The world described in easy verse.


Material Information

The world described in easy verse. illustrative of the situation, manners, and produce of all nations : for use of young persons
Physical Description:
viii, 215 p. : ill., map ; 15 cm.
Lynch, W. R
Samuel Wood & Sons
Samuel S. Wood & Co
Samuel Wood and Sons
Samuel S. Wood & Co.
Place of Publication:
New York
Publication Date:
1st American ed., with additional notes.


Subjects / Keywords:
Natural history -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Natural products -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Manners and customs -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile and popular literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1822
poetry   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Maryland -- Baltimore


Statement of Responsibility:
by W.R. Lynch.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 026658116
oclc - 41190472
System ID:

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IL a



TO impart an easy and harmonious versifica-
lion to such a subject as the Geography of the
World, it muIst be allowed was not an easy task ;
and nothing but the very flattering recep-
1 tlion which the other little poelical productions
of the author have met with fromn the public, and
in particular from teachers of c-mineuce, could
induce him to undertake it.
HeMiffers it now to his Jureriile Friends, wit h 1
Sthe hope of aforrling them enteitlainmeni, and
writh a full conviction, lhathif read nith alttlction
and ncc?-iooally committed to memory, it will
smooth tlir- stud., and lay a permanent f'ouoda-
ltion for- the knowledge of the useful science of
S When the student has read eacb chapter with
attention, a rel'rtnce to nips till tend, in a inma-
it-riil degree, to streoatlteu the impression which


his miud will receive, and by 'tracing with IsI
eye the different countries as they appear ou the
map, and comparing them with this poetical out-
line, the author tiusts that tlie fidelity of the lat-
ter will be fully proved.




Cu.APTBE .-Geographical Definitions Page 1
Cliapier 11.-Or the Earth in genera! - 5
Chapter III.-Of Europe -
Cthapter IV. -Of Lapland 10
Chapter V-Manner, of the Laplanders, &r. IS
Chapter VI -Of Denmark andi it Drpendencieb 1I
Chapter VI.L-Of Norway 22
Chapiler VI1[.-Of Iceland C6
Chapter IX.-rfGreenIand 5O
Chapter X.-Of Sxeden 3
ChaJer XI -Of Rupla 59 .
Chapter XII.-Of -ome of the Tartar Tribes subject
to R.'jia: the Barchkirians, Bratl.i, and Czuwa-
chians 4 .
Chapter xiIT -or sume or the Tartar Tribes uhiect
to Ilu,-ia the Kalimuc, Cosqacks, iscborti, Taku-
thians, andi Mordiwans 48
Chapter XIV.-Or more Tartar Tribes subject to
Ruspia: the O0iiaks, Theleiuti,T'shulincz;ans, Tun-
gusians, Wogulian', and Sanioidea 52
Chapter XV.--_)f Pru."ia 56
Chapter XVI.-Of the Netherland 59
*' ChapLer XVII.-OfGerwany 6i



Chapter XVTI.-,f the Auntrian Dominions Page 6.
Chapter XIX.-Of I urkey in Europe 68
Chapuy XX-Of the Gorernment, Religion, and
Manner- or the 'irksi 72
Chapter XXI.-OI France 76
Chapter XX L--Of Switzerland 80
Chapt-r XXFI.-Of Italy L 4
Chapier XXI V.-Of Spain 8
hlidptrr XXV-Of P.rtugl 9
Chapter XXVI.-Of ihe Uuitcd Kinodom ofi Great
Bitain Rod Ir land- ----- 95
ChapterXVII-O that part of the United King-
donri called island - -- 102
(C'hapt-r XXVIII.-Of A-ia 106
Chapn-rWXFX.-Olf rurk-y in AXia l1lt
Cthpter XXX.-Of Rui-ia inu Aia Ii-
Chdpirer XXXI.-Oflth Se' n Cauca--ian iNationS 116
i'liaptcr XXXHI.-Of tLe Chmne'e Empire 119
f Ipiep XXXIII-Oftbe Got'ernment
and MNanhrr- 1'23
Chapter XXXIV -OfCoreaand I4Iand- aJ-
jinent to Chihit 127
Chapter XXXV -Of the Birnian Fmpire.and ad-
jacent rounLrile ,-fA- ani, La.:, Tunqiin, Co-
chin-Ctila. (, Camruh.,lia, andti Malacca 13)
Chapter XXXVI -Of Hiidooian, including Brit-
ih Irlia -1 1, .
Chapter XXX VII -Of thbe Gcvernmenl,Religi,-,n,
and Manners of the Hiudos 139









^ ... -, '. : .
Chapter XXXVVUl.-OfIndependpt Tartary and
Persia - Page 142
Chapter XXlXIX.-Of Arabia -" 147
Chapter XL-Of the East-Indian, and other Ai-
at'. Islands -- --- 150 IO....,
Chapter XLI-Of A frica 1- - 5
Chapter XLII.-Of Egypt 157 $
Chapter XLIII.-Of the Eastern Coa't of Africa, .
from Egypt to the Cape of CGocd Hope 163
Chaplet XLIV.-Of the ,\'c-tern Coast of Afri-
~ gftm the Cape of Good Hi,.[,e to the great
,)ax.iofZahara 166
S Chapter XLV.--Of the Barbary States, extending
i from the Atlantic on the WeAt, along t*e Shores
of the MediLerranean, to the Confines of Ef"t,
- on the East. 172
ChapterXLVL-Of the Interior of Africa, from ,
the"State. of Barbary on the North, to the Cape "
of Good Hope on tiheSr-nth 176 .
j Chapter XLVII.-Of the African Islands 1O0 A
* Chapter XLVI[I.-Of Amerkia 184
S Chapter XLEX.-Of Briti'h America 187
Chapter L.-Of the Unitedl Staie --f America 19-i
C chapter LI.-Ofthi-Spanish Dominions in North
S America, andi a Sketcb of the Western Coast,
frL.m the Bay ofPaDraiia to Bhering's Sirahi 199
Chapter LIJ.-Of S.o'ith Arerica, i.urwing the
Western Shores, along the Pacific Ocean, frontm bthe









a *.

bazniu' -.- Darivp on the North, t tlhe Siraits
of Magellan on the South -. -
Chap i Llll.-Qf South America, following l111.1
Eastern Shoresalong the Atlantic Oceaun. rron
the Straits of Magellan on the South, to lihl"1 ot
Iethmm of Darien un th, Non -
C.,.uclu-i.:.n.-Of the Wtf- Iiit-ir',r-ni bthe Bahama
Ll tnmhou the North, to, and TriuidaI on
- iheSnuth -. *-





While Capes,4 or Promonlories, nest display
Their points extending far into the sea.
By geographic, terms we nest divide
The world of waters and its whelming tide.
Four Oceans, stretching forth their arms cm- .
The earth's wide corifines will their wat'ry
Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific nam'd,
And Northern,where stern winter roars untanm'd.
A Sea a smaller wat'ry space displays,
As do the Irish, Black, and Baltic Seas.
A GuIf, or Bay, runs up into the lauds,
At entrance small, but when within eipands.
A Creek denotes an inlet to the tide;
A Road, where ships at anchor safely ride.
A Strait, a narrow pass is always found,
ConnectiDng seas, dividing points of ground,

Such a.4lhe Lizird P.dint in England, Cape Horn
.n South Airri-:a, aud the Cape of 'nod Hope in A'ri-

I Aq ihe GruIrol' Mcxico, Bay of Bi.cay, Cay o[BeR-'
gal. and the Arahin (ulf, .r Rled Set, &'c.


Just like Gibraltar,' Dover, and Ilie Sound.
A Laket an inland uat'ry space implies,
And Rivers chiefly in the moutltaius rise,
Thence urge their course in many a winding way,
Until they join and mingle with the sea.

SThe Strait. of Gibraltar connect the Mediterrai:ean
Sea with the Atlantic, and the Sound joina the BalIi,: t.. I
the German Ocean.
t !uch if the Ca-pian Sea, the Lake of Geneva, Lake
Superior, Lake Ontario, &a.

MIUMb" M11tI


The Globe.

i 'THF Earth, a globe imnenie or sphere is found,
*Full fi-e.aud-twenwy thousand miles* aroiiud.

I The earth' diameter i ,9l. mi (-, it- circnaircr-
c.n'e ahuint 25,03Uli miles, and ithe .qiinrp ruile4 il con-
uins 196.61.;,6t64 ult round niumbwher are easily
S c.,mprehenled by youn'_ per-:-,s, s, oe ha-,. .givn tlie
r / eircumfrezc.- atl ) CifOO, aoJ, ih-, 'l:lre miles at (wo
. t,,illrins -++





ils suilace, calculators sage declare,
"Conlairs two hundred million milks cali'd squai,.
Its distance from the sun thie learned fix,
aIn miles, at least. of millions, ninety six.
On its own axis turning every day,
Hence light and darkness beai alternate sway,
And day and night successively appear;
But round the sun its course consumes a year.
This course is called its Orbit, and its range
Cointributs much to make tie Seasons4 change.
Oni this large globe, of all the surface round,
Two-thirds compos'd of sat'ry space is found.
On, thousand million souls the land countaiuns,
Besides the brute-crealion it sustains.
Thie world, of olild, three great divisions claini'd.
Which Europe, Asia, Africa, were nani'd.
A fourth, Colunibus, crown'd with deatlikless fame,

The earth' adxi- is inlined to ithe plane ,-fit.
an an angle olf degrees and a hadlf; and Ithi, together
with th. earth'" jnnua! motion, produces the %afity tiu'
ilie mr.aon'.
t \werFcs sr'a tir,t discovered by t'hritopher C,-,
!unilib, d (ienoe-L, in the 'er.ire of Spain. in H92.
Bum Anericus Vespuciua, a Florentine, pretended, hb-





The T-hrush is very ircomiimon ii. Europe.

OF these four quarters which Ihe world contains,
Europe,' tie leasi, extends her rich domains ;
But, thouelh containing least of all in space,
Is far superior iu its manly race,

11 Ilenigth, fCron Cape 4l. Vincent, in Poriugil, i.,
ihe m.idth or ihe Oby, in Sir-ria, s near 3,6b0 naili: ;
and it hrbeaLIh, Crnow Cape Maiapan in die Morea, to
lie N.rili Cape in Lapbnd, alivuit 0(

k ....


In arms* and arts above the rest renown'd;
SThe Frozen Ocean is its northern bound. 4

The east connects with Asatic shores.
AgainstL the west the loud Allaulic roars-;1
And, pasmin through Gibraltar's narrow mouth,
Medilerrauean waves enclose the south.
Amidst its various -nations known to fame,
Each in succession snail attention claim.
i' . "'

Por indeed is the renown tlat is gained by de-
lstro3ing our fellow creatures.
t A sea between Europe. Asia, and Africa, connect-
inu with the Atlantic hy the Strait of ibraltar, through
which a constant current sc[L in, hut it has no tide. It
contains many islands, of which hereafter.

- .-. ~ur




Laplander travelliag.

FAR in the norlh, amidst horrific snows,
The hiardy Laplander undaunted goes ;
Drawn on his humble sledge, devoid of Fear,
Swift as an arrow, by his fleet rein-deer.
Three great divisions4 subdiivide this land,
Which the three greatest norLhern powers com.

SThe u hole or Lapland exr-nd. from North Cape, in
latl1111, 71 degreesand a hair, to the While 'Cea, under
ih arctic CirLle. It- -,rrace contains .e evenLy or eighty
i ilthoi-and sNuaic mniles. It, pCplRaliti -t n -tl-it Ie aI rpr-

L ............

ii .. 3,

The Noth"* islDanish from the Northern Seh,
As far as En'rack and the river Pais.
The Southf the Swedes possess, extending wide,
From Norway's mountains b tlie Baltic tide.
In Lapland Easif the Russians bear the sway
Between Lake Eaarack and the White Sea.
The White and Noithcrn Seas, both noith and
Compose its bounds, while, on thle sputh and vest.
Sweden and Norway's.niomtains form a line.
Its various parts and limits to10 confine.
Of towas, possessing none deserving fame,
The chief they Kola and Tormea name.
Forests immense of pines extend around,
And frozen snows invest the mossy ground,
While winter yields whole (Idreary weeks ol"

Thi; part is includPLI in the Darnish .5verninent of
t Thi isr divided into six ili-trirt, which taLke their
naruces I'rom river', a. Una, Pcia, Fortia, &r.
SThis i. dn ided into three districts, or thpr'A', called
M ournan,koi, Tcr rskoi, and Bellanioreskoi.
( In soie parts of Lapland, the 'iun is absent ['or
aiboot seven weeLks. T[he 'tar, are L-ilble at noon, and



The summer glares- an equal length flight. .
Yet here, 'midst dreary wilds, aund barren
Afftcction triumphs, and contentment reigns.

Ihe moon shine wilh..rit internik;ion. In the mnmmer,
the .un ntver ei-t for seven weekL o-gether. The Au-
rnra Borealis affords a strong light in trinler.

. . . .. .





OF stature small is this ill-favoiir'd race.
S Simple in manners,' andi uncotth in face.
So honest, that no bolt secures their door,

S Thpirarnij',emnenis consistin jumpinggo'er a sitk,.
wre-ling, playing ihe game of fox ani geee, liootjir, g
S with tle bov at a wark, singing and Lelling drull slorie'.


Brave, though averse to war,* and kind Ihough,
The bear and dier-skins foirn their chief attire,
And in their u inl'ry huts, the smoky fire
Gives to the poor surrounding squalid crew
A yellow, sickly, and disgusting hue.
S Tlhecse wretched huts in winter shield their
In summer, tcnti; and Asins conpiic their
nlu their jein-deeit consist their valued riches ;
The cliasct and fishing crown thcir other wishes.
But should their industry or zeal provide
Or gold or silver,4hey securely hide

1I h-y %vill ratlhrr rforake their native homes, to
ijich Lilthy are Lr-c, rlny atia',.hel, than engage in war-
"t rvery part .-,r .ii aljale anim al i ol' pai ticutar
L-. Iu, rht LapItauder.
tli chin-. ,ijrplii' them with bear-skins, white,
Il.icL aind r-y f.x-skins, erey squirrels, and sables,
%% hi ii i'iy ..cldrang, i.Jr ti ihl. otbac-i, and spirituous
li.[i..r-. I lt. tltlih .., the le-,r they'esiete j a great lunxu-
i : iandi tiLe) are r-.,pert fishermen,

SThe precious store, and think the secret hoard
Will pleasure in the world to come4 afford.
Their faith honour'd is with ithe Christianiame,
But Pagan rites and forms their minds inflame.
The Devil himself they worship, heal the drum,
To learn by its decrees events to come.
While sorcerers abuse difir bigot minds,
Pretending to command the very winds ;
They sway the Laplander with hope and fear,

SThey not only think they shall have occasion fur
such Itiing, in a future stale but imagine their chieren-
ijoymenL- hereafter will in drinking brandy, smo-
king; tirbacco, &'c. and that even their rein-deer will
share their enjoyments.
t Their faith i- nominally Lutheran ; but Ihey wor-
ship idul,, genii, and evil spiriLs. Their 4nrrerers make
ue or a 'ort of drum, which Ibey mark with figures and
Ibeatwith brazen ring upon it, to dico.3ver ruiure ervets.
They alf.) in Daniih Lapland, have a blacL cat whklj
they conunlt in all heir difficullie., and to uhiti they
confide their secrelt.
I The simple northern seaman sometime pur;ha:es
from these sorrererfsa cord with knoLs, by untying any
one nfrwhich, they tell him he may hare Fiany wind lihe
please, to direct hi voYyage.



Who, trav'lling, whispers* to hii lov'd rein-deer,
And marks his course through trackless wastes
of snow,
Where keenly edg'd, the northern tempests blow.
Oft, when descendling flakes obscure the sun,
The hopeless hunter finds his course is run ;
His land-mark seek.; in vain, with aching eyes,
And 'midst the desolating tempest, dies !
For nuptial bliss the lover long contends,$
Till numerous brandy-bottles gain his ends;
W-ith these the fair one's father he rlquites
For leave to solemnize the marriage-rites.
Dark superstition's gloom is always spread
Around the clcerless relics of the dead ;
The priest directs in form a holy scroll
To good St. Peter, to admit the soul.

A purse of money to the corpse is given,.

1 bhecuitom of ,li'|pering to t-,eir rein-deer appears
rliculoii ; yt-t rartilfrr atert, that, the niomnit it ii
donu. the animal 'el off %ith Fpeed fur ihe place ofder-
i *T Irh, c,.'urtltip '.-nmetimef laitc three or [our years.,
uniil the Ifther-in-Inw i-. atiftekI with the prewnls t.l'the
ke.ttr, ,hich generally consists of buLttleof brandy.

ite --- .... -* .- _. ----:-.=--a.

To ree tlhe porter at the gale of heaven ;
And meal andi drink are in the coffin stow'd,
To cheer the trav'Ikrr on so Iong a Troad."

Before their conrer.ion to Christianily. Ihey u'ed to
place an axe by the side or a man, to cit down the
-,Ug'.gm n bich might otltruct hi pac-age in ibthe olher
world, and a tinder-box, lest be shouldd find himnieIr in
the lark at the day of judgment If a woman, he ivra.
furni.bed %ith needlesadl voia.






The Baltic abounds b'ilh a great raritly
of Fish.
S THE ocean bounds this kingdom north and west,
SThe Baltic waves einclote it on the east;
And on the south the Dauish lands extend,
SUntil the German Stales define their end.
What '" Denmark Propler" ev'ry author styles,


Consi-its of Jutland* and the Baltic isles,
Called Zealand-, (which contains the nation's
Funeu and Lallaud, which around it spread,
And other little isles, vhich there are found.
To form hose straits, ite call the Beitti and

A peninsula C10 miles in lenglth, and frontm 3 to 80
*n breadth, the. puincipal part of the kingdom of Den-
mark anciently called the CinjbricaCherrne-u-. The
capital city if called Wiburg. Math Jutland is called
the Duchy of !leai-ick.

i Zealand, an iWland in the entrance of the Baltic,
TOO miles in tcircuniference, which contain, C.jpenha-eti,
the cdprial )f Denmark, and, sith ihe other i-land.
which surround it, of which Funtn is the larg:stl, Iorm,
a principal part of the kingdom.

The (Ircat Bell lie between the iNand& of Zealand
and Ftken, at 'he entrance of the Baltic ; and the Little
Belt hetween Funen and North .iJutland. The Sound is
a larger Itrait, aind lies between Sweden and Zealand,
and the Danef take a toll from all merchan[men which
pas through that channel to or from the Balic.


To these add I-loistcirn*, celandi, Greeuland's.'
Andl Farro,j where the Noribern Ocean roarm,
WiVji Lnplandl| North, and lately Norway's
Conmpose the wholt which Denmark's power
The Daucs are comely, hIardy, brave anti kind.
The higher ranks to pomp"' and show inclined.
The lower orders with industrious zeal
Auctud their labours; but when Ihey regale,
Inlniempi'rance marks their course, and drinking-t

A Dichy 1f Loner Sax..ny, 1(u mile.; long and 50
S brad. It chief Dani.lIj t.c,-n i4 Alhona, but it rouaiaf.?
Hamliurgh. LuiecL, and uthe'r 're 6itie".
t See Iceland.
SSte t(.ueetiland.
S A cluster of iiand< in the Nirtbern Oc an, ofwbiclh
sevenlfen are habitable, compofted ia general f taouu-
tains ard precipice
SSee Laplaiil anti Norway.
SIto Europe.
SPrticiilarly in the Funerals or (be '.a:
M "Drunkf.n Darie," a proverb.

s 46e


Lulls reason, guardian cenlinel to sleep.
The constitulion of the realm was free,
Till Danes* themselves resigned their liberty,
And left their lives dependent on the will
Of kings, who rule with moderation still.
Their sledges oft in win'try frosts cbuvey
The Danes across some branches of the sea;
But when hot summer in its lurn arrives,
Then all the vegetable world revives.
The country mostly flat and sandy lies,
And fogs from seas and lakes obscure the skies.

SThe monarchy wa- limited and elective, butin 1660
was made absolute and hereditary, by a voluntary act
of the people.





TH Nortlihcrn Ocean. ,prcadin uorthl and west,
The Sw.des and Sis dish Laplanid on thie east,
Invesi Ihis Intd, while on thie south is found


The Categate*, sxtendinz to the Sound.
To Sweden'si king this land allegiance owes,
Whose stately mountains, crown'd with pines
and snowsf,
Send rapid streamsF, in many a maze to trace
This northern region, of a warlikell race.

SA guirof the German Ocean, Ihrough whicb the
Baltic Sea i- entered by three -trait-, called the Sound,
and the- (Urtal and Little BlIts.
t Neruay wai unitelid .i Denmark by O14 V. io 1330,
rihn dying without i--ue. hi- nimtlher Margartl wa- rais-
ed to the thr.,ne; and, ou herileath, Lit-e, together
with Sollden, r-lI t,) her nephew Eric. Siwv-den wa af-
lerward- -cp.ilaled hy the valour r1" Guualluq Vasa.
Norway i- ru.:iv united I.. Sweden.
I NorwTay i- the n--t mn.,untainc,- c'ujntry in the
worldl. lt rhif min.-untain c.iled D ,l/refield. It- cli-
mate I6 Varii.u-., hilt ill the eat-l rn art-, the cold i- un-
commonly ,ePere, and the t..'intry covered with snow.
p In 1719, more than tttN .",td,.- intending to attack
Drnntheim, peri-h. 1 i le i, -,rw.
I The r;verr, dl. ,. -. iiiJ catara-t4 are Dnnimerus. The
liver Drivane wit'! along the 4id- uf" the DoCrefield
nmourtain4, in a merpent;ne ror-'- anrd ik beL by tho-e
tiho travel the winter road to the uotlier i.le -i.f' the chain
n, lesA than rhine liiti-.
I 1 E-ery pea-ant nnt li in I a .I-,r,. Lo tpon a n--.ble


Here, though to Sweden subhj.ct, freedom r igns.
No peasants' hands are bound with vassal
A hardy race, to toils of danger prone
The chase or fishing make (lie spt'ils their ovin.
This nation fouf greaL goveinmfntis divide,
Through which they drive their numerous herdi
11iih pridet ;
But agriculture ihey estecm disgrace
Hencec will and savage is the iractless space.
Here foIbrests vast their lordly pines display,
There tow'rs the mountain, and there roars liae
Here on the coasts rough fishermenit appear,
'Milsi rocks anid floating ice, devoid of fear ;

e im te, 6is y birth i -thlier, ar,'J *,nr..ll,.J at tire ae or 6.
TIh,.- Norean;., nmainltailh al army 'f -'4.')0J0 ,-jul, and
6bKI.i cai airy.
1y the, N.,- n%,y \Iw. lh.P rita-ait- tre free, except-
in-, a le-w -'a fPriain n1l0il' l.aIle' le3ar redrieLiael ;
anJ uijnic-- ih, pr,-r.C-l.Jr re-it:., ,..1i ,i' ehia Le, lthe., be-
Ci ,l~t rrtp at-i?.
t Viz. .ceilbhuly., Bergri.a, bronlheiim, aisd Ward.
hu,% 4.
S]hi i.rie upl od a he :oals-.
t rlrfii tilltivrie, iinppIy ,1..r.] ifeamuii, arid thec ,hioats

There dauntless hunters pierce the growling
Or lay their snares to catch the tim'rous hare,
While woodmen ply the axe with numerous
Felling gigantic pines*, and mounttain oaks.
The peasants, honest, frank, obedient, bold,
Enjoys warm clothes to shield them from the
And blest with uipetence, their lands are
With fish, cheese, milk, and fuller, to abound.
Their manners simple, and their morals good,
And almost ev'ry house is made of woodr.
While equal laws preside in ev'ry part,
A muanly spirit reigns in ev'ry heart.

otf herrings ihich -omnpiimes surrmndn the coa4t of N'r-
way. ,n.asi tLil'corumna seetvdit miles long. The Mael-
itrom, on Thi, coast, is a large whirlpool, which draws
any approaching objects, even large .hip', into its vor-
ies, auddashes them to pieces.
The chiefwrallh of Norway consists in limber, with
which it -upplie6 foreign nation.
t T'te whole country is alrmot one rock, and yet they
build witi timber, which oeca.iins dreadful and frequent
fires. The chief LowVu are Christiana and Bergen.
' l ', 1


CHAP. V111.


Codfish arc Ithkei in Ihe seas off' lecai id.

AR"UND bleak Iceland's' frostl-encircled shores.
Thi' Atlantic's northern surge incessant roars.
From Norn ay, west, this dicary island lies,
W here Hecla'st fierce volcano storms the skie'.

SIt k 280 mile' ,n leneib, aiAd 1V0 in brradth, IS iur
between 63- and 68 degrees of north latitude. Its t.m:p'-
ijLti.n i. eiiiiarxd at .isty or serenty thousand.
t Mouni Hecla is ahout 5000 feet high. 'lThere ire
*t.rai .other volIano; ; and in 1133, the cm'nv-ulkion-
r,.u-ed by itar:m were so dreadful, Ihtbt is was apprehend.

IM -- ..jw . ,

And crowu'd with snow, emits a fiery tide"
Of lava running known ils rugged side;
While Geyser's* boiling waters sometimes real
A scalding column roaring in thle air.
S Yet, in this laud of earthquakes ice, and snow,
Content can her celestial chamus bestow ;
The simple*'ace .prefcrs its native coast
To each luxpjn4 me whe -orlIi can boast.
To tend their lefts .men attention pay,
Or with their nels explore the stormy sea;
At household labours next (he woman toils,
And cures the fisherman's abundant spriils.
Their diet, butter, fish, and milE supply.
Their dress is clean and pleasing to the eye.
Their huts are poor. and of'the simplest kind,
But still their aCtions show ai gen'r'taus mind.
With some, superior rant in hinm appeacd

td the land would I"aIl to pieces. From Mblount "hap-
ton Gluver 6iued a Wrrent oflava, w-hich ran iaxly ilei-.
to the sea, il thehr -adth of nearly iwelve rile-.
T "ihis boUing rolmnn tof water wa5 niprcltr f'.tti in di.
ameter, amil rose sometimes to Ohr height of ninety-tio
reel. P.:
t it consists of linen, skins, and cloth.


Whio ihad exclusive right to wear his heard ; '
S And when the lover hails his nuptial morn,
Chaiils and a splendid crown the bride adorn.
S Tlt Lulh'ran Christian creed hibis race profess,
But Paganu principles dthecir minds possess.
K' Their chief amusement and extreme delight
Is their forefathers' actions to recite ;
[' For learning once posscss'd this dreary laud,
|i And now revives at Denmark's high corn-
| njand.

B The men in general wear no branrd., though on the
northern idle of ihe island -ome lamilie4 have them.
j About half a century ag, iwo brothlber, diivtiding be-
tween themcel.eQ the inheritance left them by their fa-
tlber, the one gave the oiher four ris dollars for the ex-
lu;ce right to wear a heard, which in their faniily was
the cole prerogaiiie orf theirlate father.
St Thelicy worship iddA, which they conceal from the Lu-
theran minibters. I hey pretend to witchcraft, and wor-
S rb;p the Deril under the name of Kobald. They believe
S the Soulso uf the damned either .)go it the volcanic njmoun-
S LainM-, or ton Lthe Ice Islands, according be: the nature of
[ heir crimnt.
I the king of Denmark has established school : and
$ several student- from Iceland are at Copenhagen. Their
T'anguage is the old Teut,:nic


The summer's sun, two months illumes the
And for two momnhs in winter* shuns their eyes.

The Aurora Borealisalnio-.t con'Lantlv enulightien
their dreary night. Their comanerce wilh Lhe Dan-A
coni-i.t' in hides, tallog, train-oil, vwhale-hone, and ;he
teelh of ea-hfores. *




WHERE GrfliIand's-' cheerless coast! extended

We(l 'rFenland as diii-covered hiy the Norwve;an
in the ninth teutury-, and gome oiisionarie .ay it pr.,h-
alily lia a c.niammuicalion with Amf-rica, and that hlie
(reenlander. and Esquinianx Indians resemble each
rlher in language, dress and appcaran'e. Th7 poprila.
nation ii estimated at 8000.

Beneath the rough control of northern skies,
In vain as yet bright enterprise explores
The full extent of its unmeasured shores.
Here tyrant %siuter reigns with all his powers,
His snows, his icy chains, and sleety show'rs;
Here vegetation dies, the human race
Assumes a pigmy f'orm and tawny face.
Yet heie contentdwint dwells, with native pride,
While ntrni'rous families at once reside
In one poor hut, where-winter's' dreary night,
Surrounds them. with a faint and hjeRrlr'.s light,
Till summer sheds around a Jengthej'd d(lay,
And all exultin.gly their tents display.
Then in his Kajak|, with iunweearied zeal,

STheir winner hutlq have noeilbtr nor cirumnry,
but a vaulted pa.n-age, through which they creep inLio
tlie middle. eulpplie. the place or both. In -inter, their
night,' laAt about four mnnlh4; hiut there is a moderate
twilight; the moan continues a timeahov, the hor-
izon, and the ncnhern lights are very powerful during
this period.
t Thp Kajak i a canoe or boat, aioniu six yards toing,
sharp-at bead and itorn like a shuttle: when t. GrOen-
,n.'r 4i in 9 hole cit in the skin wlickb covers it, and


I II I________

The hardy Greenlander pursues the seal,-

And darts his light harpoon, and seElis his prey
Through floating isles of ice, which crowd thr.
While summer's light inipel.; him "o explore
The boisCt'rous ocean for his wintry toic.
This simple, social, honest, outcast race
Are still ahtach', to this their native plact.
Their youths through hardy .;rencs of itil ate

?xrludes itihe alur, ; is ihupoisile .to sink it, uanl ic -
rset by a wiliiounrhi oar under the wtrtr, he recurov-
er, himself aain, t t if !li- !o-e hib- rOEr he i r -re il) perr-



And thus at early age procure their bread.
Their womie. chase. aticntively prepare
The house and household goods with anxious
While skins of seals, deer, bears, and birds, sup-
ply .,
Garments whiclih lthe xnortbem'blastsdefy.
And when they 3&, they think their souls re-
sort 'A
Where happy Ihnling yields them ceaseless
sport. .
Bald fishermen frequiient these shores with zeal,
And round Spitzhergen* chase the monstrous

Thi eounlry, iailed East (ireeulapd by Sir Hugh
\Villrnu1.ihy. in 153i, was fuppuoeild to be part :.r Weqt
Greenland ; luil i now f.un,! to lie an a8SemlIlage of
island which hane no -lll-t! inhabieanti. In ST%9. i
\wa visited by Iwo Duielihmen, who preiniled to be hie
discoverer and t ihey called it Spitzbergen, rrunm its sharp
pointed andi rcrLy monutains



Whose bone, and fins, and fat-extracted oil,
Convey'd to Europe, well repay the toil'.

The ft lib and other nations frequent t1ese fro-
zen seas t kill whales. The fi-hery begins in May. andJ
continues all June and July ; but the ships mdrt rc,,e a-
way, to get clear of the ice. before the end of Augl'iut.
Sir Hlugh Willoughby wa, enclosed and lIjckl.d up by the
ike in l55'3, wheii be and hll hi crew pr'rihead. The
ldel of the whale is reckoned a great dainty by the
(ireeunindrsr, who tink it a forLunate evnt i a dead
one i_ thrown ashore, and never near it until they devour it ; but the seal affords their
chief subsistence.



THIs northern
w ide,


kingdome spreads its coufiffs

Fromn Danish Lapland to the Baltic tide,

The lentill of 'l.den, rroL thb southern promon-
tory of ;,cone tu die noribthern exti'emity'o -iiediAb Lap.
land, exteedn ,i -en hundredsd Enlih njiles ; and itN
irealLh, rrom the Norieeian nouuntins to ibe borders
*[ R'lisia, ,liovIL SJK hundred milei.


Which, iith ihe Sound and Calegate inrve-t
The south, ahilg.Norway's mountains bound tie
The Russiaa borders, on Ihe eastern side,
Those Iwn rongh natiohs'of [ie north divide.
Five grand divisions subdivide the lauds,
Andi, first distinguished, Sweden Proper stands:
Add, Golhland, Northlan.l, Lapland, Finland's
shores, O:
And rouid the Swedish islcs* Ihe Bialtic roars.
The capital is built on rocky, isles,
By bridges join'd, and crowned with wooden

rhe S.Ipdih ilanrd in (lip Bjllic are very nejmer-
on'. anil se-er-l are inhilit.l; lthe priirwipal are Gotil-
land and (Pi-lanrd which frrn prail ,,'tbe li'iri L oi'Gult-
land, one of the five grand die i-ion.
t fI .i,.rle nlia, (he carii.Ial, i, Iaili ;n a reumantic -(lta-
' 110 -.n pight ril3'k -IHl,. %catteredl in thlie Itl rier, in
[hes(ream-. whicli -ie from that lake, and in a l.ay of
the BJlalic: The oiLiher chIiel'f iwns are tp.l., (u ipa.
burgh, rirneica in West Bo)thiia, anid A.I,< in Fil.ind.
t The hrea-ei all over Sweden arte alnUiL entirely rom-
poed of w ood.

While views Tomantic spread on ev'ry sidle..
Along the orders of the Baltic tide :
For here, beneath a tough and rig'rous clime-,
Nature will oft assume a look sublime,
And bid thc painter's breast with ardour glow,
To catch lakes, forests, locks, and mounts of
While homely fare and simple manners grace
This honest, poor, religious, martial race ;
The higher ranks, impelled by native fire,
To deeds of valour and of fame aspire.
Their manners grave, their dressi is grave like-
w ie.

The winter last .abnnt nine montlii at Stockhrlm.
ti t i t evitreIe3ly cnld the h. n suimmner i. equally warm,
and eprIlaltion rv'ry qinick.
t Of lhe the larg:tl are the laLe, Wennererld Wet-
icr, each .iJrut one hundred uj'ile in length : the rornier
frurty, and the latter tiventsy-hrupe ile, in l.readth. The
S Sivedi.,b rivers are nutnt-roul, but n-t na-ialble.
T Tle Srg-lncs are' i-very religion-, and Ithr Lulieranis
thei eptalilhrd church.
v An order to repress lusnr. in tT77, tli-tingriibbed
the Sctide- by a national drl-i: the 'ual co-)lour i black,
csecept on gala-day-, %Ihen the men apipearin blue ,atin

HTence vain luxurious taste from Sweden flie ,
But more subhjntial worth remains behind,
The loyal, brave, and hospitable mind.
The Swedish women, Wvith laborious toil.
Or ply the oar, or cultivate the soil.
Here game almost of every kind abotunmL.,
And herds of cattlle graze thliir paslurt -li'o ..lll:
Theliir nui:,es* are rich, and to inquiring eyes
Pt,.'iat a scene of Wo idUr aiMd surprise ;
For there a subterraijeaa world aflords
A place of residence Ibr numerous hordes.,
Who I'ron thlie mine extr-act the utse-iful onr',
From hif.nce it visits almost every shore.

linedl with i hie and thie wvenI in 'A Irhile satin rube
and c l.. ired ribaini .
1 Thip n,,ble- are tlie[.rplpriet'r i. the.?e minF
of'i1vpr, copper, Ia,:l, and. iron ; En-l-nd alT.rd, the
b.4t market rr.r ihi- iro. .'-eIlFn -lm, esptrt linimber,
leather..ins. till..r, piich, ro'in, :ic. The p.-p.La31ion
is a orit three inlliijL i.



A Rnssiana.

IMMENSELY sprIcail heneatli ihe riorliheru skies,
The greal colossal Russiao empire" lies;

'T he Rus.ian i., perhaps the mn.t E.tLen-i'E empire
that ever exiind: ab,.tiit nine ithou.and mile.- in ln.igth,
aud Iwo Uiiu.-and four hundred miles in br.:,dib; lying in
Europe ant. Asi'. Europenu Russia etInd; fruii fur-
ty-four to nearly sixty-nine degrees iiorth latitude, and

,. "'

Conipos'd of various nations, tongues, an.) climes,
IMade subject by lih- wars at diff'rcut times
To him, lthe. Aulocrat" of Russia's throne,
S By lille Czar, or name Imperial kij.-wn ;
W hose sway is with despotic rigour spread
O'er all the Russias, Black, and White. aud
Red :
While northern Europe owns i&i lidgh coin-
1-14i pnoer pr'esides o'er Asiatic lands,
Far a. S1b ria'st dreary coasts cxsieodl,

fr.,m .ixtv-three to -imy-eight degrco_- raqt ,.I.ngiti'l"
'rl. -i t LPlen-, et r pire %a. d\ i ii e'I- b) Catibhi ir, t lvI;r-
tir'd into l"..,rl)-one. g,i)ermiii nl'.

SH;- lit(ii are Empernor and AuIL.rrnh, (Or ,..Ic ru-
ler) :if'.ll ilthi- iu-ia- Ril Riu-ia i.r['ru .J a [.art -I Po_-
S land; Wlitle RU -id conprehendled ther e'i, part I 0 h'i-
S aria: aril Bllack Rn-ia includ-d the '-" rrnIr.- ''
V 4Kal.Jga, Mo.r,.sw, Tula, 1tczi, V..,I..,'liair, jnd Vail o.
It- U, jla a l.-.
t A country .-.f Asia, csimprhendin; tI.e rnost s-airr'i
part. i-I the Ru--ian Empire, exiEndi.L .3400 nil.- fI',-om
eait to iWt-esA,and 00 from norti to s,.utb; it ik' tlbe Il'e



Or where Kamtschatka's4 desert region ends;

Ortie fierce Koriacs4 with their rein-dfer rin,
And swedz in madues. to destroy the suu !

1.1 r-hch criminals. and rhq)4oe di5'rare.l It court, are
.snerally b'niiheld: The inhahilant sre rompi,-ed ,i.
Ht'umians, natier 'iberiani, and rariar trilt-. 1 he cli-
nuate i extremely coid.
SA pfniff~nla on (lie eal roast of Aria.'-O wiles in
ili greate-t hreadth, rnd .raslja lyconlractincti i ers-
treAmitie. It i6 a irld and lIarren region ; Lire inhabib:-
ta.nL1 are native Kartichadale,. liuoian-, and Coa-
.acks-alLo-ethcr a bararoua rance, o" being.
t A nation Io tihe nirtilk or teamtc-baika. srme are
illed fixe'd K.ori'w, others reln-deer or wandering Fo-



4? :.12

:' Through this extent what rapid tiveist flow,
f And laksf, fol nolnths enchain'd with frost and
,1! suow._
I,' The climate make- [lie peasads fierce anti boll
J! Inur'd Ib'uardships and excessive coli ;
S A serilie-homage to their lords they 3 ieid.
And at he sovereign's imalndaile take the (kild ,
',q Unaw'dI hy, niix in conflicts dire,
Alta:k ihi ir foe_, and conquer (pr sire.
t Their sports and p:astimnies mark a lively race,
For nitrrinitnt presides in ev'ry place;
S While show 5, and comic dance, aund Sull prt-
i(4 Will copiois tlr'ghis of bran.,y thly .ytair,
rThfir *ieqs k i.imple?. f.rni'd of cloth and Akin,
The tl(-.sdile out, the f(i n-sir ivithin.

S iij--. IVIli'-n ihard pre dtJ I.y lh'ir h i. rii.z-, I lit) -wearr
1-i dr Ir',/ /." ," ; tbilei ,,lib Ui-,y ili.l Il rgr, ri,., ri-
in', i., L-irb.3iid nulionrj, by cutin.n the iir.iai- or
Sh.i r t. ie an- i cbildrfea, lurntir,n ihir P," ep. ,- ...n-, adJ
,.rF i ,li: m ,r1ly iin Ih1- nhl 1 hl'I,-ir ( upruie;,
T Tlr piinipal ri r;' are tii,: W..lIa, ithp IDn or Ta
thI,*, the Dnr'r;ier, and DnieFlcr, lie DLina, and tlie
*7 I i l,:!- L r a d -a d i ,

Their marriage rites' a vast command bestows,
And hapless wives are oft inur'dcl9 blows.
The merchants rich, lxlrious are alow'd ;
The noble Russians are both brave and proud.
The stale religion, as prescrih'd by law,
Is Gret-ek ; but idolst still their xvsl'ries draw.
In sledges drawn, o'erR.Wius of frozen snows,
With wond'mus speed the hardy Russian goes
Or drives in cities, l e awnapi fleet,
Trough ev.ry .narrow laneof crowded street.
Their ancient capital xas Mp.. namn'd ."
And they as warlike Miscovitces were fani'dl ;
But now St. Petersburehi that rank df mnands,

SThe litbnimd had imrnicrly the right or piutt;n, his
%il'e tn ,'ieth .lli harharois privilege i notw LuardEd
.':ainlt h the lav' :ind rmarriage.contract(.
t Tbh. [rincipal idI ii caill.'d Obros.
ST'liere i- s5crc-liy a hill rrnm Peierhbuirgb to Chini.
This eity, ,.aie.l. on the Neva, near tle Oailfof
Firland, maQ 1,untin b, 1Ptiter theGreat,in Itp.i; and in
I O, the lir-t lhick h.-ai'e was t built by Cruni iolv.wkin.
h ,:,,n after I.ecai,.- th capital of lheo'RRu-ian empire.
Tl.other principal citieare ijMoscnv,, Arch-
qngel, Cijtr'un, and I ohulsk.


S Which on ilhc Gulf of Finland nobly stands.,
tI. While commerce visits, with her sails unfuri'd,
T 'he Neva, width the produce of the world.

Rnqia produces frs, leather, linen, timber, tallow,
miusk. copper, iron, and other commoiuJditie, which lje
exchanges tl. ahilantage with other nati.n. i


I 4

'I Ii


I. .




AMONG those tribes uhich own the Russiarn
The rough B.irclihkirians curious traits display,
To sloth anid diiil, and iuidolence consign'd,
They yi-t are hoph.itable, brave, and kind


S Wilth merry hearts, averse to gain or sorrow,
Content io-day, they think not of to-morrow;
In eons, or dance% or drinking mead, delight,
S At'l,, arm'd with darts and lances, fiercely fighl.
On horseback chiefly they conduct the strife,
And each seems forward to expose his life.
Their faith Mrihliometian, but lacking zeal,
For P.iaran rites audi sorcerie" prc-vrail,
T9 To nte-n of age o'er all the tlibe pirside,
r For war to fit them, or in peace to guide.

t Aund keep as many wives as each can buy,

The purchasf-., when in herds of cattle paid,

dl When tiwy are attacked Iy disease, or their cattle
di,. Ltv iLe %e'.' lily of th. -.t-naon, ithe misurlunr i, at-
S Itribille it .. the Devil; and Ihe .urcerer. iwho is eial to
gi'it hirn. rpppar. nesi day with eternal mark- of rio-
lence. di dare- be- ha, tken revenue nf thle eneny. and
rcrile- a revard the credui, Tarlar. Old age is
,eat-e.Il'1 lh vrear rp(cL t by Lhi peo.ple.
T yo'Ilug t.l,ian, aCi.ordinrg to her beaity and cbhar-
acter, Vmill a .,ing the rihl be pur.'ha;Fl rIr a hundred
horses, Mteuty cameli.. til'y horned cattle, two Lyndre-I
Lheep, and thirtygo.t-.

1 .. "


The bridegroom from her friends receives the-
Three public days in revelry expire,
Before the newly married pair retire.
But should the husband die, the elder spouse
Who bore him children, still commands ie
The rest contented in the jurt remain,
Or with their presents seek their friends agaiu.
The rude Czuwaclhians one great God adore,
And Tor's great temple is some forest hoar,
'Midst i hose recesses,' by the Znmack's knives
Black lamhs in sacrifice resign their livcs.

* Signifies a hut, generally made of felt.

i 0l


h --

Kal,,iic Piriisnills.

F THE Kalniic huts arr formn'd of felIt, arjid iiilcs
Are often [,rea'l to dry on their ouliltdcs,
Which yitclil a sordid anl lis'gisting sight.
This tribe inv wand'iiug, witih thllir herds de-
Where'er the herhage of the plains appear

Inviiing lo thf-ir horses, rows, and deer.
They never plough the land, nor reap, nor mow,
But are eKPert in war to bend the bow.
The flesh of horses, deer, and sheetibey prize,
The milk of mares their l'av'rile drink supplieF:
And lime and trouble much inclin'd to spare,
A little windmill wafts the Kalmuc's prayer.

,.w o',/ '.- ^, .-,,, a,r,MS auM C- '-'"

A Kalinui- ifomn and Pritst.
Tlhc hardy Cossacks are a warlike race,
In stature manly, and olf comd l face;

Of li' h"y make a strong ferraenpti lIq,'jr.
t '7They hare little wooden windmill-n-ing- tfixed to


Espert iu war the fiery seed to guide,
^(. And harass hostile hosts on ei 'ry side ;
The post of danger always prompt to .efk
Aud ihei$fofes'd religion is the Greek.
The rmk-. Isehorti next aturition claim,
KtPoin also by the ancient lnriau name,
SWho with their dadl de-posite situres of tlnC.
For their be-lor'd dep-irled frie-nds to tat ;
Their nioncy too they catliottsly c-tcroe,
To yield them coni'ori itt aullothier .tate.
The utild Takulhians in their hvwii d-eli,

S* the entrance or their ihuntoun which [ tlie p.-"i. I W'; tl CP-,o
.' Lain prayers l'or ithe Oi i r. which liLting .ut in t..liion
k-v ihe wind, avee bini the troulli t prrtli ; theytiave
Sdl> other praying nlatcll'.ii in ihe If mn i.1" a ,is, in
.lhicdh they -hatke wrirttn r-.r tljry tljink nott-
h inr uete-'try i'.r pr '-i r bilt ilutting it in t. tnmin id any
i. i t. inerr in i Luation, ridiculwi' inl-.ed ; tiltn let
Su; rentr'Tnlrr llnt pt.h- pl arc it 1 ro-. rmlatt- C l" i-u:n.',r-
anuce, -iiitl u It liltl i wore thar. oiiu e tep freni ihe brute..;
ant h-.i everi orth.ih,s wHe in thi- enlihtit nFild c*.i.ntryv
may he, -uJr iiacli'ce in -m.inne i ,, i tu le m, repog-
Snant to rf--o.l '-u in.ll Ii'r itant'0, a- the i- lurniiing of
Thankk; I., ilt <,,;, ,:,f!o ,: I\l.n h,, h-.:-i dre'.tr,,y d. h.-
I' ny of t'ur fell.: -:.:ei (,ur it ,.rn hii Lil.I,.-ed a'n diee -'


And with their cattle mis'* benealh one shc1l.
'. With fat and blood these wretched.Pagans smear
Thle raged idols" ihey adore with fear.
More wise, tie Mordwang culiivale-ie ground,
And worship one great God with awe pro
Their women love in dress such gingling toys
As corals, bells, and riugs, which make a noise.

*",'Their idol are madeorf rags;pfpr they despise pood-
en idol.




i *




_( Nawnoieldf.A.
S uTHr Osilaks, failflul, hjonest, kind, are kiotn,
To industry and ties of friendlslip prone.
S Bul timid, dirty, simple to excess,
Wtile Pagan priests Ihe magic ai prolfcss;
They credit ev'iy superstitious cliini i
V Which th]ec dispeiie to sljielter htim from harm,

> . + ,

t-' .53 .
I ., "
t-- d think (he;vpry bears*trhich they destroy,
tifuwre stale of happiness enjoy.
The TheleutiJ'flt"init.d, tisaid
Their only pia)abT.j'" Do not strikEuiie dead."
The tribe, ofTsd. l'dwwehe adore the surn
The rne TAknliziansf are but partly woO ..
To own tMbhdsiaan creed, ifor still they pay
Respect d( Satan in their Pagan way.^
The bold TangusAan tribe is frank and free,
S Detesting fraud and. 1'w duficit :
The rich, who C iflbrd, tako~ any wives,
But filthy habits mark their sk itge lives.
Of deities these people reckont crowds,
:' *1'n a r----
Wbenever Ih&e -tk khillsa beaqhe Aming orerit
a6L6 its pardon, anad hangs up the skin, to which tie pay?
Many fine compU.pento, to induce it no( it, take ven-
geanre when Lh&tumeetin the ahode"orpiiii.
t The fatheror a young woan'goring to be married,
offers bread asibhoney to the sun with a prayer, implur-
ing happine's for the yong couple.
[ rhey are baptized, but all their idea ofChristianity,
con'ists in being able to ilke the sign of Iie cnis,, and
wearing it ; abstaining fr& horne-flesh, marrying one
wife, and. observing the fasts of the Greek church.
$ Their wonien are the prettiest in Siberia, and the
men -are the best archers.

r * 1 "+:
Their chief, nnm'd Boa, rulcs abo'e tile clottds.,
'The trihe of the Wogulians- nest ue mark, :
W ilh savage minds emerging fjoim the dark ;
Their notis reach the Godi who rules the skies.
'Tis aso their belief the dead mill rise, :
Where each sEall nicc return for good or evil;
Bin ircnuously thry all deny (tihe Devil.
S The heads.of bt asts they coniscrate with care
To Gnod, hut nei'-er say a miordol'pray'r!
Then, farther noIrth, which bonds thle Russian
S Bleak Sanimoieda's race their bears adore

*Trhi Irihe pO -e:,: the rnarest ilen to rali:nal wer-
sEhip ul' any -.-" tlhit l avae+ horirde, .hit.hi a.e toonurner-
;ou. in tIU pFartH uli iztd hire.
l T Thii- p'.Li e I.i ir .-, idea of a Suprenie Breing ii ir
".i1; ibi, we pitJueIp itiic'jrreet : we rannotl believe
lthaI here i' ano iiiIion, huw.-i ,c-ai age, buI ib at ha-
F s',Jf ii La ,fraD.-iiy. They cAl their new-horn infania
S by the nira- .I" tlie fir-t animal hePy ir-CL. Ti"-ir mar-
S riage,: are rerbal, and fidtliity -triclly ob'erx ed.
S Tb.l;r rin'ry I.,itiU. the niortJern xiiremily of Risia,
ii nnn i- kepar.,ied fmrn NuvaZetibla, by Lhe Straits or
] \\V e-air."
i~~~~ 1 .

55 ,
SAndil pass* Weygats Strait, to Zembla'st coast,
*. There prostrate tiature lies enchain'd in frost,
And drsolatioA'preads her 6 andUoiss sway
O'er lands where nio advenL'rous step will stray.

This desolate region isna yet uuexplorFed, s faras
.odEtermlet1..tlher it iqan island or prrt .or a great
continent. tis mincetnain whether lhere be any b on -
etant inhabitantsor not. 'Tie'henr the sirait
ias frozen, pass over to hbull the elk and ja"r. 'owne peo-
pie, s-nt o explore the csicniry, relate, that they camnhl,
'forir uatic .etnilliajE, Lihed in seal-Airi atinid ithe
skin'of peIugiUin.s,t ith Ole feahlicr o|Jtuwardr ; but nlth-
img more i, known uf tbis'pcople, whose number mmubt
Le very few.





~ ii


florsts abo aud in Prussia.

TiHE Pnrisian kingdom, front contracted bounds,
By F'iIl'rick's| genius gained contiguous
groujd.s ; -

I Prusia wai htoundedl nrtlh by the Baltic; (.as. and
south livy Iluii and Au-tnia ; aind on the est by the
(ie'rmn a glatet ; hut il liale ar.4iiiluiis bare greatly in-
crericd' it te riltry.
i Fitderick lthlie Ste.-.uil, commonly called the Great.
Crel-(d 1 Ierril rv ..- -- -

FLiAP. xv.


I 1


Silesia's prr'nce& paid his warlike toils,
And large hiis share became of Poland'st spoils.
'lien vain were virlue's, honourN's, freedom's
An.d crowned robbers shared she bleeding prize.
Where rolls the Vistula its far-fam'd tide,
There ro. al Prussia guards the western side ;
S And where thh eastern bank the shore defends,
There ducal Prussia its domain eslends.
Ans-pachl and Bayreuth hbite increased the size
Of this proud kingaJom ; and the sacred lies,
S By which compatriots are bound 'bhears to heart
Were counted light as the wind-driven dart,
When Prnussia's-standard floated in she breeze,
S O'er Saxou 's disnienber'd provinces.

SThe duchy of Sileria Wd- acquired from Ausiria in

S t By Ihe -ereral partition, of Poland. Prus.,ia acquir-
S ed the awole ofrGreat Poland the whole of We.-i Pru-
sia, including the cilie,3 If DanLAzio and Thorn : and ithe
pio MnceOr Ma-a)Via and Polachia, nuw deuc.tuinated
South Prusia.
T The-e principalities, or margravat.-, were abdicaled
I.:y the Wte 5largraveorAnapach, in favouirof the King
cl' Prusija.

"" I *. I I l i A

Betlin4 iis capital of late is deem'id.
For such of old v-as Kouingsbt r cstte'dtl.
The population.of these ,istes amount
To fiull eight millions, (nu niont authors count.)
The Pregel, Mmenl, Vistula and Spree,
And Oder, through its hounds their stretauis dis-
Of fifl rent status composed a native zeal
For ih(ir own customs every where prevail
While industi', with'persevering toil,
Improves the arts and cdultivates the soil ;
Re-ligion here, by law's protection u ise,
To ev'ry man's conviction open lies.

er;n, bthe capital of tlie elettorjte or Brandrenbiurg,
'tjlt-d on the ri er Cpree, and where the kin;, of Prus-
-ia rt,-ide, lii._ et-n r-.r oie time considered a- the cap-
itl. ol Pru.-ia ; though in reality Koningqberg. on the
r;\~r Preel,. is tlhe ancient aud trlujp capital. The other
| liani.p., trwnI' are, Bre-law. Waraw, now eiven to
a'n: Dautzic, ton declared a free totvna ; POseul
P,., Jdaw1, %,:.





THE Seven United Prnvince.s, so loug
Admired in-history, mid r-nown'd in song,
Have, from a great republic, dwindled dowu
Into a pctty kingdom, adtl a crown.'
For Iho' before of small e'le".- lis state,
Freedom, '.lelightful freEdom made it great.



/ and Belgium have uniii-il hanLi.
hled thekjngdom of the N-SlierlauF!.1
He-re art erects her dams, and dik(s, arid hrbraves
The threat'ning fury o thie outcast wvarvFs.f
The Dutch are heavy, prudenLt, prone to -cave,
Phlegmatic, slow, industrious, anl braive-:
Their country seems compos'dl of various i-les,t
And Amsterdam is- built on womldeo pikes;
In ev'ry point of view canals are made,
For pleasure, trav'lling, intercourse and trade,
O'er wlich their boats and barges swiftly glide

SThat part rf this kingdom it hi-h i taIlltd H._,llnId.
is bomntled ..*n the north by the (efttiisn ,itcan b; hf ay
lie Brilth channel ; east hy the Ge;r:man ora-an ; .nd
siuilt by le-!idurn, to. thicli it is rnow anii-ld The' rpip-
ulatinn ikal.jut three million.. H-.,'lliaui ,-rin the lar.
gest r-f the 1 -ea UnilFi l Provrincri, itt naie r en-
erally applied I.- the it holte.
t AIn.-sI. the thle if tLese pronrinc',- .eatn t)o hive
been won by industry rromn the a-pan, and Ithe ia is rnwv
kept outl y immense daraa aand aiikea.
The line, andl riltj.-r Ahihb inlerc-rt Ile
c.untry. 1ie? H-4Altn htll the ad-anta.;e ,4 an inqtlar
stluatitin. 'lierp ar.e not le.- Ie inn thre-e bhujn'Jr:-d bridge
in A.mstenlam, tlibth i- tL eabpiial.




The Rhine, the lIaese, and Scheldt, the lands
The Seat of government thie Hague is nan'd,
And Lryden's colleges are justly I'ix'd ;
While Roflerdamin, and other towns command
Commercial stations both for sea and land.
The soil is fertile, and the produce good,
In catlle,-butter, cheese, and madder-wood.
In Belgia, long to France's empire joiuj'd,
A strong resemblance to the French we finid.
In manners casy, and in conduct light,
Gay, mirthlfil, social, amn'rons, and polite.
Bruscels is its chifl' town, its clime and soil,
Like Holland 's wilh in much toil.



a -



*' The Lya.r iiifhbil.s (Gitrmijny.

'HBENA.Ir!l what various princes, climes, and
T'hic gleat htcrsilve partL (or Europe lies.
Which diff'r.eut (hies,j kiughU.i5, slaies, corn-

'3 S ioug conavuls'd by %ra'- internal woes,

SAcc'rdling tU i5 i modern limitiL, Gernjany Iki mnd-
A k d on the north by the Cerman Ocean, Denmark. the
SBalltirc, and part ofl Prus;ijd ; it include' TranI-yhaniia,
,ti the ea-t ; and ,:n the south extend& to Turkey ii, Eu-
rope ; a.dr i: Ij,,unded On the west hy ,orue Of tie French
departments. It is alidt 600 mirlen in le altb, atd 'iO)0
j in breadth.
Liuljeck.ani Hiemhur~h are free cit;e-.

J ^ _______
B^^.^ ... .."'-"--^- .="-B*--r^e~-^> i sfjr .-i --._ m J




FiInoM Austriaf

sprung, hcr warlike monarch

SThe A-i-trian doluiioinn, previous. to the lale erent.
in (Gi.ianV, weie e'piurated at more than one hundred
and eihbly-Iobir II uinutand square mileI; and the po.pula-
i[on twenty miilli.:, .
The circle or AusLria contained the alcbidurhy or

...--- ___-, --- .-- "^-.



The brave* Hungarians| nest attention claim
Well known in all tile fighting field of fame
In this gircal kingdom two fam'd parts we see,
Nam'd Upper and the Lower Hungary ;
Presburg, the Upper, boasts its fairest town,
The Lower, Buda, equal in renown,
Of fighting men, thiis martial state caon yield
One hundred thousand, ready for the- field ;
Wh ile fertile plains and pastures spreading wide,
Their crops and herds display itih conscious
i ;pride ;
No penal laws to check their mirtlh is Found,

SThe word "' brare," hai s.ereral diftferent meaning-,
and iz applicable to Luld and undaunted men. in t-artby
aCitW, and piurruits ; .,ut it is often applied to th,'-e tile-
periLe tig-er, f' niakind, who daringly expose
their I;ve- iihi a i-iriv of de-lr-iying many t.f thibeir fel-
low men. t.itrary to bthe command of (Chri.i, Who bays,
what.,jever ye would that men should do. to you, do
yO even u to ibeuj."
i Thi- kingdur i- bounded on the inonh by Polandi
and SJdeia ; we' by Moravia, AutIria and 'tina; ,ouili
by Sctav.inia and Turkey ; and easl by Wallacthii nid
TrransIlrvni3. Buda ig famous for iti baths
'. For Hungary alone.




T.'wi empire sprf'ads o'er iEurope's lhirrst pa Is,
O'er lands and cities fanm'd fbr arms anl arts;

Turkey i; bounded on (ie nnrth hiy lusI-, and
Autria ; on Hie ea't I'y ithe Black Sea arid Sta i)f Maai -
tmora ; ,n the .rjth. by the Arrchii.:i,- ind bhf Medi-
ierrane-in ; and n iL ire e-t, hv 'lihe ulfl'ol Vtnice andi
D almatia Ii liei to thi QuuLb-(.at oFurope

Moldavia's* rich and far-esxeoding plain-
O'er which a Hospodar as. vnssal re-isn.,
While Bessarabia's Tartarsi rove about
VWallachia'sj fields are fertile, natives stoutn;
Rough Bosnia's. mountains rais'l aloft we sec,
And warlike Servia.|| strugliug to be free.
Paat of Dalmatia, andl Croatia's lands.
Arc subject to the Sult'n's hihih commands ;
AniDd where Bulgaria's3'* rugged moinutaihs rise,

i i '1lulda, ia is '210 milt I, rng, anid 211,.l. 1 ie
1 principal rirer. are, the Dtmei'ter. Daauh, PruLt, Mu!-|
-i,. and Bardailack. The ,.-vernor i citll0.d h-.p.dir; ;
S the inhabntanlt are of the cr.-k ehnrcli and iiie prin:i-
S pal towi i.s ra-.y.
i t Atl.'t called ild ijr, Tartary, -itn.j..t,) i. t t.fen the
Danuhe and llnearcr. 'rh. capitl i. Irin,!'r.
.I Thie atriaril Daria. .''., rmt.-. a.,r.._. am& mm.r It rnad
ltir chlinc ih ii (rtak. T-. i, i- th.' n itil?
I',.-nia i6 1-Omiltt' tIn auI Ui hbrad. a..rd.. i *.
j lthe captial.
S. r ia is 190 rilt- l',un atnd '. Ili... i:6 n
RE ,,lr dttlion, a:R,hiut [je 'furLI-. FI' I .I r i. th
IerZ.,r'i'i '. i's Iti- capil-fl part - al-a it. Turl:ey
~ *t A monntaiDcu5 pro', inre. Si-.If. i Ihp :.|:i'

J '4




4 Turk iii his Peliss., und Tui'k{ih 411I.
main of Conslnuliniople'.

TtE turban'd IMuselrnen almost alhc
Their Sultani, Emperoi, or Grand Sinuor ;
For he, Bith a despotic su'ay ronijrls ;
Their properly and lies aie in lis hi-ils.
lit his seraglio, hidden (from Lite crou. d,

I 0 1 1111* III 11111 --

., e" '


Their niufi"i bids them visit Mec'ca'sj sbrn c '
To fast in Ramazan, abstain From wine.
Aud, as chiT duties of their faihdi declares,
Ablutions,'t aliens, and pilgrimage and pray'rs.
The men 16are handsome, haughty, fierce and
;! Their beards are long, heads shav'd, and aspects
i Hgrarve;
,, But lie-n iadictive passions bear the sway,
To rage resistless, ev'ry Lhing gives way.
S The Turks chew opium to extreme excess;
The turban their disliuguislih'dl part of dress.
01 Poly-gamy is by their lairs allowed;
The rich, of wives and concubines a cro-w'd,
; Retain in harams, from the world rctir'dl.

'The Mujfi, jr high-pritl-t, po-'eb-ft gr'.at iut'litnea
amon'- them.
St Mecra is a (owu in Arabia Deqerta, r'am,.,u for beina
Sbthe hirth-place of Mahomel ; and alJo, ab tie 'I'urk prf-
S tend, c.nLiLUitg the *epulchre of Abraham.

-4 The Turki-h bathb art magnificent ,and bathing is a
S pariuldar ceremony of religion.

- I
tlM Jlgtllii *___ (

w-r ,r -
" i





PEf..APrs in all the worlil estenling round,
No fairer country could be ever found;

France i hounded by the Briai-b channel! and Fl-d.
land on the north; Germany, Stitz-.rlind, and part of
Italy om the east ; the Mediterranean and i;pain on tli,


Fruitful in corn and cattle, fruit and wine,
Fiom thlie high Pyrenees* unto the .Rhine ;
Or from the Alpine mountains to thtiMies
Wbich wash its north, its south,t nd western
The Rhone, the Sommne, the Loire, and Garonne
Through plains wbere.naure seems to hold her
I- nauesem ohod.-
court ;
O'er France thie liburbin oics, but who can
The winner, uor think of lthe loser too !
Or rather of the ,ran by fortunime cost,
From whom she suatclh'd the prize lie never lost;
-, -- -- -- _~~.g, ^------
soulth and thp Allanlic on the ivret. Frin Dunkirk,
.n tie iurtli in the Pyrn-nees itn ihp ,ioutl, itl .tenii is9
6' mi:ni!. ; and someilbi;ng iaoie from [he mot r-aqlern
part ..l' Al-. n, to the wetetni pint of Bretagne, which ,"
pruvin-ce extenil. 100 mile. farther thau ay other part -
in()o the ocean; hul the addition of new le'partruenlih
tinually increart, it, anid leaves it.liit.iLs uncertain.
populaliLn ii alijt Ihrty-livec niiltioni.
The Pyrenees divide it from Spain: and tbel
frowm Italy; aud the river Rhine is eiltemn'l its hf.
,y towafid Gicrriany. .,


in dress, new fashions ev'ry daytake place,
And ev'ry week they seem a difl"'req; race.
The females g-reat vivacity display..
Delight in frolic mood, to romp and lay,
Are graceful, pretty, witly, and polite,
Are chaste, though fiee,4.and sensible* though

SDuring the 'angidnarvy horrors or the revolution. lhe
French remales displayed' striking traits of beroibm, .en-
oibili[y, cqnstancy, and foit ude, even on the cafnlid




OBs RV F vshcre itil aspiring Alps' enclose
The I dl, -i ho- sinmitils bear iernal snows ;

Te hi-%he-i uaiInntain; iu Europe, separating Ilaly
Irom Framne and Ger'aDy

81 "

There Swilzrrlaud*,to freedotn- 'ever dear,
Displays her rural tribes, he-r 'frugal che,,
Her simple manners, and her manly race,
S Fea'ess4'.-wart ithe bo.tile shock to face;
S Or, in their lov'd luxuriant valleys found,
Conteent to cultivate their.uative ,rouudil;
S Through verdant pastures drive thei herds with
S Or. bhl the vine ascedd the mountain's side i

Switzerland is a small romantic country. -iluated
between a number or lthe Alpine mounltain4. bounded
north by Germany, west by France and on ihe -uath and
eadt by Italy ; the surface about 15,0011 squar wuiles, and
the population two afhiounu.
*t The Sw-i.- havp always retained the stri-.nhet pas-
S silin for liberty ; nor is lbetre so nmch:-i9rhihily uf mran-
S ners. nor seemingg equality, to be fai4 ina any ibther
S part or Europe.
I Yhey are well-mide, lardy, and have always been
rtclkuned aniung the bhet soldier< iu thbc n uild.

* This term retain us of a common saying, "bad ik
the best," seeing it ik applied to mien rdo-e t' is LW
Lill men, not beass.


Or hunt the bouding chaminois as they go,
O'er rocks, glaciers,- orpinnacles ofsnow.
; Amilst these mountain piles and valleys green,
Of Cantons, SwitzerlanA contains thirteen,
Schweitz, Underwalden, Uri, Zug, Lucern,
Wilh Fribourg, and Soletne, we first discern
These seven wilb zeal profess tie Romish creed.
'I To Zurich, Bern, and Basil nest proceed-
$; These cantons, with Schaffhausen, nnmb'ring,
four, I
Their God by Calvaniatic rules adore;
While Glaris and Appenzel next we see, -
SWhere both religions equally are tree.
But who can trace wild nature in her freaks, ,
Through all these mountains and romantic lakes!I,

IThe Chamtis i- a Lind of mountain c.-oat, extremely
fliet. and diffEricult i., he caught.
T i't. Glaciers are extensive Gelds of ice, between and
Si on the ide; of the A 1i|.
:1 T., deqtrihe the romantic beauties or the Lakes of i
S I rIit II., wrJld require r rumne of i(ceir: the prin-;
S cipal are, Ihe Lakes of Geneva, Constance, Lucern, Zu.
S4 ruih, bjnd Ncufchalel.

i 4

,'- . ... :i .... : -- r .. . 1

9 83 'ap
4 p
Whose winding shores sucb *teirms sublime dis--
WhiV each is in itself an iDland sea,
Enclosed by, mountains* cAid with snowand pine,
While through the valleys roll the Rhone and
Rhine !"

The principal nOtre Mont Blanc, St. 11er-
*Hard, St. Gothard, JuM*'ji'tml Pilate, &c.
.1 They. have alIo ih riers Aar, Arvn'e, Reuss and
Inn, with several inTerior oies.

- -



''dfAP. XxS11.



1I.R Ital 's' luxuriant clinice displays
Attractive beauties in such variolls Ways,
That ev'ry step arrests tlie r)vish',l eye

Itally, Jitly eteemed the L irle 11n of Eur-pe. wr
i.urilly c-,in lereJ under ihrre iliv;?i:.', tile iiorfhernl


With smilt-g valliesfor .w .tais* high.
riere shines the spleun.i.i ciLi'sgiftwqg tow'rs;
There from the mantling viane, the ruai lowers.
Here fiow the t.ies well-known to qasicldre
There science bends those fragments to. epkIre,
By time from somenpajeptic temple hurl'd,
"AAWbich once .adoro'd of LIe Worldt

central, atd .ount tSlj knownlately ,a' ithe
',is Tpinme "RevMi4 1i'.eKib ( isalpine Ganitand,
in [he midalda ges, ftiG ii rn D Uphliardy. Th1'en
trail conwliaf the d,,mjnin, rio Ie Ihtlrcb anil Lhise king-
dowt nf' ruriadnd. as hce ancient seat.of R-,man andi
Eirurian puwer, and, in the miiddle,. or the eccle'i-
atical andi Ttui.can states, and the southern was called
Magna Grc-cio, now the kingdom of Naples.
l The Alp- -pparite it from rianuce, Germany. anti
Sn itzerl:'nd ; ai1- i.1ILb E bouinds are thi Adi iik. arnid
AlediLerranean ,e,i. Tlibt Alipeninei run tt.rrouh al-
ni,'> Ibie nMhle PSi I'iut 0r Ialy, WiihiCli i a1oul s ir 61 thiijilC
lon;, aud its It? Atrh I" ; bat lICLi tfen h(' iull'ofl'Vn-
ice and rie MNhi.l' ,uiin, il ,ily 110 )iilts broad.
The priicipil rirver are llte P. [hie riber, ihe Var, ani
the Adig,.
Hi Rome. The -ithrr chief t -, ire, Naples. FInr-
rnre- Milan, togelhrr wilLt Plrinimc., MNc.-inma, ard ',y-
q Iiqc '.e, in Sricily.


7T : 7

* i

The scliuol of arts.aud sciences profound,
Whljo-e rays,illmuaiu'd all the iorld around,
S With _orii"' the philosophic eye sunrv. vs
Is laaLku l-ate in our degeneral ta) s ;
Its feeble race*, unlike their sires so brave',
Who scorn'd the name qf coward and of 4lav%
Now yield their necks to marlny a g:allir': volE,
ti Their rjatufahtlr'dl and tbtir -piit broke.
O .r arious ?lacs this c qtuitry is compus'd,
S The papal pon'r iu Rome's proud sails r<:p,:,s'i.
V.-oic t and Milan own the Aust in's M sIr.i-
S1 And firein loirJs and furcign laws obey
O'er Pieiintumi and SaVroy Sardinii reigns,
Anil haughty Genoaj ivear- that no3ioaClt's

t ho reJ e ,,lcrn Iaiar. I i Fxpri 'I c..,ei.. ,na .roee,
art I iei eorpurti-iic.l, and natt hiiL 11ih01_'h .r-r ir th'ir
NIIIJI)!--r. 'l s.i\ a' an.l courler-.u-, 1,ul jealeui ;
inie,-iii,', i a1 l -!, .ni, ,Nil vindictri .e lacievi.,,-. anil zu-
Je pt-r. ui-i. .,.. ih c';rc ln 11 [iin,.; andi uiA.i,. The fe.-
[ ll a[,j'- i," h.-'milh l/a.
't ve ,.. arneiI.'r IeiiDuJi republic, nowiv nnixd .J to
th, i A" Aij-irian ,onjiniuri..
I r ti:noau, an ancient and p,:fierful relIr.ic, rDW an--.
u i xfil [u Sardiuiif. .


SW, -~


Fair Napidawhere Vesuvidhiftidkes the shores,
And Sicily, where fiercer Etna r6ars '.
One kingdom form, lovely but bound in chains,
Where nature revels and a despot reigis.
Beneath king Ferdioand, from Franclb alarms,
I. perfectly secur'd by British arms.

SNaples, a kingdom c1prehending the south part of
Italy. 280 mile. long, tini0 o 1s') in breadth ;
dividrl inLuo 1 prorinca.2 Near Ihe ilVy ol' Naple., is
Mount Vesurius, a celebrated volcano, uhoe convul-
siucn' often occasion earthquakes. It Aivts, lt elher
with icily, the title of King of the TBo,JSiilieb tu a
prince of the Spanish line of Bourbon.






-ti iard.
By wavs e;circleid, savec on that one side
Where P reuees [lie land from France di-


- I,.. I~us~u,

Lies Spain*, which, if withr Portugal we place,
Both kingdoms one Peninsula.embrace.
This ancient kingdom in its aria1dtaius
Fourteen _rc.ut provinces, whosefertdle plains,
Romantic mountaiost, river, tow'm.and Tales.
Afford descriptive sees for Tlooiishli tales.
Thi capital is Madnf.t-faa'd in song,
For love andl poetry 6rember'd Iong.
The Spaniard, as wmo -sually pourtray'd,
Averse to connic t factures, trade,

It is bourndetdon the nortkfV the lfay ofBi-cayand
ihe Pyienee%, 'which reprateil from Pance; ca-t, ,by
the Mediterraijean ; soulb, by the Straiin ol (ibraltar;
and wex, by Portugal (part of the r.ninsula)and ithe
Atlantic Ocean: about 7l miile% laing, and 5t0 broad.
Th,.. populati,-n is about eleven milliuni.
SThe thief mountains are tloseof tb.- Pyrente', ron
lite frontier- of France, and the .Sierra Morena, itjich
divide Andalutia from E-tramadura and New Casile.
t The principal river are, the, Tag.), Guad-
iana, (,uadalauiver, ald Ebro.
( The Moors had a footing in Itis country for a ling
time, particularly in the kingdom of tirtr.ada. Their
occupaLions gave rise to nnumeroij. romance. They irete
expelledl in 1492.
L .9..

3 Is superstitious, indolent, and proud,
j 1. But brave and gen'rous by the world allowed;
-4 Attach'd to monarchy, of titles vain,
p And more in love of honour than of gain
Is tall and swarthy, with expressive face,
SAnd (haste and lorely is their female race.
S3 The chief aniusemeuts, hbot for young and old,
K .Are masquerades and ball-ftghls to bkhold.
SOld Spain is rich in mines; her pasture feeds,
Of horses, mules, and sheep, superior breeds.
1 Majorca and Minorcaon her.coasts,
With Ivica, three sister isles, she boasts ;
i While colonies' immense, to Europe's shores
Seud vast supplies of gold and silver ores.

4?_See --_____







Hogs abound in Portugal: Ihfy lire in Iht
moods on acorns.

OF Europe's kiugdoms, this most western lies,
And boasts a fertile land and genial skies;

SPortugal J 150{ miit in length, and P1O in breadthJib.
I(it population i.about two millions.
{t It is extremely rertile in iil own natural prodac-
tions, but mrnny pait- are mo-unainoub and barren. Lit-
tle attention i6 paid to hubandry, thereibre corn is not


F .......

S* Both swith and west it has Atlarntlic houndus,
S Aid north and east it joins the Spanish grounds
To ithieb, though bearing an avers.ion strong ,
This country seems by nature to belong.
The kiigdom six large provinces contains,
Divurcified with niountains, valleys, plains.
E-tramadura first in oider stands,
S Contaiuing Lisbonf in its fertile lauds,
t "lihere honey, wine, sweet oranges, and oil,
S Are the best ifts of this lnsiixrianl soil.
i. ;: NNsi. B(.ira'st ficldsabjundadlly produce

.*li =,' plentiful; and mjize, imported fro,'r, Africa, ik u;-d 1j3
'i ib. peaant( inr.tra..l of %,heat.
Tlir'r La, ,-sii'd a strongg nalura[ anim,"i-ily he-
l\tern the PortUii''l,, andi Sp:,niard&, -ine the r.,rnter
'.t ihb[i-PW Off 'he y,,ke ro [,un. in 1tWSll, andp-J ,:,.fl lirteir
rcru.v-n tn he hli.dJ ol Or i Duke of Brazanza, IV.
f,r.-u whom ibt: pre-ent royal ranmily i- .feIcended.
T rhi- capital i bulil uLl the noril- t ie ,i:.f the Tagus
J I" Im. njiie. frm as m,,with" it was almri,,I ,ie-troyed by an
rarihqnu-ak i.n 1"55, hu ha. beenelIaanly rebuilt. Its
StranI i6 \cry c.:,iiridcraIlr; '[. l-:,-.,, [ iudn, for it- 'alt.
ik aifo in E-trarma{ura.
i'f Coimbra isthe[- capital ol"hi- pr.virnc.

i j
:i I

WIiale'er is wantingo for domestic use.
Advancing thence to Minho*, nwe~p6.Vei ;
Oporto's commerce there., is great indeed.
Iii agricultural arts this bears the sway,
Whilk nlni'rous htrds thro' Tra-los-Montet
stray : ,
Algarvat wtilh the richest fruits abounds,
Andui rice is rear'd on Alentejo's grounds.
The Porliuguese ane superstiious, vain,
But horte-, lemip&e, Loyal, and serene;
Their mc rchants are exact, with lib'ral minds;
The peasants simple, arnamtbitiou; hinds;
The ladies lovely ; and the men are known
To jealous rage and secret vengeance prone.

SEnltre-Donero-e-.5Iihn,.ii, dilinguibhed Ijr 4il< well-
coriidurAed fiqriculturt'. Brdga i- the chief t"wn; itL
Op-irti.a city in ibig priwinwce, i4 aiamouu l'or iti itr:!ig
wine all over Europe; (lie mnc, of which ik con-uijed in
Great Britain aund reland.

t Mliranda ii the capital orTra-l.os-Montea.

.j Ti'ira i' the oa.pital ibo this province;, and Evora i'
"chieft'tin caf AiJenlej.).


The bhegars are a rude and sltirdy race,
Ani niith audacity iDFest each place ;
Thie: g 'ral class, which indolence uabinds,
Possess degeu'rate anm hiixurioisi mind.




Squirrels are found in almost every ctuL-

WITH conscious pride anid joy the muse sur-
Vf-y S
Grfat lBritain" sov'r:i',ri of the subject seas

G* ,reat Brinain is dih-ied irtd,, En-land, Scotland,
andi the principaliity .,If %Yale; i situated we.t oftl'ie con-
lineni ofl' Europe; and is alIuni 600 les Ii lonn,, and 300
broad.-The nlriilatiun i abIout Iwe-l'e millions.
j*'GreaL Briain arrogantlv a--iumed Ihe tilIeu''Mi6-


The land of freedom, and the land-mark too,
To which distracted Europe tlurus ils vifw.
Three oliir'rent nations occupy hibis isle,
By freedom raronr'ed wilh her swc-er.t FrmitP

Hivhiatidt i.

WhIre Scotlani'. short ; repel tihe i orlieran wsi':
IIlr sons are hnt.vy, prudttit, bold, an] brave.

tr"l jh e'a', and hnw stor lir ar nv- iav.:
'[iially rnld.i on ilthe ,c- r'. In ibc ?aie cuaneg-
wi ith bh uiic.| ''Liele.,horewr,,-lr haU lpjfr.quiti|l
deprivedl ofI li' -uj ereit'nly.
"cotlland, or NL.l, i Brilrjin i. lhoitl -7' iilc.. Ion ,


A grand division in this land prevails,
Of highland mountains, and of lowlaod vales.
The first, a barren, wild, romantic place,
Produces from its clans a warlike race;
The latter, stretching to the southern side,
In town and cultivated lands lakes pride.
She bioalsts her streams* and lakes, exlending
Her Sheltlandt, Oikney, and htier wst 'mindl 15 brnadl, but in -sme places nor abore :34. It i4
dirid.l- int. to district., iht Hi;ilandI and I.owlandl,
and contain; thi t-ihrce econintie. It twa- an indepen-
dlent kingd..m. until Jatmes Lie Sixtlh .ucc.ededl tIj the
thri.nei of Enland, by the titler ,'Jairme- lie Fir;[. In
the reign or Queen Anne, both kingdom were united,
under the title of Great Britain.
T Ihe principal rivers are, th: Forth,Tay, Dee, and
f The principal laIkes are, LI..ih Tay, Loch Lomuond.
andi L,,ch Ne-,.
I Ali-ut 'ufty i-land., lying. a hun-Iredi mile; n.jrtlh-
ea. ufS,,otland, the principal.] which ik Mainlatd, a-
buut %ixty mile, lng, and imxteen Ibr:adi.
(- The ancient Oreade-, 13 ine north of 'cotlnrd ,; crn-
si-ting 'l'fiwenty-ix i-land%, the large-t ri'which i Po-
ion.i; about tienty-r-i.mur mile Ii lng, and fromi -x to ten
broad. Together with Ithe Orknecs, they foin one of
the coinliest or Scodtinl.
9 The Hel.ridei are a clu-ter oif alot three hundred

mU I.