The world described in easy verse.

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Title:
The world described in easy verse. Illustrative of the situation, manners, and produce of all nations : for use of young persons by W.R. Lynch ; with coloured engravings and a map.
Physical Description:
viii, 195, 1, 6 i.e. 36 p., 13 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), map (folded) ; 16 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Lynch, W. R
Lewis, W ( William )
Richard Phillips and Co
Publisher:
Sir Richard Phillips and Co.
Place of Publication:
London
Manufacturer:
W. Lewis
Publication Date:
Edition:
New ed., illustrated by notes.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Natural history -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Natural products -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Manners and customs -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile poetry   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1820   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1820   ( local )
Bldn -- 1820
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
poetry   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Gumuchian,
Citation/Reference:
BM,
Citation/Reference:
NUC pre-1956,
General Note:
One plate hand-colored.
General Note:
Map on folded plate facing t.p.
General Note:
Publisher's ads 36 p. at end, last p. misnumbered 6.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 027237498
oclc - 12279382
System ID:
AA00021460:00001


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THE


WORLD DESCRIBED,

IN EASY VERSE.

]ILLUINUATIVE OF

,Tlw Sitaion, Manners, and Produce, of all Naion.,

WOft TuE

USE OF YOUNG PERSONS.

WIT2

COLOURED ENGRAVINGS AND A MAP.



By W. IL LYNCH, Esq,
AUTHOR OF THE POETICAL HISTORIES OF ENSLAN1,e
GREECE, AND) ROME.


A 112W ZDiTION, ILLUST'RATZID BY NOTES.




Printed by W. Lewis, Fik-lai
FOR SIR RICHARD PHILLIPS AND CO,~
BRIDE-COURT, BRIDGE-STREET;
AND MAY BE BAD OF ALL DOOKSBULES

1820.
Price 6s. Aw-bmLwd













PREFACE.




TO impart an easy and harmonious versification to such a subject as the Geography of the World, it must be allowed was not an easy task; and nothing but the very flattering reception which the other little poetical productions of the Author have met with from the Public, and in particular from teachers of eminence, could induce him to undertake it.

He offers it now to his Juvenile Friends, with the hope of affording them entertainment, and with a full conviction that, if read with attention, and occasionally com-





iv PREFACE.

emitted to memory, it will smooth the study, and lay a permanent foundation for the knowledge of the useful science of Geography,
When the student has read each chapter with attention, a reference to maps will tend, in a material degree, to strengthen the impression which his mind will receive, for which purpose Goldsmith's School Atlas, and his very useful Copy Books, are particularly recommended, and by tracing with his eye the different countries as they appear on the map, and comparing them with this poetical outline, the Author trusts that the fidelity of the latter will be fully proved.












CONTENTS




CHAPTER I.-Geographical Definitions Page 1
Chapter II.-Of the Earth in general ---- -6 Chapter III.-Of Europe - - -. .- 8
Chapter IV.-Of Lapland - - - - 10
Chapter V.-Manners of the Laplanders, &c. - 13
Chapter VL-Of Denmark and its Dependencies 18
Chapter VII.-Of Norway - . . -. 22
Chapter VIII.-Of Iceland - - - - 26
Chapter ]X.-Of Greenland - - - 30
Chapter X.-Of Sweden - . .-. --. 34
Chapter XI.-Of Russia - - - - 38
Chapter XII.-Ofsome of the Tartar Tribes subject to Russia: the Barchkirians, Bratski, and Czuwachians ----- -------------- 43
Chapter XIII.-Of some other Tartar Tribes subject to Russia: the Kalmucs, Cossacks, Ischorti, Takuthians, and Mordwans - - -.. 46
Chapter XIV.-Of more Tartar Tribes subject to
Russia: the Ostiaks, Theleuti, Tshulimzians, Tungusians, Wogulians, and Samoides - - 49 Chapter XV.-Of Prussia - - - 53
Chapter XVI.-Of Holland - - - - 56 Chapter XVII.-Of Germany - - 59







Vt CONTFNTS,

Chapter XVIl.-Of the Austrian Dominions Page 61 Chapter XIX.-Of Turkey in Europe - - 64
Chapter XX.-Of the Government, Religion, and
Manners of the Turks --- - - - 68 Chapter XXI.-Of France - - - - 71 Ch ipter XXII.-Of Switzerland - - - 74 Chapter XXIII.-Of Italy - - - - 77, Chapter XXIV.-Of Spain - - - - s- Y
Chapter XXV.-Of Portugal - - - 84
Chapter XXVI.-Ofthe United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland - - - - - 87 Chapter XXVII.-Of that part of the United Kingdom called Ireland - - - - - 93 Chapter XXVIII.-Of Asia - - - 97
Chapter XXIX.-Of Turkey in Asia - - 99
Chapter XXX.-Of Russia in Asia - --- 103
Chapter XXXI.-Of the Seven Caucasian Nations ------ ----------------- 10
Chapter XXXII.-Of the Chinese Empire - 108 Chapter XXXIII.-Of the Chinese Government and Manners - - - - - 112
Chapter XXXIV.-Of Corea, and some Islands
adjacent to China - - - - - 116 Chapter XXXV.-Ofthe Birman Empire, and adjacent Countries of Assam, Laos, Tonquin, Cochin-China, Ciampa, Cambodia, and Malacca 119 Chapter XXXVI.-OfHindoostanincluding British India - - - - - - 12,
Chapter XXXVII.-Of the Government, Religion, and Manners of the Hlindoos - - 127









Chapter XXXVIIL.---Of Independent Tartary
and Persia - - - - Page 131
Chapter XXXIUX.-Of Arabia - - - 134
Chapter XL.-Of the East Indian, and other Asiatic Islands - - - - - - 137
Chapter XLI.-OfA frica - -- - - 141
Chapter XLII.-OfEgypt - - 144
Chapter XLIII.-Of the eastern Coast of Africa, from Egypt to the Cape of Good Hope - 148 Chapter XLIV.-Of the western Coast of Africa, from the Cape of Good Hopeto the great Desert
of Zahara --- ------------ 151
Chapter XLV.-Of the Barbary States, extending from the Atlantic on the West, along the Shores of the Mediterranean, to the Confines of Egypt,
onthe East --- ------------156
Chapter XLVI.-Of the Interior of Africa, from
the States of Barbary on the North, to the Cape of
Good Hope on the South - - - - 160
Chapter XLVII.-Of the African Islands - 163 Chapter XLVIII.-Of America - - - 167 Chapter XLIX.-Of British America - - 171 Chapter L.-Of the United States of America - 176 Chapter LI.-Of the Spanish Dominions in North
America, and a Sketch of the Western Coast,
from the Bay of Panama to Bhering's Straits 179 Chapter LII.-Of South America, following the Western Shores along the Pacific Ocean from the Isthmus of Darien on the North, to the Straits of Magellan on the South --- - - -







viii CONTENTS.

Chapter LIII.-Of South America, following the
Eastern Shores along the Atlantic Ocean, from the Straits of Magellan on the South, to the Isthmus of Darien on the North - -- Page 18 Conclusion.-Of the West Indies, from the Bahama
Islands on the North, to Tobago and Trinidad on
the South . .- ---










THE

'WORtLD DESCRIBED

IN EASY VERSE.



CHAPTER 1.


,OEOGIAPICAL DEF7INITIONJS.



Oh &rth's extensive surface all we know, Does from Geography's researches flow: O4Ljand And Water JorRx5l, thbat surface lies, iVbi.* oience has oxplor'd with wond'ring The land is knowni ly various forms and shapes, As Commietnts, Peninsulas, and Capes,
usla sn Istiuuses; extending wide-,
And Prwomontories bold, which cut the tide.






2 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

The Continents are two ;*-in one behol Those three large portions called the Worl
of old;
Where still fair science with success explor Rich Asia, fertile Europe, Afric's shores. The other continent Columbus fam'd Discover'd, but America 'tis nam'd.

An Island ev'ry where the waves surround As our own sea-girt British Isles are found; While a Peninsulat the waves inclose On ev'ry side but one; where length'ninggro An Isthmus, like-an arm, or outstretch'd han Connecting it with continental land; And isthmuses, in other parts,+ we find, Ev'n continents immense connect and bind;

SThough there are, in reality, but two great con nents, each of the four great quarters of thd globe generally esteemed separate continents. t As the Morea in Greece, and Spain. SThe Isthmus of Suez joins Africa to Asia, and t Isthmus of Darien, or Panama, connects North and Sou America.




4 .4


IN IEASY VERSEWhile Cipes,- or Promontories, next display Their points extending far into the sea.

By geographic terms we next divide The worid of waters and its whelmingt tide. Four Oceans, stretching forth their arms, embrace
The earth's wide confines with their wat'ry
space;
Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific ham'd, And Northern, where stern winter roars untam'd.
A Sea a smaller wat'ry space displays, As do the Irish, Black, and Baltic Seas. A Gulf, or Bay, runs up into thelands, At entrance small, but when within expands. A Creek denotes an inlet of the tide; A Road, where ships at anchor safely ride. A rait, a narrow pass is always found, onnecti n seas, dividihg points of ground,

Such as te Lizard Point in England, Cape Horn in South America, and the Cape of Good Hope in Africa.
t As the Gulf of Mexico, Bay of Biscay, Bay of Bengal, and the Arabian Gulf, or Red Sea, &c.
B2






4 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

Just like Gibraltar,* Dover, and the Soun A Laket an inland wat'ry space implies, And Rivers chiefly in the mountains rise, Thence urge their course in many a wind'
way,
Until they join, and mingle with the sea.


The Straits of Gibraltar connect the Mediterran Sea with the Atlantic, and the Sound joins the Baltic the German Ocean.
t Such is the Caspian Sea, the Lake of Marava, Lake of Geneva, Lake of Killarney, &c.














I






I~N EASY VIARSE.



CHAP. I.



OF THE EARTH IN GENERAL.



Tn Earth, a globe immenseor sphere is found, Full five-and-twenty thousand miles* around. Its surface, calculators sage declare, Contains two hundred million miles, call'd
square.
Its distance from the sun the learned fix, In miles, at least, of millions ninety-six. On its own axis turning ev'ry day, Hence light and darkness bear alternate sway,


SThe earth's diameter is 7,980 miles, its circumlfcrenc about 25,038 miles. and the square miles it contains 196,613,664; but round numbers are more easily comprehended by young persons, so we have given the circumference at 25,000, and the square miles at two millions,
a3



;J






6 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

And day and night successively appear; But round the sun its course consumes a ye This course is call'd its Orbit, and its range Contributes muchtomake the Seasons" chan.

On this large globe, of all the surface round, Two-thirds compos'd of wat'ry space is foun One thousand million souls the land contains, Besides the brute-creation it sustains, SThe world, ofold, three great divisions claim' Which Europe, Asia, Africa, were nam'd. A fourth, Columbus,t crown'd with deathle fame,
Discover'd, but it bears another's name* The arth' axis is inclined to the plane of its orb in an angle of 23 degrees and a half; and this, togeth with the earth's annual motion, produces the variety the seasons.
t America was first discovered by ChristopherC Iumbus, a Genoese, in the service of Spain, in 14 But A ricus Vespucius, a florentine, pretended, a false nIrAtive which he wrote, to be the discover and h e accordingly had the honour of giving his name
that quarter of the world..



e





I N EASY VERSE. 7

Unjustly bears, that meed to him was due, Whose enterprising mind, to science true, First on its coast the Spanish flag unfurl'd, And open'd to our view another world!












ir



4t 4





~kj






8 THIE WORLD DFSRIBEd ,


CHAP. III.



OF EUROPE.


Or thee four quarters which the world c
tains,
Europe* the least extends her rich domains But, though containing least of all in space, Is far superior in its manly race, In arms and arts above the rest renown'd; The Frozen Ocean is its northern bound. She east connects with Asiatic shores. Against the west the loud Atlantic roars; And, passing through Gibraltar's narrowminout Mediterranean t waves inclose the south.


Its length, from Cape St. Vincent, in Portugal1 the month of the Oby, in Siberia, is near 3,600 mi and its biadth, from Cape Matapan in the Morea, the North Cape in Lapland, about 2,200.
A sea between Europe, Asia, and Africa, cone

























Co spaviards.

















Ut



Turks.
















French.
Rag 1-32.










IN EASY VTERSE.9

Amidst its various nations known to fame,
Each in succession shiall atjntion claim.


ing with the Atlantic by the Strait of Gibraltar, through which a constant current sets in, but it has no tide. It 4 contains many islands, of which hereafter.





























Z







t0 THE WOILD DESCRIBED,


CHAP. IV.




OF LAPLAND.


FAR in the north, amidst horrific snows,
The hardy Laplander undaunted goes;
Drawn on his humble sledge, devoid of f
Swift as an arrow, by his fleet rein-deer.
Three great divisions* subdivide this land, Which the three greatest northern powers co
mand.
The Northt is Danish, from the Northern
As far as En'rack and the river Pais.


The whole of Lapland extends from North Cal
latitude 71 degrees and a half, to the White Sea, u the arctic circle. Its surface contajns seventy or & t housand square miles. Its population cannot be a
tainted.

T This part is included in the Danish governnunt
Wardbuys.






IN EASY VESE. 11

The South the Swedes possess, extending wide
From Norway's mountains to the Baltic tide. In Lapland Eastt the Russians bear the sway, Between Lake Enarack and the White Sea. The White and Northern Seas, both north and east,
Compose its bounds, while, on the south and
west,
Sweden and Norway's mountains form a line, Its various pirts and limits to confine. Of towns, possessing none deserving fame, The chief they Kola and Tornea name. Forests immense of pines extend around, And frozen snows invest the mossy ground, While winter yields whole dreary weeks of
night,+
The summer glares an equal length of light.


his is divided into six districts, which take their names from rivers, as Una, Peta, Torna, &c. t This is divided into three districts, or leporie-, called Mournanakoi, Terskoi, and Bellamoreskoi.
In some parts of Lapland, the sun is absent for






14 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

These wretched huts in winter shield their
heads, ir
In summer, tents; and skins compose their
beds.
In their rein-deer* consist their valued riches; The chased and fishing crown their other
wishes.
But should their industry or zeal provide Or gold or silver, they securely hide The precious store, and think the secret hoard Will pleasure in the world to come+ afford.


Every part of this valuable animal is of particular use to the Laplander.
t The chase supplies them with bear-skins, white, black, and grey fox-skins, grey squirrels, and sables, which they exchange for cloth, tobacco, and spirituous liquors. The flesh of the bear they esteem a great luxury; and they are expert fishermen.

T They not only 'think they shall have occasion for such things in a future state, but imagine their chief enjoyments hereafter will 'consist in drinking brandy, smoking tobacco, &c. and that even their rein-deer will share their enjoyments.







IN.EASY VERSE.15 '

r Their faith* is honoured -with the Christian
name,

r But Pagan rites and forms their minds inflame.
The Devil himself they worship, beat his drum,,
To learn, by its decrees, events to come.
r While sorcerers abuse their bigot minds,
Pretending to command the very winds ;tThey sway the Laplander with hope and fear, Who, tray Ilimg, whispersT to his lov'd rein*deer,



Their faith is nominally Lutheran; but they worx ship idols, genii, and evil spirits. Their sorcerers make
use of a sort of drum, which they mark with figures, and beat with brazen rings upon it, to discover future events.
', They also, in Danish Lapland, have a black ca-, which 0 they consult in alt their difficulties, an&~ to which they
confide their secrets.

t The simple northern seaman sometimes purchases
from these sorcerers a cord with- knots, by untying any
)r one of which, they tell him he may have any wind he
pleases to direct his voyage,

SThe custom of whispering to their rein-deer appears
ridiculous; yet travellers, assert, that, the moment it is
C)






16 TIlE WORLD DESCRIBED,

And marks his course through trackless wastes
of snow,
Where, keenly edg'd, the northern tempests
blow.
Oft, when descending flakes obscure the sun,The hopeless hunter finds his course is run;
His land-piark seeks in vain, with aching eyes,
And, 'midst the desolating tempest, dies!
For nuptial bliss the lover long* contends, i Till num'rous-brandy-bottles gain his ends;
With these the fair one's father he requites
For leave to solemnize the marriage-rites.
Dark superstition's gloom is always spread
Around the cheerless relics of the dead;
The priest directs in form a holy scroll
To good- St. Peter, to admit the soul.
A purse of money to the corpse is given, To fee the porter at the gate ofheaven;


done, the animal sets off with speed for the place of destination.
The courtship sometimes lasts three or four years,
until the father-in-law is satisfied with the presents of the
Lover, which generally consist of bottles of brandy.






IN EASY VERSE. 1

And meat and drink are in the coffin stow'd, To cheer the trav'ller on so long a road.'


*Before their conversion to Christianity, they used to place an axe by the side of the man, to cut down the boughs which might obstruct his passage in the other world, and a tinder-box, lest he should find himself in the dark at the day of judgment: If a woman, she was furnished with her needles and scissars.






iTHE WORLD DESCRIBED,


CHAP. VI.



OF DENMARK AND ITS DEPENDENCIES.



THE ocean bounds this kingdomnorth and west, The Baltic waves inclose it on the east; And on the south the Danish lands extend, Until the German States define their end. What "Denmark Proper" ev'ry author styles, Consists of Juland* and the Baltic isles, Called Zealand,t (which contains the nation's
head)
Funen and Lalland, which around it spread,


A peninsula 210 miles in length, and from 30 to 80 in breadth, the principal part of the kingdom of Denmark, anciently called the Cimbrica Chersonesus. The capital city is called Wiburg. South Jutland is called the Duchy of Sleswick.
-t Zealand, an island at the entrance of the Baltic,






IN EASY VERSE. 19

And other little isles, which there are found, To form those straits, we call the Belts* and
Sound.
To these add Holstein,t Iceland,' Greenland's shores,
And Farro,1f where the Northern Ocean roars,


700 miles in circumference, which contains Copenhagen, the capital ofDennark, and, with the other islands which surround it, of which Funen is the largest, forms a principal part of the kingdom.
The Great Belt lies between the islands of Zealand and Funen, at the entrance of the Baltic ; and the Little Belt between Funen and North Jutland. The Sound is a larger strait, and lies between Sweden and Zealand, and the Danes take a toll from all merchantmen which pass through that channel to or from the Baltic.

t A duchy of Lower Saxony, 100 miles long and 50 broad. Its chief Danish town is Altona, but it contains Hamburgh, Lubeck, and other free cities.

See Iceland'

See Greenland.

A cluster of islands in the Northern Ocean, of which seventeen are habitable, composed in general of mountains and precipices.






20 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

With Lapland* North and lately Norway's
lands,
Compose the whole t which Denmark's power
commands.
The Danes are comely, hardy, brave and kind, The higher ranks to pomps and shew inclined. Thelower orders with industrious zeal Attend their labours; but when they regale, Intemp'rance marks their course, and drinking deep
Lulls reason, guardian sentinel! to sleep. The constitution of the realm was free, Til1 Danespl themselves resigned their liberty, 1 And left their lives dependent on the will Of kings, who'rule with moderation still.


See Lapland and Norway. hi Europe.
t Particularly in the funerals of the great. ~ Drunken Dane," a proverb.
I The monarchy was limited and elective, but in 1660 was made absolute and hereditary, by a voluntary act of the people.






MN EASY VERSE. 21

Their sledges oft in wint'ry frosts convey The Danes across some branches of the sea; ]But when hot summer in its turn arrives, Then all the vegetable world revives. The country mostly flat and sandy lies, And fogs from seas and lakes obscure the skies.







THE WORLD 'DESCRIBED,


CHAP. VII.


OF NORWAY.



THE Northern Ocean, spreading north and west, The Swedes and Swedish Lapland on the east Invest this land, while on the south is found
The Categate,* extending, to the Sound.
To Sweden'st king this land allegiance owes, Whose stately mountains, crown'd with pineS
and snows,++


A gulf of the German Ocean, through which the Bal
tic Sea is entered by three straits, called the Sound, and
the Great and Little Belts.
-- Norway was united to Denmark by Olof V. in 138Qo
who dying without issue, his mother Margaret was raise
to the throne; and, on her death, these, together with Sweden, fell to her nephew Eric. Sweden was after wards separated by the valour of Gustavus Vasa. Nor,
way is niw united to Sweden.

Norway is the most mountainous country the






IN EASY VERSE. 2Z

Send rapid streams,* in many a maze to trace'
This northern region, of a warliket race.
Here, though to Sweden subject, freedom
reigns.
No, peasants'i: hands are bound with vassaf
chainsA hardy race, to toils of danger prone;
The chase or fishing make the spoils their own.



i 'world. Its chief mountain is called Dofrefield. Its clicommonly severe, and the country covered with snow.

In 1719, more than 7000 Swedes, intending to attack
Drontheim, perished in the snow.
The rivers, lakes, and cataracts are numerous. The
river Drivane winds along the side of the Dofrefield mountains, in a serpentine course, and is met by those who travel the winter road to the other side of the chain,
no less than nine times.

0 1 Every peasant not born in a town, or upon a noble
estate, is by birth a soldier, and enrolled at the age of 16.
The Norwegians maintain an army of 24,000 foot, and
00 cavalry.
lie By the Norway law, the peasants are free, excepting,






24 TIlE WORLD DESCRIBED,

This nation four* great governments divide,
Through which they drive their-num'rous herd
with pride;
But agriculture they esteem disgrace;
Hence wild and savage is the tractless space.
Here forests vast their lordly pines display,
There tow'rs the mountain, and there roars tb
sea;
Here on,the coasts rough fisherment appear, 'Midst rocks and floating ice, devoid of fear; There dauntless hunters pierce the growling
bear,
Or lay their snares to catch the tim'rous bare,


a few on certain noble estates near Frederickstadt; an unless the proprietor resides on his estate, these becom
free also.
Viz. Aggerhuys, Bergen, Drontheim, and Wardhuy t Their fisheries supply good seamen, and the shoals a S herrings which sometimes surround the coast of Norwa
consist of colmans several miles long. TheMaelstrom,a this coast, is a large whirlpool, which draws any a S proaching objects, even large ships, into its vortex, an
dashes them to pieces.





IN EASY VERSE. 25

While woodmen ply the axe with num'rous
strokes,
Felling gigantic pines,* and mountain oaks.
The peasants, honest, frank, obedient, bold,
Enjoy warm clothes to shield them from the
cold,
And, blest with competence, their lands are
found
With fish, cheese, milk, and butter, to abound.
Their manners simple, and their morals good,
_And almost ev'ry house is made of wood.t
While equal laws preside in ev'ry part,
A manly spirit reigns in e v'ry heart.


The chief wealth of Norway consists in timber, with
which it supplies foreign nations.t The whole country is almost one rock, and yet they
build with timber, which occasions dreadful and frequent
fires. The chief towns are Christiana and Bergen.
I







26 THE WORLD DESCRIBED ,



CHAP. VIII.




OF ICELAND.




AROUND bleak Iceland's frost-encircle
shores
Th' Atlantic's northern surge incessant roars. From Norway, west, this dreary island lies, Where Hecla'st fierce volcano storms the
skies,


It is 280 miles in length, and 150 in breadth, lying between 63 and 68 degrees of north latitude. Its popu-i lation is estimated at sixty or seventy thousand.

t Mount Hecla is about 5000 feet high. These ar several other volcanos; and, in 1733, the convulsions caused by them were so dreadful, that it was apprehended the island would fall to pieces. From Mount Shapton Gluver issued a torrent of lava, which ran sixty miles to the sea, in the breadth of nearly twelve miles.






IN EASY 'VERSE. 27

And, crown'd with snow, emits a fiery tide
Of lava, running down its rugged side;
While Geyser's* boiling waters sometimes rear
A scalding column roaring in the air.
Yet, in this land of earthquakes, ice, and snow,
Content can her celestial charms bestow.
The simple race prefers its native coast
To each luxurious clime the world can boast.
To tend their herds the men attention pay, Or with their nets explore the stormy sea;
At household labours next the woman toils, And cures the fisherman's abundant spoils.
Their diet, butter, fish, and milk supply.
e Their dress is clean and pleasing to the eye.
Their huts are poor, and of the simplest kind,
But still their actions shew a generous mind.
With some, superior rank in him appear'd
g Who had exclusive right to wear his beard ;


e This boiling dolumn of water was nineteen feet in diameter, and rose sometimes to the height of ninety-two feet.
t It consists of linen, skins, and cloth.
The men in general wear no beards, though on the






28 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

And when the lover hails his nuptial morn, Chains and a splendid crown the bride adornt. The Luth'ran Christian creed this race profess But Pagan* principles their minds possess. Their chief amusement and extreme delight Is their forefathers' actions to recite; For learning once possessed this dreary land, And now revives at Denmark's t high corn.
mand.


northern side of the island some families have them About half a century ago, two brothers, dividing between themselves the inheritance left them by their father, the one gave the other four rix-dollars for the exclusive right to wear a beard, which in their family was the sole prerogative of their late father.

They worship idols, which they conceal from the Lutheran ministers. They pretend to witchcraft, and woship the Devil under the name of Kobald. They believe the souls of the damned either go to the volcanic mountains, or to the Ice Islands, according to the nature of their crimes.
t The King of Denmark has established schoolF; an"d several students from Iceland are at Copenhagen. Their languagtois the oldTeutonic.






IN EASY VERSE. 29

The summer's sun two months illumes the
skies,
And for two months in winter* shuns their eyes,


The Aurora Borealis almost constantly enlightens
their dreary nights. Their commence with the Danes consists in hides, tallow, train-oil, whale-bone, and the
teeth of sea-horses.








It








I3





3 0 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,



CHAP. IX.



IT GREENLAND.



WHERE Greenland's* cheerless coast extende
lies,
Beneath the rouzh controul of northern skies, In vain as yet bright enterprise explores The full extent of its unmeasured shores. Here tyrant winter reigns with all his pow'rs, His snows, his icy chains, and sleety show'rs Here vegetation dies, the human race Assume a pigmy form and tawny face.


West Greenland was discovered by the Norwegians in the ninth century, and some missionaries say it probably has a communication with America, and that the Greenlanders and Esquimaux Indians resemble each other in language, dress, and appearance.' The popula. tion is estimated at 8000.






qIN FE4SY VERSr. l

Yet here contentment dwells, with native pride
While num'rous families at once reside
In one poor hut, where winter's* dreary night, Surrounds them with a faint and cheerless light,
Till summer sheds around a lengthen'd day,
And all exultingly their tents display.
Then in his Kajak,t with unwearied zeal, The hardy Greenlander pursues the seal,
d And darts his light harpoon, and seeks his prey
Through floating isles of ice, which crowd the
sea;



Their winter huts have neither door nor chimney, but
a vaulted passage, through which they creep into the middle, supplies the place of both, In winter, their nights last about four months; but there is a moderate twilight; the moon continues a long time above the horizon, and
the northen lights are very powerful during this period.

t The Kajak is a canoe or boat, about six yards long-,
sharp at bead and stern like a shuttle: when the Greenlander sits in a hole cut in the skin which covers it, and excludes the water, it is impossible to sink it, and if overset by a motion of his oar under the water, he recovers himself again, but if he loses his oar he is sure to perish.






2-2 THE W'ORWI DESCRIBED,

While summer's light impels him to explore
The boist'rous ocean for his wintry store.
; This simple, social, honest, outcast race,
Are still attached to this their native place.
Their youths through hardy scenes of toil ar
led,
And thus at early age procure their bread.
There women, chaste, attentively prepare
The house and household goods with anxion
care,
While skins of seals, deer, bears, and birds
supply
Garments which all the northern blasts defy.
And when they die, they think their souls re
sort
Where happy bunting yields them ceaseles
sport.
Bold fishermen frequent these shores with zeal And round Spitzbergen* chase the monstrous Whale,


This country, called East Greenland by Sir Hugh
Willoughby, in 1533, was supposed to be part of Wes Greenland; but is now found to be an ,asscinblage







IN EASY VHRSE 33

Whose bone, and fins, and fat-extracted oil, Convey'd to Europe, well repay their toil.*


islands, which have no settled inhabitants. In 1595, it was visited by two Dutchmen, who pretended to be the discoverers, and they called it Spitzbergen, from its sharp pointed and rocky mountains.
The English and other nations frequent these frozen .eas to kill whales. The fishery begins in May, and continues all June and July; but the ships must come away, to get clear of the ice, before the end of August Sir Hugh Willoughby was inclosed and locked up by the ice in 1553, when he and all his crew perished. The flesh of the whale is reckoned a great dainty by the Greenlanders, who think it a fortunate event if a dead one is thrown ashore, and never quit the spot but live near it until they devour it; but the seal affords their chief subsistence.






34 THE WORLD DESUtRBED,


CHAP. X.



OF SWEDEN.



THIS northern kingdom# spreads its confine
wide,
From Danish Lapland to the Baltic tide,
Which, with the Sound and Categate invest
l'he south, while Norway's mountains boun
the west.
The Russian borders, on the eastern side,
Those two rough nations of the north divide.
Five grand divisions subdivide the lands,
And, first distinguished, SwedenProper stands


The length of Sweden, from the southern promo
tory of Scone to the northern extremity of Swedish Lap, l and, exceeds eleven hundred English miles; and.it breadth, from the Norwegian mountains to the borders o i Russia, about six hundred miles.






IN EASY VERSE. 35

Add, Gothland, Nordland, Lapland, Finland's
shores,
And round the Swedish isles- the Baltic roars. The capital is built on rocky isles, By bridges join'd, and crown'd with wooden
piles;+
While views romantic spread on ev'ry side, Along the borders of the Baltic tide: For here, beneath a rough and rig'rous clime, Nature will oft assume a look sublime,


The Swedish islands in the Baltic are very numerous, and several are inhabited; the principal are Gothland and Oeland, which form part of the district of Gothland, one of the five grand divisions.

t Stockholm, the capital, is. built in a romantic situation, on eight rocky islands, scattered in the Maeler, in the streams which issue from that lake, and in a bay of tie Baltic. The other chief towns are Upsal, Gottenburgh, Tornea in West Bothnia, and Abo in Finland.
o The houses all over Sweden are almost entirely cornposed of wood.
The winter lasts about nine months at Stockholm, and is extremely cold; the short summer is equally warm, and vegetation very quick.






36 THE WORLD 'DESCRIBED,

And bid the painter's breast with ardour glo To catch lakes,' forests, rocks, and mounts
snow.
While homely fare and simple manners grace This honest, poor, religious,t martial race, The higher ranks, impelled by native fire, To deeds of valour and of fame aspire. Their manners grave, their dress+ is grave like
wise.
Hence vain luxurious taste from Sweden flies, But more substantial worth remains behind, The loyal, brave, and hospitable mind.


Of these the largest are the lakes Wenner and We ter, each about one hundred miles in length ; the form forty, and the latter twenty-five miles in breadth. Th Swedish rivers are numerous, but not navigable.
The Swedes are very religious, and the Lutheran the established church.
An order to repress luxury, in 1777, distinguished the Swedes by a national dress: the usual colour is bla. except on gala-days, when the men appear in blue-salined with white, and the women in a white satin ro and coloured ribbands.






11W EASY VERSE. 37

The Swedish women, with laborious toil,
0 Or ply the oar, or cultivate the soil.
Here game almost of ev'ry kind abounds,
And herds of cattle graze their pasture-grounds.
Their mines* are rich, and t6 inquiring eyes
Present a scene of wonder and surprise;
For there a subterranean world affords CA place of residence for numerous hordes,
Who from the mine extract the useful ore, From whence it visits almost ev'ry shore.


The nobles are the chief proprietors of those mines of
silver, copper, lead, andiron; the English affords the best market for the iron. It also exports timber, leather skins, tallow, pitch, rosin, &c. The population is about
three millions.







38 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,



CHAP. X1.




OF RUSSIA.




IMMENSELY spread beneath the northern skies
The great colossal Russian empire lies;
Composed of various nations, tongues, and clim 'Made subject by the wars at diff'rent times.
To him, the Autocratt of Russia's throne,
By title Czar, or name imperial known;


eThe Russian is, perhaps, the most extensive empi '0 that ever existed; about nine thousand miles in length
and two thousand four hundred in breadth; lying in E'
rope and Asia. European Russia extends from fo
four to nearly sixty-nine degrees north latitude, and fr sixty-three to sixty-eight degrees east longitude. T extensive empire was divided by Catherine the Seco
into forty-one governments.

t His titles are Emperor and Autocrat, (or sole rul




















Swedes.


















Russians.



t





Y4







English.
Pap 13o.









IN EASY VERSE. 89

Whose sway is with despotic rigour spread O'er all the Russias, Black, and White, and
Red:
While northern Europe owns his high commands,
His power presides o'er Asiatic lands, Far as Siberia's* dreary coast extends, Or where Kamtschatka'st desert region ends;


of all the Russias. Red Russia formed a part of Poland; White Russia comprehended the east part of Lithuania; and Black Russia included the governments of Kaluga, Moscow, Tula, Rezan, Volodimir, and Yaroslaf.
A country of Asia, comprehending the most eastern parts of the Russian Empire, extending 3000 miles from east to west, and 1200 from north to south; it is the place to which criminals, and those disgraced at court, are generally banished. The inhabitants are composed of Russians, native Siberians, and Tartar tribes. The climate is extremely 'cold.

t A peninsula on the east'coast of Asia, 240 miles in its greatest breadth, and gradually contracting to its extremities. It is a cold and barren region; the inhabitants are native Kamtschadales, Russians, and Cossackaltogether a barbarous race of beings.
E2






40 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

Or the fierce Koriacs* with their rein-deer And swear in madness to destroy the sun! Through this extent what rapid rivers flow, And lakes,+' for months enchain'd with fr
and snow.
The climate makes the peasants fierce
bold,
Inur'd to hardships and excessive cold: A servile homage to their lords they yield, And at the sov'reign's mandate take the fiel Unaw'd by dangers, mix in conflicts dire, Attack their foes, and conquer or expire. Their sports and pastimes mark a lively ra For merriment presides in ev'ry place;

*A nation to the north of Kamtschatka: some called fixed Koriacs, others rein-deer or wandering K riacs. When hard pressed by their enemies, they swo to destroy t4 sun; which oath they discharge, accordi to their horrid notions, by cutting the throats of th wives and children, burning their possessions, and ing madly into the midst of their enemies.
t The principal rivers are the Wolga, the Don o nais, the Dnieper, and Dniester, the Dwina, and the
The chief lakes are LaAoga and Onega.





IN EASY VERSE. 41

While shews, and comic dance, and songs prevail,
With copious draughts of brandy they regale; Their dress is simple,, formed of cloth and
skin,
The flesh side out, the furry side within.
Their marriage rites* a vast command bestows,
And hapless wives are oft inur'd to blows. d The merchants rich, luxurious, are allow'd
The noble Russians are both brave and proud.
The state religion, as prescrib'd by law,
Is Greek; but idols t still their vot'ries draw.
In sledges drawn, o'er plains+ of frozen snows, With wond'rousspeed the hardy Russian goes;
Or drives in cities, like an arrow fleet,
Through every narrow lane or crowded street.


The husband had formerly the right of putting his
-wife to death: this barbarous privilege is now guarded
against by the laws and marriage-contracts.
tj- The principal idol is called Obross.
There is scarcely a hill from Petersburgh to China P3






42 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

Their ancient capital was Moscow zam'd, And warlike Muscovites were justly fam'd; But now St. Petersburgh* that rank demand' Which on the Gulf of Finland nobly stands, While commerce visits, with her sails un
furl'd,
The Neva, with the produce of the world.


This city, seated on the Neva, near the Gulf of Fi land, was founded by Peter the Great, in 1703; and, in 1710, the first brick'l house was built by Count Golovkin It soon after became the capital of the Russian empire The other principal cities are Moscow, Astracan, Arc angel, Cherson, and Tobolsk.

t Russia produces furs, leather, linen, timber, tallow musk, copper, iron, and other commodities, which she exchanges to advantage with other nations.






















. panish, Swiss, and Norwegian Dresses. Rmssian. Dutch, and Engish Dr esses.








IN EASY VERSE. 43


CHAP. XII.


OF SOME OF THE TARTAR TRIBES SUBJECT TO
RUSSIA; THE BARCHKIRIANS, BRATSKI,
AND CZUWACHIANS.


AMONG those tribes which own the Russian
sway,
The rough Barchkirians curious traits display; To sloth and dirt, and indolence consign'd, They yet are hospitable, brave, and kind; With merry hearts, .averse to gain or sorrow, Content to-day, they think not of to-morrow; In song, or dance, or drinking mead, delight, And, arm'd with darts and lances, fiercely fight; On horseback chiefly they conduct the strife, And each seems forward to expose his life. Their faith Mahometan, but lacking zeal, For Pagan rites and sorceries* prevail.

When they are attacked by disease, or their cattle die by the severity of the season, the misfortune is attri-






44 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

Two men of age o'er all the tribe preside, For war to fit them, or in peace to Fuide. In jurts, or huts of felt, the Bratski lie, And keep as many wives as each can buy; The purchase,* when in herds of cattle paiit The bridegroom from her friedds receives t!
maid;
Three public days in revelry expire, Before the newly-married pair retire. But should the husband die, the elder spou Who bore him children, still commands th
house,
The rest contented in the jurt t remain, Or with their presents seek their friends again

bited to the Devil; and the sorcerer, who is sent to fig him, appears next day with external marks of violent declares lie has taken revenge of the enemy, and receive a reward from the credulous Tartar. Old age is treat with great respect by this people.
A young woman, according to her beauty and cha ter, will among the rich be purchased for a hundred horse twenty camels, fifty horned cattle, two hundred sh and thirty goats.
t Signifies a hut, generally made of felt.






IX EASY VERSE. 4.5

In rude Czuwachians one great God adore, And Tor's great temple is some forest hoar,
'Midst whose recesses, by the Zumack's
knives
Black lambs in sacrifice resign their lives.











CA




it






46 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,


CHAP. XIII.



OF SOME OTHER TARTAR TRIBES SUBJECT 0
RUSSIA; THE KALMTJCS, COSSACKS, ISCHORTI,
TAKUTHIANS, AND MORDWANS.



THE Kalmuc huts are form'd of felt, and hides
Are often spread to dry on their outsides,
Which yields a sordid and disgusting sight.
This tribe in wand'ring, with their herds, delight,
Where'er the herbage of the plains appear
Inviting to their horses, cows, and deer.
They never plough the land, nor reap, nor mow
But are expert in war, to bend the bow.
The flesh of horses, deer, and sheep they prize 41: The milk of mares" their fav'rite drink supplies;


*Of this they make a strong fermented liquor.





INEASY VERSE. 47

And, time and trouble much inclind to spare, A little windmill wafts the Kalmue's prayer.* The hardy Cossacks are a warlike race, In stature manly, and of comely face ; Expert in war the fiery steed to guide, And harass hostile hosts on ev'ry side; The post of danger always prompt to seek: And their profess'd religion is the Greek. The rude Ischorti next attention claim, Known also by the ancient Ingrian name, Who with their dead deposit store of meat, For their belov'd departed friends to eat; Their money too they cautiously secrete, To yield them comforts in another state. The wild Takuthians in their hovels dwell, And with their cattle mix'd beneath one shell.


They have little woodebi windmill-wings fixed to the entrance of their huts, on which the priests write certain prayers for the owner, which being put in motion by the wind, saves him the trouble of praying; they have also other praying machines in the form of a box, in which they shake written prayers; for they think nothing necessary for prayer, but putting it in'motion in any way.






48 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

With fat and blood those wretched Pagan
smear
The ragged idols they adore with fear.
More wise, the Mordwans cultivate the ground And worship one great God with awe pr
found;
Their women love in dress such gingling tO
As corals, bells, and rings, which make a noise

# Their idols are made of rags, for they despise wooden'
idols.










A






IN EASY VERSF.


CHAP. XIV.
!I


OF MORE TARTAR TRIBES SUBJECT TO RUSSIA:
THE OSTIAKS, THELEUTI, TSHULIMZIANS, TUNGUSIANS, WOGULIANS, AND SAMOIEDES.
e


THE Ostiaks, faithful; honest, kind, are known,
To industry and ties of friendship prone,
IBut timid, dirty, simple to excess,
While Pagan priests the magic art profess;
They credit ev'ry superstitious charm
Which these dispense to shelter them from
harm,
And think the very bears* which they destroy,
A future state of happiness enjoy.

Whenever the Ostiak kills a bear, le sings over it,
asks its pardon, and hangs up the skin, to which he pays many fine compliments, to induce it not to take vengeance when they meet in the abode of spirits.
F






STHE WORLD DESCRIBED,

The Theleuti believe in God, 'tis said; Their only prayer is" Do not strike me dead, The tribe of Tschouwasche adore the sun.* The rude Tshulimzians t are but partly won, To own the Christian creed, for still th
pay
Respect to Satan in their Pagan way. The bold Tungusian + tribe is frank and fre Detesting fraud and low duplicity: The rich, who can afford, take many wives, But filthy habits mark their savage lives. Of deities this people reckon crowds, Their chief, nanm'd Boa, rules above the cloud


The father of a young woman going to be marri offers bread and honey to the sun, with a prayer, poring happiness for the young couple.

t They are baptized, but all their idea of Christiai consists in being able to make the sign of the cross, wearing it ;+abstaining from horse-flesh, marrying o' wife, and observing the fasts of the reek church.

Their women are the prettiest in Siberia, and the the best archers.
5.






IN EASY VERSE. 51

The tribe of the Wogulians next we mark, With savage minds emerging from the dark:
Their notions reach the God wholrules the skies;
'Tis also their belief the dead will rise,
. Where each shall meet return for good or evil;
Jut strenuously they all deny the Devil.
The heads of beasts they consecrate with care
To God, but never say a word of pray'r!
Then, farther north, which bounds the Russian
shore,
Bleak Samoieda's race their bears adore;
And passing Weygats Strait, to Zembla's
coast,
There prostrate nature lies enchain'd in frost,

This tribe possesses the nearest idea to rational
worship of any of those savage hordes, which are too numerous to be particularized here.
t This people have no idea of a Supreme Being; they
call their new-born infants by the name of the first animal they meet. Their marriage-contracts are verbal, and fidelity strictly observed. Their country forms the northem extremity of Russia, and is separated from Nova
Zembla, by the Straits of Weygats.
I This desolate region is as yet unexplored, so far as F2







52 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

And desolation spreads her boundless sway O'er lands where no advent'rous step will'stra


to determine whether it is an island or part of a gre continent. It is uncertain whether there be any consta inhabitants or not. The Samoiedes, when the strait frozen, pass over to hunt the elk and deer. Some peop sent to explore the country, relate, that they caught fo native Zemblians, clothed in seal-skins and the skins penguins, with the feathers outwards; but nothing mo is known of this people, whose numbers must be very fe



A|






IN EASY VURSE. 53



CHAP. XV.




OF PRUSSIA.*



THE Prussian kingdom, from contracted bounds,

By Fred'rick's t genius gain'd contiguous
grounds;
Silesia's province.+ paid his warlike toils, And large his share became of Poland's spoils.


Prussia was bounded north by the Baltic; east and south by Russia and Austria; and on the west by the German states; but its late acquisitions have greatly increased its territory.

Frederick the Second, commonly called the Great. I The duchy of Silesia was acquired from Austria'in 1742.

By the several partitions of Poland, Prussia acquired the whole of Great Poland; the whole of West Prussia, F3





4 )THE WORLD uDEStCRAlE ,

When vain were virtue's, honour's, freedoin
cries,
And crowned robbers shared the bleedi
prize.
Where rolls the Vistula its far-fam'd tide, There royal Prussia guards the western sid And where the eastern bank the shore defend There ducal Prussia its domain extends. Anspach and Bayreuth have increased t
size
Of this proud kingdom; and the sacred ties, By which compatriots are bound heart to hea Were counted'light as the wjind-driven dart, When Prussia's standard floated in the breez O'er Saxony's dismember'd provinces. Berlint its capital of late is deem'd, For such of old was Koningsberg esteem'd.

including the cities of Danizic and Thorn; and the p vinces of Masovia and Polachia, now denominated Sou Prussia.
These principalities, or margravates, were abdica by the late Margrave of Auspach, in favour of the Ki of Prussia.
t Berlin, the capital of the electorate of Brandenbu





IN EASY VERSE. 65

S The population of these states amount
To eight full millions, (as most authors count.)
in The Pregel, Memel, Vistula, and Spree,
And Oder, through its bounds their streams
display.
le Of diff'ent states compos'd a native zeal
fd or their own customs ev'ry where prevail;
While industry, with persevering toil, t Improves the arts and cultivates the soil;
Religion here, by law's protection wise, s, To ev'ry man's conviction open lies.
!a

seated on the river Spree, and where the kings of Prussia reside, has been for some time considered as the capital of Prussia; though in reality Koningsberg, on the river Pregel, is the ancient and true capital The other print cipal towns are, Breslaw, Warsaw, now given to Saxony; Dantzic, now declared a free town; Possen, Potsdam, &c.





THE WORLD DESCRIBED,



CHAP. XVI.



oF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS.



THE Seven United Provin ces, so long Admired in history, and renown'd in song, Have, from a great republic, dwindled down Into a petty kingdom, and a crown ; For tho' before of small extent this state, Freedom, immortal freedom! made it great. Holland* and Belgium have united hands, Now called the kingdom of the Netherlands.


That part of this kingdom which is called Hollan is bounded on the north by the German ocean; west b the British channel; eastby the German ocean; and sou by Belgium, to which it is now united. The population is about three millions. Holland being the largest of th Seven United Provinces, that name is generally applied to the whole.





IN EASY VERSE. 67

Here art erects her dams and dikes, and braves
The threatening fury of the outcast waves.
The Dutch are heavy, prudent, prone to save,
phlegmatic, slow, industrious, and brave;
Their country seems compos'd of various isles,t
And Amsterdam is built on wooden piles;
In ev'ry point of view canals are made,
For pleasure, trav'lling, intercourse, and trade,
O'er which their boats and barges swiftly glide;
The Rhine, the Maese, and Scheldt, the lands
divide.
The seat of government the Hague is nam'd,
And Leyden's colleges are justly fam'd;
While Rotterdam, and other towns, command
Commercial stations both for sea and land.
The soil is fertile, and the produce good,
In cattle, butter, cheese, and madder-wood.

id
h *Almost the whole of these provinces seem to have
been won by industry from the ocean, and the sea is now 0, kept out by immense dams and dikes. I t The Rhine, and other rivers which intersect the
in country, gives Holland all the advantages of an insular
situation. There are not less than three hundred bridges
in Amsterdam, which is the capital.






58 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

In JBelaia, long to France's empire joined,
A strong resemblance to the French we find I, In manners easy, and in conduct light,
Gay, mirthful, social, am'rous, and polite.
Brussels is its chief town, its clime and soil,, Like Holland's temperate, rich without mu
toil.






IN EASY VERSE.



CHAP. XVII.




OF GERMANY.




3BENEATH what various printes, climes, and
skies,
This great extensive part* of Europe lies, Which diff'rent cities,t kingdoms, states, compose,
So long convuls'd by war's internal'woes; At length, its states unsettled-undefin'd, We in no modern map correctly find.


According to its modern limits, Germany is bounded on the north by the German ocean, Denmark, the Baltic, and part of Prussia; it includes Transylvania, on the east; and on the south extends to Turkey in Europe; and is bounded on the west by some of the French departments. It is about 600 miles in length, and 500 in breadth.
+ Lubeck and Hamburgh are free cities.






60 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

Such new-created kings and powers arise, Like magic work, before our wond'ring eyess At present six crown'd heads, ruling we see The greater part of martial Germany. The Austrian Emperor and the Prussian Kin Two mighty states into subjection bring; Bavaria s, realm extends a smaller space; The Saxon monarch next in rank we trace; Then Hanover, thrown in Great Britain's scal' Like a tin-kettle at a mastiff's tail; And Wirtemberg, renown'd for struggling Ion To save her rights from a vain despot's wrong The German people, honest, proud, and bravy Are learn'd, religious, hospitable, grave; But various creeds in different states prevail, And native customs they preserve with zeal. Their rivers large and num'rous, and the*
soil,
In produce rich, repays the farmer's toil.






IN EASY VERSE. 61



CHAP. XVIII.



OF THE AUSTRIAN DOMINIONS.*



FRon Austriat sprung, her warlike monarch
reigns,
First o'er his fertile, lov'd, and native plains.
This martial state the river Ens divides
Into its upper and its lower sides ;
The Danube, Ens, the Inn, the Drave, and
Save,
With fertilizing streams the country lave;


The Austrian dominions, previous to the late events in Germany, were estimated at more than one hundred and eighty-four thousand square miles; and the populaion twenty millions.
f- The circle of Austria contained the archduchy of Austria; the duchies of Stiria, Carinthia, and Carniola; the Tyrol, now ceded to Bavaria; and the principalities of Brixen and Treat
G






62 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

And fam'd Vienna in this circle stands,
The capital of all the Austrian lands.
The rough Bohemian's* kingdom next
trace,
Whose diadem adorns the Austrian race.
The Malda, Elbe, and Oder's well-known ti
In various parts this fertile land divide;
While in its mountains mines immense
found:
Its capital is Prague, in war renown'd.
The brave Hungarianst next attention cla Well known in all the fighting fields of farm In this great kingdom two fam'd parts we K
Nam'd Upper and the Lower Hungary;
Presburg, the Upper, boasts its fairest town,
The Lower, Buda, equal in renown, The

A kingdom two hundred miles long, and one1
dred and fifty broad; bounded on the north by M and Lusatia; east by Silesia and Moravia; south by tria; and westby Bavaria. Thelanguageis Sclavo
t This kingdom is bounded on the north by Pol
and Silesia; west by Moravia, Austria, and Stiria; si by Selavonia and Turkey; and east by Wallachi
Transylvania. Buda is famous for its baths.






IN EASY VERSE. 63

Of fighting men, this martial state can yield One hundred thousand,* ready for the field;
While fertile plains and pastures spreading wide, Their crops and herds display with conscious
pride;
No penal laws to 'check their mirth is found,
Where lands with ev'ry sort of game abound.
To these, add Austria's part of Poland's spoil,t
And her rich share of Italy's fair soil.
The church is Roman, but, in ev'ry place,
Sweet toleration whispers love and peace.


For Hungary alone.
t In the several partitions of Poland, Austria acquired
Little Poland, and the greatest part of Red Russia and
Podolia, now called the kingdom of Galicia.




2
| .



0




41

64 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,


CHAP. XIX.



OF TURKEY* IN EUROPE.



THIS empire spreads o'er Europe's fair
parts,
S O'er lands and cities fam'd for arms and art O'er Greecet and all her islands, known
yore,
The haunts and sweet retreats of learned lor The seats from whence the sciences profoun Refin'd and brighten'd all the nations round
-I
Turkey is bounded on the north by Russia a
Austria; on the east, by the Black Sea and sea of Ms mora; on the south, by the Archipelago and the Mec terranean; and on the w est, by the Gulph of Venice a
Dalmatia. It lies to the south-east of Europe.
t Greece now contains, Macedonia, Albania, Livadi
the Morea, the Archipelago, and Candia.




A1





IN EASY VERSE. 65

Where Athog, Pindus, and Olympus rise,
And IJemus and Parnassus scale the skies;
All classic mountains, dear to sons of song,
While streams poetic glide their vales among.
O'er that heroic land, fair freedom's pride,
The fierce and haughty Musselmen preside; While barbarism spreads its influence round,
And ignorance usurps this classic ground.
Beside the Grecian provinces and isles,
The Turkish sway these fruitful lands defiles. M oldavia's* rich and far-extending plains,
O'er which a hospodar as vassal reigns;
While Bessarabia's Tartarst rove about;
e Wallachia'st fields are fertile, natives stout;


Moldavia is 270 miles long, and 210 broad. The
principal rivers are, the Dneister, Danube, Pruth, Moldau, and Bardalack. The governor is called hospodar; the inhabitants are of the Greek church; and the principal town is Tassy.
t Also dalled Budziae Tartary, situated between the
Danube and Dneister. The capital is Bender.
t The ancient Dacia, 225 miles long, and 125 broad s
the church is Greek. Tervis is the capital.
G 3






66 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

Rough Bosnia's* mountains raised aloft,
.see,
And warlike Servia,t struggling to be free.
Part of Dalmatia,** and Croatia's lands,
Are subject to the Sultan's high "omniands; And where Bulgaria's rugged mountain
rise,
And fair Romania,I seat of empire, lies,
Where rear'd sublime, Constantinople standThe capital of all the Turkish lands;
IBetween the Marmora and the Black seas,
Its glittering crescents to the sun displays; ;


Bosnia is 120 miles long, and 70 broad. Serajo
the capital.
t Servia is 190 miles long, and 25 broad; it is in a sta
of rebellion against the Turks. Belgrade is the capital
: Herzegovina is the capital of Turkish Dalmatia
part of Croatia belongs also to Turkey.
A mountainous province. Soffa is the capital.
i The ancient Thrace ; 200 miles long and 150 broad
-Constantinople is the capital of this province, and
all Turkey.
i






IN EAST VERSE. 67

So nobly plac'd, this city well might claim ,,The sublime Porte" as its distinguisb'd
name.


It is called the Porte, by way of eminence.






68 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,



CHAP. XX.



oF TIlE GOyERNMENT, RELIGION, AND MANNER
OF THE TURKS.



THE turban'd Musselmen almost adore Their Sultan, Emperor, or Grand Signor; For he, with a despotic sway, commands; Their property and lives are in his hands. In his seraglio, hidden from the crowd, Surrounded by bashaws* and pachas proud, 'Midst eunuch guards and female slaves
ease,
He spends his indolent luxurious days;


Those are generally the ehildien of Christian parent bought as slaves in their infancy, and reared up in the raglio. They afterwards tet the command of pro-vine fleets, and armies.






IN EASY VERSE.

put fell commotion,* or rebellion's breath, Too oft consign their Grand Signor to death. In divant met, the Grand Vizier presides, And, in the field of war, the army guides. The faith Mahometan + establish'd stands, With bigot zeal through all the Turkish lands. Predestination is their fix'd belief, From which no caution can afford relief; Hence with surprising apathy they die, Or patiently beneath misfortunes lie. Their mufti bids them visit Mecca's H shrine To fast in Ramazan, abstain from wine,


These disturbances, which often end in the death or deposition of the sultan, originate generally with the Janissaries, a licentious soldiery, or sort of imperial-guards, led on by disaffected bashaws. t- The divan is a kind of senate. The alcoran contains the principles of the Mahometan faith, as laid down by their false prophet Mahomet. The mufti, or high-priest, possesses great influence among them.
SMecca is a town in Arabia Deserta, famous for being the birth-place of Mahomet; and also, as the Turks pretend, containing the sepulchre of Abraham.






70 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

And, as chief duties of their faith declares, S Ablutions," alms, and pilgrimage, and pray' The men are handsome, haughty,' fierce, a
brave,
Their beards are long, heads shav'd, and
pects grave;
But when vindictive passions bear the sway,
To rage resistless, ev'ry thing gives way.
The Turks chew opium to extreme excess;
The turban their distinguish'd part of dress=
Polygamy is by their laws allow'd;
The ricit of wives, and concubines a crowd,
Retain in harams, from the world retir'd.
Their females are for beauty much admir'd And Christiant slaves are often doom'd to
These prisons, subject to a tyrant's will.


The Turkish baths are magnificent, and bathi
particular ceremony of religion.
t The Turkish harams and seraglios are filled
S young Georgian and Circassian females, children of C
tian parents.
I*







IN EASY VERSE.' 71



CHAP. XXI



OF FRANCE.V



PERtHAPS, in all the world extending round, No fairer country could be ever found; Fruitful in corn and cattle, fruit and wine, From the high Pyreneest unto the Rhine;


*France is bounded by the British channel and Holland on the nor th ; Germany, Switzerland, and part of Italy on the cast; the Mediterranean and Spain on the South; and the Atlantic on the west. From Dunkirk, injthe north, to the Pyrenees in the south, its extent is 625 miles; and something more from the most eastern part of Alsace to the western point of Bretagne, which province extends 100 miles farther than any other part into the ocean: but the addition of new departments continually increases it, and leaves its limits uncertain. lIIs population is abont thirty-five millions.
t The. Pyrenees divide it from Spain, and the Alps ftom Italy; and the river Rhine is esteemed its boundary towards Germany.






72 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

Or from the Alpine mountains to the tides Which wash its north, its south, and west
sides.
The Rhone, the Sommie, the Loire, and
ronne sport
Through plains where nature seems to he
her court
O'er France. the Bourbon rules, but who a
view
The winner, nor think of the loser too! Or rather of the man, by fortune crost, From whom she snatch'd the prize he never l Discarding him who had her fav'rite been, For one who wars the crown he could not V So clouds usurp the sun's bright post divine And reign triumphant, tho' they cannot shi, What noble towns and splendid cities* stau Within the limits of this fertile land While its proud capital, fam'd Paris, smiles Upon the river Seine's united isles,


The principal town, next to Paris, ate Lyons, M seilles,Bourdeaux, Lisle, Valenciennes,Aniens,Toulo and Geneva; the last formerly an independent state. t- Paris is situated on two little isles in the tSie, va




















French Peasants after the Vintage.






















Spanish Bull Fight.



























tb






IN EASY- VERSE. 73

Where all the sculptor's art, the painter's
charms
flave been transferr'd by their marauding arms. The French are witty, gay, fantastic, light, Brave, active, cunning, fickle, and polite. As varying passions in their turns assail, The tyger's rage, or monkey's tricks prevail. In dancing, fencing, spectacles, and plays, The French could spend ecstatic nights and
days.
In dress, new fashions ev'ry day take place, And ev'ry week they seem a diff'rent race. The females great vivacity display, Delight, in frolic mood, to romp and play, Are graceful, pretty, witty, and polite, Are chaste, though free, and sensible, though
light.


Isle du Palais, and Isle Notre Dame. It is about 15 miles round, including the suburbs; and contains about 547,000 inhabitants.
During the sanguinary horrors of the revolution, the French females displayed striking traits of heroism, sensibility, constancy, and fortitude, even on the scaffold.
H.






74 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,



CHAP. XXII.




OF SWITZERLANEV.




OBsEVnE where wild aspiring Alps* inclos The land, whose summits bear eternal sno There Switzerland,t to Freedom- ever dea Displays her rural tribes, her frugal cheer,


The highest mountains in Europe, separating I from France and Germany.
t Switzerland is a small romantic country, sit, between a number of the Alpine mountains, bout north by Germany, west by France, and on the south east by Italy; the surface about 15,000 square miles, the population two millions.

The Swiss have always retained the strongest for liberty; nor is there so much simplicity of ma nor seeming equality, to be found in any other pr E urope.






IN EASY VERSE. 75

fler simple manners, and her manly race,
Fearless, in war,* the hostile shock to face;
Or, in their lov'd luxuriant valleys found, Content to cultivate their native ground ;
Through verdant pastures drive their herds
with pride,
Or bid the vine ascend the mountain's side; Or hunt the bounding chamoist as they go, O'er rocks, glaciers,4 or pinnacles of snow.
Amidst these mountain piles and valleys green,
Of Cantons, Switzerland contains thirteen, Schweitz, Underwalden, Uri, Zug, Lucern,
With Fribourg, and Soleure, we first discern: These seven with zeal profess the Romish
creed.
To Zurich, Bern, and Basil nextproceed* They are well-made, hardy, and have always been
reckoned among the best soldiers in the world.
f The chamois is a kind of mountain goat, extremely
fleet, and difficult to be-caught.
r I The Glaciers are extensive fields of ice, between and
an the sides of the Alps.
vt 2






76 THE WORLD DESCRIBED,

These cantons, with Schaffhausen, numb'rj
four,
Their God by Calvinistic rules adore: While Glaris and Appenzel next we see, Where both religions equally are free. But who can trace wild nature in her freaks Through all these mountains and roma
lakes!*
Whose winding shores such charms subli
display,
While each is in itself an inland sea, Inclos'd by mountainst clad with snow
pine,
While through the valleys roll the Rhone
Rhine!.

To describe the romantic beauties of the Lake Switzerland, would require a volume in itself: the cipal are, the Lakes of Geneva, Constance, Lucern, rich, and N eufchatel.
t The principal mountains are, Mont Blanc, Bernard, St. Gothard, Jura, IMount Pilate, &c. They have also the rivers Aar, Arve, Reuss, and with several inferior ones.





IN EASY V.RSE. 77



CHAP. XXIII.




OF ITALY.



FAiR Italy's* luxuriant clime displays Attractive beauties in such various ways, That ev'ry step arrests the ravish'd eye With smiling allies, or with mountains hig%


Italy, justly esteemed the garden of Europe, was usually considered under three divisions, the northern, central, and southern. The first, known lately as the Cisalpine Republic, was the ancient Cisalpine Gaul, and, in the middle ages, the kingdom of Lombardy. Tfh central contains the dominions of the church and the kingdom of Etruria, and was the ancient seat of Roman and Etrurian power, and, in the middle ages, of the ecclesiastical and Tuscan states; and the southern was called Magna Greia, now the kingdom of Naples. jt The Alps separate it from France, Germany, and Switzerland; and its other bounds are the Adriatic and
.... H 3






78 TH WORLD DESCRIBED,

Hereshines thesplendid city's glittering tow'r There, from the mantling vine the ruin low' Here flow the tides well-known to classic lou There science bends those fragments toexplo By time from some majestic temple hurl'd, Which once adorn'd the listress*oftheWor The school of arts and sciences profound, Whose rays illumin'd all the world around. With grief the philosophic eye surveys Its fallen state in our degen'rate days; Its feeble race unlike their sires so brave, Who scorn'd the name of coward and ofsla


Mediterranean seas. The Appenines run through most the whole extent of Italy, which is about 670 m long, and its breadth 350; but between the Gulp Venice and the Mediterranean, it is only 110 m broad. The principal rivers are the Po, the Tiber, Var, and the Adige.

SRome. The other chief towns are, Naples, Flore Milan, together with Palermo, Messina, and Syracuse Sicily.

t The modern Italians have expressive countenan are well-proportioned, and active though grave in t