Geography made easy

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Title:
Geography made easy being an abridgment of the American geography. Containing astronomical geography; discovery mid general description of America; general view of the United States; particular accounts of the thirteen United States of America... To which is added, a geographical account of the European settlements in America; and of Europe, Asia and Africa. Illustrated with eight neat maps and cuts, newly engraved
Physical Description:
322 p. : maps ; 18 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Morse, Jedidiah, 1761-1826
Thomas, Isaiah, 1749-1831
Andrews, Ebenezier Turrell, 1766-1851
Publisher:
Printed by I. Thomas & E. T. Andrews
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publication Date:
Edition:
2d ed.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geography -- Textbooks -- Before 1800   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- White Mountains (N.H. and Me.)   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1790   ( rbgenr )
Textbooks -- 1790   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1790
Genre:
Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 021302257
oclc - 00621410
System ID:
AA00021438:00001


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GEOGRAPHY MADE EASY.

Belpg an ABRIDGE EMENT of tI ie


AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY.C O.N T A I X I N G,
Aftrono"iical Geograp"
I)ckription of Anerica-:Generai View of the United StatesPo ticular Accounts of the Airt cv Unit*$cairsofAintrica 4a reEard to the4 113 upd ries, Extent, jKiv r Lake,, Moon. tains, ProduOionsP(ypularion, Mtriftj4GoA2jncjjt, 7'rade,
jjanvfacturc CulicfiLIC3, 1141Drx! &C4

TO WnICN 13 ADD
A Geographical Accountof the Europtan Seulen*--t*
in Ao erica i and ofEur pe, Ana and Alrica.

IlIttRrated iNitlt FIGHr neat MAP8 andCUT'S. C lcula(md particularly for the fJfc and Improyement of ScmIDOL4
in the UN ITTO STATE S.


I J) I D I AV Tyl 0 R S E, A. 11. r
Congregntbri nzar 1301T.

C 0 N D E D I T 1 -0 N. 40


-fl;CTC SON Or 2t IPA U of A D ArA but kk fome cbr"
cern bathitc I OG F-A T UY ftd A 3 T R 0 N OM Y.-Ar- ;VAttsAmong thofe 9 ;es whi h are usually recorrratnJed to. YwMg Peop e, there are few Ulat might 3.), improved to b&Lotr We thaa C EOG R AP B VOTibUS Sub)fC7544

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T 0-T R 9

YoutiG MASTERS and MISSES

Throughout the UXtTED STATIZO,

The foUoW"

EASY INTROt)VCTION

TOthe USZFVL and ENTERTAINING

SCIENCE of GEOGRAPHY,,

Comped prticul:rfly for their v I Arai
U Drumm,

With his war.mel W"

Vor tLcl- early impxovEmEN-r'4
ln 411I*fVry Thing thatffiall make thtmttuly b4pff,

By Acirlincere Friend,




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DIRECTIONS to the BOOKEBINDER
for PLACING the MAPS.
i THE Map of the World to face the Title.
2 The Solar Syaem facing page
a Plate to fhew the figure of the Earth,
4 Map of the United States, 15
South America, 5037
Europe, 2o
7 Afia, S6
S Africa, 30






ADVERTISEMENT.


N O national government halds out to
f, Inany alt'urinj motives to obtain an accurate kflowle-49C of the;r own country, and of its various interest, as tkzt ,f United America. By thefrecdom f our clediots, Pub. ,lick honours and pubLA offices an not conrined to any oiv tj*fs of men, Kit 4re fired to merit, in w&2t-ver rax.4 it may be joumd. To d charge the duties republic office witA honour and affi4ufe, tke hiYory, p&lic> commerce, prod;tctions, particular a44,ankzges and bitrre,4s of thefitfer,!71 States, ought to& tAoroug* u-ndejjo4-It is obvio-j, ?y w;frandprudentihen taimiliateouryout""intbe kmw.'J'I
f thefe things, and tAus tefom t1kir m:nL- til r)j ;-cl 7 Ecan jqinc pks, and prepare t&nkjr)r J'dit&, c u-' ' and honour. E#Pily, there is nof icnce kiter to the capacities ofyouth,. and more apt I o capti : ie -z f i r attention, than Geography.-Zn acquaintance witli t.,I's fince, m-re than with any other, fati,!fes tkitpeil;.ent curi.4 -, which is the predonzinatingfie.ature tf tleyoral fulmind. Itistobelamentedthat this part or' cd,-caI:"o4 has hitlierto beeno much nqlefled in America. Our young men univerraly, have ken rIIKh blet"cr a Ilainted L' "".j 7e Geography of Euro2 and Iza, thz,,z witL thet (j
_flate and countryy, 7 oan ,efa;IaP A, hso 1 ewn -1c n
j4u. eV, has been the cau fe
fe, we h,, ,e tliejr .e fau
'Jianiefuldcfecliz our cduca!iu'l. Til z Vb il 1 afrwyn-zrz, we havefU,;m pretended to wrizz, an!.444W to thinij-or tur 4 have humb y receftwdfi4 G 4&t bIrita'
fur 7 -ws curmanners, ourbooki a.il vir modes ij ihilikA I ing;






ing ; and ourTyouth have been eduated;, rather as thefdebjetls of the B~ittlh King, than as the citizens of a free rePblick. *But thefrlene is now changing. The revolution hast been favourable toj ence, particularyto that of the
Ceography of our own country.

la the following ]heets, the Author has edeaC/vOaured to A i ring this valuable branch of knowledge home to common
Jilmols, and to the cottage _fire fide, by comp riing, in a fmnall' and heap volume,. the moI entertaining and interyflintg par-t of the large olav volume, pulz/hed by him lajl fpnrng. Hie has endeavoured to accommodate it to the vfe
efhools as a rbadtng book, that our youth of eohfxes,
vt the fame time that they are learning to read, might imhibe an acquaintance wi94 their own country, and an attach ment to ite interS#s ; and, in that forming period of their lives, begin to quality themfelves to a1iltheirfeveral parts in 4Jfe with reputation testhemnfelves, and with ufe-.
Jidnejis to their country.

T"hat the lzzozes of the AIuthor may, be a, ben~ft to the
,7autk of that country which he loves, and z~ich he hasfidt 2 explored; is his moj? ardent wf/&.

~,aI4~c~w (Mfact~frs)January I, 70









CONTENTS.







CONT E N T S.


INTRODUCTION 9g
Aftronomrnical Geography ibid.
The Planets c sl
The Comets-The Solar Syftem- ,
The fixedStars -1
The Earth 3
The Names,&c. of the Circumnavigatorsof the Earth 4 The Artificial Globe and its Circles -5 The Atgofphere, Winds, &c. r9
G- E 0 G-R A P H Y.
Explanation of Geographical Terms 20
Difcovery of America 22
General Defeription of America- 2
Summary Account of the Settlement of North America 34. Divifions of North America 37
General Defeription of the United States 38
General Account of New England 6r
New, Hampfhire 7
Maffachufetts
PrOvince of Main
Rhode Ifland 9
Conneicut
New York
New Jerfey -34
Pennfylvania -3
D)elaware
Maryland
Virginia
Kentucky 195
North Carolina -0
South Carolina -2
Georgia -2 2
Veftern Territory as
Vermont 235
BRITISH AMERICA.
New Britain 239
Canada 239
Nova Scotia 240
SPANISH NORTH AMERICA.
Eaft and Weft Florida 242
Louifiana 243
New Mexico and California 2- 45
Uld Mexico or New Spal 246
EANISH






viii
SPAM'SH SOUM AMEI ICA) -C- page
Terra Firma 251 1
Peru 2S2
CNIi 254
Phra ff u a 2ss

Guiana-Amazonia t57
Patagonia 2513
Wcd I"- a Mart& 260
261
PortuLral E.
splin W, 265
267
France
I taly P169
t7l
Si,,AzerTand 273
Turkey 275
Buil,
ary 277
cer!iiany -279
'I he Netherlands 2&r

14olland 2.92
...Polatid 28's
Pruflia 287
14iffia. 2gg
Sweden 292
Denniark 294
Great Britain and lrel nd 295
kuropea-i Iflands, &c. 299
A s I A.
Tartary 3cl
Ch in a 301
Ind'a
3
*r6a 3 -6
-Artbik, 307

I 3CS
A Catl 309
.A F R C A.
Fffypt 310
Barbarv Six
Zaara 312
Nregroland-Ethiopia 3T3
Afriuan I fles
General Rcinarks
Ratification of the Fedeml Conijitilti()n J'ederal Money
Number of HouCes and lnhtbitzujts, &c. 320
;iatercffir calcu'ations 321L
LNTRODUCTIO.N.


















I NT ROD UT CT I ON.





OF, ASTRONOMICAL GEOGIZAPIY.


A CO-MPLETE knowledge of Ceogrp, canno
be obtained without fome acqu~aintance wit Aftronomy. This Compendiurn, therefore, will be introduced with a fiort account of that kcience.

Astronomy treats of the heavenly bodies, and explains their motions, times, diftances. and magi4ds The regularity and beauty of thefe, and the moht ous order in which they move, fhew that theirCrao and Preferver poffeffes infinite wif~m and pW0

Aftronomy was irfl attendedI to by the Shepherds,
-on the beautiful plaints of Egypt and IlabyIn Their employment led4 them to contemplated the ftars. While their flocks, in the filence of the eveniu, were
enjoying fivet repofe, the fpangled fly would nat uralyi invwjte the attentioni of the Shepherds Th obflervatio n of the heavenly bodies afforded tqna ufcent, and at the famue tinic affi ffed themrr in travligin the night. A (tar giiid--4*he Shhrds t
eanr where our bleffed Saviour was br.B






ASTRONOMICAL GEOGRAPHY.
the aiJ of a lively imagination, they diftrib, ted t T-a flars Into a number o" oriftellations or companies tjy Wkich they gg-ive the names of the animals which they reprefented.
Of che Planets.] 71-te fun is die ccnt-r of the motion of fcvcri spherical, opaqiic bodies, called Pl.incts or %vandcrin, Rars, whofe diasn, -ters, distances an4 peril. odical rcvolu4ions are exhibited in the folliwimT TABLE.

Sun and Plan. Diameters Diiiance from An.,A piriods
ers. inEng.mil. the Sun. rouad the Sun.
Sun E) 8gooo4 Y. d. h,
Mercury V 3,ooo 36,841,468 _O 87 23 Venus 7 0' 68,891,486, 0 224 17
Earth (D 4/o 95,173 000 1 1 0 0
Ma ri_ 321 1.7
J Ipifer 4 9 ,C 11 494V .' r It 3'4 28
I "'oo "' ':9
Saturn ?8,000 9()7,9,56,1,10 29 171 0
flerfc)" 36,ooo i8ociooooo) 81 34 0

Tbefevm planets mrntionei in the table, are called'

t ritnary plaucts; foi- besides thef tlicr, are ten other
odies called ficancLry tL nets, moonT or fate,,'Ilfes, which Al revolve round flitir primaries froin WCft to eaft,
*Odat the famc tirne are carried along with Chem round 4he fun, as follows :
The earth has one (atc1lite, viz. the moon 1), WhT, 4 paitims her revolution in 29 A. 1 ? h. rn. at distance of about 6o Ferni+a:ntcrs of the earth,-4t3qt9o miles, and is carritd -with the earth rouOik, 'the fort ance in a Yrar.
jUpitCT ]IRS fOUTmoons, Saturn hm E ve, and is alfo Vricompaffed with a bTOad ring.
Ile Motion of the primary plants Tound fliv hm, i0A al(o the rnotionof the fatellite-s mund their pri M30K is called thti-rannualmotiot. floide-s ihis anrizial arrotion, dicy revol e round tbrir twn axis from,%Yeft to caft, and thm is called t1heirdiumahmt,"n.

The






ASTRONOMICAL GEOGRAPHY.
-fifatcly kifovcred, plaiet lerfrhel, was f6rft ub
it-di ;8z by that celebrated aftronomier Willia 11-Irchl-, L.L. DF.R.S. In Great Britajin it is cle tCe rqium .Sidus; but in France and Amrica ithobtained thetname inhonu to its cw
dlLcovcxcr.

Comets.] The comets are large oautboiis, which move in very eliptical orbits and in alli pofibtle direcCtions. Some revolve from welt to eafb.-fomei from~ eait to wef -,hers from fouthy to north, or from north to fouth. Some ha econjcifured that the corpets weic intended by 4c lWife CreatW to con net tYlLeins and that ec ofteir feveral oi bits includes the fun, and one of th fxed lars. The fiire Of' the Comets are very'different. Someo hmmtb.iso l
fides like hair, and are caledhair eovs. 0 t bc have a long, fiery, tr et tail proa-n from t part which is oppl t he fun. Thei ngi~ zlfo are different, Som appcay 110 hig,-erthna of the flrft magnitude ; othsers larger iitha &Go They are fiippofed to be foLid bodleS and v~ydk for forme of them in their neateil approch t lefn were heated, according to Sir Ifaa~cNetnsalwt t tion, 2000 timcs hotter than red hot iro x; adereQ heat which would vitiify, or difflipate. atqri~~ known 4p us.

~The number of comets belongn ocu ytA.
notcertainly known. Twenty-n bav bemie"
c he, the peliods of three onlyhv encrj!







14 ASTRONOMICAL GEOGRAPHY.
it is fometimes called, the Copernican fyltem, in honour of Copeqnicus, a native of Poland, who adopted the Pythagorean opinion of the heavenly bodies, and publAthed it to the world in 1530. This is now univerfally approved as the true fyvftem. Ithasreceived great improvements from Gallileo, Sir Ifaac Newton, Dr. Valley, and other philofophers in alnoft every age.

Of the fixed Stars.] The folar fyfem is furrounded with the fixed ftlars; fo called, beciafe they at all times preferve the fame fituation in regard to each other. Thele flars, when vowed with the beft telefcopeF, appear no larger than points, which proves that they are at an immenfe diftance from us. Although their diftlance is not certainly known, yet it is the general opinion of astronomers, that they are at leafit oo,ooo times farther from us, than we are from the fun; and that our fun viewed fiom a fixed tar, would appear no bigger than a flar does to us. A found would not reach us from Sirius, or the dog flar, which is nearer to thi earth than any of the fixed flars, in 50,00ooo years. A cannon ball flying at the rate of 480 miles anhour, would not reach us in 700,000 years. Light, which is transmitted from one body to anotheralmolft iniftananeoufly, takes up more time in paffirg from the fixed ftars to thiseath, than we do in making a foyage to
E ; that if all the fixed flars were now ftiruck ogfexiiftence, they would appear to us to keep their nations for several months yet to come. It is impoffible, therefore, that they fihoutld borrow their light from the fun, as do the planets.

The number of fars vifible to the naked eye at any owne time, in the upper hemisphere, is not more thap a thoufand. A thousand more are luptpfed to be viable in the lower hemrnifphere; and by tie help of a iletcope, a thoufand more have been discovered; fo that the whole number of Rars are reckoned at S They are difinguilhed from the plants by their twinkling.
To










Svifent.


fl





P, A R T I
To conkaer tliilfe [tars as c'cCi'mce inerdy, to deco-he fkv, and Flo I rm a ric I i and beau t. for I'lls would,derogatc from the %v fdom of the
C rea A Lronom !rstlyerc orc, xith much reason,
have, confl.cJered the fi;,ecl flays as fel many funs, att nded with a number of revolving .14nets, whicla tilry l1lurni, ate, warm and clierifh. Ij diii; be true, there are as many fyflems as there are fixed ftars. ThcFe Tnay a"fo revol'%'e round one royntrion center, forming one imincrik fyffem of f)-ftems. All thefe fNxftems, wc tity conceive, are filled with iiihabitants Ill"ted to their rcfpecU\ e cli:,-'es,; and are fornany theatcrs, on vhich the Gr !:a 0-catorand Governour of th Univerfe, dlfpl,,'Ys !,Is 111"nite power, wisdom and goodnet-1. Siich a view of (lie farry heavens, muft fill the mind of cvc1\; belioldcr, with fu:blime, magnifitellt arid, gloriol.r iuclls of Ille Creator,
Of t; e E A R T H.
r ITE Fart!l. 111migh C-led a gll be' is not perr'Etly r luch ; ztsditil hom caftto xvcfl, being about jo rriles larger rlia-i tl:ul f! om noi-th to iol th. Fr ils motion r-.,und I I s a -, I is performed once in a ,ear, is d rtvc6 ',e d:'lci-cr.cc in tire 1 m-th cf the days and n;.4lits, anti the -ari-tv o,' thc Icafons., Thc diameter of the pa;.h. in which it mcves, calle6 its orbit, is, 1qr"'j"6.o()o Iriles. ar'! i ci.-Currif-crence Sq7,98 7-6 16 yri :Ils. ItS hol[)Fl -' -1 01 11M ill i, Whir is
8,2'1 r'n"], whlr l I*S ;.12 1l!1-.CS gicatcr lh m that of a cannon which, movin', aboi.,t ci.,l)- rrj!-_s irt a
Vilnute, N"', L-_ 22 )'cais and 228 UOys ill going from this Ntto The T 11..
The carili is 2 1 hy
,o38 m lc ; cizcurnf cncc, and its citation on its axis once in !.,, ho,,zi from wclL to eaff, jutx5n a conunual fijccefl-loh ol day and night and Zin '-Pi"ezr rf motion of the Leavenly b odies florn WL to %L" t' Is notion ,n its I aXiS thefe who
live on e(ilaicl canicl milesda an hour,
and thof:-, 1i c in parts of the parth, ate C ly
riert a diffarice Ids i proporlaoioto 1kcirdiflar'ce ficia t'ie equatcli-






14 A R T 11.
Tliattbceartborplanct-A711i(_II kvftinhabit, is roun('
IS eVident : 1ir/1, From 1hc consideration that this
'hape is heft adapted to motion. From the
appearance of its shadow in eclipses of the moon,
-" '-vhich is always bounded by a circular line. Tizzrd y, gy ; all the other planets being globular Yrom, analog r.
zznd Fo4irthlp, from Its having been circumnavigated
le cral tim s *
As, many hnd it difficult to conceive how people
ca,.i ftand on the opposite fide of the globe without Jailing off, their cobeeption may be, affifled by fuppofing

Krgellan failed from Seville in Spain', under the auspices of
Charl--, V. roth of Auguft, i5rq; and having discovered theMAFell nic Streights in South Anatrica, he crofli:d the Pacifick 0can, and arrived at the Philippine ir lands, where hevras poifianed-.
Ek fhip returned by wayof the Cape of Good Hope, Sth Sep.
152Z.
S, Fn3mi, D jk4c failed from Plymouth, Yjth December, 15717
entl lcd the Pacificic Ocean, and fleeting round America, returned N vcm or 33, 1590. He was a man of great generoliV. The % hlth he took, and even the wedgts of gold yivii him in rttrn for his prefcnts to Indian chiefs, he d'vi(kld in juit proportior al' 1h ares with the common sailors,
Ca-aerdA; failed fromPlymou-th witli two frnall ihips th t i:t ,t Auguff, 15S6 i pal-lied through the of Mageilan ;
took many ricjj priges along !je calls of Chili and Peru ; and 11L,11 Cilit-ortitia p(ifieflid himt-- t of the St.A, n, an Acapulco ihipx
a cargo ofknrnenfev-1 i-,. Hecomp! -ed the circumnaviga.
'44 'i of the globe the'9th of mber.
B--twcen the years r Sog, ano 1626, 'Z- c de.&%rt, of Utrecht,
'j r F I I-xi Mabu) George Sjillonb ger, a 1' m ngj Wen)
olliander, and 7a-ej the Kii 1, ,Mve'y 1,ileJ rou A the
globe.
L. rd.4rf-n failed in September i7, n dnuble-1 Cape Horn in a
,ang rous f afoo; loi moft of his mcii by the fcury, and with
( -:y one rcmainir thiptbe Centurion, eroO 6 the g-- Pjciiic c Oc an, which is tooc,) -nils over ; -- ',k a On
,er pa -a c frorn Acapu-o to jMani 114, iz:uin-j in
jjnr, j-,44.
i Fienchman, V'- w d fuccerf.v- y ci:cunnnavi ;a- ,d tLc 61obz, betiveen the ycar or.,!
-69.
captainn C- k 'in JUp Fndeavour, failed from Pl-,nou-,h tht QO:') of Au, uft, i-6 Di after a trooft ftiska:6tory i -. a-, retu tled (h, 12:h (4 fu-'i 1771, He fet cut on a second vo a e, t I I L11 (1 1776 i made many important difcv riea,
all: 1, k! the ;f)A d 14 C1Xh11hec k-, r'-- nativ ,, tl 14-h

ytattinzd ti CA6 il of Odobc;'


F








ARTUIIAL GLOBE.
f~ipptftihg all tharious bodieswrn the earth's furface were of iron, and a very large magnet wee placed at the center, then all bodies being attra&ft. ed towards the center by the magnet, they could njtot fall off, which way foever the earth fhould trni N'ow the attradion of gravitation operates on adl bies as that of rnagnetilm, does on iron only.
It is now ten o'clock in the morning, and we now fldnk we are ftandling upright on the upper patt of the ;earth. WVe Lhall think the fame -at ten oclc,6jthis Evening, when the earth Mhall have turned half around,. becausee we (hall then perceive no diftfCernce of pofture. We ilhall then ibe exagtly in the poftion of thofe perfons who now fland. on the opposite fideo th-e earth. Sin~ce they are as itrongly attra4 o wards the center of the ear th as we are, they cr, b in no miore dager of faliing.downward, than w at Pretty faling upwar'4d..

ARTIFICIAL GLOBE.

A N Artfiial Globe is a ound body, on mdlbal
JX partio the earth r~ water are reprentdi iheir natur44i r and fituiton, Ai f the .Jh The axis of the earth isanin aginar lin pa1,from north to fouth -throug~hit cener;thec~cx, it are called the ples.
C"i lt rto determine th ituationofplcs
an the globe, Wfpoo tcruftbdb eea
eachr of whx lis fulipedt b di' idnt 36equal parts,calle 4 r-eeseac dogree is divided into 6o minutes, eac miueit 6o, seconds, each fecond into 6o thirds, &. -%,Acrl whcfe plane, palling th rugh the ccsfler of the glbe iiides it into tw.o equal parts, is called 2 ratrr
Ofthefe there are fix : The equator, teielir,
th orizon, the ecliptick, and two cohzres.
isdividing the globe into q ua at"
frilJe~ick~Of thefe hr aefu
Iittw tropik4 andthe two pola irce,









EFquator.] TheJ quator, or Ecu Wctal, enconpaffes the earth, fro ,m eaft to w.,eft, and divides it ito the northern and foutnern heifpheres. From this
line latitude is counted towards each pole.

Meridian.] 'This circle is reptefent ed on the globe a bras ring. It croffes the equator at right angles,
tffing through the poles of the earth, and the zenith
and nadifr, and divides the globe into the eaftern and ,,vffedi hemispheres. There is an indefinite number ceidians, for any two points or places on tht& globe which are not dliredly north or fouth of each other, have different meridians. As themer-idian paffes from 'pole to pole, through the nadir, it is evident tha-t whlen 4 -t hefun comes to this line it'is noon, and fromn the
v.oMf meridies, or noon, it is called meridian. Gceoz
T rpher S affume a meridian for the Eira, from when i
longitude is counted eaft or weft.
'The mcridian of London is ufed by ilie EnglfE1,
*nat of Paris by the French, and that of Philadelpia
by th Americans.
Ekik]The ecliptic is that circle in) which tbe&
~4un appears to move rouq4-te earth once a year. It is named the ecli1prick, becaufoe no eclip'e of thec fu~n or
Toncan happen, except when the moon is in or near
the plare of this cicl. it makes an angle, With til
equator of,2,3 d. 83o m. and the points oftheir itie'
ltin are called cquinoffiai points, becauife whecn the
%~i isineiterof ihofe poifits, t!e dlavand' nights a
of Cqual length In all Parts rf the globe-; V17. or!the
!21 ft of March and1 on the 2 aIt of September, the irl oifw%,c is called the icrnat, and the laft the !atunal

The celipti ck Is divided i nto t wel ve r6ne hcn
~anfg30 degrees. I he ign ae cornt m we
foaff, giniga b 3rl -e unedh
ing are the naTnCS and chiarjaaers of the fig;ns, and61
-mon~s n wichthefun centers thain.









C", ic-.tems f..rn ,m.~
r Aries The Ramn 'q March
2 Taurus The Bull b April
3 -Gerrini 'The Twins U1 May
4 Ca:-wr- The Crab v3 June
6 Leo The Lion ~ tJuly
6 Virgo The Virgin rk Angutt
7 Libra The Scales S. Sterner
8 Scorpio The Scorpion nL ~obher
g'Sagittarius The'Archer t November
lo Capricornus The Goat Wy Decemb~er
i'i 'Aquarusz The AWaterBearer = January a2 PIfees The Fifhes X, February
Zediack.] -The aodiack iscomnprebenided betwce.two circles drawn parallel to the ecliptick,. at the di t anee of eight degrees on each fide of it.
Horizonn] The horizon is represented by a broad wooaden circle dividing the globe- into upper a nd lower 'hemnifphceres. The fenjfie horizon is that which, bounds our proipea; the raltional horizon is a great circle, whofe plane paffes through the center of the eat th, dividing it into u rand lower hemifpheres. It is divided into four and the- four quartering points, iz.a. weR. n orth, and fouth, are called
~cardalpoi.The poles of' he horizon are the ze-pith andnadir; hfrmerdi ey~vrour heads, and heat ter4&y indern ourb ineofo.

rqtial parts.~ They both pafs through the north and
ictt pos On~eof them, called the equinoftial co.
paftthough the equiinoaial points Aries and Libra, asid the other, called the folffitial. col trepaffc4
h theqftitial points, Cancer and Caprics.
Trp~.'The tropicks are two circles, parallel t
th~qaoat the difltance Of 23 d. 30 m. on each fide o14Te name isdene frTOM the G-reek word t& itotr, because whe h fun arrives at the
iirteti roick hie turns o the(6thard, aridwhen






-it 4 ARTIFICIA LOBE.
northward. When the fun i In t pick of Capricorn, which is on the 2ftof Decembr, we have the thorteft day ; and when he is in the tropick of Cancer, which is on the 21ft ofJune, we have the longeft day.
Polar Circles.] The two polar circles are described
round the globe at the diflance of 23 d. 30 m. from each pole. The northern is called the Arcick circle, he southern the Antartlick.
Zones.] There are five zones. The torrid zone is
limited by the two tropicks, and is the hottest, becaufe the fun is always vertical to fome part of it. The two temperate zones are limited by the tropicks and the polarcircles; in thefe zones the air is temperate. The two frigid zones extend from each polar circle to each pole, and in there zones the air is extremely cold.
Climates.] By a number of other circles, drawn parallel to the equator, the globe is divided into climates. A climate is a track of the earth's furface comprehendedbetweentheequatoranda parallel oflatitude, ,r between two parallels of latitude, of fuch a breadth that the length of the day on one fide of the trad be half an hour longer or shorter than on the other.
There are 30 climates on each fide of the equator, in the firft 24 of which they increases by half hours, and in the other fix, by months.
Latitude.] The latitude of a place is its dillance
from the equator north or fouth. The greateft latitude is at the poles, which are 90 degrees~diflant from the equator.
Lon-gitude.] Thelongitude of aplace is thediflance of its meridian from the meridian of fome other place; aind is meafured on the equator either eaft or weflt. A degree of longitudeon the equator is 60 geographical miles, but the length ofa degree of longitude dianinifhes as we approach either pole. At the poles, longitude is nothing, or, ,the equator being fuppofed to proceed from its prefent situation to the poles, will gradually contraa till.it becomes a mathematical point. In th 1 titude of Savannah, a degree of longitude is about 52 geographical miles; in Philadelphia, abou j6; and is BolLos, about 43.
The







ARTIFICIAL GLOBE. 1
The Abo lThe atmofphere, or air which fiurrounds the g1o,,is about 45 miles in height, It is thc
dmc-um of found ; by refraffirtg th-e ray s of eight
)eab are rcnder-ed vifible, which, without this med"iusmI
could rnot be feeni.
WTinds.] Wind is air put in motion, and it is called
a breeze, a gale, or a form, according to the ra iditof its motion. -The trade winds, in the AtlanticKar
Pacifick oceans. blow conflantly from north eaft anti fouth eaff towards the equator, from about 33 degrees
of latitude north and fouth.
,Tides.] The ebbing and flow ing of the fea, is cauf-~
ed by the attra&on of the fun and moon, but chiefly by that of the latte-r; the power of the inon 'this caiftbngto tat the fun, as 5 -to ii. Trmoon i onie reolution r ound the ear th, produces two ti&es, and ter motion follows the apparent motion of the
inoviz. from caff to wvell, I
Ctonds.] Cloudis arecolllions of vapourr, xh~ab
ed from the earth by the attrafioncf the fun or- other
eaufes.
.Eclifs.] An eciipfe is a total or painal pliv atica
of the light of the fun or rnon When the moon, paffes between the earth asm4 the fur,, the latter is eclipfed, and when the earth paffes between the awoa a nd fun,, the fo rrer is clipred.














RAPI














GEOGRAPHY.



SEOGRAPHY is a fcience deferibing the furface
otf the earth as divided into land and water.
Geography is either un verfal, as it relates to the arthn gep al; orparaur, as itxls to a fi gle part.
The globe of the earth is madeupofland a ter,
and is therefore called terraqueous. About oe t h of the furface of the globe is land; the other th fourths are water.
The common divifons of the land and water are as follows:
The divifions of land are, The divifions of water are, 1. Into Continents.] A I. Into Oceans.] An ocontinent isa large tra& of cean isa vaft collection of land, comprehending fey- water, not entirely fepaeral countries and king- rated by land, and divides doms. Thefe countries, one continent from the &c.arecontiguoustoeach other. There are three other, and are not entirely great oceans. The AtLan7feparated by water. There tick, lying between Ameriare but two continents, ca andEurope, threethouthe eaflern and weflern. fand miles wide. The The eaftern continent is PacrficA, lying between Adivided into Europe, Afia fiaand America, ten thouand Africa; the welYrn fand miles over. The Ininto North and South A- dian Ocean, lying between inerica. Africa and theEaft Indies,
three thousand miles w ide.
I. landss] An ifland eII.aks..] A lake is a is a traft of land entirely largcolleEtion of water uroundedth








G EO CRA PIIf. 2I
furitounded by water. as the hea rt of a country, fu rRhode I [land, Ilifpaniola, rounided by land. Mea Great Britain Ireland, of them, however, have a New Zeaad Borneo, river iffuing from 'them,
t Japan) c which falls into the cean;
as Lake Optario, Lake Erie, &c. A I mall collec-.
tion of water, furrounded
as above, is called a pond.
I IT. Peninfalas.] A pe. MI. Seas.] A fea or
riinfula is almoft an iflancl, gulf is a part of the ocean, era ti arof land furreiund- furro-unded by land exed bytr, excepting at cepting a narrow paf ,
one rowm ne*k as lof- called a P firit ,7i~ ton, teNorr a, i Tar- communicatesWihtec
tary afarbia. cean; as the Mediteirarican, Baltick and Red
Seas ; and the gul~s of
Mecxico, St. Lawrence and

IV. _77Vmrirfrs.] An IV. Straits.] A ftrait is
iflhmus is a nar row neck a narrow paa age out of of land joining a peninfula one C ea' into another; as t6 the main land ; as thre the firaits of Gibraltae, ifihinus of Darien, n ch joining the Mediterranean
joins Northi and South A- to the Atlantick ; h
muerica; and f he 1 f~hmius of Straits of Babelmand4l Seuz, which unites AMa wich unite the Red Sea
and A frica. with the Indian Ocean.
V. Prcmnories.] A V. Ba -ys.1j A bay isa
promontory is a mountain part of the fea running u
or liill extendinrg into the into the main lanrd, comnfra,thie extremnity ofwhich mionly between two capcs; is called a caipe. A point as Maffachufetis Ba, e Sof fiat land projeffing far tween Catpe Arn nd Cape
Into~ the fea is likewife Cod ; Delaware By e
,called a cape;- as Cape tween~apcMayarin ai
An, aec Cod, Cape Peioe hrpe

'ilatfir's, avbtwl r Cape Ca, T







12 DISCOVERY j AMERICA.,
VI. Mountains, Hi01, VI. Rizers.] A river is ic. need no description. a conifiderable Prream of %,ater, iffun from one or. more [prio and glidling' into the fe. A frnall ifream, is called a rivulet, or brook.
Mapfs.] A map is a plain figure reprefenting the fIurface of the earth, or a part of it, according to the laws of perfpeffive. On the map of any tra& ofcountry, are delineated its mountains, rivers, takes, towps, &c. in their proper magnitudes anid fitualtions. T7he Jp of a map is at-ways north, the bottom puth.
th igtfde caft, and te left- fide weft. From the tpto the lhottorn are drawn meridianis, or lines~ of lomOd e; and from fide to,1ide the paralltels of lait ude.

DISCOVERY of AMERICA.
T sblieved by many, and not without ione reon,
that America was known-to the ancients. Of this, )w ver hiffory affords no certain evidence. Whatc'evr ditoveries may have been made in this weftesti
wold, y M adoc Gwinneth, the Carthaginians and iohNae loft to mankind. he eastern, continent wsteonly theater of hiffory fromt the creation of
-tcworld to the year of our Lord it492.
HRSsTOP,11EK COLU~aus, a native of Genoa, hat, defervedly the honour of having firif dificovcered A' iesica. From a long and dole~ application to the fludy of geography and~ navigation, to which his genius was naturally inclined, Colubus had obtained a knowledge of the true figure of the earth, much fuperiupt the general notions of the age in which he
lvd Inorer at the te-rraquco3us globe mnig'Qt b~e
Fropilybalnce, ad tQ lndsandfcas proportion
e-t another, he was led to conceive that another
cotrin was neceffary. Other reafons inducd1
toblee that this continent was connetied wit th:





DI'S C V lz AN .L C A.
As earl), as the vhe cognmunicated his ingenious theory a phyfician of Florenice, eminent for his e of cofi-nography. Ila
wairmly approve i di fld Lveral I afs in con-.
li w ation of 11it uragd Coulumbus in an un-~
-~aing bi la and which promifed fo much benefit to the d
I~i~ig fUi tI)si5d himfeiC with re~f to the truth ojf his fyfem, he became impatient to reduce it to pra~iice. -'e firfl: ilep towards this, wastofedure the patronagreof forme of the European:- powers. Ac;cordingly he laid his fcheme before th e nate of Genoa, making hisnative country the fi rifl tender of his. fervices. T hey rejeaied his propofal, as the dream of a, chimerical projedor. He- ne., t applied to John 11-king of Potrtugal, a monarcl4 of an enterprifmrg geniu~s,~ and no incomptent judge of naval affairs. -The king liftened to him in the mait gracious manner, and re6J ferred the confideration of his plan to a number ft eminent cofmographers, whorwe was accufiomed to conlfult i' matters of this kin, Thefe men, from nmezr and interefled views, 114dinnumerable objeaions, and -alked Many capti ai quellions, on pur.. pofe to betray Columbus into a full &planation of his Ivitem. Having done this, they advifed .the king tai p -f patch a vcffel, fecretly, in order to attempt the pro-~ po F diftovery, by following exactly the courfe wlsih; Clolumhus had pointed out. John, forgetting on ti occafion the sentiments becoming a monarch, mieanly
-adopted their perfidious counfel.
Upon difeovering this diflionourabie tranlf&ion, Columbus, with an indignation natural to a noble and ing-enuous mind, quitted the kingdom, and landed in S5pain in 1484.
Here ho. prefented his Ttlhemie, in perfon, to Ferdinand a nd I f abelia, who at t hat timen gov crned the u n ite d kingdomos of Caflile anid Aragon. They in'ii-licioj;. ly, submitted it to the examination of unfilifA hoi 0 ignorant of the principles on whihCoumu fudd his theory, rejeded it as abfflrd, uih& crdtof a maxim under which the unenterprfnIf evr





54j DISCOVERY _AMIERICA.
every age, Iheltem themselves, 1 That it is pre rump",tuous in any perfon, to (upp~ that he alone pof.. 46fcffes knowledge, fuaperiour io ll the reft of man4mid united." They minairAd likewvife, that if tere were really any fuch council~ Columbus pre-teded, they would not have re mei d fo longr conccaled ; nor would the wisdom and f iyof form-r ages have left the glory of this difcove- to an obfiur
Geof:pilot.
Mawhiile, Colarnbus, who had expetrienced th srtcertari iffu of applications to kings, had taken the rcaation of fcnding into England his brother Bartholomew, to whors he had fully communicated his ideas, to rcnegoete matter with Henry V II. Ont his voyage to England, he fell into the hands of pi-* rates, wkho ftripped him & every thing, and detained him a prifoner feveral years. At length he mnade his
~kae, ntiarived at London in extreme 'idigence, where hie employed himfelf forme time itt feling maps. W-ith his gains he purchafed a decent drefs; and in
ferfon prfe n$ed to thec king the piopoalsw~hich his rttfher hdriufted to his management. NotwithJtandtng Her exceffive caution and parfimony, lic received te frpals of Columbus with more a 0 probalion than any monarch to whom they had beenl

rAfter feveral unfuccefsful applications to other lPurapean powers of lek note, he was induced, by the intreaty and interpofition oflPertez, a man ofconlideirabie learning, and of fome credit with quieen Ifabefla, TO apply; again to the court of Spain. This applica..
hena!fr much warm debate and feverai inortil ying repultes, provecd fuccefsFul- not, however, withottt the mnoll vigorous and perfevering exertions of Quin.. taniia an gel, two 'vigilant and difkerning
'paron oF, whofe merito-rious zeal in pmv.noting thiis gaddeln, entitles their names to an Lonourable place in hiflory. It was, however, to iqueern f-Abella, the munificent patronefis of his ntble abo generous defigns, that Cohinnbus ultitrately, rowct his fccefs.
HalvuijZ





DI)1SCOVERY rFAMERICA. 2i I1pin thus obtained the affiftance of the court, a of. Tquadron of three fmaLlveffels was fitted out, viauailed
for twelve months, and furniffied with ninety men.
if The whole expenf~ did not exceed [ 4000. Of ti
re- fquadron Columbuas was appointed admiral. I
11- On the 3d of Auguft, 1492, he left Spain in th &
erprefence of a crowd of fpeaators, who united their 4
ire, supplications to Heaven for his fuccefi. He fleered
direly for the Canary I flands, where he arrived and1
he refitted, as well as he could, his crazy and ill appointhe td fleet. Hence he failed, Septembr 61h a due we!Lemn courfe into an unknown ocean.
Columbus now found a thoufand unoeeen hardfhips to encounter, which dendd al hisjudgneqn,
A-fortitude a addrefs to furmount. Befidles the diffi..
cutiese, unavoidable from the nature of his undertak[is ing, he had to ifruggle with thofe which arofe frour
C, 'the ignorance and timidity of the peopletinder his
in command. On the I 4th of, Septenmber he was alfloniffhed to fidthat the magnetick needle in their cornis iafs, did not point exaffly to the pol4 a. r, but varied
toward the weft; and as they-procedd tls var iatiir
ic jncreafed. This new phenomnotifle the com-'
Aenions of Columbus with terri Nature itfeif
leerned to have fuflained a change; the oly guide they had left, to point, them to a fafe retrea fro an unbounded and tracklefs ocean, was about to Jail them. Columbus, with n& lefa quickness than ingfenuity, signed a reason for this appearance, which thought did not fatisfy himfelf, feenied fo plaufibld to them, that it difpiedterfasoriecd their
g imurmurs.
It tThe failors, always difcontented, and alarmed at
their diffance' from land, leve rat times intiicd
threatened once to throw their nf bora
repeatedly infifted on his returig Clutnbus r,'
& tele trying occafions, dif'played l ta I.f i1e
ration, prudence, foothing address and Einefs wv~
C were neceffary for a person engaged in ak difvey
the noft iterelling to the world o f any uer
-teny man,
C






DISCOVERY ,AMERICA.
It was on the x th of O&ober, 1492, at ten o'elccl in the evening, that Columbus, from the forecaflle, defcried alight. At two o'clock next morning, Roderick Triana difcovercd land. The joyful tidings were quickly communicated to the other fhips. The morning light confirmed the report; and the feveral crews immediately began Te Deum, as a hymn of thankfgiving to God, and mingled their praifes with tears of Joy, and tranfports congratulation. Columbus, richly dreffed, with drawn fwivord in his hand, was the firft European who fet foot in the New World which he had difcovered. The ifland on which he thus firft landed, he called St. Salvador. It is one of that large clufter of Iflands known by the name of the Lucaya or Bahama Ifles. He afterwards touched at feveral of the iflands in the fame clufler, enquiring every where for gold, which he thought was the only khjet bf commerce worth his attention. In fleeing fouthward he discovered the iflands of Cuba and Hil 1niola, bounding in all the neceffaries of life, and in tbited by a humane and hofpitable people. On his return he was overtaken with a florm, which had nearly proved fatil to his hips and their crews, At a crifis when all was given up for loft, Columbus sad prefence of mind enough to retire into his cabin, and to write upon parchment a fhort account of his voyage. This he wrapped in an oiled cloth, which he inclofed in a cake of wax, put it into a tight cafk, and threw it into the fea, in hopes that fome fortunate accident might preserve a depofit of fo much importance to the world. He arrived at Palos in Spain, whence he had failed the year before, on the 15th of March, i 493. He was welcomed with all the acclamations which the populace are ever ready to below on great and glorious chara&ers; and the court received him with marks of the greateftll refpe&.
In September of this year, (1493) Columbus failed t~on his fecond voyage to America; during the performance of which, he discovered the iflands of Dominica, Marigalante, Gaudaloupe, Montferrat, Arrtiua Porto Rico and Jmaica; and retunmed Sain






DISCOVERY of AMERICA. a
In 1498 he failed a third time for America; and
6n the ift of Auguft difcovered the CONTINENT.
Ie then coafted along weftward, making other difcoveries for 2oo leagues, to Cape Vela, from which he croffed over to Hifpaniola, where he was feized by
a new Spanifh Governour, and 14nt home in chains.
In 15o02 Columbus made his fourth voyage to Hifaniola ; thence he went ov to the Continentdifcovered the bay of Hondu:v' thence failed along the main fhore eafterly 200 leagues, to Cape Gracias aDios, Veragua, Porto Bello and the Gulf of Darien.
The jealous and avaricious Spaniards, not immediately receiving thofe golden advantages which they bad promised, and loft to the feelings of humanity and gratitude, fuffered their efteem and admiration of Coliumbus to degenerate into ignoble envy.
The latter part of his life was made wretched by the
cruel perfecutions of his enemies& Queen Ifabella,
his friend and patronefs, was no longer live to afford im relief. He fought redress from Fermnand, but
vain. Difgufted with the ingratitude of a monarch, whom he had ferved with fo much fidelity and fiusc.cers, exhaufted with hardfhips, and broken with the rfirmities which thefe brought upon him, Columrbpb ended his a&ive and ufeful life at Valladolid, on the soth of May, 1506, in the 59th year of his age. le died with a compofure of mind fuited tp the magnanimity which diftinguifhed his charade, and with fentiments of piety becoming that supreme relpe& for religion which he manifefted in every occurrence of his life. He was rave though courteous in his de.
prtment, rcu in his words and a&ions, irreproachable in his nd exemplary in all thed
ties of his religion. e c t of Spaip re fo J
to his memory, notwithfta g their titu wards him during his life, that ty bur ag nificently in the Cathedral of Sevleal
tomb over him with this inferipCotuaus hasgiven a NEW Weas.
the KiNDoxof CASTIoL and






S DESCRIPTION of AMERICA.
Among other adventurers to the New World in pursuit of Gold, was Americus Vefpucius, a Florentine gentleman, whom Ferdinand had appointed to draw fea charts, and to whom he had given the title of chief pilt. This man accompanied Ojeda, an enterizng Spanifhl adventurer, to America; and having with much art, and fome degree of elegance, drawn Up an mufing hiftory of his voyage, he published it to the world. It circulated rapidly, and was read with admiration. In his narrative he had infinuated that the glory of having firft difcovered the continent Sin the New World, belonged to him. This was in part believed, and the country began to be called after the name of its fuppofed firft difcoverer. The unacsountable caprice of mankind has perpetuated the erirour; fo that now, by the univerfal confent of all naions, this new quarter of the globe is called AME RI CA. The name of Americus has fuipplanted that of Column. Sbus, and mankind are left to regret an a& of injuftice, which, having been fanarioned by time,.they can nev ur redrefs.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
of AMERICA.
!Bouie sand.Extent.3 r '"IE Continent of Amer
dariesa n ica, of the difcovery of
ich a fuecina account has juft been given, extends SCape Horn, the southern extremity of the Continent in itud 6 d. fouth, to the north pole; and reads between the 4oth degree eaft, an the sooth degree wet longitude from Philadelphia. It is near-. ly ten thoufaid miles irn length from north to fouth; its mean breadth has never been ascertained. This ctenfive continent lies between the Pacifick Ocean on the weft, and the Atlantick on the eaft. It is faid to contain upwards Of s 4000,00 fquare miles.
C limnate, S island ProduP'ons.] In regard to each of thefe, America has all the varieties which the carth affords. It stretches trough alo the whole width of the five zones, and fes the heatand C of tw fummr
oa





DESCRIPTION of AMERICA.
fummers and two winters in every year. Moft ~o f the animal and vegetable produ&ions which the eaftern continent affords, are found here ; and many that
are peculiar to America.
F Rivers.] This continent is watered by fome of the
largest rivers in the world. The principal of thefe, are Rio de la Plata, the Amazon and Oronoke in South America.-The Miffifippi and St. Lawrence in North
t America.
Gulfs.] The Gulf or Bay of Mexico, lying in the
form of a bafon between North and South America, and opening to the ealt, is conje&ured by fome, tohave been formerly land; and that the conflant attrition of the waters of the Gulf Stream, has worn it to its prefent form. The water in the Gulf of Mex.
ico, is laid to be many yards higher, than on the wefLcrn fide of the continent in the Pacifick Ocean..
Gulf Stream.] The Gulf Stream is a remarkabI
current in the Ocean, of a circular form, beginning on
the coat of Africa, in the climates where the trade winds blow westerly, thence running acrofs the A& lantick, and between the iflands of Cuba and South America into the Bay of Mexico, from which it fEndsa paffage between Cape Florida and the Bahama Iflands, and runs north eafterly along the American coaft to Newfoundland; thence to the Europran coaft, and along the coaff foutherly till it meets the trade winds. It is about 75 miles from thefhores Of the fouthern flates. The diflance increases as yo proceed northward. The width of the fireaM
about 40 or 5o miles, widening toward th rth, and its common rapidity three miles a r northcalft wind narrows the am, render it more rapid,.
and drives it near -t coi; northeft and welt
winds have a contrary efet.
Mountains.] The Andes in America, flretch
along the PacifickOcean from Ihus of Darien, to the Straits of Magellan, 43 The ight
of Chimborazo, the mo elVated in this va
ain of mounta is 20,280et f
or than a oouritain in the known





go DESCRIfT 6%of MERICA.
V north America, though an uneven country, has no remarkably high mountains. Th'e moft confiderable, are thofe known under the general name of the Allegany Mountains: Thefe ftretch along in many broken ridges under different pames, from IHudfon's River to Georgia. The Andes and the Algaty Mountains are probably the fame range, interrupted by the Gulf of
lexico. It has been conjetured that the Weflt India iflands were-formerly united with each other, and formed a part of the continent, conneaing North and South America. Their prefent disjointed fituation is fuppofed to have been occafioned by the trade winds. It is well known that they produce a strong and continual current from eaft to weft, which by beating againft the continent for a long courfe of years, muit roduce furprizing alterations,and may have produced uch an effect as has been fuppofed. Number oInhabitants.] It has been fuppofed that Whre are 16o millions of inhabitants in America. It is believed, however, that this account is exaggerated .t leaft one half. This number is compofed of In. dians, Negroes, Mulattoes, and fome of almoft every atiot i Europe, befides the Anglo Americans who inhabit the United States.
Aborigines.] The characeriftical features 6f the ndians of America are, a very finall forehead covered with hair from the extremities to the middle of the eyebrows. They have little black eyes, a thin nofe, fmall and bending towards the upperlip. Thecountenance broad; the features coarfe ; the ears large and far from the face; their hair very black, lank and coarfe. Their limbs fmall but well turned; the body tall hait, f copper colour, and well proportion ; flrong and alive, but not fitted for muck labour. Their faces fmooth and free from beard, ing to a cuffom among them of pulling it out by e roots. Their countenance, at firft view, appear Ild and innocent, but upon a critical infpeaiorrn they rlifcover fomething wilddi ful and fulen.They are dextrous with hi bowand arrow ; fond 4o adorning thefelm v w1t rns v aandthcl about





D1ESCRit lUN Of A11RICA. gt
-about their necks, and plates in their ears and notes.
In fummer they go almoft naked; but in winter they
cover themfelves with the fkins of beafts taken in hunting, which is their principal employment. They many times torture their prifoners in the mofl thoc k e ing and cruel manner; generally fcalp them, and
fometimes broil and eat them. A great part of the Aborigines of America are grofs idolaters, and w
thip the fun, moon and flars. It is the opinion of many learned& men, fupported by feveral well eftabs lifted fats, that the Indians of America are the remains
of the ten tribes of Ifrael, and that they came to this,
continent in the manner hereafter mentioned..
Society among ravages is extremely rude. The:
improvement of the talents whicIr nature has give-n them, is of courfe, proportionably fmall. It is thgenius oi a favage to a& from, the impulfe of prefg paffion. They have neither forefight nor difpofit'o t to form complicated arrangements with refpeft to
their future condut. This, however, is not to be afcribed to any defeat in their -natural genius, but to their itate of fociety, which affords few objelts for the display either of their literary or political ablit ies. In .all their warlike enterprizes they are led by perfuation.
Their society allows of no compulfion. What civilized nations enforce upon their fubjefts by compulfory meafures, they effea by their eloquence; hencethe foundation of thole mafterly iftrokes oforatory, which have been, exhibited at-their treaties; fame of which equal the molt finished pieces that have been produced by the mot eminent ancient or modema
orators.
Of their bravery and
en us multiplied proofs. No pI e
higher notions of military honour than thd
The fortitude, the calmness, and even
which they manifeft while under thelexfteft tr,
ture, is in part owig to their favage infenfibility,
inore to their exalted id ofilitaryglo
rude notions of future happiness, which they belie
th flhal forfeit by the Icathnianifellationof fear, or






at DESRIPTION of AMERICA. uneafincf under their fufferings. They are finicer ithir friendlhips, but bitter and determined in their re~tments, and often, purfiue their enemies feveral hundred miles through the Woods, fuarmounting every difficulty, in ordered-to be revenged. In their pub,lickc councils they obfervethe greateff decorum. In the foremofi rank fit th 'e old men, who are the coun,. i1Iors, then the warriours, and next the Women and& children. As they keeprino records, it is the bufinefs of the womn to.Rotice every thing that paffes, to imprint It on their memories,, and tell, it to their children..
Thyare, in fhort, the records of the council ; and 'wtth furprifing exa~lnefs,. preferve the flipulations of treaties entered into a hundred years back. Their kindnefs and hofpitality is fearcely equalled by anycivilized nation. 'Their pohitenets; in, converfation is, even carried to extefs, fuice it doesnot allow them to contradift any thing, that, is affe-rted in their pyefence1n thort there.-appears to be much truth in Dr. Frank,. En's~ obfervation, "4We call them favages, becaufe their manners differ from ours, which we think theperfe&ion of civility;~ they think the. fame of theirs."
Teft~f/ipnpiing v'America.], It has long benp i. queft]ion among the curious, how Amefra was itr1
epld ,Various have been the theotes and fpecu=
Za in o igeiosmien uponthsfqt.D Roerfn recapitulated and canvaffed the moft probiabko f thefe, theo ie ;; and, the refult is,.
1. That Amecrica was-not peopled by any nation. fromp the ancient~ continent, whichhad made any conidersale progrefs in civilization ; because when Americpa. was firfi ditiovered, its inhabitants were un1wq 4wc witlh the neceffary arts. of life, which are,
tefriteffays of thelhuman mind toward ixnprovn. mnrt; and. if they had, ever been acquainted with, thm for inflance, with the plousgh,athe loom, and the
fo ,their Utility would~ yae be-en fo great and oh-VliOus, that it is impoffible chy fliould havelbeen lofL
Threfore the anceflors of te firl fettlers In Amercn wereuncivilized and unacquain-tcd witha the acfMX ,ais o lfe.
Iift ,Ami~a. vd.', P.2







DESCRIPTION of AMERICA. 31
II. America could not have been peopled by any colony from the more southern nations of the ancient continent; because none of the rude tribes of there parts pofleffed enterprize, ingenuity, or power fuflicient to undertake fuch a diflant voyage; but more efpecialy, becaufe that in all America there is not an animal, tame or wild, which properly belongs to the warm or temperate countries of the eaftern continent, The firft care of the Spaniards, when they fettlod it America, was to flock it with all the domeftick ani mals of Europe. The firft fettlers of Virginia and New England, brought over with them, horfes, cat tle, fheep, &c. Hence it is obvious that the pele who firft fettled in America, did not originate from thofe countries where thefe animals abound, otherwife, having been accuflomed to their aid, they would have fuppofed them neceffary to the improvement, and even fupport of civil fociety.
111. Since the animals in the northern regionwf America correspond with thofe found in Europe in the fame latitudes, while thofie in the tropical regions, are indigenous, and widely different from thofe which inhabit the correfponding regions on the eaftern conlinent, it is more than probable that all the original American animals were of thofe kinds which inhabit moribern regions only, and that the two continents,. towards the northern extremity, Vre to nearly united. as that thefe animals might pas from one to thre other.
IV. It having been eftablilhed beyond a doubt,
-0y the difcoveries of Capt. Co-, in his laft voyage, that at Kamnjatka, in about latitude 660 north, the continents of Afia and America are feparated by a g1 only a8 miles wide, and that the inhabitants h continent are fEmilar, and frequently pafs and rafs in canoes from one continent to the other; from the% and other circumflances it rendered highly probable That America was firf peopled from the nor
tsof Ab Bufnce the Efiuim X IndTAnoi
a fehtte species of nen, iftna frotti th nstiatts of the Amerdcan Contin t, in lang'
4ifition, and in habits of-is 3 arid- in all-thert

4.refpc...






SETTLEMENTT of AMERICA.
s'ef'peds bear a near.refemblance to the northern Eusropcans, it is believed that the Efquimaux Indians rrmigrared from the north weft parts of Europe. Sev. cral circu-mftances confirm this belief. As early as the ninth century, the Norwegians difcovered Greenland, and planted colonies there. The cw~mun~car vion with that country, after long interruption, was renewed in the ]aft century. Some Luth'eran and Moravian rniflionaries, prompted by zeal for propafting the Chriftian faith, have ventured to fettle in thsfrozen region. From them we learn, that the xirhweft coaft of Greenland is feparatea from A,snerica, but by a ve'ry'narrow firait, if feparated at all; that the.Efquimaiix of America perfedfly refemble the Greenlanders in their afpea, drefs, mode of living, and probably language. By thefe decifive Iaqts, not only the confanguinity of the Efquimaux and Gre enlanders is eftabliftied, but the pollibility of pwpling America from the northweft, parts of Euro-pe. On the whole it appears rational to conclude, that the progenitors of all the American nations, fromr ~Cape Florn to the fouthern limits of Labrador, from the fimilarity of their afpea, colour, &c. migrated from ~the northeaft parts of Afia ; and that the nations that inhabit. Labrador, Efqui11maux, and the parts adjacent, from their unlikenefs to the reff of the American nations, and their reforrblance to the northern Europe. gns, came over from the northwefl parts of Europe.

d~SUiMM ARY ACCOUNT of theprogrel/ivt'SirTLEMENT of NOR TH AMERICA.

N OR~TH AMERICA was difcovered in the regrv
of Henry VI I. a period when the Arts and Scienccs had made very confideac progrefs in Europe., Many of the firLL adventuLre rs re men of genius and learning, and were careful t preferve authentik records of fuch of their proceed dings. a, would be intreifinto poferity. There records afford amplC10CLIMentS for American hiflorians. Perhaps no peo. peon the glbe ca trace the hiflor of their oligia






SETTLEM.ENTvtAMERICA. n~p

and progrefs with fo much precifion, as the inhabitants' of North America ; particularly that part of therr who inhabit the territory of the United States.
The order in which the fettlements were made is follows.
Quebece, fbt6leA By th Frncl'
Quebeckj Jun 0, 1609 By Lord De.,La War. IwfoundlandJune16io By Governour John Gu3 l,,ev Yokabout 1614 By the Dutch. 0
New jerfey, I
*mut,162c, By part of Mr. Robi nfo
plymouthcongnregation.
By a fmalJlEnglifh coo"f New Hampffilre, 1623 near the mouth of Pl cataqua xiver.
eflaa,I
Pelwae, ~ 1627 By the Sw'edes and Fins.
f,~affchI~ts By,1628 By Capt. John Endic6I
maffchuftts ayand company.
By Lord Baltimore, with #Maiylan4, 1633 a colony of Romatt
Catholicks.
By Mr. Fenwick, at Say. Conricificut, 1635 brook, near the mouth~ of Connefficut river. By Mr. Roger Williams R~hode Ifland, x 635 and hisperfccuted brethren.
Granted tofthe Duke of Y6rk by Charles 11. and ~ew erfy, 664 made a diftinf govermo ifient, and fetld fome time before this by the

South (3hrofina, iqBy C ernour Sayle
Pennfylvania, iG8s2 ~i en, h

NariCar~ina,about1728 governmental, fcttled be

;ergia1 ota o






tThBLEMENT gjAMERICA.
cg 1732 By General Oglethorpe,
tuc 773 By Col. Daniel Boon.
By emigrants from C
ermonte 1777 neicut and other parts
of New England.
erritory-N W. By the Ohio and othey
of Ohio river, 1787 companies. T e above dates are from tChe periods when t 1, permanent settlements were made. o or AEICA comprehends al that part ofr th ern cotinent which lies north of the Ifthmus of ricn. This vafL extent of country, is divided be SSpai, Great Britain, and the Thirteen United
sSpain aims all the land weftofthe Miffifipand eaft and weLt Florida. According to the trI7 8, ale country north of the northern boun.
o the Udited States, and caft of the river St. ix, belongsto Great Britain. The remaining part the territory of the Thireen Unital and dndeped&

















b S


I




7ph




I.

part ,the th

the is of be
ite ifp


St. part





414











43







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. .........

















Of dw

rY7


4
I ERIC



4
AI, IT tit.










I A



































3, c c 2









THE UNITED STATES.

-ITVIATiroN~ and XITE IJ .
ngth 25O between IIj iOE460 North Latiaude]3, dthI~G &* 240 W. Long. from Phildtl.

B OUNDEDl North, by 1anada andthe Lakes;
Wf%Ve,-b the river Miilfippi; South, by EaIL and Wef Flrida; Southeaft and Eaft, by the At lantick Ocean and Nova Scotia, from which it is fepa.. cated by the rver S. Croix.
The territory of the United States contains about a million of fuare miles, in which are 640,000,000 of acres.
1)edut1 for water, 51,ooo,ooo

Acreftf land in the United States 5 89,00o,000
Of this exterifive traaq, two hundred and twenty jrnillions of acres have been transferred to the federal government by feveral of the original ffates, and pledged as afid for linking the contin~ental debt.
Lahes atid Rivers] It may in truth be faicj, that p0 ~pait o'fthe wol is fo well watered with fiprin S, riv-n i~lts, nves an lakes, as the territory of the Enited.
&ates* By eans of thefe various ftreams and ctllet~os o iater, the whqle country is checed into iflandan peninfulas. Tno United States, adindeed ll~ prsof North America, feemn to have been formed ~by nature for the molt intimate union. For two bundre houfand guineas, North America might be conve'e into a clJufter of large and fertile iflands, comnmunictn with each other with c-afe and little ex
peneandinmany inflances without the unce-it or danger of the f ea.
There is nothing in ether parts of the globe, wil refembles the prodigious chain of lakes in thispato the world They may properly be termed iln i".of,51 wwer; and cven thcfL ofthe fecoo o hiA







r UNITED STATES.
car in mgnitude, are of larger circuit than the great-.
ell: lake in the eaffern continent.
Thle principal lakes in the United States, are the
LAke of" the WToods, in the north eft corner of the United StateS, -0 miles long and 40 wide. As you travel eaft: you come next to Long Lake, ioo miles long andfabout 18 or 20 wide.-Thence you pafs.
thog everal fmall lakes into Lake -Superiour, thea
largest lake in the world; being t6oo miles in circumference, Thrre are two large iflands in this lake,
each of which has land enough, if fuitable o tillage to formi a confiderable province. The Idan~s fuC
pofe the Great Sp~irit refides in there 1fand. Thi ,lake abounds with 11thi. Storms affeal it as much as~ they do the_ Atlantick Ocean The waves run as high ; arnd the navigation is as dangerous. It difcharge t waters from the lbutheaft 5orner,-throughv the fait, of-St. Marie into Lahe THuron, which is next in magnitude to Lake Superiour, being about iooo miles in circumference. This lake, at its northcal (corner, communicates with Lake Mic higan, which is 900 miles in circumference, by the firaits of Mikkillimakkinak. Lahe St. Claire lies about half way between Lake uron and Lake Erie, and is about -go m4iles in circumference. IL communicates with Lak Eric, 1_by the river Detroit. Lake Erie is nearly 3oo miles long, from caft to weft, and about 4o in the~ broadeft par t. The iflands and fhoresof tis lake are greatly inleffedwith fnakes,~ many of which are of the venlomous kind. This lake, at its north~eafend, corn-~ snunicates with Lake Ontario, by the river Niagara,.
3o miles long-. In this river are thofe remarale falls which are reckoned one of the greatest niatual curiofities in the world.. The waters which~ fruppl
- the river Niagara rife near two6thUFarld Mtiles to the
northwest and paffing through the lakes upcrtour.
M1iNgan, Huron and Erie, rciin i cou~le
%;nfat accumulations, at length,. with a4oulhi4 grndur, rufl' down a flupendop recipice of one
hnrdand forty, feet perpend icur;n in a ffrong
raid tat exttnds to the diftauc of 9rt i ninc





40 e UIN IT ED S TACT E S
iles below, fall near as much more ; the river tterr kufes itself in Lake Ontario. The noife_ of thefie fai,
-(called the Niagara Falls),in a clear day and fair wind, snay be heard, between forty and fifty miles. Whon thiewaterfr l--sthe bottom, it bounds to a great height in the air, occafIoning a thick cloud of vapours, ot, which the fuwhen hie flames, paints a beautiful rainlake Onztari, 2is ofan oval form about 6oo miles in1 c ircumr-ference!. It difchargcs its waters by the river irocjuoi's, whih, at Montreal, takes the name of St L.a,%rence ,ver. and paffing by Quebeck, fails into the GUlf (A S_. Lawrenice. La:ke Chz;mpLn forms a pat o )f the boundary between New Yokand Verpntn, and is about go miles long, and 14 broad. Lake
4~ag isfouth of lake Champlain, and is about 35
*niles ]ong,, and narrow.
Theli principal river inf the United States ipt he MA!;1i11, which forms the western boundary of the United States. It receives the waters of the Ohio and 11llinics and their numerous branches, from the caft an d the Miffouri and other large rivers flemr the wefl.
efe ighty dreams united, are borne down,. With ancrein naaff through vaft fore-fts and meadows, inUto thei Gulf of. Mclxico. 'Ii Its qpofd to be about, jooo mlis long, and is naviga~lc, 1o thez Fail, ofi St. Anthony, in hat. 44 d1 3o m- Y)h!" falls are 3jo feetrpendicular height. The wholec river, which is more than 95o yards wide, falls th-e above
4itnc nd forms a moft pleading' calaract. This rver refemblls the Nil in that it annually over,'lows and leavs a rich Rium- on its banks ;and in the numloer -ofi( mouths, opening in a fea that may be cornrare t eMedtcrrantan.
The Indian yh that four of the largefi rivers in Nordh AmerjCdviz. S'. LawecMfifpior bon, OjeCgon, or the,: river of the elt have their fou:r6es, withinn aboun~t go( tmi OF ea-Cll other. k'f tlhis be fa&f, it, proves thlat th 1)-1lads at, IIIhe hed(fJhf
aivrs re he ighffin North~ America. All tle riyers run d:1,ifert counfes and emptyinod a







qrz UNITED STATES. 41
oceans, at the diftance of more than 2000 miles from their fources. For in their pallffage from this fpot tothe Gulf of St. Lawrence, eall; to Hudfon's bay,north; to the bay of Annican, welt, where the river Oregon is fuppofed to empty; and to the Gulfof Mexico, fouth, each of them traverfIs upwards of 2000oo miles.
The Ohio is the moff beautiful river on earth. Its gentle current is unbroken by rocks or rapids, except in one place. It is a mile wide at its entrance into the Miffifippi; and a quarter of a mile at Fort Pitt, which is iM88 miles from its mouth. At Fort Pitt the Ohio lofes its name, and branches into the Monongahela and Allegany rivers. The Monongahela, 1.2 or v5 miles, from. its mouth, receives Yo'hogany river.
The country watered'by the Miffifippi and its eaftern branches, constitutes five eighths of the UnitedA States; two of which 4 are occupied by the Ohio and its branches; the refiduary ftreams which run into the, Gulph of Mexico, the Atlantick, and the St. Lawrence, water the remaining three eighths. The other confi derable rivers in the United States will be mentioned in their propepaces.
Bays.], The coa.of the United States is indented with numerous bays, fome of which are equal in fize to any in the known world. Beginning at the northeallfterly part of the con tinent, and proceeding fouthwelterly, you firfl: find the bay or gulf of St. Lawrencei, 'which receives the waters of the river of the fame name. Next is Chebukto Bay, in-Nova Scotia, diftinguiflecd by the lofs of a French fleet in a former war between France and Great Britain. The Bay of Fundy, between Nova Scotia and New England, is remarkable for its tides, which rife to theheight of fifty or fixty feet, and flow fo rapidly as to overtake anmals which feed upon the fhore. Penobfcot, Broad and Cafco Bays, lie along the coaft of the Province ofain. Maffaehufetts Bay fpreadseaftwardof BofS and is comprehended between Cape Ann on the mnoth, and Cape Cod on the fouth, gafing by Nar -






,y-ITE1J STATES.
raganfet and other bays in the flate of Rhode IftnD~ you enter Long JI land found, between Mlontauk pmfirt and the i?1in. This Sound, is- a kind of inland fea, from thre, to twenty five miles broad, and about ont, handred' and forty miles long, extending the whole length of- the ifland, and dividing it from onnedficut. jt cornInunicates wi th the ocean at both ends of Long island, and affords a very fafe and convenient inland navigation.
The celebrated firait, called Hel Gate, is near the
-w-1 endl of this fibunii, about eight miles eaftward of
Ne okcity, and is remarkable for its whirlpool a,. which mfake a tremendous rearing at certain times of Ldte. Thefe whirlpools ate occafioned by thenarrow%*e.sand1 crookednefs of the pafis, and a bed of rocks utic extends quite acrofs-if Detrare Bay is fixty miles long, from the Cape to,
entrance of the river 1)claware~at Bombay hook; and fo wide in fome part&. as that a fhipR, in the mnid.' ,dic of it,. cannot be feen from the !and. It, opens into 1h Atlantick northweff and foutheaft. between Cape c~nlopen on -the right, and ,Cape May on the left-. hc.IieI Capes are eighteen miles apart.
wT-hdChefapeek is one of the largeff, baysin the known wrl. Its entrance is between, Cape Charles and Cape Henry in Virginia, twelve miles wide, and it extends, two hundred and feventy miles to the north ward, dividing Virginia and Maryland. It, is frosts e-Ven to eighteen miles broad, and generally as muchf
-is nine fathoms deep ; affording many commodiOUs harbours,.and a fafe a*nd eafy navigation. It receives "he waters of~ the-Sufquehannah, Patomak, Rappa-hiannok .York anti-James rivers, which are all large 'and navigable,
Face otli 6'osmtty.] TI- tatfrof country belongs ngto the United-tats is bappilv variegated with plains and mounti: Jhills a-1 vaflies. Some parts ;ise rocky, patclaily New Enlnd henorth parts of New YI'vi and New J~z fer, and a brC ad fpace, ]Nclud!ing O thei i~~a idges of the lonig rang e of moun4 Wuin whiich rux fouiweftwar-d through Penrfylva






TNE UNITED STATES. 49
nia, Virginia, North Carolina, and part of Georgia,dividing the waters which flow into the Atlantick, from thofe which fall into the Miflifippi. In the parts eaft of the Allegany mountains in the fouthern flates, the country for feveral hundred miles in length, and fixty or feventy, and sometimes more, in breadth, is level and entirely free of fRone.
Mountains.] In all parts of the world, and particularlv on this weflern continent,itisobflervable, that~ s you depart from the ocean, or from a river, the land gradually rifes; and the height of land, in common, is about equally diflant from the water on either fide. The Andes in South America form the heightt of land between the Atlantick and Pacifick Oceans.
That range cf mountains, of which the Shining mountains are a part, begins at Mexico, and contino.ing northward on the eaft of California, feparates the waters of thofe numerous rivers that fall into the Gu.lf of Mexico and the Gulf of California. Thence continuing theircourfe ftillnorthward, between the fources o! the Miffifippi and the rivers thatrun into the South Sea, they appear to end in about 47 or 48 degrees of north latitude ; where a number of rivers rife, and empty themselves either into the South Sea, into Hudfon's Bay, or into the waters that communicate between there two feas.
The Highlands between the Province of Main and the Province of Quebeck, divide the rivers which fall into the St. Lawrence north, and into the Atlantick fouth. The Green Mountains, in Vermont,. divide the waters-which flow eafterly intoConneticut river, from thofe which fall wefterly into Lake Champlain and Hudfon's River.
Between the Atlantick, theMiflifippi. and the Lakes, runs a long range of mount uns, made up of a great number of ridges. Thefe mountains exend northeafterly and fouthweflerlv, nearly parallel with the Ica coaft, about nine hundred miles in length, and fir fity to one hundredland fifty, and two hundred mik in breadth. Numerous trads of fine arable d grazinglandintervene between the ridges. The different
,, ridgcs







44 THE UNITED STATES.
ridgeswhich compofe this inimenfe range of rnouz.. tains, have different names in different Raites.
The principal ridge is the Allegany, which has been rieicriptively called the back bone of the United States. The general name for there mountatns,taken colieftave I Y, is the Allegany Mouwnains, fo called from the principal ridge of the range. Thefe mountains are not confufedly flattered and broken, rifing here and there into high peaks overtopping each other, but firetch alon in uniform ridges, fearcely half a mile high.
Thyfpread as you proceed fouth, and fdtie of themt tertninate in high perpendicular bluffs. Otheis gradually fubfide into a level country, giving rife o the rivers which run foutherly into the Gui [of Mexico.
Soil and.Produffions.] The foil of the United S~ates,. is equal to that of any country in the world, lips pro-. duffions will be mentionedin the account of'the par-. ticular ftates.
Animals.] According to M. de Buffon there are2oo fpejjes of animals only exifting on the earth. On. hundred of thefe are aboriginal of America.
WIle following is a catalogue of the animals coftS moi to North America. JMirnnoth Monax Marten
Buffailo Grey Squirrel Mtinx
Panthe~r Grey Fox Squirel Beaver
Ca ajou Black Squirrel Mufquaflt
WidCat Red Squirrel Otter
Fear Ground Squirrel, Fifhier
I Ik Flying Squitre Water Rat
White Bear- Black Fox Muik Rat
Wolf Red Fox Houfe Moufk
MtoofeI -r G 'rey Fox Field Moule.
strag Placoon Males
Carrabou W oichuck Q~qikhatch_7
Fallow Deer Skunk Morfe
Greenlan4 Deer Opoffumi PorcupioRabbit Pote Car, scal.
ldahaina Coney WeaCl
Thefe dic6,vided into three claffes;
i. Beafts of different genzs froct any known inthe
old world; of which are the-Opoff'um, thec Racon.







reUNITED STATES.
~.Beafis OF til fame genus, but of different fpecicsfroms the cailer continent, of which are
The Pailher Fallow Deer Gr' und Squirrel
WinC Cat GreN For FlNyirg Squirrel
B 1, l Grey Sepirrel Pole Cat
A, ofe Deer Grey F'x Squitrel Porcupinr, &'
S'ag Blakk Squirrel
B.Ieafls which are the fame on both- continents, vle
'~l~t3~u O~tr leld Moufc
NWhite Bear Watrr Rat Mole
Wolf Ficufe Rat M1orfe
Weale ,ufk Rat Sea), Stc.
Beaver Ha~ie Meu, c
'fhe MNAM~mOT11 is not found in the civiiz of America. ts oeluehwvrtate cariVetous, anld that he Pill exifi on the north o h Lakes. Their tuiks, grin &.rs, and fkeletons of Unrcommon rnagnitde, have been found at the 1ilt liks on the Ohio, in New Jerfey, and ott~er places. T] e Indians have a tradition hand-- tlwn froin their Jlther~s refpcfig thefe animals, T hat in ancient times a herd of them care to the Bighone licks, and beg an art uniirerfal deffrudion of the bears, deer, elks, bi t!pIos, and other animals which had been created fo(r the uaf Of the Indians :That the Great Man above, looking down and feeing this3, was fo enr-aged that hie feized hiis lightning, desfendled to the earth, feated hi mfelf uron a necighbouring naountain, on a rock, on whic h his, feat and the print of his feet are "ill to be feen1, and hu-rle d his bolts an~ong them tilil the ivholtt were flaugfhtered, except the bi g bull, w-ho prefenting his forehnead to the fhafis, 1 hothemo a,- they fell ; < Ibut at length m7iig On, 4woueded-him in the ,'d ; ,whereon, fprin6 i, round-, -e hounded over the O'hi, the %Vahafh-, the Illinois, and finally over the g-reat lakes where he is living at ths day.'
The Opossum is an animal of a dilinh enus and1 therefore has litte refemblance to anyoher creatuire. It is about the fize of a commoni car. which it refetnbles in fo rue degree as to its body; itss lreai fhat, tile feet are formed like thofe of a rat, as are4 it c;r th~e fiimi &ndJ headi are long like the hog 's; theteti ik.ctbofe dofad ~body is coN-erd tsiniv wvi ion'z





r, a UNITED STATES. L
lon~g btiftly whitifh hair -,its tal Iis long, shaped 1i thatf na rat without hair. But wh~at is molt rema able in thi s creature, and which diffiguifies lit fc all others, is its falfe belly, which is formed by or memnbrane, fifnclofiis the dugs) which it opens' lof1es at x i n this falfe belly, the young are n
in O~re of danger. Though contrary to t
lws of nature, it is believed bymany, that thefeani
masare bred at the teats of their darns. It is a fa
~tle young ores have been many times feen,
than the head of a large p in, fadl fixed andiiat, :-e teats in the falfe belly. In this flat, th
i 'bei-s are difinatly vifibkle; they appear lke
embryo clinging tothe teats. By cdfiffant obfervatict th~ey have been found to grow into a perfe& fotetus
i proper, ime they drop off ito the falfe bell
ere they remain fecure, till they are capable
r oviding for them fevs. From thefe circurnflance it feers that the OYpoffum is produced, in a mann:
out f the common courfe of nature. But it appear
Irwthe dife~tiourof onre of then by Dr. Tyfon, th1 f
'iorIr&ure is fuch as is fitted for generation, lik *0o~der animals;- and of courfe he Iiippoifes thi 01;~tnecefarily be bred and excluded in the fam
vyaiother quadrupeds. But by what rhethodth
da fer exclufion, fixes them dhher teats, if thi
arnrof prod ufion, is fecret yet unknownIl BYALO is larger than an ox ; high on th
Ahudrs ; and deep through the breaft. The flef-ho
isaimalis equal in goodnefs to beef; its fkin mak
p* -t'her, and its hair, which iso a woolly kin
is m uftred into atolerabl godcoh
1erc R of' America refembles, in fhape,. tho
mfAfaand Afria but is con fiderably fmnaller ; n
io appear to be fo fierce and ravenous as they are
The colour ofit is a dazrtifh yellow, and is entirely IF
from fjots.
TWeCA4 Of the MOvwrAsa; refembles a comma~
cat, but is of a much larger fize.. Its haiij is of a dlifh or oange colour, inreerfred with ljht-:) Ma SThis animal is exceedingly fierm, though it ill
doin attack,. a uan. 1





r UNITED STATES. 4
1be ELK is shaped like a deer, but is con iderably larger, being equal in bulk to a horfe. The hornsof this creature grow to a prodigious fize, extending fo i wide, that twoor three perfons might fit between then and at the fame time. But what is ftill more remarkable on is, that there horns are fhed every year, in the month
thl of February, and by Auguf, the nlew ones arte nearly
at their full growth.
The Mo os E is about the fize of the elk, and its horns
shoft as large. Like the elk, it fheds its horns an.
n nally. Though this creature is of the deer kind,
it never herds as do deer in general. Its fleth is ex ,
eedinglygood food, eafy of digelion, and very nour .
ifhing. Its fkin, as well as that of the elk, is valuable,
making when dreffed, good leather.
The CARRASs is fomething like the moofe in
Shape, though not nearly fotall. Its fleh isexceedingly
c goo d, its tongue in particular is in high effeem. Its

ein, being fmooth and free fromveins. is valuable.
S The CA ac&3 o is a creature of the cat ind, d is
it a terrible enemy to the elk, and to the carrabou, as wel
Sas to the deer. He either comes upon them unperS ceived from fome concealment ; or climbs up into I a tree, and taking his fRation oni fome of the branches, ls waits till one of them takes shelter under it; when he
faftens upon his neck, and opening the jugular vein, foon brings his prey to the ground. The only way ofefcape is flying irnediately to the water, for as the carcajou has a great dislike to that element, he wit
leave his prey rather than enter it.
The SvuNK is the moft extraordinary animal the
American wood& produce. It is of the fame c with the pole cat, for which, though differ ent from it in many refpe&s, and particularly in being ofa le fize, it is frequently miftaken. Its hair is long an 'hining, of a dirty white, mixed in fome places with black. Its tail is'long and bufhy like that of the fox.
It lives chiefly in woods and hedges; and is poffeffe of extraordinary powers, which however are exerted
o nly wen it is pursued. On fuch an occafion, it
jets from behind a alU ream of water t1fo fab





414 THL U-NITED STATES.
Ile a nature, and fi) po-wei-Ful a tlic air'
lainte(i With to ,, 11"I c, I i'l 011 11),13 aAcwvit the anitijeil 1 cii! ,c! Vierch
the Child (-,f tl (- Oc,-d, oi- X"', Plfa0c, th, S ta r: k 1 n,-, B c ft. fliiscre,; ,nir ci
ill i s cicfcl cc, isgcnerally fippofccl by -tturaldl&t be ifs urifie; but Mr. 'Carvc r, w1lo fhut and U
fi ,d many of them, declare& that lic fcnind, i
1-innal veifels, a finally reeeptas Ic of wzvc,-, 1wall rlillin l- from he bladder, from which, lie. ta fats t hoyi:id Rench proceeded. The fat of 1110 q Aunk, illicit externally PI'TAICO, is POWCrful ( 1 1301
lient, and its 11(,Ih Nv cn 6i-cille-,f] without1beirg tainted y its f(ut!d ivatci, Tvfxveet and. I,(-,od.
Tht PO A C F OY HEDGE HUI iS ci!)OUt OIC CIZC
()F a irrall do it is neith, iavlotjg nor fo lal!.
I tsfhapc tiiat d a fox, excc, tirg I!,; sivad,
Nvliich is fQinc li _-g like the head ofayabl_) 'I.
c", vq-C4 v ith (p tills of about f" r incl-ics mo! f
cfwhidi ing At the point, of tht- L,:; ck nel ;of
a ftra, % qu Lls the porcupine darts at his c ciny. an(l if Ocv pierce the flc4h in the leaft de c
f tl 21,1 ill 1 Ll zit, fhtough it, and are not to bLan s uf p tbefe q
iafto l withow m7i on. -The Iiid tbef
for bwin,, Ow;r and nof2sto insert theirjewc ,,
a -a tillU by w i)' o' mt to theif stockings, hair,
Cll C.
The W'o o li C: i:: is a qmui i, ol fil I, r
(i a- 'mal -' fliz Iu,
k in (1, a b o i i, c r I r c i os I j i Jt, li o 'v i's round,
to -us fn- t its 1 pa -_ 1 1 1. ai d con4,,:
its 1C, j -e v S :,,t

ill %.vilich HL bul I.GWS ; its Cth is
Thc RAC001, an an ima I c)fagcnu t I: flcrtint fro
any known on Oic (. Rciri contiric-it. Its hc )d ii
inuch like. a ciilv it vars ?it -cr, TP
3L)14nd. aNd MC FC M1,0(l. It ill)() n- 'CTIA Acs tllaL aniInal I'l it ha;:, \ hic") thiC1,. lo-nor*Arvi fll ft : an a rl It-sc lo6v P.n(l (xcc ptirqg tliathe !02-iicz 11ii-tr and,'
Aci,,-ik -is lace
tli-_ laftevb,illi Ltiq( rand friort c r. I I L",
a b roa (i 11, i pe ind u d i n g i t s c,, es, w icliaiela4t. it, iurjut is bl.tU-, Mid roundAL ut cnd like tl-,at of tv;g






.n UNITED STATES. 0
S dog; its teeth alfo are fimilar to thofe of the dog, both in number and thape; the tail is long and round, with
s annular firipes on it; the feet have five long flender
t toes, armed with harp claws, by which it is enabled
e to climb trees, and run to the extremities of the boughs.
Its fore feet ferve it inflead of hands, like th-f~ of the
m monkey.
SThe laft quadruped which fhall be particularly defath cribed, is the BEAVER. This is an amphibious aninal, which cannot live for any long time in the water,
f and it is faid can exift without it, provided it has the
f convenience of fometimes bathing itself, The largest
l beavers are nearly four feet in length, about fourteen tai or fifteen inches in breadth over the haunches, and
weigh fifty or fixty pounds. The head of this animal is large ; its fnout long; its eyes fmall ; its ears flaort, tall. round, hairy on the outside, and fnmooth within; of
d its teeth, which are long, broad, strong and thar, dy the under ones land out of its mouth about the breadth
o of three fingers, and the upper about half a finger.
of Befidesthefe teeth, which are called in@jors, beavers
ne have fixteen grinders, eight on each fide, four above
re and four below, directly oppofite to each other. With
the former they are able to cut down trees of a confid1ills erable fize, with the latter to break the hardell fobel frances. Their legs are fort, particularly the fore
air, legs, which are only four o rfie inches long. The
toes of the fore:feet aro separate; thefe of thehind feet
Fr have membranes between tbem. In confequence of
this they can walk, though but slowly, while they S vim as cafily as any aouAtick animals. Their tails
S bfomewhat refemble thofe of fifth, and here, and their
hind feet, are the only parts in which they do not refemble land animals. Their colour is different according to the different climates whlch they inhabit.
In the moft northern parts, they are generally quite
black ; in more temperate, brown; their colour -, coming lighter and lighter as they approach towards the fouth. Their fur is of two forts all over their bodies. That which is longeft is generally about an inch long-, though on the back it fometimes extends to E two





r Ir UNITED STATES.
two inches, gradually fhortening towards the he
-nd tail. This part is coarfe and of little ufe.
other part of it confifts of a very thick and fine dow( of about three quarters of an inch long, bo loft that feels like filk, and is that which is commonly manufa
tured. Caflor, fo ufeful in medicine, is produce from the body of the beaver. It was formerly believe to be his tefticles, but late difcoveries have fhewn th
itis contained in four bags in the lower belly.
The ingenuity of thebeavers in building their cabin
and in providing themfelves fubfiflence, is truly wo derfuL When they are about to choofe a habitation they atlemble in companies, fometimes of two orthr hundred, and aftermature deliberation, fix on a plc where plenty of provifions, and all neceffaries aret be found. Their houfes are always fituated in th water, and when they canfind neither lake nor pon
* convenient, they fupply the defeEt by flopping t
current of fome brook or fmall river. For this pu pole they fele& a number of trees, carefully takin
thofe above the place where they intend to build, th
they may twim down with the current, and placing themfelves by threes or f ours round each tree, foon l them. By a continuation of the fame labour, thCe cut the trees into proper lengths, and rolling them int the water, navigate them to the place where they to be ufed. After this they conftrua a dam with much folidity and regularity as the moft experience workman could do. The formation of their cabins
no lefs remarkable. There cabins are built either o piles in the middle of the pond they havie formed, ori the bank of a river, or at the extremity of lbome pont of land projefting into a lake. The figure of them i
round or oval. Two thirds of each of them ri above the water, and this part is large enough to ca lain eight or ten inhabitants. They are contiguoust each other, fo as to allow an ealty communicatio Each beaver has his place alffigned him, the oo
which he curioufly firews with leaves, rendi
cleann and comfortable. The winter never rp
thee anmals before their bufinelfs Sm rleted







Ii ~ UNITED STATES.
T t +eir houfes are generally finified by the ladh of'Sep.
ro V ember, and their ftock of provilionis laid in, which th t Onrftf of final1 pieces of wood, difpofed in fuch man
aua net as to preferve its moiffure.
luceUpwards of one hundred and thirty American birds lieve havc been enumerated, and many of them deferibed
nt by Gatefby, Jeff.3rfon, and Carver. The following
cat alog3Tue is inferted to gratify the curious, to inform abin the inquifiltive, and to fh~w the aftoniflaing variety isw
woi this beautiful part of creation.
ati .Tle Blackbird Spoonbill do. Crow Blackbird
thl Razorbilled do. Summer do. King bird
pla ~ Balti more bird Black head do. Kinkfiliier
BaftardliaitimOreBiue winged Shoveler Loon are IBlue bird Little brown duck Lark
ntBuzzard Sprigtail Large Lark
Blue La Whitefaced T'eal Blue Linnet
po.Blue 1rolbeak Blue winged Teal Muck bird
g t Brown Bittern Pied bill Dolbchick M~ow bird
2 rCrefted Bittern Eagle Purple Mlarl
aSmall Bictern Bald Eagle Nightingale
Booby Flamingo Noddy
lbGreat Booby Fieldfareof Carolina Nuthatch
acmi Blue Peter or Robin 'Oyfter catcher
n e Bulich Purple Finch ODwl
Bald Coot Baharma Finc Scretch Owl
the Cue Water A nerican4,ldflnch Ainericao Partridgeint Whbite Curlew Painted Finchr Or Qual
Cat bled Crefted Flycatcher Pheafant or oa
Cuckov. Black cap do. tain Parteri
:hCrow Little brown do. Water rfieafan
nced (owpen bird Red eyed do. lica n
.ChatteringPlover Finch creeper Water Felicani
nisor Kildee Stortn Find, Pienofp
I onCrane or blue Coat Sucker of Ca-~ White crowned 0g-om
lOn.Heron roliaa Parrot c4 Paradfe
Yellow beealted Gull Paro-quet of Carlina
01Chat Laughing Gull R aven
mif, Cormnora t Goofe Rice bird
rHoopingrane Canada Goofe Red blrd
rPine Creeper -Hawk Summer Red bird
Yellow throated Fifing? Mawlc Swia
toCreeper Pigeon Hawk Soree
Dove Nigh~t 14awk Snipe
Ground Dove Svailow tlaile d o. Red Start
:itDuck HAangbid Red winged Star'lag
liathera Duck Heroa Swallow
Round created do. Little white Hferon C h 1in m o.
Sheldrach or Heath cock Sn~ow 4iJr4
Canvafai do. Humming bird Little sparro
Buf!ela head do. Vurle J ackdaw or lahaa do.






Ni- uI1ED STATES. 'I'Ie Strkled Thrufl, Large whitebilled'
TurlStor Fox, Coloured woodpecker
Turkd,,,k1y hrulh Large ved creftee do~
Tilt Little Thruth Gold winged do.
adTIUmoufe TrOPiak bird Red beffied do.
ye-Iow do. Turtle of Carolina 11airy do.
Jaharna 'fit- Water wagtail Red headed do.
toC uie Water hen Yellow bellied do.
Hooded do. Water witch SnIalleft fpotted do.
Yellow rump Wakori bird Wren
Towlie bird Whetfaw
Calefby obiferves, that the birds of Amrerica generally cxceed thofe of Europe in the beauty of thei
plumage, but are much inferiour to them in the mel~
tyof their no~tes.
The WAa~t ThLICA~rinhahts the, Miffifipp.Ia
pouch holds a peck.,
The L~jtK is a lofty bird, and foars as high as-an
of The inihabitants of the airy region : IHence the old
provezb. When the fky falls we fball catch larks.'
The Wuip PooR vizL, is remarkable for the zj, plaintive melody of its notes. It acqtuires its name
from t-he Doi fe it makes, which to the people of, the Pates founds Whip poor wilf to the Indiana Muck a 'wi. A ftriking- proof low di erently the fatme
Iounds iiuprefs diffeent perfhns At"
Th~e Luois a water fizw1 of the fame species of, fl T~h~ic. It is an- exceedingly nimble bird, and*i expei al diing, that it is with great difficulty killed.
The P&ARTR I ueE. Irrkfrne ;,arts of the country teeare three or fourr different kinds, of Paitric'ges,
all of themn larger than the partridges of Europe. WVhat'
Yt alh-d the Quail in New England is denomninated
Partridge in the fouthern flates, where the true Part-.
ijdge is not to be found.
Th1~e WVAK ON BIRDl, whi'qh probably is of the. famne
fpec'es with the bird of Paradife,. receives its name fiorn the, ideals the Indians have of its fluperieur ex(Ttlence;: the -Wekorr bird being in their hnriuae the
bird of the Great Spirit. It is near~vly: feo the
fiwallow, of a brown colour, fliaded 'about the nieck
Nv~tit a brighi green. The wings are of a cakr
br"OWntha-I the Lody. itstalconood ol ~ r






TIE UNITED STATES. 53
ive feathers, which are three times as long as its body, and which are beautifully fhaded with green and putdde- ple. It carries this fine length of plumage in the fame
manner as the peacock does his, but it is not known whether like him it ever raifes it to an ere&t position.
The EVH ETSAW is of the cuckow kind, being like
that a folitary bird, and fcarcely ever feen. In the summer months it is heard in the groves, where it makes a noike like the filing of a faw, from which
circumfiance it has received its name.
ei- The HuMINn BaoD is the fmalleftof all the feathar ered inhabitants of the air. Its plumage fiurpaffes
description. On its head is a fmall tuft ofjetty black
It its breaft is red; its belly white; its back, wings and
tail of the finest pale green; fmall fpecks of gold are an scattered over it with inexpreffible grace; and to
ol crown the whole, an almoltimperceptible down foftens the feveral colours, and produces the moft pleafing fades.
the~
ume Of the Snakes which infeft the United States, are thethe following, viz.
k a Thle Rattle Snake Corn do.
Small Rattle Snake Hognofe do.
me Yellow Rattle Snake Hoofe do.
Water Viper Green do.
of Black Viper Wampum do.
Brown Viper Glafs do.
d Copper bellied Snake Bead do.
ed.Blul (h green Snake Wall or Houfe Adder
Black Snake Striped or Garter Snake
Ribbon do. Water Snake
es, Spotted Ribbon do. Hiffing do.
atChain do. Thorn tailed do.
Joint do. Speckled do.
reen fpotted do. Ring do.
Coachwhip do. Two headed do.
The THORN TAIL SNAKE is of a middle f12e, and
of a very venomous nature. It receives its name from a thorn, like a dart, in its tail, with which it infli&s its wounds.
Le The JOINT SNAKE is a great curiofity. Its fkin is
as hard as parchment, and as fmooth as glars. It is beautifully freaked with black and white. It is fo Aiff, and has fo few joints. and thofc fo unyieldig iE2 t





M4 tit UNITED STATE&
that it an hardly bend itfeif into the form of a hoopWhen it is ftruck, it breaks like a, pipe Item ; and, you may, with a whip, hreak it from the tail to the~ bowels into jices not an inch long, and- not produce
the leaf tin~ture of blood. It is not venomous.
The Two READED SNAKE. Whether this be a
dffinf fpecies of fniakes intended to propagate its~ kind, or whether it be a~monhtrous produaion, is uncertain. .The only ones I have known or heard of itn this country, are, one taken near Champlain in 1762,.
and one preferved in the-Mufeuin of Yale College, in
New HJaven.
The inakes are not fo, numerous nor~ fo venomous~
in the northern as in the fouthern flates. In the latter, however, the inhabitants are furniffhed with a much greater variety of plants and herbs, which afford immediate relief to perfibns bitten by thefe veomous creatures.. It isan obfivaorwrtyope~
petual and grateful remembhrance, that whereever yenOM us animals are found,- the GoD of Nature ha,% ki7ndly provided fufficient antidotes against their
Voi'fon.
Oft. the alanifhiing variety of Infefs found in-A--,
Iierica, we will mention,
Th! low orin riatFire Fly or Bug.
Leg orGuinea do. Loufe ft
Naked Snail Wood Loulle -Ant S tsfS,,s Forty Legi or Cen- Fee
TV .cc Wormn tiipes E-Urnbie Bee
Wood Worm Caterpillar Black Wafp
ZS;1k Worm- Adder bolt Yellow Wafp
Wil Liufe or Cleada or Locufl Hornet
P ug Alan gazer Pl
So 1,u, Cock R-oche Sand Plty
JMorn Bug Cricke Mlufleto
$ la Beetle Spidzr
To thefe; may be added the infed, ALIch of latC7
years has proved fo Wtruffive to the wheat in nally.
parts of the middle and New ngland States',, comi
mnonly, but erroneoufly, called thet Ileffian Fly.
The Ai- t voATO is'afpeties of the cc d ile
in appearance onuc of the ualleft creatures in th 4'l)A.
TheV





ta UNITED STATE 56
P' They are amphibious, and live in and about treciks,
d fwamps and ponds of flagnant water. They are very fond of the flefh of dogs and hogs, which they vorace ciouly devour when- they have opportunity. They
are alfb very fond of fifh, and devour vaf quantities a of them. When tired with fishing, they leave the
tswater to balk themfclvesin the fun, and then appear more like logs of half rotton wood thrown ashore by
irt the current, than living.creatures; but upon perceiv2 ing any vellel or person nearthem, they immediately
throw themnifelves into the water. Some are of fo monfirous a fize as to exceed five yards in length.is During.the time they lie balking on the fhore, they
t- keep their huge mouths wide open, till',illed witha muketoes, flies, and other infefts, when they fuddenF- ly fh ut their jaws and swallow their prey.
SThe alligator isan oviparous creature. The female
makes a large hole in the fand near the brink of a, river, and there depofits her eggs, which are as white
L. as thofe of a hen, but much larger and more fold.
r She generally lays about an hundred, continuing in the,
fame place till they are all dapoited, which is a day or two. She then covers them with the fand and.
the better to conceal them, rolls harfelf not only over her precious depoitum, but to a considerable diflance.
After this precaution, the return~to the water and tarries until natural. inflinCt informs her that it is time to deliver her young from their confinement; the then goes to the fpot, attended by the male, and tearing up the fand, begins to break the eggs; but fo carefully that fcarce a single one is injured, and a whole farm of little alligators is feen crawling about. The female then takes them on her neck and back, in owner to remove them into the water; but the watchful birds of prey make ufe of this opportunity to deprive her of fobme, and even the male alligator, who indeed come for no other end, devours what he can,till the female has reached the water with the few remaining; for all thole which either fall from her back, or do not fivn, he her feif eats; fo that of fich a fonnidjble brood,
happily not more than four or five efcape.
There





S r UNITED. STATES.
There alligators are the great deflroyers of the fifth
in the rivers and creeks, it being their motl fafe and general food; nor are they wanting in addrefs to fatisfy their defires. Eight or ten, as it were by compact, draw up at the mouth of a river or creek, where they lie with their mouths open, whilft others go a confiderable distance up the river, and chace the fifh downI ward, by which means none of any bignefs efcape
them. The alligators being unable to eat under water, on feizing a fifhl, raife their heads above the furface, and by degrees draw the fifth from theirjaws, and
chew it for deglutition.
Before the getting in of winter, it is aid, not without evidence to fupport the affertion, that they fwallow a large number of pine knots, and then creep into their dens, in the bank of obme creek or pond, where they ie in a torpid flate through the winter, without
any other fullenance than the pine knots.
The GuA A, the GRaEEN LIZARD of Carolina, the A BLUS-TAILED LIZARD, and the Lion LIZARD, are
found in the fodthern flates, and are thought to be fpecies~~of the f(ame genus with the crocodile and alligator.
Int little brooks and fwamps in the back parts of
North Carolina, is caught a fall amphibious lobiter,
in the head of whi4 is found the eye (lone.
Populationn] From the beft accounts that can at
present be obtained, there are, within the limits of the United States, three millions eighty three thoufand, and fix hundred fouis. This number, which is rapid>v increatfig both by emigrations from Europe, and 1y natr population, is composed of people ofalmot alltio Janguages, characers and rteiigions. The greater part, however, are defcended from the EngiL and, for the fake of dillinaion, are called Anglo
Americans.
Gov ernmnt.] Until the 4th of jl, 776, the
prefent Thirteen States were Briti Colonies. On that memorable day the Reprefentativesof the United States i pgrefs affembled made a folemn declare
tion, in wJ ch they ained their reafons for wi Sdrawin







TrU NIT~eD STATE.
drawingtlieir alleg-iance fro.m Great B'ritain. At the' fame time they puh~fhed articles oF confederatiorr, and perpetual union between the States, in which they took& the ftyle of The Uniied States of'.7 Arerira, andagreed that each flare fhould retain its fovereignty, frcedotn and independence, and every power, jurifdidion anid right not expref'sly delegated to CongrefS by the confederation.
Thefe articles of confederation, after eleven years, experience, being found inadequate to the purpofes of' a fedetal government, delegates were chofen in each, of- the Un ited States, to meet and fix upon the necelary amendments. They accordingly met at Phila.delphia, in the fummer of 1787, and agreed to propof.w the prefent con ftitution of the United States for the consideration of their con ftituenis. It was adoptedby all the States except North Carolina and Rhode Ifland; and it is expe&ed they will Ihortly join the union. It is expected alfic that Ver~ont and Kentucky will loon, be received into the confederation. The Weftern Territory is a diftiift government, un der the Conflitution of the United States.
Manuf:,Oures.] Among the articles manufactured& in the United States are, meal of all kinds, hips and boats, malt and diffilled liquors, potaNh gunpowder, cordage, loaf fugar, pafteboard, cards and paper of et'ery kind, book!; in various languages, fnuffi tobac. co, ftarch, cannon, rnufkets, anchors, trails, and very Many other articles of iron, bricks, tiles, potm' warr, Inill ftones, and other Ilone work, cabinet works, trunks and Windfor chairs, carriages anid hrefs of~ all kinds, eorn fans, ploughs, and many firUn plemens of hufbandy,~ saddlery and whips, hean boots, leather of various kinds, bofiery, hats and~ gloves, wearing apparel, coarfe linens andwoles and fome cottoiqoods, linfeed and fith oil, wares of~ gold, fdlver, tin, pwter, lead, brafs and copper, bells, clock-s and watches, wool and cotton, cards, printing ,types, glafs and flone ware, carce, foapp an fveral ohr valuable articles. Thefe are tending to greater~ 1serion, and will f'on b dfo 6eap ai to throw,






uN TtbSTATES.

foreign goods of the fame kind entirely out ofth
Ijnder this head I cannot omit to observe the i n
Policy, and I may add, the immorality of impoiting ,nd confuming fuch amazing quantities OF fpirituous liquors. They impair the eftates, debilitate the bodies, and occasion the ruin of the morals of thoufands Of the citizens of America. They kill more people than any one difeafe, perhaps than all difeafes befides.
It cannot be then but that they are ruinous to our
cour~y.
It appears from the helt calculations that can bc&btained, that in the courfe of the Years 1785, 1786,.
and 1787, TWELVE AULIONS, of dollars were expecnded by the United States, in purchafing Weft In
dia fpiuous liquoft; and perhaps nearly half that
fuam for fpirits diffilled at horne.
The expenditure of this imnsenlie furn, a fum which
would well nigh cancel our wbole national debt, fo.
f~ar fi-om benelkng, us, has entailed difeafeii, idlenefs,.povywretchednefs and debt,- on thoulaipis, whQo rnigbtvithcrw iie have been healthy, independent inthser circutriftances and happyt.V
Eperiericc has proved tha, fpirituous liquors, ex-c ept for certain medicinal. ures, are altogether unneceffry. In the mode-rate '4e of wine. which is a genemu~s and cheering liquor, and may be plentifully prodtacml in our own country ; of beer, which LRrengthr-ns the harm of the labourer without debau~ching hiin; of cider, which is wholeforne and palatable; and of mocae and water, which bzaa become a falbionable drn ;*th uie of t'hefe liquors, labourers, and Otherp~olewhohae made the experiment, have been
ontoenjoy more health and better fpirits than,
1homfe who have made only a moderate ufe of fpirtu
ousiquors. The reafon of this. Is .ztuobvious by
careful cluainlately mad,-, fio which it appear
tha mat lqurs, and feveral of the imported wine6,, aremuc snrenourizg and chcalpee. tan f-pirits,' 4na it beer, or half a pint of Malaga or Tene'; -i wie here is more ftrcrgth, than in a quart of






r UNITED STATES. 59
rum. The beer and the wine abound with nourifhment, whereas the rum has no more nourishment in it than a pound of air. Thefe confiderations point out the utility, may I not add, the necefity of confining ourfelves to the ufe of our own home made liquors, that in thisway we might encourage our own manufactures, promote industry, preserve the morals and livesof our citizens, and fave our country from the enormous annual expenfe of four millions of dollars.
Military /lrength.3 The following estimate may ferve until abetter one can be made. Suppofe thenurr;. ber of inhabitants in the United States to be 3,083,000., Dedu6t from this 560,000, the fuppofed number of negroes; the remainder will be 2,523,000, the nunber of whites. Suppofe one fixth part Gf there capable of bearing arms, it will be found that the number of fencible men in the United States are 420,o000. This, it is conceived, is but a moderate estimate.
Hiffory.] America was originally peopled by uncivilized nations, which lived mofily by hunting and filing. The Europeans,who firftvifited there fbhores, treating the natives as wild beaflts of the foreft, which have no property in the woods where they roam, planted the flandard of their refpe&ive matters where~ they firft landed, and in their names claimed the courtry: by right of defovery.* Prior to any fettlement it North America numerous titles of this kind were acquired by the Englifh, French, Spanifli, and Dutch navigators, who came hither for the purposes of fifliing and trading with the natives. Slightasluchtitlds were, they were afterwards the causes of contention between the European nations. The fubjeas of different princes often laid claim to the fame tra& of country, becaufe both had difcovered the fame river or promontory; or becaufe the extent of their refpeive claims was indeterminate.
In proportion to the progrefs of population, and the growth of the American trade, the jealouftes of the nations,
As well may the New Zealande who ha vo ye di ered Europe, fit out a thip, land on the coatl of England oFran4 andi, finding no inhabitants but poor iiheernue and peasants, the wholc country by right of djeery.





T rE UNXLTE STATE.S.,
nations, which had made early discoveries and fett 2nents on this coat, were alarmed; ancient clai were revived; and each power took meafures to ex tend and fecure its own poffeflions-at the expenfe o a rival.
T hefe meafurtt proved the occasion of open wars between the contending nations.-In 1739, war was proclaimed between England and Spain, which was terminated by the treaty of peace, figned-at Aix la Chapelle, by which reflitution was made, on both i.fdesof all places taken during the war.
Peace however was of thort duration. In 1756, a .war commenced between the French and Enghfh, in ,which the Anglo Americans were deeply concerned. This war was concluded by the Treaty of Paris, in s763.
From this period, peace continued till the i9th of April, 1775, when hoftilitics began between Great Britain and America. At Lexington was fmlt thejfrt? ,Wood in this memorable war; a war that levered Anerica from the Britifh Empire.
Here opened the dirf' fkene in the -great drama, which, in its progress, exhibited the molt ilnlfrious .charaaers and events, and clafed with a revolution, equally glorious for the adlors, and important in its confequences to mankind. George Wafhington, Efq; a native of Virginia, was appointed by the Continental Congrefs to command the American army.
-Ie had been a diftinguilhed and fuccefsful ofEcer in the preceding war with the French, and feemed deftined by heaven to be the faviour of his country. He accepted the appointment with a dif.9dence which was a proof of his prudence and his greatnefs. He refused any pay for eight years laborious fervice; and by his matchlefs kill, fortitude and perfeverance, was infirumental, under Providence, of conduaing Arnerica, through indeferibable difficulties, to independence and peace. While tiue merit is efteemed, or virtue honoured, mankind will never ceafe to revere. the memory of this Hero; and while gratitude remain. in the human breaff, the praises of WASuacro
*WilLdwell on every American tongue. III






NEBW EN GL A ND. 6
In t778 a treaty of alliance wvas entei ed into be~e 'ance and America, by wVhfrh we cbtained a
,owerfil and generous ally ; xxho greatly zfft fled in
4 filing the Independence of the Unitcd Stas of

On the 3th of November, 178-2, thle proviflonal
;t:cl,,,s of peace were fi-,ned at Paris, by wNhich Great
Bitmack noss lefdged thin depend-en-ce and lovereignt, of the United States of America ; and hec articles, :h)e following year, were ratified by a cdclinirive treaty.
'Thus ended a long, croei and arduous civil war, jat
vhich Great Britain expended near an hundred mul_01 of mneyC), with an hundred thoufdnd hi,an
~-on nothing. A erica. endured every cruelty and Iardfmlip fromf her inveterate enemies-Loft many fives and much treafure ;but giorioufly delivered hef-lf frocm a Foreign dominion, and gaitIed a rank1
among the nations of the earth.
From the conciulion of thn war to thte eftahliiment I R of the New Conifitutiors of Government in 1-88, the
itihahitants of the United States fuffered many emnbarraffients from the extravagant importation of foreign luxuries-frorm paper money, and particularly frorn the Nveaknefs and other defects of the general governinent. Since the operation of the prefent Conflitution, great and increafing attention has been paid to
agriculture, manufactures, commerce, the mechanical
ts othe interefils of literature, to useful invention'
and various other improvenerts ; and cexy thing f -ins to wear the plealing afnefl of permanent tranquil'ity and happinefs.


?J NEW ENGLAND.

U TNDER this general name. wve include. the States
Uof New Hampf ire, Maffachufetts, Rhode Ifland,
Con neff-ic-t and Vermont.
New Englaind lies in the form ofa quarter of a circle,
i's weft line, beLginning at the mouth of Byram inriver, whidli errpties intlo Long Ifland Sound 't the fOLuth, F NeIOQ





& NEW E N GL AN D.
weft corner of Conneficut, lat. 410, runs a little eaft of north till it firikes the 45th degree of latitude, and then curves to the eaflward almoR to the gulf of St. Lawrence. Its length and breadth. for want of correa maps, cannGt be accurately afoctained. From the lengths and breadths of the feveral States which compose it, we venture the following as near the truth- iles.
Length 6co 41o and 460 N. Latitude.
h between
Breadth zoo between and o E. Lritude.
Bounded north, by Canada; eaft, by Nova Scotia and the Atlantick ocean; fouth, by the Atlantick and Long Ifland Sound; weft, by the State of New York.
Face of the country.] New England is a high, hilly, and in fome parts a mountainous country, formed by nature to be inhabited by a hardy race of free, independent republicans.-The mountains are comparatively fmall, running nearly north and fouth in ridges parallel to each other. Between there ridges, flow the great rivers in majeftick meanders, receiving the innumerable rivulets and larger fireams which proceed from the mountains on each fide. To a fpellator on the top of a neighbouring mountain, the vales between the ridges, while in a Rate of nature, exhibit a romantick appearance. They feem an ocean of woods, fwelled and depreffed in its furface like that of the great ocean itfelf.
There are four principal ranges of mountains, paf. frng nearly from northeaftl to fouthweft, through New England. Thefe confit of a multitude of parallel ridges, each having many fpurs, deviating from the courfe of ;the general range ; which Ifurs are again broken into irregular, hilly land.
Thefe ranges of mountains are full of lakes, ponds and fprings of water, that give rife tq numberlefs dreams of various fizes, which, interlocking each other in every direfion, and falling over the rocks in romantick cafeades, flow meandering into the rivers below. No country on the globe is better watered hlan New England.
VRivrs.I






NEW ENGLANI. 6j
d Rivers.] Conneticut river is the largeft in New
England. It rifes in the highlands that feparate the United States from Canada. It falls into Long Ifland4
S Sound between Saybrook and Lyme. Its length, in a h firait line, is nearly 300oo miles. Its courfe, feveral degrees wcft of South. It is from 8o to loo rods wide 130 miles from its mouth. Its banks are very fertile and well fettled. It is navigable 50 miles, to Hartford; and the produce of the country for 200 miles above is brought thither in boats. From this river are employed three brigs of 18o tons each, in the Eur rpean trade; and about 6o fail, from 6o to i5o tons, in the Weft India trade; befides a few fishermen and
40 or 50 coating veffels.
Population, Mlitary Strength, Manners, Cufloms and
Diverfons.] New England is the moft populous part of the United States. It contains at leaA 823.000 fouls. One fifth of there are fencible men. New England then, should any fudden emergency require it, could furnish an army of 164,6oo00 men. The great body ofthefe are landholders and cultivators of the foil. The former attaches them to their country; the latter, by making them ftrong and healthy, enables them to defend it. The boys are early taught the utfe of arms, and make the beft of foldiers. Few countries on earth, of equal extent and population, can furnifh
a more formidable army than this part of the union.
New England may, with propriety, be called a
nurfery of men, whence are annually tranfplanted, into other parts of the United States, thoufands of its natives. Vaft numbers of the New Englanders, fince the war, have emigrated into the northern parts of New York, into Kentucky and the Wefiern Territory, and into Georgia; and fome are flattered into
every State, and every town of note in the union.
The inhabitants of New England are almost univerfally of Englifh decent ; and it is owing to this circumstance, and to the great and general attention that has been paid to education, that the Englifh language has been preferved among them fo freeof coriuption,
Thie






64 NEV ENGLAN I
The New Englanders are generally tall, fRout, and well built. They glory, and perhaps with jullice, irt poffeffing that spirit of freedom, which induced their anceflors to leave their native country, and to brave the dangers of the ocean and the hardfhips of fettling a wilderness. Their education, laivs and situation, ferve to infpire them with high notions of liberty. Theirjealoiufy is awakened at the firi motion toward an invafion of their rights. They are indeed often jealous to excels; a circumf ance which is a fruitful fource of imaginary grievances, and of innumerable groundlefs faulpicions, and unjuft complaints againR government. But thefeebullitions ofjealouf, though cenurable, and produffive of fome political eviIs thew that the effence of true liberty exifts in New England; for jealoufy is the guardian of liberty, and a charaderiffick of free republicans. A lqw, refpe&ing the defcent of eftates, which are generally held in fee fimple, which for fubftance is the fame in all the New England States, is the chief foundation and prote&ion of this liberty. By this law, the poffeflions of the father are to be equally divided among all thie children, excepting the eldeft fun, w-ho has a double por-, tion. In this way is preferved that happy mediocrity among the people, which, by inducing economy and induflry, removes from them temptations to luxury, and forms them to habits of fobriety and temperance. At the fame time, their indufty and frugality exempt them from want, and from the neceffisty of fubmitting to any encroach ent on their liberties.
In New England, learning is more generally diffufed among all ranks of people than in any other part of the globe; arising from the excellent clablifhmbnt of fchools in every township.
Another very valuable fource of information tothe people is the Newfpapers, of which not lefs than thirty thousand are printed every week in New England, and circulated in almoft every town and village in the country.
A perfon of mature age, who cannot both read and write, is rarely to be found. By means of this general eflablihnment






NEW ENGLAND. 65
eiabliihment of schools, the extenfive circulation of Newfpapers, and the confequent fpread of learnt ing, every townfhip throughout the country, is furnifhed with men capable of conducting the affaiis of their town with judgmentand diferetion. Thefe mea are the channels of political information to the lower ,lids of people; if fuch a clafs may be faid to exilff in New England, where every man thinks himself at leaft as good as his neighbour, and believes that all mankind are, or ought to be equal. The people from ther childhood form habits of canvaffing publick affairs, and commence politicians. This naturally leads them to be very inquifitive. It is with knowledge as with riches, the more a man has, the more he withes to obtain; his defire has no bound. This defire after knowledge, ina greater orlefs degree, prevails throughout all claffes of people in New England; and form their various modes of exprefling it, fome of which are blunt and fafniliar, bordering on impertinence, firangers have been induced to mention impertinent in quiftivenrf[s as a diftinguifhfiing charaferiflick of New England people.
A very confiderable part of the people have either too little, or too much learning to make peaceable fubjets. They know enough, however, to think they know a great deal, when in fa&t they know but little. A little learning is a dangerous thing." Each marn has his independent fyftem of politicks; and each affumnes a dictatorial office. Hence originates that reft. lefs, litigious, complaining fpirit, which forms a dark thade in the character of New England men.
This litigious temper is the genuine fruit of repub. licanifm--but it denotes a corruption of virtue, which is one of its effential principles. Where a people have a great fhare of freedom, an equal fhare of virtue is neceffary to the peaceable enjoyment of it.Freedom, without virtue or honour, is licentioufiels.
Before the late war, which introduced into New England a flood of corruptions, with many improve-ments, the fabbath was obferved with great firitnefs; so unneceffary travellin& no facular buftnefs, no





66 NEW ENGLANID.
visiting, no diverfions were permitted on that facred day. They confidered it as confecrated to divine worship, and were generally pun6lual and ferious in their attendance upon it. Their laws were firid in guarding the fabbath againfPt every innovation. The fiuppofed feverity with which theFe laws were cornpofed and executed, together with fome other traits in their religious chara&er, have acquired, for the New Englanders, the name of a fuperfltitious, bigotted people. But fuperflition and bigotry ale lb indefinite in their figniEcations, and tfo varioufly applied by person of different principles and educations, that it is not cafy to determine whether they ever defer-'ed that character. Leaving every perfon to enjoy his own opinion in regard to this matter, we will only observe, that, fince the war, a catholick tolerant fpirit, occafioned by a more enlarged intercourse with mankind, has greatly increafed, and is becoming univerfal ; and if they do not break the proper bound, and liberalize away all true religion, of which there is much danger, they will counterad that firong propenfity in humannature, which leads men to vibrate from one extreme to its oppofite.
There is one diftinguifhing charaaeriftick in the religious charafer of this people, which we muft not omit to mention ; and that is, the cuftom of annually celebrating Fafts and Thankfgivings. In the [pring, the feveral Governours iffue their proclamations, ap. pointing a day to be religiously obferved in fafting, humiliation and prayer throughout their refpedive fates, in which the predominating vices, that particularly call for humiliation, are enumerated. In autumn, after harveft, that glandfome era in the hufbandman'slife, the Governours again ifrue theirproclamnations appointing dayof publick thankfgiving, enumerating the publick bleffings received in the course of the foregoing year.
This pious cullom originated with their venerablI ancet ors, the firf rtlers of New England; and has been handed down as facred, through the iheceffive generations of their pofRemty. A culom fo rational, and fo happily calculated cher ilfh in the minds of the





N EW EN G LA ND.

people a fenfe of their dependence on the GRPEATBE
5~ ATRof the world for all theic bleiings, it is
hoped will ever be facredlv picker ed.
There is a elafs of people in New iJLn',;ianc of thle
bafer fot t, who, averie to honeR ytui nj',jN Lre r Course to knavery for fubfiften Skilicd in all ti-e ai o &d dionefly, with the affumied face and trankncfs of integrity, they go about, l1k.2 wolves inl fiseep's clothing, with a dzfsgn to dtlraud. Thclh people, entcrpriZng'- fromjr necefflity, have not confined their
kviih. trheks to New Eng land. Other itates have
fel t tne effeft of their vilany Ilece they have rharadterjzed the New Engianders, as a knavifl. artful, and diionell: people. But that conduct which d-,ttnguifhes only' afrnall clafs of people iii any' nation or Rtate ought not to be iniferininately aferibed to
alor be tuffered to Rtamp their naL onal charafler.
1iNe-w Engi and, there is as great a proportion of Loneft ansd indulrious citizens, as in any of the United
S ates.
The people of New England. genera'1y obtain their
eflates by hard and perfevering labour : They of confequence know their value, and fpend with frugality.
Yet in no country do the indigent and unfortunate far-e better. Their laws oblige every town to provide a competent maintenance for their poor ; and the necelitous firanger is proteaed, and relie-ved from their humnane joftitutions. It may in truth lhe faid, that in no part of the world are the people happier, better furnifhied with the nieceffarica and conventric.s f life, or more independent than the farmers in *evr England. As the great body of the pcopie are hardy, independent freeholders, their manners are, as they ought to be, congenial to their employment, plain.
fmple, and unpolifhcd. Strangers are received and enitertained among them with a great deal of artlefs sincerity, and friendly, unformal hulpitality. Their children, thof- initiative creatures, to whufe education particular attention is paid, early imbibe the manners and habits of thoefe aroun-i them; rnd the ftrariger, with pleafure, nu-ticc 01r honeft and decent refpted tha:





6G NEW ENGLAND'.
that is paid him by the children as he pafles through the country.
As the people, by representation, make their owrn laws and appoint their own officers, they cannot be opprefled; and living under governments, which have few lucrative places, they have few motives to bribery, corrupt canvaffings or intrigue. Real abilities and a moral character unblemished, are the qualifications requifite in the view of moft people, for officers of publick truft. The expreffion of a with to be promoted, is the dire& way to be difappointed.
The inhabitants of New England, are generally fond of the arts and fkiences, and -have cultivated them with great fuccefs. Their colleges have flourif hed beyond any others in the United States. The id luftrious characters they have produced, who have diftiniguifhed themfelves in politicks, law, divinity, the mathematicks and philofophy, natural and civil hillory, and in the fine arts, particularly in poetry; evince the truth of there obfhervations.
Many of the women in New England are handfome.. They generally have fair, frefIr and healthful countenances, mingled with much female foftnefs and delicacy. Thofe who have had the advantages of a good education (and they are confiderably numerous) are genteel, early, and agreeable in their manners, and are sprightly and fenfible in conversation. They are early taught to manage domeftick concerns with neatnefa and economy. Ladies of the firlt rank and fortune, ,nrk it a part of their daily bufinefs to fuperintend the fairs of the family. Employment at the needle, in cookery, and at the fpinning wheel, with them is honourable. Idlenefs, even in thofe of independent fortunes, is univerfally difreputable. The women in the country manufaEture the greateft partof theclothing of their families. Their linen and woollen cloths are firong and decent. Their butter and cheefe is not inferiour to any in the world.
In the winter feafon, while the ground is covered with fnow, which is commonly two or three months, Sighing is the general diverfion. A great part of thA,







1\ EW ENGLAND. 65t

the familiesthroughout the countryare furn;ih :d with horf .-s and fleighs. The young people colle i in partie,;, and, with a great deal of 'focieib"'tv' report to a
place of rendezvous, where they regale ihetif',1ves for a 'e i v hours, with.dancinla and a focal fuDncr. and
r2tilre. ThcL diversions, as well as ah Oillers, arc unany times carried to excc s. To thefe exceffe,-, aj-j a i idlen cx pof,,ire to extreme cold after the exerc)!" Of dancirij, pbvficians have aicrib !d the c
0 ci n Fu in
tions, which are fo fi-cqucrit arnong the young people in -Now England.
o
11i,4f:ry.j New England owes its fir(I f- ttlernent to religious, perfection. Soon after the cornmencement of tile relbrination in England, which was not until the ye r i 3 1, the Proteflants were divided into two parties, one t. c followers of Luffier, and the other of Calvin. The foi tr had chofQn gradually, and a]TrIcift imperce.ptibly, to recede front the church of Rome while the laItter, more zealous, and convinced
of' the importance of a thorough reformation, and at the

T h e formation wn s begun by Martin Lzethe,,a native of SaxC, Y, born in t;i- Near 1433- He was educated in the Roman Cathii!ick and was an Auguffin Friny, when, in 1517*
havin-, writ en ninety fi e Thefes again the Pope's indulgences, lie e Ilibited them t, pubflck view on the cburcii door at Wir!ex iugb, in Saxorv, arJ thus began the YtFormatim in Girmany. In I --S reform reli ion was intro uc.-A into Switzerland by Zx.iL:s, Oe.-clampadlts, rod others.
ejr f,01ov.,in_ the Die, of the Geman mpire afT, ,-nbled at
aij i f'.i d a d crca agala the refoirriamm. Aiinl this ,f S .V-6., ce- e, ,F Brandenburg"
F-,fl arA DAe t L irenburg. L m4oravv of Hffz,,
2 n d t 'lie C, ,vt of wh o v, e re j, i n i L fe ve 211 of t h e cit i s,
A;Ck y a ,iuite for
r223 their PRiTEST, 21- iiI tliis wa
thcmf-lyes apd the;r fuzc, m e a mt
down to the pefe it e,'th a.
Of PROTESTANTS.
CALVIN, another ccl2bratctil reformer, was b,)rn a, 1 1'ojon, in Fra-c:, intheyear 1509- fie improved upon Lktifrs pjanmany of tlic Rimlffi ceremonies wYcb he had indult,C -ente ta nedl i leas concerning fome crhe great doeti:M, s ol hr;flianity, and f t the Proteilant at a eat, i-m e fi,,ni the Riman Cath',lick religi:.n. The foll ,eri if ILilhiva bcen 4' ': guiffied by the name of LuThEFANS ; 4rd 0141 fA01verS GI-Calti;l by th name Of CALVINISTS.
Such was ihe g'rjwth of the Prit ftart intereil, Oi t i,-1
only 46 vcars after the ci rrime!--ncnt ofrliz ,-yrn, ;-,.i 1) Lii :ber, thcre wcv, in France2j o aii nib.ics oiProttfl Iii-






7o N V E ENGLAND.
the fame time poffeflfing much firmnefs and high notions of religious liberty, were for effeding a thorough change at oice. Their confequent endeavours to expunge from the church all the inventions which had been brought into it fince the days of the Apofiles, and to introduce the Scripture purity,' derived for them the name of PuR rANss. From thefe the inhabitantsof New England defended.
During the fucceffive reigns of Henry VIII, Mary, Elizabeth, and James the firift, the Proteftants, and efpecially the Puritans, were the obje&s of bloody perfecution; and thoufands of them were either inhumanly burnt, or left more cruelly to perifh in prifons and dungeons.
In 1 6o02,a numberof religious peoplefrom the north of England, removed into Holland, to avoid perfecution. Here they remained under the care of the learned and pious Mr. Robinfon, till 1620, when a part of them came to America, and landed at a place, which, in grateful commemoration of Plymouth in England, the town which they laft left in their native land, they called PLYMOUTH. This town was the firft that was fettled by the Englifl in New England.
The whole company that landed confided of but 2o fouls. Their fituation was diftreffing, and their profpe&s truly difmal and discouraging. Their neareft neighbours, except the natives, were a French fettlement at Port Royal, and one of the Englifh at Virginia. The neareft of there was 500 miles from them, and utterly incapable of affording them relief in a time of famine or danger. WVhereever they turned their eyes, diftrels was before them. Perfecuted for their religion in their native land ; grieved for the profanation of the holy fabbath, and oiher licentioufnefs in Holland; fatigued by their long and boiflerous voyage ; difappointed, through the treachery of their commander, of their expe&ed country ; forca ed on a dangerous and unknown fhore, in the advance of a cold winter; furrounded with hoftile barbarians, without any hope of human fuccour; denied the a'd or favour of the cout4rt of Ejaland; without a patent; without






NEW ENG I, AND. 71
without a publick promise of the peaccable enjoyment of their religious liberties; v orn our with toil and sufferings; without convenient fielter from the rigours of the weather-Such were the prcpecrs, and ific* :'e situation of tliefe pious, folitary chritians. 'J') dd to tcir diftrcffes, a general and very mortal r cknes prevailed among them, which twept off forty x f their number before the opening of the next pring'. To flpport them under thefe trials, they had :ed of all the aids and comforts which chrlianity alfords ; and there were filicient. The free and unmunoleied enjoyment of their religion, reconciled them to their humble and lonely situation; they bore their hardfhips with unexampled patience, and perfevered in their pilgrimage of almoll unparalleled trials, with fuch refignation and calmnels, as gave proof ofgreat piety' and unconquerable virtue.
The firfi duel in New England, was fought with fword and dagger between two fervants. Neither of them was killed, but both were wounded. For this difgraceful offence, they were formally tried before the whole company, and fentenced to have 0 their heads and feet tied together, and fo to be twenty four hours without meat or drink." Such, however, was the painfulnefs of their fituation, and their piteous intreaties to be releafed, that, upon promife of better behaviour in future, they were-foon releafe'd by the Governour. Such was the origin, and fuch, I may almnoflt venture to add, was the termination of the odious practice of duelling in New England, for there have been very few duels fought there fince. The true method of preventing crimes is to render them difgraceful. Upon this principle, can there be invented a punifhment better calculated to exterminate this criminal practice, than the one already mentioned ?
Such was the vaft increafe of inhabitants in New England by natural population, and particularly by emigrations from Great Britain, that in a few year, befides the fettlenaents in Plymouth and Maffachufettsi very flourifhing colonies were planted in Rhode& and, Conneaicut, New Haven, and New IHIampfhire The






TN'% E N GL A NA
The danci s to which thrfe colonies weepfd
-from the flhrrouriding Indians, as well as from the Dutch, who, although very1 1riendcx' to the infant colony at Plymouth, were now likely to prove troublefome neighbours, firlt inducedl themn to think of an alliance and confederacy for their muttuA defcnc,7 Accordingly in 1643. the four colonies of Plym-out~h, 10affachuietts. Connetficut, and New Ilaven, aorceed upon articles of confederation, whecreby a Ccngre-fS was -formed, conififli-rg of t~to commissioners from rach colony, who were cholen annually, and when met were coufidered as fl- reprefentatives of ; The United Colonies of New England." The powers. delegated to the commiffioners, were much the fame as thoke vc ffed in Conigrefs by the articles of confederaticn, agreed upon by the United States in, 178. The colony of'Rhode Biland would gladly have joined in this confederacy, but Mlaffachufe-ts, For parf-cuJar reafons, refu-fed to admit their commillioner-S4
Tis union fubfidled, with lome few alterations, until the year 1686, when all the charters, etmcept that of, nolned'icut. werc in efledt vacated by a commliicn~ rnomJames thel11.
Three years before the a-rival of the Plymouth eol-r nsa very mortal ficknefs., fuppofed to have been the~ plage, raged with great violence among the Indians in the eaftern parts of New England. Whole town is were depopulated. The living were not ab~e tobury the dead ; and their bones were found lying- above ground, many, years after. The Mvaffachulfetts Indians are fa:d to have bee-n reduced fiom 30,000 tol 3joo fighting men. In 1633, the fmall pox fweptcoff' O gieat numbers of tbr. Indians in M'vaflachnfetts.
In i 63,on the ifland of Nantucket, in the fpaceon four months, the Indians -were reduced byv a mot(at, fiekyfefs, from 320 to 85 fouls. The haind'of Pi ovldence is noticeable in thefe furprifing lnf 'TUc l mortality, among the Indian&, 1o make rocn om hg Engllff. Comparatively few have uerifedbFy wa They wafle and moulder away; thecy, In a m~anneru acriounitable, difalppear.






NEWXV ENGLAND. 73
When the Englifh firft arrived in America, the Indians had no times nor places fet apart for religious
-orhip. The firft fetters in New England were at reat pains to introduce among them the habits of civilized life, and to inftru6 them in the chriftian religion. A few years intereourfe with the.Indians, induced then to ettablifh feveral good and natural regulations. They ordained that if a man be idie a week, or at moft a fortnight, he hall pay five shillings. Every young man, not a fervant, fhall be obliged to fct up a wigwam, and plant for himself. If an unmarried man f hall lie with an unmarried woman, he fhiall pay twenty shillings. If any woman hall not have herhair tied up, the fhall pay five shillings, &c.
Concerning the religion of the untaught natives of America, Mr. Brainard, who was well acquainted with it, informs us that after the coming of the white people, the Indians in New Jerfev, who once held a plurality of Deities, fuppofed there were only three, becaufe they faw people of three kinds of complexions, viz. Englifh, Negroes, and themfelves.
It was a notion pretty generally prevailing among them, that it was not the fame God made them who made us; but that they were created after the while people. And it is probable they fuppofe their God gained fome special fkill by feeing the white people made, and fo made them better; for it is certain they look upon themfelves, and their methods of living, which they fay their God exprefsly preferibed for them, vaftly preferable to the white people, and their methods.
With regard to a future late of cxitence. many of them imagine that the chichung, i.e. the shadow, or what furvives the body, will, at death, go fouthward, and in an unknown but curious place, will enjoy fomine kind of happinefs, fuch as hunting, feafrng, dancing, andithe like. And what they f ppo6fe will contribute much to their happinefs in the next Rlate, is, that they hall never be weary of thole entertainmients.

G N E 1V






.,4

NIEW IIAMPSHIRE.
1'o -c I F .'! Long
between 4' ald 4' gitu le.
4-.0 5, a id45 NoithLatizude. DED North, by Quebeck ; \oi theaff. by
the Province uF Main- Soutilead, bv the Atlantick ocean : Soutli, by N"cifTachi-ifet's ; Weft and Norlhivefl '(,y Connc&icut which d:v1des it,
from Vermont. The fbape of New 1-jampffiire, releTnblcs an open fan ; COTITICWCUt river beina the curve. 1.1C fi uthcin line the firiorteil, and the cafte, i line the longest fide.
Ciz.41 Div fions.] New Hampffilre is divided into of ve ccunt Ws, viz.
Counties. Cl ef Tcwrs.
Rorkingham, Pot-t5nouth and Excler,
i a flord, Dover and Durharn,
I I illiborough, Ambei
Chefhire, Keene and Charleft,owr,
G ra 't o n, 1lavcril and P1vmci,,):.
-Tn 12,-6, t!,.crc were 165 Ettled townfh ips in thir Pate. Sirce that t:rrc the nun.ber has been grez.fly increased.
UZVTca .1 Portfrnoutb is much the largeff town in this flatc. It lands on the foritheall fidc or' P;fCataqva r:x7cr, about two miles frchri the fea, and c( tains about 6oo hcu' s, and 44o6 nhab itants. 'I) e twN it Is handfvmely built, and' pleatiintly fituacd. I pul lik.k bui!diras are, a court houfqtwo churclws,' lor C(,ilgrego tionahEs, one for Epif opalians, and one. (Aicr hotifle f' )r public woifliip.
lis barbour is one oF the fineft on the continent, ha% in a LAfficient depth of water for veffels of any It is dclcr .ded agairiff forms by the adj:fc(-I'! larld, in Exh a manner, as that fbips may fecur ly i there ;n any fealon of the year. Besides, the 1,aibour 's fo wc fortified by natuic, tl.zit very little art will -be neceffary to render it impr ,qnaWe. Jts vicinity to th fea render s very convcricr t for naval trade. A)12ht Eeuf,!. wit a fin& flings at Nie
xntrarrc of IFe 1,,aTI)cur.






NsEW HAIMP SHIIR r 7
Exe-ter is a pretty town, fifteen mihos Fo ithxellerly
finn Portfniouth, on the fouth fide of Exeterr ver.
*Concord, fituated on the well fitle cf MeTrrirnak irver, is a pleasant fiourifhaing town, and will1 proba1Liv, on accoant of its central fitua~ion, fuon be the
antfeat of government.
Ries. Bays, ed Lz<,es. 1 The Pifcataqua river
Las four hi inches, Berwick, Coclischy, Exeter and
J)ira n, which are aI navigablefofnalele d
boa's, fa'n fifteen, others twenty? le~ls fromn thLe a
T n rr unite about eight miles from the, mouth, of the harbour, ai i form one broad, deep, rapid
"ti~carn, navgeblo f r flips of' the Lirgeft burden.
Th as river forms the only port of New Hamp2{1-ire.
The Ma-rrimak bears that n3 ne from its 'mouth to
-'Ii cona'luence of Pemngewafft anid \Vinniftpiokee rivers ; the latter has its forrce in the lake of the fame 21,111e. In its cisurfe, it receives numtberlefs fniall ftreams iffuing from ponds and fkvam-,s,.in the valIes.
It tumbles over two confid.-rablc falls, Asfig
and Pantuckct great falls. From Liaveril thle river rins winiding along, through a pleafant rich v ale of rnaioa, and paling between Newbury Port anid
$all'ibrv m;ntis into the ocean.
Great Bay, fIpreading Otfrom Pifcataqua river. betwcoen Portftnoiith and Exeter, is the only one that dcTheI'ic are f'veial remarkable ponds or lakes *in
ff (ite Uago is a large lake, quite in. the north'corner of the ftte. ffJnnipikee Lak:e is- neatl
iithe center of the Rlate, and is about twenty nIrleS
lon-y, and from three to eight broad.
Ta-e v)' tbe Counttry.] The land next to the wa is
generally low, but as you advance into thectrr,
the land rifes iotia hills. Some parts of the fate: ale
Inoanfainous.
.21ou 1,inis,.] The TPAite ionaeias are the hight1
part of a ridg -, which extends northeast and foutkswell 1, to a 1c i 1 not yet Afeertaine I. The whole- c rc d:t of the_ n is not lefs than fifty miles. The height of L'hefe o aan above an 'adjsccnt meadow, is






76 E TV HAMPSHIRE.
reckoned to be about 5500 feet, and the meadow is 3500oo feet above the level of the fea. The fnow and ace cover them nine or ten months in the year, during which time they exhibit that bright appearance front which they are denominated the White mountains. From this summit, in clear weather, is exhibited a noble view, extending fixty or feventy miles in every di e&ion. Although they are more than feventy mies within land, they are feen many leagues off at fea, and appear like an exceeding bright cloud in the horizon. Thefe immenfe heights, being copioufly replenifhed with water, afford a variety of beautiful arcfades. Three of the largeft rivers in New Eng. land, receive a great part of their waters from thefe mountains. Amanoofuck and lfrael rivers, two principal branchesof Conneticut, fall fiom their weftern fide. Peabody river, a branch of the Amarifcogen* falls from the northeaft fide, and almofl the whole of the Saco, descends from the fouthern fide. The highefl fummit of thefe mountains, is in about latitude 44 0
The AMonadnik is a very high mountain, in Chefhio county in the fouthweltern part of the fate.
Cimate.j The air in New Hampfhire is ferene and healthful. The weather is not fo fubje61 to change as in more fouthern climates. This flate, embofomring a number of very high mountains, and lying in the neighbourhood of others, whole towering fummits are covered wiOth fnow and ice three quarters of the year, is intenfely cold in the winter feafon. The heat of fummer is great, but of thort duration. The cot brakes the ontitution, and renders the labouring people 7a ;btul and robuft.
Soii a ,d Pro:Iuaions.] On the fea coaft, and many places inland, the foil is fandy, but affords good paturage. !e intervals at the foot of the mountains are greatly enrice.cd by the frefhets, which bring down the foil upon them, forming a fine mould, and pro. ducing corn, grain and herbage, in the moft luxuriant plenty. The back lands, which have been cultivated are generally very fertile, and produce the vario kinds of grain, fruits and vegetables, which are com mon






IN E\ 11AMPS1IIRE. 7
:,:in to the other parts of New England. 'The uncultivated lands are coverecd with cxtenfive forcfts of
*pine, fir, cedar, oak, walnut, &c. This haste a!Yordls
al'l the- materials neccifary for Phi building.
Ppution and CA ~wracThr.] No adtual census of the in],,abitanTs has been lately made. In the Conivention at Phia-lclphia. in 1737, they were reckoned at io'_oor.
J here is no characleriflical eiffin-ence between the
11hiabitants of this and the other New England States.
Thell anicient inhabftanits of New Hamrpf'nire were
ngr-,ants from England. Ther pofleritv, mix d vith emigrants from Maffachufe-tts, fill the lower aA~
1ti lie to wxnS. Eingrants from, Connedaicut co,nrcfc 1,ilrgeft part of the inhabitants of the we~in. tow,'ns, IJOining Connecticut river. Slaves there arc- none.
Nqloes, who were never numerous in New iamplYre, are all free by the firIL article of the bill of

G 14ifl'n. Nearly the fame as Maffachufetts
Citeand S,-hools.] In the townifilp of Hanover,
in the xvelLrru part ol this flate, is Dartmouth College,j
1'-uaed on a beautiful plain, about half a mile call of 2"Connaitcut river, irn latitude 43)~ 3,3% Itw~as namcd
after the Right Honourable William Earl1 of Dartinouds, who was one of its principal benefAlors. It -was founded in 1769, for the education and infiuiction of youth, of abe Indian ttibes, in reading, writing, and all parts of learning which ffiould appear necefry and ex;pedient for civilizing and chiiffianizingr
the children of Pagans, as well as irt all lEberal arts anil feicnces, and alfoc of Englifh youths and any others3.
Its fituation, in a frontier county, expeofcd it dluiing the late war-, to many inconveniences which preventC J S rapid p rogrefs. It flourifised, however, amidft a 1 its embarraffments, and is now one of the m4of1 growing ferninaries in the UnitLed $rates. It has, in .the
-n~ cafs, about 130 ftudents. under the diredtou )f
aPi-efdent, two Profefeors, and two Tuiwor ?,i 3
tavei e Truflees, who are a, body corporate iLa
with the_ powers neceffary for fuels a body. The liY rafy 's cietant, containing a large collection of fhe





NEW HAMPSHIRE.
noftl valuable books. Its apparatus confifts of a com. petent number of ufeful infiruments, for making math ematical and philofophical experiments. There athree buildings for the ufe of the fludents. Such is the falubrity of the air, that no instance of mortality has happened among the fludents, fince the firflt etablifhment of the College.
At Exeter there is an Academy, at Portfmouth a Grammar School. All the towns are bound by law. to fupport fchools; but the grand jurors, whole bufiaefs it is to fee that there laws are executed, are not f careful as they ought to be in prefenting fins of omq/on
Religion.] The inhabitantsof New Hampfhire are chiefly congregationalifts. The other denominations are Prefbyterians, Baptifts, and Epifcopalians.
Hiflorv.] The firft difcovery made by the Englifh of any part of New Hampfhire, was in 161 4, by Capt. John Smith, who ranged the fhore from Pencbfcot to. Cape Cod; and in this route, difcovered the river Pifcataqua. On his return to England, he published a defeription of the country, with a map of the coaft, which he presented to Prince Charles, who gave it the name of NEw ENGLANID. The firft fettlement was made in 1623.
New Hampfhire was for many years under the jurrfdi&ion ofthe Governour of Maffachufetts, yet they had a feparate legiflature. They tver bore a propor, tionable fhare of the expenfes an levies in all enterprifes, expeditions,and militaryexertions, whether planned bythe colony or the crown. In every flage of the oppofition that was made to the encroachments of the Britim parliament, the people, who ever had a high finfe of liberty, cheerfully bore their part. At the commencement of hoflilities, indeed, while their council was appointed by royal mandamus, their patriotick ardour was checked by there crown officers. But when freed from this refiraint, they flew eagerly to the American standard, when the voice of their country declared for war, and their troops had alarge, fhare of the hazard and fatigue, as well asofthe glor of accomplIfhiing the late revolution.
MVASSACHUTSETTS.








MASSACHUSETTS.
me~es.
Length aSo I between 41 2o' and 42 50' North Lat:u:'e.
BDcadth 60 i .o and 50 30' Eatl Longitude.
B OUNDED North, by New Hampfhire and Ver. mont; Weft, by New York; South, by Connecicut, Rhode lfland and the Atlantick; Eaf, by the Adantick and the Bay of Maffachufetts.
Rivers.] Merrimak river before deferibed, runs through the northeaitern part of this fate. Besides this, are Charles.Taunton, Concord, Myftick and Ipfwich rivers, in the eaftern part of the fate ; arnd Chicabee, Weftfield, and Deerfield rivers, all emptying intoConnedticut river,in the wefern parts of the flate.
Cape.] The only Capes of note on the coaff of Maffachufetts, are Cape Ann on the 'north fide of Bolton Bay, and Cape Cod on the fouth. The latter is the terminating hook of a promontory, which extends far into the fea ; and is remarkable for having been the firfi land which was made by the firf iettders of Plymouth on the American coaft, in 1620o.
Iflamds. Among other iflands which border upon this coafl, are Kappawak, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket. Kappawak, now Dukes county, is twenty miles in length, and about four in breadth. It contains feven parifhes. Edgarton is the fhire town. This county is full ofinhabitants, who fubfift principally by fishing.
Nantucket lies fouth of Cape Cod, and is confiderably lcfs than Dukes county. It formerly had the moft confiderable whale fifherv on thecoaft ; but th4 war almoff ruined them. They are now beginning to revive their former bufinels. Mofo ifA ants are whalers and fishermen. The ifland of itself constitutes one county by the name of Nantucket. It has but one town, called Sherburne.
Rdigion.l The religion of this commonwealth -is eftablifthed, by their excellent confltitution, on a moft liberal and !olerant plan. All perfons, of whatever religious profeffion or sentiments, may worfhip God agreeably






MArAS SA C 1VS ET TS."
greeably to the difttes of their own confciences, ubmoLifkd, procidedM they do not di Iturb the publi ck peacec.
The following flatement, fhews what aie the feveral
yejI ious denominations in this [Late, and their p rcpurtional numbers.
Denoination. Number of Sj~pk'fed number of
*Cu~r,~ti~ns each nCongregationalifis, qco -277!600
Baptifts, 84 8,2 'f
Epife'opalians, 15 1 c-,
Fri ends or Quakers, 10 6: 9 10
Prefbx-terans, 4 2,776
Univerfalifls, I g

Total 5 f, 357;4 0
In this flatetnent, it is fuppofed that all the inhabitants in the hlate, confider thernfeives a3 belonging to one or the other of the religious denomrinalions Imentioned ; and that each religious focicty, of every denomination, is compofed of an equal number of fouls; uShat is, each is fuppofed to contain 6N, which, if we reckon the number of inhabitants ink the flafe at 357,51, willt be the proportion for eachi congregaion".
Although this may not be an exaa apportionmnent
of the different fiEls, yet it is perhaps as accurate as the nature of the fubjea will allow, and fufficient to give a general idea of the proportion -which the Iet'eral
t&enomi'nationa bear to each other.
The number of congregational churches in 171
'Was 250.
k 176'), the number of' inhabitants in this (late, was abut 268,85o. The propci~'tion of the fvds then was
Ticrly as follows, viz..
Con~egaia~ Suppofel num~erof Ccrngregationalifls, 306 ,4Friends meetings, 2a1,1)
? Baptifts, 20 1~C
EpIfeopalians, 13 9 568
rrebytrias,4 2,9144
Toq4 36,g 268,85o







M A 9 9 A C H U S E T S.' St
Ciu;? Diviftons.] The Co-nmonweal h of Maffachufetts*is divided into fourteen counties, and fubdiV id c, (I i n to 3 3 5 t o w n fh i ps. Th e fo I I o w,i n:r T A B 1, ,
c -I' ative view of the
q., x" ibits a compare, population of the
fe,,,eral counties in this ftate.


Tcwns where
COV 24 T I Z S.
Che courts are
x held.
Z
37 10 6 1 77, q;- Z3 'POr -In S-ov), lpfwjch
ETtx, 80 22 arid Newbury
43,'Z3 171, ,91 47,
Pn r t.
,,823 163,634 199,50 40 (-aynbrd_,e arie Concord.
fl lmpillir -43, 3 142-17_i 671,344 6 Dringtjc j anti Northampton,
c 413 P n-cith.
B, T 3, S 5 3 _177777 =
D e C,-,O 3,1 i 2,1
N
4 1 1 Shcrburne.
4C T ,671 j,' Taun
rI! i Y, rk, 11
'n 'c 1, 7 6,1
14,71z 77 '(73 2" P 1.

Lincoln, 15,27] 45,8 3 79 if)7c 535 Wal

c, 24, 37,0211, 24
-Vi
Totat 7,5-, OS, I 5V -, 5
Literary an-' !J! Soipti, f. 'I 7 Yt rary, ]inmane and chajrj inTitutiom 4
hibit a fair trait th -, c ar_-(',Icr of n'h abit ants.
Among the fi I literary inflitution in this is the
A.mERICAN Ac.-),D,-my o*ARTS AND SCIENCES. incorpwated MaY 4th, 1780,- The design of ti e itiffitution, is 6) promote and encourage the kno xl.-,,Iqe of t1he antiquities of America, and of the nat trd lillory of the country ; to promote and encourage meI cal dilcoveric';,
11 This county has lately be-n dii' ed W I
i to three, viz. Lincoln, Walhi,, 6tou, and Hancock.






B# 7 A SS A CII USET T S,
*ifpoveries, mathematical difquifitions, philofbphi~cal inquiries and experiments, aftronomrical, mcteortlog kal and geographical obf'ervations;, improvements i agriculture, arLs, manufacture, cornmeice, and the cultivation of every fcience that may tend to advance a free, independent, and vii tuons people.
Befides this, are the Al ,Y/ahajetls Charitable Sodety, t'he Pofion Epilfoheal Charitable Society, the iij~z'ts Medical Society, the IRuince Societv, and the 6&c iey Jor tro/agatin- th'e Gaf c/ el~: the Indians.
Next to' Penn &I vania, this flate has the greateft number of fo)cicties for the promoti of ufeful knowledge andi human happinef's; and'as they are founded on the broad bafis of nevlencc and charity they cannot fail to prof'per. Thefe inflitutions, which are falt increafing in almofi every ftate in the union, are f many evidences of the advance(] and advancing ftate of CwiIzation and im3 rovemcnt in tbig country. They prove ]:Ikewife tha t a free, republican governnent, like ours, is, of all others, the molt happily cal.. culated to promote a general diffufion of ufeful knowVI edge, and the moft favourable to tn envolent auQ~ humane feelings of the human heart.
Literature, Coi/leges, Lde,7zies, &c.] Adcorinig to the laws of this commonwealth,- evety towni haviriff fifty houfeholders or upwards, is to be conflantly pio-, vicled with a ichoolmafter to teach children ancl youth to read nd write; and where any townr1las loo far. ilies, thete is alfo to be a grammar fIChool. A T
Next in importance, to the grammar fehools, are'1f academi6of which thetie are the following, vi7DumEMR ACADEmye, at Newbury,, which vas founrded many years fince, and incorporated in 1782. PHILLiPs's ACADEMY, at dover~c, incorporated Oc101ier 4, t 780. LF I cE PA, i, in the to-, nifh ip of Leicefter, incco ated in 7P4. At Ivillialmfflown, in Berkfhi.re county, is another Acadcmy, vwhichl is yet in its infanc v
Tl-ife ~Aidemies have ver-y hanidfiie funds, zri arc floui ifhing. The defig--s of the truffees are, to diffcminatc vlixtue and true piety,, to promote the educatto






M A 5 S A C 11 U S I- T T S. 83
ucif:cri -rf vouth in tl e Enaiifl-., I atin. Greck, 3T'd F -ench larc, r. ices, to encc,,inige their in &tio
ar it n -atory, gco -la-lv -aEcal
!;Iir _C6(k ci
I Y, legick, Phiofopriv, ard fuch ctlicr of 1,11C
ai a,,ts and feicnccs, or language s nhly be

Coi'iFc. takes its date frorn the ycar
Two ,cars before, th; general court gave i oir for the Eipport ofanublick school
a Ncw!ovn. which lias fincr becir ca!l d Cambridge. Th]s vcar (i6R8) the Rev. Mr. jobn Harvaid, a
minifley reficlirg n CharlefloNvr. hed. and left
In Of "'779 for -fie ufe of the foremc'ntioned
blick I hoof. In honour to the memory of fo liI a be'riefat1cr, the general court the tarrie car. (,,rtic-ed that [lie khool should tal:e the name of 171AK%'APr) COLI .7GE.
Can.,)] in which the college is fi!uatcd, is a
ant -e, four mi"es weflward frorn Bofton,
CC106 n:177 number of gentlemen's f,_Lts which art ricat u, l cil 'I !,-e u niverfity con-fiffs of four
handfornely enclosed. They
autifut green lvhich fpicites to the northwc fl ar "t a Ple2f ng*ew.
The of t!7,e fcv,-ral buildings zrv. Hanard
M111, M,,I d(hufctts Hall, HolFs Hall, -and 11oldert C I-- ai *1. ll.arvard I-Tall is divide d into fi.x apart. "Icrits;or-, of % hich i approuiated for- tl ,e hbtwyl one for the museum, two for tl e phi'of6phical apparati s, ore is tifed for a chapel, and the other ror a dinhall'. The library, in 17 confifted of 12.006 vo-111mes ; and -will be (ol16nually increasing from the inwi( ft of peirrianent fitrds, -, s 'Nvc1l as from casual
'11)c 1cf,,]Aical belong.
it his un i v erl t,, c of 1 cc ween i 4r f 15(*
g to o and
la ,vful money, and is the ,it and complete
of an), in Anrei ca.
Aoiecably to ti-c laffachufetts, his Excellenc,; the Govei ncur, Governour, the courlr4 an( senate, viQ ( f 0:e
:iuilixi-fity, a--d the ministers of o n,--, -atiowd






MASSS AClU SETT q.
churches in the towns -of B-oflon, Charleflown, Cambridge, \vatertow,%n, Roxbury, and Dorcheflcr, a
cojjcis, over feers of' the lUniverft
'I he corporation is a diftind body, confiffingulo.' fev en meinbers, in whom is vcfied the propety of the:I univerfity.
The iinffruftors in the univerfity, are aprefidnit, Ilollifian profeffor of divinity, Hollifian prof'eFor ofthe mat hemnaticks and natural philofophy, Hancockprofeffor of oriental languages, profellor of anatomy, and furgSery, prolefor of the theory and practice of phyfick, profeffor of chymiffry and materia medical, and four tutors.
This univerfitv as to its library, philofoiphical ap paratus oind profcflorfhips, is am prefent the flrft Lii-ary inftltlt~on on this continerits Since its limit eflablimn t, 1s6 frudents have received honoura y degrees fr-om its fu.cceffVe officers, 1002 of whom have, been ordained to~ the work, of the gofpel minifiry. It Las generally fromn i 2o to i go fludents.
C/tief townis.] BOSTON ISth Capital, not only o
Nilacuetts, but of New EIlc t is built on a
'('i lauof an irregular form, at the bottqp of.MVJafrfachuletts Bay. The yc k or iftimus WIsih joit~ the Peninfula to the continent, is at the fouth end of the town, and leads to Roxhury. The length of t town, including the neck, is about three mijes the towni itfelf is not quite two miles. Its breadth is ai ous. At the entrance from Roybury, it is narr ow. The greateft breadth is one mile and i39 yards. Thebuildings in the town-cover about 1Leop acres. I~t-con' tains about 2aooo dwelling houfes, and 15,000 inhabitants,
T he principal wharf extends 6oo yards into the fes,' und is covered on the north fide with large and convenient ftbres, It lar exceeds an), other wharf in the,: United States.
In Bo-flon are fixteen houfes for publick wotrihip bfwhch nine are for c'nre nlifts, three forI. pifcopalians, two fur baptifis, one forf the friends, ,vae ior the univcrlalifts, or indeedents.






N1 A'S S C 11 U S E T T S.
85
-The town is irrc ulafly laii1t, but,. as it lies'n a
Cycular icrm around the harbour, cxh1its a Veny,
-Abine vie\,,- as you appi -om th, e
oach it fit I'a. On
I wed fide ofthe town is the mall, a very beautiful public v ,alk, adltm ed with rows of trees, alid in View of the ccnimol-1, which iisahvays open to re'reflib eezes. Beacon hill, which o)verloe)ks the town
_c"I 11 affici
-ds a fine, Variegated profpcft. I-1c harbour of Bofton is fafe, and large enough to I'M co,,t,, in 500 fhlps at anchor, in a good depth of water
while the entrance is fo narrow as fcarcely to admit tk -offilpsabreaft. It is diversified with many islands, N"Inich afford rich pafturing, hay and grain, About three miles from the town is the Caftle, which rcmmands the entrance of the hat Flei e a re n )u, i
cd about fort ces of heavy artillery, bcfidrs a !aire Tionaber of a U'llor flze. I-he fort is 2 irraf,,ncd bV of about fiftv soldiers
company ho allo guard
the conviLts that are sentenced, and fent Lcie to Ljbour. The'e are chiefly employed in t1--c nail ni uiufa&ory.
The town ncxt tq Poflt( n. in point of numbcrsaP4
coP.1Irtrcij1 importance, is ALE14. It IS the 06,l town in tile 11,-e, except FlWoutb. In i ,*
con- :n i' dwellirig oufcs, and 67ooinliao'
11, 7 1 :S re five churches for cctngrcgaticnal hs, Cli (,r e7,i copalians. %nd a injecting houfe for the f iends. Sa:cm 's fi- en rnjes north afiwardof B(,f
f ton, and is s (he-metropolis ofthe county of
E ffe x.
Yon-f"'Crty five miles r Alward fro In Rof. ton, is situated on tj c feuthweq fide of 1 erimiLk i
er, ahout two miles from the le a. Thc ir),xn is aLout
mile 1 eng+b, and a fourth of a 1 3 1 0
-n'ie n re,,L)th ind
contain' S 45o dwelling houl-CS. M A I I raful'A in babitants. It has ore cpiicopal, one prelby!er:anw and two congregatiomil clo;,i,( ties, The bufirxfs of fbip building is lai 1,,, cz d (-)rj here. Thefe towns, with Marbleh ,al-, or Caft .4nn, and ber,,erly,
carry on the fill"el V, k hi(h furniffics the :C pal ar
fic'e of exportation fzoni Mafiachufutts.
Nvorc. ,-, Er
v






S MAS SA C HiUSE TTS.
VORCESTER is one of the largeft inland towns i New England. It is the fire town of Worcefier ,county, and is about forty feven miles wefhtward Bofton.
On Conne&icut river, in the county of Hamnpfhire, are a number of very pleasant towns. Of there Springfield is the oldeft and largeft.
Northampton, Hatfield, and Deerfield, are all plea ant, flourishing towns, fucceeding each other as you travel northerly on the weft fide of the river.
Conflitution.] The conftitution the common wealth of MalTachufetts elftablifhed in 1780, contain a declaration of rights and a frame of governmen the frame of government, the power of legislation is ged in a general court, confifting of two branche viz. ~ senate and a houfe of reprefentatives, each hay ing a negative upon the other. They meet annuall on the laft Tuefday in May. No at can be paffe without the approbation of the Governour, unlef4 two thirds of both branches are in favour of it. Sea ators are chofen by diftrxts, of which there cannot lefs than thirteen. The number of counfellors anl ren frs, for the whole commonwealth, isforty ; th wsbher of each diftrift is in proportion to their lick taxes; but no diitria hall be fo large as to ha more than fix. Sixteen fenators make a quoruo The reprefentatives are chofen by the feveral towns according to their numberof tablet l. or I polls one is elected ; ad for Oevef 21ionof5, a4 additional one. The fupreme authority is
vefled in aGovernour, wh s el ally by th
people, and has acouncil qonfifting of the Lieutenarl' Governour, and nine fentlemen chosen out of the foty, who are returned for counfellors and fenators. SOfficial qualifications are as follows: For a voter twenty one years age, one year's refidence, a hAof three pounds annual value, or fixty pou aby other eflate; for.a ieprentative, .o100 Or '.200 other estate, and one year's refidence i town; for a feinator, f.3o00 freehold, or '.6 estate in the common health, and five year r







MASSACHUSETTS. 97
in the diftri ; for Governour or Lieutenant Governour, [.iooo freehold, and feven years refidence.
Every Governour, Lieutenant Governour, counlellor, fenator, or reprefentative, muf declare that he believes the Chriftian religion, and has the legal qualifications. In 1795, if two thirds of the qualified voters defire it, a convention hall be called to revive
the coniitution.
Bridges.] The principal bridge in this fate, or in
any of the United States, is that which was built over Charles river, between Bofton and Charleftown, in
,786, 1503 feet in length.
This bridge was completed in thirteen months; and
while it exhibits the greater effe& of private enterprize within the United States, is a molt pleaing proof how certainly objeas of magnitude may be attained
by fpirited exertions.
Another bridge, of a fimilar conf rutzfion, has been
cre&ed over Myftick river, between Charleftown and SMalden; and another at Beverly, which cohnefts that flourifhipg little town with Salem. There are works of much enterprize, ingenuity, and public spirit; and ferve to fhew that architeaure, in this fate, has arifen to a high pitch of improvement. It is a consideration not unworthy of being here noticed, that while many other nations are wafting the brilliant efforts of genius, in monuments of ingenious folly, to perpetuate their pride ; the Americans, according to the true fpirit of republicanifmt, are employed almoPft entirely in works of publick and private utiIlty.
Trade, Manufalures and Agriu!ture.] In the year
1787, the exports from this flate exceeded their imports. The exports from the port of Bolon, in the year 1788, conlifting of fih, oil, New England rum, lumber of various kinds, pot and pearl afhes, flax feed, Sfurs, pork, beef, corn, flour, butter, cheefe, beans,
oeas, bar iron, hollow ware, bricks, whale bone, tallow and fpermaceti candles, foap, loaf fugar, wool card, leather, fhoes, naval flores, ginfeng, tobacco, ols duck, hemp, cordage, nails, &c. amnounted to upwards of [. 345,ooo lawful money, New England






99 Al A S S A C 11 U S E T T *8.
land -urn, pat afli, lumber, fi (b, and the produce cf P! tuo fifln:,ry, are t1it principal articles export.
OnThe 19th of March 'y
!1;R o r y. j 1627 the 1"Y-'
rn,)uth council 1caled a patent to Sir 1-Jenry Rofwc1T,,. and five'others, of all that part of New England, "In- f, clu6od between a line drawn three miles fouth "f'. Charles rive-, and another three miks ricrth of AT, :, iimalk river, from the Atlantick to the Sout"I Sca.. This traft of country was ca'-,'Cd 'etts tr+e of IncFans, 1*
BAY. The lkfaflaehul I
round, and gavc th eir name to the large bay at I 1 bottom cf t',;s traLS1, hence the narne Nlaffachufci's Bay. The Indian word is Mris Tchi,11,j, fignifyi"n' the country t 'isfide the hills.
In 0, fnen ee-n flips from different ports in
England, arrived in INIatachi-nitts, with more thani .I 50o pa!Tengers, among whom were many persons cf iiftin -ho-n. Incredible were the bardflhips they ell dured. Exposed to the relentlef's cruelties lolf f!ic ln 4ian>' a few months before, had entered iti'o a
gerieral confoirpcy to extirpate the Englifh ; red iced to a xanty pittance of provisions, and that oF a L iirj v; wElk"71 they had riot been accustomed, arld ati". klte t)f neceffary accorriniodaticris, numbers fic';eiiefl and qlie(l; fu that bel'ore tl-x eid of the year, they loll -,oo
f &--] r number. About this timc, feltlements
inai at Charleflown, Boftor., R7).-cbefter, Cambridoe-,
n-- ')ury, and Xlrdfo rd. T?) c i 'L General Coill t'r-,f Maflachutetts was IvId on the io)t l ),'0&ober, i6;; t, i)(-,Lby reprefentati6n, but by thc trcc-. .cn of' the C or portion at large.
In the vears and 1633, great additions were
wiade- to the ccdony.
The year 16,3-, was diffinguiffied by the Pequot' Y.-art, in which were flain five or fix hundred Indians, a,,Ll tl,( Inhi-- almost who* destroyed. This flick e' foch ten:01jr iri'n the Indians, that for forty years hiccecdizig, thev ii-vcr openly commenced hofti'lities V' th the
The ear 1638, was rendered memorable by a l, Zrcat c-a rtliquake tbrou-1iout New Eri land.