes all the moft obvious appearances in th flower. In a fcience depending fo much on me mory






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.' 47

My niory, and minute definitions, it is advifable to
i proceed flep by Rep, and make yourfelf perfe&ly S acquainted with the claffes, before you advance
to the orders. Should you gather a flower, in ornt- der to know to what clafs it belongs, obferve firft,
eW whether it be a perfe&Et flower, containing both
c flamens and poiritals; if that be the cafe, exia- amine whether the flamens are entirely feparate
S from the pointal, and each other, from top to
bottom. If you find that they are perfealy difdi- tin&, and of equal height when at maturity, and
or not fo many as twenty, the number of them
e alone will be fufficient to determine the clafs. ind
uc- Thofe that have one flamen will belong to the
firft clafs, Monandria.
Thofe that have two, to the fecond, Diandria. lit Thole that have three, to the third, Triandria.
th Thofe that have four, to the fourth, Tetrandria.
Thofe that have five to the fifth, Pentandra.
ec- Thofe that have five to the fifth, Pentandria,
ec
lThofe that have fix, to the fixth, Hexandria.
Thofe that have feven, to the feventh, Heptandria.
o
in Thofe that have eight, to the eighth, OEaant, dria.
in Thofe that have nine, to the ninth, Enneanh dria.
Thofe that have ten, to the tenth, Decandria.
2 Thus






48 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

Thus far, it is eafy to arrange each flower uinder its proper clafs, as you have nothing farther to do, but obferve the four above-mentioned peculiarities, and to count the flamens, and refer them to their refpetive claffes, according to their number. The following claffes depend upon other diflinElions, which I hall enumerate in their proper order. The names of the claffes are compofed of two Greek words, ingenioufly contrived to exprefs the peculiarities of each clafs, and abfolutely neceffary to be learned perfelly by heart, which cannot be confidered as a difficult talk, as there are but twenty-four of them, and far the greater number terminate in the fame word, andria.
Flowers growing wild, without culture, are the mol fuitable for examination, becaufe thofe that are domeflicated in the rich foil of our gardens, are frequently transformed into fomething very different from what nature made them, by change of nourifhment, &c. It will be proper to extend your obfervation to feveral flowers of the fame clafs, as it fometimes happens, that the number of the flamens varies from accidental causes. But there is a beautiful regularity in moft of Nature's works, that may affift you on this occafion. If the calyx of your flower be divided into five fegments, and the corolla be formed of five petals, or divided into five parts, although






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 49

S although you find fix or feven flamens, it is r more than probable, that, on further infpedion,
you will find that it belongs to the fifth clafs, ,r Pentandria. It is time to conclude this digref.r lion, and proceed to the eleventh clafs, Dode.candria, or twelve flamens. Some flowers ira
n this clafs contain fewer, and others more, than
the fpecified number. All plants are included
Y in it, that have any number of flamens from
Eleven to nineteen inclufi've, provided they are r_ difunited. Let us fearch then, for fome more
a invariable charaEteriftics to diftinguiih this clafs,
A" and we hall find that the flamens are all fixed
n to the bafe or receptacle. In the twelfth clafs,
Icofandria, there should be twenty flamens, or te neatly that number, flanding upon the fides of
at the cup, and fometimes partly on the bloffom;
s, whereas the former and the following clafles are
y marked by their flanding on the receptacle. Oby ferve as an additional diflinaElion of this clafs
r from the next, that the cup confifis of one con)f cave leaf, and that the petals are likewife fixed
e by their claws to the fides of the cup.
i Many flamens, from twenty to any number,
are found in the thirteenth clafs, Polyandria, a fixed on the bafe- or receptacle. The flowers of
e this clafs have either a calyx, confilling of fee veral folioles, or none at all.

h C In






50 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

In the preceding claffes, no attention has been paid to the length of the flamens, but they have been fuppofed to be all nearly equal in that refpe&. The diftiniive marks of the next two claffes depend chiefly on that circumfitance.
The fourteenth clafs, Didynamia, or two powers, will prefent you with flowers containing four flamens, ranged in one row, the inner pair shorter than the outer one. The effential marks of this clafs confift in the proportionable arrangement of four flamens, as I have already expreffed, accompanied with one pointal, and invefled with an irregular monopetalous corolla. Thofe flowers that are called labiate, or lip-fhliaped, as well as the perfonate, or marked flowers, are included in this clafs; thofe of the firft kind have two lips, the one projeacing over the other, forming, as it were, a shelter to the parts of the frudification from rain, &c. The lips are gene. rally clofed in the perfonate corollas, and entirely conceal the flamen and pointal from fight.
Clafs the fifteenth, Tetradynamia; the meaning of this long word, is the power or fuperiority of four, and accordingly its charaaer is diflinguilhed by fix flamens, four of which are long, and the remaining two are thort. It is chiefly compofed of crofs-fhaped flowers, with which you are already pretty well acquainted. The five following claffes are not diftinguifhed by
2 the






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 51

the number of the ftamens, but by their fituation. Their union or adhefion, either by their anthers or their filaments, to the pointal, decides to which of them they belong.
The fixteenth clafs, Monadelphia, or one brotherhood. In this clafs the filaments are united at the bottom, but feparate at the top, as in the Marfh Mallow tribe.
The feventeenth clafs, Diadelphia, or two brotherhoods. The filaments of thefe flowers are alfo united at bottom, not into one bundle, or brotherhood, but into two; and confifts of the papilionaceous flowers, which contain ten flamens and one pointal, nine of the Itamens form one bundle below, the remaining one and the pointal form another above.
The eighteenth clafs, Polyadelphia, or many brotherhoods. The filaments in this clafs are united at the bottom only, into three or more bundles or brotherhoods.
The nineteenth clafs, Syngenefia, is compofed of flowers, generally compound, the effential charaCter of which confifts in the lips being united, fo as to form a cylinder; and a single feed being placed upon the receptacle under each floret, perhaps, an example will give you the clearest idea of a compound flower; the Thiftle is one ready at hand, being compofed of fmall flowers or florets, fitting upon a common C 2 receptacle






,2 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.
receptacle, and inclofed by one common empalement.
The twentieth clafs, Gynandria. Many flamens attached to, and growing upon the pointal itfelf. Hitherto our attention has been confined to fuch flowers only as are termed complete, having both ftamens and pointals on the fame flower. But the next three claffes will furnifh us with examples of thofe which have only the one or the other in the fame flower.
The twenty-firft clafs, Monoecia, or one houfe. The flowers of different kinds being produced in the fame habitation, or on the fame individual plant. But in the next, or twentyfecond clafs, Dioecia, or two houses. The dif. ferent kinds of flowers, which are diftlinguifhed by the names flaminiferous, or flamen bearing, and piflilliferous, or, bearing piffils, are produced by different trees or plants of the fame fpecies.
The twenty-third clafs, Polygamia, provides for the only remaining cafe that can poffibly happen, and confills of flowers with flamens and pointals in feparate flowers, as well as both in the fame flower, on one or different plants.
The twenty-fourth clafs, Cryptogamia. Plants, whole flowers are not perceptible by the naked eye, though there is good reafon to believe, thario plant exifts without the effential parts tdba conflitute the flower. The lowest kinds of vegetables





























b



n 1s;v

7
'd

zo -lz
12


e6l








Pj

tM











FLATE.M.








Z,7




b




20

NL IA



22


j,









2 24







TABLE OF THE CLASSES, refer IV.

Clafes. xapes.
I Monandria. One Stamen ....... ........... ..........Fig. I
2 Diandria. Two Stamens................. .. .
3 Triandria. Three Stamens............. 3.. .
4 Tetrandria. Four Stamens. ------------(All af the fame length) ---5 Pentandria. Five Stamens. ............ (A thers not united) -a ,.-... .. 5
6 Hexandria. Six Stamens. ........... (All )f the fame length) -............. 6
7 Heptandria. Seven Stamens ............................. n - 7
S O&tandria. Eight Stamens ............................. .... .
9 Enneandria. Nine Stamens. ........................... ----------------- 9
1o Decandria. Ten Stamens ............ (Threads not united) -. ..............
Ii Dodecandria. Twelve Stamens, or more,.-. (Fi ed to the Receptacle) k-....-...- Io
" e e k . . . . . . . . . . I
I2 Icofandria. Twenty Stamens ..-.. -----(Fixed up n the Calyx or Corolla) y -- -.. z
33 Polyandria. Many Stamens. ......... (Fixe to the Receptacle) -.... 3
14 Didynamia. Four Stamens, two longer. One PC intal. Flowers ringent. 14
i5 Tetradynamia. Six Stamens, four longer. One Poital. Flowers cruciform inower -------. ------ 15
16 Monadelphia. Threads united at bottom, but fepar te at top ....- .. ----low, ................. 16
17 Diadelphia. Threads in two fets. Flowers Buterfly-fhaped ....... ingPea .................. 17
18 Polyadelphia. Threads in many fets ; in three or riore fete. ....... .. t ........... 18
19 Syngenefia. Anithers united. Five Stamens. Or Pointal. Flowers co .................. 19
2o Gynandria. Stamens upon the Pointal .................. .. ............ 20
Si Monoecia. Stamens and Pointals in feparate Fhv wers, upon the fame P er,.. -......... 21
22 Dioecia. Stamens and Pointals difina, upon different Plants. .- ............. zz
23 Polygamia. Various fituations. Stamens only, Pointals only, or pea ............ 23
24 Cryptogamia. Flowers inconfpicuous ---------------------- Ifes,Live~eworts,Mufhtooms, 24.

a diftingui es the Stamens, b th




To face Letter VII.










INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 5

vegetables are the obje6as of this clafs, as Ferns, Moffes, Sea Weeds or Thongs, and Fungufes.
To thefe twenty-four claffes, Linnaeus has added the Palm trees, which do not fall under the defcription of any of the claffes. He calls them Princes of India, bearing their fru1ification on a fpadia or receptacle, within a fpathe or heath. Remarkable for their prodigious height, diftinguifhed by an unvaried, undivided, perennial trunk, crowned at top by an evergreen tuft of leaves, and rich in abundance of large fine fruit. But fince the time that Linnaeus wrote, more certain knowledge of them has been obtained, and many of them are arranged in the fixth clafs. If you have patience and perfeverance to learn the contents of this letter, yot will deferve to be chofen queen of the May.

FELICIA.





LETTER VII.

Shrubbery, March z6.
I HAVE been in no haffe to burden you, my dear Conflance, with another letter, till I thought that I haa given you time for digelting the laft, C 3 the







54 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

the fubjed of which is too important to th'Ie fcience in which you are engaged, to be flightly. paffed over. When you find yourfelf perfect in your knowledge of the claffes, or larger divifions, this letter is intended to fupply you with frefh employment, by making the diflindions of the orders that compofe them. The orders of the firit thirteen claffes are founded wholly on the number of the pointals, fo that by adding gynia, infLead of andria, to the Greek words fignifying the numbers, you will eafily obtain a knowledge of them, as Monogynia, one pointal; Digynia, two pointals; Trigynia, three pointals; Tetragynia, four pointals, and fon on. In thofe cafes, where the pointals have no apparent flyles, the fligmas are to be numbered, which generally adhere to the capfule like fmall protuberances, as may be obferved in the flowers of the poppy.
There is no occafion to count the pointals in the fourteenth clafs, Dydinamia, becaufe all the flowers of the Ringent tribe, including both thl labiate and perfonate flowers, have but on pointal: but there is another obvious difference that prefents itfelf, as an affillant in difcriminat ing the orders of this clafs; for mofl of the plants that have a labiate flower, have four naked fee at the bottom of the calyx, and the perfonaz flowers are fucceeded by a capfule, containing many fall feeds. From this diflinaion arife







INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 55

an elegant, eafy, and natural divifion of the fourteenth clafs into two orders; Gymnofpermia, comprehending filch as have naked feeds; and Angiofpermia, confifling of thofe that have their feeds covered, or inclofed in a capfule. The fruit fupplies us with marks for the fubdivilon of the next clafs, Tetradynamia, in which the flowers alfo have but one pointal. It is divided into two orders, called Siliculofa and Siliquofa, from the form of the fruit, which is denominated Silicle and Silique. The plants of the firft order have a filicle, or thort roundifh feed-veffel, or pericarp. Thofe of the fecond, contain their feeds in a filique, or long flender pod. In the fixteenth, feventeenth, and eighteenth claffes, the orders are diftinguiflhed by the number of the iltamens.
The chief difficulty with refpe6 to the orders, lies in the clafs Syngenefia. This clafs comprehends thofe flowers that are called compound, of which I gave you fome notion in treating of the claffes. Now, if you examine there flofcules, or florets, nicely, you will perceive that they have fometimes both flamens and pointal; but you will alfo difcover, that fome have flamens only, whilfl others are furnifhed with a pointal alone; and laftly, that there are flofcules without either the one or the other. Let us diftinguilh the firft of there, by the term perfe& C 4 flofcules







6 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY,

flofcules; the fecond by that of fltaminiferous; the third we will call piflilliferous; and the fourth neuter flofcules. Thefe variations require exaa attention, because on them, and on the form of the florets, Linnaeus has founded the four firft orders of this clafs. Polygamia is the family name applied to all the orders, except the laft ; it is ufed in opposition to Monogamia, noxvs fignifying many, and iwcs one, and implies that there are many florets inclofed within one common calyx, which coincides with the idea of a compound flower. The firft order is called Polygamia JEqualis; the peculiar name equals means regular or equal, and infers that the flofcules are fimilar, and all furnifhed with both Ramens and pointals, as in the Dandelion. II the fecond order, Polygamia Superflua, all the florets of the difk, or centre of the flower, are perfe61; thofe of the ray or circumference piflilliferous, both of them produce feed: th Daily is a familiar inflance. The third order of the clafs, Syngenefia, is entitled Polygamia Fru tranea. The florets in the difk or centre at perfect, and produce feed, whilfi thofe of to ray are imperfeE1, and therefore fruffirate barren; from which circumstance the ord takes its name; example, Bluebottle. The fit ation is reverfed in the fourth order, Polygam 1eceffaria; for the florets in the dilk, thou apparentt







INTRODUCrION TO BOTANY. 57

apparently perfea, are not really fo, and therefore produce no perfe& feed; but the fertility of the piftilliferous flofcules in the ray compenfate for the deficiency of thofe in the centre of the flower, as is feen in the Marygold. The fifth order, Polygamia Segrata, has many flofcules inclofed in one common calyx, yet each of the flofcoles has one appropriate to itself. Globe Thiftle fupplies me with a beautiful example. Monogamia, the fixth and laft order, confifts of plants, with fimple, not compound, flowers, which peculiarity will fufficiently diftinguifh it from the reft, remembering at the fame time to attend to its claflfical charaaer, of having the flamens united by the anthers: this order is exemplified in the Violets. The orders of the three following claffes, Gynandria, Monoecia, and Dioecia, being founded upon the flamens, and taking their names from the preceding claffes, according to the number, union, or difunion of the flamens in the refpedive flowers, require no particular elucidation.
There are three orders in the twenty-third clafs, Polygamia, depending upon the mode in which the three forts of flowers may be arranged. When a plant bears both perfed and imperfect flowers, the order is entitled Monoecia. But when they are produced on feparate plants of the fame fpecies, the order is Dioecia. And C 5 when







S INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

when one plant of the fame kind produces perfea flowers, a fecond flaminiferous flowers, and a third pifilliferous flowers, the order is known by the name of Trioecia, or three h6ioufes; implying that the three forts of flowers have three dif ferent habitations.
The laft clafs, Cryptogamia, confifrs of plants, whofe parts of frutification are either obfcure or very minute, which prevents the poffibilit of arranging the orders according to the number and fituation of the flamens and pointals. The peculiarity of ftruaure of the plants of this claf, diftinguithes them fufficiently from all others. It is naturally divided into four orders: firit Felices, or Ferns; fecond, Mufci, or Moffes; third, Algae, or Sea Weeds; and fourth, Fungi, or Fungufes. The ferns comprehend all plants that bear their feeds in the back, or edges of th leaf. The mofs kind forms the fecond orde The third includes the lichens, fuci, and many others, whole effential parts are too minute o obfcure for invefligation. If the fungufes ha any frutification, it is imagined to be under neath, in the gills, pores, &c. Thus we ha at length, reached the end of the claffes and ders, which I think will fupply our walks wi amufement for the whole fummer; and, forming a tafte for this delightful part of natu lay a foundation that will continue to furn tie






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY* 59

new and interefting objeEls, to the end of our lives.' I cannot wonder that a country residence is difagreeable to thofe, who have no relifh for the objets it prefents; but it may well be preferred by perfons of true tafte and obfervation, who clearly perceive the traces of Infinite Wifdom and Intelligence in the firuLure of every leaf and every bloffom. May rural pleafures always fuffice to render you cheerful and happy.

FELICIA.
/






L E T T E R VIII.

Shrubbery, April 2.

WHENEVER you fet out on a botanical excurfion, remember to put your magnifying glafs and differing infiruments into your pocket, that you may not be obliged to negle- thofe flowers that are fall, for want of this precau. tion. Always gather feveral flowers of the fame kind, if poffible, fome juft opening, and others with the feed-veffels almnoft ripe; and as I in-d tend to felea our examples from plants of Britifh C 6 growth,







6o INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

growth, you mufr feek for them growing wild in their native fields; nor confine your walks within the limits of a garden wall. Thus I hope you will obtain health, and a knowledge of vegetables at the fame time. That nothing might be left undone by Linnaus, the great master of method and arrangement, to render the acquifition of his favourite fcience eafy, he has divided the orders, when numerous, into fcveral divisions, each including one or more genera, which is a means of diminifhing the pupil's labour. Let us fuppofe, that you have a plant under obfervation, belonging to an order that contains a great nramber of genera: you are confufed, and know not to which to apply it. But on remarking thefe divifions, you are enabled to place it among a few of its brethren, th~ remains but little difficulty to discover its pe culiar marks, and affure yourfelf of the identical plant. The firRt clafs, Monandria, contains but two orders, both depending upon the nurs ber of the pointals. Moft of thefe plants a natives of India. Our ditches aud muddy ponds however, produce one example, that you cafily procure. It is called Mareftail (Hippuri has neither empalement nor bloffom. Its fin flamen grows upon the receptacle, terminate by an anther flightly cloven, behind which ) will find the pointal, with its awl-fhaped flign taperm'






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 6t

tapering to a point. The flem is Itraight, and jointed, and the leaves grow.in whorls round the joints; at the bafe of each leaf is a flower, fo that the number of flowers and leaves is equal. Its feafon of flowering is the month of May. As there are but few obje6s of native growth to arreft our attention in this clafs, we will proceed to the next.
The Privet (Ligifirum) is a fhrub common enough in the hedges in many parts of England, and when mixed with other shrubs, makes a pleading variety in our gardens. It bears a white bloffom, and generally flowers in June. It has a very fmall tubular calyx of one leaf, its rim d vided into four parts. The bloffom is alfo monopetalous, and funnel-fhaped, with an expanded border, cut into four egg-fhaped fegmnents. Its flamens are two, which determine it to belong to this clafs, placed oppofite to each other, and nearly as long as the bloffom. The feed-bud is roundifh, the ftyle fhort, terminated by a thick, blunt, cloven ftigma. The feedveffel is a black berry, containing but one cell, which inclofes four feeds. The leaves grow in pairs, and are fometimes variegated with white or yellow flripes. The berries are ufeful to the dyers, as they give a durable green colour to filk or wool by the addition of alum. In the fecond division of this order is a genus, the Latin







62 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

Latin name of which is Veronica, but common. ly known by that of Speedwell. There are a great many fpecies of it, which has induced Linnaeus to treat it in the fame manner as the orders, and to divide it into three principal divifions. FiriL, Flowers growing in fpikes. Secondly, Flowers in broad bunches. Thirdly, Fruit-tflalks with one flower. The monopetalous, wheel-fhaped corolla, divided into four fegments, the loweftll of which is narrower than the reft, and that oppofite to it the broadefl, eafily diflinguilh this genus, as well as the heart-fhaped flatted capfule with two cells. Several of the fpecies are cultivated, and increafe the beauty of the flower-beds in the early part of fimmer. You will foon be tired of there defcriptions, if you do not unite them to the living obje&as. Search for fome others in the fame claffes, and oblige me with your account of them. In this manner we may contribute to each others amufe-i ment, though we cannot enjoy each others com. pany. Yours, with warm affeaion, FELICIA.







LEITER






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 6a



LETTER IX.


Shrubbery, April I 5.

HOW often have we walked through the
meadows and paflures, without opening our eyes to the wonders they contain! We were, indeed, delighted with gathering a bouquet of the gayeft flowers we could collea, and fometimes admitted a piece of grafs, for the beauty of its pendent head. But we little thought, that every single blade of there appa. rently infignificant plants, as we have been accuflomed to confider them, bears a diftina flower, perfe& in all its parts; nay, more complete than the fragrant Lily or the gaudy Tulip, and only requires to be nicely viewed, to excite our value and admiration. This humble tribe is extremely numerous, and,-like modeft merit in other fituations, of moft extenfive utility. There are upwards of three hundred fpecies,but as they have been fcarcely noticed till within twenty or thirty years, we may believe that time will improve our knowledge of their properties and firudure. Dr. Withering fays, that, the leaves furnish paflturage for cattle, the fmaller feeds are food for birds, and the larger for man i but fome are







64 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY;

are preferred to others: as the Fefcue for tfheep; the Meadow Grafs for cows; the Canary for fmall birds; the Oat for horfes; the Rye Grafs, Barley, and Wheat for men; befides, a variety of beautiful ife&s derive their nouritfhment from them:" and if we enumerate the remote benefits that accrue from them, their confequence increafes to an extraordinary height. What may be called the minoft important articles of both food and clothing, are derived from this unnoticed and negleded tribe. Bread, meat, beer, milk, butter, cheefe, leather, and wool, and all the advantages produced from the ufe of cattle, would be loft without them.
But I -think I hear my dear filler exclaim, you are very earneft in fetting forth the praifes. of graffes, and in order to enhance their dignity, you rank the various kinds of corn among them. But you will foon be convinced, when I have given you their general chara{ler, that they are all of one family. Obferve their whole appear,. ance: you know a blade of corn or grafs, at firf fight, from every other plant that grows neari them. What is it that diflinguifhes then Th, ir simple, ftraight, unbranched tflalk, hollow and jointed, commonly called a firaw, with long narrow, tapering leaves, placed at each knob joint of the flalk, and sheathing or inclofing as if by way of fipport: their ears or hea connik







INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 65

confiit of a hulk, generally compofed of two valves, which form the empalement, the larger leaflet hollow, the fmaller flat, within which is, what mrnay be termed the bloffom, which is alfo a hufk of two valves, dry and fthining: there miiute flowers are furnifhed with a honey-cup, but it requires very good eyes or a glafs to difcern it. The fruaification of graffes is beft ohfetrved, when they are nearly ripe, and their hufks expanded, which renders their three flender filaments, tipped with large oblong double anthers, eafily perceptible: thefe filaments play freely about upon the flighteft motion, and their number, three, will leave you at no lofs to place there plants in the third clafs, Triandria; and the two pointals, reflealed or turned back, with their feathered fligmas, determine them to belong to the fecond order of that clafs: feed. veffel they have none, but each feed is inclofed, either by the bloffom or empalement. As they ripen, the hufks open, and, if not timely gathered, the feed falls to the ground, which is one among many means ufed for the increafe and propagation of vegetables. They have fibrous roots, fomething like a bundle of firings. The extraordinary precautions difplayed in the prefervation of thofe plants, that are chiefly deilin. ed to fuflain men and animals, was remarked in the delineation of the papilionaceous tribe; and here






66 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

here again the fame care is confpicuous, an calls for further gratitude and admiration. VWhat a dreary habitation would this earth be, were deflitute of its verdant covering, fo foft to our feet, and refreshing to our fight But when w refle&, that this delightful carpet, which )i fpread every where around us, is the prey almoft every animal that approaches it, how much is to be apprehended for its fafety. But Providence has ordained, with the utmoft wi domr and beneficence, that the more the leav are cropped, the fafter the roots increafe; and what is flill more wonderful is, that the animal that browfe on graffes, though left at full libert in the paflure, leave the firaws which fuppo the flower and the feed untouched; and wha more clearly manifefls that thefe things are no the effeds of chance, but the refult of Divin Intelligence, is that thofe fpecies, which flouril on the tops of mountains, where the fummr heats are not fufficient to bring their feeds t perfedion, are generally increafed by the roo or winter-buds, and do not depend upon th feed for increafe. Linneus, according to h ufual method, has arranged this numerous order into feveral divifions, marked by their mann of growth: they are firli divided into thofe tb bear fpikes, and fach as are produced in pany dcles; a panicLe is, a kind of loofe bunch, if which







INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 67

which the flowers grow irregularly, and rather fcattered. The three firf divifions include thofe that are produced in this manner, and are diflinguilhed by the number of flowers in each empalement.

The firft division has but one flower.
The fecond two, and
The third feveral.
The fourth divifion confifis of all thofe that
grow in fpikes or heads.

Beides the plants that fall under this order, there are others of the grafs kind, that differ in fomre of their charaaers, and are referred to their proper claffes and orders. Vernal Grafs has only two flamens, and confequently ranks in the clafs Diandria. We are indebted to this grafs for the delightful fragrance of the newmown hay. The various difpofals of the flamens and pointals on one plant in Hard Grafs and Soft Grafs, exclude them from this clafs, though, in other refpets, they partake of the generalocharader. I have feleaed the Panie Grafs as an inilance of the firft divifion. It is known by the following difinaions: its hufk has three unequal valves, nearly egg-fhaped, the fmalleft of them landing behind the other two, containing one floret, which confifls of two valves, not fo







68 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY:

fo large as thofe of the empalemrent. The fl mens are three; fhort, hair-like, and tipped with oblong anthers. The feed-bud is roundif and the two pointals crowned with downy furr mits. Each bloffom inclofes a roundifh fee flattened a little on one fide. In the next dil fion there are but two genera. Hair Grafs an Rope Grafs, which we will pafs over, as there nothing particuarly firiking in their manner c growth. Quake Grafs, Meadow Grafs, Fefcu Broom Grafs, Oat, and Reed, are all pret common, and fall under the third divifion. T genera are diftinguifihed chiefly by the differ, form of the corollas, and the Ihape of the valve there are many fpecies of each genus; but muff omit various particulars worthy of y notice, as my letter is already of an immodera length, and I have not vet touched upon t principal kinds of corn. The effential chara of the Oat, confills in the jointed, twilled aw or beard, that grows from the back of the bl fomr. It is remarkable for the elegance of panicle, and the flexibility of the fruit i11 which turns with the flighteft breath of wt Among the Reeds, the Sugar Plant is includ as well as the Bamboo, which grows in the Indies. It is time to haRen to the fourth lalt clafs, which contains the individuals of t family, that are moft important to man, as Bar







INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 69'

Barley, Wheat, Darnel, and Dogftail. There are diflinguifled from the former divifions, by always growing in a fpike or ear.

Rye has two flowers, included in the fame
empalement.
Wheat has three.
Barley has a fix-leafed involucre, containing
three fimple flowers.
The other two are contained in the involucre of
a fingle leaf, and their flowers are compound.

In Rye, there frequently is a third floret upon a fruit-flalk, between the two larger ohes, which have no flalk. In fome fpecies of Barley, all the three florets, which grow together, have both flamens and pointals; but, in others, the middle florets alone are furnifhed with thofe parts, the lateral florets having only two flamens. The exterior valve of the corolla in Wheat is fometimes bearded, but not always. The calyx moftly contains three or four flowers, and the middle one is often imperfect. The filaments in Rye and Wheat are long, and hang out beyond the corolla, which expofes there grains to more injury from heavy rains, than that of Barley, in which the filaments are shorter. Corn is the produce of cultivation, in all countries where it grows; and, what is extraordinary isi







70 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

is, that it is not known of what country it originally a native. It differs in excellence; according to the foil and temperature. Whed prefers a country that is rather warm, and flour rifhes moft in the fouthern parts of the temp rate zone, reje&ing both extremes of heat an cold. This letter will fupply you with em ployment till the hay feafon is over. Adied Ever yours,

FELICIA.







LETTER X.

DEAR CONSTANCE, Shrubbery, May 3.

HOUGH the graffes are lo numerous, a form fo large a part of the third clafs, they not exclude others from it, that are worth not either on account of their beauty, or peculi of conftlruEiion. The majestic tribe of flowers, and the modeft Crocus, the welco harbinger of fpring, with fome others, belong it. They are charaterifed by a fpathe or hl inflead of an empalement. The corollaet confi







INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 71

confifts of fix petals, or is divided fo deeply, as to appear as if it were fo. The petals of the different fpecies of Iris have a peculiar confiruction, which claims your notice; the three outward ones are refle&ed or turned back, the other three fland upright, and are harper; though they appear as if they were feparated, they are all connecTed together by the claws. In the centre of the flower, there feems to be three-other petals, which in reality are nothing but the pointal, divided into three parts : it has a very lhort fhaft, but the fligma is large, broad, and refleled; underneath each divifion lies concealed a single flamen, terminated by its firaight, oblong, flattened anther. Some of the species are adorned by a kind of fringed beard along the middle of the reflex petals, but this is not common to them all. The capfule is beneath the flower, and agrees, in its form and divisions, with the number of the fligmas, being triangular; though there are fome kinds that have fix angles and only three cells. The leaves of there plants are long and narrow, refembling thofe of grafs, and miofily proceed from the root. There is an affinity between there plants and the liliaceous tribe, notwithflanding they are diftinguifhied by fome particulars that place them in different claiffes.

The







7' INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

Thd flowers of the next clafs, Tetrandria, charaaerifed by having four flamens; fo are th of the fourteenth: but it is neceffary to rema that thofe under prefent observation, are al the fame length, whilli thofe of the fourtee are known by their inequality, two of ti being long, and two of them thort, which difiin'ion that muff never be forgotten. firflt order is thrown into five divisions; fome the flowers, of which it is compofed, are call aggregate. At the firf view, you might ready to decide that they were compou flowers; but, upon a more accurate infpeai you will find, that befides the florets growing one common bafe or receptacle, inclofed by a neral cup or empalement, that each little florets a feparate cup peculiar to itfelf; thus we may c fider them, with more propriety, as a head of tina flowers, growing together, than as one c pound flower compofed of many parts. L take the Teafel for an example. The d mon cup, containing the whole, confifis of leaves, which are flexible, and longer th florets themfelves; the receptacle is of a c form. The proper cup, belonging to each is fo fmall as to be fcarccly perceptible; of the Scabious+, another genus of this a are double. Each individual flower is for
Dipfacus. Szabiofa.







INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 73

one tubular-fhaped petal, and they are feparated from each other by chaffy leaves growing between them. In the fecond divifion, you will meet with the plantains*, of which there are feveral fpecies; it is a plant familiarly known to you, as you frequently gather it for your favourite Goldfinch; but as it is not very beautiful, perhaps you never examined it minutely. Gather a head or fpike of it, and you will perceive that it is compofed of many finally flowers, which you muft confider one at a time, to become acquainted with the parts of the frudification. Each of them has the calyx and the corolla divided into four fegments, and the border of the latter turned back, as if broken; the filaments are very long, and the feed-veffel egg-fhaped, with two cells. In the grafs-leafed Plantain, the flamens and pointals are in feparate flowers. The fourth divifion contains a natural order, called the Starry Plants, which nearly agree in the following charafler: they have a fmall cup divided into four fharp fegments, above the feed-veffel. The bloffom is monopetalous and tubular, with an expanding border with four divifions. The Ilamens are four, with fimple tips; the feed-bud double, containing two globular feeds; the fligmna cloven or divided; and the flems four cornered, furrounded by the leaves in the form of SPlantago.
D a fltar.







74 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

a flar. Madder*, Goofegrafst, WVoodroof, and' Reedwort are cf this family. There is a very fingular plant belonging to the second order, which I cannot .pafs by, without mentioning its peculiar properties. It is called Doddert, and is one of that kind that Linneus has named pa. ralitical, from the habit of clinging and fupport ing themfelves by any other plant that growS near them. Hops, Flax, and Nettles are its fa. vourites. It decays at the root, and receives its future nourifhnment from the plant to which it ad heres, as foon as the young hoots have twifle themselves round the branches of a neighbourin plant; they infert a kind of gland into the pore of its bark, and, by this means extract its Juices, and thus, in return for the fuipport and affifland they receive, they defiroy their benefaaor; t instance, that leffons of morality may be learned from the vegetable, as well as the animal king dom. Thofe that entertain flatterers in eite are generally repaid with ingratitude. With f affurance that our affeaion is mutual, and gratitude reciprocal, I fubfcribe myfelf entire yours,

FELICIA.

0 Rubia. f Galium I Caicuta.


LETT






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 75



LETTER XI.


Shrubbery, May 20.

SO numerous are the obje6ls that the clafs Penrtandria prefents, that I feel myfelf at a lofs how to fele&t a few of them for your obfervation. Happily for me, there are feveral natural orders in this clafs, which, by grouping many of them together, will enable me to perform my talk more eafily. The firft divifion of the firft order includes a family of plants, whole leaves are rough and hairy, and without leaf-flalks. Besides this peculiarity, they agree in having a cup of one leaf, with five clefts or divisions, a bloilom of a tubular fhape, alfo monopetalous, and the fame number of fegments; the five flamens are fixed to the tube of the bloffom, and they have four naked feeds inclofed by the cup. Ltinmgwort is of this order: one fpecies of it has a rough flem as well as leaves; the tube is white, but the border of the bloffom is purple when it firfl opens, but afterwards becomes blue. You have probably admired the flowers of the Borraget, when ufed for the cool tankard in fum. mer, without remarking that the bloffomn is
SPulmonaria. t Anchufa.
D 2 wheel-






76 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.
wheel-fhaped, and the mouth crowned xith five finall protuberances; the fine blue colour of the petals, contracted with the black lips, render it extremely pleading to the eye. Moufe Ear, or Scorpion Grafs, is common in dry paflures, and by the fides of rivers. In fome fpecies of it, the feeds are covered with hooked prickles, which, by adhering to whatever touches them, is a curious method of conveying them from place to place. The beauty of the bloffom of this minute flower repays the pains of examining it clofely ; it is of a celeflial blue, adorned with a yellow eye. The generic charaEter of Buglofs conifits in the bending curve of the tube of the bloffom. Houndflongue* is difinguilhed by each feed being inclofed in four feed-coats fixed to the thaft of the pointal; it has a firong fmell, like that of mice, and grows by hedges and pathways. The natural order, called Precia, is included in the second division of the firft order of this clafs, and receives its name on account of the early appearance of the plants that: compofe it. The Primrofet, Oxlip, and Cowf lip, the ornament of our meadows, in the early part of fpring, belong to it. The Polyanthlu and Auricula, admired and cultivated by florist for their variety and beauty, are derived front this flock; a pleaing inflance of the improve
# Cynogloffum. Primula.
men







INTRODUCTION iO BOTANY. 77

ment that art is capable of bellowing on nature; and refembling, in fome degree, the difference between the untutored mind, and that of a perfon of education. The calyx of thefe flowers is of one leaf, tubular, fharp, and upright; the bloffom alfo tubular, and of one petal, with the border divided into five fegments; the feedvefTel is a capfule, fuperior, or inclofed within the calyx, containing only one cell; the fligma is globofe. The fpecies is marked by a five angled calyx, the wrinkled furface and indented edges of its leaves. The Primrofe has but one flower upon a fruit-flalk; the Oxlip and Cowflip several. I need not tell you, that the bloffomrs of all there are generally of a pale yellow. The fame division, of the firft order of this clafs, contains a tribe of plants, called Luride, a name expreffive of their noxious appearance and firong fcent, marks kindly impreffed by nature, to warn the incautious againil their baneful effeis, mofl of them being poifonous in a wild Rate; but change of. foil and cultivation have rendered even fome of there eatable: others yield to the Ikill of the phyfician, and, under proper management, are ufeful in medicine. Besides the charaEteriftic marks of five flamens and one pointal, they coincide in a calyx, that is permanent and divided, like the corolla, which confifts of one petal, into five fegments.
D 3 Their






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY, 79

perhaps, to drive away infeAs, which would otherwife be injurious to it. The Nighltfhade* is a principal genus in this forbidding order. The wheel-fhaped corolla, thort tube, and large border, flamens having oblong lips, approaching fo nearly as to appear like one objed, in the middle of the bloffom, with the round gloffy berry of this tribe, readily diflinguiflh the plants that belong to it. Prickly flalks charaderize fomne of the fpecies, but others are void pof there defenfive weapons. The berry of the woody Nightihade is red, and its blue bloffoms fomrnetimes change to flefh-colour or white, whilft the garden Nightfhade is known by its black berries and white bloffoms. The Dwale, or deadly Nightfhade, is the moft fatal in its effeEs. The leaves are egg-fhaped and undivided, the blofforns a dingy purple. WVoods, hedges, and gloomy lanes moftly conceal this dangerous plant; though it too frequently lurks near the hufbandman's cottage, whole children are endangered by the tempting appearance of its bright shining black berries. The clafs Pentandria comprifes fo many orders, moft of which contain genera worthy your attention, that it will fupply matter for feveral letters. The prefent one being already of fufficient length, I will
Solanum.
D 4 clofe






80 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

clofe it, with the account of the Luridx, from whole poifonous influence, I hope you will always be preserved. Farewell.

FELICIA.







L E T T E R XII.

DnEAR CONSTANCE, Shrubbery, May 1o.

As I told you at the conclusion of my la1 letter, that we had by no means exhaufied the Iores of the fifth clafs, I [hall proceed to give you an account of another family of plants, contained in the firft numerous order. A per manent calyx with five divifions, a bell-fhapec corolla of one petal, and a capfule for a feed ve1lel, are the marks by which the natural order Campanacei, or Bell flowers is known, The elegant genus, Convolvulus, belongs to it, which receives its name from its propenfity to entwin@ itfelf around any thing near which it grow though there are fome fpecies of it that do nn poffefs this quality. You will eafily diftinguifl the flowers of this kind from all others, by thei
a largii







INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 81

large, expanding, plaited corolla, flightly indented at the edge with five or ten notches, the pointal terminating in two oblong fummits, and the capfule, containing two roundilh feeds, inclofed by the cup. The fmall Bindweed is common in corn fields, the leaves are arrow-fhaped, fharp at each angle, the flowers grow fingle upon a fruit-flalk, the colour of the bloffom varies, it is fometimes reddifh, or white, or firiped, or purple. This humble trailing plant, though troublefome to the farmer, poffeffes more beauty than many that are cultivated for their rarity. The great Bindweed, another species of the fame genus, with pure white bloffoms, fo often feen in fantaflic wreaths, entwined on hedges or bufhes, is another fpecies. The leaves of this plant are alfo arrow-fhaped, but the angles at the bafe ap. pear as if they had been cut off, the fruit-flalk is four cornered, and fupports a single flower ; clofc to the cup are two heart-fhaped floral leaves, which feem to inclofe it. The Bell flowers have a honey-cup in the bottom of the blofioms, which is clofed at the bafe with five fharp valves, approaching and covering the receptacle; from thefe valves arife the ftlamens; the fligma has three divifions, which are turned backwards. The feed-veffel is a capfule, below the flower, with three or five cells, at the top SConvolvolus.
D < of






82 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

of each is a hole, for the purpofe of letting out the feeds as foon as they are ripe. What curious provifion is made, not only to preferve the feeds of plants, but alfo to distribute them, that the fpecies may not become extinE from negligence or inattention. The feed-veffels of the Giant Throatwort*, after the flowers are faded, turn downwards till they difcharge their contents, and then rife up again. This plant is known by its firong, round, fingle flalks, its leaves between egg and fpear-fhaped, their edges toothed, the flowers a:e folitary, growing on nodding fruitfitalks, towards the upper part of the tflalk. The whole plant abounds with a milky liquor. Our favourite thrub, the Honeyfucklet, is includd in the fame order of the fifth clafs, that has en. gaged fo much of our time. You are well acquainted with its beauty and fragrance, but pro baby have never minutely examined its parts. The corolla is minonopetalous and irregular, the tube long, five fegments divide the border, which are rolled backwards, and one of them fcolloped deeper than the others. The feed veffel is a berry with two cells, placed beneath the flower, and crowned with the cup. Sever other well-known fhrubs rank in the fame or der, fome armed with thorns or prickles, an others defencelefs; amongit the former is th
Campanula. Tonicera.
Buck






INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 83

Buckthorn* from which fap-green is made, by mixing alum with the juice of its ripe berries. The flowers are always incomplete, fome plants producing only thofe that have flamens, others bearing thofe with a pointal alone.
Every part of this fhrub contains the property of flainng or colouring. In one fpecies, the inner bark is yellow, the outer fea-green, and the middle bark as red as blood. It is ufed by the d ers. Before I difmifs the shrubs of this order, I muff notice the Currant+, the fruit of which is fo refreshing and agicreeable, whether eaten freth from the tree, or preferved with fu. gar. It is found wild in many parts of England. The Periwincle I will fupply me with all example of one more natural order, named Contorta, becaufe the divifions of the corolla are turned in the fame direction with the apparent motion of the fun. There are feveral varieties of it, chiefly difinguifhed by the different colours of the corolla, which is falver shaped, the fegments connected with the top of the tube, which forms a figure of five fides. The general charaFiers of this order are a cup of one leaf, divided into five fegmerts; a corolla of one petal, frequently funnel-fhaped, and furnifhed with a remarkable ne61ary, and a fruit, confitling of two veffels, filled with many feeds. I hall now
SRhamnus. f Grffl~bria. I Vinca.
D b proceed







84 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.

proceed to the fecond order of the fifth clafs, which contains a numerous family, in its third divifion, of umbelliferous plants, or plants, the flowers of which are difpofed in rundles; but as the defeription of them will much exceed the limits of this letter, I hall defer them till my next, and point out a few examples of a different appearance, that belong to this order. The Goofefoots are a tribe that will not invite notice by their beauty, being generally deflitute of bloflfom; they are known by a five-leaved, fiveangled, permanent calyx, inclofing one fingle, round, compreffed feed; when that is ripe, the calyx falls off, being no longer neceffary. One species, called Allgood, is fometimes fubilituted for Spinach. The fame clafs and order includes alfo the Gentians+, which are diflinguilhed from their companions, by an oblong tapering capfule, flighty cloven at the end; it has one cell and two valves, to each of which adheres a receptacle growing lengthwife. The flowers vary in different fpecies, but the figure of the fruit is uniform, therefore a proper charaaeriflic for the botanift, whole kill confifts in difcovering thofe parts, which are conflantly alike, in all the fpecies of the fame genus, Linnaeus was the firft who perceived the advantage of finding invariable marks for claffing
SChenopodium. t Gentiana.
and







36 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANYi



LETTER XIII.

Shrubb1e,, May 19.

THE umbellate plants, my dear fifler, are fo termed from their peculiar manner of growth, which differs materially 1from mol others. From a firaight flem, generally hollow and pithy, furnifhied with alternate leaves, proceed fmaller tflems, forming a fharp angle at their bale, and diverging, or fpreading like rays from a centre, in form of the ribs of an umbrella, which gives them the name of umbellate, each of the flems, which form there tundles or umbels, as they are called, are frequently crowned with a rundlet, or fmaller fet of rays, terminated by the flowers, the parts of which I {hall defcribe more minutely hereafter; as their diflin tions are the principal thing to be observed, in determining to which clafs or order they belong The bale of each circle of flems is fometimes surrounded with fmall leaves, called an involucre or fence, which is termed general, when it inclofes the whole rundle; and partial, if found at the bafe of the rundlet: many kinds have no fence: thefe differences throw the tribe into three divifions. The firf including the plants with general fences,







INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 87

fences, the next thofe with partial ones, and the laft thofe diflitute of any. The properties of this tribe are affected by foil and fituation; thofe in dry places are aromatic and beneficial to the flomach; but tye produce of watery ones are frequently poifonous. Various parts of many individuals of this race, fupply our tables with a pleading change of vegetables. WVe eat the roots of Carrots and Parfneps ; the flalks of Celery and Finochia enrich our fallads; the flems of Angelica, preferved, make a good fweetmeat; the leaves of Parfley and Fennel add a fine flavour to forcemeats and broths; and thofe of Samphire are ufed as a pickle, whilft the feeds of the Coriander and Carraway not only afflif. digeflion, but being encrufled with fugar by the confeEioner, are eaten in the form of fugar-plums.- When you are acquainted with a few of thefe plants, you will probably think their charader and appearance fo peculiar, that you fi all not be liable to confound them with others of a different order; but, my dear Conflance, to fecure yourfelf from fuch a miflake, it will be always neceffary to examine the contents of the flower carefully, as the on!vy fure tell to be relied upon. As there are plants of a different confiruaion, thpt refemble there in appearance, at leaft to the eye of a fuperficial obferver, without poffefling the effential requiites of the umbellate tribe; they confitil of a cup







88 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY,

cup fcarcely difcernible, a corolla that grows upon the feed-bud, formed of five petals, which are generally heart-fbaped and bent inwards, five flamiens, and two pointals, upon a naked fruit coUpofed of two feeds growing together. The blffom of the Elder refemnbles them greatly at firft fight, but, on further examination, you will be convinced that it has no claim to be ranged among them. After this general account of the umbellate tribe, you muft be contented with a few remarks only, concerning fome of the plants that compose it, as I am defirous of exciting your particular attention to the diflintions of the various fpecies, which you fh,,uld below on the rea! individuals, trufling to no written defcriptions, as many of them have a firong likenefs, as to external appearance, to thofe which poffers very oppofite qualities. Parfley and Fools-Parfley, Garden-Chervil, and HemlockChervil, Creeping WVater-Parfnep and WaterCrefs, have been often millaken for each other, and the error has produced very difagreeable ef. feEls. The beft feafon for acquiring a knowledge of their differences is when they are in flower, as the plants are then in the fullelft perfeFtion. The Fools-Parfley is known from the" True, by a fence of three, long, narrow, fharppointed leaflets, hanging down under every partial umbel whereas the fence, in the GardcParfey







INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. 89

Parfley is found at the bafe of the general, as well as the partial umbel, and confifts only of a few lhort folioles, almost as fine as hairs. The rank difagreeable fmell of the Fools Parfley, when the ftem or leaves are bruifed, is another g ide to dire you in knowing it from the True, which at firft fight it fo much refembles. Hemlock Chervil* is a wild plant, which, notwithlanding it grows in dry fituations, fuch as banks and the fides of high roads, is of a poifonus nature, and it not only belongs to the fame divifion, but is of the fame genus as the Garden Chervil; it is, therefore, very liable to be miftakcn for it. The corolla in both is radiate, and the petals notched at the end, the middle flowers are frequently) incomplete, and confequently produce no feed. The fruits are of an oblong fhape. So far they coincide; but the Garden Chervil has the advantage in height, i of a pleading afpeEt, and is adorned with light-green leaves, whilft its refemblance grows lower, and has hairy leaves of a darker colour. As I have told you, that the Creeping Water.Parfnept has fometimes been eaten infiead of the WaterCrefs, of which you are fo fond, I will acquaint you with their molt obvious diflincions, left you flhould be deprived of the pleafure of your breakfaft, from an apprehenfion of being poifon- Scandix, Sium.
ed,







90 INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY.
ed. They cannot be confounded when in blof, fom, the WVater-Crefs belonging to the cruciform tribe; but as that is not the time for gathering this pluit, we mufl look for the difference in their foliage. The winged leaf of the WaterParfnep is formed of leaflets, longer and narrower than thofe of the Water-Crefs, with edges like the teeth of a faw, and terminating in a fharp point; but if you remark the leaves of the latter, you will find that they have a brown, ifh tinge, that the leaflets are of a roundi{h thape, and particularly the one at the end of the winged leaf, and that the edges are fmooth, except a few indentures or curvings. Leaving the umbe1 late kinds to your future infpeElion, I hall pro, ceed to notice feveral trees and shrubs which belong to the third order of the fifth clafs. The bloffom of the Meal Tree has a very mall cup, fuperior to the feed-veffel, with five teeth; one beil-fhaped petal, with five hollow clefts turned back, its fruit a roundii berry, of one cell, concealing a single feed as hard as bone. The Guelder Rofe, fo ornamental to thrubberies, with its fnow-white flowers, growing in balls, is a variety of the Meal Tree. TheEldert, which I hae warned you to difinguilh from the plants of the umbellate tribe, is of this order; its beauty bloffoms, nodding like feathers, will afford you
SViburnum, t Sambucus.
a fpeci-