The world described in easy verse.

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Material Information

Title:
The world described in easy verse. illustrative of the situation, manners, and produce of all nations : for use of young persons
Physical Description:
viii, 215 p. : ill., map ; 15 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Lynch, W. R
Samuel Wood & Sons
Samuel S. Wood & Co
Publisher:
Samuel Wood and Sons
Samuel S. Wood & Co.
Place of Publication:
New York
Baltimore
Publication Date:
Edition:
1st American ed., with additional notes.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Natural history -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Natural products -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Manners and customs -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile and popular literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1822
Genre:
poetry   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Maryland -- Baltimore

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by W.R. Lynch.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 026658116
oclc - 41190472
System ID:
AA00021461:00001


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WOMAV Dmn (C an r pm mar'),

IN EASY VERSE.




THE SITUATION, PRODUCE OY

vHE V-kRIGIM N A TIONS.

FOR T"

USE Q'F YOUN-G Person9.,

13V W. R. 151 NCH, E.q.
-4UT31OR OF THE POETICAL -XIISTORIBS ENGLAXI AND ROMt.


FIRSTU1,9RICAN EWTI(w ITH AUDITIOSIAL WOTE!






NEW-VORK.PUBLISHED BY SA4U-EL WOOD ATND SONS,
mo. 261, PEARL-STREFT;
&AAiUEL S. WOOD & CO. NO. MARKYT 1M


1822.





If















PREFACE.



TO impart an easy and harmonious versification to such a subject as the Geography of the World, it iust he allowed was not an easy task and nothing but the very flattering receptiom which the other little poetical productions of-the author have met with from the public, and in particular from teachers of eminence, could induce him to undertake it.
H ers it now to his JuveiiIe Friends, with the hope of affording them entertainment, and with a full conviction, thatif read with attention and occasionally committed to memory, it smooth the study, and lay a permanent foundationfor the knowle of the useful science of Geography.
When the student has read each chapter with attention, a reference to maps will tend, in a materipl degree, to strengthen the impression which








his mind will receive, and by tracing with his eye the different countries as they appear on the map, and comparing them with this poetical outline, the author trusts that the fidelity of the lat-ter will be fully proved.,














4












CONTENTS.




CuAPTER 1.-Geographical Definitions -Page I Chapter 11.-Of the Eatrth in general 5
Chapter 11.--Of Europe
Chpe V.- Of Lapland 10)
Chapter V.-Manners of thie Laplanders, &c. 2 Chaptr L-Of Denmark and its Dependencies 18
ChaptrVIL-Of Norway
Chapter VIfl.-Of Iceland 2
Chapter IX.-Of Greenland so
Cba ter X-Of Sweden W 3
Cha XI.-Of Russia 9
Chapter XIL--of some of the Tartar Tribes subject to Russia: the Barchkirians, Bratski, and CzuwaChapter XIIL-Of some of the Tartar Tribes su ject
to Russia: the Kalmucs, Cossacks, Iscborti, Taku.
thians, and Mordwans -4-
Chapter XIIV.-.Of more Tartar Tribes subject to
Russa: the, Ostiaks, Thefeuti,,Tshulinozians, Tfungusians, Wogulians, and Sanioides 5T,
Chapter XV.--Of Prussia 56
Chapter XVL.-Of the Netherlands g 59
Chapter XVIL-Of Germany 62






Vi CONTENTS.

Chapter XVIII.--ppf the Austrian Dominions Page 64 Chapter XIX.---Of turkey in Europe - 6
ChapW XX--Of the Government, Religion, and
Manners of the*Turkg 72
Chapter XXI.-Of France 76
Chapter XXIL.-Of Switzerland - 80 Chapter XXIII.-Of Italy 84
Chapter XX[V.-Of Spain 88
chapterr XXV -Of Portugal 91
Chapter XXV.L-Of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland 95 Chapter XVII.-Of that part of the United Kingdom called Ireland 102
Chapter XX VII.-Of Asia 106
Ch pter iXIX.-Of Turkey in Asia 108
Chapter XXX.-Of Russia in Asia 11
Chapter XXXI.-Ofthe Seven Caucassian Natio 11 G
Chapter XXXI .-Of the Chinese Empire 119
Chapter XXXIILH-Of the Chinese Government and Manners - -- 123
Chapter XXXIV.-Of Corea,and some Islands adjacent to China- 127
Chapter XXX V.-Of the Birman Empire, and adjacent countries of Assam, Laos, Tonquin, Cochin-China, Ciampa, Cambodia, and Malacca 130 Chapter XXXVI -Of Hindoostan, including Bitish India .--- 134
Chapter XXXVII.-Of the Government,Religion, and Manners of the4Hindoos 139






1co4TA s. vii

Chapter XXXVIIL-OfIndepend t Tartary and
Persia -- = Page 142
Chapter XXXLX.-Of Arabia 147
Chapter XL.-.Of the East-Indian, and other Asisat Islands - 150
SChimpter XLI -OfAfria 154
Chapter XLII.-Of Egypt 157
Chapter XLII1-Of the Eastern Coast of Africa,
from Egypt to the Cape of Good Hope 163
Chapter XLIV.-Of the Western Coast of Afrithe Cape of Good Hope to the great
nfZahara 166
C r XLV.-Of the Barbary States, extending
from the Atlantic on the West, along Shores of the MTediterranean, to the Confines of ERA
on the East. ---- -172
Chq r XLVI.t-Ofthe Interior of Africa, from
the SLtes of Barbary on the North, to the Cape
of Good Hope on t e South 176
Chapter XLVII.-Of the African Islands 180
Chapter XLVIIL.-Of America 184
Chapter XLIX.-Of British America 187
Chapter L.-Of the United States of America 192 Chapter LI.-Of the Spanish Dominions in North
America, and a Sketch of the Western Coast,
from the Bay of Panama to Bhering's Straits 199 Chapter LI.t-Of South America, flowing the
Western Shores, along the Pacific Ocean, from the









I sthimus of Daxipp on the 'N_'th, to -the StraIts
of Magellan on the South
Chap#r LiHl-Of South America, following th~
Eastern Shores along he Atlan tic Ocean, fron.
the Straits of Magellan on the South, to tedi
Istinfins of Djarien 4on the North
Conclusion-Ofthe Wes, Indiesfrrm the Bahama 1slau d5on the North, to Tobago and Trinidad on











14 ouh1







3

While Capes,* or Promontories, next display S Their points extending far into the sea.
By geographic terms we next divide
The world df waters and its whelming tide.
Four Oceans, stretching forth their arms embrace
The earth's wide codlines with their wat'ry
space;
Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific na-m'd,
And Northern, where stein winter roars untam'd.
A Sea a smaller wat'ry space displays,
As do the Irish, Black, and Baltic Seas.
A Gulf4 or Bay, runs up into the lands,
At entrance small, but when within expands.
A Creek denotes an inlet to the tide;
A Road, where ships at anchor safely ride.
A Strait, a narrow pass is always found,
Connecting seas, dividing points of ground,


SSuch as the Lizard Point in England, Cape Horn
in South America, and the Cape of Good Hope in Africa.
t As the Gulf of Mexico, Bay of Biscay, Bay ofe
gal and ti *e Arabiah Gulf, or Red Sea & ~.






4

Just like Gibraltitr,* Dover, and the Sound. A Laket an inland wat'ry space implies, And Rivers chiefly in the mountains rise, Thence urge their course in many a winding way, Until they join and mingle with the sea.


S The Straits of Gibraltar onnect the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic, and the Sound joins the Baltic to the German Ocean;
t Such is the Caspian Sea, the Lake of Geneva, Lake Superior, Lake Ontario, &c.






15

CHAP. II.



AA
Or THE EA TH IN GENIR&L.














The Globe.

THE Earth, a globe immense or sphere is found,
Full five-and-twenty thousand miles* around.

I The earth's diameter is 7,980 miles, its circumference about 25,088 miles, and the square miles it contains 196,613,664; but round numbers are more easily comprehended by young persons, so -we hae given the circmference at 5,000, and the square miles at two
millions.






6

Its surface, calculators sage declare, Contains two hundred million miles call'd square. Its distance from the sun the learned fix, In miles, at least, of millions, ninety six. On its own axis turning every day, Hence light and darkness bear alternate sway, And day and night successively appear; But round the sun its course consumes a year. This course is call'd its Orbit, and its range Contributes much to make the Seasons# change. On this large globe, of all the surface round, Two-thirds compos'd of wat'ry space is found. One thousand million souls the land contains, Besides the brute-creation it sustains. The world, of old, three great divisions claim'd, Which Europe, Asia, Afria, were nam'd. A fourth, Columbus,t crowned with deathlessfame,

The earth's axis is inclined to the plane of its orbit in an angle of 2 degrees and a half; and this, together with the earth's annual motion, produces the variety of the seasons.
t Amneriea was first discovered by Christopher Cow lumbus, a Genoese, in the service of Spain, in 1492. But Amnericus Vespucius, a Fl9rentine, pretended, by a









CHAP. II.



OF EUROPE.











The Thrush is veryj common inz Europe.

OF these four quarters which the world contains, Europe,# the least, extends her rich domains; But, though containing least of all in space, Is far superior in its manly race,


Its length, from Cape St. Vincent, in Portugal, to the mouth of the Oby, in Siberia, is near 3,600 miles; and its breadth, from Cape Matapan in the Mor a, to the North Cape in Lapland, about %WoO





4
9

In arms* and ts above the rest renown'd; The Frozen Oean is its northern bound. The east connects with Asatic shores. Against the westthe loud Atlantic roars And, passing th ugh Gibraltar's narrow mouth, Mediterranean waves enclose the south. Amidst its various nations known to fame, Each in successin Snal atten4tiln claim.


SPoor indeed I the renown that is gained by destroying our fellow creatures SA sea between Europe Asia, and Africa, connecting with the Atlantic by the Strait of Gibraltar, through which acostant current sets in, but it has no tide. 1I contains many islands, of which hereafter.










CHAP. IV.












Lapflander travelling.

F l in the north, amidst horrific snows, The hardy Laplander undaunted goes; Drawn on his humble sledge, devoid of fear, Swift as an arrow, by his fleet rein-deer. Three great divisions* subdivide this land, Which the three greatest northern powers command.

The whole of Lapland extends from North Cape, in latitude 71 degrees and a half, to the White Sea, under the arctic circle. Its surface contains seventy or eighty thousand square miles. Its population cannot be ase-rtained.








The XorW Danish from the Northern Se As far as En'xatck and the river Pa~is. The'Soutlit the Swedes poses, extndling wide, From Norway's mountain~tbthe Bt1ic ie In Lapland Eastt te Ruissians bear the a Between Lake Enarack and the White Sea. The White and Northern Ses botlh north andA
east,
Compose its bounds wile, on th sputh and west. Sweden and Norwals utais form a line,
Its various parts andimwits to co~ifns. 'Of towns, possssing none~ deserving fame, Th 'e chief they K~ola and Tisrnea, name., Forests immense of pines exktnd around, And froz~en snows invest the mossy ground, While winter yields wholc dreary weeks of
n1ight,

SThis part is included in the Danish government of Wardhuys.
t- This is divided into six districts, which take their names fromk rivers, as Una, Peta, 'forna, &t% This is divided into three districts, or kporie~s, called M ournanskoi, Terskoi, and Bellamoreskoi.
it in some parts of Lapland, the sun is absenit for about seven weeks. The stars are visible at n~oon, andi








The summer glares an equal length of light. Yet here, 'midst dreary wilds, and barren
plains,
Affection triumphs, and contentment reigns.


the moon shines without intermission. In the snmmer, the sun never sets for seven weeks sogether. The Aurra Borealis affords a strong light in winter.










4.






13

CHAP. V.



OF THE MWANNERS OF THE LAPLANDERS, &C C.













Laplanders.

Or stature small is this ill-favour'd race, Simple in manners,- and uncouth in face. So honest, that no bolt secures their door,


Their amusements consist in jumping over a stick, wrestling, playing the game of fox and geese, shooting with the bow at a mark, singing, and telling droll stories.
3






14

-Brave, though averse to war,* and kind thought
poor.
The bear and deer-skins form their chief attire, And in their wint'ryhuts, the smoky fire Gives to the poor suriunding squalid crew A yellow, sickly, aud disgusting hue. These wretched huts in winter shield their
heads,
In summer, tents; and skins compose their
beds.
In their rein-deerf consist their valued riches; The chased anid fishing crown their other wishes. But should their industry or zeal provide Or gold or silver, ey securely hide 4J

At They will rather forsake their native homes, to which they are strongly attached, than engage in warfare.
f Every part of this valuable animal is of particular ue to the Laplander.
41 The chase supplies them with bear-skins, white, black, and grey fox-skins, grey squirrels, and sables, which they exchange for cloth, tobacco, and spirituous liquors. The flesh of the bear they'eteem a great luxiry and they are expert fishermen,









4The precious store, and think the secret hoard Will pleasure in the world to come* afford.
Their faith honour'd is wihe Chistianname,
But Pagan rites and forms fljeir minds infame.
The Devil himself they worship, beat the drum,
To learn by its decrees events to come.
While sorcerers abuse their bigot minds, Pretending to ommand the very -winds if
They sway the Laplader with hope and fear,



They not only think they sll have occasion for such things in a future state -but imagine their chief enjoyments hereafter will consist in drinking brandy, smoking tobacco, &c. and that even their rein-deer will
share their e joyments.
t Their faith is nominally Lutheran ; but they worship idols, genii, and evil spirits. Their sorcerers make use of a sort of drum, which they mark with figures, and beatwith brazen rings upah it, to discover future events.
They also, in Danish Lapland, have a black cat which they consult in all their difficulties, and to which they
confide their secrets.
I The simple nortern seaman sometimes purgbases
from these sorcery cord with knots, by untying any one of which, they ll him he may have any wind he
pleases, to direct his voyage.








Who, trav'lling, whispers* to his lov'd rein-deer, And marks his course through trackless wastes
of snow,
Where keenly edg'd, the northern tempests blow. Oft, when descending flakes obscure the sun, The hopeless hunter finds his course is run; His land-mark seeks in vain, with aching eyes, And 'midst the desolating tempest, dies For nuptial bliss the lover long contends,t Till num'rous brandy-bottles gain his ends; With these the fair one's father he requites For leave to solemnize the marriage-rites. Park superstition's gloom is always spread Around the cheerless relics of the dead; The priest directs in form a holy scroll To good St. Peter, to admit the soul. A purse of money to the corpse is given,


The custom of whispering to their rein-deer appears ridiculous ; yet travellers assert, that, the moment it is done, the animal sets off with speed for the place of destination.
t The courtship sometimes lasts three or four years, until the father-in-law is satisfied with the presents ofthe lover, whish generally consists of bottles of brandy.







17

Teo fee the porter at the gate of heaven; And meat and drink are in the coffin stow'd, To cheer the trav'ller on so og a ~oad.*


Beforetheir.conversion to Christianity, they used to place an axe by the side of a man, to cut down the boughs which might obstruct his passage in the other world, and a tinder-box, lest he should find himself in the dark at the day of judgment If a woman, she was furnished with needles and issars.




















3*
I










CHAP. VI.



OF DENMlAIK AD ITS DEPENDENCIES.










The Baltic'abounds vith a great variety
of Fish.

THE ocean bounds this kingdom north and west, The Baltic waves enclose it on the east; And on the south the Danish lands extend, Until the German States define their end. What" Denmark Proper" ev'ry author styles,



wet









Consists of Jutland* and the Baltic isles, Called Zealandt, (which contains the nation's
head)
Funen and Lalland, which around it spread, And other little isles, which there are found, To form those straits, wve call the Beltsl and
Sound.



SA peninsula 10 iles in th, and from 30 to 80 in breadth, the principal part of the kingdom of Denmark. anciently called the Cibrica iersonesus. The capital city iscalled Wiburg. South Jutland is called the Duchy of Sleswick.


-t Zealand, an island in the entrance of the Baltic, 700 miles in circumference, which contains Copenhagen, the capital olf Denmark, and, with the other islands which surround it, of which Funen is the largest, forms a principal part of the kingdom.

SThe Oreat Belt lies between the islands of Zealand and Funen, at the entrance of the Baltic; and the Little Belt between Funen and North Jutland. The Sound is Larger strait, and lies between Sweden and Zealand, and the Danes take a toll from all merehantmnen which pas through that channel to or from the Baltic.






20

To these add Holstein*, Icelandf, Greenland'st
shores,
And Farro, where the Northern Ocean roars, With Laplandli North, and lately Norway's
lands,
Compose the whole which Denmark's power
commands.
The Danes are comely, hardy, brave and kind, The higher ranks to pomp** and show inclined. The lower orders with industrious zeal Attend their labours; but when they regale, Intemp'rance marks their course, and drinkingft
deep



A Duchy of Lower Saxony, 100 miles long and 50 broad. Its chief Danish town is Altona, but it contains Hamburgh, Lubeck, and other free cities. t See Iceland.
I See Greenland.
A cluster of islands in the Northern Ocean, of which seventeen are habitable, composed in general of mountains and precipices.
(I See Lapland and Norway.
In Europe.
* Particularly in the funerals of the great.
tt "Drunken Dane," a proverb.

t






21

Lulls reason, guardian centinel to sleep. The constitution of the realm was free, Till Danes* themselves resigned their liberty, And left their lives dependent on the will Of kings, who rule with moderation still. Their sledges oft in win'try frosts convey The Danes across some branches of the sea; But when hot summer in its turn arrives, Then all the vegetable werld revives. The country mostly flat sandy lies, And fogs from seas and lakes obscure the skies.


R The monarchy was limited and elective, but in 1660 was made absolute and hereditary, by a voluntary act of the people.






22


CHAP. VII.



NOR WAY.

















Norwegian.

TuF Northern Ocean, spreading north and west, The Swedes and Swedish Lapland on the east, Invest this land, while on the south is found






23

The Categate*, extending to the Sound. To Sweden'sj king this land allegiance owes, Whose stately mountains, crown'd with pines
and snowst,
Send rapid streams, in many a maze to trace This northern region, of a wivarlikell race.



A gulf of the German Ocean, through which the Baltic Sea is entered by three straits, called the Sound, and the Great and Little Belts. t Nerway was united to Denmark by Olof V.in 1880, who dying without issue, his mother Margaret was raised to the throne; and, ou her death, these, together with Sweden, fell to her nephew Eric. Sweden was afterwards separated by the valour of Gustavus Vasa. Norway is now united to Sweden.
f Norway is the most mountainous country in the world. Its chief mountain called Dofrefield. Its climate is various; but in the eastern parts, the cold is uncommonly severe, and the country covered with snow. In 1719, more than 7000 Swedes intending to attack Drontheim, perished in the snow.
4 The rivers, lakes, and cataracts are numerous. The river Drivane winds along the side of the Dofrefield mountains, in aserpentine course, and is met by those who travel the winter road to the other side of the chain no less than nine times.
11 Every peasant not born in a town, or upon a noble






24

Here, though to Sweden subject, freedom reigns. No peasants'* hands are bound with vassal
chains-A hardy race, to toils of danger prone; The chase or fishing make the spoils their own. This nation fourth great governments divide, Through which they drive their num'rous herds
with pride;
But agriculture they esteem disgrace; Hence wild and savage is the tractless space. Here forests vast their lordly pines display, There tow'rs the mountain, and there roars the
sea;
Here on the coasts rough fishermen appear, 'Midst rocks and floating ice, devoid of fear;


estate, is by birth a soldier, and enrolled at the age of 16. The Norwegians maintain an army of 24,000 foot, and 600% cavalry.
1 By the Norway law, the peasants are free, excepting a few on ceriain noble estates hear Frederickstadt; and unless the proprietor resides on his estate, these become free also.
t Viz. Aggerhuys, Bergen, Drontheim, and Wardhuys.
Their fisheries supply good seamen, and the shoals








There dauntless hunters pierce the growling
bear,
Or lay their snares to catch the tiin'rous hare, While woodmen ply the axe with numn'rous
strokes,
Felling gigantic pines*,ad mountain oaks. The peasau honest, frank, obedient, bold, Enjoys warm c h s hield them from the
Cold"- ::
And blest wt.vr tecter ad r

With fish, cheese, milk, and butter, to abound. Their manners simple, and their morals good,. And almost ev'ry house is made of wood. While equal aws preside in v'ry part, A manly spirit reigns in ev'ry heart

of herrings which sometime ound the coast of Norway, c ists of coMumns s miles The Maelstrom, on ast, is a large whirlpool, which draws
any approaching objects, even larg ships, into its vortex, aandashes them to pieces.
The chiefwealth of Norway consists in timber, wit which it supplies foreign nations.
f The whole country is almost one rock, and yet they build with timber, which occasions dreadful and frequent fires, The chief towns are Christiana and Bergen..
4










CHAP. VIIL














II Codfish a)-c taken in the seas off Iceland.

AROUND bleak 1ceiknd' frost-eticircied shores
Th' Atlantic's northern~ surge incessant roars.,
From Noyway, west, this dreary island lies,
Where Hecla'sj fierce .,ocano storms the skies,


SIt is, 280) rales in length, and 150 inbradth, 1 lyjg
between 63, and 681 degrees of north latitusde. Its pop.-'
hAtion is estimated at FiXty or soventy thouannd.
t Mount Hlecla is about 500 feet high. There are
several other volcanos; and in 17333, thp convultsions caused by them were so dreadful, thAtb was -apre-hend-






27

And crown'd with snow, emits a fiery tide Of lava running down its rugged side; While Geyser's* boiling waters sometimes rear A scalding column roaring in the air. Yet, in this land of earthquakes, ice, and snow, Content can her celestial charms bestow; The simple*ace prfersits native coast To each lu: i the world can boast.
To tend their hedb l men attetion pay, Or with their nets eplore the stormy sea At household lalbours next the woman ois, And cures the fisherman's abundant spoils. Their diet, butter, fish, and milK supply. Their dress is clean and pleasing to the eye. Their uts are poor, and .oftbe simplest kind, But still their nations show a generous inind. With some,superior rank in himappeard


ed the island would fall to pieces. From Mount 'hapn Glver issued atorrent oflava, which ran sixty miles to the sea, i the bradth of nearly twelve miles. is boiing column of water was nineteen feet in di. aeter and rose sometimes to e height of ninety-two feet.
t conists of linen, skins, anti cloth.







28

Who had exclusive right to wear his beard; And when the lover hails his nuptial morn, Chains and a splendid crown the bride adorn. The Lut'ran Christian creed this race profess, But Pagau principles their minds possess. Their chief amusement and extreme delight Is their forefathers' actions to recite For learning once possess'd this dreary land, And now revives at Denmark'st high command.



The men in general wear no beards, though on the northern side of the island some families have them. About half a century ago, two brothers, dividing between themselves the inheritance left them by their father, the one gave the other four rix dollars for the exclusive right to wear a bear, which in their family was the sole prerogative of theidte father. t They worship idols, which they conceal from the Lutheran ministers. They pretend to witchcraft, and worship the Devil under the name of Kobald. They believe the souls of the damned either go to the volcanic mount, tains, or to the lee Islands, according to the nature of their crimes.
(The king of Denmark has established schools; and several students from Ieeland are at Copenhagen. -Thehir language is the old Teutonic.








The summer's sun two months illumes the
skies,
And for two months in winter* shuns their eyes.


SThe Aurora Borealis almost constantly enlightens their dreary nights. Their commerce with the Danes consists in idestallo ,train-oil, whale-bone, and the teeth of sea-horaes






















4*






30


CHIAP. IX.




01? GRENLAND.














Greentanders.

WHERE Greenland's* cheerless coast extended*
lies,



SWest GreenlIand Was discovered by the Norwegians. in the ninth century, and somea missionaries say it )robably has ae communication with America, and that tie Gre-enantlsers and EsqIuimaux Indians resemble each other is language, dress, and appearavre. The popiili, lation is esimated at 8000



IfI








Beneath the rough control of northern skies, In vain as yet bright enterprise explores The full extent of its unmeasured shores. Here tyrant winter reigns with all his pow'rs, His snows, his icy chains, and sleety show'rs; Here vegetation dies, thehuan race Assumes a pigmyorm and tawy face. Yet here contetitdwells, with native pride, While num'rou fam s at once reside In one poor but, whe winteIr's dreary night, Surrounds thewith a faint and cerless light, Till summer sheds around a engthen'd day, And all exultingly their tents display. Then in his Kajakt, with unweied zeal,


STheir winter huts have neither door nor chimney, but a vaulted passage, through which they creep into the middle, supplies the place of both. In winter, their nights last about four months; but there is a moderate twilight; the moon continues a long time above the horizon, and the northern lights are very powerful during this period.
SThe Kajak is a canoe or boat, about six yards long, shrp-at head and stern like a shuttle: when enlndelr sits in a 1ole cut in the skin which covers it, and






32

The hardy Greenlander pursues the seal,Seal.
And darts his light harpoon, and seeks his prey Through floating isles of ice, which crowd the
sea;
While summer's light impels him to explore The boist'rous ocean for his wintry store. This simple, social, honest, outcast race, Are still attach'd to this their native place. Their youths through hardy scenes of toil are
led,



excludesthe water, it is impossible to sink it, and if overset by a motionofhis oar under the water, he recovers himself again, but if he loses his oar he is sure to per;sh.






33

And thus at early age procure their bread. Their women, chaste, attentively prepare The house and household goods with anxious
care,
While skins of seals, bears, and birs, supply
Garments which te northemblasts defy.
Aind when they they think their souls resort
Where happy hunting yields them ceaseless
sport. .41
d fishermen frequent these shores with zeal, And round Spitzbergen* chase the monstrous
whale,


~This country, alled East Greenland by Sir Hngh lloughby, in 1533, was supposed to be part of West Greeniland ; but is now found to be an assemblage of islands, which have no settled inhabitants. In 1595, it was visited by two Dutehmen, who pretgaled to be the discoverers, and they called it Spitzbergen,from its sharp pointed and rocky mountain






34

Whose bone, and fins, and fat-extracted oil, Convey'd to Europe, well repay the toilt.



he ish and other nations frequent these frozen seas to kill whales. Th fishery begins in May, and continues all June n July; but te ships must come away, to get cer ofthe ice, before the end of August. Sir gh Willoughby was enclosed and locked up by the ice in 1553, wh he and hill his crew perished. The flesh of the whale irreckoned. great dainty by the Greenlanders, who thin it a frtuae event if a dead one is thrown ashore, and never the spot, hut live near it until they devour it; but the sea affords their chief subsistence.






35



CHAP. X,




















Sivedes.

Tis northern Muigdom* spreadsa its confinecs
-wide,
From Danish Lapland to the Baltic' tide,



The length of Sweden, from the southern PrOM~OU'. tory o Scone to the northern extremityof Swedish La.
-land, exteeds eleven 'hundred Englist miles ; and it,3 breadth, from the Norwegian mountains to the borders 'FIsla about sx undred ries.






36

Which, with the Sound and Categate invest The south, whilgNorway's mountains bound thet
west.
The Russian borders, on the eastern side, Those t h natiohsof the north divide.
Five grand divisions subdivide the lands, And, firA distinguished, Sweden Proper stands: Add, Gothland, 1Northland, Lapland, Finland's
shorea,
And round the Swedish isles'ithe Baltic roars. The capital is built on rocky ises, By bridges join'd, and crowned with wooden
piles ;


The Swedish islands in the Baltic are very numerous, and several are inhabited; the principal are Gothland and Oeland. which form part of the district of Gothland, one of the five grand divisions.
t Stockholm, the capital, is built in a romantic situaion, on eight rocky lands. scattered in the Maeler, in the streams which issue from that lake, and in a bay of the Baltic: The other chief towns are Upsal, Gottenburgh, Pornea in West Bothnja, and Abo in Finland.
1 The houses all over Sweden are almost entirely composed of wood.






37,

While views romantic spread on ev'ry side, Along the borders of the Baltic ticle For here, beneath a rough and rigorous clime, Nature will oft assume a look sublime, And bid the painter's brest with ar low,
To catch lakes, forests, rocks, and mounts of
Snow.
While homely ftre and simple manners grace This honest, poor, religionusl, mialrace The higher ranks, impelled by native fire, To deeds of valour aid of fl e aspire. Their manners gravheir dress; is grave likewise.



The winter lasts about nine months at Stockholm. and is extremely cold: the short summer is equally warm, and vegetation very quick.
t" Of these the largest are the lakes Wenneriand Wetter, each a'out one hundred miles in length; the former forty, and the latter twenty-five miles in breadth. The Swedish rivers are numerous, but not navigable.
: The Swedes are very religious,-and the Lutheraniw, the established church.
An order to repress luxury, in 1777, distinguished the Swedes by a national drs:. the usual colour is black, except on gala-days, when the en appear in 'blue 6atilh






38

Fence vain luxurious taste from Sweden flies; But more ssntial worth remains behind, The loyal, brave, and hospitable mind. The Swedish women, with laborious toil, Orply the oar, or cultivate the soil. Here game almost of every kind abounds, And he'rds of cattle graze their pasture-grounds. Their mines* are rich, and to inquiring eyes Present a scene of wonder and surprise; For there a subterraneai world affords A place of resdence for num'rous hordes, Who from the mine extract the useful ore, From whence it visits almost every shore.


lined with white, and the women in a white satin robe and coloured ribands.
The nobles are the chief proprietors of these mines of silver, copper, lead, and iron ; England affords the best market for the iron. Sweden also exports timber, leather, skins, tallow, pitch, rosin, &c. The population is aboutthree millions.






39

CHAP. XI.



OF RUSSIA.
1?













A Russian.

IMMENSELY spread beneath the northern skies, The great colossal Russian empire* lies;


SThe Russian is, perhaps, the most extensive empire that ever existed: about nine thousand miles in length, and two thousand four hundred miles in breadth; lying in Europe ant Asia. European Russia extends from forty-fourto nearly sixty-nine derees north latitude, and







40

Compos'd of various nations, tongues, and climes, Made subject by the wars at diff'rent times To him, the Autocrat* of Russia's throne, By title Czar, or name Imperial known; Whose sway is with despotic rigour spread O'er all the Russias, Black, and White, and Red:
While northern Europe owns his high commands,
His power presides o'er Asiatic lands, Far as Siberia's dreay coasts extends,



from sixty-three to sixty-eight degrees east longitude This extensive empire was divided by Catharine the Second into forty-one governments.

SHis titles are Emperor and Autocrat, (or sole ruler) of all the Russias. Red Russia formed a part of Poland; White Russia comprehended the east part of Lithuania; and Black Russia included the governments of Kaluga, Moscow, Tula, Rezan, Volodimir, and Yaroslaf.
t A country of Asia, comprehending the most eatern parts of the Russian Empire, extending 8000 miles from east to West, and 1200 from northli to south;it isthe place







41


Orwhere Kamtschatka's* deset, regi n ends;

















Or 1he fierce Koriacsf with their rein-deer run, And swe4 in mnadiess to destroy the sun



to which criminals, and fhose disgraced at court, are generally bnnished.' The inhabitants are composed of Russians, native Siberians, and Tar'tar tribes. The climate is exrmly cold.
11 A pen ifia on th,. east coast ofC Asia, 40 miies in its greatest breadth, and gradually contraetingto its ex trcjities. It is a cold anl barren region ; tl h abiwba tajt< ar ative Karntsehadales, Russians, and Cossacksaltogether a barbarou r; te of beings.
t I ntion to the ~ho 14h-mtchatka: some are 'Aled fiyed hKori~ws, othr'ri-deer or wandering Ro-






42

Through this extent what rapid rivers* flow,
And lakes, f~ornouths enchain'd with frost and

The climate iakes the peasbs fierce and bold,
Inur'd tA Vrdships and excessive cold;
A ervihomage to their lords they yield,
And at eh0 sov'rcign's Mandate take the field;
Unaw'd by dangers, mix in conflicts dire,
Attack their Their sports and pastimes mark a lively race,
For merriment presides in ev'ry place;
While shows, and comic dance, and songs prevail,
S With copious draughts of brandy they gale;
Their dress is simple, form'd of cloth and skin,
The flesh-side out, the furry-side within.


riacs. When hard pressed by their enemies, they swear to destroy the sun; which oath they discharge, accord, ing to their horrid notions, by cutting the throats of their wives and children, lurming their possessions, and
.rushing madly in the midst of their enemies,
# The principal rivers are the WTolga, the Don or Ta
nals, the Dnieper, and Daniester, the Dwina, and the
ry.
The chief lakes are Laha and Onea
l~~~~olan nea






A3

Their marriage rites" a 'vast cmmand bestows,
Anti hapless wives are oft inn'' Aobows.
The merchants rich, luxurious ar a lo'A;
The noble usin are both, brve and proud.
The state relignas reserihb'd bylw
Is Greek ; but idolsf till1 thIr vot'ries draw.
In sledge drawn, o'e~~i~ ~ OffrOZenJ snows, .L With won vu speed Or drive in cities, liea'mwfet
ATrough evr naros an w ed street.
Theirancen capia was M~p isam
And they a-warlike Muscovites. were fam'd; But novS.Petershurgh that rank demands,


ThIe husband had Formerly the right of putting hiii.
wife to death ; this barbarous privilege is now guarded
against by the laws and muarriage-contracts.
t- The principal idol is called Obross.
']'here is scarcely a bill fromn Petersbnirgh to China.
IThis dhty, seat. an the Neva, near the Gulf'of
Finland, was founded by Ptr the Greatin t703; and in
110 he first brick house wa built bjy Count Golovkin.
lsoon fter became the capital of the. Russ ian empire.
Tsotlier pinicipal cities are Moscow, Astracan, Archan1gl Chersoa, and Tobolsk.






44

Which on the Gulf of 'Finland nobly stands While commnerce visits, with hier sails unfitrld, The Neva, it th~e produce ofthe word



RuThssia ProdIuces fu~rs, leathser,linen, thmber, tallow, ausk, copper, iron, and other commodities, which she exchanges to advantage with other nations.






45


CHAP. X11.



OF SOME OF THE TARTA&R TRIBES SUBJECT TO
RUSSIA ; THE BARCHKIIIIANS, BRATSKI,
ANID CZiUWACRIUAN.















Barchkirians.

AmoNG, those tribes -which' own the Russian
sway,
The rough Barchkirians curious traits display, To slo~th and dirt, and indolence consign'd, They yet are hospitable, brave, and kind






46~

With Pnerry hearts, averse togain or sorrow, Content to-dayJ ey think not of to-morrow; In ong, or (ci% or drinking mead, delight, And, arm'd Wlth darts andlances, fiercely fight; On horseback chiefly they conduct the strife, And eacbh seems forward to expose his life. Their faith Mahometan, but lacking zeal, For Pagan rites and sorceries* prevail, Two men of age o'er all the tribe preside, For war to fit them, or in peace to guide. In jurts; or huts of felt, the Bratski lie, And keep as many wives as each can buy; The purchased, when in herds of cattle paid,


When they are attacked by disease, or their cattle die by the severity of the season, the misfortune is attributed to the Devil; and the sorcerer, who is sent to fight him, appears next day with external marks of violence, declares he has taken revenge of the enemy, and recives a reward from the credulous Tartar. Old age is treated with great respect by this people. t A young woman, according to her beauty and character, will among the rich be purchased for a hundred horses, twenty camels, fifty horned cattle, two hundred theep, and thirty goats.






47

The bridegroom from her friends receives themaid;
Three puic days in revelry e x Before the newly married pair retire. But should the husband die, the cider spouse Who bore him children, still commands the

The rest contented in the jurt0 remain, Or with their resents seek their friends again. The rude achans onekat God adore,
And Tor'sgrat tmle is s forest hoar,
'Midst whose by the Zumack's knives
Black lambs inacrifice resign their lives.


s Signifies a hut, generally made of felt.









CHAP. X111.,



OF SOME OTHER TARTAR TRIBES SUBJECT TO
RLUSSIA. TIE CALMUCS, COSSAOKS, ISCHOILTI,
TAKUTHIANS, AND 110RDWANS.













Kairnuc Peasantts.
THE Kalmuc huts are'frrm'd of felt, and hides
Are often spread to dr~y on their outsides,
Which yield a sordid and disgusting sight.
(This tribe in wand'ring, with their herds delight,
Where'er the herbage of the plains appear






49

Inviting to their horses, cos, and deer. They never plough the land, nor ap, nor mow, But are exert in war to bend the bow. The flesh of horses, deer, and sheep they prize, The milk of mares* their fav'rite drink supplies; And time and trouble much inclin'd to spare, A little windmill wafts tle Kalmuc's prayer.













A KalmuC Woman and Priest.
The hardy Cossacks are a warlike race, In stature manly, and of comely face;


SOf this they make a strong fermented liquor.
't They have little wooden windmill-wings fixed to
6









Expert in war the firy steed to guide, And harass botile hosts on ev'ry side; The post of dager always prompt to seek. Aud the 'ess'd religion is the Greek.
The rude Isehorti next attfion Claim, Kuwn also by the ancient Ingrian name,
Who with their dead deposite stores of meatFor their helov'd departed friends to eat; Their money too they cautiously secrete, To yield them comfort in another state. The wild Takuthians in their hovels dwelt,



the entrance of their huts,on which the priests write certain prayers for the owner, which being put in motion by the wind, saves him the trouble of praying; they have also other praying machines in the form of a box, in which they shake written prayers; for they think nothing necessary for prayer but putting it in motion in any way. Strange infatuation, ridiculous indeed ; but let us remember these people are in a gross state of ignorance, and but little more than one step frem the brutes; and however orthodox -we in this enlightened country may be, our practice in some things is quite as repugnant to reason ; such for instance, as the returning of thanks to the God of love when we have destroyed ny of our fellow-men, for whom his beloved Son d









And with their cattle mX&bneath one shell.
_4With fat and blood these wretched~agans smear The ragged idols" they adore withfr.
More wise, the Mordw~an cuit e ground, And worship one great Giod with awe profound;
Their women love in dress such giingling toys As corals, bells, and rings, which make a noise.


~Tbeir idols are madef rajs 6 they despise wooden idolF.















4r






'j2


CHTAP. XIV.



OFAORR T~ARTAR TRIBES SUBJrFGT TO RM:sIA: THE OSTIANS, THELEUTI, TSIIULINOZIAIIS, TUNGUSIANS, WOGVLIAVS, AND SA3101EDES.















Tii1, Ostiakis, faithful, honest, kind, ate known, To ilidustry and ties of friendship prone. But timid, dirty, simple to ecess, While Pag-an priests thle magic art profess;. They credit ev'ry superstiiu ch6 WVhich these dispense to shelter them from harmi,










(I think theey ersylic tey destroy,
future stateofhpii's ejy


4Their only pyr D no dead."


Tfie utde TWI ast are but partly won~ T'o own t rsi ceed, for still tepay
Respect (6 Sta i their Paa way.
Tebold Twigusanj tribe is frank and freeThe icb wh ydf'fod, a-k ,janywives, Bat fith~y habit mark thi 1 lives.
Of deities these pole reckon crowds,


W heniever th0 4a kilsa bhe sings over it asks its pardon, and h angs up the skin, to which hie pays many fine compimnts o induce it not to take yenlgeabsee when theVcet in the al)ode of sirits.
t- The father ot young wotarlgoing to be married, offers bread hoey to the sun, wvith a prayer, imqploring happiness fr the yornm 4 copl.
I They are baptized, hot all t er ida of Christianity, consists in being ablto i~ the sign of the cross, and~ wearing it abstaining & ,horse-fis, marrying one wife, asid observing the fasts of the Greek church.
heihrwomen are the prettiest in Siberia, and tho ssenare the best archers.







54

their chief, rm'd Boa, rules a e the clol The tribe of the WogulijnsO next we mark, With savage minds emerging m the dark; Their ntins reach thle God who rules the skies. 'Tis aso their beliefthe dead will rise, Where each shall meet return for good or evil; But streuously they all deny the D i1. The heads of beasts they consecrate with care To God, but never say a wordiof pray'r! Then, farther north, which bonds the Russian
shore,
Beak Samoieda race their bears adore;


This tribe possesses the nearest idea to rational worship of any of those savage hordes, which aretoonumerous to be particularized here.
t This people have no idea of a Supreme Being it is said; this we presume is incorrect: we cannot believe that there is any nation, however savage, but that has some idea of a-Deity. They call their new-born infants by the name of the first animal they meet. Their marriage contracts are verbal, and fidelity strictly observed. Their country forms the northern extremity of Russia, and is separated from Nova Zembla, by the Straits of Weygats.











AndIpas Weygat Strait, to Zmla's* coat,
~There prostrate nature lies echan' in rot Antd dsolato'Pcd her bwjndk sa
O'er lanids where am adventurous stewilsry



This desoateregion isas yaunexplo so far a,, tod eit is ani~idor )Inrt,of agreat

= ttmenl ti uncertain w h rtherc hr e any con flant inbabitantsor noet. The $asi~e hnthe, st rai ii frozen, pass over to hut the elk aut 11n T Somse peopie, sent to explore te country, relate, that (hiey caoght f~our native Zeubliaus, clothed in'~ sea)-skiis and the skin, of perigpins~with the fe-athers outwards ; but inothing more is known of this-Eople, whose numbers mass bievery few.










MAP. XV.




OF PRUSSA.,














Horses abound in Prussia.

THE Prussian kingdom, from contracted bounds, By Fred'rick'sf genius gain'd contiguous
grounds;


Prussia was bounded north by the Baltic; eat and
south by Russia and Austria; and on the west by the German States; but its late acquisitions have greatly increased its territory.
t Frederick the Second, commonly called the Great,


Ila L..






57

Silesia's pro ce* paid his warlike toils, And large his share became of Polands spoils. When vain were virtue's, honor s, freedom's
cries,
And crowned robbers shared the bleeding prize. Where rolls the Vistula its far-fam'd tide, There royal Prussia guards the western side; And where t astern bank the shore defends,
There ducal Prussia its domain extends. Anspacht and Bayreu~t e increased the size
Of this proud kingdom; and the sacred ties, By which compatriots are bound 'eart to heart Were counted light as the wind-driven dart, When Pruissia's standard floated in the breeze, SO'er Saxony's dismember'd provinces.


SThe duchy ofSilesia was acquired from Austria in

t By the several partitions of Poland, Prussia acquired the whole of Great Poland ; the whole of West Prussia, including the cities of Dantzic and Thorn ; and the provinces of Masovia and Polachia, now denominated South Prussia.
1 These principalities,or margravates, were abdicated by the late Margrave of Anspach, in favourof the King of Prussia.








Berlin* its capital of late is deem'd. For such of old was Koningsberg esteem'd. The populatioof these states amount To full eight millions, (as most authors count.) The Pregel, Meme, Vistula and Spree, And Oder, through its bounds their streams display.
Of different states composed a native zeal Tor their own customs every where prevail; While industy, 'with'lersevering toil, Improves the arts and cultivates the soil; Religion here, y law's protection wise, To ev'ry man's conviction open lies.


Berlin, the capital of the electorate of Brandenburg, seated on the river Spree, and where the kings of Prussia reside, has been for some time considered as the capital of Prussia; though in reality Koningsberg, on the river Pregel. is the ancient and true capital. The other principal towns are, Breslaw, Warsaw, now given to Saxony; Dantzic, now declared a free town; Possen. Potsdam, &c.









CHAP. XVI.



OF~ THE KINGDOM~ OF THFNEIETHERLAN~DS.
















THKE Seven United Provinces, so lonAdmired in-history, and :rfinown'd in. SO114 have, from a great republic, dwindled down Into a petty kingdom, and a crown. For the' before of small extent dus state, Freedom: delightful freedom! made it great.




4J

60

and Belgium have united hands,
ed the kingdom of the Netherlands.'
ere rt erects her dams, and dikes, and braves
The threatening fury of the outcast waves.t
The Dutch are heavy, prudent, prone to save,
Phlegmatic, slow, industrious, and brave;
Their country seems compos'd of various isles,f
Ahd Amsterdam is built on wooden piles;
In ev'ry point of view canals are made,
For pleasure, travelling, intercourse and trade,
O'er which their boats and barges swiftly glide;


That part of this kingdom which is called Holland,
is bounded on the north by the German ocean; west by the British channel; east by the German ocean; and south by Belgium, to which it is now united. The population is about three million. Holland being the largest of the Seven United Provinces, that name is generally applied to the whole.
t Almost the whole of these provinces seem to have
been won byindustry from the ocean, and the sea is now
kept out by immense dams and dikes.
I The Rhine, and other rivers which intersect the
country, gives Holland all the advantages of an insular situation. There are not less than three hundred bridges
in Amsterdam, which is the capital.








The Rhine, the Maese, and Scheldt, the lands
divide.
The Seat of government the Hague is nm'd, And Leyden's colleges are justly fm'd&; While Rotterdam, and othertowns command Commercial stations both for sea and land. The soil is fertile, and the produce good, In cattle, butter, cheese, and madder-wood. In Belgia, loug to Frace's empire join'd, A strong resemblance to the French we find. In manners easy, and in conduct light, Gay, mirthful, social m'rous, and polite. Brussels is its chief town, its clime and soil, Like Holland 's temperaterich without much toil.






62


CHAP. XVII.



OF GERMANY,





The Lynx inhabits Germany.

BENEATH what various princes, climes, and
skies,
This great extensive part4 of Europe lies,
Which diff rent cities,t kingdoms, states, compose,
So long convuls'd b war's internal woes,



According to its modern limits, Germany is bounded on the north by the German Ocean, Denmark. the Ba]ltic, and part of Prussia; it includes Transylvania, on the east; and on the south extends to Turkey in EuTopej and is bounded on theWest by some of the French S departments. It is about 600 miles in length, and 500
in breadth.
SLubeck and Hamburgh are free cities.







64

CHAP. XVIII.


OF TRE AUSTRIAN DOMINIONS.'




















Bohemian.
i'zowm Austriat sprung, her warlike monarch
reigns,

SThe Austrian dominions, previous to the late events in Germany, were estimated at more than one hundred and/eighty-four thousand square miles; and the population twenty millions.
t The circle of Austria contained the archduchy of






66

'The brave* Rungariansf next attention claim, Well known in all the fighting fields of fame; In this great kingdom two fam'd parts we see, Nam'd Upper and the Lower Hungary; Presburg, the Upper, boasts its fairest town, The Lower, Buda, equal in renown, Of fighting men, this martial state can yield One hundred thousand,t ready for the field; While fertile plains and pastures spreading wide, Their crops and herds display with conscious
pride;
No penal laws to check their mirth is found,


The word brave," has several different meanings, and is applicable to bold and undaunted men, in worthy actions and pursuits ; but it is often applied to those desperate tigers of mankind, who most daringly expose their lives with a view of destroying many of their fellow men, contrary to the commands of Christ, who says, "whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them."
t This kingdom is bounded on 'the north -by Poland and Silesia ; west by Moravi#, Austria and Stiria ; south by Sclavonia and Turkey; and east by Wallachip nud Transylvania. Eada is famous for its baths.
For Hungary alone.









CHAP. XIXo




TURKEY IN EUROPE.
















Turk.

THis empire spreads o'er Europe's fairest parts, O'er lands and cities fam'4I for arms and arts;



STurkey is bounded on the north by Eusia, and Austria ; on the east by the Black Sea andSea of Mar. moral ; on the south, by the Archipelago an the Mediterranean; and on the west, by the Gulf' Venice and Dalmatia. It lies to the south-east of Furope.






70

Moldavia's* rich and far-extending plains, O'er which a HIospodar as vassal reigns; While Bessarabia's Tartars rove about; Wallachia'sf fields are fertile, natives stout; Rough Bosnia's mountains rais'd aloft we see, And warlike Servia.j strug-gling to be free. Part of Dainatia, IF and -Croatia's lands, Are subject to the Sultan's high commands; And where Bulgaria's" rugged mountains rise,



M oldavia is 270 miles long, and 210 broad. The principal rivers are, the Dneister, Danube, Pruth, Moldai, and Bardalack. The governor is called hqspodar; the inhabitants are of the Greek church; and the principal town isTassy.
tAlso called Budziac Tartary, situated between the Danube and Dneister. The capital is Bender.
1 The ancient Dacia, 295 miles long, and 125 broad. the church is Greek. Tervis is the capital
0 Bosnia is 120 miles long, and 70 broad. Serajo is the capitaL
Ij Servia is 190 miles long, and 25 broad it is in a state of Rebellion against the Turks. Belgrade is the capital.
if Herzegovina is the capital of Turkish Dalmatia part of Croatia belongs also to Turkey
*9 A mountainous province. Soffa is the capital





72

CHAP. XX.



OF THE OVERNMENT, RLEIION, AUD MAN NERS OF THE TURKS.













A Turk in his Pelisse, and Turkish Wman of Constantinople.

THEu turban'd Musselmen almost adore Their Sultan, Emperor, or Grand Signor; For he, with a despotic sway commands; Their property and lives are in his hands. In his seraglio, hidden from the crowd,






74

'heir mufti* bids them visit Mecca'st shrine To fast in Ramazan, abstain from wine. And, as ciduties of their faith declares, Ablutions, alms, and pilgrimage and pray'rs. The men are handsome, haughty, fierce and
brave,
Their beards are long, heads shav'd, and aspects
grave;
But when vindictive passions bear the sway, To rage resistless, ev'ry thing gives way. The Turks chew opium to extreme excess; The turban their distinguish'd part of dress. Polygamy is by their laws allow'd; The rich, of wives and concubines a crow'd, Retain in harams, from the worl'd retir'd.


SThe Mufti, or high-priest, possesses great influence among them.
t Mecca is a town in Arabia Deserta, famous for being the birth-place of Mahomet; and also, as the Turks pretend, containing the sepulchre of Abraham.
The Turkish baths are magnificent,and bathing is a particular ceremony of religion.






76


CHIAP. XXIk,



OF f-HA CE.*






V '










P~, si all thle World extending round,
No firer contry could be-ever found;


*France is bounded by the British channel and Butland on the north; Germany, Switzertand, and part of Italy on the east ;the Medliterranean and Spain on tkm,









77

Fruitful in corn an canttle, fri~ut and vwine, From the high Pyrenees* untoh Rhie; Or from the Alpine mountains to~tl'ie Which wash 'its nor tb, its sotla uwetr


The Rhone, the Somme, 4h Loire, aind Glaronne
sport
Through plains whe ptre seems to hold hey


O'er France the s3'ronY~- but who can
view
The winner, nor think of th loser tool Or rather of the mn by fortunrost, From whom she sntch'd tbe prize lie never lost;


south; and the Atlantices ile wvest. Fromn Dunkirk, in the north to the Pyrenees in the south; its extent is 625 mi!es; and somnething wore from tie miost eastern part of Alsace to thevwestern point ofErtnewhieh province extenids 100 miles farther thnany otherpspart into the ocean ; but the addlition~ of new dejiartinents a tinually increases it, and leaves its limits uncertain. population is about thirty-five millions. I
SThe Pyrenees divide it from Spain; and the from Italy; and the river Rhine is esteenied itsb, 7-y tovvards Ureraniy.










in dress, new fasionw'v'ry ta~aeplace, And Wiry wekthey seem a difrren rce. The femae great vivacity dispa Delighti frolic wooel to romp adOy Are gracehil, pretty, wi4tX,. and polite, Are chastfe, thtg fi ad sensile,' though
light.


Durng t~he sanginr horos ofthe revolution, the French females dipaedsrugtat of heroism, seapjbiity, enstncy, and fortitude, ven oni the siaffold,





W7o.



CHAP.' XII.



OF SWITZERnLAND.
















Swiss.

AOBsERVE where wild aspiring Alps* enclose The land, whose summits bear eternal snows;


M Th highest mountains in Euroe1 ,3paratin% Italy
from Francle and Giermany,










There Switzerland*,# freed ever dear,
Displays her rural tribes, her frug cheer, Her simle manners, and her manly race, Feagless war the hostile shock to face; Ox, in their lov'd luxuriant valleys found, Content to cultivate their active ground; Through verdant pastures drive their herds with
pride,
Or bi4 the vine asced the mountain's side;



Switzerland is a small romanitic country, situated between a number of the Alpine mountains, bounded north by Germany, west by France,and on the south and east by Italy; the surface about 15,00G square miles, and the population two millions.
t The Swiss have always retained the strongest passion for liberty ; nor is there so mic it of manniers, nor seeming equity, to be in any other part of Europe.
They are well-made,hardy, and have always been reckoned among the best, soldiers in the world.

This term reminds us of common saying, "bad is the best," seeing it is applied to men whose boast is to kill en ,otbeasts.






82

Or hunt the bonding cham as they go, O'er rocks, glaciers or pinnacles of snow. Amidst these ti ples and valleys green,
Of Cantons, Switzerlan contains thirteen, Schweitderwalden, Uri, Zug, Lucern, With Fribourg, anid Solure, we first discern : These seven with zeal profess the Ronish creed. To Zurich, Bern, and Basil next proceedThese cantons, with Schafthausen, uumb'ring&
four,
Their God by Calvanistic rules adore: While Glaris and Appenzel next we see, Where both religions equally are free. But who can trace wild nature in her freaks, Through all these mountains and romantic lakes!t


The Chamois i a kind of mountain goat, extremely fleet, and difficult to be caught. t The Glaciers are extensive fields of ice, between and on the sides of the Alps.
1 To describe the romantic beauties of the Lakes of Switzerland, would require a volume of itself: the pring cipal are, the Lakes of Geneva, Constance, Lucern, Zurich, and Neufchatel.






3

Whose winding shrs ahxam lime ds

Whiv fach s ini itsclfainlan~d se Encld by tntans ckd wit snowand pine, While througth~*e valleysrolteIhnad
Rhiae !f'.Th pfnciaj~nnntk~4, re.Mon BlncSt. IBerf1-They. hav eals rvr Aar Arve, Reuxssanti

Inn, ith svera













OF? ITALY.















Italian.

FAiR Italy's* luxuriant clime displays Attractive, beauties in such various ways, That ev'ry step arrests the ravish'1 eye


SItaly, justly esteemed the garden of Europe, w~susually cosidered under three divisions, the Dofe











TherismilingumV~n~ valiee rs.



Hrshine he speddcts 4je tw 1di

Ther ron th manlin viptw ateny as thes ,nHereflw h t ds elkow oiady Toren
-h~ cec ed thefretsrtocindtheg By tiefomsmimsp teapl 1Iorianan
Etrhian oc r nd tli l ags of tile Wccresicentral, and'&ie ason souten waeyas lls pui*" Th Als e'1fi t ians in, Geray,and, Sit th r ad a ndts th hL unds ar h drit n Mteraien seas duiippenines chrhnti th atngmost ohe Eihole extenth tay, whict sa~out Ro3mile an

Eturonpo erans, is onl 11 misoftie broaes. at in an Tusar te Po, the sobuthe war, canld thisn Grdi ecinwtekngoto als StRoe.n ;Theit other hi ons arc taes FiLor-an enost Mitethe r wexeth talermwhi, Mssi abou GoalSIOa -10deRIn iClily 0;bi ewfe h uffVn








The school ofrts and sciencesprofoud, Whose rays, illuin'd all the world around, With grief d ge.philosophic eye surveys
Its fale state in our deenerate days; Its feoble race, ulike their sires so brave, Who scorn'd the name f oward and of slave, Now yield their necks to many a galling yoke, Their nat ter'd and their spirit broke.
Of various states this con is compos'd, The papal pow'r in Rums proud seats repos'd; Venicef and Milan own the Austrian's sway, And foreign words and forcignlaws obey; O'er Piedot and Savoy Sardinia reigns, And haughty Genoal wears that monarch's
chains.


The modern Italians have expressive countenances, are well proportioned, and active though grave in their manners. They are affable and courteous, but jealous; ingenious and sober, but vindictive, lasciviou and superstitious. They excel in painting and music. The fe. males are beautiful.
t Venice, another famous republic, now annexed Jto the Austrian dominions.
SGenoa, an ancient and powerful republic, now anrexed to Sardinia.







87

Fair Nap whe re Vestu is, slks te shores,
And Sicily, where fiercer Etna ar,, One kingdo~m form, lovely but boundin chains, Where nature revels and a despot e& Beneath king Ferdinanid from French Arns, rs perfectly secur'd by British- arms.


'-Naples, a kin gIo o ipr hiding the south part of Italy, 280 miles lon,:," ron- to 100 in breadth; divided into 1-povine.-. Near te city of N~aples, is Mount Vesuvius, a ce erated'voi whose convulsons often oreasion eartllquakces. It pivt;,s, together with Sicily, the title of King or the T oicilies to a prince of the Spanish line of Bourbon.





88


CHAP. XXIV.



















Spaniard.

By waves encircled, save on that one side Where Pyrenees the land from France divide,








Lies Spain-, which, if with Potugal we pae B3othl kinlgdoms one Penisleba. This ancient kingdomt in its aingpm ns fourteen great provinces, whosfetl plains, Romanti motsntainsf, riverst, towVn va es, Afl'ord. dscriptive scnsfor Moorish taes. Thc capitalis] Md4 'Sar'din on-,
,For love and potye br'd Iong.
The panardas ostuualy pourtray'd, Averse to tae



Iti Ttbounded on h ot b h of B~iscay and
the Pyi enees, which separate!it fromn Frace; east, by the Mediterranean ;,south, by th~e Straits of 0ibraltar; arnd west, by Portugal (part of the peninsula)and the Atlantic Ocean: about 700 miles 190g, and 500 broad,. The population is about elevens millions.
t The chief mountains are those of the Pyrenees, on
-thefrontiers of France, and the Sierra M~orena, which divide Andalusia from~ Estramnadera and New Castile.
4 The principal rivers are, the Douro, Tago, Guad!ana, Guadalquiver, a'nd lEbro.
SThe 'Moors had a footing in this country for a long timseparticularly in the kingdom of Grenada. Their occpations gave rise to numerous romances. They were expel in 1492.
9*





90

Is fnperstitious, indolent, and proud, But brave and gen'rous by the world allow'd; Attach'd tomonrchy, of titles vain, And more in love of honour than of gain; Is tall and swarthy, with expressive face, And haste and lovely is their female race. The chief amusements, b ,or young and old, Are masquerades and bu ights to behold. Old Spain is rich in mines; her pasture feeds, Of horses, mules, and sheep, superior breeds. SMajorca and Minore, n her. osts,
With Ivica, three sister isles, she boasts While colonies immenseto Europe's shores Send vast supplies of gold and silver ores.


See America.




























Hogs aound in Portugal they, live in the
2voods on acorns.

OF~ Europe's kingdloms, this most western lies,
Adboasts a fertile land and genial skies;



*Portugal is 350 i lem ti, and 120 in breadth. Its population is about two milion~s.
IIt is extremely fertile in ts~ ownlP natural produc-ions, but many parts are mountaiDous and barren. Litt zatenionzs paid to husbandry, therefore corn is not





92

Both south and west it has Atlantic bounds, And north and east it joins the Spanish grounds To which, though bearing an aversion* strong, This county seems by nature to belong. The kingdom six large provinces contains, Diversified with mountains, valleys, plains, Estramadura first in oder stands, Containing Lisbon In its fertile lands, Where honey, wine, sweet oranges, and oil, Are the best gifts of thi uxriant soil. Next Beira'st filis abundaly produce



plentiful; and maize, imported from Africa, is used by the peasants instead of wheat. SThere has existed a strong natural animosity between the Portuguese and Spaniards, since the former threw off the yoke of Spain, in 1640, and placed their crown on the head of the Duke of Braganza, John IV, From whom the present royal family is descended.
t This capital is built on the north side of the Tagus ten miles from its mouth; it was almost destroyed by an earthquake in 1755, baths bn elegantly rebuilt. Its trade is very cosiderable; St. hUbes, famous for its salt, is algo in Estrampadura.
Coimbra isthe capital of this province.







93

Whate'er is wanting for domestic use.
Advancing thence to Minho*, we ed
Oporto's commerce there, is great indeed.
In agricultural arts this bears the sway,
While num'rous herds thro' Tra-los-Montest
stray :
Algarvaf with the t fruits abounds,
And rice is rear'd on Alentejo's grounds.
The Portuguese -e superstitious, vain,
But honest, temft yal, and serene;
Their merchants are exact, with lib'ral minds;
The peasants simple, unambitious hinds;
S The ladies lovely ; and the men are known
Tojealous rage and secret vengeance prone.

r

~Entre-.Douero-e-Minhois distinguished for its welleonducted agriculture., Braga is the chief town; but Oporto,a city in this province, is famous for its strong wine all over Europe; the most of which is consumed in
Gre4t Britain and Ireland.

t Miranda is the capital ofTra-os- Mont .

Tavira is the capital of this province; and Evora is
ieitown of Alentejo.








The beggars are a xude ansti strdy race, And with audacity infest each place; The general class, which indolence unbinds, Possess degeu'rate and luxurious minds.










CHAP. XXVI.


OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.














Squirrels are iound in almost every counfry.

WIT conscious pride and joy the muse surveys
Great Britain* sov'reignzi of the subject seas;

*6reat Britain is divided into England, Scotland, and the principality of Wales; is situated west of the continent of Europe; and is abont 600 miles long, and 300 brad.-The population is about twelve millions. Great Britain arrogantly assumed the tiller of "Mi -









The land of freedom, and the land-inark toct, To wh ich dstated Euroe titw its view.
Three dirirent nations~ occeupy this isle, By freedom iavo~r1 with her sweetest smile, SCOTLAND%.













Highlander.

Where Sctan~ shores repel the northern wra ve,
Her sons-are hardy, priidefiC bold, and brave.


tress of the Seas,"aiu by uneans of her large, navv hPa3 despotically ruled oia thje ocean. In the late contest with the United States,howeyer,she haps frequently been eleprived of this sovereignty.
scutland, or North Britain, is about'_- 2wmiles







97

A grand division in this land prevails, Of highland mountains, and of lowland vales. The first, a barren, wild, romantic place, Produces from its clans a warlike race; The latter, stretching to the southern side, In towns and cultivated lands. takes pride. She boasts her streamtg* and lakes, extending
miles, I
Hler Shetlandi, O ndey and her westernil isles
and 150 broad, but insome not above SO. It is
divided into two districts, the H4hiand and Lowland, and contains thirty-three cou ties. It was an independent kingdom, until James the Sixth succeeded to tha throne of England, by thetitle of JiIes the ,First. In the reign of Queen Anne, both kingdoms were united, under the title of Great Britain.
The principal rivers are, the Forth, Tay, Dee, and Don.
t The principal lakes are, Loch Tay, Loch Lomond, and Loch Ness.
j About forty islands, lying a hundred miles northeast of Scotland, the principal of which is Mainland, about sixty miles long, and sixteen broad.
0 The ancient Orcades, lying north of Scotland ; consisting of-twenty-six islands, the largest of which is Pomona; about twenty-four miles long, and from six to ten broad. Together with the Orkneys, they form one of the counties of Scotland.
Rt The Hebrides are a cluster of about three hundred 10